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Sample records for alternaria infectoria species-group

  1. Novel chemotaxonomic markers of the Alternaria infectoria species-group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, K.B.; Van Klink, J.W.; Weavers, R.T.;

    2005-01-01

    Two new structurally related metabolites, novae-zelandin A (1) and novae-zelandin B (2), as well as the novel metabolite 4Z-infectopyrone (3) were purified from extracts of filamentous fungi belonging to the Alternaria infectoria species-group. The structures were elucidated by a combination of 1...

  2. A polyphasic approach to the taxonomy of the Alternaria infectoria species-group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2009-01-01

    morphologically identifiable as belonging to the A. infectoria species-group together with 12 strains belonging to closely related species: Alternaria malorum (syn. Cladosporium malorum), Chalastospora cetera (syn. Alternaria cetera) and Embellisia abundans. Morphological examination separated the 51 strains...

  3. Chemical and morphological segregation of Alternaria arborescens, A-infectoria and A-tenuissima species-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Krøger, Elisabeth; Roberts, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    and had colonies of various shades of green on DRYES. One cluster of isolates belonging to the A. tenuissima species-group was able to produce tentoxin, which has not been reported previously from any A. tenuissima isolate. The results suggest that each species-group contains several taxa and these taxa...

  4. Infectopyrone, a potential mycotoxin from Alternaria infectoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Perry, N.B.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2003-01-01

    A new metabolite, infectopyrone (1), has been isolated from the filamentous fungus Alternaria infectoria. The structure of 1 was elucidated by analysis of 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 1 is an alpha-pyrone resembling known toxins, and is a useful phenotaxonomic marker for the A. infectoria ...

  5. Differentiation of Alternaria infectoria and Alternaria alternata based on morphology, metabolite profiles, and cultural characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf

    1996-01-01

    Some small-spored species belonging to the genus Alternaria Nees have been studied according to their chemical, morphological, and cultural characteristics. A data matrix was constructed based on a combination of characters. Cluster analysis of the combined data set showed good resolution of two...... groups of small-spored Alternaria the Alternaria infectoria group and the Alternaria alternata group. Isolates in the A. infectoria group produced only unique metabolites of unknown identity, whereas all isolates in the A. alternata group produced alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. Furthermore...

  6. Characterisation of Alternaria species-groups associated with core rot of apples in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serdani, M.; Kang, J.C.; Andersen, Birgitte;

    2002-01-01

    Alternaria core rot of red apple cultivars is a serious post-harvest disease in South Africa. Thirty isolates of Alternaria spp. previously isolated from apple, together with reference isolates of A. alternata and A. infectoria, were characterised and grouped according to their sporulation patterns...... the other species-groups, as all isolates had a distinction of 35 base pair insertions and 6 base pair deletions in the ITS regions. The results obtained in the present study showed that the major pathogens associated with core rot disease of Top Red apples in South Africa belong to the A. tenuissima...

  7. Utility of Molecular Identification in Opportunistic Mycotic Infections: a Case of Cutaneous Alternaria infectoria Infection in a Cardiac Transplant Recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Cascio, G.; M. Ligozzi; Maccacaro, L.; Fontana, R

    2004-01-01

    We report on a case of cutaneous infection caused by Alternaria infectoria in a cardiac transplant recipient. A rapid molecular diagnosis was obtained by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer domain of the 5.8S ribosomal DNA region amplified from colonies developed on Sabouraud medium. Treatment consisted of a combination of systemic antifungal therapy, first with amphotericin B and then with itraconazole.

  8. Alternaria redefined

    OpenAIRE

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J. Z.; Binder, M.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Alternaria is a ubiquitous fungal genus that includes saprobic, endophytic and pathogenic species associated with a wide variety of substrates. In recent years, DNA-based studies revealed multiple non-monophyletic genera within the Alternaria complex, and Alternaria species clades that do not always correlate to species-groups based on morphological characteristics. The Alternaria complex currently comprises nine genera and eight Alternaria sections. The aim of this study was to delineate phy...

  9. Colonization of grapes berries by Alternaria sp. and their ability to produce mycotoxins

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    Dana Tančinová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research focused on identify the Alternaria species from grapes (surface sterilized berries and non-surface sterilized berries of Slovak origin and characterize their toxinogenic potential in in vitro conditions. We analyzed 47 samples of grapes, harvested in years 2011, 2012 and 2013 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species, the method of direct plating berries and surface-sterilized berries (using 1 % freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar was used. For each analysis was used 50 berries. Only undamaged berries have been used for analysis. The cultivation was carried at 25 ±1°C, for 5 to 7 days in dark. After incubation, the colonies of Alternaria were transferred on PCA - potato-carrot agar and CYA - Czapek-yeast extract agar and cultured for 7 days at room temperature and natural light. A total 4 species-groups of the genus Alternaria were isolated from grapes berries: Alternaria alternata (1369 isolates, Alternaria arborescens (734 isolates, Alternaria infectoria (143 isolates, and Alternaria tenuissima (3579 isolates. According to European Union legislation mycotoxins produced by species genus Alternaria are not monitored in foods and food commodities. Mycotoxins such as alternariol and alternariol monomethylether are mutagenic and genotoxic in various in vitro systems. Selected strains were tested for production of altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol. In neither case of A. infectoria species-group isolates was confirmed the production of tested mycotoxins in in vitro conditions by TLC method. The ability to produce altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol in in vitro conditions was detected in isolates of Alternaria alternata, Alternaria arborescens and Alternaria tenuissima species-groups. Isolates of Alternaria alternata species-group (44 tested isolates were able to produce altenuene (24 isolates, alternariol monomethyleter (42 isolates

  10. Alternaria and Fusarium in Norwegian grains of reduced quality - a matched pair sample study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.;

    2004-01-01

    quality. The most frequently isolated Fusarium spp. from all samples were F avenaceum, E poae, F culmorum and E tricinctum. Other important toxigenic Fusarium spp. isolated were F graminearum and E equiseti. The infection levels of F graminearum and F culmorunt were significantly higher in the samples......The occurrence and geographic distribution of species belonging to the genera Alternaria and Fusarium in grains of reduced and of acceptable quality were studied post-harvest in 1997 and 1998. A total of 260 grain samples of wheat, barley and oats was analysed. The distribution of Alternaria...... and Fusarium spp. varied significantly in samples of reduced quality compared with acceptable samples. Alternaria spp. dominated in the acceptable samples with A. infectoria group as the most frequently isolated and most abundant species group of this genus while Fusarium spp. dominated in samples of reduced...

  11. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L

    2015-12-01

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit.

  12. Pharmacology of Quercus infectoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, M S; Ikram, M; Fakouhi, T

    1976-12-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria (Fagaceae), a commonly available plant in Iran, were studied pharmacologically. Two fractions were employed, a dried acetone-treated methanol extract dissolved in water (Fraction A) and a subfraction prepared by chloroform-methanol extraction (Fraction B). Fraction A was active as an analgesic in rats and significantly reduced blood sugar levels in rabbits. Fraction B had CNS depressant activity. Data obtained with a treadmill indicated a decreased activity ratio by Fraction B, suggesting a possible interference in motor coordination. It potentiated the barbiturate sleeping time significantly without changing the onset time or the loss of the righting reflex. In addition, Fraction B exhibited a moderate antitremorine activity by causing a delay in the onset and a decrease in the severity of tremorine-induced tremors. The local anesthetic action of Fraction B was evident due to the complete blockade of the isolated frog sciatic nerve conduction. PMID:1032663

  13. Restyling Alternaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.

    2015-01-01

    The omnipresent dematiaceous hyphomycete genus Alternaria is associated with a wide variety of substrates including seeds, plants, agricultural products, humans, soil and even the atmosphere. It includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species, among which multiple plant pathogens, post-harve

  14. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Savitri Shrestha; Vasuki Srinivas Kaushik; Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa; Sundara Rajan Subaramaihha; Latha Muuaiah Ramanna; Dhananjaya Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external ...

  15. Antimicrobial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria

    OpenAIRE

    Fırat Zafer Mengeloğlu; Umre Metin; Nesibe Özdemir; M. Kadir Oduncu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Gall oak (Quercus infectoria) is a species of tree belonging to fagaceae family and its galls has been used in the treatment of burn wounds traditionally. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the extract of oak galls on some microorganisms.Materials and methods: With using microdilution method, a solution which was obtained by boiling the galls was studied on 20 staphylococci, 20 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 20 Candida albicans isolates which were ...

  16. Antimicrobial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria

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    Fırat Zafer Mengeloğlu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gall oak (Quercus infectoria is a species of tree belonging to fagaceae family and its galls has been used in the treatment of burn wounds traditionally. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the extract of oak galls on some microorganisms.Materials and methods: With using microdilution method, a solution which was obtained by boiling the galls was studied on 20 staphylococci, 20 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 20 Candida albicans isolates which were obtained from various clinical samples and the values of minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC were detected.Results: At the end of incubation MIC50 and MIC90 values were determined as 0,5 and 1 μg/ml for staphylococci, 1 and 2 μg/ml for Pseudomonas, 2 and 2 μg/ml for Candida, respectively.Conclusion: As a result, we concluded that galls of Q.infectoria has antimicrobial effect on common factors of burn wound infections. Larger studies about the antimicrobial and antiinflamatorial activity and in vivo effect of topical treatment of Q.infectoria will obtain more accurate data about using this plant in the treatment of burn wounds.

  17. STANDARDIZATION AND CONTAMINATION STUDIES ON NUTGALLS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER

    OpenAIRE

    Asif M; Ansari SH; Haque; Kalam N

    2012-01-01

    Drug consists of nutgalls of Quercus infectoria (Family-Fagaceae), commonly known as “Mazuphal”. Standardization parameters like, physical constants, ash content, solvent residues, phytochemical screening, fluorescence and microscopical analysis were carried out for the quality, strength and purity of the drug. The present work is an also attempt to evaluate contamination parameters for safety of an herbal drug Quercus infectoria such as microbial contamination, aflatoxins, pesticide residues...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria

    OpenAIRE

    Mengeloğlu, Fırat Zafer; Metin, Umre; Özdemir, Nesibe; Oduncu, M. Kadir

    2011-01-01

    Amaç: Mazı meşesi (Quercus infectoria), fagaceae famil­yasından geniş tepeli bir ağaç türü olup gal denilen to­humları halk arasında yanıklı hastaların tedavisinde kul­lanılagelmektedir. Bu çalışmada mazı meşesi gal tohumu ekstraktının bazı mikrorganizmalar üzerindeki antimikro­biyal etkisinin araştırılması amaçlandı. Gereç ve yöntem: Gal tohumlarının kaynatılmasıyla elde edilen solüsyon mikrodilüsyon yöntemi kullanılarak çeşitli klinik örneklerden izole ed...

  19. Alternaria infectoria brain abscess in a child with chronic granulomatous disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hipolito, E.; Faria, E.; Alves, A.; de Hoog, G.S.; Anjos, J.; Goncalves, T.; Morais, P.V.; Estevao, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the present report, we describe the first case of a phaeohyphomycotic brain abscess in a 5-year-old boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) admitted to hospital with seizures. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a cerebral abscess and the microbiology study showed a dark, melanin-pigmen

  20. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Saeida Baharuddin; Hasmah Abdullah; Wan Nor Amilah Wan Abdul Wahab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida t...

  1. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans

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    Maryam Mohammadi-Sichani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Three different extracts of Q. infectoria galls were similar in their antibacterial activity against S. mutans. These extracts had the highest biofilm removal activities at 312.5 μg/ml concentration. The galls of Q. infectoria are potentially good sources of antibacterial and biofilm disinfection agent.

  2. Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Hamid, Hinna; Ali, Asif; Alam, M Sarwar; Athar, Mohammad

    2004-02-01

    Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae) possess pleiotropic therapeutic activities, with particular efficacy against inflammatory diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of Q. infectoria galls on various in vivo and in vitro experimental models of inflammation. Oral administration of gall extract significantly inhibited carrageenan, histamine, serotonin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced paw oedemas, while topical application of gall extract inhibited phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced ear inflammation. The extract also inhibited various functions of macrophages and neutrophils relevant to the inflammatory response. In vitro exposure of rat peritoneal macrophages to gall extract ameliorated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO) production and PMA stimulated superoxide (O2*-) production in a dose dependent manner. Gall extract also scavenged NO and O2*-. Probing into mechanism of NO inhibition in macrophages revealed gall extract to ameliorate the induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), respectively without any inhibitory effect on its catalytic activities even at higher concentrations. Gall extract also significantly inhibited formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) stimulated degranulation in neutrophils. These results suggest that alcoholic extract of galls of Q. infectoria exerts in vivo antiinflammatory activity after oral or topical administration and also has the ability to prevent the production of some inflammatory mediators. PMID:15013194

  3. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savitri Shrestha; Vasuki Srinivas Kaushik; Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa; Sundara Rajan Subaramaihha; Latha Muuaiah Ramanna; Dhananjaya Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results:Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions:The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications.

  4. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and toxigenic capacity of Alternaria strains from mouldy peppers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cruz Cabral, Lucía; Terminiello, Laura; Fernández Pinto, Virginia;

    2016-01-01

    Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important crop cultivated worldwide, with Argentina being one of the major producers in South America. The fruit is susceptible to several fungal diseases, leading to severe economic losses for producers. In this study, Alternaria was found as the prevalent...... genus in mouldy peppers (50% fruits infected). Morphological identification revealed that all 64 Alternaria isolates belonged to small-spored species, most of them corresponding to A. tenuissima, A. arborescens and A. alternata species-groups. Their secondary metabolite profile was evaluated in vitro......; alternariols were synthesized by most of the isolates (91% for alternariol and 92% for alternariol monomethyl ether). A high number of Alternaria spp. also produced tenuazonic acid (64%), altenuene (84%) and tentoxin (72%). In addition, damaged pepper fruits were analysed for the presence of tenuazonic acid...

  5. STANDARDIZATION AND CONTAMINATION STUDIES ON NUTGALLS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drug consists of nutgalls of Quercus infectoria (Family-Fagaceae, commonly known as “Mazuphal”. Standardization parameters like, physical constants, ash content, solvent residues, phytochemical screening, fluorescence and microscopical analysis were carried out for the quality, strength and purity of the drug. The present work is an also attempt to evaluate contamination parameters for safety of an herbal drug Quercus infectoria such as microbial contamination, aflatoxins, pesticide residues and heavy metals. Result revealed that the total ash content and acid insoluble siliceous matter were found 2.11% and 0.22% respectively in the drug. The extractive values were varies at different solvent at different condition. Loss on drying and pH at 25(ºC were 9.97 and 6.1 respectively. Study revealed that total bacterial count and total fungal count were found to be within the permissible limit. Heavy metal like cadmium and mercury were not detected in the drug but arsenic (0.31 mg/kg and lead (0.70 mg/kg were found under permissible limit. Pesticide residue such as o, p- DDD, p, p- DDD, o p- DDE, p, p- DDE, o, p- DDT, p, p- DDT, α- Endosulfan, β – Endosulfan, Parathion, α- HCH, β- HCH, γ- HCH, δ- HCH was absent in the nutgalls.

  6. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against Oral Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Dayang Fredalina Basri; Liy Si Tan; Zaleha Shafiei; Noraziah Mohamad Zin

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria are commonly used in Malay traditional medicine to treat wound infections after childbirth. In India, they are employed traditionally as dental applications such as that in treatment of toothache and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral bacteria which are known to cause dental caries and periodontitis. Methanol and acetone extracts were screened against two Gram-p...

  7. Alternaria in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

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    Monireh Mokhtari Amirmajdi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of fungal spores is shown to participate in the development of allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this study, relation between presence of Alternaria in the human nasal cavity and allergic rhinitis is assessed.In a case-control study, 58 allergic rhinitis patients were compared with a well-matched control group of fifty healthy volunteers for sensitization to Alternaria (by skin prick test and detection of Alternaria in their nasal mucous by conventional methods (microscopy with Methylene Blue stain and culture in Sabourad dextrose agar. Severity of the disease was determined according to  the ARIA classification. Pearson chi-square test was applied to compare the proportional difference between the study groups for detection of Alternaria in the nasal cavity, and sensitization to Alternaria.Relation between detection of Alternaria and allergic rhinitis was significant [OR = 18.18 (4.02-82.50] In addition, sensitization to Alternaria showed a significant relation with the disease [OR  =  2.8 (2.1-3.8]. There  was a significant relation between the  presence  of Alternaria in the nasal cavity and sensitization to Alternaria [OR =  10.4 (3.8-28.3]. Both sensitization to  Alternaria and presence of Alternaria in the nasal cavity did not  have a significant relation with the severity of allergic rhinitis. This study suggests Alternaria as a major  allergen that  its  presence  in  the  nasal  cavity and  subsequent  development  of sensitization have significant role in the induction of allergic rhinitis.

  8. Alternaria in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Monireh Mokhtari Amirmajdi; Nemat Allah Mokhtari Amirmajdi; Iman Eftekharzadeh Mashhadi; Farahzad Jabari Azad; Jalil Tavakol Afshari; Mohammad-Taghi Shakeri

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of fungal spores is shown to participate in the development of allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this study, relation between presence of Alternaria in the human nasal cavity and allergic rhinitis is assessed.In a case-control study, 58 allergic rhinitis patients were compared with a well-matched control group of fifty healthy volunteers for sensitization to Alternaria (by skin prick test) and detection of Alternaria in their nasal mucous by conventional methods (microscopy with Methy...

  9. Metabolites from Alternaria Fungi and Their Bioactivities

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    Ligang Zhou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria is a cosmopolitan fungal genus widely distributing in soil and organic matter. It includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species. At least 268 metabolites from Alternaria fungi have been reported in the past few decades. They mainly include nitrogen-containing metabolites, steroids, terpenoids, pyranones, quinones, and phenolics. This review aims to briefly summarize the structurally different metabolites produced by Alternaria fungi, as well as their occurrences, biological activities and functions. Some considerations related to synthesis, biosynthesis, production and applications of the metabolites from Alternaria fungi are also discussed.

  10. Chemopreventive effect of Quercus infectoria against chemically induced renal toxicity and carcinogenesis

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    Muneeb U Rehman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have shown that Quercus infectoria attenuates Fe- NTA induced renal oxidative stress, hyperproliferative response and renal carcinogenesis in rats. Fe-NTA promoted DEN (N-diethyl nitrosamine initiated renal carcinogenesis by increasing the percentage incidence of tumors and induces early tumor markers viz. ornithine decarboxylase (ODC level and PCNA expression. Fe- NTA (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally enhances renal Malondialdehyde, xanthine oxidase and hydrogen peroxide generation with reduction in renal glutathione content, antioxidant enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and phase-II metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase. It also enhances blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Fe-NTA also lead to increase in levels of some inflammatory markers viz NO and MPO and some proinflammatory cytokines viz PGE-2 and TNF-1. The chemopreventive efficacy of Quercus infectoria was studied in terms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities, LPO, redox status, serum toxicity markers, inflammatory and proinflammatory markers and cell proliferation in the kidney tissue. Oral administration of Quercus infectoria at doses of 75 and 150 mg/kg b wt effectively suppressed renal oxidative stress, inflammation and tumor incidence. Chemopreventive effects of Quercus infectoria were associated with up-regulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities and down regulation of serum toxicity markers. Present study supports Quercus infectoria as a potent chemopreventive agent and suppresses Fe-NTA-induced renal carcinogenesis and oxidative and inflammatory response in Wistar rat.

  11. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and toxigenic capacity of Alternaria strains from mouldy peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Cabral, Lucía; Terminiello, Laura; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Patriarca, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important crop cultivated worldwide, with Argentina being one of the major producers in South America. The fruit is susceptible to several fungal diseases, leading to severe economic losses for producers. In this study, Alternaria was found as the prevalent genus in mouldy peppers (50% fruits infected). Morphological identification revealed that all 64 Alternaria isolates belonged to small-spored species, most of them corresponding to A. tenuissima, A. arborescens and A. alternata species-groups. Their secondary metabolite profile was evaluated in vitro; alternariols were synthesized by most of the isolates (91% for alternariol and 92% for alternariol monomethyl ether). A high number of Alternaria spp. also produced tenuazonic acid (64%), altenuene (84%) and tentoxin (72%). In addition, damaged pepper fruits were analysed for the presence of tenuazonic acid and alternariols. A total 32 out of 48 spoiled pepper fruits were contaminated with at least one of these metabolites. Half of the samples were positive for tenuazonic acid (range 8-11,422μg/kg), while alternariol and its monomethyl ether were less frequently detected (21 and 29%, respectively) and at lower concentrations. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in Argentinean sweet pepper, and highlights a consumer risk when mouldy fruits are used in industrialized products because these compounds are not destroyed by conventional heat treatments. PMID:27517345

  12. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

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    Nur Saeida Baharuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the two-fold serial dilution technique of concentrations ranging from 16 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. After 24 h, the minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined by subculturing the wells, which showed no turbidity on the agar plate. Potential phytochemical group in the crude extracts was screened by phytochemical qualitative tests and subsequently subjected to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Both methanol and aqueous extracts displayed substantial anti-Candida activity and pyrogallol was the major component of both crude extracts. Conclusions: Data from current study suggested that Q. infectoria gall extracts are a potential source to be developed as anti-candidiasis.

  13. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    OpenAIRE

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J. M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) pr...

  14. Laboratory evaluation of molluscicidal activity of extracts from Cotula cinerea (L) and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwane, A; Markouk, M; Lazrek, H B; Amarouch, H; Jana, M

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the molluscicidal activity of different extracts obtained from Cotula cinerea and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea, acetonic extract and gallotanin of Quercus infectoria galls have presented high activity against Bulinus truncatus. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea was fractionated by chromatography on silica gel column. We have isolated two very active fractions at concentrations respectively of 52.5 and 27.5 ppm. PMID:9872015

  15. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents

    OpenAIRE

    Basri Dayang; Fan S

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria at 10 mg/ml were screened against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCT...

  16. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier) in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sook-Ha; Ali, Noraisah Akbar; Basri, Dayang Fredalina

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg) served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity. PMID:25254062

  17. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J H C; Truter, M; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2014-01-01

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens (e

  18. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saini * and S.M. Patil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of roots of Quercus infectoria Olivier at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively was tested for anti-diabetic activity in Alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 2h, 4h and 6h after the treatment. The methanolic extract reduced the blood glucose Alloxan- induced diabetic rats from 285.52 to 206.57mg/dl, 6h after oral administration of extract (P<0.01. The antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Quercus infectoria Olivier was compared with glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycaemic agent (3mg/kg.

  19. Quercus infectoria: a candidate for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusri, S; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2008-04-01

    Acetone, ethyl acetate, 95% ethanol and aqueous extracts of Quercus infectoria (Q. infectoria) demonstrated significant antibacterial activities against all strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Inhibition zones were in the range 11.75-16.82 mm. Both MRSA and MSSA strains exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values at 0.13 and 0.13-1.00 mg/mL, respectively. At 2 MIC, the growth of two representative MRSA strains was continually inhibited for at least 20 h. Surviving MRSA cells were not detected within 12-14 h after treatment with the extract at 4 MIC concentration. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 demonstrated similar results. PMID:18338770

  20. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, P Sathiya; Sasikumar, J M; Gowsigan, G

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  1. Changes in cell surface properties of shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli by Quercus infectoria G. Olivier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Suwalak, Sakol

    2009-08-01

    The effects of Quercus infectoria (family Fagaceae) nutgalls on cell surface properties of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) were investigated with an assay of microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon. The surface of bacterial cells treated with Q. infectoria exhibited a higher level of cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) toward toluene than did the surface of untreated cells. With 50% ethanolic extract, the CSH of the three strains of STEC O157:H7 treated with 4X MIC of the extract resulted in moderate or strong hydrophobicity, whereas at 2x MIC and MIC, the CSH of only one strain of E. coli O157:H7 was significantly affected. The 95% ethanolic extract had a significant effect on CSH of all three strains at both 4X MIC and 2X MIC but not at the MIC. The effect on bacterial CSH was less pronounced with the other STEC strains. At 4X MIC, the 50% ethanolic extract increased the CSH of all non-O157 STEC strains significantly. At 2X MIC and 4X MIC, the 95% ethanolic extract affected the CSH of E. coli O26:H11 significantly but did not affect E. coli O111 :NM or E. coli O22. Electro microscopic examination revealed the loss of pili in the treated cells. The ability of Q. infectoria extract to modify hydrophobic domains enables this extract to partition the lipids of the bacterial cell membrane, rendering the membrane more permeable and allowing leakage of ions and other cell contents, which leads to cell death. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of Q. infectoria extract in food systems or in vivo and provide support for the use of this extract as a food additive for control of these STEC pathogens. PMID:19722403

  2. Hepatoprotective effects of Quercus infectoria gall extract against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Lodhi; Singh, Hemant K.; PANT, KAMLESH K.; Rao, Ch V; Zeashan Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Summary. In the present study, galls of Quercus infectoria possessing potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties were evaluated for their hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl4, administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Histological analysis of the liver of these rats re...

  3. Chemopreventive effect of Quercus infectoria against chemically induced renal toxicity and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Muneeb U.; Mir Tahir, Farrah Ali; Wajhul Qamar; Rehan Khan; Abdul Quaiyoom Khan; Abdul Lateef; Oday-O-Hamiza; Sarwat Sultana

    2012-01-01

    In this study we have shown that Quercus infectoria attenuates Fe- NTA induced renal oxidative stress, hyperproliferative response and renal carcinogenesis in rats. Fe-NTA promoted DEN (N-diethyl nitrosamine) initiated renal carcinogenesis by increasing the percentage incidence of tumors and induces early tumor markers viz. ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) level and PCNA expression. Fe- NTA (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) enhances renal Malondialdehyde, xanthine oxidase and hydrogen ...

  4. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Mohammadi-Sichani; Vajihe Karbasizadeh; Samaneh Chaharmiri Dokhaharani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting humans of all ages. Streptococcus mutans has an important role in the development of dental caries by acid production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and biofilm disinfective effects of the oak tree Quercus infectoria galls against S. mutans. Materials and Methods: The bacterial strain used in this study was S. mutans (ATCC: 35668). Two kinds of galls, Mazouj and Ghalghaf were...

  5. Hepatoprotective Potential of Extracts from Seeds of Areca catechu and Nutgalls of Quercus infectoria

    OpenAIRE

    Rapepol Bavovada; Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Saruth Nithitanakool

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae) (AC) and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) (QI) were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti−inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant an...

  6. Uji Aktivitas Antiinflamasi Ekstrak Etanol Majakani (Quercus Infectoria G. Olivier) Terhadap Tikus Putih Yang Diinduksi Karagenan

    OpenAIRE

    Rambe, Khairunnisa

    2015-01-01

    Obat-obat antiinflamasi non-steroid (OAINS) termasuk obat analgesik, antipiretik dan antiinflamasi yang mempunyai efek samping terhadap gastrointestinal, sehingga perlu dicari obat alami yang lebih aman. Majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) telah lama digunakan untuk pengobatan inflamasi secara tradisional yang diharapkan mempunyai efek yang sama dengan OAINS. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antiinflamasi ekstrak etanol majakani terhadap udem kaki tikus yang diinduksi ...

  7. Antifungal Activity of Lavandula Angustifolia and Quergues Infectoria Extracts in Comparison with Nystatin on Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays,herbal extracts are used to treat diseases, especially infec-tious ones. Candida albicans is the most common causes of oral opportunistic infections.In this study, antifungal effects of two herbal extracts were evaluated on an oral pathogen i.e. Candida albicans. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive- analytic study, the Department of Prosthodontics, ,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, school of Dentistry the oral samples of 25 patients with denture stomatitis were collected using sterile swabs. Then the isolated candida albicans and standard candida albicans PTCC 5027 were cultured. The antifungal effect was evaluated with disk plate method. Nystatin and methanol were used as positive and negative control groups, respectively. The power of antifungal activity was evaluated with the inhibition zone diameter of each of the extracts. At the end, the data were analyzed by ANOVA and Fried-man statistical tests. Results: Results showed that extracts of Querques infectoria had great antifungal effects. There was not statistically significant difference between nystatine and Querques infectoria extract (P>0.05 however , Querques infectoria was statistically more effective than lavender extract and nystatin showed the highest antifungal activity (P <0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that plant extracts had positive effects on Candida albicans as compared to nystatin. Thus, we hope to find new herbal medicines and compounds to treat candidiasis in the future. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:172-178

  8. In vitro antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Nor Amilah, W A W; Masrah, M; Hasmah, A; Noor Izani, N J

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial activities of plants have long been evaluated for their promising use as antimicrobial agent and in minimizing the unwanted resistance effects of microorganisms. The study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall crude extracts against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in vitro. The screening test was determined by disc diffusion technique using sterile filter paper discs impregnated with 1 mg/ disc (50 mg/ml) aqueous and ethanol extracts of Q. infectoria galls tested on five selected MDR bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the twofold serial micro dilution technique at concentration ranging from 5.00 mg/ml to 0.01 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by sub culturing the microtitre wells showing no turbidity on the agar plate to obtain the MBC value. Both extracts showed substantial inhibitory effects against methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCoNS) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A slightly reduced inhibitory zone diameter was observed with MDR Acinetobacter sp. while no inhibitory effect was displayed among the extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) K. pneumoniae and ESBL E. coli isolates. A significant difference in the zone sizes between both extracts was only observed in MRSA (p infectoria gall extracts have shown very promising in vitro antibacterial activities and may be considered as a potentially good source of antimicrobial agent especially against MDR Gram positive bacteria. PMID:25776593

  9. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Tan, Liy Si; Shafiei, Zaleha; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria are commonly used in Malay traditional medicine to treat wound infections after childbirth. In India, they are employed traditionally as dental applications such as that in treatment of toothache and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral bacteria which are known to cause dental caries and periodontitis. Methanol and acetone extracts were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586). The screening test of antibacterial activity was performed using agar-well diffusion method. Subsequently, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by using twofold serial microdilution method at a concentration ranging between 0.01 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained by subculturing microtiter wells which showed no changes in colour of the indicator after incubation. Both extracts showed inhibition zones which did not differ significantly (P infectoria galls exhibited similar antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Thus, the galls may be considered as effective phytotherapeutic agents for the prevention of oral pathogens. PMID:22203875

  10. A revision of the Anastrepha robusta species group (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anastrepha robusta species group is revised to include the following 29 species: A. amaryllis Tigrero (Ecuador), A. amazonensis, n. sp. (Brazil: Amazonas), A. bella, n. sp. (Panamá), A. binodosa Stone (Colombia, Brazil: Amazonas, Pará), A. concava Greene (Costa Rica to Ecuador and Brazil: Amazon...

  11. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Dayang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria at 10 mg/ml were screened against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCTC 12079 serotype O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 74 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The MIC of the extracts were then determined using the twofold serial microdilution technique at a concentration ranging from 5 mg/ml to 0.0024 mg/ml. The MBC values were finally obtained from the MIC microtiter wells which showed no turbidity after 24 hrs of incubation by subculturing method. RESULTS: Out of the six bacterial species tested, S. aureus was the most susceptible. On the other hand, the extracts showed weak inhibitory effect against S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa while there was no inhibition zone observed for E. coli O157. The MIC values of the extracts ranged from 0.0781 mg/ml to 1.25 mg/ml whereas the MBC values ranged from 0.3125 mg/ml to 2.50 mg/ml. The MBC values of aqueous extract against S. aureus and S. typhimurium were higher than their MIC values. The MBC value of acetone extract against S. aureus was also higher than its MIC value. Interestingly, however, the MIC and MBC values of acetone extract against S. typhimurium were the same (1.25 mg/ml. CONCLUSION: The aqueous and acetone extracts displayed similarities in their antimicrobial activity on the bacterial species and as such, the galls of Quercus infectoria are potentially good source of antimicrobial agents.

  12. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The galls of Quercus infectoria are commonly used in Malay traditional medicine to treat wound infections after childbirth. In India, they are employed traditionally as dental applications such as that in treatment of toothache and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral bacteria which are known to cause dental caries and periodontitis. Methanol and acetone extracts were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and two Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586. The screening test of antibacterial activity was performed using agar-well diffusion method. Subsequently, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by using twofold serial microdilution method at a concentration ranging between 0.01 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was obtained by subculturing microtiter wells which showed no changes in colour of the indicator after incubation. Both extracts showed inhibition zones which did not differ significantly (P<0.05 against each tested bacteria. Among all tested bacteria, S. salivarius was the most susceptible. The MIC ranges for methanol and acetone extracts were the same, between 0.16 and 0.63 mg/mL. The MBC value, for methanol and acetone extracts, was in the ranges 0.31–1.25 mg/mL and 0.31–2.50 mg/mL, respectively. Both extracts of Q. infectoria galls exhibited similar antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Thus, the galls may be considered as effective phytotherapeutic agents for the prevention of oral pathogens.

  13. EFFECTS OF STEAMING AND MICROWAVE PRETREATMENTS ON MASS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF ALEPPE OAK (QUERCUS INFECTORIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Dashti,; Mahdi Shahverdi; Hamid Reza Taghiyari; Shoboo Salehpur,; Sina Heshmati

    2012-01-01

    In this research, effects of steaming and microwave pretreatments on the mass transfer properties of never-dried Q. infectoria were investigated. Specimens at green moisture content were exposed to microwaves of frequency 2450 MHz for 10 minutes. The pre-steaming was performed at a temperature of 160°C for 1 hour under a pressure of 2 to 3 bars. Air permeability values were measured to be 4.8 and 4.9 (× 10-16 m3 m-1) in the sapwood and heartwood, respectively. Results showed a significant gen...

  14. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwane, A; Lazrek, H B; Bouallam, S; Markouk, M; Amarouch, H; Jana, M

    2002-02-01

    The present study indicates the efficacy of extracts and fractions of Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.) as larvicidal agents and their possible use in biological control of Culex pipiens, the urban nuisance mosquito. Extracts and fractions were tested against second and fourth instar larvae. The LC(50) values of gallotannins were 335 and 373 ppm, respectively for the 2nd and 4th instar period. The most interesting value of LC(50) (24 h) is obtained with the fraction F(2) (60 ppm). PMID:11801390

  15. alpha-Glycosidase inhibitory activity of hexagalloylglucose from the galls of Quercus infectoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J K; Kong, T W; Baek, N I; Pyun, Y R

    2000-04-01

    Hexagalloylglucose (3-O-digalloyl-1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D- glucose), which was isolated from the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria, significantly inhibited alpha-glycosidases such as sucrase, maltase and isomaltase. Its inhibitory activity was comparable to acarbose being used as a hypoglycemic agent, while the inhibitory activity on alpha-amylase was approximately 10 times lower than that of acarbose. The results indicate that, when compared to acarbose, hexagalloylglucose might reduce the side effects by reducing inhibition of alpha-amylase. PMID:10821056

  16. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Saini * and S.M. Patil

    2012-01-01

    The methanolic extract of roots of Quercus infectoria Olivier at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively was tested for anti-diabetic activity in Alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 2h, 4h and 6h after the treatment. The methanolic extract reduced the blood glucose Alloxan- induced diabetic rats from 285.52 to 206.57mg/dl, 6h after oral administration of extract (P

  17. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Vermani Archa; Navneet; Prabhat

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water) of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens - Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated) and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated). Materials and Methods: The cup-plate method was used ...

  18. Nomenclatural issues in the Psammodromus hispanicus (Squamata: Lacertidae) species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    The Psammodromus hispanicus species group has been recently shown to include three lineages that differ in morphology (San-Jose et al. 2012), have largely parapatric range but exhibit little evidence of historical gene flow (Fitze et al. 2011), leading to the recognition of these three lineages as distinct species (Fitze et al. 2012). The eastern species can be unambiguously associated with the nomen Lacerta edwarsiana Dugès 1829, as the detailed information in Dugès (1829) leaves no doubt that he describes as Lacerta edwarsiana the local member of the P. hispanicus complex, and the type locality is the "bas Languedoc", an area of France equivalent to the lowland parts of the current Languedoc region where the only member of the complex is the eastern lineage. The types of Psammodromus edwarsianus have not been traced as far as I am aware, but given the lack of uncertainty regarding allocation of this nomen to the eastern lineage of the P. hispanicus complex this has no nomenclatural consequence. Two nomenclatural issues remain in this species group however: the aim of this note is to solve them.

  19. Quercus infectoria Gall Extract Enhanced the Proliferation and Activity of Human Fetal Osteoblast Cell Line (hFOB 1.19)

    OpenAIRE

    Hapidin, Hermizi; ROZELAN, Dalila; ABDULLAH, Hasmah; WAN HANAFFI, Wan Nurhidayah; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the effects of Quercus infectoria (QI) gall extract on the proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin, and the morphology of a human fetal osteoblast cell line (hFOB 1.19).

  20. Fungicidal activity of silver nanoparticles against Alternaria brassicicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-04-01

    This work highlighted the fungicidal properties of silver nanoparticles against Alternaria brassicicola. Alternaria brassicicola causes Black spot of Cauliflower, radish, cabbage, kale which results in sever agricultural loss. We treat the synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of 10, 25, 50, 100 and 110 ppm concentrations against Alternaria brassicicola on PDA containing Petri dish. We calculated inhibitory rate (%) in order to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of silver nanoparticles against pathogens. Treatment with 100ppm AgNPs resulted in maximum inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola i.e.92.2%. 110ppm of AgNPS also shows the same result, therefore 100ppm AgNPs was treated as optimize concentration. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a Alternaria brassicicola, which suggests that AgNPs could be used as fungicide in plant disease management. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into plant disease management strategies.

  1. An in Vitro Study on the Antibacterial Effect of Ferula Assa-Foetida L. and Quercus Infectoria Olivier Extracts on Streptococcus Mutans and Streptococcus Sanguis

    OpenAIRE

    Fani; Bazargani; Farboodniay Jahromi; Hasanpour; Zamani; Yousefi Manesh

    2015-01-01

    Background From the ancient times, medicinal herbs have been regarded as efficient resources for the treatment of diseases. Among the diseases that can be treated by medicinal herbs, infectious diseases like oral ones are of notable importance. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of Ferula assa-foetida L (F. assa-foetida L.) and Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria Olivier) aqueous and e...

  2. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Quercus infectoria Galls Extract in Combination with Vancomycin against MRSA Using Microdilution Checkerboard and Time-Kill Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Dayang Fredalina Basri; Radhiah Khairon

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier possess astringent properties which helps in the tightening of the vaginal epithelium in the post-natal period. The present study aimed to observe the time-kill kinetics of the acetone and methanol extracts of gall of Q. infectoria in combination with vancomycin against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains; ATCC 33591 and MU 9495 (laboratory-passaged strain). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts were determin...

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of Quercus infectoria gall extract against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Lodhi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the present study, galls of Quercus infectoria possessing potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties were evaluated for their hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl4, administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Histological analysis of the liver of these rats revealed marked necro-inflammatory changes that were associated with increase in the levels of TBARS, PGE2 and catalase and decrease in the levels of glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Daily oral administration of aqueous ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria galls at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg doses produced a dose dependent reduction in the serum levels of liver enzymes and inflammatory mediators and attenuated the necroinflammatory changes in the liver. The QIE treatment also normalized various biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Our study shows that the hepatoprotective effects of QIE and silymarin were comparable and suggests that QIE could be used as a hepatoprotective agent. Industrial relevance. Research in traditional medicine has lead to the development of many modern medicines. In recent times, focus on plants research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. It is very interesting to note that there is no drug available in the modern system of medicine for treating hepatic disorders; only certain herbal preparations are available to treat this quite vulnerable disease. The situation/background thus explained above warrants for developing a safe, effective and scientifically validated hepatoprotective agent taking lead from traditional medicine, which is affordable for the rural poor

  4. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the Anaxyrus boreas species group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, A.M.; Ranker, T.A.; Corn, P.S.; Olmstead, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The Anaxyrus boreas species group currently comprises four species in western North America including the broadly distributed A. boreas, and three localized species, Anaxyrus nelsoni, Anaxyrus exsul and Anaxyrus canorus. Phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA 12S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase I, control region, and restriction sites data, identified three major haplotype clades. The Northwest clade (NW) includes both subspecies of A. boreas and divergent minor clades in the middle Rocky Mountains, coastal, and central regions of the west and Pacific Northwest. The Southwest (SW) clade includes A. exsul, A. nelsoni, and minor clades in southern California. Anaxyrus canorus, previously identified as paraphyletic, has populations in both the NW and SW major clades. The Eastern major clade (E) includes three divergent lineages from southern Utah, the southern Rocky Mountains, and north of the Great Basin at the border of Utah and Nevada. These results identify new genetic variation in the eastern portion of the toad's range and are consistent with previous regional studies from the west coast. Low levels of control region sequence divergence between major clades (2.2-4.7% uncorrected pair-wise distances) are consistent with Pleistocene divergence and suggest that the phylogeographic history of the group was heavily influenced by dynamic Pleistocene glacial and climatic changes, and especially pluvial changes, in western North America. Results reported here may impact conservation plans in that the current taxonomy does not reflect the diversity in the group. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the Anaxyrus boreas species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Anna M; Ranker, Tom A; Corn, Paul Stephen; Olmstead, Richard G

    2009-02-01

    The Anaxyrus boreas species group currently comprises four species in western North America including the broadly distributed A. boreas, and three localized species, Anaxyrus nelsoni, Anaxyrusexsul and Anaxyrus canorus. Phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA 12S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase I, control region, and restriction sites data, identified three major haplotype clades. The Northwest clade (NW) includes both subspecies of A. boreas and divergent minor clades in the middle Rocky Mountains, coastal, and central regions of the west and Pacific Northwest. The Southwest (SW) clade includes A. exsul, A. nelsoni, and minor clades in southern California. Anaxyrus canorus, previously identified as paraphyletic, has populations in both the NW and SW major clades. The Eastern major clade (E) includes three divergent lineages from southern Utah, the southern Rocky Mountains, and north of the Great Basin at the border of Utah and Nevada. These results identify new genetic variation in the eastern portion of the toad's range and are consistent with previous regional studies from the west coast. Low levels of control region sequence divergence between major clades (2.2-4.7% uncorrected pair-wise distances) are consistent with Pleistocene divergence and suggest that the phylogeographic history of the group was heavily influenced by dynamic Pleistocene glacial and climatic changes, and especially pluvial changes, in western North America. Results reported here may impact conservation plans in that the current taxonomy does not reflect the diversity in the group. PMID:18662792

  6. Hepatoprotective potential of extracts from seeds of Areca catechu and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae) (AC) and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) (QI) were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats with AC and QI extracts reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl(4). It is suggested that extracts rich in either condensed or hydrolysable tannins and known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, may potentially confer protection against oxidative stress-induced liver injury. These data should contribute to evidence-based traditional medicines for anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of both extracts. PMID:20032872

  7. Larvicidal activity of oak Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) gall extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivazi, Ali-Ashraf; Vijayan, V A

    2009-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of botanical insecticides to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides in order to avoid environmental side effects. Anopheles stephensi is the primary vector of urban malaria, an endemic disease in India. So, an effort to assay An. stephensi larvae with gall extracts of Quercus infectoria was made under laboratory conditions at Mysore. Ethyl-acetate extract was found to be the most effective of all the five extracts tested for larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae, with LC(50) of 116.92 ppm followed by gallotannin, n-butanol, acetone, and methanol with LC(50) values of 124.62, 174.76, 299.26, and 364.61 ppm, respectively. The efficacy in killing mosquito larvae may make this plant promising for the development of new botanical larvicide. PMID:19148681

  8. Hepatoprotective Potential of Extracts from Seeds of Areca catechu and Nutgalls of Quercus infectoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapepol Bavovada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae (AC and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae (QI were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti−inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats with AC and QI extracts reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl4. It is suggested that extracts rich in either condensed or hydrolysable tannins and known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, may potentially confer protection against oxidative stress−induced liver injury. These data should contribute to evidence-based traditional medicines for anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of both extracts.

  9. Larvicidal activity of oak Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) gall extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivazi, Ali-Ashraf; Vijayan, V A

    2009-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of botanical insecticides to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides in order to avoid environmental side effects. Anopheles stephensi is the primary vector of urban malaria, an endemic disease in India. So, an effort to assay An. stephensi larvae with gall extracts of Quercus infectoria was made under laboratory conditions at Mysore. Ethyl-acetate extract was found to be the most effective of all the five extracts tested for larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae, with LC(50) of 116.92 ppm followed by gallotannin, n-butanol, acetone, and methanol with LC(50) values of 124.62, 174.76, 299.26, and 364.61 ppm, respectively. The efficacy in killing mosquito larvae may make this plant promising for the development of new botanical larvicide.

  10. Conservation of nuclear SSR loci reveals high affinity of Quercus infectoria ssp. veneris A. Kern (Fagaceae) to section Robur

    OpenAIRE

    Neophytou, Charalambos; Dounavi, Aikaterini; Aravanopoulos, Filippos A.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of 16 nuclear microsatellite loci, originally developed for Quercus macrocarpa (section Albae), Q. petraea, Q. robur (section Robur) and Q. myrsinifolia, (subgenus Cyclobalanopsis) was tested in a Q. infectoria ssp. veneris population from Cyprus. All loci could be amplified successfully and displayed allele size and diversity patterns that match those of oak species belonging to the section Robur. At least in one case, limited amplification and high levels of homozygosity suppor...

  11. 2-D GEL ELECTROPHORESIS MAP OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TREATED WITH QUERCUS INFECTORIA GALL EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread outbreak of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA has caused clinical and epidemiological concern in hospital environment. The emergence of Vancomycin-Intermediate S. Aureus (VISA and, more recently, Vancomycin-Resistant S. Aureus (VRSA has further alarmed clinician and scientist worlwide. The objective of this study is to determine the optimum concentration of sample protein from MRSA after treatment with acetone extract from Quercus infectoria gall. Comparison of the Protein Expression Profile (PEP between the treated MRSA and untreated strain as control was obtained using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC value of acetone extract of galls from Q. infectoria against two strains of MRSA; ATCC 33591 and PPUKM clinical isolate was determined by broth microdilution method. The MIC value of acetone extracts against both strains of MRSA was 0.3125 mg mL-1 compared to vancomycin (0.00195 mg mL-1. The optimum concentration of MRSA protein that produced the best resolution was 100 µg. Manifold technique was observed to produce a gel with better resolution and greater number of spot compared with the strip holder technique. This study showed that there were 7 protein spots that represented the increased in the protein expression of more than 2-fold in the MRSA treated with acetone extract of galls Q. infectoria compared to the untreated group. This preliminary study on the PEP of Q. infectoria galls extract-treated MRSA may provide an insight of its antimicrobial mechanism which could lead to the identification of target protein in the future development of a new effective regimen for the treatment of MRSA infections.

  12. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J H C; Truter, M; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2014-09-01

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens (e.g. Alternaria porri, A. solani and A. tomatophila). We constructed a multi-gene phylogeny on parts of the ITS, GAPDH, RPB2, TEF1 and Alt a 1 gene regions, which, supplemented with morphological and cultural studies, forms the basis for species recognition in sect. Porri. Our data reveal 63 species, of which 10 are newly described in sect. Porri, and 27 species names are synonymised. The three known Alternaria pathogens causing early blight on tomato all cluster in one clade, and are synonymised under the older name, A. linariae. Alternaria protenta, a species formerly only known as pathogen on Helianthus annuus, is also reported to cause early blight of potato, together with A. solani and A. grandis. Two clades with isolates causing purple blotch of onion are confirmed as A. allii and A. porri, but the two species cannot adequately be distinguished based on the number of beaks and branches as suggested previously. This is also found among the pathogens of Passifloraceae, which are reduced from four to three species. In addition to the known pathogen of sweet potato, A. bataticola, three more species are delineated of which two are newly described. A new Alternaria section is also described, comprising two large-spored Alternaria species with concatenate conidia. PMID:25492985

  13. Effects of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum root and Quercus infectoria nut gall on caecal amoebiasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Poonpanang, Pathana

    2004-04-01

    The anti-amoebic effects of crude methanol extracts of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum root and Quercus infectoria nut gall against Entamoeba histolytica infecting the caecum of mice were studied. Caecal amoebiasis in mice was induced by injection of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites directly into the caecum. The mice were then treated orally with the extract, a standard drug (metronidazole), or vehicle p.o. for five consecutive days, beginning 24 h after the infection and were examined on the sixth day. At a dose of 1000 mg/kg per day, the extracts of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum root and Quercus infectoria nut gall had a curative rate of 100, 40 and 26%, respectively. At a concentration of 500 and 250 mg/kg/day, extract from Piper longum fruit was still effective in 93 and 46% of the cases, respectively, while extract from Piper sarmentosum root at a dose of less than 1000 mg/kg per day did not cure any mice from amoebiasis. Extract of Quercus infectoria nut gall at a concentration of 500 and of 250 mg/kg per day cured 26 and 13% of mice, respectively. Metronidazole at a concentration of 125 and of 62.5 mg/kg per day had a curative rate of 100 and 60%, respectively. The severity of caecal wall ulceration was reduced in mice which received the extract and metronidazole as compared to the control animals. PMID:15120461

  14. Characterization of Citrus-Associated Alternaria Species in Mediterranean Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganese, Francesca; Schena, Leonardo; Siciliano, Ilenia; Prigigallo, Maria Isabella; Spadaro, Davide; De Grassi, Anna; Ippolito, Antonio; Sanzani, Simona Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria brown spot is one of the most important diseases of tangerines and their hybrids worldwide. Recently, outbreaks in Mediterranean areas related to susceptible cultivars, refocused attention on the disease. Twenty representatives were selected from a collection of 180 isolates of Alternaria spp. from citrus leaves and fruit. They were characterized along with reference strains of Alternaria spp. Micro- and macroscopic characteristics separated most Alternaria isolates into six morphotypes referable to A. alternata (5) and A. arborescens (1). Phylogenetic analyses, based on endopolygalacturonase (endopg) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), confirmed this finding. Moreover, a five-gene phylogeny including two anonymous genomics regions (OPA 1-3 and OPA 2-1), and the beta-tubulin gene (ß-tub), produced a further clustering of A. alternata into three clades. This analysis suggested the existence of intra-species molecular variability. Investigated isolates showed different levels of virulence on leaves and fruit. In particular, the pathogenicity on fruit seemed to be correlated with the tissue of isolation and the clade. The toxigenic behavior of Alternaria isolates was also investigated, with tenuazonic acid (TeA) being the most abundant mycotoxin (0.2-20 mg/L). Isolates also synthesized the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), its derivate alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and altenuene (ALT), although to a lesser extent. AME production significantly varied among the six morphotypes. The expression of pksJ/pksH, biosynthetic genes of AOH/AME, was not correlated with actual toxin production, but it was significantly different between the two genotypes and among the four clades. Finally, ten isolates proved to express the biosynthetic genes of ACTT1 phytotoxin, and thus to be included in the Alternaria pathotype tangerine. A significant correlation between pathogenicity on leaves and ACTT1 gene expression was recorded. The latter was significantly dependent on

  15. Characterization of Citrus-Associated Alternaria Species in Mediterranean Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganese, Francesca; Schena, Leonardo; Siciliano, Ilenia; Prigigallo, Maria Isabella; Spadaro, Davide; De Grassi, Anna; Ippolito, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria brown spot is one of the most important diseases of tangerines and their hybrids worldwide. Recently, outbreaks in Mediterranean areas related to susceptible cultivars, refocused attention on the disease. Twenty representatives were selected from a collection of 180 isolates of Alternaria spp. from citrus leaves and fruit. They were characterized along with reference strains of Alternaria spp. Micro- and macroscopic characteristics separated most Alternaria isolates into six morphotypes referable to A. alternata (5) and A. arborescens (1). Phylogenetic analyses, based on endopolygalacturonase (endopg) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), confirmed this finding. Moreover, a five-gene phylogeny including two anonymous genomics regions (OPA 1–3 and OPA 2–1), and the beta-tubulin gene (ß-tub), produced a further clustering of A. alternata into three clades. This analysis suggested the existence of intra-species molecular variability. Investigated isolates showed different levels of virulence on leaves and fruit. In particular, the pathogenicity on fruit seemed to be correlated with the tissue of isolation and the clade. The toxigenic behavior of Alternaria isolates was also investigated, with tenuazonic acid (TeA) being the most abundant mycotoxin (0.2–20 mg/L). Isolates also synthesized the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), its derivate alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and altenuene (ALT), although to a lesser extent. AME production significantly varied among the six morphotypes. The expression of pksJ/pksH, biosynthetic genes of AOH/AME, was not correlated with actual toxin production, but it was significantly different between the two genotypes and among the four clades. Finally, ten isolates proved to express the biosynthetic genes of ACTT1 phytotoxin, and thus to be included in the Alternaria pathotype tangerine. A significant correlation between pathogenicity on leaves and ACTT1 gene expression was recorded. The latter was significantly

  16. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Quercus infectoria Galls Extract in Combination with Vancomycin against MRSA Using Microdilution Checkerboard and Time-Kill Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Khairon, Radhiah

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier possess astringent properties which helps in the tightening of the vaginal epithelium in the post-natal period. The present study aimed to observe the time-kill kinetics of the acetone and methanol extracts of gall of Q. infectoria in combination with vancomycin against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains; ATCC 33591 and MU 9495 (laboratory-passaged strain). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts were determined using microdilution technique whereas the checkerboard and time-kill kinetics were employed to verify the synergistic effects of treatment with vancomycin. The FIC index value of the combinations against both MRSA strains showed that the interaction was synergistic (FIC index infectoria with vancomycin were synergistic according to FIC index values. The time-kill curves showed that the interaction was additive with a more rapid killing rate but, which did not differ significantly with vancomycin. PMID:22899953

  17. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens

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    Vermani Archa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens - Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated. Materials and Methods: The cup-plate method was used in anti-bacterial activity of the extracts at concentration of 200 mg/ml against dental pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of most effective extracts against the most susceptible bacteria were determined using a two-fold serial micro dilution method. Results: Methanolic extract showed maximum anti-bacterial activity against all the bacteria. The most susceptible bacteria were S. sanguis followed by S. aureus, S. mutans, S. salivarius and L. acidophilus. The MIC values showed that methanolic extract was more effective than water extract. Conclusion: The plant has the potential to generate herbal metabolites. The crude extracts demonstrating anti-dental caries activity could result in the discovery of new chemical classes of antibiotics. These chemical classes of antibiotics could serve as selective agents for the maintenance of human health and provide bio-chemical tools for the study of infectious diseases.

  18. Investigation into the toxicity of traditional Uyghur medicine Quercus infectoria galls water extract.

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    Mubarak Iminjan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Quercus infectoria galls (QIG is being widely used in Traditional Uyghur Medicine. To gather preclinical safety information for the aqueous extract of QIG, a toxicity study was performed. METHODS: Subject animals were randomized, and divided into exposure and control groups. In the acute toxicity phase, three different doses--5, 7.5, and 10 g/kg, respectively--were administered via enema to imprinting control region (ICR mice. An experiment using the maximum tolerance dose (MTD i.e.10 g/kg was also performed. Data were gathered for 14 days, and study parameters were clinical signs, body weight, general behavior, adverse effects and mortality. At the day 14, major organs of the subjects were examined histologically. Chronic toxicity was also evaluated in Wistar rats for over 180 consecutive days. The rats were divided into three groups with different doses of 0.2 g/kg, 0.8 g/kg, and 2 g/kg, QIG. Furthermore, observations were carried out in rabbits to investigate if there were signs of irritation. RESULTS: In comparison to control group, acute, chronic toxicity and mortality were not significantly increased in exposure group. CONCLUSION: Study result suggests that the aqueous extract of QIG is unlikely to have significant toxicity and that clinical trials may proceed safely.

  19. EFFECTS OF STEAMING AND MICROWAVE PRETREATMENTS ON MASS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF ALEPPE OAK (QUERCUS INFECTORIA

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    Hadi Dashti,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effects of steaming and microwave pretreatments on the mass transfer properties of never-dried Q. infectoria were investigated. Specimens at green moisture content were exposed to microwaves of frequency 2450 MHz for 10 minutes. The pre-steaming was performed at a temperature of 160°C for 1 hour under a pressure of 2 to 3 bars. Air permeability values were measured to be 4.8 and 4.9 (× 10-16 m3 m-1 in the sapwood and heartwood, respectively. Results showed a significant general increase in the air permeability and diffusion coefficients in the pretreated sapwood specimens. The presence of tyloses in the heartwood prevented the penetration of steam to the inner parts of the specimens, resulting in the diffusion coefficient remaining constant. The pressure gradient caused by the microwave heating resulted in the distortion of the tyloses structure in the heartwood, thus resulting in a significant increase in the air permeability. It may be concluded that the presence of tyloses has a significant effect on the final impact of either of the pretreatments.

  20. Pulmonary hypersensitivity to Alternaria and Aspergillus in baker's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaustermeyer, W B; Bardana, E J; Hale, F C

    1977-05-01

    In two cases of baker's asthma pulmonary hypersensitivity was found to the fungi Alternaria and Aspergillus. Provocative bronchial challenge revealed a dual response; an immediate and an Arthus type hypersensitivity to Aspergillus in the first case. A primary binding assay revealed high titres of anti-Aspergillus antibody in the serum. In the second case intradermal and bronchial challenge suggested an immediate type I hypersensitivity response to Alternaria. The suspected organisms were present in the room air of the bakeries. It is suggested that an immunological response to these airborne fungi may have contributed to the pathogenesis of baker's asthma. PMID:561668

  1. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier) in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sook-Ha Fan; Noraisah Akbar Ali; Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg) served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P < 0.05) by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in co...

  2. First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrabi, Effat; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Panahi, Parisa; Barooti, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are the most serious plant parasitic nematodes having a broad host range exceeding 2,000 plant species. Quercus brantii Lindl. and Q. infectoria Oliv are the most important woody species of Zagros forests in west of Iran where favors sub-Mediterranean climate. National Botanical Garden of Iran (NBGI) is scheduled to be the basic center for research and education of botany in Iran. This garden, located in west of Tehran, was established in 1968 with an area of about 1...

  3. Synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group with new Japanese Oxyethira species (Trichoptera, Hydroptilidae

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    Oláh, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group is produced by the examination of type materials. Diagrammatic drawings with similar style were prepared for all the known and for the new species. Short description of genus Oxyethira, subgenus Oxyethira, species group of Oxyethira flavicornis are presented together with the description of five species clusters: O. datra new species cluster, O. ecornuta new species cluster, O. flavicornis new species cluster, O. hiroshima new species cluster, O. tiunovae new species cluster. Five new species are described from the O. flavicornis species group: O chitosea sp. n., O. hena sp. n., O. hiroshima sp. n., O. kakida sp. n., O. mekunna sp. n. One new species is described from the Oxyethira grisea species group: Oxyethira ozea sp. n. and two new species from the Oxyethira ramosa species group: Oxyethira miea sp. n., Oxyethira okinawa sp. n.

  4. Proteome Analysis for Defense Response of Apple Leaves Induced by Alternaria Blotch ,Alternaria alternata Apple Pathotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caixia Zhang; Zhuang Li; Liyi Zhang; Yi Tian; Guodong Kang; Ying Chen; Peihua Cong

    2012-01-01

    Apple (Ma/us domestica) is considered a model fruit plant owing to its world-wide economic importance,and a large number of cultivars dominate world fruit production.To date,the cultivation of apple has been limited by many kinds of fungal diseases,and among the many fungal diseases affecting apple trees,Alternaria blotch,the disease caused by Alternaria alternata apple pathotype,is spreading worldwide and results in severe negative effect on apple production.Currently,management of a fungal disease such as Alternaria blotch mainly through traditional chemical control agents instead of using resistant cultivars.As in apple,the molecular mechanism of disease resistance against A.altemata apple pathotype has not been illustrated clearly,although most of the genes have been identified in apple,little is known about the biological roles for each protein in that plant.Considering that apple Altemaria blotch is the usual diseases influencing apple production,further studies about the interaction mechanism between the pathogen and its host,particularly some host self-defense response mechanisms which closely related to the anti-disease properties of apple should be performed.In this work we aimed to generate fundamental insights into the plant' s defense responses to infection with Altemaria blotch using a proteomics approach,to aid in the development and breeding of high-quality disease-resistant apple varieties.One seedlings which derived from the cross of ‘Huacui’ and ‘Golden Delicious’,with highly resistant,were chosen to be hosts for this study.The sample leaves were inoculated with spore suspension of A.altemata apple pathotype,and the control samples were treated with water instead of inoculums.Following inoculation,the samples were harvested 48 h after inoculation.The whole experiment was repeated three times in order to get a reliable result.The total soluble protein extracts prepared using modified phenol-precipitation procedures.Total protein extracts

  5. Quercus infectoria galls possess antioxidant activity and abrogates oxidative stress-induced functional alterations in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Athar, Mohammad; Alam, M Sarwar

    2008-02-15

    The present study reports the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria galls. The antioxidant potency of galls was investigated employing several established in vitro model systems. Their protective efficacy on oxidative modulation of murine macrophages was also explored. Gall extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and possess a potent reducing power. HPTLC analysis of the extract suggested it to contain 19.925% tannic acid (TA) and 8.75% gallic acid (GA). The extract potently scavenged free radicals including DPPH (IC(50)~0.5 microg/ml), ABTS (IC(50)~1 microg/ml), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (IC(50)~2.6 microg/ml) and hydroxyl (*OH) radicals (IC(50)~6 microg/ml). Gall extract also chelated metal ions and inhibited Fe(3+) -ascorbate-induced oxidation of protein and peroxidation of lipids. Exposure of rat peritoneal macrophages to tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) induced oxidative stress in them and altered their phagocytic functions. These macrophages showed elevated secretion of lysosomal hydrolases, and attenuated phagocytosis and respiratory burst. Activity of macrophage mannose receptor (MR) also diminished following oxidant exposure. Pretreatment of macrophages with gall extract preserved antioxidant armory near to control values and significantly protected against all the investigated functional mutilations. MTT assay revealed gall extract to enhance percent survival of tBOOH exposed macrophages. These results indicate that Q. infectoria galls possess potent antioxidant activity, when tested both in chemical as well as biological models. PMID:18076871

  6. Antibacterial activities of semipurified fractions of Quercus infectoria against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its verocytotoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Suwalak, Sakol

    2008-06-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the most important foodborne pathogens, causing nonbloody and bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Use of antibiotics has been demonstrated to result in increased levels of verocytotoxin (VT) production as well as antibiotic resistance. Quercus infectoria was investigated for its antibacterial activity against E. coli O157:H7 and other VT-producing enterohemorrhagic E. coli (VTEC). The MIC was determined by a broth microdilution method, and the MBC was assessed by subculturing the bacteria from the wells that showed no apparent growth onto Mueller-Hinton agar. The fractions Qi2, Qi3, and Qi4 of Q. infectoria were demonstrated to possess good antibacterial activity, with MICs and MBCs ranging from 250 to 500 microg/ml. The effect of the effective fraction, Qi4, on the production of VT was determined using a reversed passive latex agglutination. The results indicate that at 20 h, fraction Qi4 markedly inhibits the release of VT1 and VT2 from VTEC cells at both inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, verotoxicity assay demonstrated that bacterial cultures treated with fraction Qi4 exerted less toxic effect on Vero cells. These in vitro results clearly indicate that the fraction Qi4 might constitute a promising natural food additive for the control of food poisoning by E. coli O157:H7 as well as other VTEC strains. PMID:18592749

  7. Effect of Quercus infectoria and Rosa damascena on lipid profile and atherosclerotic plaque formation in rabbit model of hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhoseinian, A; Shahouzehi, B; Joukar, S; Iranpoor, M

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is the cause of many complications in the human societies. In this study, the effect of methanol extracts of Quercus infectoria (QI) galls and Rosa damascena (RD) Mill flower were studied on lipid profile and atherosclerotic plaques formation in hyperlipidemic rabbits. Thirty-six New Zeland white rabbits randomly divided into 6 groups as control (I), hyperlipidemic (II), hyperlipidemic+QI (III), hyperlipidemic+RD (IV), +Atorvastolin (V) and hyperlipidemic+Orlistat (VI) and were fed with high fat diet (0.5% cholesterol and 16% hydrogenated vegetable oil) for 45 days. At the end of the study period, lipid profile and plaque formation were assessed. Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly increased in hyperlipidemic group compared with control group (p Quercus infectoria significantly decreased plasma levels of TC, TG and LDL (p < 0.001). It also decreased plaques formation in semi lunar valve and thoracic aorta. Rosa damascena mill flower methanol extract moderately decreased the levels of TC, TG, LDL and plaques formation but it was not significant. HDL levels and weight of animals did not show significant difference among groups. Based on the doses used in this study, our finding indicated that QI but no RD methanol extract has anti atherogenic and hypolipidemic activities. PMID:22530439

  8. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Ha Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P<0.05 by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec. Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min, the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity.

  9. Epidemiology of dark leaf spot caused by Alternaria brassicicola and Alternaria brassicae in organic seed production of cauliflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Tongeren, van C.A.M.; Groenenboom-de Haas, B.H.; Hoof, van R.A.; Driessen, R.; Heijden, van der L.

    2010-01-01

    In organic seed production of Brassica vegetables, infections by Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae can cause severe losses of yield and seed quality. Four field experiments with or without artificial inoculation with A. brassicicola were conducted in organically managed seed-production crops

  10. An in Vitro Study on the Antibacterial Effect of Ferula Assa-Foetida L. and Quercus Infectoria Olivier Extracts on Streptococcus Mutans and Streptococcus Sanguis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background From the ancient times, medicinal herbs have been regarded as efficient resources for the treatment of diseases. Among the diseases that can be treated by medicinal herbs, infectious diseases like oral ones are of notable importance. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of Ferula assa-foetida L (F. assa-foetida L. and Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria Olivier aqueous and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis. Materials and Methods The studied plants were F. assa-foetida L. and Q infectoria Olivier. Their extracts with different concentrations of 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, and 3.125 mg/mL were prepared in culture medium, with well diffusion method, and, for control, their antibacterial effects were compared with chlorhexidine. For each extract, the antibacterial ability was determined based on the created inhibition zone diameter in the microbial culture medium. Results The aqueous and ethanolic extract of F. assa-foetida L. lacked the inhibitory effect against the growth of S. mutans and S. sanguis bacteria. There was a significant difference among the inhibitory zones created by dissimilar concentrations of Q. infectoria (P = 0.025. Also, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts’ minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for S. mutans bacterium was calculated to be 12.5 mg/mL, while its value for S. sanguis bacterium was 6.25 mg/mL. Conclusions The results of our study, regarding the observed effects based on differences in concentrations, suggest that further and more comprehensive studies should be undertaken to determine the appropriate concentration for obtaining the effect of the extract of F. assa-foetida L. and Q infectoria Olivier on S. mutans and S. sanguis.

  11. THE GENERALIZED FUNCTIONAL-VARIATION SOLVING METHODS FOR NONLINEAR REACTION DIFFUSION IN BIONOMICS OF SPECIES GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a class of nonlinear predator-prey for reaction diffusion system is considered. Using the generalized functional-variational theory,the approximate expressions of the solution for nonlinear bionomics of species groups problem are obtained.

  12. Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Sophie; Madrid, Hugo; Gerrits Van Den Ende, Bert;

    2013-01-01

    The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes...... of morphologically similar taxa. This study aimed to assess if strains of four closely-related plant pathogens, i.e., accurately Alternaria dauci (ten strains), Alternaria porri (six), Alternaria solani (ten), and Alternaria tomatophila (ten) could be identified using multilocus phylogenetic analysis and Matrix......-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) profiling of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on three loci, i.e., the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rRNA, and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) and Alternaria major antigen (Alt a 1) genes. Phylogenetic...

  13. Corneal Transplant Infection due to Alternaria alternata: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Konidaris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of Alternaria alternata keratitis in a patient with a corneal transplant in her right eye due to bullous pseudophakic keratopathy. Methods. A 66-year-old female underwent a full-thickness keratoplasty in her right eye due to bullous pseudophakic keratopathy. Three weeks after keratoplasty, epithelial edema and a stromal opacity with an infiltrate and development of peripheral corneal opacities appeared. The diagnosis of Alternaria alternata keratitis was made. Results. The patient underwent a second keratoplasty, due to the corneal melting as a result of the fungal infection. She was also given combined antifungal treatment locally and systematically. Conclusion. Corneal transplantation alone would not have been sufficient to keep the fungus in the anterior portion of the eye. Combined antifungal treatment, locally and systematically, was important in attempting to prevent the further spread of the fungus to the interior of the eye. To our knowledge, the case presented here is only the second one in the literature concerning a keratomycosis due to Alternaria alternata corneal transplant infection.

  14. Antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of endophytic alternaria species from cupressaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S

    2014-09-01

    Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported. PMID:24801337

  15. The Allolobophora sturanyi species group revisited: Integrated taxonomy and new taxa (Clitellata: Megadrili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi, T.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Allolobophora sturanyi Rosa, 1895 species group is revisited using DNA barcoding and morphology. Barcoding results corroborated the previous treatment of the Allolobophora sturanyi subspecies and furthermore proved that the morphologically similar Allolobophora gestroides Zicsi, 1970 species belong to this species group. Elaboration of new samples from the Apuseni Mts resulted in discovery of a new subspecies A. sturanyi biharica ssp. nov. from the summit of the Bihor range, and a new species A. zicsica from the Vladeasa range similar to A. gestroides described from Northern Hungary.

  16. 2-D GEL ELECTROPHORESIS MAP OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TREATED WITH QUERCUS INFECTORIA GALL EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Dayang Fredalina Basri; Lee Seng Aik; Radhiah Khairon; Mariati Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The widespread outbreak of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) has caused clinical and epidemiological concern in hospital environment. The emergence of Vancomycin-Intermediate S. Aureus (VISA) and, more recently, Vancomycin-Resistant S. Aureus (VRSA) has further alarmed clinician and scientist worlwide. The objective of this study is to determine the optimum concentration of sample protein from MRSA after treatment with acetone extract from Quercus infectoria gall. Comparison ...

  17. Potential of Aqueous and Alcohol Extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium as Antimicrobials and Curing of Antibiotic Resistance in E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Kamal Khder; Srwa A Muhammed

    2010-01-01

    Eighty two clinical isolates were collected from Sulaymani hospitals. The isolates show resistance to more than five antibiotics. The ethanol extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium were proved to be the most powerful against E. coli E45 and E62 isolates, than aqueous extracts. The extracts exhibited most of the antibiotics activity against these two isolates irrespective of their antibiotic resistance behaviour. A comparative evaluation of plasmid elimi...

  18. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of essential oil and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Quercus infectoria leaves on food-borne pathogenic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Shariatifar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are group of micro-organisms that cause food-borne illness thus, the research for finding effective natural product against this infection is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of essential oil and ethanolic and aqueous extracts Quercus infectoria against some important food borne bacteria. In this study, antibacterial activity of extracts and essential oil was evaluated against bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Yersinia entercolitica, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholera using disc diffusion method. Then broth micro-dilution method was used to determine their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC. The data was expressed as the mean and the standard deviation; and they were statistically analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS software (P<0.05. Result showed that ethanol extract of Quercus infectoria was found to be the most effective against B. cereus strains (inhibition zone=16.85±0.65 mm than Yersinia entercolitica strains (inhibition zone=14.15 ±0.75mm. Aqueous extract of Quercus infectoria was found to be the most effective against B. cereus strains (inhibition zone=7.25±0.45 mm than Yersinia entercolitica strains (inhibition zone=14.45 ±0.21mm. The MIC values of the essential oil, ethanolic and aqueous extracts against B. cereus were 0.064, 0.512, 0.256 μg/ml and against salmonella typhi were 0.256, 0.1024, 0.1024μg/ml, respectively. Essential oil and extracts of Quercus infectoria leave showed a good antimicrobial activity against food borne pathogens. Therefore, they can be used in food preservation systems to inhibit the growth of these bacteria and improve food quality and safety.

  19. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of essential oil and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Quercus infectoria leaves on food-borne pathogenic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi Shariatifar; Ayub Ebadi Fathabad; Gholamreza Jahed Khaniki; Hassan Gandomi Nasrabadi

    2014-01-01

    Food-borne pathogens are group of micro-organisms that cause food-borne illness thus, the research for finding effective natural product against this infection is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of essential oil and ethanolic and aqueous extracts Quercus infectoria against some important food borne bacteria. In this study, antibacterial activity of extracts and essential oil was evaluated against bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus...

  20. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Quercus infectoria Galls Extract in Combination with Vancomycin against MRSA Using Microdilution Checkerboard and Time-Kill Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier possess astringent properties which helps in the tightening of the vaginal epithelium in the post-natal period. The present study aimed to observe the time-kill kinetics of the acetone and methanol extracts of gall of Q. infectoria in combination with vancomycin against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains; ATCC 33591 and MU 9495 (laboratory-passaged strain. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts were determined using microdilution technique whereas the checkerboard and time-kill kinetics were employed to verify the synergistic effects of treatment with vancomycin. The FIC index value of the combinations against both MRSA strains showed that the interaction was synergistic (FIC index <0.5. Time-kill assays showed the bactericidal effect of the combination treatment at 1/8XMIC of the extract and 1/8XMIC of vancomycin, were respectively at 7.2±0.28 hr against ATCC 33591 compared to complete attenuation of the growth of the same strain after 8 hr of treatment with vancomycin alone. In conclusion, the combination extracts of Q. infectoria with vancomycin were synergistic according to FIC index values. The time-kill curves showed that the interaction was additive with a more rapid killing rate but, which did not differ significantly with vancomycin.

  1. Inheritance and genetic mapping of resistance to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici in Lycopersicon pennellii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biezen, Erik A. van der; Glagotskaya, Tatyana; Overduin, Bert; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1995-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici produces AAL-toxins that function as chemical determinants of the Alternaria stem canker disease in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). In resistant cultivars, the disease is controlled by the Asc locus on chromosome 3. Our aim was to cha

  2. Specific PCR-based detection of Alternaria helianthi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udayashankar, A.C.; Nayaka, S. Chandra; Archana, B.;

    2012-01-01

    by PCR analysis of DNA from 18 Alternaria helianthi strains isolated from India, 14 non-target Alternaria spp. and 11 fungal isolates of other genera. A single amplification product of 357-bp was detected from DNA of A. helianthi isolates. No cross-reaction was observed with any of the other isolates...

  3. Alternaria roseogrisea, a new species from achenes of Helianthus annuus (sunflower)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria roseogrisea was isolated from the achenes of Helianthus annuus L. during studies conducted in 1983-85 to document the diversity of fungi occurring in sunflower seeds and the possible role these fungi play in degradation of oilseed quality. A. roseogrisea was reported as "Alternaria sp. 2...

  4. A new Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of the Reticulatus species group from Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Felippe-Bauer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Culicoides reticulatus species group, Culicoides kuripako Felippe-Bauer, is described and illustrated based on females and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Pará, Brazil. The new species is compared with its similar sympatric congener, Culicoides paucienfuscatus Barbosa.

  5. Modelling and visualizing morphology in the fungus Alternaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taralova, Ekaterina H; Schlecht, Joseph; Barnard, Kobus; Pryor, Barry M

    2011-11-01

    Alternaria is one of the most cosmopolitan fungal genera encountered and impacts humans and human activities in areas of material degradation, phytopathology, food toxicology, and respiratory disease. Contemporary methods of taxon identification rely on assessments of morphology related to sporulation, which are critical for accurate diagnostics. However, the morphology of Alternaria is quite complex, and precise characterization can be laborious, time-consuming, and often restricted to experts in this field. To make morphology characterization easier and more broadly accessible, a generalized statistical model was developed for the three-dimensional geometric structure of the sporulation apparatus. The model is inspired by the widely used grammar-based models for plants, Lindenmayer-systems, which build structure by repeated application of rules for growth. Adjusting the parameters of the underlying probability distributions yields variations in the morphology, and thus the approach provides an excellent tool for exploring the morphology of Alternaria under different assumptions, as well as understanding how it is largely the consequence of local rules for growth. Further, different choices of parameters lead to different model groups, which can then be visually compared to published descriptions or microscopy images to validate parameters for species-specific models. The approach supports automated analysis, as the models can be fit to image data using statistical inference, and the explicit representation of the geometry allows the accurate computation of any morphological quantity. Furthermore, because the model can encode the statistical variation of geometric parameters for different species, it will allow automated species identification from microscopy images using statistical inference. In summary, the approach supports visualization of morphology, automated quantification of phenotype structure, and identification based on form. PMID:22036294

  6. A new compound from an endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Bin; Yue, Gao-Chao; Huang, Qi-Lin; Sun, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    A new secondary metabolite, named altertoxin IV (1), together with altertoxin II (2), was isolated from the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima, an endophytic fungal strain residing in the stem of Tribulus terrestris L. The structure of new compound 1 was established by HR-ESI-MS, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction method. In their in vitro bioassay, compound 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against PC-3 cell lines with an IC50 value of 14.28 μM. PMID:24660902

  7. First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Effat; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Panahi, Parisa; Barooti, Shapour

    2015-03-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are the most serious plant parasitic nematodes having a broad host range exceeding 2,000 plant species. Quercus brantii Lindl. and Q. infectoria Oliv are the most important woody species of Zagros forests in west of Iran where favors sub-Mediterranean climate. National Botanical Garden of Iran (NBGI) is scheduled to be the basic center for research and education of botany in Iran. This garden, located in west of Tehran, was established in 1968 with an area of about 150 ha at altitude of 1,320 m. The Zagros collection has about 3-ha area and it has been designed for showing a small pattern of natural Zagros forests in west of Iran. Brant's oak (Q. brantii) and oak manna tree (Q. infectoria) are the main woody species in Zagros collection, which have been planted in 1989. A nematological survey on Zagros forest collection in NBGI revealed heavily infection of 24-yr-old Q. brantii and Q. infectoria to RKN, Meloidogyne hapla. The roots contained prominent galls along with egg sac on the surface of each gall. The galls were relatively small and in some parts of root several galls were conjugated, and all galls contained large transparent egg masses. The identification of M. hapla was confirmed by morphological and morphometric characters and amplification of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene. The obtained sequences of large-subunit rRNA gene from M. hapla was submitted to the GenBank database under the accession number KP319025. The sequence was compared with those of M. hapla deposited in GenBank using the BLAST homology search program and showed 99% similarity with those KJ755183, GQ130139, DQ328685, and KJ645428. The second stage juveniles of M. hapla isolated from Brant's oak (Q. Brantii) showed the following morphometric characters: (n = 12), L = 394 ± 39.3 (348 to 450) µm; a = 30.9 ± 4 (24.4 to 37.6); b = 4.6 ± 0.44 (4 to 5.1); b΄ = 3.3 ± 0.3 (2.7 to 3.7), c = 8.0 ± 1 (6.2 to 10.3), ć = 5.3 ± 0.8 (3.5 to 6.3); Stylet = 12

  8. Kinetic behaviour of two-species-group aggregation process with complete annihilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯见洪; 林振权; 王向红

    2003-01-01

    We propose a two-species-group aggregation-annihilation model in which an irreversible aggregation reaction occurs between any two clusters of the same species, and an irreversible joint annihilation reaction occurs between two distinct species groups. Based on the mean-field theory, we have investigated the rate equations of the process with constant reaction rates to obtain the asymptotic descriptions of the cluster-mass distributions. The results indicate that for the symmetrical initial cases the kinetic behaviour of the system depends crucially on the ratio of the equivalent aggregation rate to the annihilation rate. The cluster-mass distribution of each species always obeys a conventional or modified scaling law in each individual case. Moreover, all the species cannot finally survive except for the cases in which at least one equivalent aggregation rate is less than twice the annihilation rate.

  9. New Trachysphyrus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) in the albomarginatus species group from northwestern Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Charles C. Porter

    2009-01-01

    Three new species of the albomarginatus species group of the genus Trachysphyrus (T. fidalgoi, T. riojanus, and T. tmetus) are described from the Subandean Desert (Monte) of Northwest Argentina. A key is given to these and to the five described species also known from Neotropic Argentina in the semiarid Prepuna, Subandino, and Chaco Serrano as well as in such wetter habitats as the Chaco Húmedo and Selva Tucumano-Boliviana (Yungas). Four additional species occur in Neantarctic Chile from Sant...

  10. Airborne Alternaria and Cladosporium species and relationship with meteorological conditions in Eskisehir City, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkara, Ismuhan Potoglu; Asan, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Veysel; Pehlivan, Sevil; Okten, Suzan Sarica

    2008-09-01

    Alternaria and Cladosporium, known as the most allergenic spores were first collected by means of Durham gravimetric sampler from Eskisehir atmosphere from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001. The daily, monthly and annual variations in spores/cm(2) of Cladosporium and Alternaria were recorded. During this period, a total of 10.231 spores belonging to Cladosporium and Alternaria genera were recorded. Of these spores, 5,103 were identified in 2000 and 5,128 in 2001. While 63.09% of the total spores were those of Cladosporium, 36.91% were of Alternaria. Relationships between airborne fungal spore presence and meteorological conditions were statistically investigated. A Shapiro-Wilk test revealed that the airborne Cladosporium and Alternaria spores differed from a normal distribution. Thus, a Friedmann test was performed followed by a Pearson Correlation Analysis. The effects of rainfall, temperature and wind speed on Cladosporium and Alternaria numbers were non-significant according to the sites and months (p > 0.05), but the effects of relative humidity on Cladosporium and Alternaria numbers were significant (p < 0.01). Spore concentrations reached to their highest levels in May 2001.

  11. Definition of the jianfengling species group of the ground beetle genus Orthogonius MacLeay (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Orthogoniini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The jianfengling species group of the termitophilous carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 is defined and reviewed. This species group ranges from southern China, crossing Indochina and Myanmar to eastern India. To date, the jianfengling species group is composed of ten species, including six new species which are hereinafter described and illustrated: Orthogonius wrasei sp. n. (Myanmar), Orthogonius bellus sp. n. and Orthogonius limbourgi sp. n. (Vietnam), Orthogonius politior sp. n., Orthogonius aberlenci sp. n. (Laos) and Orthogonius meghalayaensis sp. n. (India). Habitus, elytral apices and male genitalia of all species are illustrated. A key to species and a distribution map of jianfengling species group are provided. PMID:27667943

  12. IN VITRO SCREENING OF SELECTED PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargi Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria alternata has been responsible for causing leaf spot diseases in various host species. Methanolic extracts of six selected plant leaves viz Parthenium hysterophorus, Vernonia amygdalina, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Nerium oleander, Lantana camara and Ocimum sanctum were in vitro screened for their antifungal activity against A. alternata at 5, 10 and 20% concentrations. Highest reduction in mycelial growth was achieved by Oleander followed by Parthenium, Ocimum, Lantana, Vernonia and Eucalyptus, respectively. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC was carried out by using solvent system of Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (3:1:2 to separate the compounds responsible for antifungal activity. Phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Phenols, Saponins and Tannins at various concentrations.

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Differential Proteins in Response to Aqueous Extract of Quercus infectoria Gall in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairon, Radhiah; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad; Abdul Rahman, Mariati

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the differential proteins in MRSA ATCC 33591 treated with aqueous extract from Q. infectoria gall. Protein extracts were obtained from MRSA cells by sonication and were separated by 2D polyacrylamide gels. Protein spots of interest were extracted from the gels and identified using LC-ESI-QTOF MS. The concentration of Q. infectoria extract used for 2D-gel electrophoresis was subinhibitory concentration. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the extract against MRSA was 19.50 μg/mL with bacteriostatic action at 1x MIC from time-kill assay. However, the extract exhibited dose-dependent manner and was bactericidal at 4x MIC with more than 3 log10 CFU/mL reduction at 4 h. 2D-GE map showed that 18 protein spots were upregulated and another six were downregulated more than twofold (p < 0.05) after treatment with subinhibitory concentration. Out of six proteins being downregulated, four proteins were identified as ferritin and catalase, branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase subunit E2, and succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta. Seven upregulated proteins which have been successfully identified were 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain protein, formate C-acetyltransferase, 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase FabZ, NAD dependent epimerase/dehydratase family protein, and phosphopantothenoyl cysteine decarboxylase. It is postulated that the main mechanism of aqueous extract from gall of Q. infectoria was most likely involved in energy metabolism and protein stress.

  14. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Differential Proteins in Response to Aqueous Extract of Quercus infectoria Gall in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairon, Radhiah; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad; Abdul Rahman, Mariati

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the differential proteins in MRSA ATCC 33591 treated with aqueous extract from Q. infectoria gall. Protein extracts were obtained from MRSA cells by sonication and were separated by 2D polyacrylamide gels. Protein spots of interest were extracted from the gels and identified using LC-ESI-QTOF MS. The concentration of Q. infectoria extract used for 2D-gel electrophoresis was subinhibitory concentration. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the extract against MRSA was 19.50 μg/mL with bacteriostatic action at 1x MIC from time-kill assay. However, the extract exhibited dose-dependent manner and was bactericidal at 4x MIC with more than 3 log10 CFU/mL reduction at 4 h. 2D-GE map showed that 18 protein spots were upregulated and another six were downregulated more than twofold (p < 0.05) after treatment with subinhibitory concentration. Out of six proteins being downregulated, four proteins were identified as ferritin and catalase, branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase subunit E2, and succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta. Seven upregulated proteins which have been successfully identified were 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain protein, formate C-acetyltransferase, 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase FabZ, NAD dependent epimerase/dehydratase family protein, and phosphopantothenoyl cysteine decarboxylase. It is postulated that the main mechanism of aqueous extract from gall of Q. infectoria was most likely involved in energy metabolism and protein stress. PMID:27688912

  15. Phylogenetic relationships within the Callicebus cupreus species group (Pitheciidae: Primates): Biogeographic and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Manuel; Bloor, Paul; Defler, Thomas; Vermeer, Jan; Röhe, Fabio; Farias, Izeni

    2016-09-01

    The genus Callicebus (Thomas, 1903) is one of the most diverse of Neotropical primate genera and the only extant member of the Callicebinae subfamily. It has a widespread distribution from Colombia to Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and northern Paraguay. Coat colouring and colour pattern vary substantially within the genus, and this has led to the description of numerous species and subspecies, as well as numerous species groups. However, a lack of molecular phylogenetic analyses on the genus means that phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of species are poorly understood. Here, we examined phylogenetic relationships and patterns of diversification within the Callicebus cupreus species Group (sensu Kobayashi, 1995) using complete mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequence. Analyses indicate that the Callicebus cupreus Group underwent recent and extensive diversification. The common ancestor appears to have emerged some 2.3 million years ago (Ma) from a centre of origin in the western Amazon region, followed by diversification of the group between about 1.5 and 1.2Ma. Phylogenetic analyses were able to recover most previously described species (including the recently described Colombian endemic Callicebus caquetensis). However, there are some notable inconsistences between the obtained phylogeny and current taxonomy. Some previously recognized taxa were not separated by our data (e.g., Callicebus caligatus and Callicebus dubius), while currently unrecognized species diversity was uncovered within C. cupreus in the form of two divergent lineages: one of which exhibited greater phylogenetic similarity to species from the C. moloch Group. Based on the present study, we challenge current taxonomic arrangements for the C. cupreus species Group and call for a thorough taxonomic revision within the genus Callicebus.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships within the Callicebus cupreus species group (Pitheciidae: Primates): Biogeographic and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Manuel; Bloor, Paul; Defler, Thomas; Vermeer, Jan; Röhe, Fabio; Farias, Izeni

    2016-09-01

    The genus Callicebus (Thomas, 1903) is one of the most diverse of Neotropical primate genera and the only extant member of the Callicebinae subfamily. It has a widespread distribution from Colombia to Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and northern Paraguay. Coat colouring and colour pattern vary substantially within the genus, and this has led to the description of numerous species and subspecies, as well as numerous species groups. However, a lack of molecular phylogenetic analyses on the genus means that phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of species are poorly understood. Here, we examined phylogenetic relationships and patterns of diversification within the Callicebus cupreus species Group (sensu Kobayashi, 1995) using complete mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequence. Analyses indicate that the Callicebus cupreus Group underwent recent and extensive diversification. The common ancestor appears to have emerged some 2.3 million years ago (Ma) from a centre of origin in the western Amazon region, followed by diversification of the group between about 1.5 and 1.2Ma. Phylogenetic analyses were able to recover most previously described species (including the recently described Colombian endemic Callicebus caquetensis). However, there are some notable inconsistences between the obtained phylogeny and current taxonomy. Some previously recognized taxa were not separated by our data (e.g., Callicebus caligatus and Callicebus dubius), while currently unrecognized species diversity was uncovered within C. cupreus in the form of two divergent lineages: one of which exhibited greater phylogenetic similarity to species from the C. moloch Group. Based on the present study, we challenge current taxonomic arrangements for the C. cupreus species Group and call for a thorough taxonomic revision within the genus Callicebus. PMID:27235549

  17. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment.

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    Susanna K Remold

    Full Text Available By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms' distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively. Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found.

  18. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea

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    Jian Xin Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea.

  19. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Cho, Hye Sun; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung Hun

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea.

  20. Assessment of Safety and Therapeutic Efficacy of Rosa damascena L. and Quercus infectoria on Cardiovascular Performance of Normal and Hyperlipidemic Rabbits: Physiologically Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Siyavash Joukar; Masoumeh Askarzadeh; Beydolah Shahouzehi; Hamid Najafipour; Hossein Fathpour

    2013-01-01

    According to the use of Quercus infectoria (QI) and Rosa damascena L. (RD) for therapeutic purposes and lack of adequate information about their cardiovascular effects, we investigated the cardiovascular indices of rabbits which chronically pretreated with these agents. Animal groups were control group (CTL), RD and QI groups with normal chow plus 1.5 g RD and QI extracts, respectively, in each kg of the diet for 45 days; Hyperlipidemic (H) group received high-fat diet for 45 days; H+RD and H...

  1. Potencial de pseudomonas spp. fluorescentes para biocontrole de alternaria ricini em mamoneira Potential of fluorescent pseudomonas spp. For biological control of alternaria ricini on castorbean

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    Francisco de A.G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. to control Alternaria leaf spot on castorbean, caused by Alternaria ricini, was studied under greenhouse conditions. Two periods for antagonist applications were tested: 48h before and simultaneously to the pathogen inoculation. Among the antagonists tested JA4 and BJ22 were the most effectives showing disease severity reduction of 20.9% and 17.8% respectively, when applied simultaneously. The effect of Pseudomonas spp. on the micelial growth and sporulation was also studied throughout three different methods (funel, streak and celophane. Inhibition of micelial growth and sporulation was observed. There was no correlation between in vitro and in vivo data. Antibiosis was showed as a mode of action for Pseudomonas spp. in relation to Alternaria ricini. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the inhibition of spore germination by the bacteria.

  2. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Skóra; Anna Otlewska; Beata Gutarowska; Joanna Leszczyńska; Iwona Majak; Łukasz Stępień

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are signific...

  3. The Southeast Asian Pholcus halabala species group (Araneae, Pholcidae: new data from field observations and ultrastructure

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    Bernhard A. Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southeast Asian Pholcus halabala species group is revised and re-delimited, based mainly on field observations (life color pattern, web design, position of egg-sac when carried by female, microhabitat and ultrastructure (silk spigots, modifications of male cheliceral apophyses. The core group includes six leafdwelling species that have distinctive color patterns in life specimens (black and white or yellowish abdominal marks, dark pattern on posterior half of carapace and build round to oval silk platforms on the undersides of leaves. Seven further species are tentatively assigned to the group pending further study. Several species originally assigned to the Pholcus halabala group are transferred to three newly proposed species groups, the Ph. krabi, Ph. buatong, and Ph. andulau groups. Nine species are newly described, four in the Ph. halabala group (Ph. khaolek Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. kuhapimuk Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. lintang Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. ubin Huber, sp. nov.; three in the Ph. krabi group (Ph. kipungit Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. krabi Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. narathiwat Huber, sp. nov.; one in the Ph. buatong group (Ph. buatong Huber, sp. nov.; and one in the Ph. andulau group (Ph. lambir Huber, sp. nov.. The females of Ph. satun Huber, 2011 and Ph. schwendingeri Huber, 2011 (both members of the buatong group are newly described.

  4. A survey of the southernmost representatives of the tricolor species group, genus Phalotris (Serpentes, Colubridae

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    Geraldo C. Leynaud

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Colubrid snakes of the South American genus Phalotris are difficult to detect because of their secretive habits, and thus they are poorly represented in collections. The species Phalotris cuyanus and P. tricolor, the southernmost representatives of the tricolor species group, were studied to determine the limits of intraspecific variation of P. cuyanus and to consolidate the taxonomic relationship between both species, the phenetically and geographically closest members in the group. The distribution of selected external characters (cephalic, ventral and subcaudal scales, coloration pattern, width of white and black collars, and hemipenis morphology were analyzed. Comparative data on the other members of the group, P. mertensi and P. matogrossensis, are briefly discussed. Males of P. cuyanus have a higher number of ventral scales than males of P. tricolor (mean of 220.3 vs. 204.6. Cephalic melanism varies among individuals and does not have discriminant orgeographic value for this species group. The white nuchal collar may partially cover the parietal scales in the four species. The black collar is moderately narrow in P. cuyanus, but it can be up to 12 scales wide in P. tricolor. Vertebral dotting is neither constant nor exclusive of any species. The four species of the group are wellcharacterized by combinations of character states for each one. We suggest considering to P. cuyanus as an evolutionary species typical of the Monte biogeographic province.

  5. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran

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    FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI¹,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 31-38. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

  6. The presence of Alternaria spp. on the seed of Apiaceae plants and their influence on seed emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Bulajić Aleksandra; Đekić Ivana; Lakić Nada; Krstić Branka

    2009-01-01

    Considerable damping-off of the seedlings of several commercial Apiaceae plant species was observed in Serbia. The infection of a total of 48 seed samples of nine vegetable and spice plants with phytopathogenic Alternaria spp. was established using the deep-freeze-blotter method. Identification of Alternaria species was performed using both conventional methods and PCR. Four different plant-pathogenic Alternaria species were detected in Serbia: A. dauci, A. radicina, A. petroselini, and A. al...

  7. Carrot (Daucus sativus Röhl.) colonization by Alternaria spp. and effect of fungicide spray on their population

    OpenAIRE

    Survilienė, Elena; Valiuškaitė, Alma

    2006-01-01

    In 2003–2005, at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture research was carried out to establish Alternaria dauci incidence in carrots (Daucus sativus Röhl.) during vegetation, and root damage by Alternaria radicina during storage. Resistance of 21 carrot cultivars to alternaria leaf blight (A. dauci) was established in natural infection conditions. In stored roots black rot (A. radicina) made up to 12% of all identified rots. The biological efficiency of fungicides Amistar 250 SC (azoxystrobi...

  8. Isotope fractionation of selenium during fungal biomethylation by Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Kathrin; Johnson, Thomas M; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    The natural abundance of stable Se isotopes may reflect sources and formation conditions of methylated Se. We aimed at (1) quantifying the degree of methylation of selenate [Se(VI)] and (hydro)selenite [Se(IV)] by the fungus Alternaria alternata at pH 4 and 7 and (2) determining the effects of these different Se sources and pH values on 82Se/76Se ratios (δ82/76Se) in methylselenides. Alternaria alternata was incubated with Se(VI) and Se(IV) in closed microcosms for 11-15 days and additionally with Se(IV) for 3-5 days at 30 °C. We determined Se concentrations and δ82/76Se values in source Se(VI) and Se(IV), media, fungi, and trapped methylselenides. In Se(VI) incubations, methylselenide volatilization ended before the 11th day, and the amounts of trapped methylselenide were not significantly different among the 11-15 day incubations. In 11-15 days, 2.9-11% of Se(VI) and 21-29% of Se(IV) were methylated, and in 3-5 days, 3-5% of Se(IV) was methylated. The initial δ82/76Se values of Se(VI) and Se(IV) were -0.69±SD 0.07‰, and -0.20±0.05‰, respectively. The δ82/76Se values of methylselenides differed significantly between Se(VI) (-3.97‰ to -3.25‰) and Se(IV) (-1.44‰ to -0.16‰) as sources after 11-15 days of incubation; pH had little influence on δ82/76Se values. Thus, the δ82/76Se values of methylselenide indicate the source species of methylselenides used in this study. The strong isotope fractionation of Se(VI) is probably attributable to the different reduction steps of Se(VI) to Se(-II) which were rate-limiting explaining the low methylation yields, but not to the methylation itself. The shorter incubation of Se(IV) for 3-5 days showed a large Se isotope fractionation of at least -6‰ before the biomethylation reaction reached its end. This initial Se isotope fractionation during methylation of Se(IV) is much larger than previously published. PMID:21366259

  9. Potential of Aqueous and Alcohol Extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium as Antimicrobials and Curing of Antibiotic Resistance in E. coli

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    Adel Kamal Khder

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty two clinical isolates were collected from Sulaymani hospitals. The isolates show resistance to more than five antibiotics. The ethanol extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium were proved to be the most powerful against E. coli E45 and E62 isolates, than aqueous extracts. The extracts exhibited most of the antibiotics activity against these two isolates irrespective of their antibiotic resistance behaviour. A comparative evaluation of plasmid elimination from E. coli E62 clinical isolate by sub-MIC of plant extracts showed that these extracts could cure plasmids effectively at their respective sub-MIC concentration. Maximum plasmid cured was observed by sub-MIC of ethanol extract of C. zeylanicum at 1100 :g/mL cured two plasmids 15 and 45 kb, followed by sub-MIC of L. usitatissimus extract at 1100 :g/mL was cured 45 kb plasmid and sub-MIC of aqueous and ethanol of Q. infectoria were cured 15 kb plasmid from E62 isolate. Curing of plasmid DNA from E. coli isolate confirmed by determining the loss of resistance markers in cured cultures.

  10. Taxonomy of Malagasy Nesomyrmex brevicornis species-group using conventional morphology-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csősz, Sándor; Fisher, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Here we describe the diversity of the Malagasy Nesomyrmex brevicornis-group as the final installment of series describing the complete Malagasy Nesomyrmex fauna. In the current paper introduce the Nesomyrmex brevicornis-group, a newly outlined species group. We split this group from one of the four former groups, Nesomyrmex madecassus-group (sensu Csősz and Fisher 2015). The relatively small number of individuals available within the Nesomyrmex brevicornis-group relative to the large number of OTUs hampers the use of sophisticated statistical techniques to evaluate the morphological data. Instead, we assess the diversity of the Nesomyrmex brevicornis-group via a conventional morphology-based approach relying upon non-numeric characters (shape, sculpture, color etc.) recorded by simple eye inspection. Morphometric data are used as secondary data to confirm the most probable boundaries between species, but without employing statistical analyses. We rejected prior species hypotheses imposed by the primary approach if a non-overlapping range of a single index calculated from continuous numeric traits was found between two hypothesized species. Our methods render every species in this revisionary work separable via both salient features and morphometric traits. Our approach reveals the existence of nine morphologically distinct species, Nesomyrmex brevicornis sp. n., Nesomyrmex brunneus sp. n., Nesomyrmex cingulatus sp. n., Nesomyrmex edentates sp. n., Nesomyrmex flavigaster sp. n., Nesomyrmex longiceps sp. n., Nesomyrmex minutus sp. n., Nesomyrmex punctaticeps sp. n., and Nesomyrmex sellaris sp. n.. Geographic maps showing the distribution of each species are provided, along with an updated key to workers of Malagasy Nesomyrmex species groups that includes the newly outlined Nesomyrmex brevicornis-group. PMID:27667950

  11. Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-03-16

    Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products.

  12. Restricted Gene Flow among Lineages of Thrips tabaci Supports Genetic Divergence Among Cryptic Species Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Alana L.; Nault, Brian A.; Vargo, Edward L.; Kennedy, George G.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the relative influence of population- versus species-level genetic variation is important to understand patterns of phenotypic variation and ecological relationships that exist among and within morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species and subspecies. In the case of cryptic species groups that are pests, such knowledge is also essential for devising effective population management strategies. The globally important crop pest Thrips tabaci is a taxonomically difficult group of putatively cryptic species. This study examines population genetic structure of T. tabaci and reproductive isolation among lineages of this species complex using microsatellite markers and mitochondrial COI sequences. Overall, genetic structure supports T. tabaci as a cryptic species complex, although limited interbreeding occurs between different clonal groups from the same lineage as well as between individuals from different lineages. These results also provide evidence that thelytoky and arrhenotoky are not fixed phenotypes among members of different T. tabaci lineages that have been generally associated with either reproductive mode. Possible biological and ecological factors contributing to these observations are discussed. PMID:27690317

  13. The Leiobunum rupestre species group: resolving the taxonomy of four widespread European taxa (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae

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    Jochen Martens

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the central European opilionid fauna the widely used species names Leiobunum rupestre Herbst, 1799 and Leiobunum tisciae Avram, 1968 pose taxonomic and distributional problems. In addition, Nelima apenninica Martens, 1969 is close to L. tisciae in terms of external and genital morphology, but is specifically distinct. While coxal denticulation is largely lacking in N. apenninica, the validity of the genus Nelima Roewer, 1910 is questioned again. In addition, Leiobunum subalpinum Komposch, 1998, a recently described novelty from the eastern Alps, is closely related to L. rupestre. The four species are combined as the morphologically defined Leiobunum rupestre species group. Except for L. subalpinum, they were found to be allopatrically distributed from the Carpathians across central and Northwest Europe to the south-western Alps. The latter species is locally sympatric and partly elevationally parapatric to L. rupestre. Leiobunum tisciae is a recently introduced name and here recognized as a junior synonym of a number of taxa described much earlier, of which L. gracile Thorell, 1876 is re-introduced as oldest available name. Detailed morphological and distributional data for all taxa are presented.

  14. Kinetic Behaviour of the Aggregation-Annihilation Process of Two-Species-Group System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhen-Quan; KE Jian-Hong; WANG Xiang-Hong

    2003-01-01

    The kinetic behavior of an aggregation-annihilation system with two species groups is studied in this paper.We propose that an aggregation reaction occurs only between the same species and an irreversible joint annihilation reaction occurs only between the two species belonging to distinct groups. Based on the mean-field theory, we investigate the rate equations of the process with constant reaction rates and obtain the asymptotic descriptions of the cluster-mass distributions for the symmetrical cases. We find that the cluster-mass distribution of each species obeys a standard scaling description in certain cases. Meanwhile, breakdown of the standard scaling description is also found for the distribution in some special cases and the cluster-mass distribution comes in a peculiar scaling regime. The evolutionbehaviour of the system depends crucially on the reaction rates and the ratio of initial concentrations between the two groups. Moreover, the species numbers of the two groups also play important roles in the properties of the cluster distributions.

  15. Mutations at the Asc locus of tomato confer resistance to the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biezen, E.A. van der; Nijkamp, H.J.J.; Hille, J.

    1996-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici produces host-selective AAL-toxins that cause Alternaria stem canker in tomato. Susceptibility to the disease is based on the relative sensitivity of the host to the AAL-toxins and is controlled by the Asc locus on chromosome 3L. Chemical m

  16. Molecular genetic characterisation of the Asc locus of tomato conferring resistance to the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biezen, E.A. van der; Overduin, B.; Kneppers, T.J.A.; Mesbah, L.A.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.; Hille, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato is caused by the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici and its host-selective AAL-toxins. Resistance to the pathogen and insensitivity to the toxins are conferred by the Asc locus on chromosome 3L. Sensitivity to AAL-toxins is a relative

  17. Tomato resistance to Alternaria stem canker : localization in host genotypes and functional expression compared to non-host resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witsenboer, H.M.A.; Griend, E.G. van de; Tiersma, J.B.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.; Hille, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Alternaria stem canker resistance locus (Asc-locus), involved in resistance to the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici and in insensitivity to host-specific toxins (AAL-toxins) produced by the pathogen, was genetically mapped on the tomato genome. Susceptibility and resistanc

  18. The presence of Alternaria spp. on the seed of Apiaceae plants and their influence on seed emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulajić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable damping-off of the seedlings of several commercial Apiaceae plant species was observed in Serbia. The infection of a total of 48 seed samples of nine vegetable and spice plants with phytopathogenic Alternaria spp. was established using the deep-freeze-blotter method. Identification of Alternaria species was performed using both conventional methods and PCR. Four different plant-pathogenic Alternaria species were detected in Serbia: A. dauci, A. radicina, A. petroselini, and A. alternata, all of which caused reduction of carrot, parsley, parsnip, and celery seed emergence. Alternaria dauci, A. radicina, and A. petroselini were relatively more aggressive compared to A. alternata. Substantial seed infection levels and strong influence of Alternaria spp. on seed emergence indicated that production of Apiaceae seed needs to be improved in order to obtain pathogen-free seed.

  19. Positive and purifying selection influence the evolution of doublesex in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group.

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    Iderval S Sobrinho

    Full Text Available The gene doublesex (dsx is considered to be under strong selective constraint along its evolutionary history because of its central role in somatic sex differentiation in insects. However, previous studies of dsx used global estimates of evolutionary rates to investigate its molecular evolution, which potentially miss signals of adaptive changes in generally conserved genes. In this work, we investigated the molecular evolution of dsx in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group (Diptera, Tephritidae, and test the hypothesis that this gene evolved solely by purifying selection using divergence-based and population-based methods. In the first approach, we compared sequences from Anastrepha and other Tephritidae with other Muscomorpha species, analyzed variation in nonsynonymous to synonymous rate ratios (dN/dS in the Tephritidae, and investigated radical and conservative changes in amino acid physicochemical properties. We show a general selective constraint on dsx, but with signs of positive selection mainly in the common region. Such changes were localized in alpha-helices previously reported to be involved in dimer formation in the OD2 domain and near the C-terminal of the OD1 domain. In the population-based approach, we amplified a region of 540 bp that spanned almost all of the region common to both sexes from 32 different sites in Brazil. We investigated patterns of selection using neutrality tests based on the frequency spectrum and locations of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in a haplotype network. As in the divergence-based approach, these analyses showed that dsx has evolved under an overall selective constraint, but with some events of positive selection. In contrast to previous studies, our analyses indicate that even though dsx has indeed evolved as a conserved gene, the common region of dsx has also experienced bouts of positive selection, perhaps driven by sexual selection, during its evolution.

  20. The Dolichopus plumipes species group (Diptera, Dolichopodidae in the Palaearctic Region with the description of a new species from Iran

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    Samad Khaghaninia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dolichopus plumipes species group in the Palaearctic Region is redefined. It comprises eleven species including one new species, Dolichopus malekii sp. nov., from the East Azerbaijan province in north-western Iran. The species group is differentiated from other Dolichopus by the modified male mid tibia and/or mid basitarsus (except D. simplex. The mid tibia is often thin, having a longitudinal narrow dark streak (D. plumipes or clear whitish yellow dorsal area in distal third, rarely simple or inconspicuously modified (D. discifer. Mid basitarsus is pennate or bearing elongate setae or simple. Other tarsomeres are usually simple (except D. discifer. A revised key to the species group is provided, as well as remarks on its geographical distribution.

  1. Morphological and ultrastructural changes in the cell structure of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 following treatment with Quercus infectoria nut galls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalak, Sakol; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2009-10-01

    Some information is available on the oak (Quercus infectoria) nut gall as an effective medicinal plant against Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7. However, its antibacterial mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In this study, some antibacterial actions against STEC O157:H7 were investigated by observing cell viability as well as morphological and ultrastructural changes. An ethanolic extract of Q. infectoria demonstrated inhibitory and bactericidal effects on all of the strains tested with minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) at 0.78-1.56 mg ml(-1) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) at 1.56-3.12 mg ml(-1). Cell numbers treated with 4MIC of the extract decreased at least two log-fold within 4 h and were completely killed within 12 h. Scanning electron microscopy illustrated a complete loss of surface appendages and pronounced morphological changes at MIC and 2MIC. The whole cell collapsed at 4MIC. Ultrastructural changes from corresponding transmission electron micrographs further verified that damages in the treated cells increased with the increase in the extract concentrations. At MIC (0.78 mg ml(-1)), there was some evidence that the cytoplasmic membranes of the treated E. coli were bulging and/or ruptured, and the cells appeared to be discharging intracellular materials. At 2MIC, the outer membrane of the treated E. coli which was attached to the cell wall became separated from the wall. Disruption in the outer wall and cytoplasmic membranes, especially at the polar regions of the cells occurred and some vacuolization appeared. At 4MIC, the damage to E. coli cells was extensive, and there was loss of their cellular integrity. PMID:19451663

  2. Alternaria fungal dermatitis in a free-ranging javelina (Pecari tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shender, Lisa A; Gerhold, Rick; Sanchez, Susan; Keel, M Kevin

    2011-07-01

    We report a javelina from Pinal County, Arizona, USA, with severe fungal dermatitis and cellulitis. Extreme emaciation and rostral disfiguration, including left-lateral displacement of the nasal planum, justified euthanasia. A pus-filled tract within the rostrum was observed. Histopathology revealed granulomatous inflammation with hyphae morphologically consistent with Alternaria sp. isolated by culture.

  3. Potato carrot agar with manganese as an isolation medium for Alternaria, Epicoccum and Phoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Thrane, Ulf;

    2009-01-01

    A semi-selective medium for isolation of Alternaria spp., Epicoccum sp. and Phoma spp. from soil and plant samples was developed. The basal medium was a modified potato carrot agar (PCA), containing 10 g/L of potato and carrot. It is known that the target genera sporulate well on standard PCA when...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Alternaria alternata Isolated from Onion Leaves in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, Michele; Gerrano, Abe Shegro; Oelofse, Dean; Adebola, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler strain PPRI 21032 was isolated from onion leaves collected in Roodeplaat, Pretoria, South Africa. The whole genome of this strain was sequenced and produced a total of 33.12 Mb with a GC content of 50.9%. The whole genome comprises 11,701 predicted coding sequences. PMID:27660793

  5. A polyphasic approach for the characterization of endophytic Alternaria strains isolated from grapevines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polizzotto, Rachele; Andersen, Birgitte; Martini, Marta;

    2012-01-01

    A polyphasic approach was set up and applied to characterize 20 fungal endophytes belonging to the genus Alternaria, recovered from grapevine in different Italian regions.Morphological, microscopical, molecular and chemical investigations were performed and the obtained results were combined in a...

  6. Meteorological and agricultural effects on airborne Alternaria and Cladosporium spores and clinical aspects in Valladolid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Estefanía Sánchez; de la Cruz, David Rodríguez; Merino, Ma Eugenia Sanchís; Sánchez, José Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    The aeropalynological monitoring was carried out from 1 February 2005-31 January 2007. The total number of spores collected during the main spore season (MSS) in 2005 was 4,500 for Alternaria and 93,744 in the case of Cladosporium, whereas in 2006 values were increased (8,385 for Alternaria and 150,144 for Cladosporium), reaching the maximum concentrations on 18 July and 17 June 2006 with 344 and 5,503 spores, respectively. The influence of the main meteorological parameters on spore concentrations was studied, resulting in a positive correlation with temperature. Rainfall, relative humidity and frequency of calms obtained negative correlations in the case of Alternaria, and positive for Cladosporium, the total daily hours of sunshine having an inverse influence on them. The intra-diurnal pattern was very similar for both genera, with a greater representation towards the central hours of the day and at night. Finally, some clinical aspects for the Alternaria spore type were analyzed, with a low percentage of sensitized patients though (9.5%). Only one patient showed positive skin test reaction to Cladosporium.

  7. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, Al S.; Wikstrom, M.; Koch, E.; Schmitt, A.; Stephan, D.; Jahn, M.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the lack of foliar fungicide use, the organic production of Brassica seeds free of Alternaria spp. is difficult. Therefore, effective seed treatments certified for use in organic farming are needed to eradicate or at least effec­tively reduce the seed-borne inoculum. We here report results of

  8. Characterization of Alternaria strains from Argentinean blueberry, tomato, walnut and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Fernández Pinto, Virginia;

    2015-01-01

    to morphological groups “G” and “H”. The cluster analysis yielded 16 almost identical dendrograms and grouped the Alternaria strains into four clusters and 11 singletons and outlier groups. The chemical analysis showed that AOH and AME were the most common metabolites produced, followed by TEN, ALXs and TeA. The A...

  9. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Alternaria alternata Isolated from Onion Leaves in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihon, Wubetu; Cloete, Michele; Gerrano, Abe Shegro; Oelofse, Dean; Adebola, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler strain PPRI 21032 was isolated from onion leaves collected in Roodeplaat, Pretoria, South Africa. The whole genome of this strain was sequenced and produced a total of 33.12 Mb with a GC content of 50.9%. The whole genome comprises 11,701 predicted coding sequences. PMID:27660793

  11. Revision of the Chinese Chaetocnema picipes species-group (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini), with descriptions of three new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaetocnema picipes species-group is revised in China. It contains 5 species including 3 new species: C. cheni n.sp., C. constricta n.sp. and C. kingpinensis n.sp.. The lectotype of C. fortecostata is designated. A key to all known species of this group from China and illustrations of habitus and ge...

  12. Two new Culicoides of the paraensis species group (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae from the Amazonian region of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felippe-Bauer Maria Luiza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the Culicoides paraensis species group, C. diversus Felippe-Bauer and C. peruvianus Felippe-Bauer, are described and illustrated based on female specimens from Amazonian region of Peru. A systematic key, table with numerical characters of females, and distribution of species of the C. paraensis group are given.

  13. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Fungicide for the Management of Alternaria Leaf Spot Disease of Chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Yadav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria leaf spot of chilli caused by Alternaria alternate is an important disease affecting chilly production areas in India. The disease is primarily controlled through the use of fungicidal seed treatments. In this study, different fungicides viz. Captol, Captan, Ziram, Captofol, Thiram, Indofill Z 78 and Indofill Z 45 were assessed for their ability to reduce the growth of Alternaria alternata under laboratory conditions. Maximum inhibition (100% was achieved by Captol and capton followed by captofol (89.5 % while 0.1 % dose given. This paper reports the efficacy of fungicides that can be used under field conditions to control alternaria leaf spot in tropical regions and demonstrates the use of a method of application that could significantly improve the efficacy of disease control.

  14. EVALUATION OF DISEASE RESISTANCE POTENTIAL OF SEVEN POTATO GENOTYPES AGAINST EARLY BLIGHT CAUSED BY Alternaria tenuissima UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Mirkarimi; Ahmad Abasi Moghadam; Javad Mozafari

    2013-01-01

    Early blight of potato was caused by various species of genus Alternaria, the disease has a prominent role in reducing crop yields in most of the countries, especially in Iran. Various studies has been conducted for the finding out the information regarding the diversity of pathogen and estimation of damage caused by genus Alternaria tenuissima in Iran, but the information regarding the resistance against this fungal pathogen in various genotype of potatoes are in scarcity. Seven isolat...

  15. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina on carrot seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, E.; Schmitt, A.; Stephan, D; Kromphardt, C.; Jahn, M; Krauthausen, H.J.; G Forsberg; Werner, S.; Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; TINIVELLA, F; Gullino, M.L.; Roberts, S. J.; Wolf, de, H.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The current study was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and agents of natural origin (resistance inducers, plant derived products, micro-organisms) as seed treatments of carrots for control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina. Control of both Alternaria species by seed treatment with the resistance inducers was generally poor. Results were also not satisfactory with most of the formulated commercial micro-organism preparation...

  16. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3(rd) palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  17. A new species of the Rhinella margaritifera species group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the montane forest of the Selva Central, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Jiří; Lehr, Edgar; Cusi, Juan Carlos; Córdova, Jesús H; Gvoždík, Václav

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru). The new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confirmed by mtDNA data) and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5-65.5 mm, n = 5), moderately developed cranial crests, absence of neural crest of vertebrae, absence of bone protrusion at angle of jaw, presence of lateral rows of enlarged tubercles, and absence of subgular vocal sac and vocal slits in males. In addition, based on the molecular phylogenetic analyses of selected Rhinella species we propose the monophylum containing R. chavin, R. festae, R. macrorhina, R. manu, R. nesiotes, R. rostrata, and R. yanachaga as a new species group under the name Rhinella festae species group. PMID:24493953

  18. Vocal repertory of Scinax littoreus (Anura: Hylidae with comments on the advertisement call of the Scinax perpusillus species group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pontes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Scinax perpusillus species group consists of thirteen bromeligenous treefrogs, of which only six have had their acoustic parameters appropriately described. In this work, we present the vocal repertory of Scinax littoreus (Peixoto, 1988 based on recordings obtained from three different populations in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Based on our observations we suggest that the vocal repertory of S. littoreus is composed of two distinct types of calls. The call named type A, which corresponds to a long series of multipulsed notes, is likely to have a mating function. This type of call is similar to that reported for Scinax arduous Peixoto, 2002, Scinax peixotoi Brasileiro, Haddad, Sawaya & Martins, 2007, and Scinax perpusillus (Lutz & Lutz, 1939. However, the type A call of S. littoreus is nonetheless readily distinguishable from the comparable call observed in other congeneric species. The call named type B, which exhibits a multipulsed structure, presumably has an aggressive function. We observed that different types of calls could be emitted alone or combined according to the social context. Additionally, we discuss problems involving comparisons of call parameters among species belonging to the S. perpusillus species group, provide an updated geographic distribution map, discuss the conservation status of the included species, and emphasize the importance of acoustic data for the recognition of species groups within Scinax.

  19. Monitoring and assessment of airborne Cladosporium Link and Alternaria Nées spores in Sivrihisar (Eskisehir), Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkara, Ismuhan Potoglu; Ilhan, Semra; Oner, Setenay

    2009-01-01

    The spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp., commonly described as the most allergenic spores, were collected by means of Durham gravimetric sampler from the Sivrihisar (Eskisehir) atmosphere throughout 2005 to 2006. The weekly variations in spores/cm(2) of Cladosporium and Alternaria were recorded. During this period, a total of 6,198 spores belonging to Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. were recorded. Of these spores, 2,969 were identified in 2005 and 3,229 in 2006. While 69.55% of the total spores were those of Cladosporium spp., 30.45% were Alternaria spp. Relationships between airborne fungal spore presence and weather conditions were examined statistically. A Shapiro-Wilk test revealed that the airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. had a normal distribution. Following this, Chi-square test, t test and Pearson correlation analysis were performed. The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the spore numbers of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. were significant according to the month in which they were collected (p < 0.01). The spore concentrations of each species reached to their highest levels in June 2006.

  20. IN - VITRO AND GREENHOUSE EVALUATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC POTENTIAL OF FUNGAL ISOLATES Alternaria tenuissima IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkarimi HR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early blight of solanaceae is the most common reported disease in Iran. The disease caused by Alternaria species.Various isolates of Alternaria tenuissima were collected from various locations of the country. The collected Isolates were tested against tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicumL. crops in fields of Khansar Esfehan and National Plant Gene Bank of Iran. For d etermining the pathogenicity, these strains were tested against the genetic samples of Agria (susceptible, Delta (resistant control and Cosmos. Symptoms were recorded in both in vitro and greenhouse conditions. Under in vitro condition genetic samples of Agria and Cosmos shows the pathogenic symptoms second day while the Delta is showing symptoms fifth day after inoculation. The reported symptoms were necrosis, chlorosis and damping. Under greenhouse evaluation, the symptoms became apparent in the genetic Agria fourth day, while in Cosmos at the eighth day and in Delta fourteenth day after inoculation. Finally, morphology and pathogenicity tests, asserted the isolation of pathogenic A. tenuissima.

  1. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-01

    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products.

  2. Sensitivity to Alternaria alternata toxin in citrus because of altered mitochondrial RNA processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtani, Kouhei; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2002-01-01

    Specificity in the interaction between rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) and the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata rough lemon pathotype is determined by a host-selective toxin, ACR-toxin. Mitochondria from rough lemon are sensitive to ACR-toxin whereas mitochondria from resistant plants, including other citrus species, are resistant. We have identified a C. jambhiri mitochondrial DNA sequence, designated ACRS (ACR-toxin sensitivity gene), that confers toxin sensitivity to Escherichia co...

  3. Gene cluster involved in melanin biosynthesis of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata.

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kimura; Tsuge,T.

    1993-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata produces melanin, a black pigment, from acetate via 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene. To isolate a fungal gene required for melanin biosynthesis, we transformed an A. alternata Brm1- (light brown) mutant with the DNA of a wild-type strain genomic library constructed by use of a cosmid carrying the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene. When hygromycin B-resistant transformants were screened for melanin production, 1 of 1,363 transformants appeared to regain ...

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN-VITRO ANTIFUNGAL INVESTIGATION OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS EXTRACTS AGAINST ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Padma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of fungicides are polluting the environment and giving rise to undesirable biological effects on animal and human beings. Therefore use of plant extracts as biological control agents is being popularized in recent years. Alternaria alternata is reported for causing foliage disease in several important vegetables and crops. In an approach towards the development of eco friendly antifungal compound for controlling plant diseases caused by Alternaria alternata different extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus were tested for their antifungal potential. Parthenium hysterophorus is considered as an obnoxious weed, growing on waste land. The four different solvent extracts viz., aqueous, methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts of leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus was evaluated from antifungal potential against four different isolates of Alternaria alternata isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum, onion (Allium cepa, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and mustard (Brassica compestris by food poison technique. The ethanolic extract showed complete inhibition against the four isolates i.e. 100 % followed by acetone and methanol extracts which was approximately 96 % and 76 % respectively, while aqueous extract do not showed any antifungal activity. Thus the result showed that the ethanolic extract was the best extract to be used. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, glycoside, steroid, saponin in varying concentration in different extracts which might be the cause of antifungal potential. The present study supports the use of leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus as biofungicides for the disease caused by Alternaria alternata. This will help to save the environment from chemical hazards as most of the synthetic fungicide constitute mercury, zinc etc which are toxic for nature.

  5. Conservation of the genes for HC-toxin biosynthesis in Alternaria jesenskae

    OpenAIRE

    Wight, Wanessa D; Labuda, Roman; Walton, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    Background HC-toxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide, is a virulence determinant for the plant pathogenic fungus Cochliobolus carbonum. It was recently discovered that another fungus, Alternaria jesenskae, also produces HC-toxin. Results The major genes (collectively known as AjTOX2) involved in the biosynthesis of HC-toxin were identified from A. jesenskae by genomic sequencing. The encoded orthologous proteins share 75-85% amino acid identity, and the genes for HC-toxin biosynthesis are duplicated in...

  6. Role of micronutrients in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight infecting Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, A S; Singh, Dhiraj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were carried out at Oilseeds Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi, 2008-09 to 2011-12 to find out the possible role of soil application of different micronutrients alone and in combinations in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight diseases in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Among the sole application of micronutrients, minimum disease severity of both white rust (35.0%) and Alternaria blight (31.8%) was observed when S @ 40 kg ha in the form of Gypsum was applied as basal dose in the soil. When Gypsum was supplemented with Borax @10 kg ha(-1) or with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha(-1) the level of tolerance seems to be improved for both the diseases as compared to the sole treatment of each nutrient, i.e., ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg ha' and Gypsum @ 250 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, minimum disease severity of both white rust (31.3 %) and Alternaria blight (26.3 %) was observed with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha(-1) + Borax @ 10 kg ha(-1) + Gypsum @250 kg ha(-1) as basal dose as compared to the severity of white rust (43.6%) and Alternaria blight (38.6%) in untreated check. Significant increase in seed yield (1612 kg ha(-1)) was also recorded in above mentioned treatment as compared to the yield (1337 kg ha(-1)) in untreated check. These findings will also be helpful in maintaining soil health and minimizing the losses due to both the fungal diseases for eco-friendly sustainability of Indian mustard.

  7. Plant extracts and essential oils on the control of Alternaria alternata , Alternaria dauci and on the germination and emergence of carrot seeds ( Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Batista de Lima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate garlic, pepper and coriander plant extract as well as neem and orange peel essential oil effective ness to control Alternaria alternata and Alternaria dauci and their efficiency during carrot seeds germination and emergence. A completely randomized design was used in three different experiments. The first experiment evaluated the effect of plant extracts and essential oils on the incidence of A. alternata and A. dauci . It was done by means of a factorial design applied to five treatments (garlic, pepper, coriander, and neem and orange peel essential oils at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30%.They also evaluated the controls untreated and with fungicide (Thiram.The second experiment evaluated the effect of the treatment at30% concentration on the germination and emergence of seedlings assessed on trays, and in the third experiment, the presence of A. alternata and A. dauci on the pericarp, endosperm and on the embryo. A. alternata showed higher incidence than A. dauci. The garlic extract and the orange essential oil showed the potential to control A. dauci and A. alternata, because their lower concentrations were able to sufficiently reduce the incidence of these fungi and because they do not affect carrot seeds germination and emergence. A. alternata conidia were found on the embryo (8%, pericarp (17% and endosperm (31%.

  8. Effects of meteorological factors on the levels of Alternaria spores on a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuredo, Olga; Seijo, Maria Carmen; Fernández-González, Maria; Iglesias, Isabel

    2011-03-01

    Alternaria solani Soraeur produces early blight in Solanum tuberosum L., leading to significant agricultural losses. The current study was carried out on the extensive potato crop situated in north-western of Spain during 2007, 2008 and 2009. In this area potato crops are the most important source of income. In this work we used a Hirst-type volumetric spore-trap for the aerobiological monitoring of Alternaria spores. The highest spore concentrations were recorded during the 2009 cycle (10,555 spores), and the lowest concentrations were recorded during the 2008 cycle (5,471 spores). Over the 3 years of study, the highest concentrations were registered during the last stage of the crop. The aim of the study was to observe the influence of meteorological factors on the concentration of Alternaria spores, which can lead to serious infection and early blight. Prediction of the stages during which a crop is particularly vulnerable to infection allows for adjustment of the application of fungicide and is of environmental and agricultural importance. For this reason, we tested three models (P-Days, DD and IWP) to predict the first treatment and decrease the negative effect that these spores have on potato crops. The parameter that showed the most significant correlation with spore concentrations was minimum temperature. We used ARIMA (autoregressive integrated model of running mean) time-series models to determine the forecast. We considered weather data as predictor variables and the concentration of spores on the previous day as the fixed variable.

  9. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong; GAO Shushan; LI Xiaoming; LI Chunshun; WANG Bingui

    2013-01-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192,an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa,resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites,including four indole-diterpenoids:penijanthine A (1),paspaline (2),paspalinine (3),and penitrem A (4); three tricycloaltemarene derivatives:tricycloalternarene 3a (5),tricycloaltemarene lb (6),and tricycloalternarene 2b (7); and two altemariol congeners:djalonensone (8) and altemariol (9).The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature.The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum,with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm,respectively,at 100 μ.g/disk.To the best of our knowledge,this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived Alternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus Alternaria.

  10. PCR and real-time PCR assays to detect fungi of Alternaria alternata species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordalewska, Milena; Brillowska-Dąbrowska, Anna; Jagielski, Tomasz; Dworecka-Kaszak, Bożena

    2015-01-01

    Fungi of the Alternaria genus are mostly associated with allergic diseases. However, with a growing number of immunocompromised patients, these fungi, with A. alternata being the most prevalent one, are increasingly recognized as etiological agents of infections (phaeohyphomycoses) in humans. Nowadays, identification of Alternaria spp. requires their pure culture and is solely based on morphological criteria. Clinically, Alternaria infections may be indistinguishable from other fungal diseases. Therefore, a diagnostic result is often delayed or even not achieved at all. In this paper we present easy to perform and interpret PCR and real-time PCR assays enabling detection of A. alternata species. On the basis of alignment of β-tubulin gene sequences, A. alternata-specific primers were designed. DNA from fungal isolates, extracted in a two-step procedure, were used in PCR and real-time PCR assays followed by electrophoresis or melting temperature analysis, respectively. The assays specificity was confirmed, since positive results were obtained for all A. alternata isolates, and no positive results were obtained neither for other molds, dermatophytes, yeast-like fungi, nor human DNA. The assays developed here enable fast and unambiguous identification of A. alternata pathogens. PMID:26610309

  11. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Skóra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test. Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air. The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL. It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein.

  12. Production of the allergenic protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria isolates from working environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  13. The role of meteorological factors in determining the annual variation of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores in the atmosphere of Palencia, 1990 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, B.; Fombella-Blanco, M. A.; Fernández-González, D.; Valencia-Barrera, R. M.

    1996-09-01

    A study was made of the daily content of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores in the atmosphere in Palencia city (Spain) for three consecutive years 1990 1992. Alternaria and Cladosporium represented 55% of the total identified spores, presenting an annual distributional pattern of which the maximum values were reached in summer. Multiple regression analyses showed a positive correlation between minimum temperature and Cladosporium spore concentrations, while for Alternaria there was a positive correlation with maximum temperature and a negative correlation with precipitation. Duncan's multiple range test among means of Alternaria data indicated that winds coming from a northeasterly direction were associated with significantly higher concentrations the spores.

  14. Assessment of Safety and Therapeutic Efficacy of Rosa damascena L. and Quercus infectoria on Cardiovascular Performance of Normal and Hyperlipidemic Rabbits: Physiologically Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Askarzadeh, Masoumeh; Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Najafipour, Hamid; Fathpour, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    According to the use of Quercus infectoria (QI) and Rosa damascena L. (RD) for therapeutic purposes and lack of adequate information about their cardiovascular effects, we investigated the cardiovascular indices of rabbits which chronically pretreated with these agents. Animal groups were control group (CTL), RD and QI groups with normal chow plus 1.5 g RD and QI extracts, respectively, in each kg of the diet for 45 days; Hyperlipidemic (H) group received high-fat diet for 45 days; H+RD and H+QI groups received high fat diet plus QI and RD extracts, respectively. Blood pressure was greater in H+RD group than CTL, RD, and H groups. Left ventricular developed pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure increased significantly in H+RD group versus CTL and RD groups (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, resp.) and in H+QI groups (P < 0.01 versus QI groups). Left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) showed significant reduction in H+QI group versus H group. QI attenuated the values of total cholesterol, LDL, TG, and atherogenic indices of plasma when coadministrated with a high-fat diet. The results suggest the antilipidemic and antiatherogenic effects of QI. In addition, the use of RD along with a high-fat diet may increase the risk of hypertension in rabbits. PMID:24163695

  15. Assessment of Safety and Therapeutic Efficacy of Rosa damascena L. and Quercus infectoria on Cardiovascular Performance of Normal and Hyperlipidemic Rabbits: Physiologically Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyavash Joukar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the use of Quercus infectoria (QI and Rosa damascena L. (RD for therapeutic purposes and lack of adequate information about their cardiovascular effects, we investigated the cardiovascular indices of rabbits which chronically pretreated with these agents. Animal groups were control group (CTL, RD and QI groups with normal chow plus 1.5 g RD and QI extracts, respectively, in each kg of the diet for 45 days; Hyperlipidemic (H group received high-fat diet for 45 days; H+RD and H+QI groups received high fat diet plus QI and RD extracts, respectively. Blood pressure was greater in H+RD group than CTL, RD, and H groups. Left ventricular developed pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure increased significantly in H+RD group versus CTL and RD groups ( and , resp. and in H+QI groups ( versus QI groups. Left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP showed significant reduction in H+QI group versus H group. QI attenuated the values of total cholesterol, LDL, TG, and atherogenic indices of plasma when coadministrated with a high-fat diet. The results suggest the antilipidemic and antiatherogenic effects of QI. In addition, the use of RD along with a high-fat diet may increase the risk of hypertension in rabbits.

  16. Sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium in patients with respiratory allergy and outdoor counts of mold spores in Ankara atmosphere, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavbek, Sevim; Erkekol, Ferda Oner; Ceter, Talip; Mungan, Dilşad; Ozer, Faruk; Pinar, Münevver; Misirligil, Zeynep

    2006-08-01

    Sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium has been reported to be 3% to 30% in European countries. However, in Turkey, there is limited data about the prevalence of sensitization to these molds and the intensity of the two mold spores in Ankara atmosphere. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium in patients with respiratory allergy in Ankara and also the concentration of the two molds in Ankara atmosphere. Allergic rhinitis and asthma patients living in Ankara were included in the study. Demographic and diagnostic data of the patients were recorded. A skin prick test with extracts supplied by three different laboratories was used to evaluate the sensitization to Alternaria and Cladosporium. Mold spores were measured using a Burkard 7-day recording volumetric spore trap in Ankara atmosphere during a year. Overall sensitization to the two molds was found to be 14.8%, and isolated Alternaria or Cladosporiumsensitization was 3%. Considering the positive reaction to at least one of the three suppliers, the sensitization rate was 11.9% and 8.1% for Alternaria and Cladosporium, respectively. Cochran's Q homogenization test demonstrated that the positive and negative reaction were not homogeneous among three laboratories. The total number of mold spores in Ankara atmosphere was 429,264 spores/m3 of which 75.5% and 6% were constituted by Cladosporium and Alternaria, respectively. The prevalence of Cladosporium and Alternaria sensitization in respiratory allergy patients is quite similar to European countries; however, our data indicate that commercial mold extracts should be standardized to establish the real sensitization rates. Additionally, considering the great numbers of these mold spores in Ankara atmosphere, long-term follow-up studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between the mold load and sensitization patterns.

  17. A new species of the Rhinella margaritifera species group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the montane forest of the Selva Central, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Moravec; Edgar Lehr; Juan Carlos Cusi; Jesus Cordova; Vaclav Gvozdik

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru). The new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confirmed by mtDNA data) and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5–65.5 mm, n = 5), mod...

  18. Revision of Campsurus violaceus species group (Ephemeroptera: Polymitarcyidae) with new synonymies and nomina dubia in Campsurus Eaton, 1868.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineri, C; Salles, F F; Emmerich, D

    2015-01-01

    The violaceus species group (formerly notatus species group) of Campsurus Eaton is revised. All the species in the violaceus group are diagnosed. A new species, C. molinai sp. nov. is described based on male imagos from Bolivia, characterized by their large and sclerotized penes. The violaceus group is proposed to include the following species: C. assimilis Traver, C. truncatus Ulmer (=C. mahunkai Puthz = C. melanocephalus Pereira & da Silva, new synonyms), C. violaceus Needham & Murphy (= C. meyeri Navás = C. notatus Needham & Murphy = C. paranensis Navás, new synonyms), C. emersoni Traver, C. decoloratus (Hagen), and C. molinai sp.nov. Additionally we consider the following species as nomina dubia: C. longicauda Navás, C. pfeifferi Navás, C. zikani Navás, C. albicans (orig. Ephemera albicans Percheron in Guerin & Percheron), C. burmeisteri Ulmer, C. dallasi Navás, C. quadridentatus Eaton, C. claudus Needham & Murphy, C. corumbanus Needham & Murphy, C. dorsalis (Burmeister), C. mutilus Needham & Murphy, and C. striatus Needham & Murphy. Given the results presented herein (five species synonymized and 12 proposed as nomina dubia), only 28 valid species remain in the genus Campsurus. Additionally, the nymphal stages of C. violaceus and C. truncatus are described and illustrated. Female adult genitalia (sockets) and eggs of C. decoloratus are described for the first time. Diagnoses, new country records, and redescriptions of selected characters of the imagos for the species of the violaceus group are given. PMID:25781239

  19. Hourly predictive artificial neural network and multivariate regression tree models of Alternaria and Cladosporium spore concentrations in Szczecin (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2009-11-01

    A study was made of the link between time of day, weather variables and the hourly content of certain fungal spores in the atmosphere of the city of Szczecin, Poland, in 2004-2007. Sampling was carried out with a Lanzoni 7-day-recording spore trap. The spores analysed belonged to the taxa Alternaria and Cladosporium. These spores were selected both for their allergenic capacity and for their high level presence in the atmosphere, particularly during summer. Spearman correlation coefficients between spore concentrations, meteorological parameters and time of day showed different indices depending on the taxon being analysed. Relative humidity (RH), air temperature, air pressure and clouds most strongly and significantly influenced the concentration of Alternaria spores. Cladosporium spores correlated less strongly and significantly than Alternaria. Multivariate regression tree analysis revealed that, at air pressures lower than 1,011 hPa the concentration of Alternaria spores was low. Under higher air pressure spore concentrations were higher, particularly when RH was lower than 36.5%. In the case of Cladosporium, under higher air pressure (>1,008 hPa), the spores analysed were more abundant, particularly after 0330 hours. In artificial neural networks, RH, air pressure and air temperature were the most important variables in the model for Alternaria spore concentration. For Cladosporium, clouds, time of day, air pressure, wind speed and dew point temperature were highly significant factors influencing spore concentration. The maximum abundance of Cladosporium spores in air fell between 1200 and 1700 hours.

  20. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia Siciliano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower. A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  1. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  2. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-05

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  3. INFLUENCE OF TRICHODERMA SPP AGAINST ALTERNARIA TENUISSIMA INCITING LEAF SPOT OF RUMEX ACETOSA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Ambuse, V. S. Chatage and U. N. Bhale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spot of Sorrel (Rumex acetosa L. is caused by Alternaria tenuissima. This paper describes the efficacy of Trichoderma spp against sensitive and resistant isolates of A. tenuissima by dual culture method under invitro conditions. Trichoderma viride T. harzianum, T. virens, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii species were used for antagonistic study. Results indicate that all Trichoderma species showed antagonistic activity. But among them, T.viride, T.koningii and T.pseudokoningii showed 80% antagonistic activity than others in case of sensitive isolate of test fungus. Resistant isolate of pathogen was restricting the antagonism in some extent.

  4. Genetic divergence within the Drosophila mayaguana subcluster, a closely related triad of Caribbean species in the repleta species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, P M; Durando, C M; Heed, W B; Wasserman, M; Etges, W; Desalle, R

    2002-01-01

    The mayaguana triad of the Drosophila repleta species group includes D. mayaguana, D. straubae, and D. parisiena, the latter two of which are very similar when examined morphologically. Many morphological characters used to define these taxa are quantitative and overlap substantially among some forms--it is only through suites of such characters that species can be identified. We apply Population Aggregation Analysis and tree building methods to five rapidly evolving gene regions--the mitochondrial AT rich region and the nuclear acetylcholinesterase, hunchback, mastermind, and vestigial loci to test the morphological species delineations within the morphocryptic mayaguana triad. We find that D. mayaguana is diagnosable using DNA sequences, but the other two species form a non-diagnosable paraphyletic assemblage. A single ecological factor, oviposition substrate, is an important diagnostic character distinguishing D. straubae from D. parisiena, highlighting the importance of examining a diverse array of data (morphological, molecular, ecological, and behavioral) when defining species limits. PMID:12471672

  5. The Dixa inextricata Dyar & Shannon (Diptera: Dixidae) species group, with two new cryptic species from the eastern Nearctic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, John K

    2016-01-01

    Dixa inextricata Dyar & Shannon is currently regarded as a widespread species in the eastern Nearctic, currently distinguished from sympatric congeners by its brown coloration and triangular gonostylus as seen in lateral view. Recent morphological examination of archival material and dual morphological and molecular examination of recently acquired material fitting the diagnosis of Dixa inextricata revealed the presence of three species. These three species have never been found occupying the same stream in spite of two different pairs of members being geographically and temporally sympatric. The diagnosis of D. inextricata is revised, two closely related species D. appalachiensis sp. nov. and D. calciphila sp. nov., are described and the D. inextricata species group is defined. A key to separate males and natural history data for each species are provided. PMID:27395235

  6. Living together: behavior and welfare in single and mixed species groups of capuchin (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Rebecca; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Dufour, Valérie; MacDonald, Charlotte; Whiten, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    There are potential advantages of housing primates in mixed species exhibits for both the visiting public and the primates themselves. If the primates naturally associate in the wild, it may be more educational and enjoyable for the public to view. Increases in social complexity and stimulation may be enriching for the primates. However, mixed species exhibits might also create welfare problems such as stress from interspecific aggression. We present data on the behavior of single and mixed species groups of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) housed at the Living Links to Human Evolution Research Centre in the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland's Edinburgh Zoo. These species associate in the wild, gaining foraging benefits and decreased predation. But Cebus are also predators themselves with potential risks for the smaller Saimiri. To study their living together we took scan samples at > or =15 min intervals on single (n=109) and mixed species groups (n=152), and all occurrences of intraspecific aggression and interspecific interactions were recorded. We found no evidence of chronic stress and Saimiri actively chose to associate with Cebus. On 79% of scans, the two species simultaneously occupied the same part of their enclosure. No vertical displacement was observed. Interspecific interactions were common (>2.5/hr), and equally divided among mildly aggressive, neutral, and affiliative interactions such as play. Only one aggressive interaction involved physical contact and was non-injurious. Aggressive interactions were mostly (65%) displacements and vocal exchanges, initiated almost equally by Cebus and Saimiri. Modifications to the enclosure were successful in reducing these mildly aggressive interactions with affiliative interactions increasing in frequency and diversity. Our data suggest that in carefully designed, large enclosures, naturally associating monkeys are able to live harmoniously and are enriched by each other

  7. 生于菊科植物上的两个链格孢新种%Two new species of Alternaria on plants of Compositae from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张猛; 张天宇

    2006-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Alternaria on plants of Compositae are reported. They are Alternaria tuberculata on Helianthus annuus and Alternaria lactucae on Lactuca sativa. Type specimens are deposited in the Herbarium of Shandong Agricultural University: Plant Pathology (HSAUP).%报道生于菊科植物上的两个链格孢新种:瘤链格孢Alternaria tuberculata和莴苣链格孢Alternaria lactucae.二者分生孢子隔膜均增厚,但瘤链格孢的分生孢子表面具瘤状突起,莴苣链格孢的分生孢子具长的假喙.模式标本保存在山东农业大学植物病理学标本室(HSAUP).

  8. New cytotoxic compounds of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naidan; Zhang, Chunyan; Xiao, Xiao; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Huang, Baokang

    2016-04-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of a culture of the endophytic fungus Alternaria species G7 in Broussonetia papyrifera, a new compound altertoxin IV (1) together with nine known compounds were isolated and identified by means of bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, among which the absolute configuration of compound 1, a new tetrahydroperylenone derivative, was determined by means of X-Ray Crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were subjected to cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines (A549, MG-63, and SMMC-7721). Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activities against tested cell lines, with IC50 values of 1.47, 2.11 and 7.34 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, compound 4 also exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against cell lines MG-63 and SMMC-7721, with IC50 values of 0.53 and 2.92 μg/mL. Endophytic fungi Alternaria from B. papyrifera might be promising sources of natural bioactive and novel metabolites.

  9. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF TRICHODERMA SPECIES ISOLATES AGAINST ALTERNARIA LEAF SPOT DISEASE OF SESAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lubaina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria leaf spot disease is a major threat to sesame (Sesamum orientale L. caused by Alternari asesami. Induced resistance is an alternative to systemic disease resistance response of plants. The present study aims to evaluate Trichoderma species efficacy as biocontrol via induction of resistance against A. sesami in sesame species. During in vitro bio control test, T. harzianum colonize and parallely inhibit the growth of the fungal pathogen. Expression of various defence related enzymes observed in sesame induce resistance against the pathogen infection in the host. T. harzianum coupled with inoculation of A. sesami enhance the remarkable induction of defence enzyme such as peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and also the phenolic content compared with the control. The enzyme activity increased from 48 h of sampling and peaked at 72 h and then decreased after 72 h. In greenhouse and field experiments, soil treatment with a powder formulation of T. harzianum two weeks before planting or at the time of planting reduced significantly the incidence of diseases on both the wild and cultivar Thilarani.The results demonstrate that T. harzianumcan be successfully applied as a biological control against Alternaria leaf spot disease in sesame.

  10. Possibility of Alternaria toxins reduction by extrusion processing of whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić Hajnal, Elizabet; Čolović, Radmilo; Pezo, Lato; Orčić, Dejan; Vukmirović, Đuro; Mastilović, Jasna

    2016-12-15

    This study represents the first report about possibility of reduction of Alternaria toxins in wheat using the extrusion process. Effects of extrusion processing parameters - moisture content (w=16, 20, 24g/100g), feeding rate (q=15, 20, 25kg/h), and screw speed (v=300, 390, 480rpm), on reduction rate of tenuazonic acid (TeA), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), in whole wheat flour were investigated. Temperature ranged between 111.1 and 160.8°C, while the absolute pressure was from 0.17 to 0.23MPa. The simultaneous influence of w and v was the most important for TeA reduction (p<0.05), while v and q were the most influential for AOH reduction (p<0.01). Level of AME reduction was mostly influenced by w and v (p<0.10). Optimal parameters for reduction of all three Alternaria toxins were as follows: w=24g/100g, q=25kg/h, v=390rpm, with a reduction of 65.6% for TeA, 87.9% for AOH and 94.5% for AME. PMID:27451248

  11. New cytotoxic compounds of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naidan; Zhang, Chunyan; Xiao, Xiao; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Huang, Baokang

    2016-04-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of a culture of the endophytic fungus Alternaria species G7 in Broussonetia papyrifera, a new compound altertoxin IV (1) together with nine known compounds were isolated and identified by means of bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, among which the absolute configuration of compound 1, a new tetrahydroperylenone derivative, was determined by means of X-Ray Crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were subjected to cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines (A549, MG-63, and SMMC-7721). Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activities against tested cell lines, with IC50 values of 1.47, 2.11 and 7.34 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, compound 4 also exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against cell lines MG-63 and SMMC-7721, with IC50 values of 0.53 and 2.92 μg/mL. Endophytic fungi Alternaria from B. papyrifera might be promising sources of natural bioactive and novel metabolites. PMID:27001249

  12. Sensitivities of baseline isolates and boscalid-resistant mutants of Alternaria alternata from pistachio to fluopyram, penthiopyrad, and fluxapyroxad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avenot, H.F.; Biggelaar, van den H.; Morgan, D.P.; Moral, J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Michailides, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance of Alternaria alternata to boscalid, the first succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide labeled on pistachio, has become a common occurrence in California pistachio orchards and affects the performance of this fungicide. In this study, we established the baseline sensitivities o

  13. Survey of Alternaria toxin contamination in food from the German market, using a rapid HPLC-MS/MS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickert, Sebastian; Bergmann, Marian; Ersen, Seyma; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    A HPLC-MS/MS-based method for the quantification of nine mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Alternaria in various food matrices was developed. The method relies on a single-step extraction, followed by dilution of the raw extract and direct analysis. In combination with an analysis time per sample of 12 min, the sample preparation is cost-effective and easy to handle. The method covers alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA), altenuene (ALT), iso-altenuene (isoALT), tentoxin (TEN), altertoxin-I (ATX-I), and the AAL toxins TA1 and TA2. Some Alternaria toxins which are either not commercially available or very expensive, namely AOH, AME, ALT, isoALT, and ATX-I, were isolated as reference compounds from fungal cultures. The method was extensively validated for tomato products, bakery products, sunflower seeds, fruit juices, and vegetable oils. AOH, AME, TeA, and TEN were found in quantifiable amounts and 92.1% of all analyzed samples (n = 96) showed low level contamination with one or more Alternaria toxins. Based on the obtained results, the average daily exposure to Alternaria toxins in Germany was calculated. PMID:26408172

  14. The Asc locus for resistance to Alternaria stem canker in tomato does not encode the enzyme aspartate carbamoyltransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overduin, Bert; Hogenhout, Saskia A.; Biezen, Erik A. van der; Haring, Michel A.; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1993-01-01

    The fungal disease resistance locus Alternaria stem canker (Asc) in tomato has been suggested to encode the enzyme aspartate carbamoyltransferase (ACTase). To test this hypothesis a segment of the tomato ACTase gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers. The P

  15. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina on carrot seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, E.; Schmitt, A.; Stephan, D.; Kromphardt, C.; Jahn, M.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Roberts, S.J.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The current study was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and agents of natural origin (resistance inducers, plant derived products, micro-organisms) as seed treatments of carrots for control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina. Contr

  16. A spatially-explicit data driven approach to assess the effect of agricultural land occupation on species groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshout, P.; van Zelm, R.; Karuppiah, R.; Laurenzi, I.; Huijbregts, M.

    2013-12-01

    Change of vegetation cover and increased land use intensity can directly affect the natural habitat and the wildlife it houses. The actual impact of agricultural land use is region specific as crops are grown under various climatic conditions and ways of cultivation and refining. Furthermore, growing a specific crop in a tropical region may require clearance of rainforest while the same crop may replace natural grasslands in temperate regions. Within life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), methods to address impacts of land use on a global scale are still in need of development. We aim to extend existing methods to improve the robustness of LCIA by allowing spatial differentiation of agricultural land use impacts. The goal of this study is to develop characterization factors for the direct impact of land use on biodiversity, which results from the replacement of natural habitat with farmland. The characterization factor expresses the change in species richness under crop cultivation compared to the species richness in the natural situation over a certain area. A second goal was to identify the differences in impacts caused by cultivation of different crop types, sensitivity of different taxonomic groups, and differences in natural land cover. Empirical data on species richness were collected from literature for both natural reference situations and agricultural land use situations. Reference situations were selected on an ecoregion or biome basis. We calculated characterization factors for four crop groups (oil palm, low crops, cereals, and perennial grasses), four species groups (arthropods, birds, mammals, vascular plants), and six biomes.

  17. Plant species diversity in the ecological species groups in the Kandelat Forest Park, Guilan, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN POURBABAEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haghgooy T. 2012. Plant species diversity in the ecological species groups in the Kandelat Forest Park, Guilan, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 7-12. Forest vegetation indicates conditions and productivity potential of forest habitat, because it reflects the interaction of climate, soil and topography. The aim of this research was to study the relationship between vegetation and topography factors. In order to do this research, type, number and percentage cover of trees, shrubs (sample plot with 1000 m2 area and type and percentage cover of herbaceous species (sample plot with 64 m2 area investigated and recorded. The coverage percent of species were estimated on the basis of Domin scale. Vegetation classified using Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN. The results revealed that there were 6 ecosystem units (ecological groups in the region. The comparison of diversity indices and topographic factors between groups were performed with ANOVA test. Results also indicated that there were significant differences between groups in terms of biodiversity indices and topographic factors. The formation of a particular group is affected by a combination of environment variables. The aspect was the most important variable of topographic factors in this study.

  18. Toward Objective, Morphology-Based Taxonomy: A Case Study on the Malagasy Nesomyrmex sikorai Species Group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csősz, Sándor; Fisher, Brian L

    2016-01-01

    Madagascar is one of the world's greatest biodiversity hotspots, meriting special attention from biodiversity scientists. It is an excellent testing ground for novel techniques in taxonomy that aim to increase classification objectivity and yield greater taxonomic resolving power. Here we reveal the diversity of a unique and largely unexplored fragment of the Malagasy ant fauna using an advanced combination of exploratory analyses on quantitative morphological data allowing for increased objectivity in taxonomic workflow. The diversity of the Nesomyrmex sikorai species-group was assessed via hypothesis-free nest-centroid-clustering combined with recursive partitioning to estimate the number of morphological clusters and determine the most probable boundaries between them. This combination of methods provides a highly automated and objective species delineation protocol based on continuous morphometric data. Delimitations of clusters recognized by these exploratory analyses were tested via confirmatory Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Multivariate Ratio Analysis (MRA). The final species hypotheses are corroborated by many qualitative characters, and the recognized species exhibit different spatial distributions and occupy different ecological regions. We describe and redescribe eight morphologically distinct species including six new species: Nesomyrmex excelsior sp. n., N. modestus sp. n., N. reticulatus sp. n., N. retusispinosus (Forel, 1892), N. rugosus sp. n., N. sikorai (Emery, 1896), N. striatus sp. n., and N. tamatavensis sp. n. An identification key for their worker castes using morphometric data is provided.

  19. Ellagitannin from Quercus infectoria eradicates intestinal colonization and prevents renal injuries in mice infected with Escherichia coli O157 : H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Suwalak, Sakol; Mitranan, Winyou

    2012-10-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the management of patients infected with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 : H7 remains controversial. Here, we examined the antibacterial efficacy of a natural product, ellagitannin from Quercus infectoria (Qi 4), against the organism in a murine model. Streptomycin-pretreated mice were orogastrically inoculated with 2×10(9) c.f.u. streptomycin-resistant E. coli O157 : H7. The results demonstrated a stable high level of STEC present in the faeces of the infected animals. The bacterial levels in infected mice receiving Qi 4 at MIC and 2×MIC were not significantly different from those of the untreated group (t-test; P>0.05). In contrast, Qi 4 at 4×MIC significantly reduced the numbers of STEC within 2 days (t-test; 0.05>P>0.01). No viable bacteria were detected between day 5 and day 10. Similarly, at day 10, no organisms were detected from the intestines of the Qi 4-treated group, while they were recovered at levels of 10(8-11) and 10(5-10) c.f.u. g(-1) in the colons and caeca of the infected mice, respectively. Histopathological findings from the infected kidneys revealed a marked increase in the number of mesangial cells and mesangial matrix. Ultrastructural examination of the kidneys from the infected mice also demonstrated proliferation of mesangial cells and an increase in the mesangial matrix. Cellular injury of endothelial cells with irregular borders and cytoplasmic bleb formation were noted. In contrast, the effects were not observed in the animals treated with Qi 4. The results clearly indicated that administration of Qi 4 could effectively eradicate the colonization of STEC O157 : H7 in the intestinal tract of mice and prevent renal injury. This compound may be an alternative candidate for a therapeutic agent against infections caused by this dangerous organism. PMID:22790205

  20. Can mixed-species groups reduce individual parasite load? A field test with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta.

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    Felipe Dargent

    Full Text Available Predation and parasitism are two of the most important sources of mortality in nature. By forming groups, individuals can gain protection against predators but may increase their risk of being infected with contagious parasites. Animals might resolve this conflict by forming mixed-species groups thereby reducing the costs associated with parasites through a relative decrease in available hosts. We tested this hypothesis in a system with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta and their host-specific monogenean ectoparasites (Gyrodactylus spp. in Trinidad. Fish from three different rivers were sampled from single and mixed-species groups, measured and scanned for Gyrodactylus. The presence and abundance of Gyrodactylus were lower when fish of both species were part of mixed-species groups relative to single-species groups. This is consistent with the hypothesis that mixed-species groups provide a level of protection against contagious parasites. We discuss the importance of potentially confounding factors such as salinity and individual fish size.

  1. Can mixed-species groups reduce individual parasite load? A field test with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargent, Felipe; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Scott, Marilyn E; Ramnarine, Indar; Fussmann, Gregor F

    2013-01-01

    Predation and parasitism are two of the most important sources of mortality in nature. By forming groups, individuals can gain protection against predators but may increase their risk of being infected with contagious parasites. Animals might resolve this conflict by forming mixed-species groups thereby reducing the costs associated with parasites through a relative decrease in available hosts. We tested this hypothesis in a system with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta) and their host-specific monogenean ectoparasites (Gyrodactylus spp.) in Trinidad. Fish from three different rivers were sampled from single and mixed-species groups, measured and scanned for Gyrodactylus. The presence and abundance of Gyrodactylus were lower when fish of both species were part of mixed-species groups relative to single-species groups. This is consistent with the hypothesis that mixed-species groups provide a level of protection against contagious parasites. We discuss the importance of potentially confounding factors such as salinity and individual fish size.

  2. Revision of the Agrilus adonis species-group (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilini with description of sixteen new species from southeastern Asia

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    Eduard Jendek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The newly defined Agrilus adonis species-group comprising thirty taxa from Southeast Asia is revised based on the examination of type specimens. The taxonomic concept and distribution of all known taxa is reexamined for the first time since they were described. The complete commented bibliographic data are given for each name. The key to species is provided and complemented with illustration of habitus and genitalia. Images of all primary types are also included. The distribution of selected species is shown on maps. The following sixteen new species are described: Agrilus acrobeles sp. nov.; A. bunsu sp. nov.; A. cechovskyi sp. nov.; A. curiosus sp. nov.; A. garo sp. nov.; A. iban sp. nov.; A. jakli sp. nov.; A. kuchingi sp. nov.; A. lembik sp. nov.; A. meratus sp. nov.; A. orangulu sp. nov.; A. serratus sp. nov.; A. strbai sp. nov.; A. upsilon sp. nov.; A. vir sp. nov. and A. xiphos sp. nov.. The name emeritus Descarpentries & Villiers, 1963 is removed from the synonymy of Agrilus perlisensis Fisher 1936 and revalidated as the name for species A. emeritus Descarpentries & Villiers, 1963. Nine new synonyms are proposed: Agrilus adonis Deyrolle, 1864 (= A. perlisensis Fisher, 1936 syn. nov. = A. testor Kerremnas, 1900 syn. nov.; A. emeritus Descarpentries & Villiers, 1963 (= A. deuvei Baudon, 1965 syn. nov. = A. souvannavongsi Baudon, 1968 syn. nov.; A. famulus Kerremans, 1900 (= A. convergens Fisher, 1930 syn. nov. = A. japanensis Obenberger, 1935 syn. nov.; A. insularis Deyrolle, 1864 (= A. nigrocyaneus Deyrolle, 1864 syn. nov. = A. falsulus Obenberger, 1924 syn. nov.; A. malasicus Fisher, 1930 (=A. bettotanus Fisher, 1930 syn. nov.. Some of those names were already treated as invalid ones but in the synonymy of different species. Their taxonomic history is recognizable from commented references cited at each name.

  3. Unusual fungal sepsis of Alternaria alternata in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in an adult patient

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    S Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of unusual fungal sepsis of Alternaria alternata in a patient of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in 62-year-old male who presented with complaints of 'off and on' fever with decreased oral intake. On evaluation, haemogram showed low platelet count and 68% blast cells in peripheral blood. On flow cytometry of peripheral blood, the gated blasts (approximately 55% highly express CD45, CD10, CD19, CD22 and condition was diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. He was started on standard induction treatment along with supportive therapies. During the course of treatment, two sets of paired blood cultures were sent 48 h apart. All of blood cultures were done on Bac-T alert 3D system. All of them yielded fungus. The fungus was then grown on Sabouraud's Dextrose agar media. It was identified as A. alternata. The patient condition worsened and later had cardiac arrest in ICU and could not be revived.

  4. Trichoderma harzianum as a biocontrol agent against Alternaria alternata on tobacco

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    Jugoslav Ziberoski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma fungi are the most popular agents used in a biological control. Therefore, our aim was to determine an impact of Trichoderma harzianum on the fungus Alternaria alternata - a causing agent of the brown spot disease on tobacco. In vitro analyses were made in several variants of double culture, in order to study the effect of difusible and volatile metabolites. There was strong reducing effect on the development of A.alternata with various mechanisms of antagonistic influence. The volatile metabolites have also shown reducing effect. Some abnormalities were observed in the pathogen's morphology both in difusible and volatile metabolites. The strong reducing effect of T.harzianum towards A. alternata can be applied in biological control of this pathogen.

  5. Three New Resveratrol Derivatives from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

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    Jinhua Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new resveratrol derivatives, namely, resveratrodehydes A–C (1–3, were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human liver HepG2, and human colon HCT-116 by MTT assay (IC50 < 50 μM. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited marked cytotoxic activities against MDA-MB-435 and HCT-116 cell lines (IC50 < 10 μM. Additionally, compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay.

  6. [Cellulase and xylanase activity of phytopathogenic and endophytic fungal strains of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchenko, I M; Sokolova, O V; Zhdanova, N M; Iarynchyn, A M; Iovenko, O M

    2008-01-01

    A comparative analysis of cellulase and xylanase activity of 25 fungal strains of phytopathogenic and endophytic Alternaria alternata had been realized for the first time using the qualitative reactions. The rate of their linear growth on the media with carboxymethylcellulose or xylane had been studied. The cellulase and xylanase activities clearly depended on the distinct strain. The absence of distinct dependence of cellulase and xylanase activities on the species and organs of host plants was demonstrated. The majority of investigated strains of A. alternata did not possess a cellulase activity or the latter was low, but as a whole the phytopathogenic strains were more active than endophytic ones. Xylanase activity was considerable for the fungal strains of all trophyc groups. It was shown that the level of xylanase activity cannot become a biochemical marker of the A. alternata isolate pathogenicity.

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ren Chung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK- mediated signaling pathways have been known to have important functions in eukaryotic organisms. The mechanisms by which the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata senses and responds to environmental signals have begun to be elucidated. Available data indicate that A. alternata utilizes the Fus3, Hog1 and Slt2 MAPK-mediated signaling pathways, either separately or in a cooperative manner, for conidia formation, resistance to oxidative and osmotic stress, and pathogenesis to citrus. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of MAPK signaling pathways, in conjunction with the two-component histidine kinase and the Skn7 response regulator, in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata.

  8. Metabolism of the phytoalexins camalexins, their bioisosteres and analogues in the plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Abdoli, Abbas

    2013-08-01

    The metabolism of the phytoalexins camalexin (1), 1-methylcamalexin (10) and 6-methoxycamalexin (11) by Alternaria brassicicola and their antifungal activity is reported. This work establishes that camalexins are slowly biotransformed (ca. six days) to the corresponding indole-3-thiocarboxamides, which are further transformed to the indole-3-carboxylic acids. These metabolites are substantially less inhibitory to A. brassicicola than the parent camalexins, indicating that these enzyme-mediated transformations are detoxifications. In addition, analyses of the metabolism of synthetic isomers and bioisosteres of camalexin (1) indicate that isomers of camalexin in the thiazole ring are not metabolized. Based on these results, the potential intermediates that lead to formation of indole-3-thiocarboxamides are proposed.

  9. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Lupo Compound Miroemulsion(LCM) against Alternaria alternata in Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; Jinqing; Dai; Yi; Li; Xiaoshuang; Liang; Huan; Cai; Junlong; Li; Qiang; Guo; Shengnan

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The paper was to study effect of Lupo compound microemulsion( LCW) on Alternaria alternata. [Method]The activity of spore germination and mycelial growth was investigated by filter paper method and mycelial growth rate method,and field test was also conducted to determine the effect of LCW on tobacco plants. [Result]LCW could inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of A. alternate. The higher concentration led to more severe reduction of sporulation and heavier inhibition against mycelial growth. When LCW was diluted into 200 times,inhibition rate of sporulation reached 91. 23%,and the inhibition rate of mycelial growth reached 93. 50%. Field test also proved that LCW had significant inhibitory effect on tobacco brown spot disease. [Conclusion]The study provided the reference for using botanical pesticide to control A. alternate in fields.

  10. Substrates and enzyme activities related to biotransformation of resveratrol from phenylalanine by Alternaria sp. MG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhua; Shi, Junling; Liu, Yanlin

    2013-12-01

    To identify the substrates and enzymes related to resveratrol biosynthesis in Alternaria sp. MG1, different substrates were used to produce resveratrol, and their influence on resveratrol production was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Formation of resveratrol and related intermediates was identified using mass spectrum. During the biotransformation, activities of related enzymes, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), trans-cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), were analyzed and tracked. The reaction system contained 100 mL 0.2 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 120 g/L Alternaria sp. MG1 cells, 0.1 g/L MgSO₄, and 0.2 g/L CaSO₄ and different substrates according to the experimental design. The biotransformation was carried out for 21 h at 28 °C and 120 rpm. Resveratrol formation was identified when phenylalanine, tyrosine, cinnamic acid, and p-coumaric acid were separately used as the only substrate. Accumulation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, and resveratrol and the activities of PAL, C4H, and 4CL were identified and changed in different trends during transformation with phenylalanine as the only substrate. The addition of carbohydrates and the increase of phenylalanine concentration promoted resveratrol production and yielded the highest value (4.57 μg/L) when 2 g/L glucose, 1 g/L cyclodextrin, and phenylalanine (4.7 mmol/L) were used simultaneously.

  11. Enhancement of the citrus immune system provides effective resistance against Alternaria brown spot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Eugenio; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Vicedo, Begonya; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2013-01-15

    In addition to basal defense mechanisms, plants are able to develop enhanced defense mechanisms such as induced resistance (IR) upon appropriate stimulation. We recently described the means by which several carboxylic acids protect Arabidopsis and tomato plants against fungi. In this work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of hexanoic acid (Hx) in the control of Alternaria brown spot (ABS) disease via enhancement of the immune system of Fortune mandarin. The application of 1mM Hx in irrigation water to 2-year-old Fortune plants clearly reduced the incidence of the disease and led to smaller lesions. We observed that several of the most important mechanisms involved in induced resistance were affected by Hx application. Our results demonstrate enhanced callose deposition in infected plants treated with Hx, which suggests an Hx priming mechanism. Plants treated with the callose inhibitor 2-DDG were more susceptible to the fungus. Moreover, polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene expression was rapidly and significantly upregulated in treated plants. However, treatment with Hx decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected plants. Hormonal and gene analyses revealed that the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was activated due to a greater accumulation of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and JA along with a rapid accumulation of JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Furthermore, we observed a more rapid accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), which could act as a positive regulator of callose deposition. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that both enhanced physical barriers and the JA signaling pathway are involved in hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) to Alternaria alternata.

  12. Conidios de 'alternaria', factor de riesgo de alegria en Castilla-La Mancha

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    Silvia Sabariego Ruiz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el comportamiento estacional de los conidios de Alternaria en la atmósfera de Castilla-La Mancha, cuyo inte- rés se basa en que los niveles en el aire de estos conidios suponen un riesgo de alergia para las personas sensibilizadas a los mismos. El estudio se ha llevado a cabo en cinco estaciones de muestreo pertenecientes a la Red de Aerobiología de Castilla-La Mancha (Red Aerocam: Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Guadalajara y Toledo, durante el año 2008. Los captadores utilizados y la metodología de muestreo siguen las directrices de la Red Española de Aerobiología (REA. Los conidios de Alternaria se detectan en la atmósfera de Castilla-La Mancha durante todo el año, aunque los meses de mayores concentraciones se obtienen en mayo, junio y julio. Ciudad Real, Toledo y Guadalajara son las ciudades en las que se detecta una mayor concentración anual, con 5.624 conidios, 4.527 conidios y 4.173 conidios, respectivamente, seguidas de Albacete y de Cuenca. En algunas de las localidades muestreadas, los valores máximos diarios han sido elevados en un importante número de días, destacamos los registrados en Ciudad Real el 20 de marzo (722 conidios/m3, en Toledo el 18 de junio (324 conidios/m3 y en Guadalajara el 26 de junio (220 conidios/m3.

  13. Species delimitation using morphology, morphometrics, and molecules: definition of the Ophionscutellaris Thomson species group, with descriptions of six new species (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzfeld, Marla D; Sperling, Felix A H

    2014-01-01

    The diverse genus Ophion is almost entirely undescribed in the Nearctic region. In this paper we define the Ophionscutellaris species group. This species group is well-supported by analysis of DNA (ITS2, COI, and 28S D2-D3) and morphology. It includes the Palearctic species Ophionscutellaris and the Nearctic species Ophionidoneus. An integrative analysis of DNA, geometric wing morphometrics, classical morphometrics and qualitative morphology indicates that this species group contains a minimum of seven species in North America, although the full diversity of the group has likely not been sampled. Ophionclave Schwarzfeld, sp. n., Ophionaureus Schwarzfeld, sp. n., Ophionbrevipunctatus Schwarzfeld, sp. n., Ophiondombroskii Schwarzfeld, sp. n., Ophionkeala Schwarzfeld, sp. n. and Ophionimportunus Schwarzfeld, sp. n. are described, and a key to the known Nearctic species of the Ophionscutellaris group is provided. PMID:25589855

  14. Species delimitation using morphology, morphometrics, and molecules: definition of the Ophion scutellaris Thomson species group, with descriptions of six new species (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla D. Schwarzfeld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The diverse genus Ophion is almost entirely undescribed in the Nearctic region. In this paper we define the Ophion scutellaris species group. This species group is well-supported by analysis of DNA (ITS2, COI, and 28S D2-D3 and morphology. It includes the Palearctic species O. scutellaris and the Nearctic species O. idoneus. An integrative analysis of DNA, geometric wing morphometrics, classical morphometrics and qualitative morphology indicates that this species group contains a minimum of seven species in North America, although the full diversity of the group has likely not been sampled. O. clave Schwarzfeld, sp. n., O. aureus Schwarzfeld, sp. n., O. brevipunctatus Schwarzfeld, sp. n., O. dombroskii Schwarzfeld, sp. n., O. keala Schwarzfeld, sp. n. and O. importunus Schwarzfeld, sp. n. are described, and a key to the known Nearctic species of the O. scutellaris group is provided.

  15. Review of the Eulamprotes wilkella species-group based on morphology and DNA barcodes, with descriptions of new taxa (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huemer, Peter; Elsner, Gustav; Karsholt, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Eulamprotes wilkella species-group is revised based on morphological characters and on DNA barcodes of the mtCOI (Cytochrome c Oxidase 1) gene. Adult morphology combined with sequence information for 9 species supports the existence of 12 species, 7 of which are described as new to science: E...

  16. Whole-genome phylogenies of the family Bacillaceae and expansion of the sigma factor gene family in the Bacillus cereus species-group

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    Dyer David W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group consists of six species (B. anthracis, B. cereus, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. thuringiensis, and B. weihenstephanensis. While classical microbial taxonomy proposed these organisms as distinct species, newer molecular phylogenies and comparative genome sequencing suggests that these organisms should be classified as a single species (thus, we will refer to these organisms collectively as the Bc species-group. How do we account for the underlying similarity of these phenotypically diverse microbes? It has been established for some time that the most rapidly evolving and evolutionarily flexible portions of the bacterial genome are regulatory sequences and transcriptional networks. Other studies have suggested that the sigma factor gene family of these organisms has diverged and expanded significantly relative to their ancestors; sigma factors are those portions of the bacterial transcriptional apparatus that control RNA polymerase recognition for promoter selection. Thus, examining sigma factor divergence in these organisms would concurrently examine both regulatory sequences and transcriptional networks important for divergence. We began this examination by comparison to the sigma factor gene set of B. subtilis. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the Bc species-group utilizing 157 single-copy genes of the family Bacillaceae suggests that several taxonomic revisions of the genus Bacillus should be considered. Within the Bc species-group there is little indication that the currently recognized species form related sub-groupings, suggesting that they are members of the same species. The sigma factor gene family encoded by the Bc species-group appears to be the result of a dynamic gene-duplication and gene-loss process that in previous analyses underestimated the true heterogeneity of the sigma factor content in the Bc species-group. Conclusions Expansion of the sigma factor gene family

  17. EVALUATION OF DISEASE RESISTANCE POTENTIAL OF SEVEN POTATO GENOTYPES AGAINST EARLY BLIGHT CAUSED BY Alternaria tenuissima UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Mirkarimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Early blight of potato was caused by various species of genus Alternaria, the disease has a prominent role in reducing crop yields in most of the countries, especially in Iran. Various studies has been conducted for the finding out the information regarding the diversity of pathogen and estimation of damage caused by genus Alternaria tenuissima in Iran, but the information regarding the resistance against this fungal pathogen in various genotype of potatoes are in scarcity. Seven isolates of potato were obtained from the National Plant Gene Bank of Iran. Amongst these seven, on the basis of mean comparison curve progress Cosmos was recognized as the most sensitive genetic samples while the samples Armida was reported as a most resistant to the disease. Other cultivars showed different levels of resistance against this pathogen.

  18. Pengaruh Kepekatan Esktrak Daun Nimba Terhadap Penekanan Serangan (Alternaria porri (EII.CIF) Pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium ascalonicum L)

    OpenAIRE

    Enni Sahrani Nst

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kepekatan ekstrak daun mimba terhadap penekanan Alternaria porri (EII. Cif.) pada tanaman bawang merah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di BPTP (Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian) Sumatera Utara, pada ketinggian tempat lebih kurang 25 m dpl. Penelitian dimulai bulan Nopember 2007 sampai Januari 2008. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Kelompok Non factorial yang terdiri dari P0 (Kontrol tanpa perlakuan), P1 (100 gr daun mimba d...

  19. Effect of climate change on Alternaria leaf spot of rocket salad and black spot of basil under controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, M; Cogliati, E; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2012-01-01

    Plant responses to elevated CO2 and temperature have been much studied in recent years, but effects of climate change on pathological responses are still largely unknown. The pathosystems rocket (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa)--Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria japonica) and basil (Ocimum basilicum)--black spot (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) were chosen as models to assess the potential impact of increased CO2 and temperature on disease incidence and severity under controlled environment. Potted plants were grown in phytotrons under 4 different simulated climatic conditions: (1) standard temperature (ranging from 18 degrees to 22 degrees C) and standard CO2 concentration (400 ppm); (2) standard temperature and elevated CO2 concentration (800 ppm); (3) elevated temperature (ranging from 22 degrees to 26 degrees C, 4 degrees C higher than standard) and standard CO2 concentration; (4) elevated temperature and CO2 concentration. Each plant was inoculated with a spore suspension containing 1 x 10(5) cfu/ml of the pathogen. Disease incidence and severity were assessed 14 days after inoculation. Increasing CO2 to 800 ppm showed a clear increment in the percentage of Alternaria leaf spot on rocket leaves compared to standard conditions. Basil plants grown at 800 ppm of CO2 showed increased black spot symptoms compared to 400 ppm. Disease incidence and severity were always influenced by the combination of rising CO2 and increased temperature, compared to standard conditions (400 ppm of CO2 - 22 degrees C). Considering the rising concentrations of CO2 and global temperature, we can assume that this could increase the severity of Alternaria japonica on rocket and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on basil.

  20. Analysis of the predicting variables for daily and weekly fluctuations of two airborne fungal spores: Alternaria and Cladosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Marta; del Mar Trigo, María; Docampo, Silvia; Melgar, Marta; García-Sánchez, José; Bootello, Lourdes; Cabezudo, Baltasar

    2012-11-01

    Alternaria and Cladosporium are two fungal taxa whose spores (conidia) are included frequently in aerobiological studies of outdoor environments. Both spore types are present in the atmosphere of Malaga (Spain) throughout almost the entire year, although they reach their highest concentrations during spring and autumn. To establish predicting variables for daily and weekly fluctuations, Spearman's correlations and stepwise multiple regressions between spore concentrations (measured using a volumetric 7-day recorder) and meteorological variables were made with results obtained for both spore types in 1996 and 1997. Correlations and regressions were also made between the different taxa and their concentrations in different years. Significant and positive correlation coefficients were always obtained between spore concentrations of both taxa, followed by temperature, their concentrations in different years, sunshine hours and relative humidity (this last in a negative sense). For the two spore types we obtained higher correlation and regression coefficients using weekly data. We showed different regression models using weekly values. From the results and a practical point of view, it was concluded that weekly values of the atmospheric concentration of Alternaria spores can be predicted from the maximum temperature expected and its concentrations in the years sampled. As regards the atmospheric concentration of Cladoposrium spores, the weekly values can be predicted based on the concentration of Alternaria spores, thus saving the time and effort that would otherwise be employed in counting them by optical microscopy.

  1. Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria from Phyllosphere towards Tobacco Brown Spot Fungus Alternaria alternata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chengsheng; KONG Fanyu; LI Duochuan; WANG Jing; WANG Fenglong

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of employing antagonistic bacteria for the control of tobacco brown spot was studied. Approximately 136 strains of bacteria were isolated from phyllospheres of tobacco and 9 of these possessed high levels of antagonistic properties. They significantly reduced brown spot in detached tobacco leaves when artificially inoculated with Alternaria alternata. Culture filtrate of the most effective bacterial isolate which designated as Tpb88 was shown to be very efficient in inhibiting mycelial growth of A alternata in dual cultures. Culture filtrate of Tpb88 inhibited germination and germ tube elongation of A alternata. The results showed that the culture filtrate directly inhibited spore germination of A. alternata, especially during the first hours of the paired cultivation. The rate of antagonistic activity of culture filtrate of Tpb88 depended on its concentration in the mixture. The greatest inhibition of spore germination was ob served at the highest concentration of filtrate (filtrate to fungal spores inocula mixed in proportion 1: 50). These suggest that the hypothetic mechanism of Tpb88 against tobacco brown spot is to produce antagonistic substances.

  2. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata in response to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingshuang; Sun, Xuepeng; Yu, Dongliang; Xu, Jianping; Chung, Kuangren; Li, Hongye

    2016-01-01

    The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces the A. citri toxin (ACT) and is the causal agent of citrus brown spot that results in significant yield losses worldwide. Both the production of ACT and the ability to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required for A. alternata pathogenicity in citrus. In this study, we report the 34.41 Mb genome sequence of strain Z7 of the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata. The host selective ACT gene cluster in strain Z7 was identified, which included 25 genes with 19 of them not reported previously. Of these, 10 genes were present only in the tangerine pathotype, representing the most likely candidate genes for this pathotype specialization. A transcriptome analysis of the global effects of H2O2 on gene expression revealed 1108 up-regulated and 498 down-regulated genes. Expressions of those genes encoding catalase, peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin and glutathione were highly induced. Genes encoding several protein families including kinases, transcription factors, transporters, cytochrome P450, ubiquitin and heat shock proteins were found associated with adaptation to oxidative stress. Our data not only revealed the molecular basis of ACT biosynthesis but also provided new insights into the potential pathways that the phytopathogen A. alternata copes with oxidative stress. PMID:27582273

  3. Changes in concentration of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores during summer storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2013-09-01

    Fungal spores are known to cause allergic sensitization. Recent studies reported a strong association between asthma symptoms and thunderstorms that could be explained by an increase in airborne fungal spore concentrations. Just before and during thunderstorms the values of meteorological parameters rapidly change. Therefore, the goal of this study was to create a predictive model for hourly concentrations of atmospheric Alternaria and Cladosporium spores on days with summer storms in Szczecin (Poland) based on meteorological conditions. For this study we have chosen all days of June, July and August (2004-2009) with convective thunderstorms. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and meteorological parameters: positive for air temperature and ozone content while negative for relative humidity. In general, before a thunderstorm, air temperature and ozone concentration increased, which was accompanied by a considerable increase in spore concentration. During and after a storm, relative humidity increased while both air temperature ozone concentration along with spore concentrations decreased. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to assess forecasting possibilities. Good performance of ANN models in this study suggest that it is possible to predict spore concentrations from meteorological variables 2 h in advance and, thus, warn people with spore-related asthma symptoms about the increasing abundance of airborne fungi on days with storms.

  4. Non-synergistic cytotoxic effects of Fusarium and Alternaria toxin combinations in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdovszky, Katharina; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Marko, Doris

    2016-01-22

    Exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins via food and feed generally involves a conglomeration of compounds contaminating the consumed products. Investigations on combinatory effects of mycotoxins are therefore of great importance. In this study, cytotoxic effects of binary mixtures of the Fusarium toxins enniatin B, aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, and tenuazonic acid produced by Alternaria spp., were evaluated by the WST-1 assay in the colorectal carcinoma cell-line Caco-2 after 24h of incubation. The selection of these mycotoxins was based on typically occurring natural contamination patterns in grains. Aurofusarin, which can be found abundantly in contaminated foodstuff and has not been toxicologically characterized properly so far, showed pronounced cytotoxicity, decreasing the mitochondrial activity at 10μM to 51% compared to a solvent control. Combinations of other mycotoxins with aurofusarin showed additive effects. In contrast, binary mixtures of enniatin B, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone at cytotoxic concentrations, predominantly resulted in antagonistic effects. Binary combinations of these four Fusarium toxins with tenuazonic acid also revealed interacting effects leading to a decrease in cytotoxicity, compared to expected combinatory effects. Especially in combination with deoxynivalenol, tenuazonic acid was found to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of this mycotoxin in Caco-2 cells. Synergistic effects were not observed for any toxin combination under the chosen conditions. PMID:26529482

  5. Identification and Bioactivity of Compounds from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Racemic new cyclohexenone and cyclopentenone derivatives, (±-(4R*,5S*,6S*-3-amino-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (1 and (±-(4S*,5S*-2,4,5-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-4-methoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one (2, and two new xanthone derivatives 4-chloro-1,5-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (3 and 2,8-dimethoxy-1,6-dimethoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (4, along with one known compound, fischexanthone (5, were isolated from the culture of the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS (Mass, one and two dimensional NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] scavenging activities with EC50 values of 8.19 ± 0.15 and 16.09 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. In comparison to Triadimefon, compounds 2 and 3 exhibited inhibitory activities against Fusarium graminearum with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 215.52 and 107.14 μM, respectively, and compound 3 exhibited antifungal activity against Calletotrichum musae with MIC value of 214.29 μM.

  6. Grouping sunflower genotypes for yield, oil content, and reaction to Alternaria leaf spot using GGE biplot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Villas Bôas de Campos Leite

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the suitability of the multivariate method of principal component analysis (PCA using the GGE biplot software for grouping sunflower genotypes for their reaction to Alternaria leaf spot disease (Alternariaster helianthi, and for their yield and oil content. Sixty-nine genotypes were evaluated for disease severity in the field, at the R3 growth stage, in seven growing seasons, in Londrina, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, using a diagrammatic scale developed for this disease. Yield and oil content were also evaluated. Data were standardized using the software Statistica, and GGE biplot was used for PCA and graphical display of data. The first two principal components explained 77.9% of the total variation. According to the polygonal biplot using the first two principal components and three response variables, the genotypes were divided into seven sectors. Genotypes located on sectors 1 and 2 showed high yield and high oil content, respectively, and those located on sector 7 showed tolerance to the disease and high yield, despite the high disease severity. The principal component analysis using GGE biplot is an efficient method for grouping sunflower genotypes based on the studied variables.

  7. Population genetic analysis reveals cryptic sex in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing-Wen; Zhu, Wen; He, Meng-Han; Wu, E-Jiao; Duan, Guo-Hua; Xie, Ye-Kun; Jin, Yu-Jia; Yang, Li-Na; Shang, Li-Ping; Zhan, Jiasui

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive mode can impact population genetic dynamics and evolutionary landscape of plant pathogens as well as on disease epidemiology and management. In this study, we monitored the spatial dynamics and mating type idiomorphs in ~700 Alternaria alternata isolates sampled from the main potato production areas in China to infer the mating system of potato early blight. Consistent with the expectation of asexual species, identical genotypes were recovered from different locations separated by hundreds of kilometers of geographic distance and spanned across many years. However, high genotype diversity, equal MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 frequencies within and among populations, no genetic differentiation and phylogenetic association between two mating types, combined with random association amongst neutral markers in some field populations, suggested that sexual reproduction may also play an important role in the epidemics and evolution of the pathogen in at least half of the populations assayed despite the fact that no teleomorphs have been observed yet naturally or artificially. Our results indicated that A. alternata may adopt an epidemic mode of reproduction by combining many cycles of asexual propagation with fewer cycles of sexual reproduction, facilitating its adaptation to changing environments and making the disease management on potato fields even more difficult. PMID:26666175

  8. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata in response to oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingshuang; Sun, Xuepeng; Yu, Dongliang; Xu, Jianping; Chung, Kuangren; Li, Hongye

    2016-01-01

    The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces the A. citri toxin (ACT) and is the causal agent of citrus brown spot that results in significant yield losses worldwide. Both the production of ACT and the ability to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required for A. alternata pathogenicity in citrus. In this study, we report the 34.41 Mb genome sequence of strain Z7 of the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata. The host selective ACT gene cluster in strain Z7 was identified, which included 25 genes with 19 of them not reported previously. Of these, 10 genes were present only in the tangerine pathotype, representing the most likely candidate genes for this pathotype specialization. A transcriptome analysis of the global effects of H2O2 on gene expression revealed 1108 up-regulated and 498 down-regulated genes. Expressions of those genes encoding catalase, peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin and glutathione were highly induced. Genes encoding several protein families including kinases, transcription factors, transporters, cytochrome P450, ubiquitin and heat shock proteins were found associated with adaptation to oxidative stress. Our data not only revealed the molecular basis of ACT biosynthesis but also provided new insights into the potential pathways that the phytopathogen A. alternata copes with oxidative stress. PMID:27582273

  9. Green Chemistry Approach for the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using the Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, Naresh Niranjan; Rahul, Ganga Ravindran; Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Raman, Gurusamy; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles has gained tremendous attention owing to their immense applications in the field of biomedical sciences. Although several chemical procedures are used for the synthesis of nanoparticles, the release of toxic and hazardous by-products restricts their use in biomedical applications. In the present investigation, gold nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using the culture filtrate of the filamentous fungus Alternaria sp. The culture filtrate of the fungus was exposed to three different concentrations of chloroaurate ions. In all cases, the gold ions were reduced to Au(0), leading to the formation of stable gold nanoparticles of variable sizes and shapes. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis confirmed the formation of nanoparticles by reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0). TEM analysis revealed the presence of spherical, rod, square, pentagonal, and hexagonal morphologies for 1 mM chloroaurate solution. However, quasi-spherical and spherical nanoparticles/heart-like morphologies with size range of about 7-13 and 15-18 nm were observed for lower molar concentrations of 0.3 and 0.5 mM gold chloride solution, respectively. The XRD spectrum revealed the face-centered cubic crystals of synthesized gold nanoparticles. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of aromatic primary amines, and the additional SPR bands at 290 and 230 nm further suggested that the presence of amino acids such as tryptophan/tyrosine or phenylalanine acts as the capping agent on the synthesized mycogenic gold nanoparticles.

  10. Effects of {gamma}-radiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata in artificially inoculated cereal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braghini, R. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas II, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: raquelbraghini@yahoo.com.br; Pozzi, C.R. [Instituto de Zootecnia, Rua Heitor Penteado 56, CEP 13460-000, Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Aquino, S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355 , CEP 01246-902, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, L.O.; Correa, B. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas II, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different {gamma}-radiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata in artificially inoculated cereal samples. Seeds and grains were divided into four groups: Control Group (not irradiated), and Groups 1, 2 and 3, inoculated with an A. alternata spore suspension (1x10{sup 6} spores/mL) and exposed to 2, 5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Serial dilutions of the samples were prepared and seeded on DRBC (dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar) and DCMA (dichloran chloramphenicol malt extract agar) media, after which the number of colony-forming units per gram was determined in each group. In addition, fungal morphology after irradiation was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that ionizing radiation at a dose of 5 kGy was effective in reducing the growth of A. alternata. However, a dose of 10 kGy was necessary to inhibit fungal growth completely. SEM made it possible to visualize structural alterations induced by the different {gamma}-radiation doses used.

  11. THE EFFECT OF MEDIA AND LIGHT ON IN VITRO SPORULATION OF ALTERNARIA SOLANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kishore Varma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Early blight of tomato incited by Alternaria solani is an economically significant disease especially in commercial tomato cultivation under greenhouse and field conditions. Since, A. solani is a shy sporulator, the present investigation was taken to assess the optimum in vitro conditons for growth and sporulation of early blight pathogen. Ten A. solani isolates obtained from diseased leaf samples collected different crop growing areas of India were used in the present study. The effect of different incubation periods, fluorescent light, cold-water treatment and media were evaluated. Our results revealed maximum sporulation of A. solani on tomato fruit extract agar medium (TFEA under continuous light for 7 days at 250C, followed by cold-water treatment and further incubated in darkness at 200C for 48 h. The sporulation of test pathogen was however sparse on V-8 juice agar. Further, the A. solani isolates on V-8 juice agar did not respond to the treatments imposed. Among the isolates, JAS (Jhajjar isolate, that is more versatile in its ability to produce spores recorded irregular margin with abundant aerial mycelium.

  12. Stress Response and Pathogenicity of the Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogen Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ren Chung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of host-selective toxins by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata is essential for the pathogenesis. A. alternata infection in citrus leaves induces rapid lipid peroxidation, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and cell death. The mechanisms by which A. alternata avoids killing by reactive oxygen species (ROS after invasion have begun to be elucidated. The ability to coordinate of signaling pathways is essential for the detoxification of cellular stresses induced by ROS and for pathogenicity in A. alternata. A low level of H2O2, produced by the NADPH oxidase (NOX complex, modulates ROS resistance and triggers conidiation partially via regulating the redox-responsive regulators (YAP1 and SKN7 and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase (HOG1 mediated pathways, which subsequently regulate the genes required for the biosynthesis of siderophore, an iron-chelating compound. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition plays a key role in ROS detoxification because of the requirement of iron for the activities of antioxidants (e.g., catalase and SOD. Fungal strains impaired for the ROS-detoxifying system severely reduce the virulence on susceptible citrus cultivars. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge of signaling pathways associated with cellular responses to multidrugs, oxidative and osmotic stress, and fungicides, as well as the pathogenicity/virulence in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata.

  13. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Some Medicinal Plants of Iran against Alternaria alternate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hadizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing public concern over the level of pesticide residues in food especially fresh produce has built up adequate pressure for scientists to look for less hazardous and environmentally safer compounds for controlling post harvest diseases. Essential oils as registered food grade materials have the potential to be applied as alternative anti-fungal treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables. Approach: We present in this study, the identification of the essential oils with antifungal activity from some medicinal plants of Iran (nettle (Urtica dioica L., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp., Rue (Ruta graveolens L. and common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., and their potential application as "generally regarded as safe" antifungal compounds against Alternaria alternate on tomato as a model pathosystem. Results: Both the nettle and the thyme oils exhibited antifungal activity against A. alternata. The thyme oil exhibited a lower degree of inhibition 68.5 and 74.8% at 1500 and 2000 ppm, respectively. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of the pathogens in potato dextrose broth was strongly reduced in the presence of 1500 ppm of the nettle oil. The same concentration of this oil reduced the percentage of decayed tomatoes. The experiments on reducing the development of natural tomato rot gave similar results. Conclusions: Application of essential oils for postharvest disease control of fresh produce, as a novel emerging alternative to hazardous anti-fungal treatments will allow a safer and environmentally more acceptable management of postharvest diseases.

  14. BIOUTILIZATION OF GRAPE WASTE FOR EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION USING ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA NON-PIGMENT STRAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation, five mutant strains from A. alternate were isolated after exposure to gamma irradiation at dose level 8 kGy. The mutant isolated strains (MIS) were non-producing dark pigment and producing polysaccharide. The mutant isolated strain (MIS) belong to the Alternaria alternata MIS (1-5). In shake flask experiments, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was 2.90-5.24 g/l and biomass 5.8-8.31g/l. The effect of some fermentation conditions on grape wastes by A. alternata were investigated to produce EPS using gamma irradiation and non-pigment strain. The economical optimum fermentation condition for the highest EPS production by MIS4 when grown on grape waste containing 150 g/l sugar, incubation temperature 28oC, pH 7 with addition of both 2 % yeast extract and 1.5 % surfactant triton x-100 achieved 14.68 g/l EPS and 6.22 g/l biomass

  15. Cultural, Morphological and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria porri Causing Purple Blotch of Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad MOHSIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven (27 isolates of Alternaria porri were isolated from diseased leaf samples collected from different onion growing regions of Bangladesh and characterized for cultural, morphological and pathogenic variabilities. A. porri colonies colony colour ranged between light to dark olivacious and grayish white with irregular, regular with concentric ring and regular without concentric ring shape. Margin of colonies were entire, irregular and wavy with effuse, fluffy and velvety texture. Isolates impregnated media with colour ranged between grey to brown on the reverse of the plates. Growth rate of isolates ranged between 2.433 and 3.950 mm/day with fast growth in isolate DSTR 02 and least in MMBH. Morphological variation in conidia production was between 7.720×103 to 47.02×103 per mm2 with sporulation time 3.33 to 11.00 days. The conidial shape was straight to curve with light to deep brown colour. The number of horizontal and vertical separation in the conidia ranged from 3.00 to 6.00 × 1.00 to 2.00 with size from 11.20 to 39.20 × 4.76 to 11.43 µm. In pathogenicity test isolates also exhibited variations in size of the lesions (2.77 to 7.55 mm produced on onion leaves. The results demonstrate existence of considerable variation in cultural, morphological, and pathogenic characters of A. porri isolates prevalent in Bangladesh environment.

  16. Fungicidal activity of volatile oil from eucalyptus Citriodora Hook. against Alternaria triticina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Hesamedin

    2006-01-01

    Use of plant products for the management of phytopathogenic fungi is fast becoming an important component of Integrated Disease Management (I.D.M.) programme. The natural plant products are bio-degradable and thus eco-friendly, are catching the attention of the scientist worldwide. Such products from higher plants are relatively broad spectrum, bio-efficacious, economical and environmentally safe. Among these essential oils from higher plants because of their greater inhibitory action are being explored preferably worldwide. In this context, a study was undertaken to explore the effect of volatile oil from Eucalyptus citriodora against Alternaria triticina. The radial growth, dry weight and spore germination of pathogen were drastically reduced in response to the different concentrations of volatile oil. A complete inhibition of radial growth, dry weight and spore germination were observed at 1500, 1000 and 100 ppm, respectively. In contrast, similar complete inhibition of test pathogen was observed at very high concentration (6500, 6500 and 1000 ppm) of mancozeb--a commercially available synthetic fungicide. Based on these observations, it was therefore concluded that eucalypt volatile oil has potential to suppress the phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:17390838

  17. Green Chemistry Approach for the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using the Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, Naresh Niranjan; Rahul, Ganga Ravindran; Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Raman, Gurusamy; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles has gained tremendous attention owing to their immense applications in the field of biomedical sciences. Although several chemical procedures are used for the synthesis of nanoparticles, the release of toxic and hazardous by-products restricts their use in biomedical applications. In the present investigation, gold nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using the culture filtrate of the filamentous fungus Alternaria sp. The culture filtrate of the fungus was exposed to three different concentrations of chloroaurate ions. In all cases, the gold ions were reduced to Au(0), leading to the formation of stable gold nanoparticles of variable sizes and shapes. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis confirmed the formation of nanoparticles by reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0). TEM analysis revealed the presence of spherical, rod, square, pentagonal, and hexagonal morphologies for 1 mM chloroaurate solution. However, quasi-spherical and spherical nanoparticles/heart-like morphologies with size range of about 7-13 and 15-18 nm were observed for lower molar concentrations of 0.3 and 0.5 mM gold chloride solution, respectively. The XRD spectrum revealed the face-centered cubic crystals of synthesized gold nanoparticles. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of aromatic primary amines, and the additional SPR bands at 290 and 230 nm further suggested that the presence of amino acids such as tryptophan/tyrosine or phenylalanine acts as the capping agent on the synthesized mycogenic gold nanoparticles. PMID:25737119

  18. acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential and insecticidal activity of an endophytic Alternaria sp. from Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bahaderjeet; Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Chadha, B S; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2012-11-01

    Keeping in view the vast potential of endophytic fungi to produce bioactive molecules, this study aimed at isolating and screening endophytes for the production of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Fifty-four endophytic fungi were isolated from Ricinus communis and screened for their AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric assay method. Six isolates were found to possess AChE inhibitory activity with maximum inhibition of 78 % being evinced by culture Cas1 which was identified to be Alternaria sp. on the basis of molecular as well as microscopic methods. Optimization of inhibitor production was carried out using one factor at a time approach. Maximum production of inhibitor was obtained on potato dextrose broth after 10 days incubation. The IC(50) of the chloroform extract was observed to be 40 μg/ml. The extract was purified on silica gel and eluted stepwise with a gradient of chloroform/methanol. The insecticidal potential of the extract was evaluated by feeding the larvae of Spodoptera litura on diet containing varying concentrations of the extract. It was observed that with increase in the concentration of the extract, mortality of the larvae increased. The culture has the potential of being exploited in medicine as well as a biocontrol agent.

  19. Role of mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit eCalmes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the physiological functions of fungal mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Mannitol metabolism was examined during infection of Brassica oleracea leaves by sequential HPLC quantification of the major soluble carbohydrates and expression analysis of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, i.e. a mannitol dehydrogenase (AbMdh, and a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (AbMpd. Knockout mutants deficient for AbMdh or AbMpd and a double mutant lacking both enzyme activities were constructed. Their capacity to cope with various oxidative and drought stresses and their pathogenic behaviour were evaluated. Metabolic and gene expression profiling indicated an increase in mannitol production during plant infection. Depending on the mutants, distinct pathogenic processes, such as leaf and silique colonization, sporulation, survival on seeds, were impaired by comparison to the wild-type. This pathogenic alteration could be partly explained by the differential susceptibilities of mutants to oxidative and drought stresses. These results highlight the importance of mannitol metabolism with respect to the ability of A. brassicicola to efficiently accomplish key steps of its pathogenic life cycle.

  20. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Gao, Shushan; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Chunshun; Wang, Bingui

    2013-03-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192, an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites, including four indole-diterpenoids: penijanthine A ( 1), paspaline ( 2), paspalinine ( 3), and penitrem A ( 4); three tricycloalternarene derivatives: tricycloalternarene 3a ( 5), tricycloalternarene 1b ( 6), and tricycloalternarene 2b ( 7); and two alternariol congeners: djalonensone ( 8) and alternariol ( 9). The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature. The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm, respectively, at 100 μg/disk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived A lternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus A lternaria.

  1. Folic acid induces salicylic acid-dependent immunity in Arabidopsis and enhances susceptibility to Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Finni; Kanawati, Basem; Wenig, Marion; Hoffmann, Thomas; Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Schwab, Wilfried; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Vlot, A Corina

    2015-08-01

    Folates are essential for one-carbon transfer reactions in all organisms and contribute, for example, to de novo DNA synthesis. Here, we detected the folate precursors 7,8-dihydropteroate (DHP) and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) in extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana plants by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry. The accumulation of DHP, but not ADC, was induced after infection of plants with Pseudomonas syringae delivering the effector protein AvrRpm1. Application of folic acid or the DHP precursor 7,8-dihydroneopterin (DHN) enhanced resistance in Arabidopsis to P. syringae and elevated the transcript accumulation of the salicylic acid (SA) marker gene pathogenesis-related1 in both the treated and systemic untreated leaves. DHN- and folic acid-induced systemic resistance was dependent on SA biosynthesis and signalling. Similar to SA, folic acid application locally enhanced Arabidopsis susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Together, the data associate the folic acid pathway with innate immunity in Arabidopsis, simultaneously activating local and systemic SA-dependent resistance to P. syringae and suppressing local resistance to A. brassicicola.

  2. A New Species Group in the Genus Tanytarsus van der Wulp(Diptera:Chironomidae)Based on a Fossil Record from Baltic Amber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wojciech GI(L)KA

    2010-01-01

    A new fossil chironomid,Tanytarsus serafini,found in Baltic amber is described and illustrated based on adult males.The new species and similar extant species of the genus Tanytarsus van der Wulp are compared.Due to several distinct characters of wing,legs and hypopygium,a new species group for Tanytarsus serafini is proposed,and its diagnostic features are evaluated.

  3. Preserving species populations in the boreal zone in a changing climate: contrasting trends of bird species groups in a protected area network

    OpenAIRE

    Raimo Virkkala; Ari Rajasärkkä

    2012-01-01

    A protected area network should ensure the maintenance of biodiversity. Because of climate change, species ranges are expected to move polewards, causing further demand for the protected area network to be efficient in preserving biota. We compared population changes of different bird species groups according to their habitat preferences in boreal protected areas in Finland on the basis of large-scale censuses carried out in 1981–1999 and in 2000–2009. Population densities of comm...

  4. New species and records of Stenus (Nestus) of the canaliculatus group, with the erection of a new species group (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Steninae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandr B. Ryvkin

    2012-01-01

    The canaliculatus species group of Stenus (Nestus) is redefined. Four new Palaearctic species of the group are described and illustrated: S. (N.) alopex sp. nov. from the Putorana Highland and Taymyr Peninsula, Russia; S. (N.) canalis sp. nov. from SE Siberia and the Russian Far East; S. (N.) canosus sp. nov. from the Narat Mt Ridge, Chinese Tien Shan; S. (N.) delitor sp. nov. from C & SE Siberia. New distributional data as well as brief analyses of old records for fourteen species described ...

  5. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group ( Opiliones , Laniatores , Phalangodidae ), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands

    OpenAIRE

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa ( Arachnida , Opiliones ), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct “beads on a stri...

  6. A new species of the Rhinella margaritifera species group (Anura, Bufonidae from the montane forest of the Selva Central, Peru

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    Jiri Moravec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru. The new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confirmed by mtDNA data and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5–65.5 mm, n = 5, moderately developed cranial crests, absence of neural crest of vertebrae, absence of bone protrusion at angle of jaw, presence of lateral rows of enlarged tubercles, and absence of subgular vocal sac and vocal slits in males. In addition, based on the molecular phylogenetic analyses of selected Rhinella species we propose the monophylum containing R. chavin, R. festae, R. macrorhina, R. manu, R. nesiotes, R. rostrata, and R. yanachaga as a new species group under the name Rhinella festae species group.

  7. The Secondary Metabolites of the Crinoid(Comanthina schlegeli) Epipsymbiosis Fungus Alternaria brassicae 93%海百合 Comanthina schlegeli 共附生真菌Alternaria brassicae 93次级代谢产物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永芳; 王宏维; 许佳怡; 李静; 刘岚

    2015-01-01

    利用硅胶、Sephadex LH -20凝胶柱层析和高效液相色谱(HPLC)等方法对采自湛江海百合共附生真菌 Alternaria brassicae 93的次级代谢产物进行分离纯化,根据化合物的理化性质、波谱数据以及与文献数据对照的方法确定化合物的结构。从海百合共生真菌 Alternaria brassicae 93的次级代谢产物中分离得到5个化合物,分别鉴定为 clavatol (1)、3R,14S-ochratoxin A (2)、3R,14S-ochratoxin B (3)、chaetoquadrin F (4)、ent-cyclo-echinulin (5)。化合物1,2,3,4,5,均为首次从海洋真菌中得到。%Secondary metabolities of the crinoid epipsymbiosis fungus Altermaria brassicae 93 from South China Sea were studied.The metabolities of Alternaria brassicae 93 were isolated by silica gel column chromatography,Sephadex LH -20 gel column chromatography and HPLC,the structures of compounds were eventually identified and confirmed on the basis of physicochemical properties,spectral data and compared with the published spectral information.Five compounds were isolated from marine fungi for the first time and their structures were identified as clavatol (1),3R,14S-ochratoxin A (2),3R,14S-ochratoxin B (3),chaetoquadrin F (4)and ent-cycloechinulin (5).

  8. Fungal-specific transcription factor AbPf2 activates pathogenicity in Alternaria brassicicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yangrae; Ohm, Robin A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Srivastava, Akhil

    2012-12-03

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. To identify molecular determinants of pathogenicity, we created non-pathogenic mutants of a transcription factor-encoding gene, AbPf2. The frequency and timing of germination and appressorium formation on host plants were similar between the non-pathogenic abpf2 mutants and wild-type A. brassicicola. The mutants were also similar in vitro to wild-type A. brassicicola in terms of vegetative growth, conidium production, and responses to a phytoalexin, reactive oxygen species and osmolites. The hyphae of the mutants grew slowly but did not cause disease symptoms on the surface of host plants. Transcripts of the AbPf2 gene increased exponentially soon after wild-type conidia contacted their host plants . A small amount of AbPf2 protein, as monitored using GFP fusions, was present in young, mature conidia. The protein level decreased during saprophytic growth, but increased and was located primarily in fungal nuclei during pathogenesis. Levels of the proteins and transcripts sharply decreased following colonization of host tissues beyond the initial infection site. When expression of the transcription factor was induced in the wild-type during early pathogenesis, 106 fungal genes were also induced in the wild-type but not in the abpf2 mutants. Notably, 33 of the 106 genes encoded secreted proteins, including eight putative effector proteins. Plants inoculated with abpf2 mutants expressed higher levels of genes associated with photosynthesis, the pentose phosphate pathway and primary metabolism, but lower levels of defense-related genes. Our results suggest that AbPf2 is an important regulator of pathogenesis, but does not affect other cellular processes in A. brassicicola.

  9. Transcription Factor Amr1 Induces Melanin Biosynthesis and Suppresses Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yangrae; Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A.; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.

    2012-05-01

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. Several A. brassicicola genes have been characterized as affecting pathogenesis of Brassica species. To study regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis, we mined 421 genes in silico encoding putative transcription factors in a machine-annotated, draft genome sequence of A. brassicicola. In this study, targeted gene disruption mutants for 117 of the transcription factor genes were produced and screened. Three of these genes were associated with pathogenesis. Disruption mutants of one gene (AbPacC) were nonpathogenic and another gene (AbVf8) caused lesions less than half the diameter of wild-type lesions. Unexpectedly, mutants of the third gene, Amr1, caused lesions with a two-fold larger diameter than the wild type and complementation mutants. Amr1 is a homolog of Cmr1, a transcription factor that regulates melanin biosynthesis in several fungi. We created gene deletion mutants of ?amr1 and characterized their phenotypes. The ?amr1 mutants used pectin as a carbon source more efficiently than the wild type, were melanin-deficient, and more sensitive to UV light and glucanase digestion. The AMR1 protein was localized in the nuclei of hyphae and in highly melanized conidia during the late stage of plant pathogenesis. RNA-seq analysis revealed that three genes in the melanin biosynthesis pathway, along with the deleted Amr1 gene, were expressed at low levels in the mutants. In contrast, many hydrolytic enzyme-coding genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than in the wild type during pathogenesis. The results of this study suggested that a gene important for survival in nature negatively affected virulence, probably by a less efficient use of plant cell-wall materials. We speculate that the functions of the Amr1 gene are important to the success of A. brassicicola as a competitive saprophyte and plant parasite.

  10. Occurrence of the Drosophila flavopilosa species group (Diptera, Drosophilidae in the state of São Paulo (Brazil with description of one new species

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    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available One new Brazilian species of Drosophila belonging to the nesiota subgroup of the flavopilosa group, which is recorded for the first time from the State of São Paulo, is illustrated and described as D. mariaehelenae, sp. nov. It has been found breeding on flowers of Cestrum intermedium Sendtn., together with D. cestri Brncic, D. cordeiroi Brncic, D. cordeiroi Brncic, D. flavopilosa Frey and D. incompta Wheeler & Takada, Zygothrica vittimaculosa Burla and one undetermined species of the Drosophila tripunctata species group. Photographs are provided of the male genitalia of the first four species.

  11. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts against phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp Actividad antifúngica de extractos de plantas medicinales contra el hongo fitopatógeno Alternaria spp

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    Paola Díaz Dellavalle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of extracts of 10 plant species used in traditional Uruguayan medicine against the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp. The plants were selected on the basis of their reported ethnobotanical uses. Aqueous, saline buffer and acid extracts of different plant species were screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against Alternaria spp. For the antifungal evaluation we used a microspectrophotometric assay. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of the extracts were determined. Three solvents were assayed on different tissues of the plants and among the 29 evaluated extracts, 31% of the extracts inhibited growth, similar to the effects of a chemical fungicide. Acid extracts of the plants were more effective than the aqueous or buffer extracts against Alternaria spp. The MIC values of the extracts were determined ranging between 1.25 and 25 µg mL-1. The MFC values of the extracts ranged between 1.25 µg mL-1 (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and 10 µg mL-1 (Cynara scolymus L.. MICs and MFCs values obtained from leaves (Salvia officinalis L. and R. officinalis and seeds extracts (Salvia sclarea L. were quite comparable to values obtained with the conventional fungicide captan (2.5 µg mL-1. The extracts of Salvia sclarea, S. officinalis and R. officinalis could be considered as potential sources of antifungal compounds for treating diseases in plants. These extracts showed maximum activity, even at very low concentrations, and the same fungicide effects as chemical fungicide. We conclude from this that these extracts exhibit amazing fungicidal properties that support their traditional use as antiseptics.El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la actividad antifúngica de extractos vegetales de 10 especies utilizadas en la medicina tradicional uruguaya contra el hongo fitopatógeno Alternaria spp. Las plantas fueron seleccionadas en base a usos

  12. Involvement of an extracellular fungus laccase in the flavonoid metabolism in Citrus fruits inoculated with Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Licinio; Del Río, José Antonio; Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela; Ortuño, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Fungi of the genus Alternaria are responsible for substantial pre-harvest losses in Citrus. In this study a degradative metabolism of flavonoids (flavanones, flavones and polymethoxyflavones) was observed when 'Fortune' mandarin, Citrus limon and Citrus paradisi, fruits were inoculated with Alternaria alternata, a pre-harvest pathogenic fungus. Associated to this flavonic metabolism the de novo synthesis of the phytoalexin scoparone was detected. This metabolism of flavonoids is caused by an extracellular fungus laccase. The kinetic characterisation of this enzyme revealed that the activity was induced by Citrus flavonoids and was dependent on flavonoid concentrations. The enzyme exhibited a Km of 1.9 mM using ABTS as substrate with an optimum pH of 3.5 in citrate buffer 100 mM. The enzyme is active between 15 and 45 °C, the optimum temperature being around 35 °C, although 50% of the initial activity is lost after 45 min at 35 °C. The A. alternata laccase was inhibited by 0.5 mM l-cysteine and by caffeic acid. Study of the substrate specificity of this enzyme revealed that Citrus flavonoids are substrates of A. alternata laccase. These results suggest that the laccase enzyme could be involved in the pathogenesis of A. alternata in Citrus. PMID:25686700

  13. New species and records of Stenus (Nestus of the canaliculatus group, with the erection of a new species group (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Steninae

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    Alexandr B. Ryvkin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The canaliculatus species group of Stenus (Nestus is redefined. Four new Palaearctic species of the group are described and illustrated: S. (N. alopex sp. nov. from the Putorana Highland and Taymyr Peninsula, Russia; S. (N. canalis sp. nov. from SE Siberia and the Russian Far East; S. (N. canosus sp. nov. from the Narat Mt Ridge, Chinese Tien Shan; S. (N. delitor sp. nov. from C & SE Siberia. New distributional data as well as brief analyses of old records for fourteen species described earlier are provided from both Palaearctic and Nearctic material. S. (N. milleporus Casey, 1884 ​(= sectilifer Casey, 1884 is revalidated as a species propria. S. (N. sphaerops Casey, 1884 is redescribed; its aedeagus is figured for the first time; the aedeagus of S. (N. caseyi Puthz, 1972 as well as aedeagi of eight previously described Palaearctic species are illustrated anew. A key for the identification of all the known Palaearctic species of the group is given. A morphology and ecology based analysis of the main evolutionary trends within the group is provided. A lectotype is designated for S. (N. melanopus Marsham, 1802; its Siberian and NE European records are supposed to be erroneous; the monotypic melanopus species group is erected.

  14. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  15. Evaluation of a triplex real-time PCR system to detect the plant-pathogenic molds Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and C. purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Sabrina; Schönling, Jutta; Prange, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development of a triplex real-time PCR system for the simultaneous detection of three major plant-pathogenic mold genera (Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and the species Claviceps purpurea). The designed genus-specific primer-probe systems were validated for sensitivity, specificity and amplification in the presence of background DNA. PMID:26545945

  16. Description of a new species of Epicauta Dejean, 1834 from Mexico with a review of the Epicauta cupraeola species group (Coleoptera, Meloidae

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    García-París, M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a morphologically remarkable new species of the Epicauta cupraeola species group from the highlands of the State of Nayarit, Mexico. The external appearance of Epicauta cora sp. nov., is similar to that of Epicauta rufipennis and Epicauta diana, but it is distinct from both species based on male antennae structure, shape and pilosity of the head and pronotum, color of pronotal pilosity, and male fore-tarsal structure. The nine species integrating now the E. cupraeola species group have been revised. This study of 323 specimens, including diverse type material, confirms the synonymy of Cantharis rufescens with Epicauta basimacula first proposed by Pinto (1991, and reports new geographic records for Mexican taxa. The species of the E. cupraeola group are included in a key and illustrated photographically, including type specimens of five taxa. A phylogenetic re-analysis of the E. cupraeola species group results in the placement of the new species as sister to E. rufipennis, which together form a sister clade to the remaining species of the E. cupraeola group.Se describe una especie nueva, morfológicamente singular, del grupo de especies de Epicauta cupraeola de las zonas altas del Estado de Nayarit, México. La apariencia externa de Epicauta cora sp. nov., es similar a la de Epicauta rufipennis y Epicauta diana, pero difiere de ambas en la estructura de las antenas del macho, forma y pilosidad de la cabeza y pronoto, y estructura de las tibias anteriores del macho. Se revisan las nueve especies incluidas ahora en el grupo de especies de E. cupraeola. Este estudio que incluye 323 especímenes, entre ellos material tipo diverso, confirma la sinonimia de Cantharis rufescens con Epicauta basimacula propuesta por Pinto (1991, y aporta nuevos registros geográficos para las especies de México. Se presenta una clave para las especies del grupo de E. cupraeola y se ilustran foto gráficamente, incluyendo ejemplares tipo de cinco taxones. Un

  17. The dynamics of the fungal aerospores Alternaria sp. and Cladosporium sp. in Parisian atmospheric air, in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezoczki, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The bioallergens occurring naturally in the atmospheric air are microorganisms, pollen grains, plant seeds, leaf and stem scrap, or their protein molecules. The presence of various airborne fungal spores determines a high allergenic potential for public health. This effect is due to the high number of produced spores, which under favourable meteorological conditions (dry weather and wind) reach the surrounding air. This paper traces the dynamics of two types of fungi, Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp, fungi which can be found outdoors, in the surrounding air, as well as indoors, inside houses (especially the conidia of Cladosporium sp). The effects of these fungal spores on human health are varies, ranging from seasonal allergies (hay fever, rhinitis, sinusitis etc.) to sever afflictions of the respiratory system, onset of asthma, disfunctionalities of the nervous systems, of the immune system, zymoses etc. The monitoring of the dynamics of the aerospores Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp was carried out between 2010 and 2013, over a period of 42 weeks during one calendar year, from February to the end of September, in the surrounding air in the French capital, Paris. The regional and global climate and meteorological conditions are directly involved in the occurrence and development of fungi colonies, the transportation and dispersion of fungal spores in the atmospheric air, as well as in the creation of the environment required for the interaction of chemical and biological components in the air. Knowledge of the dynamics of the studied fungal aerospores, coupled with climate and meteorological changes, offers a series of information on the magnitude of the allergenic potential these airborne spores can determine. Legal regulations in this domain set the allergen risk threshold for the Alternaria sp aerospores at 3500 ÷ 7000 spores/m3 air/week, and for the Cladosporium sp aerospores at 56,000 spores/m3 air/week. Besides these regulations there exist a series of

  18. Cryptic diversity in the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group (Amphibia, Anura) with the description of a new species from the eastern Guiana Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Martinez, Quentin; Zeidler, Lauren; Courtois, Elodie A; Gaucher, Philippe; Blanc, Michel; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Souza, Sergio Marques; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Souza, Sergio Marques; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Kok, Philippe J R

    2016-01-01

    We used molecular and morphological data to investigate the hidden diversity within the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group, and more specifically within H. geographicus, an allegedly widespread species in northern South America. As a result, the identity of H. geographicus was clarified, several candidate species were detected and one of them, from the eastern Guiana Shield, is described herein as a preliminary step to resolve the taxonomy of the group. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is mainly distinguished from closely-related species by an acuminate snout in lateral view, well-developed webbing between fingers and toes, and unspotted carmine/crimson colouration on the concealed surfaces of legs, feet and hands in life. The tadpole of the new species is described and is characterized by a large A-2 gap, a mostly single row of large marginal papillae, and a dark brown to black colouration. We also describe the advertisement call of the new species, which is defined as a soft call consisting of short clusters of 2-3 chuckles with a dominant frequency ranging between 1.11-1.19 kHz. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is currently known only from the eastern Guiana Shield, and is probably endemic to that region. The new species' range overlaps broadly with another candidate species referred to as H. aff. semilineatus 1. Our preliminary results stress out a high cryptic diversity in that species group and the need for a formal redescription of Hypsiboas geographicus based on more topotypic material than what is currently available  to properly sort out the taxonomic status of several lineages in that clade. PMID:27394251

  19. Estimates of the Direct Effect of Seawater pH on the Survival Rate of Species Groups in the California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, D. Shallin; McElhany, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) has the potential to restructure ecosystems due to variation in species sensitivity to the projected changes in ocean carbon chemistry. Ecological models can be forced with scenarios of OA to help scientists, managers, and other stakeholders understand how ecosystems might change. We present a novel methodology for developing estimates of species sensitivity to OA that are regionally specific, and applied the method to the California Current ecosystem. To do so, we built a database of all published literature on the sensitivity of temperate species to decreased pH. This database contains 393 papers on 285 species and 89 multi-species groups from temperate waters around the world. Research on urchins and oysters and on adult life stages dominates the literature. Almost a third of the temperate species studied to date occur in the California Current. However, most laboratory experiments use control pH conditions that are too high to represent average current chemistry conditions in the portion of the California Current water column where the majority of the species live. We developed estimates of sensitivity to OA for functional groups in the ecosystem, which can represent single species or taxonomically diverse groups of hundreds of species. We based these estimates on the amount of available evidence derived from published studies on species sensitivity, how well this evidence could inform species sensitivity in the California Current ecosystem, and the agreement of the available evidence for a species/species group. This approach is similar to that taken by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to characterize certainty when summarizing scientific findings. Most functional groups (26 of 34) responded negatively to OA conditions, but when uncertainty in sensitivity was considered, only 11 groups had relationships that were consistently negative. Thus, incorporating certainty about the sensitivity of species and functional groups to

  20. Estimates of the Direct Effect of Seawater pH on the Survival Rate of Species Groups in the California Current Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, D Shallin; McElhany, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) has the potential to restructure ecosystems due to variation in species sensitivity to the projected changes in ocean carbon chemistry. Ecological models can be forced with scenarios of OA to help scientists, managers, and other stakeholders understand how ecosystems might change. We present a novel methodology for developing estimates of species sensitivity to OA that are regionally specific, and applied the method to the California Current ecosystem. To do so, we built a database of all published literature on the sensitivity of temperate species to decreased pH. This database contains 393 papers on 285 species and 89 multi-species groups from temperate waters around the world. Research on urchins and oysters and on adult life stages dominates the literature. Almost a third of the temperate species studied to date occur in the California Current. However, most laboratory experiments use control pH conditions that are too high to represent average current chemistry conditions in the portion of the California Current water column where the majority of the species live. We developed estimates of sensitivity to OA for functional groups in the ecosystem, which can represent single species or taxonomically diverse groups of hundreds of species. We based these estimates on the amount of available evidence derived from published studies on species sensitivity, how well this evidence could inform species sensitivity in the California Current ecosystem, and the agreement of the available evidence for a species/species group. This approach is similar to that taken by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to characterize certainty when summarizing scientific findings. Most functional groups (26 of 34) responded negatively to OA conditions, but when uncertainty in sensitivity was considered, only 11 groups had relationships that were consistently negative. Thus, incorporating certainty about the sensitivity of species and functional groups to

  1. 河北鸭梨病果上链格孢分离系的形态及分子特性研究%Morphological and molecular characterization of Alternaria isolates on fruits of Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. "Ya Li"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 张天宇

    2008-01-01

    A total of 123 Alternaria isolates were obtained from roting fruits of Pyrus bretschneideri "Ya Li" collected in Hebei Province, China. The isolates, according to morphological characteristics of conidia and sporulation patterns, were segregated into four groups: A. alternata group, A. tenuissima group, A. yaliinficiens group and Alternaria sp. group. Molecular characteristics of part of the isolates were determined using random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) analysis. Based on cluster analysis of RAPD data, large- and small-spored Alternaria spp. were evidently distinguished, and the small-spored species can form five clusters that fundamentally paralleled the morphological groupings.

  2. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p potato plants.

  3. 黑腹果蝇种组的核型与进化研究%Research on the Karyotype and Evolution of Drosophila melanogaster Species Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓秋红; 曾庆韬; 钱远槐; 李春选; 杨勇

    2007-01-01

    Mitotic metaphase chromosomes of 34 species of Drosophila melanogaster species group were examined. Certain new karyotypes were described for the first time, and their evolutionary and interspecific genetic relationships among 8 subgroups of D. melanogaster species group were analyzed systematically. The results were as follows. The basic karyotype of elegans subgroup was type A. The karyotypes of eugracilis subgroup, melanogaster subgroup, andficusphila subgroup were all type C. The karyotypes of takahashii subgroup and suzukii subgroup were both type C and type D. The montium subgroup had six kinds of karyotypes: types B, C, C', D, D', and E. The ananassae subgroup had three kinds of karyotypes: types F, G, and H. Thus, the melanogaster species group was classified into five pedigrees based on the diversity of these karyotypes: 1) elegans; 2) eugracilis-melanogasterficusphila; 3) takkahashii-suzukii; 4) montium; 5) ananassae. The above-mentioned results in karyotypic evolution were consistent with those of DNA sequence analysis reported by Yang except for the elegans subgroup and this subgroup was considered as the ancestral subgroup. Karyotype analysis of the same drosophila from different isofemale lines indicated that the same Drosophila from different places showed karyotypic variation which might be due to different geographical environment and evolutionary degree or interaction between the two factors.%观察了国内黑腹果蝇种组34种果蝇的有丝分裂中期核型,其中首次描述了一些新核型.系统地分析了黑腹果蝇种组8个种亚组之间的核型进化关系及种间亲缘关系.结果是:elegans种亚组的核型为A型;eugracilis、melanogaster和ficusphila种亚组的核型为C型;takahashii和suzukii种亚组的核型为C型和D型;monttum种亚组的核型为B、C、C'、D、D'、和E型;ananassae种亚组的核型为F、G和H型.从核型分化的角度可以将黑腹果蝇种组分为5个谱系:elegans

  4. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sokolov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (G. gimlii Erwin, G. integripennis (Bates and G. zullinii Vigna Taglianti and 12 described here as new. They are: G. andersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec and G. vignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez from Mexico; G. antigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua, G. balini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán, G. erwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros, G. jalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla, G. longinoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón, and G. minimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua from Guatemala; and G. celaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park, G. comayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua, G. disjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park, and G. lencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at elevations above 1300m, with no species shared among them. Major faunal barriers in the region limiting present species distributions

  5. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina) from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Igor M; Kavanaugh, David H

    2014-01-01

    Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (Geocharidiusgimlii Erwin, Geocharidiusintegripennis (Bates) and Geocharidiuszullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidiusandersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidiusvignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez) from Mexico; Geocharidiusantigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua), Geocharidiusbalini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán), Geocharidiuserwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros), Geocharidiusjalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla), Geocharidiuslonginoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón), and Geocharidiusminimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua) from Guatemala; and Geocharidiuscelaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park), Geocharidiuscomayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua), Geocharidiusdisjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park), and Geocharidiuslencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park) from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at

  6. Genetically based location from triploid populations and gene ontology of a 3.3-mb genome region linked to alternaria brown spot resistance in citrus reveal clusters of resistance genes

    OpenAIRE

    José Cuenca; Pablo Aleza; Antonio Vicent; Dominique Brunel; Patrick Ollitrault; Luis Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis of phenotypical traits and marker-trait association in polyploid species is generally considered as a challenge. In the present work, different approaches were combined taking advantage of the particular genetic structures of 2n gametes resulting from second division restitution (SDR) to map a genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot (ABS) resistance in triploid citrus progeny. ABS in citrus is a serious disease caused by the tangerine pathotype of the fungus Alternaria ...

  7. Sobrevivência saprofítica de Alternaria brassicicola e manejo de restos foliares de brócolos Saprophytic survival of Alternaria brassicicola and management of broccoli leaf debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Martins Peruch

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A sobrevivência saprofítica do fungo Alternaria brassicicola foi investigada em restos foliares de brócolos (Brassica oleracea var. italica, em diferentes profundidades de incorporação no solo, períodos do ano e sistemas de manejo do solo. Os restos foliares infectados pelo patógeno foram distribuídos em parcelas no campo, na superfície do solo e nas profundidades de 5 e 10cm. Periodicamente, os restos foliares foram coletados e a concentração de conídios quantificada, sendo obtida a longevidade da esporulação e a taxa de extinção da esporulação. Foi verificada maior longevidade da esporulação nos restos foliares no período com temperaturas amenas, maior umidade relativa do ar e menor precipitação pluvial. Menor esporulação ocorreu quando os restos culturais foram incorporados a 10cm de profundidade. Quando comparados os sistemas de manejo convencional e orgânico, houve diferença na taxa de extinção da esporulação do patógeno quando a fonte de inóculo foi depositada nas profundidades de 5 e 10cm, sendo superior no solo sob manejo convencional, enquanto na superfície do solo não houve diferença. O manejo da alternariose em brócolos na região do estudo pode ser realizado pela incorporação dos restos foliares infectados no solo, à profundidade mínima de 10cm, visando a um intervalo mínimo de 60 dias entre cultivos de brássicas.The saprophytic survival of the fungus Alternaria brassicicola was investigated in leaf debris of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica, at different depths of soil incorporation, periods of the year, and systems of soil management. Infected leaf debris were distributed in field plots, at the soil surface and at depths of 5 and 10cm. Periodically, the debris in the bags were collected and conidia concentrations were quantified for longevity of spore production and extinction rate. Higher spore production longevity was observed on leaf debris in the period with lower temperatures

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAF BLIGHT OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CAUSED BY Alternaria dauci (KÜHN GROVES & SKOLKO: SURVIVAL OF Alternaria dauci IN VEGETAL RESIDUES OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CROP ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA QUEIMA DAS FOLHAS DA CENOURA (Daucus carota L. CAUSADA POR Alternaria dauci (Kühn GROVES & SKOLKO: Sobrevivência de Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & SKOLKO em restos culturais da cenoura (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Martins Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The spore viability of Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & Skolko in carrot (Daucus carota L. debris which were kept at different levels of temperature and relative humidity, without light, was studied. The temperature levels tested were 8, 16, 24 and 32°C, and the relative humidity levels 3, 18, 51, 73 and 100%. The treatments were different combinations of these levels. Humidity was the more important factor in preserving the fungus spore ability to germinate and its infectivity. Under conditions of high relative humidity and temperatures of 24 and 32°C, the spores rapidly lost their viability. This did not happen when the relative humidity was equal to, or below, 51%. The survival of fungus mycelium on carrot petioles was studied in non-treated organic soil, at different humidity levels, at three different depths, during a period of 120 days. Soil humidity was the factor of major significance in the persistence of the mycelium, followed by depths and time factors. In petioles kept at depths of 10 and 20 cm in humid soil, the survival was greatly reduced, while survival was markedly higher in those kept at the surface of dry soil. The effect of humidity on the viability of mycelium was studied also under soiless condition. Petioles were maintained in relative humidity controlled chamber, at 24°C. In saturated atmosphere (100% humidity, the mycelium viability was lost in less than 20 days. It was concluded that both, the conidial and mycelial form of Alternaria dauci are quite sensitive to high humidity levels.

    Estudou-se a sobrevivência das formas conidial e miceliana de Alternaria dauci, respectivamente, sobre folhas necrosadas e pecíolos de cenoura, sob diferentes condições mesológicas. Os esporos do fungo sobre conidióforos em folhas necrosadas de cenoura foram mantidos por 120 dias sob condi

  9. 一株昆虫内生真菌 Alternaria sp畅次级代谢产物研究%Secondary metabolites from the insect-derived endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玲芝; 刘呈雄; 徐帮; 陈剑锋; 邹坤; 郭志勇

    2014-01-01

    采用硅胶柱色谱,Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱及HPLC等方法从昆虫共生真菌Alternaria sp.(Be-1)的发酵液分离得到7个代谢产物,经NMR,MS及理化性质等确定为4个环肽和3个聚酮类化合物,4-甲氧基格链孢酚(1),5′-methoxy-6-methyl-biphenyl-3,4,3′-triol(2),altenusin(3),二氢腾毒素(4),腾毒素(5),环(4-羟基-脯-亮)二肽(6)和cyclo(L-Phenylalanine-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline)(7)。测定了化合物1-7对抗肿瘤治疗靶点-受体酪氨酸激酶的抑制活性,药理实验结果表明,化合物1-6对三种酪氨酸激酶(EGFR,VEGFR-1,c-Met)具有不同程度的抑制活性,化合物1,3,6对EGFR,VEGFR-1,c-Met均具有强的抑制作用,而且化合物6还有选择性抑制EGFR和c-Met的活性。%Seven secondary metabolites were isolated from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp.(Be-1) by silica gel,Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and HPLC.Their structures were elucidated as alternariol 4-O-methyl ether(1),5′-methoxy-6-methyl-biphenyl-3,4,3′-triol(2),altenusin(3),tentoxin(4),dihydrotentoxin(5),cyclo(4-hydroxyl-Pro-Leu)(6), cyclo(L-Phenylalanine-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline)(7)by NMR and MS.The activity assay showed that compounds 1-6 displayed inhibitory activities against the three targets of tyrosine kinases (EGFR,VEGFR-1,c-Met),and compounds 1,3 and 6 showed strong inhibiting activities to EGFR, VEGFR-1,c-Met.At last,compound 6 displayed selectively inhibitory activity to EGFR and c-Met.

  10. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance against rose aphids and olfactory response of aphids to toxin-induced volatiles of rose plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-zhong YANG; Li LI; Bin YANG

    2012-01-01

    The search for active toxins for managing weeds or plant diseases is believed to be a promising avenue of investigation.However,the effects of Alternaria toxins on insects have just begun to be investigated.Bioactivities of toxins from four strains of Alternaria alternata on Rosa chinensis and rose aphid Macrosiphum rosivorum were tested in the present study.At a concentration of 50.0 μg/ml,the crude extract (toxin) of strain 7484 was found not to be harmful to rose plants with excised leaf-puncture method (P≥0.079),and rose plants showed enhanced resistance to rose aphids when this Alternaria toxin was sprayed on the plants (P≤0.001).However,this toxin caused no detrimental effects on aphids in insecticidal bioassay at a concentration of 10.0 to 160.0 μg/ml (P≥0.096).Therefore,the Alternaria toxin had significantly induced the resistance of rose plants against rose aphids,demonstrating that the resistance mechanism triggered by the Altemaria toxin in the rose plant may also be used by the plant to defend itself against insects.Further bioassays aimed to discover the olfactory responses of aphids to the toxin-induced volatiles of host plants.The aphids were significantly more attracted to both volatiles emitted and collected from control rose plants than to both volatiles emitted and collected from the toxin-treated rose plants (P≤0.014).This result showed that the toxin-induced resistance related to the volatile changes of host plants.

  11. Determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in wine and juice using ionic liquid modified countercurrent chromatography as a pretreatment method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chen; Cao, Xueli; Liu, Man; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants in food materials. The objective of this study was to develop a pretreatment method with countercurrent chromatography (CCC) for enrichment and cleanup of trace Alternaria mycotoxins in food samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. An Analytical CCC instrument with a column volume 22.5mL was used, and a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate and water modified with 6% [HOOMIM][Cl] in mass to volume ratio was selected. Under the optimized CCC operation conditions, trace amounts of AOH, AME, and TeA in large volume of liquid sample were efficiently extracted and enriched in the stationary phase, and then eluted out just by reversing the stationary phase as mobile phase in the opposite flowing direction tail-to-head. The enrichment and elution strategies are unique and can be fulfilled online with high enrichment factors (87-114) and high recoveries (81.14-110.94%). The method has been successively applied to the determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in real apple juice and wine samples with the limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.03-0.14μgL(-1). Totally 12 wine samples and 15 apple juice samples from the local market were analyzed. The detection rate of AOH and AME in both kinds of the samples were more than 50%, while TeA was found in relatively high level of 1.75-49.61μgL(-1) in some of the apple juice samples. The proposed method is simple, rapid, and sensitive and could also be used for the analysis and monitoring of Alternaria mycotoxin in other food samples. PMID:26858114

  12. Determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in wine and juice using ionic liquid modified countercurrent chromatography as a pretreatment method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chen; Cao, Xueli; Liu, Man; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants in food materials. The objective of this study was to develop a pretreatment method with countercurrent chromatography (CCC) for enrichment and cleanup of trace Alternaria mycotoxins in food samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. An Analytical CCC instrument with a column volume 22.5mL was used, and a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate and water modified with 6% [HOOMIM][Cl] in mass to volume ratio was selected. Under the optimized CCC operation conditions, trace amounts of AOH, AME, and TeA in large volume of liquid sample were efficiently extracted and enriched in the stationary phase, and then eluted out just by reversing the stationary phase as mobile phase in the opposite flowing direction tail-to-head. The enrichment and elution strategies are unique and can be fulfilled online with high enrichment factors (87-114) and high recoveries (81.14-110.94%). The method has been successively applied to the determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in real apple juice and wine samples with the limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.03-0.14μgL(-1). Totally 12 wine samples and 15 apple juice samples from the local market were analyzed. The detection rate of AOH and AME in both kinds of the samples were more than 50%, while TeA was found in relatively high level of 1.75-49.61μgL(-1) in some of the apple juice samples. The proposed method is simple, rapid, and sensitive and could also be used for the analysis and monitoring of Alternaria mycotoxin in other food samples.

  13. Functional Analyses of the Diels-Alderase Gene sol5 of Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani Indicate that the Solanapyrone Phytotoxins Are Not Required for Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonyong; Park, Chung-Min; Park, Jeong-Jin; Akamatsu, Hajime O; Peever, Tobin L; Xian, Ming; Gang, David R; Vandemark, George; Chen, Weidong

    2015-04-01

    Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani, the causal agents of Ascochyta blight of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), respectively, produce a set of phytotoxic compounds including solanapyrones A, B, and C. Although both the phytotoxicity of solanapyrones and their universal production among field isolates have been documented, the role of solanapyrones in pathogenicity is not well understood. Here, we report the functional characterization of the sol5 gene, which encodes a Diels-Alderase that catalyzes the final step of solanapyrone biosynthesis. Deletion of sol5 in both Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani completely prevented production of solanapyrones and led to accumulation of the immediate precursor compound, prosolanapyrone II-diol, which is not toxic to plants. Deletion of sol5 did not negatively affect growth rate or spore production in vitro, and led to overexpression of the other solanapyrone biosynthesis genes, suggesting a possible feedback regulation mechanism. Phytotoxicity tests showed that solanapyrone A is highly toxic to several legume species and Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite the apparent phytotoxicity of solanapyrone A, pathogenicity tests showed that solanapyrone-minus mutants of Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani were equally virulent as their corresponding wild-type progenitors, suggesting that solanapyrones are not required for pathogenicity.

  14. Ecological Species Groups of Wetland Vegetation on Lianbotan in Fen River, Shanxi%汾河连伯滩湿地植被生态种组

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦磊; 张峰

    2011-01-01

    根据42个野外样方调查资料,采用Fisher精确检验、Pearson相关系数和Spearman秩相关系数,研究汾河连伯滩湿地21个优势种的种间关系,结合组平均法的聚类结果,对生态种组进行了划分.结果表明:1)在210个种对中,Fisher精确检验结果表明共有16个种对为正关联,1个种对为负关联;Pearson相关系数有20个种对为正相关,5个种对为负相关;Spearman秩相关系数有34个种对为正相关,7个种对为负相关;2)在所有的种对中,大多数种对间表现为不显著关联,种间不显著相关,说明优势种群间生态位相对分离;3)综合种间关联、种间相关和聚类分析结果,将21个优势种划分成4个生态种组,分别是芦苇生态种组、赖草生态种组、白茅生态种组和野艾蒿生态种组,这4个生态种组反映了随水分条件变化连伯滩湿地植被群落的组成特征.%Interspecies relationships between the dominant species of wetland vegetation on Lianbotan in Fen River,Shanxi by Fishers exact test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation based on the data collected from 42 field plots. Ecological species groups of those dominant species were studied by using group averaging clustering.The results indicated that: Sixteen species-pairs had positive association coefficient and one species-pair had negative association coefficient by Fisher's exact test. In addition, 20 species-pairs had positive correlation coefficient and 5 species-pairs had negative correlation coefficient by Pearson's correlation analysis. Furthermore, 34 species-pairs displayed positive and 7 were negative correlations by Spearman. Associations and correlations between most species-pairs were not significant, which suggested that the dominant species distributed in an isolated pattern and their inches separated. On the basis of the results of association and correlation of those dominant species as well as that of analysis of clustering, those

  15. Preserving species populations in the boreal zone in a changing climate: contrasting trends of bird species groups in a protected area network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimo Virkkala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A protected area network should ensure the maintenance of biodiversity. Because of climate change, species ranges are expected to move polewards, causing further demand for the protected area network to be efficient in preserving biota. We compared population changes of different bird species groups according to their habitat preferences in boreal protected areas in Finland on the basis of large-scale censuses carried out in 1981–1999 and in 2000–2009. Population densities of common forest habitat generalists remained the same between the two periods, while densities of species of conservation concern showed contrasting trends: species preferring old-growth forests increased, but those living in mires and wetlands, and species of Arctic mountains decreased. These trends are most probably connected with climate change, but successional changes in protected areas and regional habitat alteration should also be taken into account. Of species preferring old-growth forests, a larger proportion are southern than among species of mires and wetlands, or of Arctic mountains, most or all of which, respectively, had a northerly distribution. In general, northern species have decreased and southern increased with the exception of northern species of old-growth forests which had not declined. On the other hand, bird species of mires and wetlands decreased also in the northernmost protected areas although mires had not been drained in the region in contrast with southern and central Finland thus indicating that regional-scale direct habitat loss did not cause the decline of these species in the north. It is suggested that climate change effects on species in natural boreal and Arctic habitats most probably are habitat-specific with large differences in response times and susceptibility.

  16. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico.

  17. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  18. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct “beads on a string” from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  19. Phylogeny of Laniarius: molecular data reveal L. liberatus synonymous with L. erlangeri and "plumage coloration" as unreliable morphological characters for defining species and species groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguembock, Billy; Fjeldså, Jon; Couloux, Arnaud; Pasquet, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Laniarius is one of the larger genera within the avian bush-shrike radiation, the family Malaconotidae. Fairly homogenous by size and shape but highly variable by colours, these have been classified mainly on basis of plumage colours. In the present study, which is the first taxon-dense analysis of the genus Laniarius based on molecular sequence data (nuclear BRM15 intron-15, and mitochondrial ND2 and ATPase6 genes), we investigate interrelationships between 16 species and 34 subspecies of Laniarius. Altogether 2094bp were aligned and subjected to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses. Results strongly support the monophyly of Laniarius, and place it close to Chlorophoneus, but without outlining a precise sister-group. In a generally well-resolved phylogeny of Laniarius, L. leucorhynchus and L. atrococcineus constitute deep branches and the remaining species form five clades which are not concordant with previously defined superspecies. The black and white boubous belong to two different clades. L. aethiopicus appears polyphyletic and our results support the resurrection of Laniarius major, Laniarius erlangeri and Laniarius sublacteus. We also find that L. liberatus, described in 1991 based on the only known live individual, is identified as an unusual colour morph from L. erlangeri. The black boubous are not monophyletic; L. funebris and L. leucorhynchus appear as isolated species whereas L. poensis and L. fuelleborni are sister-taxa. We recovered the polyphyly of crimson boubous and new hypotheses on their relationships have been generated. Overall, the variation in pigments and patterns does not follow phylogenetic lineages. The plumage coloration could be thoroughly subject to modification and it could not reflect exactly colour plumages of the parents. From then on, the plumage coloration appears as an unreliable morphological character for defining species and species groups. PMID:18514549

  20. In vitro antifungal activity of four chemotypes of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae essential oils against Alternaria solani (Pleosporeaceae isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISA Z. TOMAZONI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several volatile natural compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism have been proven to present antimicrobial action, enabling their use in phytopathogen control. They also present low environmental impact when compared to conventional pesticides. Essential oils contain these compounds and can be found in several plant species, such as Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae. Essential oils of four chemotypes of L. alba, characterized by their major compounds, namely camphor, citral, linalool and camphor/1,8-cineole, were tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer (Pleosporaceae, which causes early blight on tomatoes and is responsible for great economic losses regarding production. Essential oils antifungal action was tested in vitro using potato dextrose agar medium with essential oil concentrations at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µL mL-1. The chemotype that had the best performance was citral, showing significant inhibition compared to the others, starting at the 0.5 µL mL-1 concentration. The essential oil belonging to the linalool chemotype was efficient starting at the 1.5 µL mL-1 concentration. Conversely, the camphor chemotype did not show any action against the phytopathogen. Moreover, the essential oils had no remarkable effect on tomato germination and growth. In conclusion, these essential oils presented fungicidal action against A. solani.

  1. Oxidative burst and the activity of defense-related enzymes in compatible and incompatible tomato-Alternaria solani interactions

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    Maria Isabel Balbi-Peña

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, hypersensitive response (HR, and the activity of the enzymes guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, polyphenol oxidase, B-1,3-glucanase and chitinase, were studied in leaves of resistant [CNPH 1287 (Solanum habrochaites syn. Lycopersicon hirsutum] and susceptible [Santa Cruz Kada (S. lycopersicum syn. L. esculentum] tomato genotypes inoculated with Alternaria solani. Leaves were collected at the time of inoculation and at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours post inoculation. Conidia germination occurred equally onto the leaf surface in both genotypes and germination tubes grew without apparent orientation. Lesion frequency was lower in CNPH 1287, and it was the consequence of a lower number of appressoria formed in that genotype. ROS were observed in low frequency in both genotypes. HR was observed in penetrated epidermal host cells also in both genotypes. It seems that ROS and HR would not contribute to the resistance of S. habrochaites to A. solani in this study. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, B-1,3-glucanase and chitinase was significantly increased in the resistant genotype. These results suggest that defense-related enzymes but no oxidative burst play a role in the defense response of S. habrochaites to A. solani.

  2. Screening of allelopathic trees for their antifungal potential against Alternaria alternata strains isolated from dying-back Eucalyptus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Arshad; Samad, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of leaves of three tree species, namely Azadirachta indica L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Melia azedarach L. was evaluated against two strains of Alternaria alternata, isolated from dying-back trees of two Eucalyptus spp., namely Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus. All the concentrations (1, 2, … , 5% w/v) of the methanolic extracts of the three tree species significantly reduced the fungal biomass. There were reductions in the ranges 82-88%, 88-96% and 83-96% in the biomass of A. alternata strains due to different concentrations of the leaf extracts of S. cumini, A. indica and M. azedarach, respectively. Methanolic extract of M. azedarach was subjected to further fractionation using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol successively in the order of increasing polarity. Aqueous and n-butanol fractions gave promising results in the significant decrease in fungal biomass. This study concludes that aqueous and n-butanol fractions of methanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach can be used as biofungicides for the management of A. alternata. PMID:22007991

  3. The phytoalexin camalexin induces fundamental changes in the proteome of Alternaria brassicicola different from those caused by brassinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Minic, Zoran; Abdoli, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Camalexin is the major phytoalexin produced by Alternaria thaliana, but is absent in Brassica species that usually produce phytoalexin blends containing brassinin and derivatives. The protein profiles of A. brassicicola treated with camalexin were evaluated using proteomics and metabolic analyses and compared with those treated with brassinin. Conidial germination and mycelial growth of A. brassicicola in liquid media amended with camalexin and brassinin showed that fungal growth was substantially slower in presence of camalexin than brassinin; chemical analyses revealed that A. brassicicola detoxified camalexin at much slower rate than brassinin. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by tryptic digestion and capillary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses identified 158 different proteins, of which 45 were up-regulated and 113 were down-regulated relative to controls. Venn diagram analyses of differentially expressed proteins in cultures of A. brassicicola incubated with camalexin and brassinin indicated clear differences in the effect of each phytoalexin, with camalexin causing down-regulation of a larger number of proteins than brassinin. Overall, results of this work suggest that each phytoalexin has several different targets in the cells of A. brassicicola, and that camalexin appears to have greater potential to protect cultivated Brassica species against A. brassicicola than brassinin.

  4. Decolorization and biodegradation of congo red dye by a novel white rot fungus Alternaria alternata CMERI F6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Samayita; Basak, Bikram; Dutta, Subhasish; Bhunia, Biswanath; Dey, Apurba

    2013-11-01

    A novel white rot fungus Alternaria alternata CMERI F6 decolorized 99.99% of 600 mg/L congo red within 48 h in yeast extract-glucose medium at 25 °C, pH 5 and 150 rpm. Physicochemical parameters like carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, pH and aeration were optimized to develop faster decolorization process. Dye decolorization rate was maximal (20.21 mg/L h) at 25 °C, pH 5, 150 rpm and 800 mg/L dye, giving 78% final decolorization efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis revealed that the fungus become amorphous after dye adsorption. HPLC and FTIR analysis of the extracted metabolites suggested that the decolorization occurred through biosorption and biodegradation. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and acid-alkali and 70% ethanol treatment revealed the efficient dye retention capability of the fungus. The foregoing results justify the applicability of the strain in removal of congo red from textile wastewaters and their safe disposal.

  5. Structure identification for compound I separated and purified from taxoids-produced endophytic fungi (Alternaria. alternata var. taxi 1011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Yong; LIU Jun; LU An-guo; CUI Jing-xia

    2003-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are widely found in almost all kinds of plants. Many endophytic fungi can produce some physiological active compounds, which are same to or analog to those isolated from their hosts. Producing physiological active compounds through microbial fermentation can give a new way to resolve resource limitation and to find out alternative source. Through the methods of organic solvent extraction, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography, compound I was isolated, purified from the liquid fermentation metabolites of the taxoids-produced endophytic fungi (Alternaria. alternata var. taxi 1011 Y. Xiang et LU An-guo) that was screened from the bark of Taxus. cuspidata Sieb.et Zucc.. Compound I was identified as one kind of taxoids type III, based on the analyzing results by using the methods of ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), infrared spectroscopy (IR), mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). This study provides a completed method for separation and purification of the endophytic fungi as well as structure identification of its fermentation metabolite

  6. In vitro antifungal activity of four chemotypes of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) essential oils against Alternaria solani (Pleosporeaceae) isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazoni, Elisa Z; Pansera, Márcia R; Pauletti, Gabriel F; Moura, Sidnei; Ribeiro, Rute T S; Schwambach, Joséli

    2016-05-31

    Several volatile natural compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism have been proven to present antimicrobial action, enabling their use in phytopathogen control. They also present low environmental impact when compared to conventional pesticides. Essential oils contain these compounds and can be found in several plant species, such as Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae). Essential oils of four chemotypes of L. alba, characterized by their major compounds, namely camphor, citral, linalool and camphor/1,8-cineole, were tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer (Pleosporaceae), which causes early blight on tomatoes and is responsible for great economic losses regarding production. Essential oils antifungal action was tested in vitro using potato dextrose agar medium with essential oil concentrations at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µL mL-1. The chemotype that had the best performance was citral, showing significant inhibition compared to the others, starting at the 0.5 µL mL-1 concentration. The essential oil belonging to the linalool chemotype was efficient starting at the 1.5 µL mL-1 concentration. Conversely, the camphor chemotype did not show any action against the phytopathogen. Moreover, the essential oils had no remarkable effect on tomato germination and growth. In conclusion, these essential oils presented fungicidal action against A. solani. PMID:27254445

  7. Atividades amilolítica e pectinolítica de Alternaria solani e a relação com a agressividade em tomateiro Amilolytic and pectinolytic activities of Alternaria solani and aggressiveness in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Marchi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As atividades amilolítica e pectinolítica de 45 isolados de Alternaria solani, provenientes de diferentes hospedeiros, foram estimadas por meio da difusão enzimática em meio sólido específico e mensuração do halo de degradação do substrato. Todos os isolados degradaram pectina. Apenas 17 isolados apresentaram atividade amilolítica, sendo nove isolados provenientes de batateira. Somente o isolado AS18 se destacou como bom produtor de ambas as enzimas. Uma vez que a atividade pectinolítica foi mais evidente, avaliou-se a influência de pectinases na agressividade de A. solani ao tomateiro. Para isso, cinco isolados (2 de berinjela, 2 de tomateiro e 1 de batateira contrastantes quanto à produção de pectinases foram selecionados para testes em folíolos destacados e plantas inteiras. Quatro isolados foram utilizados no teste em folíolos destacados (AS6, AS7, AS12 e AS26, e constatou-se haver variabilidade patogênica. A correlação obtida entre o tamanho das lesões e a atividade pectinolítica foi de r = 0,963 (P = 0,087. Cinco isolados (AS6, AS7, AS12, AS25 e AS26 foram inoculados em plantas inteiras de tomate. Os isolados não diferiram quanto ao número de lesões/cm² de área foliar, porém variaram em agressividade. Houve correlação (r = 0,916; P = 0,042 entre a atividade de pectinases e o índice de doença, sugerindo possível papel para as enzimas pécticas durante a infecção de A. solani em tomateiro. É provável que as diferenças no perfil enzimático dos isolados estejam associadas ao hospedeiro original de onde os mesmos foram obtidos. Os resultados reforçaram evidências de especificidade por hospedeiro em populações de A. solani.Amilolytic and pectinolytic activities of 45 isolates of Alternaria solani from distinct hosts were investigated. Enzyme secretion was evaluated in glucose-free medium amended with pectin or starch as carbon source. All isolates degraded pectin. Only 17 isolates had amilolytic

  8. Establishment of Protoplast Transformation System in Alternaria tenuissima Using G418 Selection Marker%以G418为筛选标记的极细链格孢菌(Alternaria tenuissima)原生质体转化体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万英; 张大军; 黄云; 蒋伶活

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to establish a protoplast transformation system in Alternaria tenuissima. [Method] The protoplast of A.tenuissima was firstly prepared by enzymolysis method; then the yielded protoplast was transformed by G418 resistant DNA plasmid using PEG/CaCl2 method. [Result] The growth phenotype and PCR detection showed that resistance gene had integrated into A.tenuissima genome. The transformation efficiency of this method reached per μg DNA 3-4 transformants. After subculture thrice under nonselective condition, G418 resistance could still inherit stably. [Conclusion] The transformation system of A.tenuissima was successfully established, which laid basis for studying of the gene function of Alternaria tenuissima.

  9. Biological activities of the fermentation extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata isolated from Coffea arabica L.

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    Maurette dos Reis Vieira Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 endophytic fungi isolated from coffee (Coffea arabica L. were cultivated in vitro and their crude extracts tested. The screening was carried out using the agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The most effective isolate was Alternaria alternata, and subsequently, its extract was assayed. The total phenolic content was 3.44 μg GAE/mg of the crude extract. For the antibacterial and antifungal activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations (MBC and MFC were determined. The ranges of MIC values were 50-100 μg/mL for S. aureus and 400-800 μg/mL for E. coli. The extract did not show activity in the tested concentrations for C. albicans. The fungal crude extract was assayed for antioxidant activities. Its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and antioxidant activity by β-carotene/linoleic acid system oxidation was not significant. In addition, antitumor activity was studied using the MTT assay. At a dilution of 400 μg/mL, the extract displayed a cytotoxic activity of approximately 50% towards HeLa cells in vitro. The results indicate that endophytic fungi could be a promising source of bioactive compounds and warrant further study.Total de 22 fungos endofíticos isolados de café (Coffea arabica L. foi cultivado in vitro e seus extratos testados. A triagem foi conduzida pelo método de difusão em agar contra bactérias Gram-positiva, Gram-negativa e uma levedura. O isolado mais efetivo foi Alternaria alternata e, subsequentemente, seu extrato foi analisado. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais do extrato bruto foi de 3,44 μg EAG/mg de extrato. Para os testes de atividade antimicrobiana, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração bactericida e fungicida mínima (CBM e CFM contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e Candida albicans foram determinadas. Resultados da CIM variaram entre 50-100 μg/mL para

  10. Influence of water activity and temperature on growth and mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Maria Silvina; Ramirez, Maria Laura; Barros, Germán Gustavo; Chulze, Sofia Noemi

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)) (0.99-0.90), temperature (15, 25 and 30°C) and their interactions on growth and alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans. Maximum growth rates were obtained at 0.980 a(w) and 25°C. Minimum a(w) level for growth was dependent on temperature. Both strains were able to grow at the lowest a(w) assayed (0.90). Maximum amount of AOH was produced at 0.98 a(w) but at different temperatures, 15 and 25°C, for the strains RC 21 and RC 39 respectively. Maximum AME production was obtained at 0.98 a(w) and 30°C for both strains. The concentration range of both toxins varied considerably depending on a(w) and temperature interactions. The two metabolites were produced over the temperature range 15 to 30°C and a(w) range 0.99 to 0.96. The limiting a(w) for detectable mycotoxin production is slightly greater than that for growth. Two-dimensional profiles of a(w)× temperature were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk from AOH and AME accumulation on soya bean. Knowledge of AOH and AME production under marginal or sub-optimal temperature and a(w) conditions for growth can be important since improper storage conditions accompanied by elevated temperature and moisture content in the grain can favour further mycotoxin production and lead to reduction in grain quality. This could present a hazard if the grain is used for human consumption or animal feedstuff.

  11. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds

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    Sharma Bechan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz, against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 μg/ml of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100% of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 μg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 μg/ml of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata.

  12. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p < 0.0001) between disease rating group means. In the majority of the experiments, comparisons of diseased plants with healthy plants using Fisher's LSD revealed more heavily diseased plants were significantly different from healthy plants. PLS analysis demonstrated the feasibility of detecting early blight infected plants, finding four optimal factors for raw spectra with the predictor variation explained ranging from 93.4% to 94.6% and the response variation explained ranging from 42.7% to 64.7%. Cluster analysis successfully distinguished healthy plants from all diseased plants except for the most mildly diseased plants, showing clustering analysis was an effective method for detection of early blight. Analysis of the reflectance spectra using the simple ratio (SR) and the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) was effective at differentiating all diseased plants from healthy plants, except for the

  13. DNA damage and repair kinetics of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, altertoxin II and stemphyltoxin III in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Stefanie C; Sauter, Friederike; Pfeiffer, Erika; Metzler, Manfred; Hartwig, Andrea; Köberle, Beate

    2016-03-01

    The Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and altertoxin II (ATX II) have previously been shown to elicit mutagenic and genotoxic effects in bacterial and mammalian cells, although with vastly different activities. For example, ATX II was about 50 times more mutagenic than AOH. We now report that stemphyltoxin III (STTX III) is also highly mutagenic. The more pronounced effects of the perylene quinones ATX II and STTX III at lower concentrations compared to the dibenzo-α-pyrone AOH indicate a marked dependence of the genotoxic potential on the chemical structure and furthermore suggest that the underlying modes of action may be different. We have now further investigated the type of DNA damage induced by AOH, ATX II and STTX III, as well as the repair kinetics and their dependence on the status of nucleotide excision repair (NER). DNA double strand breaks induced by AOH due to poisoning of topoisomerase IIα were completely repaired in less than 2h. Under cell-free conditions, inhibition of topoisomerase IIα could also be measured for ATX II and STTX III at low concentrations, but the perylene quinones were catalytic inhibitors rather than topoisomerase poisons and did not induce DSBs. DNA strand breaks induced by ATX II and STTX III were more persistent and not completely repaired within 24h. A dependence of the repair rate on the NER status could only be demonstrated for STTX III, resulting in an accumulation of DNA damage in NER-deficient cells. Together with the finding that the DNA glycosylase formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), but not T4 endonuclease V, is able to generate additional DNA strand breaks measurable by the alkaline unwinding assay, we conclude that the genotoxicity of the perylene quinones with an epoxide group is probably caused by the formation of DNA adducts which may be converted to Fpg sensitive sites.

  14. Inducible and constitutive expression of an elicitor gene Hrip1 from Alternaria tenuissima enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xue-Cong; Qiu, De-Wen; Zeng, Hong-Mei; Guo, Li-Hua; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Hrip1 is a novel hypersensitive response-inducing protein secreted by Alternaria tenuissima that activates defense responses and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco. This study investigates the role that Hrip1 plays in responses to abiotic and biotic stress using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the Hrip1 gene under the control of the stress-inducible rd29A promoter or constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Bioassays showed that inducible Hrip1 expression in rd29A∷Hrip1 transgenic lines had a significantly higher effect on plant height, silique length, plant dry weight, seed germination and root length under salt and drought stress compared to expression in 35S∷Hrip1 lines and wild type plants. The level of enhancement of resistance to Botrytis cinerea by the 35S∷Hrip1 lines was higher than in the rd29A∷Hrip1 lines. Moreover, stress-related gene expression in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines was significantly increased by 200 mM NaCl and 200 mM mannitol treatments, and defense genes in the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated after Botrytis inoculation in the Hrip1 transgenic plants. Furthermore, the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidase and catalase increased after salt and drought stress and Botrytis infection. These results suggested that the Hrip1 protein contributes to abiotic and biotic resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis and may be used as a useful gene for resistance breeding in crops. Although the constitutive expression of Hrip1 is suitable for biotic resistance, inducible Hrip1 expression is more responsive for abiotic resistance. PMID:25120219

  15. The effect of cytosolic extract of Alternaria aternata fungus on Monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation and T-lymphocyte polarization in the presence of myelin basic protein

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    Loghmanni A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with impairment in function of central nervous system. Macrophages and dendritic cells play important roles in alleviating or progression of the disease. These cells can cause inflammation and damage to the myelin of nerve cells by realizing of harmful substances when these cells get matured. We studied the effect of Alternaria alternata extract on maturation of monocyte- derived dendritic cell (modc and T-cell responses in the presence of Myelin Basic Protein (MBP as a laboratory model of multiple sclerosis (MS. The purpose of this study is suitable dendritic cells production for usage in MS immunotherapy.Methods: For this study plastic adherent monocytes were cultured with granulocyte/ macrophage- colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin -4 for converting these cells to modc and pulsed with MBP and matured in the presence of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM in control group and MCM + Alternaria alternata extract in treatment groups. Anti-CD14, anti-CD83, anti-human leukocyte antigen-DR (anti HLA-DR monoclonal antibody were carried out for phenotyping. Autologos T cell responses and cytokine production were evaluated.Results: The results showed that the expression of CD14 decreased and CD83, HLA-DR increased in treatment groups in comparison with control groups. The production amount of IL-10 overcame IL-12 and in T cell the production of cytokines, IL-17 and Interferon-γ (IFN-γ decreased and IL-4 was increased (P<0.05. These effects escalated with increasing of dosage from 50 to 100 (mg/ml (P<0.001.Conclusion: Alternaria alternata extract can cause maturation of MBP-pulsed modc and skewing of T- lymphocyte toward Th2 and thereby can evolve into a new strategy in immunotherapy of MS.

  16. IN VITRO BIOACTIVITY OF CREOSOTE BUSH EXTRACTS (LARREA TRIDENTATA ON THE INHIBITION OF POSTHARVEST FUNGI: PENICILLIUM POLONICUM, ASPERGILLUS NIGER, RHIZOPUS ORYZAE Y ALTERNARIA TENUISSIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Peñuelas-Rubio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la eficiencia de extractos vegetales deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con diclorometano, etanol, metanol y agua, sobre el crecimiento radial in vitro de cuatro hongos fitopatógenos, los cuales primeramente fueron identificados en género y especie empleando claves taxonómicas y técnicas moleculares. Para los bioensayosin vitrose aplicaron diseños completamente al azar con cuatro tratamientos y tres repeticiones en cada hongo, utilizando las concentraciones: 0, 250, 500 y 750 ppm paraAlternaria sp.; 0, 2000, 2500 y 3000 paraAspergillus sp.; 0, 1500, 1750 y 2000 paraPenicillium sp. y 0, 150, 200 y 250 ppm paraRhizopus sp. Cada tratamiento tuvo tres repeticiones. El análisis molecular determinó la especie tenuissima paraAlternaria,nigerparaApergillus,polonicumparaPenicilliumyoryzaeparaRhizopus. En cuanto a las pruebasin vitro, se determinaron inhibiciones del 100% para tres de los hongos en estudio:Alternaria tenuissimacon extracto EtOH a 750 ppm;Aspergillus nigercon extracto DCM a 3000 ppm yRhizopus oryzaea partir de 150 ppm y 250 ppm de los extractos DCM y EtOH respectivamente. Se presentó una inhibición del 82% a 2000 ppm paraPenicillium polonicum. Se concluye que a pesar de las diferencias en susceptibilidad entre las especies fúngicas, los extractos deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con etanol y dicloromentano son efectivos para el control de los hongos fitopatógenos bajo estudioin vitro.

  17. Activity Screening of Alternaria spp. on Plant Pathogenic Fungi%链格孢菌抗植物病原真菌活性筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周稚凡; 黄伟; 谢津; 李靖

    2013-01-01

    活性筛选是开发利用微生物资源的第一步,在生物农药、抗菌素及天然药物开发颇为急切的今天,对微生物抑菌活性的研究具有重要的理论和现实意义。本研究以水稻稻瘟病菌(Magnaporthe grisea)、小麦雪腐病菌(Typhula incarnate)等10种重要植物病原真菌为研究对象,采用滤纸片法对云南西双版纳地区分离得到的20株链格孢菌(Alternaria spp.)进行抗菌活性筛选,获得对10种植物病原菌有广谱抗性的链格孢菌4株,编号分别为SWFC 0364,10102,0845,5828,其中菌株0364的抑菌活性最强,对小麦雪腐、梨黑星、三七丝核的抑菌圈直径均达到2 cm以上,该研究结果为活性物质的分离奠定了基础。%Antimicrobial activity screening is the first step in the development and utilization of microorganism resources. Today, there exists theoretical and realistic significance in antimicrobial activity screening for urgent utilization of biological pesticides, antibiotics and natural drugs. In this research, antimicrobial activity of Alternaria isolated from Yunnan Province in resisting ten important plant pathogenic fungi, such as Magnaporthe grisea and Typhula incarnate, were studied through the method of filter paper. Results showed that 4 broad-spectrum strains of Alternaria restrained those ten plant pathogenic fungi. Of them, the antimicrobial activity of Alternaria 0364 was the best, and its diameters of inhibition zone in resisting Typhula incarnate, Venturia pyrina and Verticillium cinnabarium all exceeded 2 cm. This research results provided basis for the isolation of active substances.

  18. Detección de Alternaria spp mediante técnicas genéticas como índice de calidad de materias primas y marcador de bioseguridad en productos hortofrutícolas frescos y procesados

    OpenAIRE

    Pavón Moreno, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    NOTA 520 8 La contaminación de alimentos con hongos filamentosos productores de toxinas tiene efectos negativos sobre la salud animal y humana, además de causar pérdidas millonarias en la industria agroalimentaria. Entre los mohos toxigénicos más frecuentemente encontrados en los alimentos predominan las especies pertenecientes a los géneros Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus y Alternaria. En el género Alternaria se incluyen numerosas especies patógenas y saprofitas ampliamente distribuidas...

  19. Division of ecological species groups and functional groups based on interspecific association - a case study of the tree layer in the tropical lowland rainforest of Jianfenling in Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yide LI; Han XU; Dexiang CHEN; Tushou LUO; Jinhua MO; Wen LUO; Huangqiang CHEN; Zhongliang JIANG

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-three sample plots dominated by Vatica mangachapoi at various elevations in the tropical lowland rainforest in the Jianfengling National Nature Reserve of Hainan Island were established. The interspecific asso-ciation among the 32 dominant species was analyzed and the division of ecological species groups and functional groups are discussed. The results showed that these dom-inant populations had an overall positive interspecific asso-ciation. The species pairs with significant, positive association accounted for only about 10% of the total 496 species pairs. Most of the other species pairs showed weak association or non-association, i.e., the dominant popula-tions investigated had relatively independent distributions. The 32 dominant species were divided into four ecological species groups and ten functional groups according to their interspecific association coefficients, based on a cluster ana-lysis of the species. Recognition characteristics of the ten functional groups are proposed.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of the Resveratrol Biosynthesis Pathway in an Endophytic Fungus (Alternaria sp. MG1) Isolated from Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jinxin; Shi, Junling; Gao, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria sp. MG1, an endophytic fungus previously isolated from Merlot grape, produces resveratrol from glucose, showing similar metabolic flux to the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, currently found solely in plants. In order to identify the resveratrol biosynthesis pathway in this strain at the gene level, de novo transcriptome sequencing was conducted using Illumina paired-end sequencing. A total of 22,954,434 high-quality reads were assembled into contigs and 18,570 unigenes were identified. Among these unigenes, 14,153 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 5341 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. After KEGG mapping, 2701 unigenes were mapped onto 115 pathways. Eighty-four unigenes were annotated in major pathways from glucose to resveratrol, coding 20 enzymes for glycolysis, 10 for phenylalanine biosynthesis, 4 for phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and 4 for stilbenoid biosynthesis. Chalcone synthase was identified for resveratrol biosynthesis in this strain, due to the absence of stilbene synthase. All the identified enzymes indicated a reasonable biosynthesis pathway from glucose to resveratrol via glycolysis, phenylalanine biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and stilbenoid pathways. These results provide essential evidence for the occurrence of resveratrol biosynthesis in Alternaria sp. MG1 at the gene level, facilitating further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in this strain's secondary metabolism. PMID:27588016

  1. Comparison of methodologies for conidia production by Alternaria alternata from citrus Comparação de metodologias para produção de conídios por Alternaria alternata do citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. C. Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conidia production is a problem in the study of Alternaria alternata from citrus. Thus, this study aimed to compare existing methodologies for conidial production of A. alternata isolated from Ponkan tangerine (2 isolates, Cravo lemon (1 isolate, Pêra orange (2 isolates and Murcott tangor (1 isolate. The methodologies used were conidia production with 12 and 24 hours under white fluorescent light, evaluation with 24 and 48 hours after applying fungal mycelium stress technique, cold stress followed by injury of mycelium and evaluation with 24 hours, using healthy vegetable tissue and the use of black fluorescent near ultraviolet (NUV lamp. Satisfactory result was obtained with A. alternata isolate from Murcott tangor, with the production of 2.8 x 10(5 conidia mL-1, when fungal mycelium was stressed (Petri dish with 66.66% of fungi growth and subsequently 24 h of growth. The use of white light (24 h and black fluorescent NUV lamp also induced expressive conidia production by one isolate of Ponkan tangerine, which produced 17.2 x 10(5 and 10.1 x 10(5 conidia mL-1 and another of Murcott tangor, which produced 13.9 x 10(5 and 10.1 x 10(5 conidia mL-1, respectively. The remaining methodologies analyzed in this study were not able to induce conidia production in satisfactory quantity. The use of both mycelium stress technique and white light (24 h and black fluorescent NUV lamp allowed the production of enough quantities of conidia to be used in vitro (detection of fungitoxic substancesand in vivo (pathogenicity testassays, respectively.A produção de conídios consiste em problema no estudo de Alternaria alternata do citros. Assim, este estudo objetivou comparar metodologias existentes para a produção de conídios de A. alternata por dois isolados de tangerina Ponkan, um de limão Cravo, dois de laranja Pêra e um de tangor Murcott. As metodologias empregadas foram a produção de conídios com 12 e 24 horas sob luz branca, avaliação com 24 e 48

  2. Arabidopsis Elongator subunit 2 positively contributes to resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggang; Ding, Yezhang; Yao, Jin; Zhang, Yanping; Sun, Yijun; Colee, James; Mou, Zhonglin

    2015-09-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex functions in diverse biological processes including salicylic acid-mediated immune response. However, how Elongator functions in jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-mediated defense is unknown. Here, we show that Elongator is required for full induction of the JA/ET defense pathway marker gene PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2) and for resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola. A loss-of-function mutation in the Arabidopsis Elongator subunit 2 (ELP2) alters B. cinerea-induced transcriptome reprogramming. Interestingly, in elp2, expression of WRKY33, OCTADECANOID-RESPONSIVE ARABIDOPSIS AP2/ERF59 (ORA59), and PDF1.2 is inhibited, whereas transcription of MYC2 and its target genes is enhanced. However, overexpression of WRKY33 or ORA59 and mutation of MYC2 fail to restore PDF1.2 expression and B. cinerea resistance in elp2, suggesting that ELP2 is required for induction of not only WRKY33 and ORA59 but also PDF1.2. Moreover, elp2 is as susceptible as coronatine-insensitive1 (coi1) and ethylene-insensitive2 (ein2) to B. cinerea, indicating that ELP2 is an important player in B. cinerea resistance. Further analysis of the lesion sizes on the double mutants elp2 coi1 and elp2 ein2 and the corresponding single mutants revealed that the function of ELP2 overlaps with COI1 and is additive to EIN2 for B. cinerea resistance. Finally, basal histone acetylation levels in the coding regions of WRKY33, ORA59, and PDF1.2 are reduced in elp2 and a functional ELP2-GFP fusion protein binds to the chromatin of these genes, suggesting that constitutive ELP2-mediated histone acetylation may be required for full activation of the WRKY33/ORA59/PDF1.2 transcriptional cascade.

  3. 我国部分区域链格孢属 rDNA ITS区序列分析%Sequence Analysis of ITS Region of rDNA of Alternaria Nees. from Some Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何劲; 康冀川; 谢红艳; 雷帮星; 文庭池

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to identify Alternaria Nees. from some areas of China at molecular level by analyzing the rDNA ITS sequence.[Method] The DNA sequences coding for the 5.8S rDNA and the flanking internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified by PCR with universal primers ITS4 and ITS5 and subsequently sequenced for 34 Alternaria isolates from different areas of China.[Result] Sequences analysis showed that 5.8S rDNA was 159 bp and no variation in tested 34 isolates. There had variables sites in ITS. The isolates that had same sequences as A.tenuissima or A.alternata all put up eurytopicity to area and host. The variables sites of the isolates showed the diversity of Alternaria in the hosts of Oleaceae, Rosaceae and Solanaceae. At the same time that ITS could not clearly separated the isolates was indicated. The results indicated that the phylogenetic relationship were not closely related to the geographical origin and hosts of these isolates.[Conclusion] The sequence analysis of ITS region could provide theory basis for the identification of Alternaria Nees..

  4. Molecular characterization and detection of mutations associated with resistance to succinate dehydrogenase-inhibiting fungicides in Alternaria solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, I; Arabiat, S; Pasche, J S; Bolton, M D; Patel, J S; Gudmestad, N C

    2014-01-01

    Early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, is an economically important foliar disease of potato in several production areas of the United States. Few potato cultivars possess resistance to early blight; therefore, the application of fungicides is the primary means of achieving disease control. Previous work in our laboratory reported resistance to the succinate dehydrogenase-inhibiting (SDHI) fungicide boscalid in this plant pathogen with a concomitant loss of disease control. Two phenotypes were detected, one in which A. solani isolates were moderately resistant to boscalid, the other in which isolates were highly resistant to the fungicide. Resistance in other fungal plant pathogens to SDHI fungicides is known to occur due to amino acid exchanges in the soluble subunit succinate dehydrogenase B (SdhB), C (SdhC), and D (SdhD) proteins. In this study, the AsSdhB, AsSdhC, and AsSdhD genes were analyzed and compared in sensitive (50% effective concentration [EC50] 100 μg ml(-1)) A. solani isolates. In total, five mutations were detected, two in each of the AsSdhB and AsSdhD genes and one in the AsSdhC gene. The sequencing of AsSdhB elucidated point mutations cytosine (C) to thymine (T) at nucleotide 990 and adenine (A) to guanine (G) at nucleotide 991, leading to an exchange from histidine to tyrosine (H278Y) or arginine (H278R), respectively, at codon 278. The H278R exchange was detected in 4 of 10 A. solani isolates moderately resistant to boscalid, exhibiting EC50 values of 6 to 8 μg ml(-1). Further genetic analysis also confirmed this mutation in isolates with high and very high EC50 values for boscalid of 28 to 500 μg ml(-1). Subsequent sequencing of AsSdhC and AsSdhD genes confirmed the presence of additional mutations from A to G at nucleotide position 490 in AsSdhC and at nucleotide position 398 in the AsSdhD, conferring H134R and H133R exchanges in AsSdhC and AsSdhD, respectively. The H134R exchange in AsSdhC was observed in A. solani isolates with

  5. Molecular characterization and detection of mutations associated with resistance to succinate dehydrogenase-inhibiting fungicides in Alternaria solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, I; Arabiat, S; Pasche, J S; Bolton, M D; Patel, J S; Gudmestad, N C

    2014-01-01

    Early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, is an economically important foliar disease of potato in several production areas of the United States. Few potato cultivars possess resistance to early blight; therefore, the application of fungicides is the primary means of achieving disease control. Previous work in our laboratory reported resistance to the succinate dehydrogenase-inhibiting (SDHI) fungicide boscalid in this plant pathogen with a concomitant loss of disease control. Two phenotypes were detected, one in which A. solani isolates were moderately resistant to boscalid, the other in which isolates were highly resistant to the fungicide. Resistance in other fungal plant pathogens to SDHI fungicides is known to occur due to amino acid exchanges in the soluble subunit succinate dehydrogenase B (SdhB), C (SdhC), and D (SdhD) proteins. In this study, the AsSdhB, AsSdhC, and AsSdhD genes were analyzed and compared in sensitive (50% effective concentration [EC50] resistant (EC50 = 5.1 to 20 μg ml(-1)), highly resistant (EC50 = 20.1 to 100 μg ml(-1)), and very highly resistant (EC50 > 100 μg ml(-1)) A. solani isolates. In total, five mutations were detected, two in each of the AsSdhB and AsSdhD genes and one in the AsSdhC gene. The sequencing of AsSdhB elucidated point mutations cytosine (C) to thymine (T) at nucleotide 990 and adenine (A) to guanine (G) at nucleotide 991, leading to an exchange from histidine to tyrosine (H278Y) or arginine (H278R), respectively, at codon 278. The H278R exchange was detected in 4 of 10 A. solani isolates moderately resistant to boscalid, exhibiting EC50 values of 6 to 8 μg ml(-1). Further genetic analysis also confirmed this mutation in isolates with high and very high EC50 values for boscalid of 28 to 500 μg ml(-1). Subsequent sequencing of AsSdhC and AsSdhD genes confirmed the presence of additional mutations from A to G at nucleotide position 490 in AsSdhC and at nucleotide position 398 in the AsSdhD, conferring H134R and H

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata and on mycotoxins Alternariol and Alternariol monomethyl ether in artificially contaminated cereal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different gamma irradiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata and on production of mycotoxins Alternariol (AOH) and Alternariol Monomethyl Ether (AME) in cereal samples. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of CFU/g in rice grains and sunflower seeds, which were proportional to radiation dose used. However, in corn and wheat grains was observed an increase in the number of CFU/g with the increase of gamma irradiation. The radiation doses used resulted in a reduction of AOH levels. In rice and corn grains, the production of AOH was highest in the group irradiated with 5 kGy. Similar result was obtained with relation to AME. Scanning electron microscopy made it possible to visualize structural alterations on A. alternata induced by the different g-radiation doses used. Analysis of irradiated AOH and AME toxins standards did not show any alteration comparing to the control group. (author)

  7. Identification and characterization of cDNA sequences encoding the HIS3 and LEU2 genes of the fungus Alternaria tenuissima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Wan; Xuli Wang; Yun Huang; Dewen Qiu; Linghuo Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Alternaria tenuissima is a fungus widely present in the environment and could cause diseases in plants and humans.In this study,through a yeast genetic approach,cDNA sequences were isolated and characterized for the AtHIS3 and AtLEU2 genes.AtHIS3 cDNA encodes a protein of 238 amino acids,while AtLEU2 cDNA encodes a protein of 363 amino acids.Based on the phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of AtHis3p and AtLeu2p,A.tenuissima is closely related to the plant pathogenic fungus Phaeosphaeria nodorum.This study provides two genetic markers for studies of functions of genes regulating development,morphology,and virulence of A.tenuissima.

  8. A new species of Lachesilla (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae from Dominica, representing a new species group Una especie nueva de Lachesilla (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae de Dominica, que representa un nuevo grupo de especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso N. García Aldrete

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Lachesilla, from Cabrits National Park, St. John's Parish, Dominica, is here described and illustrated. The phallosome is V-shaped, and it is autapomorphic in having the distal ends of the apodeme arms articulated to each clasper. Based on these characters, a new species group is created, close to the L. forcepeta and L. palmera species groups (the latter also diagnosed in this paper. The holotype is deposited in the National Insect Collection (CNIN, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Lachesilla, procedente de Cabrits National Park, St. John's Parish, Dominica. El falosoma tiene forma de V, y es autapomórfico en tener los extremos distales de los brazos articulados a cada clásper. Con base en estos caracteres, se crea un nuevo grupo de especies, cercano a los grupos de L. forcepeta y L. palmera (este último también definido en este trabajo. El holotipo está depositado en la Colección Nacional de Insectos (CNIN, alojada en el Instituto de Biología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D. F.

  9. Survey and prevalence of species causing Alternaria leaf spots on brassica species in Pernambuco Levantamento e prevalência de espécies causadoras da alternariose em brássicas em Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami J Michereff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassicaceae family comprises plant species that are very important as vegetable crops, such as the species complex Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae are among the most important pathogens of Brassicaceae causing Alternaria leaf spot disease. The occurrence and prevalence of Alternaria species causing leaf spots in brassica crops in Pernambuco was acessed, as well as the existence of a possible preference by vegetable host for these pathogens. Twenty-eight fields were surveyed in the Agreste region of Pernambuco state, in the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. In each year, 10 Chinese cabbage, six cabbage, six cauliflower and six broccoli fields were visited. In each field, 50 leaves showing at least five lesions were randomly collected. Species identification was performed taking into account morphology of the conidia that was compared with literature data. Among the two Alternaria species found, A. brassicae was found in all Chinese cabbage fields while A. brassicicola was found in all fields of cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli. Overall, A. brassicicola was more prevalent than A. brassicae. In Chinese cabbage there was predominance of A. brassicae, with mean prevalence of 91.0% and 96.5% in 2005 and 2006. On the other hand, in broccoli and cabbage there was high predominance of A. brassicicola, with mean prevalence between 95.1% and 99.8%. In cauliflower, although the prevalence has been of A. brassicicola, high frequency of A. brassicae was noted. The frequency of co-occurrence of both Alternaria species was very low. The results of this study reinforce the hypothesis of existence of host preference within species of Alternaria that cause leaf spots in brassica crops, especially when Chinese cabbage, broccoli and cabbage are considered. This information is critical to developing strategies for managing Alternaria leaf spots in Brassicaceae species.A família Brassicaceae possui espécies importantes

  10. Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure from synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae): an enigmatic species-group needing phylogeographic analysis, with an overview on the origin and distribution of centipedes in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood, 1862, and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure, 1860, from junior synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach, 1815, is proposed. A neotype specimen of Scolopendra longipes is designated. Scolopendra longipes has a restricted range from the Dry Tortugas up through the Florida Keys of Monroe County into the mainland Florida counties of Collier and Dade southeast to the Bahamas, while Scolopendra cubensis is endemic to Cuba. Characters distinguishing S. longipes, and S. cubensis from S. alternans are illustrated and compared using digital photography, micrography and morphometric data. It is suggested that what has been considered Scolopendra alternans from southern Florida through the Caribbean and into northern South America is probably an evolving species-group that has undergone major diversification sometime during the Paleocene and early Eocene ~65.5-50 million years ago (Ma), mainly due to geographic isolation caused by a combination of plate tectonics and 100,000 year cycles of glaciation/deglaciation. PMID:27394893

  11. Simultaneous determination of gallic acid, methyl gallate and ellagic acid in gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier by HPLC%HPLC法同时测定维药没食子中没食子酸、没食子酸甲酯和鞣花酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧亮苗; 阿来·赛坎; 李柯翱; 季志红; 田树革

    2015-01-01

    Objective To dertermine the content of gallic acid, methyl gallate and ellagic acid in galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier from different batches by HPLC. Methods The chromatogram colume was Agilent Zorbax SB-C18(4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5μm), gradiently eluting with methanol as mobile phase A and 0.01%phosphoric acid as B at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The injection volumn was 5 μl. Detection wavelength was at 258 nm. Results Gallic acid was linear in the range of 0.0318-0.1871 g/L with correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The average recovery was 97.52%with RSD 1.41%. Methyl gallate was linear in the range of 0.0769-0.4612 g/L with correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The average recovery was 99.15% with RSD at 1.46%. Ellagic acid was linear in the range of 0.0158-0.0553 g/L with correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The average recovery was 102.75% with RSD at 0.87%. Conclusion The method is convenient, fast, accurate and practicable, and can be used for controling the quality of the galls of Q. infectoria.%目的 建立维药没食子中没食子酸、没食子酸甲酯和鞣花酸的HPLC含量测定的方法,并检测10批没食子中没食子酸、没食子酸甲酯和鞣花酸的含量. 方法 采用高效液相色谱法,Agilent Zorbax SB-C18柱(4.6 mm × 250 mm,5μm),流动相甲醇(A)-0.05%磷酸水溶液(B)进行梯度洗脱,流速1 ml/min,进样量5 μl, 检测波长258 nm.结果 没食子酸的质量浓度在0.0318 ~ 0.1871 g/L(r=0.9994)呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率为97.52%,RSD为1.41%;没食子酸甲酯的质量浓度在0 . 0769~ 0 . 4612 g/L(r=0 . 9994)呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率为99 . 15%, RSD为1 . 46%;鞣花酸的质量浓度在0 . 0158~0.0553 g/L(r=0.9998)呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率为102.75%,RSD为0.87%.结论 本方法简便、快速、准确、重复性好,为维药没食子质量控制提供定量依据.

  12. 一种快速、特异性检测小麦中链格孢菌(Alternaria alternata)的巢式 PCR 方法%A Rapid and Specific Nest-PCR Method for Detection of Alternaria alternata in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦召; 李巧云; 段宗彪; 姜玉梅; 牛吉山

    2014-01-01

    为建立检测小麦中链格孢菌(Alternaria alternata )的方法,从河南省小麦黑胚籽粒上分离得到7个优势 A.alternata 病原菌株,对其 rDNA 的内部转录间隔区序列(ITS)进行测序,序列比较表明,分离到的病原菌株与 GenBank 公布的 A.alternata 的 ITS 区序列一致性达到99%~100%。根据 Alternaria 属菌株(A.alternata、A.tenuis、A.tenuissima)和麦类根腐离蠕孢菌(Bipolaris sorokiniana )的 ITS 序列比对结果,设计出1对 A.alternata 特异性引物 Aa1F/Aa1R。利用多种河南省小麦的主要病原真菌对该引物的特异性进行验证,只有在 A.alternata 中能特异性地扩增出1条443 bp 的 DNA 片段。以真菌通用引物 ITS1/ITS4为外侧引物、特异性引物Aa1F/Aa1R 为内侧引物进行巢式 PCR 扩增,能检测到 A.alternata DNA 的最低质量浓度为50 pg/μL。因此,建立的巢式 PCR 方法能够快速、特异地检测小麦中的 A.alternata。%The aim of this study was to establish a method for detection of Alternaria alternata in wheat.Seven dominating isolates of A.alternata from wheat black point grains in Henan province were collected,and then their internal transcribed spacer(ITS)regions in rDNA were sequenced, and the sequence analysis showed that the ITS sequences were highly similar among isolates of A.alternata isolated in this study and in GenBank by 99%-100%.According to the comparative result of ITS sequences of Alternaria spp.(A.alternate,A.tenuis,A.tenuissima)and Bipolaris sorokiniana,a pair of primers,namely Aa1F and Aa1R,were designed.Specificity of the primers was tested with several major fungal pathogens of wheat in Henan province,and a 443 bp specific DNA fragment could be amplified only from A.alternata.A rapid and specific nest-PCR method for detection of A.alternata in wheat was established with fungal universal primers ITS1/ITS4 as the outer primers and Aa1F/Aa1R as the inner primers

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata and on mycotoxins Alternariol and Alternariol monomethyl ether in artificially contaminated cereal samples;Efeitos da radiacao gama no fungo Alternaria alternata e nas micotoxinas Alternariol e Alternariol monometil eter em amostras de cereais artificialmente contaminadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braghini, Raquel

    2009-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different gamma irradiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata and on production of mycotoxins Alternariol (AOH) and Alternariol Monomethyl Ether (AME) in cereal samples. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of CFU/g in rice grains and sunflower seeds, which were proportional to radiation dose used. However, in corn and wheat grains was observed an increase in the number of CFU/g with the increase of gamma irradiation. The radiation doses used resulted in a reduction of AOH levels. In rice and corn grains, the production of AOH was highest in the group irradiated with 5 kGy. Similar result was obtained with relation to AME. Scanning electron microscopy made it possible to visualize structural alterations on A. alternata induced by the different g-radiation doses used. Analysis of irradiated AOH and AME toxins standards did not show any alteration comparing to the control group. (author)

  14. CONTROL OF Alternaria porri (E11 CIF. AND TOXIC EFFECT OF CAPTAFOL SPRAYING IN GARLIC (Allium sativum L. CONTROLE DE Alternaria porri (E11 Cif. E EFEITO FITOTÓXICO DE CAPTAFOL EM PULVERIZAÇÃO NA CULTURA DO ALHO (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraídes Fernandes Carneiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of the present work was to verify the effect of the different concentrations of the captafol fungicide (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 g.i.a./100 l of water, in the control of Alternaria porri (E11 Cif. and their toxic effects on plants, in two cultivars of garlic (Lavinia and Centenário. The results show that, for the cultivars tested, the fungicide, in the concentrations utilized, didn’t control the pathogen, and it didn’t show fitotoxicity.

    Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do Captafol no controle de Alternaria porri (E11 Cif. na cultura do alho, e seus efeitos fitotóxicos nesta A1iácea, foi instalado um experimento nas dependências da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas utilizando-se as cultivares Lavinia e Centenário, submetidas a pulverizações com o fungicida nas seguintes concentrações: 0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 gramas do princípio ativo por 100 litros de água. Os resultados indicam que, para as duas cultivares utilizadas, o Captafol não controlou o patógeno, nem se mostrou fitotóxico.

  15. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  16. Analysis of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether on flavedo and albedo tissues of tangerines (Citrus reticulata) with symptoms of alternaria brown spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Rodrigo F; De Souza, Gezimar D; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

    2007-06-27

    A method was developed for the quantification of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether on tangerines with and without symptoms of Alternaria brown spot disease. The method employs solid-phase extraction for cleanup, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for detection. This method was validated on flavedo (exocarp or epicarp, exterior yellow peel) and on albedo tissue (mesocarp, interior white peel). An excellent linearity over a range of 0.50-20.0 mg/kg was achieved, with r2 >or= 0.997. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were fewer than 0.13 and 0.50 microg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were

  17. Solvent Effects on the Ultrastructure and Chemical Composition of Cuticular Wax and Its Potential Bioactive Role Against Alternaria alternata in Pingguoli Pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Song-jiang; LI Yong-cai; BI Yang; YIN Yan; GE Yong-hong; WANG Yi

    2014-01-01

    Effects of different polarity solvents on the ultrastructure and chemical composition of cuticular wax in Pingguoli pear as well as their bioactive role against Alternaria alternate were studied and the results showed that the highest wax content was extracted with chloroform, and its wax content was up to 322.2 µg cm-2. Long-chain fatty acids predominated in menthol extracts and n-alkanes were predominant in wax extracted with ether, chloroform and n-hexane. Pingguoli pear fruit surface was covered by a smooth and amorphous wax layer with small, scattered crystal. The morphology of recrystallized wax in vitro after removal with different solvents was not similar to that of the intact fruit surface. Removal of cuticular wax with various solvents signiifcantly enhanced A. alternata infection, except for wax removed by methanol. The solvent extracts of methanol and chloroform stimulated the spore germination and mycelium growth of A. alternata, but the ether and n-hexane extracts showed antifungal activity.

  18. Antibacterial effect of an extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata and its cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 tumour cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EZHIL ARIVUDAINAMBI U.S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for new and effective antimicrobial agents to treat life-threatening diseases. Fungal endophytes are receiving increasing attention by natural product chemists due to the diverse and structurally unprecedented compounds, which make them interesting candidates for drug discovery. The present study evaluates the antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata VN3 on multi-resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as its cytotoxicity on MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 tumour cell lines of breast cancer. The maximum inhibition zone of 21.4±0.07 mm and 21.5±0.25 mm was observed for S. aureus strain 10 and P. aeruginosa strain 2, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 100 to 900 μg/ml for S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Further, the ethyl acetate extract of A. alternata VN3 exhibited moderate anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cell lines. At 30 μg/ml the cell viability was decreased to 75.5% and 71.8% for MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the metabolites of A. alternata VN3 are a potential source for production of new drugs.

  19. A Zinc-Finger-Family Transcription Factor, AbVf19, Is Required for the Induction of a Gene Subset Important for Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Akhil [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Ohm, Robin A. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Oxiles, Lindsay [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Brooks, Fred [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Lawrence, Christopher B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Grigoriev, Igor V. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Cho, Yangrae [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States)

    2011-10-26

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen with a broad host range within the family Brassicaceae. It produces secondary metabolites that marginally affect virulence. Cell wall degrading enzymes (CDWE) have been considered important for pathogenesis but none of them individually have been identified as significant virulence factors in A. brassicicola. In this study, knockout mutants of a gene, AbVf19, were created and produced considerably smaller lesions than the wild type on inoculated host plants. The presence of tandem zinc-finger domains in the predicted amino acid sequence and nuclear localization of AbVf19- reporter protein suggested that it was a transcription factor. Gene expression comparisons using RNA-seq identified 74 genes being downregulated in the mutant during a late stage of infection. Among the 74 downregulated genes, 28 were putative CWDE genes. These were hydrolytic enzyme genes that composed a small fraction of genes within each family of cellulases, pectinases, cutinases, and proteinases. The mutants grew slower than the wild type on an axenic medium with pectin as a major carbon source. This study demonstrated the existence and the importance of a transcription factor that regulates a suite of genes that are important for decomposing and utilizing plant material during the late stage of plant infection.

  20. The Fus3/Kss1 MAP kinase homolog Amk1 regulates the expression of genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes in Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yangrae; Cramer, Robert A; Kim, Kwang-Hyung; Davis, Josh; Mitchell, Thomas K; Figuli, Patricia; Pryor, Barry M; Lemasters, Emily; Lawrence, Christopher B

    2007-06-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been shown to be required for virulence in diverse phytopathogenic fungi. To study its role in pathogenicity, we disrupted the Amk1 MAP kinase gene, a homolog of the Fus3/Kss1 MAP kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the necrotrophic Brassica pathogen, Alternaria brassicicola. The amk1 disruption mutants showed null pathogenicity on intact host plants. However, amk1 mutants were able to colonize host plants when they were inoculated on a physically damaged host surface, or when they were inoculated along with nutrient supplements. On intact plants, mutants expressed extremely low amounts of several hydrolytic enzyme genes that were induced over 10-fold in the wild-type during infection. These genes were also dramatically induced in the mutants on wounded plants. These results imply a correlation between virulence and the expression level of specific hydrolytic enzyme genes plus the presence of an unidentified pathway controlling these genes in addition to or in conjunction with the Amk1 pathway. PMID:17280842

  1. Zwicknia gen. n., a new genus for the Capnia bifrons species group, with descriptions of three new species based on morphology, drumming signals and molecular genetics, and a synopsis of the West Palaearctic and Nearctic genera of Capniidae (Plecoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murányi, Dávid; Gamboa, Maribet; Orci, Kirill Márk

    2014-01-01

    Zwicknia Murányi, gen. n. is erected for the Capnia bifrons species group sensu Zhiltzova, 2001 with the description of three new species based on morphology, mating call, and the mitochondrial DNA marker cytochrome c oxidase I: Z. acuta Murányi & Orci, sp. n., Z. kovacsi Murányi & Gamboa, sp. n. and Z. rupprechti Murányi, Orci & Gamboa, sp. n.. Zwicknia bifrons (Newman, 1838) comb. n. is selected as the type species and redescribed. The other three species placed into Zwicknia, gen. n., Z. sevanica (Zhiltzova, 1964) comb. n., Z. tuberculata (Zhiltzova, 1964) comb. n., and Z. turkestanica (Kimmins, 1950) comb. n. are redescribed based only on morphological characters. Comparative morphological studies and newly discovered characters of the genitalia has allowed for the first time a synopsis of the adults of the West Palaearctic and Nearctic genera of Capniidae. Arsapnia Banks, 1897 (type species: A. decepta Banks, 1897 comb. rev.) is removed from synonymy with Capnia Pictet, 1841 with new combinations, Arsapnia arapahoe (Nelson & Kondratieff, 1988) comb. n., A. coyote (Nelson & Baumann, 1987) comb. n., A. pileata (Jewett, 1966) comb. n., A. sequoia (Nelson & Baumann, 1987) comb. n., A. teresa (Claassen, 1924) comb. n., A. tumida (Claassen, 1924) comb. n., and A. utahensis (Gaufin & Jewett, 1962) comb. n. A new sensu stricto diagnosis of Capnia is proposed with comments on the taxa retained in Capnia sensu lato. PMID:24943267

  2. Revision of the genus Macrostomus Wiedemann (Diptera: Empididae: Empidinae: II. The pictipennis species-group Revisão do gênero Macrostomus Wiedemann (Diptera: Empididae: Empidinae: II. O grupo de espécies pictipennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albertino Rafael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available All species of Macrostomus Wiedemann allied with Macrostomus pictipennis (Bezzi, are treated in the pictipennis species-group. Three currently recognized species and four new species are included, namely M. cervicicauda Smith, M. cysticercus Smith, M. manauara, sp. nov. from Brazil (Amazonas and Pará states, M. pacaraima, sp. nov. from Brazil (Roraima, Amazonas and Pará states, M. pictipennis (Bezzi, M. smithi, sp. nov. from Guyana and Brazil (Roraima State and M. utinga, sp. nov. from Brazil (Pará State. All primary types were examined and a key to species is presented.As espécies de Macrostomus Wiedemann afins de Macrostomus pictipennis (Bezzi estão sendo tratadas no grupo M. pictipennis, o qual inclui três espécies já descritas e quarto espécies novas, a saber: M. cervicicauda Smith, M. cysticercus Smith, M. manauara, sp. nov. do Brasil (Amazonas e Pará, M. pictipennis (Bezzi, M. smithi, sp. nov. da Guiana e Brasil (Roraima, M. utinga, sp. nov. do Brasil (Pará e M. pacaraima, sp. nov. do Brasil (Roraima, Amazonas e Pará. Todos os tipos primários foram examinados e uma chave para espécie é apresentada.

  3. A new species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae from Serra do Cipó, Espinhaço Range, Southeastern Brazil, with proposition of a new species group to the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Passos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Atractus from Serra do Cipó, at the southeastern versant of Serra do Espinhaço, an inland mountain range nearly parallel to the Brazilian Atlantic coast. The new species is morphologically similar to A. paraguayensis and A. potschi with which it shares: 15 dorsal scale rows; white occipital region in juvenile specimens; dorsal ground color reddish pink to red (in life with alternate black transversal spots, blotches or transversal bands; seven upper and lower labial scales; ventrals and subcaudals creamish white; hemipenis slightly bilobed, semicapitate and semicalyculate. The new species differs from both taxa mainly on the basis of exclusive coloration characters (number and shape of transversal bands and hemipenial morphology (median face of the lobes without ornamentation, besides punctual meristic (number of ventral scales and maxillary teeth and morphometric (adult snout-vent length differences. Finally, we provide a discussion regarding the potential affinities of the new species and we redefine some Atractus species groups in order to better accommodate species sharing unique combinations of morphological characters.

  4. Screening of Antagonistic Bacterium to Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler%烟草赤星病拮抗菌的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周棱波; 黎定军; 陈武; 罗坤

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-six strains were isolated and selected from the healthy tobacco leaves collected from Liuyang area of Hunan Province by using confront culture method, in which the B17 showed the strongest antagonism to Alternaria alternala (Fries) Keissler with inhibition rate of 72.1% . Through physiological and biochemical experiments and morphologic observation, the B17 was identified as Bacillus brevis. The control efficacy tests of in vitro culture and green house culture for B17 zymotic fluid showed that the B17 zymotic fluid can obviously reduce the incidence of disease. In pot experiment, the control efficacy of the B17 zymotic fluid reached 71.2%.%采用对峙培养法从湖南浏阳地区烟田采摘的健康烟叶中筛选分离出86株菌株,其中B17菌株对烟草赤星病菌拮抗作用最强,抑制率为72.1%.通过生理生化实验和形态观察,初步鉴定B17菌株为短芽孢杆菌.在B17菌株发酵液的离体防效和温室栽培防效试验中,发酵液可以明显的减轻病害的发生,盆栽试验中,其防效为71.2%.

  5. Isolation, characterization and molecular three-dimensional structural predictions of metalloprotease from a phytopathogenic fungus, Alternaria solani (Ell. and Mart.) Sor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Chandrasekar, Raman; Chun, Se-Chul; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2016-08-01

    The present study aims at isolation, identification, characterization and prediction of three-dimensional molecular architecture of a proteolytic enzyme from the early blight pathogen, Alternaria solani which are hypothesized to be a marker of phytopathogenicity. Maximum enzyme production by A. solani was observed in Czapex's Dox broth amended with 2% (w/v) casein than other inducer amendments. Results indicate that the enzyme remained highly active in a pH range of 7.0-10.0 and a temperature range of 45-50°C. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by EDTA, whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and monovalent cations (Na(+), K(+)) had little effect. Metal ions such as MgSO4, CaCl2, KCl at 10 mM concentration showed a stimulatory effect (>85%) on protease activity. Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight/mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified enzyme revealed the presence of protease belonging to a keratinolytic protein (metalloprotease) of exopeptidase nature. Putative A. solani keratinolytic enzyme (AsK) is made up of 216 amino acid residues with molecular weight (MW) 24.5 kDa, having a molecular formula of C1094H1704N290O342S4. Ramachandran plot analysis of the protein residues falling into the most favored secondary structures was observed at 84.2%. The major protein structural blocks, 2-β-sheets, and 9-α-helices have a greater tendency to be conserved during the evolutionary process than do mere sequences of amino acids. Besides, AsK, model prediction showed the presence of a Zinc atom at helix regions (Helix 3, 6, 7: His(57), His(130), His(169), and Cys(123)). Thus, it can be concluded that the major proteinases of AsK are divalent cation-requiring metalloproteinases and make them potential targets of protease inhibitors designing. PMID:26924427

  6. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica) and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Menghan; Wang, Sanhong; Dong, Hui; Cai, Binhua; Tao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), plum (Prunus mume) and strawberry (Fragaria vesca) in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA]), while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA). Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR). Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae.

  7. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghan Wei

    Full Text Available As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica, pear (Pyrus communis, peach (Prunus persica, plum (Prunus mume and strawberry (Fragaria vesca in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA], while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA. Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR. Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae.

  8. Resposta de diferentes genótipos de tangerinas e seus híbridos à inoculação in vitro e in vivo de Alternaria alternata Response of different tangerine varieties and hybrids to in vitro and in vivo inoculation of Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves Azevedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A severidade da mancha-marrom de alternária nos pomares brasileiros de tangerinas tem causado sérias preocupações aos citricultores, devido aos prejuízos em plantios comerciais de variedades suscetíveis, como a tangerina Ponkan e o tangor Murcott. Para avaliar a resposta de diferentes genótipos ao fungo, foram realizadas inoculações de Alternaria alternata in vitro e in vivo, em 54 diferentes genótipos de tangerinas e seus híbridos, selecionados no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros do Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira, do Instituto Agronômico, em Cordeirópolis-SP, visando a encontrar variedades resistentes. Para isso, inicialmente, testes de patogenicidade foram realizados com dez isolados de A. alternata para a seleção dos mais agressivos. Posteriormente, foram realizadas inoculações em folhas destacadas e em plântulas e, aos dois (in vitro e três (in vivo dias após, fez-se a contagem do número de lesões/folha e a estimativa da severidade da doença com auxílio de escala diagramática (in vivo. A maior parte dos genótipos apresentou sintomas da doença, porém com diferentes graus de suscetibilidade. Genótipos como a tangerina Sul da África e o tangelo Orlando foram os mais suscetíveis. Por outro lado, o grupo das satsumas e mexericas, assim como algumas tangerinas mostraram-se resistentes, indicando novas opções para a citricultura nacional.The confirmation of a new disease in the Brazilian tangerine orchards, the alternaria brown spot, has been concerning citrus growers because of the serious damages to commercial crops of susceptible varieties, such as Ponkan tangerine and Murcott tangor. In this research, in vitro and in vivo inoculations of Alternaria alternata fungus were held in 54 different varieties of the tangerine group selected from the Citrus Germoplasm Bank of Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira, Instituto Agronomico, Cordeirópolis, State of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming to find varieties with more

  9. Entwicklung und Bewertung von direkten Bekämpfungsstrategien gegen das Auftreten der Möhrenschwärze (Alternaria dauci) beim Anbau von Möhren für die industrielle Verarbeitung

    OpenAIRE

    Rau, Florian; Weier, Ulrike; Wonneberger, Christoph; Brand, Thomas; Jahn, Marga

    2006-01-01

    Im Rahmen des BLE-Forschungsprojektes „Entwicklung und Bewertung von direkten Bekämpfungsstrategien gegen das Auftreten der Möhrenschwärze (Alternaria dauci) beim Anbau von Möhren für die industrielle Verarbeitung“ (03OE488) wurde in den Jahren 2004-2006 Feldversuche zur Optimierung des ökologischen Möhrenanbaus unter norddeutschen Bedingungen durchgeführt. Sortenvergleichsanbau In den drei Jahren wurden auf den zwei Versuchsstandorten jeweils 10 bis 12 Möhrensorten auf ihre Eignung ...

  10. A method for the determination of two Alternaria toxins, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, in tomato products Um método para determinação de duas toxinas de Alternaria, alternariol monometil éter e alternariol, em produtos de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana da Motta

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes, as any soft skinned fruit, are easily susceptible to fungal rot. Alternaria is the genus most frequently encountered in tomatoes. A. alternata and other spp. have been shown to produce the toxins alternariol monomethyl ether (AME and alternariol (AOH in tomatoes. A method for determining AME and AOH in tomato products was developed and evaluated. The method involves extraction with methanol, clarification with ammonium sulfate, and partition to chloroform. Quantification was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (DAD. Average recoveries were 98.7% and 84.1% for AME and AOH, respectively. The quantification limits of the method, defined as the minimum amount that allowed quantification and confirmation by the DAD detector, were 2.0 ng/g for AME and 5.0 ng/g for AOH.Tomates são frutas de pele fina e assim facilmente susceptíveis a deterioração por fungos. Alternaria é o gênero que mais freqüentemente invade tomates. A. alternata e outras espécies deste gênero produzem as toxinas alternariol (AOH e alternariol monometil (AME. Um método analítico para determinação de AME e AOH em produtos de tomate foi desenvolvido e avaliado. O método consiste em uma extração com metanol, clarificação com sulfato de amônio e partição para clorofórmio. Quantificação foi executada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detetor de arranjo de diodos (DAD. Recuperações médias foram 98,7% e 84,1% para AME e AOH, respectivamente. Os limites de detecção do método, definidos como a menor quantidade das toxinas que permitiu quantificação e confirmação pelo DAD, foram 2,0 ng/g para AME e 5,0 ng/g para AOH.

  11. Characterization of Alternaria and Penicillium species from similar substrata based on growth at different temperature, pH and water activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    as colony diameter after one and two weeks of growth and analysed using different multivariate statistical analyses. The isolates, when analysed by principal Component Analysis, clustered according to their genus and to some degree to species or species groups and not according to substratum as excepted...... incubated at two different temperatures were enough to get genus segregation and to some extent species segregation. The results also showed that water activity, temperature and pH interact strongly in their effect on growth rates and that the squared products (optima) of water activity, temperature and p....... Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy and Response Surface Analysis showed that growth responses or growth profiles may be used as classification tool. partial Least Squares Regression showed that a combination of two different media based on Dichloran Rose bengal Yeast Extract Sucrose agar...

  12. Genetically Based Location from Triploid Populations and Gene Ontology of a 3.3-Mb Genome Region Linked to Alternaria Brown Spot Resistance in Citrus Reveal Clusters of Resistance Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, José; Aleza, Pablo; Vicent, Antonio; Brunel, Dominique; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis of phenotypical traits and marker-trait association in polyploid species is generally considered as a challenge. In the present work, different approaches were combined taking advantage of the particular genetic structures of 2n gametes resulting from second division restitution (SDR) to map a genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot (ABS) resistance in triploid citrus progeny. ABS in citrus is a serious disease caused by the tangerine pathotype of the fungus Alternaria alternata. This pathogen produces ACT-toxin, which induces necrotic lesions on fruit and young leaves, defoliation and fruit drop in susceptible genotypes. It is a strong concern for triploid breeding programs aiming to produce seedless mandarin cultivars. The monolocus dominant inheritance of susceptibility, proposed on the basis of diploid population studies, was corroborated in triploid progeny. Bulk segregant analysis coupled with genome scan using a large set of genetically mapped SNP markers and targeted genetic mapping by half tetrad analysis, using SSR and SNP markers, allowed locating a 3.3 Mb genomic region linked to ABS resistance near the centromere of chromosome III. Clusters of resistance genes were identified by gene ontology analysis of this genomic region. Some of these genes are good candidates to control the dominant susceptibility to the ACT-toxin. SSR and SNP markers were developed for efficient early marker-assisted selection of ABS resistant hybrids. PMID:24116149

  13. Genetically based location from triploid populations and gene ontology of a 3.3-mb genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot resistance in citrus reveal clusters of resistance genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cuenca

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis of phenotypical traits and marker-trait association in polyploid species is generally considered as a challenge. In the present work, different approaches were combined taking advantage of the particular genetic structures of 2n gametes resulting from second division restitution (SDR to map a genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot (ABS resistance in triploid citrus progeny. ABS in citrus is a serious disease caused by the tangerine pathotype of the fungus Alternaria alternata. This pathogen produces ACT-toxin, which induces necrotic lesions on fruit and young leaves, defoliation and fruit drop in susceptible genotypes. It is a strong concern for triploid breeding programs aiming to produce seedless mandarin cultivars. The monolocus dominant inheritance of susceptibility, proposed on the basis of diploid population studies, was corroborated in triploid progeny. Bulk segregant analysis coupled with genome scan using a large set of genetically mapped SNP markers and targeted genetic mapping by half tetrad analysis, using SSR and SNP markers, allowed locating a 3.3 Mb genomic region linked to ABS resistance near the centromere of chromosome III. Clusters of resistance genes were identified by gene ontology analysis of this genomic region. Some of these genes are good candidates to control the dominant susceptibility to the ACT-toxin. SSR and SNP markers were developed for efficient early marker-assisted selection of ABS resistant hybrids.

  14. Genetically based location from triploid populations and gene ontology of a 3.3-mb genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot resistance in citrus reveal clusters of resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, José; Aleza, Pablo; Vicent, Antonio; Brunel, Dominique; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis of phenotypical traits and marker-trait association in polyploid species is generally considered as a challenge. In the present work, different approaches were combined taking advantage of the particular genetic structures of 2n gametes resulting from second division restitution (SDR) to map a genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot (ABS) resistance in triploid citrus progeny. ABS in citrus is a serious disease caused by the tangerine pathotype of the fungus Alternaria alternata. This pathogen produces ACT-toxin, which induces necrotic lesions on fruit and young leaves, defoliation and fruit drop in susceptible genotypes. It is a strong concern for triploid breeding programs aiming to produce seedless mandarin cultivars. The monolocus dominant inheritance of susceptibility, proposed on the basis of diploid population studies, was corroborated in triploid progeny. Bulk segregant analysis coupled with genome scan using a large set of genetically mapped SNP markers and targeted genetic mapping by half tetrad analysis, using SSR and SNP markers, allowed locating a 3.3 Mb genomic region linked to ABS resistance near the centromere of chromosome III. Clusters of resistance genes were identified by gene ontology analysis of this genomic region. Some of these genes are good candidates to control the dominant susceptibility to the ACT-toxin. SSR and SNP markers were developed for efficient early marker-assisted selection of ABS resistant hybrids.

  15. Heterologous expression of the Hsp24 from Trichoderma asperellum improves antifungal ability of Populus transformant Pdpap-Hsp24 s to Cytospora chrysosperma and Alternaria alternate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S D; Wang, Z Y; Fan, H J; Zhang, R S; Yu, Z Y; Wang, J J; Liu, Z H

    2016-09-01

    The tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses could be improved by transforming with fungal resistance-related genes. In this study, the cDNA sequence (GenBank Acc. No. KP337939) of the resistance-related gene Hsp24 encoding the 24 kD heat shock protein was obtained from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma asperellum ACCC30536. The promoter region of Hsp24 contained many cis-regulators related to stresses response, such as "GCN4" and "GCR1" etc. Hsp24 transcription in T. asperellum was up-regulated under six different environmental stresses, compared with the control. Furthermore, following heterologous transformation into Populus davidiana × P. alba var. Pyramidalis (Pdpap), Hsp24 was successfully transcribed in transformant Pdpap-Hsp24s. Pathogen-related genes (PRs) in four Pdpap-Hsp24s were up-regulated compared with those in the control Pdpap (Pdpap-Con). After co-culture of Pdpap-Hsp24s with the weak parasite Cytospora chrysosperma, the transcription of genes related to hormone signal pathway (JA and SA) were up-regulated in Pdpap-Hsp24s, and ethidium bromide (EtBr) and Nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining assays indicated that the cell membrane permeability and the active oxygen content of Pdpap-Hsp24s leaves were lower than that of the control Pdpap-Con. And when the Pdpap-Hsp24s were under the Alternaria alternate stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) got higher in Pdpap-Hsp24s than that in Pdpap-Con, and the disease spots in Pdpap-Con leaves were obviously larger than those in Pdpap-Hsp24s leaves. In summary, Hsp24 of T. asperellum ACCC30536 is an important defense response gene, and its heterologous expression improved the resistance of transformant Pdpap-Hsp24s to C. chrysosperma and A. alternate. PMID:27193371

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Infected by Alternaria alternata and Its Toxic Metabolites (TeA, AOH, and AME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Mukesh; Zehra, Andleeb; Dubey, Manish K.; Aamir, Mohd; Gupta, Vijai K.; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA). The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by the pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure. The maximum concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced was reported in the pathogen infected samples (22.2-fold) at 24 h post inoculation followed by TeA (18.2-fold), AOH (15.9-fold), and AME (14.1-fold) in treated tissues. 3,3′- Diaminobenzidine staining predicted the possible sites of H2O2 accumulation while the extent of cell death was measured by Evans blue dye. The extent of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was higher (15.8-fold) at 48 h in the sample of inoculated leaves of the pathogen when compared to control. The cellular damages were observed as increased MDA content and reduced chlorophyll. The activities of antioxidative defense enzymes increased in both the pathogen infected as well as toxin treated samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was 5.9-fold higher at 24 h post inoculation in leaves followed by TeA (5.0-fold), AOH (4.1-fold) and AME (2.3-fold) treated leaves than control. Catalase (CAT) activity was found to be increased upto 48 h post inoculation and maximum in the pathogen challenged samples followed by other toxins. The native PAGE results showed the variations in the intensities of isozyme (SOD and CAT) bands in the pathogen infected and toxin treated samples. Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities followed the similar trend to scavenge the excess H2O2. The reduction in CAT

  17. Karyotype diversity of Drosophila melanogaster species group in China%中国黑腹果蝇种组40种果蝇的核型多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱远槐; 张文燕; 邓秋红; 张菁; 曾庆韬; 刘艳玲; 李守涛

    2006-01-01

    通过传统的敲片、Giemsa染色的方法制片对中国黑腹果蝇种组(Drosophila melanogaster species group)8个种亚组40种果蝇的染色体进行了分析,共发现18种核型,即A、A″、C、C′、C″、C″′、C″″、D、D′、D″、E、E′、E"、F、F′、G、H和I,其中A、A″、C″′、C″″、D″和F′为新发现的核型.8个种亚组的基本核型分别是:嗜凤梨果蝇种亚组(D.ananassae subgroup)的核型为F、F′、G和H型;牵牛花果蝇种亚组(D.elegans subgroup)的核型为A和A″型;细针果蝇种亚组(D.eugracilis subgroup)的核型为C型;嗜榕果蝇种亚组(D.ficusphila subgroup)的核型为C′型;黑腹果蝇种亚组(D.melanogaster subgroup)的核型为C和C′型;山果蝇种亚组(D.montium subgroup)的核型为C、C′、C″、D、D′、D″、E、E′、E"和I型;铃木氏果蝇种亚组(D.suzukii subgroup)的核型为C′′′和C″″型;高桥氏果蝇种亚组(D.takahashii subgroup)的核型为C、C′′′和C″″型.透明翅果蝇(D.lucipennis)雌性核型2n=8,雄性核型2n=7,雄性Ⅳ号染色体为染色体单体.此外还发现,吉川氏果蝇(D.kikkawai)、林氏果蝇(D.lini)、奥尼氏果蝇(D.ogumai)、拟嗜凤梨果蝇(D.pseudoananassae)和叔白颜果蝇(D.triauraria)5种果蝇有B染色体.本文确定了D.sp.like elegans、D.sp.like nyinyii、D.sp.liketrapezifrons1、D.sp.like takahashii、D.sp.like trapezifrons2和D.sp.like auraria等6个未描述种的核型和1个新记录种吉里果蝇(D.giriensis)的核型.本研究证明了在黑腹果蝇种组内、亚组内、种内和单雌系内的核型多样性,为果蝇遗传和进化提供了进一步的细胞学证据.

  18. Efeito do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC e do emulsificante Tween® 80 sobre o crescimento micelial de Alternaria alternata (Fungi: Hyphomycetes The effect of Long-pepper essential oil (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. and of Tween®; 80 emulsifier on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternate (Fungi: Hyphomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Reis Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do óleo essencial de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC, sobre o crescimento micelial de Alternaria alternata e a análise da influência da concentração do emulsificante Tween® 80 no controle deste fitopatógeno. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se aparelho de Clevenger modificado, e posteriormente submetido, à análise por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massas CG-EM a CG. Para os ensaios biológicos, o método foi o bioanalítico in vitro observando-se o crescimento ou inibição do micélio de A. alternata no meio de cultura BDA na presença de diferentes concentrações do óleo essencial (0, 100, 250, 500 e 1000 mgL-1 sob diferentes concentrações de Tween® 80. Adotou-se esquema fatorial com quatro repetições, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. Observou-se que o óleo essencial de pimenta longa apresentou inibição sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo A. alternataem todas as concentrações analisadas, sendo que na concentração de 1000 mgL-1 esta inibição foi de 100% , e a porcentagem de emulsificante (Tween® 80, influenciou na atividade fungitóxica das concentrações de 250 mgL -1 e 500 mgL -1 do óleo essencial.The object of this work was to evaluate the effectof essential oils from Long-pepper leaves Piper hispidinervum on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata and to analyze the influence of emulsifier Tween® 80 concentration in the control of this phytopathogen. The essential oil was obtained by steam stream distillation, using a modified Clevenger apparatus, and the chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy GC-MS and GC. For biological tests, the bioanalytical in vitro method was used, observing the growth or inhibition of such phytopathogen in BDA culture media, in the presence of different essential oil concentrations (0, 100

  19. Severidade da mancha-de-alternária em cultivares de girassol na região do Cerrado do Distrito Federal Severity of alternaria in sunflower crop in the Cerrado region of Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernando Amabile

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a severidade da mancha-de-alternária (Alternaria helianthi em cinco genótipos de girassol (Helianthus annuus L., em duas densidades populacionais e duas épocas de semeadura. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no campo experimental da Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Cerrados, em Planaltina, DF, no ano agrícola de 1998/1999, num Latossolo areno-argiloso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial de 5 x 2, com três repetições. A porcentagem de plantas com sintomas da mancha foi estimada por meio de observações semanais, empregandose notas de 0 a 5 nos terços inferior, médio e superior da planta. A população de plantas não influenciou na incidência de alternária. Todas as cultivares estudadas foram suscetíveis à doença. As condições climáticas transcorridas em cada época de semeadura modificaram a severidade da doença.Severity of alternaria leaf spot was evaluated in five genotypes of sunflower as a result of two densities of population and two sowing dates. The experiments were conducted in the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Cerrados experimental field, at Planaltina, DF, Brazil, on the crop season of 1998/1999 on an Oxisol soil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks in a 5 x 2 factorial with three replicates. The percentage of infected plants was estimated based on weekly observations considering scores from 0 to 5 in lower, middle and upper parts of the plant. The occurrence of alternaria was not influenced by density of population of 42,000 or 49,000 plants/ha. All cultivars were susceptible to the disease. The climatic conditions for each sowing date changed the disease severity.

  20. SCAR Marker Resistance-related to Cucumber Alternaria Leaf Spot and Resistance Identification of Cucumber Germplasm%与黄瓜抗黑斑病基因连锁的SCAR标记及抗病资源筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠哲; 李淑菊; 杨瑞环; 管炜; 邓强; 曹明明

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish molecular marker-assisted selection system of cucumber alternaria leaf spot with F1,F2and BC1population between a susceptible parent(L 63) and a resistant parent(L 9),a co-dominant AFLP marker was successfully converted into a simple, applied and co-dominant SCAR marker. Special marker SCEM 126/122 were designed according to the sequence information of AFLP( E-CC/M-CAT) fragments. The marker was closely linked to the cucumber alternaria leaf spot resistance-related gene, and the genetic distance between the marker and the gene was 4. 4 cM. The marker could be useful in marker-assisted selection in cucumber breeding. The acquired SCAR marker had many advantages including fast,accurate,low cost,free from an environmental in-fluence et. 64 resistant germplasm were abtained from total 290. Application of the acquired marker will inhance cu-cumber alternaria leaf spot disease resistant germplasm evaluation.%为建立黄瓜抗黑斑病分子标记辅助育种体系,以黄瓜感黑斑病母本L 63和抗黑斑病父本L 9及其F1、F2分离群体为试材,将与黑斑病抗性相关基因连锁的一个共显性AFLP标记E-CC/M-CAT进行了测序,根据序列特点设计了特异的SCAR引物SCEM126/122,成功地转换成了简单实用的共显性SCAR标记,经验证该标记与黄瓜抗黑斑病相关基因连锁遗传距离为4.4 cM,可以作为黄瓜抗黑斑病辅助选择的标记。且该标记具有迅速、简便、成本低、不受环境条件限制的优点,扩增条带清晰,无杂带和拖尾现象,适合用于大量样本分析。利用引物SCEM126/122对290份材料进行抗病性检测,结果表明有64份抗病材料,为进行抗黑斑病黄瓜新品种的选育奠定了基础。

  1. Development of a high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based analysis for the simultaneous quantification of various Alternaria toxins in wine, vegetable juices and fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickel, Theresa; Klaffke, Horst; Richards, Keith; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-07-15

    An analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection for the simultaneous quantification of 12 Alternaria toxins in wine, vegetable juices and fruit juices was developed. Excellent chromatographic performance was demonstrated for tenuazonic acid (TeA) in a multi-analyte method. This comprehensive study is also the first to report the determination of TeA, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tentoxin (TEN) and altenuene (ALT), altertoxin I (ATX-I), altertoxin II (ATX-II), altenuisol (ATL), iso-altenuene (isoALT), altenuic acid III (AA-III) and the AAL toxins TB1 und TB2 in samples from the German market. Several types of HPLC columns were tested for the liquid chromatographic separation of the toxins of interest that widely differ in their polarities. The focus was on gaining suitable retention while avoiding derivatization steps especially for TeA and AA-III. Three atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used with liquid chromatography (electrospray, chemical and photo ionization) were tested to obtain the best selectivity and sensitivity. Samples were diluted with sodium hydrogen carbonate buffer and extracted on a diatomaceous earth solid phase extraction cartridge. Method validation was carried out by using tomato juice, citrus juice and white wine as blank matrices. Limits of detection ranged from 0.10 to 0.59μgL(-1) and limits of quantification ranged from 0.4-3.1μgL(-1) depending on the toxin and matrix. Recoveries were around 100±9% for all toxins except stemphyltoxin III (STTX-III) and altenusin (ALS) due to instability during sample clean up. Matrix-induced effects leading to ion suppression especially for ATX-I, ATX-II and AA-III were investigated. Relative standard deviations of repeatability (RSDr) and intermediate reproducibility (RSDR) were ≤9.3 and ≤17.1, respectively, for the toxins in different matrices at levels of 5 and 30μgL(-1). Finally, 103

  2. 木醋液对人参黑斑病菌和人参灰霉病菌的抑菌作用%Inhibition Effects of Wood Vinegar on Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔国; 韩莲花; 吴松权; 朴仁哲; 刘海峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Less fungicides could be used to bio-control Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea,this experiment can offer preliminary theory for wood vinegar as a botanic fungicide.Methods:The in vitro inhibition activities of wood vinegar on Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea were tested by using mycelial growth rate method and spore germination method.Results:Inhibition of mycelium growth rate to Alternaria panax was 100% when the concentration of wood vinegar was no less than 3.0%,while the inhibition of mycelium growth rate and spore germination rate were 70.68% and 84.47 %,respectively,at concentration of wood vinegar 2.25%.Inhibition of mycelium growth rate and spore germination rate to Botrytis cinerea were 100% when the concentration of wood vinegar was no less than 2.25%.Conclusion:Wood vinegar concentration of no less than 2.25 % can be used as a bio-control agent of Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea,it is useful for the further field trial.%目的:生产上用于生物防治人参黑斑病菌和灰霉病菌的药剂种类较少,本试验为将木醋液作为一种新型植物源杀菌剂提供理论依据.方法:采用菌丝生长速率法和孢子萌发法,测试了木醋液对人参黑斑病菌和灰霉病菌的离体抑菌活性.结果:木醋液的浓度在3.0%及以上时,对人参黑斑病菌的菌丝生长抑制率为100%,而木醋液的浓度在2.25%时,菌丝生长抑制率和孢子萌发抑制率分别为70.68%和84.47%;木醋液的浓度在2.25%及以上时,对人参灰霉病菌的菌丝生长抑制率和孢子萌发抑制率均为100%.结论:2.25%以上浓度的木醋液可作为生物防治人参黑斑病菌和灰霉病菌的药剂,为进一步田间药效试验奠定了基础.

  3. Development and validation of an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of free and conjugated Alternaria toxins in cereal-based foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walravens, Jeroen; Mikula, Hannes; Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan; Ediage, Emmanuel Njumbe; Di Mavungu, José Diana; Van Landschoot, Anita; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Saeger, Sarah

    2014-10-31

    A UPLC-ESI(+/-)-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of free (alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, tenuazonic acid, tentoxin, altertoxin-I) and conjugated (sulfates and glucosides of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether) Alternaria toxins in cereals and cereal products (rice, oat flakes and barley) was developed. Optimization of the sample preparation and extraction methodology was achieved through experimental design, using full factorial design for extraction solvent composition optimization and fractional factorial design to identify the critical factors in the sample preparation protocol, which were in turn subjected to optimization. Final extracts were analysed using an Waters Acquity UPLC system coupled to a Quattro Premier XE mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray interface operated in both positive and negative ionization mode. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column, and the applied gradient elution programme allowed for the simultaneous determination of 10 Alternaria toxins in a one-step chromatographic run with a total run time of only 7min. Subsequently, the method, applying isotopically labelled internal standards ([(2)H4]-alternariol monomethyl ether and [(13)C6,(15)N]-tenuazonic acid), was validated for several parameters such as linearity, apparent recovery, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, measurement uncertainty and specificity (in agreement with the criteria mentioned in Commission Regulation No. 401/2006/EC and Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC). During validation, quality of the bioanalytical data was improved by counteracting the observed heteroscedasticity through the application of weighted least squares linear regression (WLSLR). Finally, 24 commercially available cereal-based foodstuffs were subjected to analysis, revealing the presence of tenuazonic acid in both rice and oat flake samples (

  4. 白菜黑斑病抗性鉴定及QTL定位%Evaluation and QTL Mapping for Resistance to Black Spot (Alternaria brassicicola) in Brassica rapa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 柳李旺; 谢学文; 孟霖; 刘博; 王晓武; 李宝聚; 武剑

    2013-01-01

    [目的]鉴定白菜类作物黑斑病抗性,同时进行白菜黑斑病抗病 QTL 定位研究,为白菜抗黑斑病品种改良提供理论依据。[方法]以喷雾法接种芸薹生链格孢(Alternariabrassicicola)分生孢子液于30 d苗龄的白菜离体叶片或植株,黑暗保湿处理后统计病情指数,比较在接种后不同接种部位和不同保湿天数抗性的差异。以优化后的方法鉴定白菜品种的黑斑病抗性,利用白菜重组自交系(RILs)群体进行黑斑病抗性QTL定位。[结果]优化了白菜黑斑病抗性鉴定方法,并利用该方法鉴定了70份白菜类作物品种的黑斑病抗性,筛选出14份抗黑斑病材料。同时利用白菜RILs群体,定位出两个黑斑病抗性QTL位点,分别位于A05和A06染色体上。[结论]利用离体叶法对白菜接种芸薹生链格孢,并黑暗保湿处理5d后进行病情调查可以有效鉴定不同白菜材料对黑斑病的抗性差异,且最大程度区分材料间的抗性水平。白菜类作物中缺少对黑斑病的高抗材料。利用白菜RILs群体,在白菜A05与A06号染色体上各定位出一个黑斑病抗性QTL位点。%[Objective]The aim of this study is to evaluate Brassica rapa resistance to black spot disease (Alternaria brassicicola), and map QTL related to this trait. The result will provide theoreticalbasis for genetic improvement on resistance to black spot disease in B. rapa crops.[Method]Conidia of A. brassicicola was sprayed to 30-day-old B. rapa seedlings or detached leaves. Disease index was scored after seedlings or detached leaves being kept in dark and wet for three to six days to determine the number of days for inoculation to distinguish the difference in resistance among B. rapa accessions. Using the optimized method, 70 B. rapa accessions were screened for their resistance to black spot disease. Furthermore, a population with 122 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to map QTL for black spot

  5. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri Shrestha

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications.

  6. Inhibition Activities of Extracts from Aloe spp. with Different Solvents against Alternaria brassicae%芦荟不同溶剂提取物对白菜黑斑病菌的抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏卫红; 黄思良; 付岗; 岑贞陆; 谢玲

    2009-01-01

    用甲醇、乙醇、丙酮、乙酸乙酯、氯仿、苯、石油醚、正己烷8种溶剂对库拉索芦荟的抗菌活性物质进行提取,提取产率随溶剂极性的增强而提高.以白菜黑斑病菌为测试菌,用生长速率法测定芦荟各种溶剂粗提物的抑菌活性,当提取物浓度为10mg/mL时,各种溶剂粗提物均表现一定的抑菌效果,其中以石油醚、正己烷和乙酸乙酯的粗提物抑菌效果最好,分别为71.4 %、71.3 %和62.4 %.从抑菌效果及提取产率两方面考虑,乙酸乙酯为提取芦荟抑菌活性物质的最佳溶剂.通过测定甲醇、乙醇、丙酮、乙酸乙酯4种溶剂1 %~10 %系列浓度对白菜黑斑病菌的抑制作用及甲醇、丙酮、乙酸乙酯3种溶剂对各种芦荟粗提物的溶解性,确立用乙酸乙酯-水(7∶ 3,v/v)溶解各种粗提物进行生物测定,既能较好地溶解各种粗提物,又对测试菌的抑制作用相对较小.试验研究还筛选了2 ‰~1 %吐温20作表面活性剂乳化乙酸乙酯使其与所溶解的粗提物能均匀分布到PDA培养基中,保证了测定结果的准确性与稳定性.通过测定库拉索芦荟等7种芦荟水浸提物的抑菌活性,认为树芦荟、库拉索芦荟的抑菌效果最好.%Antimicrobal substance of Aloe vera was extracted with methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene, petroleum ether and n-hexane, respectively. The results showed that the production of antimicrobial substance increased with the increase of solvent polarity. The antifungal activities of the extracts from Aloe with different solvents against Alternaria brassicae were tested by growth rate mensuration.The results indicated that the growth inhibition rates of Alternaria brassicae by the extracts with petroleum ether, n-hexane and ethyl acetate were 71.4 %, 71.3 % and 62.4 %, respectively, higher than the other extracts. Therefore ethyl acetate was considered as the most suitable solvent for extracting antifungal

  7. Levantamento da intensidade da alternariose e da podridão negra em cultivos orgânicos de brássicas em Pernambuco e Santa Catarina Survey of the intensity of Alternaria black spot and black rot on brassica species under organic farming systems in Pernambuco and Santa Catarina states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A M Peruch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a intensidade da alternariose, causada por Alternaria brassicicola e/ou Alternaria brassicae, e da podridão negra, causada por Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, em cultivos orgânicos de brássicas em Pernambuco e Santa Catarina. Os levantamentos foram realizados no período de novembro de 2001 a fevereiro de 2002, num total de 103 cultivos orgânicos de várias espécies de brássicas. Foram registradas elevadas prevalências das doenças nos estados, com exceção em couve-chinesa em Santa Catarina. A prevalência da alternariose foi 100% nos cultivos de brócolis em Pernambuco, bem como em couve-flor nos dois estados, enquanto a podridão negra atingiu esse nível nos cultivos de brócolis e couve-flor em Santa Catarina. Na média das diferentes espécies de brássicas, as doenças foram mais prevalentes em Pernambuco que Santa Catarina. Entretanto, as médias de severidade de cada doença no conjunto das brássicas não foram diferentes entre os estados, embora as condições climáticas tenham sido nitidamente distintas. A severidade da alternariose variou entre as espécies de brássicas somente em Pernambuco, com a menor severidade registrada em couve-manteiga. Em relação à podridão negra, apenas em Santa Catarina houve diferença na severidade entre as brássicas, sendo registrados os menores níveis em couve-chinesa. Não foram constatadas correlações significativas entre os níveis de severidade da alternariose e da podridão negra, bem como da severidade destas com o número total de plantas e a idade das plantas nos cultivos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the intensity of Alternaria black spot, caused by Alternaria brassicicola and/or Alternaria brassicae, and black rot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in organic cultivation of brassicas in Pernambuco and Santa Catarina. The survey was carried aut from November 2001 to February 2002, in 103 fields under

  8. 细辛对番茄早疫病菌的抑制作用及其活性成分的分离%Antifungal activities and active compounds of the extracts from Asarum himalaicum against Alternaria solani

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少华

    2011-01-01

    The purpose is to explore the fungicide properties of Asarum himalaicum with active chemicals in its extract as a fungicide. The disc diffusion assay was used to test the antifungal activity of the extract of A. himalaicum against Alternaria solani and the pot experiments was used to evaluated the activities of extract. The result indicated that the crude chloroform extract of A. himalaicum had strong antifungal activity and on mycelium growth and spores germination when treated in 48 and 96 h. The EC50of mycelium growth and spores germination of Alteraria solani were 1.69 and 0.41 mg/mL respectively. The bioassay result showed that petroleum ether fraction had strong antifungal activity on inhibiting the spores germination which was 100% in 48 h but had weak inhibition ability on mycelium growth which was about 40% in 96 h. The chloroform fraction had strong inhibiting activities both on the mycelium growth and spores germination which were 72.27 % (in 96 h) and 83.42% (in 48 h), respectively. The bioassay result showed that four sub-fractions had strong antifungal activities and the inhibition rates on mycelium growth were all higher than 85% in 96 h. The results of pot tests showed that the crude extract exhibited a protective efficacy and therapeutic efficacy over than 70% against the Alternaria solani with the extract concentration at 4 mg/mL. A. himalaicum could be a potential pesticide against Alternaria solanl.%以番茄早疫病茼为供试植物病原茼,采用生物活性追踪法和活体盆栽试验法评价了细辛提取物的抑茵活性,并探索了细辛的杀菌活性成分.结果表明:细辛氯仿粗提取物在96和48 h对供试茵的菌丝生长和孢子萌发都有较强的抑制作用.其中对茵丝生长和孢子萌发的半效应浓度EC50分别为1.69和0.41 mg/mL.细辛氯仿粗提取物经萃取分离得到的石油醚、氯仿和甲醇组分中,石油醚组分对供试茵孢子萌发具有强抑制作用,处理48 h

  9. Intensidade de ataque de tripes, de alternaria e da queima-das-pontas em cultivares de cebola Intensity of attacks of thrips, purple blotch and gray mold on onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano L.D. Leite

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a intensidade de ataque de Thrips tabaci Lind., a incidência de Alternaria porri (Ellis e Botrytis squamosa J.C. Walker em nove cultivares de cebola [Aurora, Primavera, CNPH 6400, Crioula Alto-Vale, Vale-Ouro (IPA 11, Franciscana (IPA-16, Piraouro, Conquista e Serrana], num experimento no delineamento em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. Foram feitas avaliações semanais, do transplantio até a colheita, em dez plantas/parcela do número de T. tabaci presente na bainha das folhas bem como da percentagem de área foliar danificada pelo mesmo a partir da primeira folha expandida e também da presença ou da ausência de lesões causadas por A. porri e B. squamosa. A cv. Franciscana mostrou-se mais resistente em relação às demais ao ataque de T. tabaci. Não houve diferença significativa de plantas afetadas por A. porri e B. squamosa. T. tabaci e A. porri foram ambos afetados positiva e negativamente pela temperatura e pela umidade relativa do ambiente, respectivamente.The intensity of attack of T. tabaci and incidence of Alternaria porri (Ellis Cif and Botrytis squamosa J.C. Walker in nine onion cultivars [Aurora, Primavera, CNPH 6400, Crioula Alto-Vale, Vale-Ouro (IPA 11, Franciscana (IPA-16, Piraouro, Conquista and Serrana] was evaluated, in an experiment in randomized blocks design, with five replications. Weekly evaluations were done from the transplanting until harvesting date, in ten plants/parcel of the number of T. tabaci on the leaves, the percentage of damaged foliar area from the first expanded leaf up and the presence or absence of injuries caused by A. porri and B. squamosa. The cv. Franciscana was more resistant to the attack of T. tabaci in comparison to the other onion cultivars. There was no significant difference between cvs for A. porri and Botrytis squamosa resistance. T. tabaci and A. porri were influenced positively and negatively by temperature and relative humidity, respectively.

  10. Effect of postharvest harpin treatment on Alternaria rot of wounded-inoculated apple-pear fruits%采后Harpin处理对损伤接种苹果梨黑斑病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛永红; 李轩; 李梅; 杨冬梅; 毕阳; 马克奇

    2004-01-01

    研究harpin处理对苹果梨采后黑斑病的影响,结果表明:离体试验harpin对黑斑病没有抑制作用.经损伤的苹果梨(Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Pingguoli),用15 mg/L、30 mg/L、60 mg/L的harpin溶液浸泡处理后接种链格孢(Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl.),在低温条件下的贮藏结果表明:采后harpin浸泡处理可明显降低损伤接种苹果梨的黑斑病发病率,3种浓度中以30 mg/L的harpin溶液处理效果最好,而常温条件下对发病率无影响.在常温和低温条件下均可抑制病斑的扩展速度,3种浓度中以60 mg/L的harpin溶液处理效果最好.

  11. Investigation of the Control Effects of "Polypeptide-product" Against Tobacco Alternaria alternata%“多肽保”对烟草赤星病的防治效果探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    端永明; 徐兴阳; 尹平; 陈树林; 岳绍启; 陈穗云; 王建光

    2011-01-01

    通过20/1年的小区试验表明,在移栽期和中耕期施用植物有机诱导抗病剂“多肽保”,可以促进大田烟株生长整齐、发育良好,对烟草赤星病的防效达到71.23%-78.83%,单位面积内产量增加7.97%-15.97%,产值增加11.00%~20.77%,为防治烟草赤星病提供了一条新途径.%The district tests in the year 2011 showed that the application of plant organic induced resistant agent of "polypeptide-product" during transplanting and cultivating period can not only promote the growth and development of tobacco plants, but also achieve the control effects to 71.23%--78.83% on tobacco Alternaria alternata. The production per unit area increased 7.97%--15.97%, and the output value increased 11.00% --20. 77%. The usage of "polypeptide-product" provides a new way of prevent and control the tobacco brown spot disease by application of biotechnology on tobacco industry.

  12. Screening for the Isolates of Thrichoderma Viride Against Alternaria Alternata and Its Antagonistic Mechanism%木霉拮抗烟草赤星病菌菌株的筛选及拮抗机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革; 周晓罡; 方敦煌; 天飞

    2000-01-01

    利用诱捕法从土壤中分离得到18株木霉(Trichoderma sps.)菌株,采用对峙法从中测定、筛选出一株对烟草赤星病菌(Alternaria alternata)具有极强拮抗作用的菌株(Tv-1).光学显微镜及透射电镜观察结果表明,Tv-1菌株的拮抗机制主要为生长竞争、寄生作用以及产生抗菌素类物质使病菌菌丝消解,表现为Tv-1菌株菌丝生长迅速;能附着、缠绕于病菌菌丝上,并产生吸器侵入菌丝;同时还能分泌使病菌菌丝原生质浓缩、断裂、消解的物质.

  13. Estimation of Provincial Spatial Distribution Information of Forest Tree Species ( Group) Composition Using Multi-Sources Data%基于多源数据的省级树种(组)成数空间分布信息估测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宇佳; 陈尔学; 李世明

    2016-01-01

    的基于多源数据的森林树种(组)成数空间分布估测方法是一种有效的森林参数估测方法,基于该方法能够获取较高精度的树种(组)成数空间分布图.为了得到最佳的估测效果,需要对 k-NN 方法中的 k值进行优选,该值将随试验区和数据有所不同.另外,采用分层估测的策略可以有效提高最终估测精度.%[Objective]Remote sensing technique provides a highly effective means for extracting tree species ( group) spatial distribution information. The objective of this paper is to develop a method for estimating the provincial spatial distribution information of forest tree species ( group) composition using multi-sources data. Thus it could indicate the spatial distribution information of the main tree species ( group ) and provide a new method for extracting vegetation information in large area. [Method]The experiments were carried out over the test site of the whole Jilin Province. The time series MODIS NDVI product of 250 m pixel size and 8 days cloudy free composite and the permanent forest plot data collected by the national forest inventory ( NFI ) were used as the key data sources. The weather observation data and topography data were also integrated into the data sources. We developed a gradient nearest neighbor ( GNN ) based approach for estimating provincial forest tree species ( group) composition distribution information. Firstly,the method of canonical correspondence analysis ( CCA ) was implemented to extract effective composited features from the original dataset. Secondly,the k-nearest neighbors ( k-NN) method was applied on the extracted feature space to estimate forest tree species ( group ) composition number using one two-layer stratification scheme. As the value of k needs to be determined,the changing trend of k-NN estimation accuracy with the k values was analyzed. Finally,the estimation accuracy for each tree species ( group ) of the developed method was validated using

  14. NOTES ON SPECIES GROUPS OF SUBGENUS HOMONEURA FROM CHINA WTTH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES (DIPTERA, LAUXANIIDAE)%中国同脉缟蝇亚属种团划分及二新种记述(双翅目,缟蝇科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史丽; 杨定

    2009-01-01

    The subgenus Homoneura Van der Wulp includes more than 500 known species in the world and 94 known species in China, of which 66 species from China are placed into 20 species groups. A key to separate these species groups is presented. Two new species, Homoneura (Homoneura) longinotata sp. nov. and Homoneura (Homoneura) trunciformis sp. nov., are described and illustrated from China. All types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of China Agricultural University (CAU).%记述了中国同脉缟蝇亚属20个种团,其中17个种团,即异突同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)abnormis group,双带同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)bistriata group,短突同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)brevis group,台湾同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)formosae group,河南同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)henanensis group,叉突同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)laticosta group,李氏同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)lii group,背斑同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)notostigma group,美额同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)ornatifrons group,多斑同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)picta group,五斑同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)quiquenotat group,单突同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)singularis group,纹额同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)striatifrons group,斑腿同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)substigmata group,西藏同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)tibetensis group,三尖同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)trispina group,爪突同脉缟蝇种团日.(H.)unguiculata group为首次提出,并描述了2新种,平截同脉缟蝇H.(H.)trunciformis sp.nov.和长膜同脉缟蝇H.(H.)longinotata sp.nov.,提供了该亚属分种团检索表.所有观察标本均保存于中国农业大学昆虫标本馆.

  15. 中国链格孢属分类研究Ⅴ. 生于锦葵科、睡莲科和蔷薇科植物上的新种、新名称和中国新记录种%TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF ALTERNARIA FROM CHINA Ⅴ. NEW TAXA AND NEW RECORDS ON MALVACEAE,NYMPHAEACEAE AND ROSACEAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天宇; 高民侠

    2000-01-01

    含链格孢2个新种、1个新名称和4个新记录:朱槿链格孢Alternaria rosa-sinensis M.X.Gaoet T.Y.Zhang,sp.nov.、地榆链格孢A.sanguisorbae M.X.Gaoet T.Y.Zhang,sp.nov.、莲生链格孢A.nelumbicola T.Y.Zhang,nom.nov.、锦葵链格孢A.malvae Roum.et Letendre.、苹果生链格孢A.pomicola A.S.Horne、杏链格孢A.pruni和塔米链格孢A.tamijiana.新种有拉丁文特征描述和绘图.新种的模式标本分别保藏在山东农业大学植物病理学标本室(HSAUP)和西北农业大学真菌标本室(HMUABO).%Two new species, Alternaria rosa-sinensis M. X. Gao et T. Y. Zhang and A. sanguisorbae M. X. Gao et T. Y. Zhang, one new name, A. nelumbicola T. Y. Zhang, and four new records to China, A. malvae, A. pomicola, A. pruni and A. tamijiana are reported. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in Herbarium of Plant Pathology of Shandong Agricultural University (HSAUP) and Mycological Herbarium of Northwestern Agricultural University (HMUABO), respectively.

  16. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF DROSOPHILA IMMIGRANS SPECIES GROUP BASED ON H2a-H2b SPACER AND Cyt b SEQUENCES%伊米果蝇种组(Drosophila immigrans pecies group)H2a-H2b和Cyt b分子系统发育关系(简报)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫秀英; 曾庆韬; 杨勇; 钱远槐

    2006-01-01

    @@ 伊米果蝇种组(Drosophila immigrans species group)是果蝇科(Drosophilidae)、果蝇属(Drosophila)、果蝇亚属(Drosophila)中数量最多的一个类群,主要分布于东洋区.在分类学上该种组分为nasuta、immigrans、hypocausta、quadrilineata和curviceps五个种亚组(species subgroup)[1],东洋区果蝇区系中伊米果蝇种组中包括94个种,其中有45个种分布在中国[2].而且curviceps种亚组是1992年新建立的中国特有果蝇类群[3].迄今,对伊米果蝇种组分子系统关系的报道还很少,有些物种的归属仍存在争议.伊米果蝇种组还有些问题需要探讨[4].

  17. Antifungal Activity of Five Solanaceous Glycoalkaloids and Their Mixtures against Phytopathogenic Fungi Cercosporella brassicae and Alternaria porri%五种茄科糖苷生物碱及其混合物的抗真菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪淞; 高聆; 王娟; 徐文静; 周义发

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal activity of five solanaceae glycoalkaloids solanine,chaconine,solasonine,solamargine and tomatine against phytopathogenic fungi Cercosporella brassicae and Alternaria porri has been evaluated.Tomatine showed the highest antifungal activity against C.brassicae and A.porri among five compounds,followed with chaconie,solamargine and solasonine,while solanine showed the lowest antifungal activity.Mixture of potato glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine produced marked synergistic antifungal activity.The magnitude of synergisms is higher at lower concentrations than that at higher concentrations.The antifungal activity of individual glycoalkaloid against A.porri was relative low,even no activity,but the mixture of chaconine and solanine showed significant synergism.There was no synergism between glycoalkaloids solasonine and solamargine from Solanum nigrum in inhibiting fungul growth.The mixtures of solamargine and chaconine,and solasonine and solanine both caused additive inhibition on the growth of fungi.%本文研究了五种茄科糖苷生物碱(茄碱、查茄碱、边缘茄碱、澳洲茄碱和番茄碱)对两种植物病原真菌白菜白斑病菌和葱紫斑病菌的抑制活性.结果表明番茄碱的抗真菌活性最强,其后依次是查茄碱、边缘茄碱和澳洲茄碱,茄碱的活性最弱;不同浓度茄碱和查茄碱(马铃薯中的两种糖苷生物碱)的混合物均具有协同抗真菌作用,且低浓度的混合物产生的协同作用效果较大;边缘茄碱和澳洲茄碱(龙葵中的两种糖苷生物碱)的混合物基本没有协同抗真菌作用;边缘茄碱和查茄碱的混合物以及澳洲茄碱和茄碱的混合物(均为来自不同植物的糖苷生物碱的混合物)在抗真菌活性上都呈现了相加关系.

  18. Control Effects of Bacillus subtilis BL03 Strain on Alternaria alternata and Colltotrichum gossypii in Field%枯草芽孢杆菌BL03对苹果霉心病和棉苗病害田间防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛玉成

    2000-01-01

    @@ 枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)BL03菌株,是作者从苹果树体上分离得到的拮抗菌株之一.室内测定对苹果霉心病菌(Alternaria alternata)、炭疽病菌(Colltotrichum gossypii)、红霉病菌(Trichothecium roseum)和镰刀菌(Fusarium sp.)等10种病原菌的抑制效果均为100%.本文报道枯草芽孢杆菌BL03菌液对苹果霉心病和棉花苗期病害的田间防治效果.

  19. 人参立枯病与黑斑病拮抗细菌的筛选及其促生防病能力∗%Screening, Growth Promoting and Control Effect of Antagonistic Strains Against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Alternaria panax Whetz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卓; 杨利民

    2015-01-01

    By filter paper method and Oxford cup method,a strain of Bacillus endophyticus SZ-56, which was strongly antagonistic to Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Alternaria panax Whetz, was screened from ginseng rhizosphere soil, and control ability and growth⁃promoting effect at the root of the ginseng were determined. The results indicated that the inhibitive rate of the bacterial strain SZ-56 to Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Alternaria panax Whetz were 87�77%and 65�40% respectively. The bacterial strain SZ-56 had good control effect on ginseng fungal pathogens. The strain SZ-56 had flat or slightly higher efficacy ( P<0. 05) compared with the pesticides treatments, with no dilu⁃tion in pots trails,the protective and the therapeutic efficacy of the aseptic filtrate of SZ-56 reached 70�25% and 73�94% on Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, 52�9% and 53�41% on Alternaria panax Whetz, respectively. The study on the growth⁃promoting effect indicated that after drenching the ginseng root with SZ-56 was significantly higher than ck in pots trails, the average plant height, stem and leaf fresh weight, stem and leaf dry weight, root length, root fresh weight and root dry weight increased to varying degrees. Wherein, the fresh and dry root mass as well as the dry mass of the stem and leaf in the natural soil was more than 2 times of that of the control plant, the dry mass of the root in⁃creased at a rate as high as 239�99%, and the observation group was significantly better than the control group.%采用滤纸片法和牛津杯法从多年生人参根际土壤中筛选出1株对立枯丝核菌( Rhizoctonia solani Ku⁃hn)和人参链格孢菌( Alternaria panax Whetz)均有较强拮抗能力的内生芽孢杆菌( Bacillus endophyticus) SZ-56,并测定了其防病促生效果。结果表明:SZ-56对立枯丝核菌和人参链格孢的抑菌率分别为87�77%和65�40%,其还具备广谱拮抗性;SZ-56具备盆栽防控能力,对人参

  20. 枣缩果病初侵染链格孢菌的抗硫酸铜标记及稳定性%Resistance-Labeling and Stability of Jujube Shrunken-Fruit Disease Pathogen Alternaria alternata to Copper Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵乐; 邢艺林; 李正楠; 郭金堂; 冉隆贤

    2016-01-01

    Objective]In order to determine the suitable agent and method for labeling Alternaria alternata,the pathogen of jujube shrunken-fruit disease,and to explore its primary infection period,the labeling system with copper sulfate in A. alternata was established,which will facilitate the study of infection mechanisms and pathogenicity of the pathogen,and effective management of the disease in the field. [Method]Copper sulfate was selected for the reagent of resistance-labeling in A. alternata wild type strain CN193 from the four fungicidal chemicals,i. e. copper sulfate,cobalt chloride,silver nitrate and cycloheximide by using inhibition zone method on PDA plate. With the inhibition method of spore germination,the mixture of conidial spore suspension with either 1. 0 mg·mL -1 ,1. 5 mg·mL -1 or 2. 0 mg·mL -1 concentration of the copper sulfate in a ratio of 1∶1 was dropped into concave slides. The germinated spores were scored after a 12 h incubation,and the initial concentration of copper sulfate was determined. A copper sulfate-resistant mutant strain CN193Cur was obtained by culturing the fungus on PDA medium containing copper sulfate from 1. 5 mg·mL -1 up to 4. 5 mg·mL -1 . The stability of the copper sulfate resistance of mutant CN193Cur was verified in the laboratory,and its infectivity was determined by pathogenicity test in a jujube plantation with inoculation of spore by spraying to the jujube flowers and stab-wounding on the surface of unripe jujube fruits,together with the analysis of BOX-PCR finger printing patterns.[Result]Copper sulfate had highly inhibitory effect on A. alternata while cobalt chloride and silver nitrate were less inhibitive,and cycloheximide was not inhibitive. The initial concentration of copper sulfate was set at 1. 5 mg·mL -1 , which produced a mutation rate of 12%,and the final concentration of copper sulfate in this study was 4. 5 mg·mL -1 . Inoculation tests showed that the mutant CN193Cur had the same pathogenicity as did

  1. First report of alternaria leaf spot of banana caused by Alternaria alternata in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research efforts were initiated in 2003 to identify and introduce banana (Musa spp.) cultivars suitable for production in Georgia. In spring and summer 2012, seven of the cultivars (Veinte Cohol, Novaria, Cacambou, Chinese Cavendish, Raja Puri, Blue Torres Island, and African Red) grown in the field...

  2. Pathogenicity of Alternaria tenuissima HZ-1 to broadleaf weeds and its safety on crops%极细链格孢菌HZ-1对阔叶杂草的致病性及对作物的安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海霞; 马永强; 程亮; 郭青云

    2016-01-01

    采用形态学结合分子鉴定的方法,对生防潜力菌株HZ-1进行分类学鉴定,通过菌株发酵液致病性测定,评价该菌株对5种阔叶杂草的除草活性,采用盆栽生测法评价其对青海省主栽作物的安全性.结果表明,HZ-1为极细链格孢菌(Alternaria tenuissima),菌株发酵液对猪秧秧(Galium aparine)、刺儿菜[Cephalano-plos setosum(Willd.)Kitam]、藜(Chenopodium album)、冬葵(Malva crispa)、酸模叶蓼(Polygonum lapathifolium L.)表现出不同程度的致病作用,尤其对猪秧秧、藜致病效果最为突出.安全性评价结果显示,该菌株除对春油菜有轻微影响外,对春小麦、蚕豆、豌豆和青稞4种作物相对安全.综上,HZ-1可作为防除猪殃殃、藜等阔叶杂草生物除草剂的候选菌株.%Strain HZ-1 was identified through morphology observation and sequence analysis. The herbicidal activity of HZ-1 against 5 broadleaf weeds was evaluated by the pathogenicity of fermentation broth, and its safety to major crops in Qinghai was tested by pot bioassay. It was shown that strain HZ-1 was identified as Alternaria tenuissima. The fermentation broth of strain HZ-1 exhibited varied pathogenicity to Galium aparine, Cephalanoplos setosum ( Willd. ) Kitam, Chenopodium album, Malva crispa, Polygonum lapathifolium, and within these 4 species, the pathogenicity to Galium aparine and Chenopodium album was more severe. Strain HZ-1 was safe to major crops ex-cept spring rape. In general, strain HZ-1 was candidate of microbial herbicide against broadleaf weeds such as Gali-um aparine and Chenopodium album.

  3. Antifungal Activity of Lavandula Angustifolia and Quergues Infectoria Extracts in Comparison with Nystatin on Candida Albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, F; A. Raoofi; S. Dadfar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Nowadays,herbal extracts are used to treat diseases, especially infec-tious ones. Candida albicans is the most common causes of oral opportunistic infections.In this study, antifungal effects of two herbal extracts were evaluated on an oral pathogen i.e. Candida albicans. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive- analytic study, the Department of Prosthodontics, ,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, school of Dentistry the oral samples of 25 patients with dentu...

  4. The biogeography of the holarctic Nephrotoma dorsalis species-group (Diptera, Tipulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, Ida R.M.

    1988-01-01

    A biogeographic analysis is presented for the Holarctic Nephrotoma dorsalis-group in relation to the palaeogeographic, climatic and floristic history of the Holarctic region in the Cenozoic. Holarctic intercontinental connections across the Atlantic and by way of Beringia are discussed as well as th

  5. Taxonomic reassessment of two Indian shieldtail snakes in the Uropeltis ceylanicus species group (Reptilia: Uropeltidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropeltis is the most speciose of all shieldtail snake (uropeltid genera, particularly in India, and has been bedeviled by a complex and intricate taxonomic history, with several weakly established synonyms and widely disjunct geographic ranges. Our present work on two Indian Uropeltis species revealed greater species diversity than what is currently recognised. We elevate Uropeltis arcticeps madurensis to species level, and revive Silybura shorttii (in the combination Uropeltis shorttii from the subjective synonymy of U. ceylanicus. We provide differential diagnoses, descriptions of examined material and comparisons with similar species based on an examination of voucher specimens as well as fresh, uncollected topotypes documented in the field.

  6. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-02-12

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided.

  7. Evolutionary Genomics of Genes Involved in Olfactory Behavior in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Group

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás Lavagnino; François Serra; Leonardo Arbiza; Hernán Dopazo; Esteban Hasson

    2012-01-01

    Previous comparative genomic studies of genes involved in olfactory behavior in Drosophila focused only on particular gene families such as odorant receptor and/or odorant binding proteins. However, olfactory behavior has a complex genetic architecture that is orchestrated by many interacting genes. In this paper, we present a comparative genomic study of olfactory behavior in Drosophila including an extended set of genes known to affect olfactory behavior. We took advantage of the recent bur...

  8. Genetic relationships among some species groups within the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dara G Torgerson; Lampo, Margarita; Velásquez Zambrano, Yelitza; Woo, Patrick T. K.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular data on Lutzomyia are very scarce, despite the fact that this genus includes all the species involved in the transmission of leishmaniasis in America. We examine the genetic relationships among eight morphologic groups within the Lutzomyia genus and two Brumptomyia species, using nine enzyme loci and the last 285 basepairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The structure of the genetic variation among the species analyzed indicated a closer genetic relationship among m...

  9. A multi-gene approach reveals a complex evolutionary history in the Cyanistes species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Koivula, Kari; Broggi, Juli; Päckert, Martin; Martens, Jochen; Kvist, Laura

    2011-10-01

    Quaternary climatic oscillations have been considered decisive in shaping much of the phylogeographic structure around the Mediterranean Basin. Within this paradigm, peripheral islands are usually considered as the endpoints of the colonization processes. Here, we use nuclear and mitochondrial markers to investigate the phylogeography of the blue tit complex (blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, Canary blue tit C. teneriffae and azure tit C. cyanus), and assess the role of the Canary Islands for the geographic structuring of genetic variation. The Canary blue tit exhibits strong genetic differentiation within the Canary Islands and, in combination with other related continental species, provides an ideal model in which to examine recent differentiation within a closely related group of continental and oceanic island avian species. We analysed DNA sequences from 51 breeding populations and more than 400 individuals in the blue tit complex. Discrepancies in the nuclear and mitochondrial gene trees provided evidence of a complex evolutionary process around the Mediterranean Basin. Coalescent analyses revealed gene flow between C. caeruleus and C. teneriffae suggesting a dynamic process with multiple phases of colonization and geographic overlapping ranges. Microsatellite data indicated strong genetic differentiation among the Canary Islands and between the Canary archipelago and the close continental areas, indicating limited contemporary gene flow. Diversification of the blue tit complex is estimated to have started during the early Pliocene (≈ 5 Ma), coincident with the end of Messinian salinity crisis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the North African blue tit is derived from the Canary blue tits, a pattern is avian 'back colonization' that contrasts with more traditionally held views of islands being sinks rather than sources. PMID:21880092

  10. Testing nested phylogenetic and phylogeographic hypotheses in the Plethodon vandykei species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Bryan C; Stevenson, Angela L; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Sullivan, Jack

    2004-10-01

    Mesic forests in the North American Pacific Northwest occur in two disjunct areas: along the coastal and Cascade ranges of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia as well as the Northern Rocky Mountains of Idaho, Montana, and British Columbia. Over 150 species or species complexes have disjunct populations in each area, and a priori hypotheses based on phytogeography and geology potentially explain the disjunction via either dispersal or vicariance. Here, we test these hypotheses in the disjunct salamander complex Plethodon vandykei and P. idahoensisby collecting genetic data (669 bp of Cyt b) from 262 individuals. Maximum likelihood analysis indicated reciprocal monophyly of these species, supporting the ancient vicariance hypothesis, whereas parametric bootstrap and Bayesian hypothesis testing allow rejection of the dispersal hypothesis. The coalescent estimate of the time since population divergence (estimated using MDIV) is 3.75 x 106 years, and the 95%credibility interval of this value overlaps with the geological estimate of vicariance, but not the hypothesized dispersal. These results are congruent with the pattern seen in other mesic forest amphibian lineages and suggest disjunction in amphibians may be a concerted response to a geological/climatological event. WithinP. idahoensis, we tested the corollary hypothesis of an inland Pleistocene refugium in the Clearwater drainage with nested clade analysis and coalescent estimates of population growth rate (g). Both analyses support post-Pleistocene expansion from the Clearwater refugium. We corroborated this result by calculating Tajima's Dand mismatch distribution within each drainage, showing strong evidence for recent population expansion within most drainages. This work demonstrates the utility of statistical phylogeography and contributes two novel analytical tools: tests of stationarity with respect to topology in the Bayesian estimation, and the use of coalescent simulations to test the significance of the population growth-rate parameter. PMID:15545255

  11. [An object-based information extraction technology for dominant tree species group types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Fan, Wen-yi; Lu, Wei; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    Information extraction for dominant tree group types is difficult in remote sensing image classification, howevers, the object-oriented classification method using high spatial resolution remote sensing data is a new method to realize the accurate type information extraction. In this paper, taking the Jiangle Forest Farm in Fujian Province as the research area, based on the Quickbird image data in 2013, the object-oriented method was adopted to identify the farmland, shrub-herbaceous plant, young afforested land, Pinus massoniana, Cunninghamia lanceolata and broad-leave tree types. Three types of classification factors including spectral, texture, and different vegetation indices were used to establish a class hierarchy. According to the different levels, membership functions and the decision tree classification rules were adopted. The results showed that the method based on the object-oriented method by using texture, spectrum and the vegetation indices achieved the classification accuracy of 91.3%, which was increased by 5.7% compared with that by only using the texture and spectrum.

  12. Genetics of hybrid male sterility among strains and species in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2011-07-01

    Taxa in the early stages of speciation may bear intraspecific allelic variation at loci conferring barrier traits in hybrids such as hybrid sterility. Additionally, hybridization may spread alleles that confer barrier traits to other taxa. Historically, few studies examine within- and between-species variation at loci conferring reproductive isolation. Here, we test for allelic variation within Drosophila persimilis and within the Bogota subspecies of D. pseudoobscura at regions previously shown to contribute to hybrid male sterility. We also test whether D. persimilis and the USA subspecies of D. pseudoobscura share an allele conferring hybrid sterility in a D. pseudoobscura bogotana genetic background. All loci conferred similar hybrid sterility effects across all strains studied, although we detected some statistically significant quantitative effect variation among D. persimilis alleles of some hybrid incompatibility QTLs. We also detected allelism between D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA at a second chromosome hybrid sterility QTL. We hypothesize that either the QTL is ancestral in D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA and lost in D. pseudoobscura bogotana, or gene flow transferred the QTL from D. persimilis to D. pseudoobscura USA. We discuss our findings in the context of population features that may contribute to variation in hybrid incompatibilities.

  13. Epistasis modifies the dominance of loci causing hybrid male sterility in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-01-01

    Speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation between populations, serves as the driving force for generating biodiversity. Postzygotic barriers to gene flow, such as F(1) hybrid sterility and inviability, play important roles in the establishment and maintenance of biological species. F(1) hybrid incompatibilities in taxa that obey Haldane's rule, the observation that the heterogametic sex suffers greater hybrid fitness problems than the homogametic sex, are thought to often result from interactions between recessive-acting X-linked loci and dominant-acting autosomal loci. Because they play such prominent roles in producing hybrid incompatibilities, we examine the dominance and nature of epistasis between alleles derived from Drosophila persimilis that confer hybrid male sterility in the genetic background of its sister species, D. pseudoobscura bogotana. We show that epistasis elevates the apparent dominance of individually recessive-acting QTL such that they can contribute to F(1) hybrid sterility. These results have important implications for assumptions underlying theoretical models of hybrid incompatibilities and may offer a possible explanation for why, to date, identification of dominant-acting autosomal "speciation genes" has been challenging.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships in the "grossulariae" species group of the genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae): Molecular evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcinaviciene, Jorga; Rakauskas, Rimantas; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Palaearctic Ribes and/or Onagraceae inhabiting Aphis species from five countries were examined using mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) and nuclear gene elongation factor 1 a (EF-1a) sequences. There was no major conflict between the trees obtained from...

  15. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided. PMID:27396014

  16. Fermentation Conditions of Antagonistic Strain XL12 against Alternaria alternate%细链格孢菌拮抗细菌枯草芽孢杆菌XL12菌株发酵产抗菌蛋白条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱香

    2011-01-01

    In order to increase the quantity of antifungal protein from Bacillus subtilis XL12, the strain was cul tured under different conditions. The optimization of fermentation factors, such as the C/N proportion of basic medium,inoculation amount, initial pH, fermentation temperature and fermentation time, was made by single factor experiments. The result showed that the optimal fermentation condition was initial pH 6. 95-7.05 and shaking flask in 220 r.min^-1 speed,fermentation temperature was 30-35℃ for 72 hours, premise of which the C/N ration is 30: 1,inoculation amount is 0.5 %, under the conditions, the most quantity of antifungai protein was obtained by the 70%(NH4)2 SO4 salting out supernatant fluid of strain XL12 fermentation.%为了提高细链格孢菌[Alternaria alternate(Fr)Keissler]拮抗细菌枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)XL12菌株的发酵产抗菌蛋白量,采用单因素法对XL12菌株的培养条件进行了优化,最终确定XL12最适宜的发酵条件为:基础培养基碳源和氮源(摩尔比)的比例为30∶1,接种量为0.5%,配制后灭菌前,培养液的pH调节在6.95~7.05,发酵温度为30~35℃,220 r.min-1摇床振荡培养72 h,用70%硫酸铵对XL12菌株发酵液上清液进行盐析,可以沉淀最多的抗菌蛋白。

  17. 梨黑斑病菌抗药性检测及其对啶酰菌胺的敏感性基线%Detection of resistance of Alternaria kikuchiana causing pear black spot to fungicides and baseline sensitivity of A. kikuchiana to boscalid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚慧; 戴德江; 沈瑶; 张传清

    2015-01-01

    Black spot caused by Alternaria kikuchiana is one of the main diseases of pears in China. Decreased controlling efficacy of traditionally applied fungicides( carbendazim etc. )against the disease was reported recently in some regions. Resistance development of 252 isolates of A. kikuchiana collected from different regions of Zhejiang,Jiangsu and Anhui province to fungicides was investigated through the mycelial growth rate method. The results showed that the resistance frequency of A. kikuchiana population( n =252 ) to carbendazim( a benzimidazole fungicide ) was 57 . 1% and all resistant isolates showed high-level resistance( HR ). The resistance frequency to iprodione( a dicarboximide fungicide)was 46. 8% and all resistant isolates showed low-level resistance(LR). The LR and moderate-level resistance( MR )frequency to difenoconazole( a sterol demethylation inhibitor fungicide) was 28. 6% and 28. 6%,respectively. The results indicated that A. kikuchiana had developed resistance to these traditionally applied fungicides in Zhejiang,Jiangsu and Anhui province. Further work was carried out to establish the baseline sensitivity of A. kikuchiana to boscalid,a succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicide. The EC50 values of boscalid to the tested population( n=252 )varied from 0 . 12 to 3 . 85 μg/mL( mean value 1 . 21 ± 0 . 12 μg/mL ) following a unimodal distribution,suggesting that boscalid could be used as a potential alternative fungicide to control pear black spot.%黑斑病是梨的主要病害之一,近年来不少地区反映多菌灵等传统常用杀菌剂对其防治效果已出现下降。作者从浙江、江苏和安徽3省分离了252株梨黑斑病菌Alternaria kikuchiana,采用菌丝生长速率法检测了其抗药性发生情况。结果发现:所检测的黑斑病菌群体( n=252)对苯并咪唑类杀菌剂多菌灵的抗性频率为57.1%,且全部为高水平抗性( HR);对二甲酰亚胺类杀菌剂

  18. Heterologous fermentation of a diterpene from Alternaria brassisicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Julia; Bergs, Dominik; Mewes, Mirja; Merz, Juliane; Schembecker, Gerhard; Schulz, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A variety of different applications render terpenes and terpenoids attractive research targets. A promising but so far insufficiently explored family of terpenoids are the fusicoccanes that comprise a characteristic 5-8-5 fused tricyclic ring system. Besides herbicidal effects, these compounds also show apoptotic and anti-tumour effects on mammalian cells. The access to fusicoccanes from natural sources is scarce. Recently, we introduced a metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to enable the heterologous fermentation of the shared fusicoccane–diterpenoid precursor, fusicocca-2,10(14)-diene. Here, we show experiments towards the identification of bottlenecks in this process. The suppression of biosynthetic by-products via medium optimisation was found to be an important aspect. In addition, the fermentation process seems to be improved under oxygen limitation conditions. Under fed-batch conditions, the fermentation yield was reproducibly increased to approximately 20 mg/L. Furthermore, the impact of the properties of the terpene synthase on the fermentation yield is discussed, and the preliminary studies on the engineering of this key enzyme are presented. PMID:25379342

  19. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cobalt complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Co(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activity against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cobalt(II) chloride was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine had antifungal activity against all species of fungi studied except Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Candida tropicalis, and Alternaria infectoria. Cobalt(II) nicotine was found to be effective against all selected species of fungi but ineffective against Candida solani, Penicillium notalum, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme. (author)

  20. 烟草赤星病菌代谢产物诱导的烟草BY-2细胞ROS爆发和ATP损耗%ROS Burst and ATP Depletion in Tobacco BY-2 Cells Induced by Metabolic Products of Alternaria alternata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程丹丹; 孙学娟; 高辉远; 杨程; 张立涛; 孟庆伟

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨赤星病菌代谢产物(metabolic product s of AIternaria alternata,MP)对烟草BY-2细胞活性氧(reactive oxygen species,ROS)产生和ATP含量的影响以及产生这种影响的原因.[方法]用10%MP处理烟草BY-2细胞,用氧电极检测不同MP处理时间后,烟草BY-2细胞呼吸速率和呼吸途径的变化,同时分析BY-2细胞内BO产生和ATP含量等的变化.[结果]MP处理导致了烟草BY-2细胞HO爆发和ATP含量下降,此外,MP处理也导致了烟草BY-2细胞总呼吸速率、细胞色素途径(cytochrome pathway)和交替氧化酶途径(AOX)的下降,并且造成线粒体通透转换孔道(permeability transition pore,PTP)开放和细胞色素c释放.[结论]MP对BY-2细胞呼吸速率和细胞色素途径的抑制不可避免地导致胞内ATP含量下降,此外MP诱导的烟草BY-2细胞氧化磷酸化的解偶联作用是MP导致胞内ATP含量下降的另一重要原因.而MP对AOX途径的抑制则是诱导胞内ROS爆发的重要原因.%[Objective] The objective of this study is to explore the effect of the Alternaria alternata metabolic products (MP) on changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ATP content in the tobacco BY-2 cells. [ Method] 10% MP was used to treat tobacco BY-2 cells, and Oxytherm oxygen electrode was used to study the effects of MP on the reparation rate and reparation pathway in the tobacco BY-2 cells. The changes of ROS production and ATP content in tobacco BY-2 cells was also studied. [ Result] Treatment with the MP led to remarkable overproduction of ROS, rapid depletion of ATP, significant declines in respiration, in cytochrome pathway and in alternative oxidase pathway (AOX). The treatment with MP also resulted in uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP) and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm in tobacco BY-2 cells. [Conclusion] The inhibition of respiration and cytochrome pathway inevitably result in ATP

  1. 紫斑病菌粗毒素对大蒜幼苗防御酶活性和叶片解剖结构的影响%Effects of Alternaria porri (Elliott) Cif. Crude Toxin on Protective Enzyme Activities and Leaf Anatomical Structure of Garlic Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓敏; 程智慧; 董殷鑫

    2012-01-01

    以抗病品种G087和感病品种G025为试材,研究了大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素对大蒜幼苗叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量及叶片解剖结构的影响.结果表明:在大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素处理后120 h内,抗病品种和感病品种叶片SOD活性呈现一致的变化趋势,均在96 h达到峰值,但抗病品种SOD活性始终高于感病品种.随着大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素处理时间的延长,感病品种叶片POD和PAL活性均呈先持续升高后稍下降的趋势,均有1个峰值;而抗病品种叶片POD和PAL活性均出现2个峰值,POD活性的2个峰值分别出现在48 h和96 h,PAL活性的2个峰值分别出现48 h和120 h;抗病品种酶活性的最大峰值高于感病品种.在大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素处理后的大部分时间内,抗病品种叶片MDA含量低于感病品种.抗病品种叶肉组织结构比感病品种紧密;经大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素处理后,两个品种叶片栅栏组织及海绵组织的密度都比处理前增加,抗病品种叶肉组织结构比感病品种更加紧密.%The effects of Alternaria porri (Elliott) Cif. crude toxin on the activities of SOD, POD, PAL and contents of MDA and leaf anatomical structure were studied, taking the resistant cultivar G087 and susceptible cultivar G025 of garlic ( Allium sativum L.) as experiment materials. The results showed that the SOD activities of both cultivars appeared the same dynamic changing trend in 120 hours after the pathogen crude toxin treatment and reached the peak at 96 hours. But the SOD activities in resistant cultivar were higher than that in susceptible cultivar. The POD and PAL activities in the leaves of susceptible cultivar showed a trend of sustaining increase first then a slight decrease and had a peak value. However, the activities of POD and PAL in the leaves of resistant cultivar had 2 peak values, which presented at 48 hours and 96 hours for POD

  2. 链格孢菌毒素能诱导中国月季产生抗蚜活性的细交链孢菌酮酸%Alternaria toxin-induced resistance in rose plants against rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosivorum):effect of tenuazonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-zhong YANG; Bin YANG; Bei-bei LI; Chun XIAO

    2015-01-01

      结论:(1)链格孢菌粗毒素和对照品 TeA均能使中国月季植株产生对月季长管蚜的系统诱导抗性,显著降低月季长管蚜对中国月季的危害;(2)链格孢菌粗毒素中的主要抗蚜活性成分是 TeA, TeA有望成为中国月季上具有抗蚜活性的先导化合物;(3)粗毒素和对照品 TeA对蚜虫和植物均无伤害作用,但能激活植物对虫害的诱导抗性(ISR)和系统获得性抗性(SAR),可直接证实二者间存在着寄主植物介导的间接的病虫互作关系。%Many different types of toxins are produced by the fungus, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Little is known, however, regarding the influence of these toxins on insects. In this study, we investigated the toxin-induced inhibitory effects of the toxin produced by A. alternata on the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosivorum, when the toxin was applied to leaves of the rose, Rosa chinensis. The results demonstrated that the purified crude toxin was non-harmful to rose plants and rose aphids, but had an intensive inhibitory effect on the multiplication of aphids. The inhibitory index against rose aphids reached 87.99% when rose plants were sprayed with the toxin solution at a low concentration. Further results from bioassays with aphids and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses demon-strated that tenuazonic acid (TeA) was one of the most important resistance-related active components in the crude toxin. The content of TeA was 0.1199% in the crude toxin under the HPLC method. Similar to the crude toxin, the inhibitory index of pure TeA reached 83.60%15 d after the rose plants were sprayed with pure TeA solution at the lower concentration of 0.060μg/ml, while the contents of residual TeA on the surface and in the inner portion of the rose plants were only 0.04 and 0.00 ng/g fresh weight of TeA-treated rose twigs, respectively, 7 d after the treatment. Our results show that TeA, an active component

  3. The fungal community changes over time in developing wheat heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Morten; Jensen, Iben Ravnborg; Jensen, Laura Østergaard; Thomsen, Søren Nøhr; Winde, Jacob; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Sørensen, Lydia Henriette; Wollenberg, Rasmus Dam; Sørensen, Hans Otto; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2016-04-01

    Under normal conditions, wheat is colonized by a multitude of fungi that can have beneficial or adverse effects on plant growth and yield. To study the effect of spraying wheat heads with fungicides on the fungal community from emergence to harvest we applied an amplicon sequencing approach on single wheat heads. The climatic data showed that the spring of 2014 was very dry and without precipitation in the two weeks around flowering. An initial quantitative PCR showed that the total amount of fungal DNA increased during the entire period, without significant difference between sprayed and control wheat heads. Amplicon sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region showed that operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified as Sporobolomyces roseus dominated in the first weeks, whereas Alternaria infectoria OTUs dominated in the last weeks before harvest. The only observed significant difference was that the control wheat heads contained more of the powdery mildew causing Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici OTUs compared with the sprayed wheat heads. The dry conditions around flowering most likely also had an effect on Fusarium head blight infection as Fusarium OTUs were only sporadically encountered. Analyses of secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium and Alternaria in the wheat heads confirmed the observations from the amplicon sequencing. Enniatin B was the most frequent contaminant present in four sprayed (49-538 ng/g) and three control (56-355 ng/g) wheat heads. The A. infectoria secondary metabolites infectopyrone and 4Z-infectopyrone were however consistently observed in all samples collected the last five weeks before harvest. PMID:26836252

  4. 源自车辆的微粒磁性与Ficus infectoria(一个关键种)对它的改善%Magnetic Properties of Vehicle-derived Particulates and Amelioration by Ficus infectoria: A Keystone Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sudhir Kumar Pandey; B. D. Tripathi; Santosh Kumar Prajapati; Virendra Kumar Mishra; Alka Rani Upadhyaya; Prabhat Kumar Rai; Atul Prakash Sharma; 王胜; 徐化成

    2005-01-01

    @@ 引言 源自车辆燃烧的磁性矿物质主要是磁铁矿和金属铁颗粒,大小为0.1~0.7 μm[1].这种大小的颗粒对人类特别有害,因为它能被吸入肺里.而且,在悬浮尘粒中,磁铁与其它重金属(如锌、镉、铬)[2]和对人体健康有害的诱变有机化合物[3]结合在一起.

  5. Action of the Metabolite Produced by Streptomyces cacaoi Strain 182-2 on Alternaria alternata%可可链霉菌182-2活性代谢产物对烟草赤星病菌的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高芬; 吴元华; 王梦亮

    2013-01-01

    [目的]明确可可链霉菌(Streptomyces cacaoi)182-2的活性代谢产物--KA08对烟草赤星病菌(Alternariaalternata)的抑菌活性及其机理,为后续农用抗生素产品开发和应用提供科学依据。[方法]采用菌丝湿重法和培养皿中萌发法,测定KA08对烟草赤星病菌菌丝生长和孢子萌发的抑制作用;采用电导率法和紫外吸收法测定其对细胞膜渗透性、麦角甾醇含量、脂质过氧化程度、可溶性蛋白含量的影响。[结果]KA08对烟草赤星病菌菌丝生长和孢子萌发均有强烈的抑制作用,同时,还可造成菌丝节间缩短、扭曲,芽管顶端膨大,并产生大量囊状膨大物。处理24 h时,对孢子萌发的抑菌中浓度为177.53µg·mL-1。抑菌机理研究发现KA08能导致菌丝体内电解质泄漏,细胞膜上麦角甾醇含量显著降低,脂质过氧化产物-丙二醛含量明显升高,并显著抑制菌丝体内蛋白质含量。[结论]农抗KA08对烟草赤星病菌具有显著抑制作用,主要通过抑制菌丝细胞膜上麦角甾醇合成,引发细胞膜脂质过氧化而使病菌细胞膜受损、通透性增加,从而导致菌丝生长受阻。细胞膜是KA08的主要作用位点之一。%[Objective] The objective of this study is to understand the antifungal activity and mechanism of KA08 produced by Streptomyces cacaoi strain 182-2 against Alternaria alternata so as to provide a scientific basis for further product development and application.[Method]Estimation of mycelia wet weight and spore germination in petri dish method were used to test the inhibitory effect of KA08 on mycelia growth and spore germination. Electrical conductivity method was used to test the permeability of pathogen plasma membrane, and the ultraviolet absorption method was employed to detect the content of ergosterol, MDA and soluble protein.[Result]KA08 had a remarkable inhibition effect on mycelia growth and spore germination. It

  6. Uji Efek Ekstrak Etanol Majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) Terhadap Penurunan Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Putih Yang Diinduksi Aloksan

    OpenAIRE

    Solin, Evi Susi Yanti

    2014-01-01

    The amount of diabetes mellitus patients in Indonesia takes the fourth place in the world after India, China and the United States. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease caused by impaired insulin production. Lack of resources and the amount of insulin causes glucose can not be used cells and therefore accumulates in the blood. Diabetes can be cure various disease such as hypertension, stroke, coronary hearth disease, kidney failure, cataracts, etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate th...

  7. 赞皇枣黑腐病菌拮抗链霉菌的室内多重筛选及发酵条件优化%Screening in vitro of Antagonistic Streptomyces against the Black Rot Disease (Alternaria tenuissima) of Zanhuang Jujube Fruit and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高芬; 李静虹; 王俊宏; 王梦亮

    2015-01-01

    being free of fungicide pollution. The objective of the present study is to screen out a Streptomyces strain with good inhibitory effect against the fungal disease pathogen ( Alternaria tenuissima) and optimize the fermentation medium formula, as well as fermentation conditions with the purpose of laying a foundation for field experiment and the development of bio-control agent.[Method]The agar block method,the Oxford cup method and the medicated plate method were applied in the multiple screening in vitro of 10 Streptomyces strains against A. tenuissima, which were originally isolated from special habitats. The optimum fermentation medium and conditions for the selected strain were determined by using a quadratic orthogonal rotation combination design and a single-factor experiment design, respectively. [Result]During in vivo experiment,strains AC03,AC04 and AC07 showed significant antagonistic effect, their diameter of inhibition zone being (32. 09 ± 1. 45)mm,(15. 75 ± 1. 34)mm and (18. 33 ± 0. 78)mm respectively. The fermentation filtrate activity test of the three strains demonstrated that the strains AC03 and AC07 had a diameter of inhibition zone of (20. 94 ± 0. 92)mm and (23. 44 ± 1. 63)mm respectively,while the strain AC04 had a diameter of only (14. 5 ± 0. 71)mm. The further conducted test of the inhibition effect of the fermentation filtrates of the strain AC03 and AC07 on mycelial growth displayed that the antagonistic substance produced by the strain AC07 had a better and longer inhibition effect than that produced by the strain AC03. These tests demonstrated that of the 10 isolates,the strain AC07 had the best inhibition effect on A. tenuissima,that is the main cause of the black rot disease on Zanhuang jujube. The optimum fermentation medium for the strain AC07 consists of maltose,5. 7%; soybean meal,2. 7%; ( NH4 ) 2 SO4 , 0. 17%; CaCO3 ,0. 22%; NaCl,0. 17% and Yeast Powder,0. 2%. The optimum fermentation conditions were defined as follows

  8. Revision of Chaetocnema semicoerulea species-group (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) in China, with descriptions of three new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese species of Chaetocnema semicoerulea group are revised and 3 new species described as new: C. salixis n.sp., C. yulongensis n.sp. and C. deqinensis n.sp. A key to all 5 species of this group occurring in China and the illustrations of habitus and genitalia are provided. A map of species distr...

  9. A taxonomic revision of the silphaeformis species-group of the genus Tachinus Gravenhorst (Staphylinidae, Tachyporinae) from China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ting; Schülke,Michael; Li ,Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese species of the silphaeformis group of the genus Tachinus Gravenhorst are revised with fifteen species being treated. Thirteen of them are described as new: T. armatus Feng & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), T. cavazzutii Feng, Li & Schülke, sp. n. (Sichuan), T. coronatus Feng, Li & Schülke, sp. n. (Ningxia, Qinghai), T. hercules Feng, Li & Schülke, sp. n. (Sichuan), T. hujiayaoi Feng, Li & Schülke, sp. n. (Shaanxi), T. jiuzhaigouensis Feng, Li & Schülke, sp. n. (Sichuan), T. linzhie...

  10. A refined concept of the Critoniopsis bogotana species group in Colombia with two new species (Vernonieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Robinson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Critoniopsis bogotana is more precisely delimited, and two related Colombian species are described as new. The form of trichomes on the abaxial surfaces of the leaves is found to be of major importance. A short key to the C. bogotana group is provided.

  11. Darwin’s earthworms (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megadrilacea with review of cosmopolitan Metaphire peguana–species group from Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blakemore, R.J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A chance visit to Darwin allowed inspection of and addition to Northern Territory (NT Museum’s earthworm collection. Native Diplotrema zicsii sp. nov. from Alligator River, Kakadu NP is described. Town samples were dominated by cosmopolitan exotic Metaphire bahli (Gates, 1945 herein keyed and compared morpho-molecularly with M. peguana (Rosa, 1890 requiring revision of allied species including Filipino Pheretima philippina (Rosa, 1891, P. p. lipa and P. p. victorias sub-spp. nov. A new P. philippina-group now replaces the dubia-group of Sims & Easton, 1972 and Amynthas carinensis (Rosa, 1890 further replaces their sieboldi-group. Lumbricid Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826 and Glossoscolecid Pontoscolex corethrurus (Müller, 1857 are confirmed introductions to the NT. mtDNA barcodes newly include Metaphire houlleti (Perrier, 1872 and Polypheretima elongata (Perrier, 1872 spp.-complexes from the Philippines. Pithemera philippinensis James & Hong, 2004 and Pi. glandis Hong & James, 2011 are new synonyms of Pi. bicincta (Perrier, 1875 that is common in Luzon. Vietnamese homonym Pheretima thaii Nguyen, 2011 (non P. thaii Hong & James, 2011 is replaced with Pheretima baii nom. nov. Two new Filipino taxa are also described: Pleionogaster adya sp. nov. from southern Luzon and Pl. miagao sp. nov. from western Visayas.

  12. Distinction and relatedness – Taxonomic and genetic studies reveal a new species group of goatfishes (Upeneus; Mullidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Uiblein, Franz; Gouws, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic and genetic differentiation among goatfish species of the genus Upeneus which had been formerly included in the so-called ‘vittatus group’ were examined using a comprehensive alpha-taxonomic and barcoding approach. Four of the five species of this group, U. indicus, U. suahelicus, U. supravittatus and U. vittatus, occur in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), while U. parvus occurs in the Western Atlantic. An updated diagnosis of the WIO species, followed by detailed inter- and intraspe...

  13. Morphometric variation of the Herichthys bartoni (Bean, 1892 species group (Teleostei: Cichlidae: How many species comprise H. labridens (Pellegrin, 1903?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mejía

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cichlids of the tribe Heroini have long been a source of taxonomical conflict. In particular, the species included in the Herichthys bartoni group have failed to be recovered as monophyletic in different molecular studies. In this paper we use traditional and geometric morphometrics to evaluate morphological variation in the species included in the H. bartoni complex in order to evaluate the number of species it contains. An update of a previously published DNA barcoding study suggests the existence of three genetic clusters that included the six recognized species analyzed in this study, none of them recovered as monophyletic. On the other hand, geometric morphometrics arise as a useful tool to discriminate species due that traditional morphometrics showed a high overlap in the characters analyzed that prevents the proposal of diagnostic characters.

  14. Importancia del género Alternaria como productor de micotoxinas y agente causal de enfermedades humanas The importance of genus Alternaria in mycotoxins production and human diseases

    OpenAIRE

    M. Á. Pavón Moreno; I. González Alonso; R. Martín de Santos; T. García Lacarra

    2012-01-01

    Alternaría es un género fúngico muy común, donde se incluyen numerosas especies saprofitas, endofíticas y patógenas ampliamente distribuidas en el suelo y la materia orgánica en descomposición. Incluye especies patógenas que pueden invadir los cultivos vegetales antes y después de la recolección y es responsable de considerables pérdidas económicas, debido a que reduce el rendimiento de las cosechas y produce alteraciones en los vegetales durante su almacenamiento. Las especies del género Alt...

  15. Importancia del género Alternaria como productor de micotoxinas y agente causal de enfermedades humanas The importance of genus Alternaria in mycotoxins production and human diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Á. Pavón Moreno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternaría es un género fúngico muy común, donde se incluyen numerosas especies saprofitas, endofíticas y patógenas ampliamente distribuidas en el suelo y la materia orgánica en descomposición. Incluye especies patógenas que pueden invadir los cultivos vegetales antes y después de la recolección y es responsable de considerables pérdidas económicas, debido a que reduce el rendimiento de las cosechas y produce alteraciones en los vegetales durante su almacenamiento. Las especies del género Alternaría sintetizan más de 70 metabolitos secundarios tóxicos para las plantas (fitotoxinas, algunos de los cuales afectan también a personas y animales, por lo que se consideran micotoxinas. La exposición a las toxinas de Alternaría spp. se ha relacionado con la aparición de efectos adversos para la salud en personas y animales y, en muchos casos, se ha demostrado que tienen capacidad genotóxica, mutagénica, carcinogénica y citotóxica. Las micotoxinas de Alternaría spp. se han aislado de frutas (manzana, pera, melón, albaricoque, uvas, uvas pasas, fresa, aceituna, cítricos e higos desecados, hortalizas (tomate, pimiento y zanahoria y tubérculos (patata, así como de numerosos alimentos procesados elaborados con materias primas contaminadas (zumos, conservas, salsas, etc.. Además, determinadas especies de Alternaría están implicadas en infecciones y alergias humanas, hasta el punto de que Alternaría se considera uno de los principales géneros fúngicos causantes de alergias.Alternaría is a cosmopolitan fungal genus that includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species, widely distributed in soil and organic matter in decomposition. Plant pathogenic species affect cereals, vegetables and fruit crops in the field and during storage. Alternaría spp. contamination is responsible for some of the world's most devastating plant diseases, causing serious reduction of crop yields and considerable economic losses. Alternaría species produce more than 70 secondary metabolites which are toxic to plants, and some of these phytotoxins have been chemically characterised and reported to act as mycotoxins to humans and animals. Exposure to Alternaría spp. toxins has been linked to a variety of adverse effects on human and animal health, including genotoxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic effects. Alternaría spp. mycotoxins have been isolated from fruits (apple, pear, melon, apricot, grapes, raisins, strawberry, olive, citrus fruits and dried figs, vegetables (tomato, pepper and carrot and tubers (potato, as well as from several processed foodstuffs manufactured with damaged raw materials (juices, preserves, sauces, etc.. Moreover, Alternaría spp. are frequently associated with allergic reactions in sensitized individuals.

  16. 维药没食子水提液的稳定性研究%Examine Stability of Uygur Medicine Quercus infectoria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木巴拉克·伊明江; 布海里且木·阿里; 曾灿丽; 哈木拉提·吾甫尔

    2014-01-01

    目的:考察影响没食子水提液(MSZST)稳定性的主要因素、观察不同储存条件下稳定性.方法:①分别将未包装和带包装MSZST放置高温、强光条件下,考察不同时间颜色、pH、离心前后,总酚、鞣质、没食子酸含量、沉淀量等指标变化;②将包装MSZST放置常温及4℃条件下,定期考察影响因素条件下各指标变化.结果:①高温和强光是影响MSZST稳定性的主要因素,高温影响>强光;包装材料可提高其物理稳定性;②常温和4℃条件下分别留洋观察24,36个月,各考察指标符合质量标准.结论:通过药效物质基础有效部位及有效成分等多指标全面评价MSZST稳定性,为MSZST生产环境、包装、储存、运输条件提供参考,为以没食子有效部位及有效成分为评价指标的复方,提供实验数据依据.

  17. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Ruth's golden aster (Pityopsis ruthii) in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth’s golden aster, Pityopsis ruthii (Small), is an endangered, herbaceous perennial plant that is only endemic to small sections of the Hiwassee and Ocoee Rivers, in Polk County, Tennessee. In July 2015, a greenhouse grown plant exhibited symptoms of disease that included elongated brown lesions o...

  18. Enhanced cellulase and β-glucosidase production by a mutant of Alternaria alternata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cellulolytic activity of the wild type and a mutant strain of A. alternata was investigated. Mutants were induced by gamma radiation. A suspension of about 105 condidia/mL in 0.05M phosphate buffer pH 5 were irradiated in a gamma-cell-type (Cammacell 220, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ottawa, Canada) 60Co source with a dose rate of 2.5 krad/min. The amount of radiation given was 70 krad which resulted in about 10% survival level. The stock culture was maintained on a sterile growth medium supplemented with 1% cellulose 123 and 0.3% agar. Following the incubation period, the fungal biomass was harvested by centrifugation (5000g for 10 min) and the clarified supernatant was used as the source of cellulase and β-glucosidase

  19. Study of the Interactions Between Penicillium Oxalicum Currie & Thom And Alternaria Alternata (Fr.) Keissler

    OpenAIRE

    F. Sempere; Santamarina, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was the analysis of the possible antagonistic effect of Penicillium oxalicum over the pathogen rice fungus A. alternata under different conditions of temperature, water activity and culture media. The macroscopic study of the dual growth revealed that according to the Index of Dominance P. oxalicum was more competitive that A. alternata at 25ºC whereas at 15ºC was this species. Microscopic analysis showed that P. oxalicum was a mycoparasite of A. alternata at all cond...

  20. Study of the interactions between Penicillium oxalicum Currie & Thom and Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sempere

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was the analysis of the possible antagonistic effect of Penicillium oxalicum over the pathogen rice fungus A. alternata under different conditions of temperature, water activity and culture media. The macroscopic study of the dual growth revealed that according to the Index of Dominance P. oxalicum was more competitive that A. alternata at 25ºC whereas at 15ºC was this species. Microscopic analysis showed that P. oxalicum was a mycoparasite of A. alternata at all conditions tested. The antagonist penetrated into A. alternata and disintegrated its conidiophores and conidia. The results suggests that P. oxalicum may be a possible biological control agent of the rice pathogens in a future.

  1. Automated and unbiased image analyses as tools in phenotypic classification of small-spored Alternaria species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Hansen, Michael Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    often has been broadly applied to various morphologically and chemically distinct groups of isolates from different hosts. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate automated and unbiased image analysis systems that will analyze different phenotypic characters and facilitate testing...

  2. Mycoflora and Ochratoxin A Control in Wheat Grain Using Natural Extracts Obtained from Wine Industry By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata-Maria Sumalan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some natural extracts obtained from grape pomace (GPE and grape seeds (GSE as compared to a synthetic food, antioxidant-butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, in order to control fungal population and ochratoxin A (OTA production in naturally contaminated wheat. The results showed that the addition of these extracts was efficient with OTA content decreasing. On treatment with these extracts the loss of OTA content after 14 days was in the range 7.8–28.3% relative to the control sample, but increased up to 26.48–37% after 28 days. The highest loss in OTA content was recorded for treatment with GPE at the 500 ppm level. Regarding the fungal development, the obtained results show that the total fungal populations were significantly reduced by using natural extracts. The most efficient extract was GPE. Both BHT and GPE inhibit the growth of Penicillium verrrucosum, for all doses, but less with Aspergillus genera. GPE affects the growth of other types of moulds such as Rhizopus microsporus, Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria infectoria and Cladosporium herbarum. Our data suggested that GPE and GSE are able to provide fungicidal and fungistatic protection and to control the OTA accumulation in wheat, at least in a similar manner to BHT.

  3. Short communication: Species group-specific predictors at the cow and quarter level for intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in dairy cattle throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2015-08-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are frequently isolated from quarters with subclinical mastitis, teat apices, and the cows' environment. Virulence, ecology, epidemiological behavior, and effect on udder health vary between different CNS species. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. simulans, and Staph. xylosus are frequently present in milk and have a more substantial effect on quarter milk somatic cell count than other species. Therefore, these species are considered the "more relevant" CNS. As species-specific factors associated with CNS intramammary infection (IMI) have not yet been identified and susceptibility for IMI differs between cows and quarters, this study aimed to identify predictors for CNS IMI at the cow and quarter level (some of them changing over time) with a specific focus on the aforementioned more relevant CNS. Precise data were available from a longitudinal study (3,052 observations from 344 quarters from 86 dairy cows belonging to 3 commercial dairy herds). All CNS were molecularly identified to the species level, and multivariable, multilevel logistic regression models taking into account the longitudinal nature of the data, were fit to study the likelihood of infection. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species from CNS IMI in older cows, whereas Staph. chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. simulans were the main species found in IMI in heifers. Quarters from heifers (as opposed to multiparous cows), from heifers and multiparous cows in third or fourth month in lactation (as opposed to early lactation, milk), and with an increasing quarter milk SCC were more likely to be infected with the more relevant CNS species. Quarter milk SCC was identified as the sole statistically significant predictor for IMI with other CNS species, although the size of the effect was lower [odds ratio of 1.6 (1.4-1.9) vs. 2.1 (1.8-2.5)] than the effect for IMI with the more relevant CNS. As a strong herd effect was present, studying herd-level predictors is warranted. PMID:26051318

  4. Revision of the Neotropical trahiras of the Hoplias lacerdae species-group (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Erythrinidae with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo T. Oyakawa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hoplias lacerdae was originally described from the rio Ribeira de Iguape, Iporanga, São Paulo State. The Hoplias lacerdae group is defined as containing generally large trahiras with the medial margins of dentaries running parallel to each other and lacking teeth on the basihyal compared to the H. malabaricus group in which the medial margins of the dentaries converge towards the mandibular symphysis and which have teeth on the basihyal. A taxonomic revision of the group based on meristic and morphometric data identified five distinct species: H. lacerdae distributed in the rio Ribeira de Iguape and rio Uruguai; H. intermedius from the rio São Francisco, upper rio Paraná basin, and rio Doce; H. brasiliensis from rivers of the Atlantic Coastal drainage from the rio Paraguaçu to the rio Jequitinhonha; H. australis new species, endemic to the rio Uruguai; and H. curupira new species present in northern South America, including the rios Negro, Trombetas, Tapajós, Xingu, Tocantins and Capim in the Amazon basin, upper rio Orinoco near the rio Casiquiare (Venezuela, and coastal rivers of Guyana and Suriname. A lectotype for Hoplias intermedius and a neotype for H. brasiliensis are designated.Hoplias lacerdae foi descrita originalmente do rio Ribeira de Iguape, Iporanga, São Paulo. O grupo Hoplias lacerdae foi definido como um conjunto de espécies para abrigar as traíras geralmente de grande porte, com as margens mediais dos dentários dispostas paralelamente e sem dentes no basi-hial, em oposição às traíras do grupo Hoplias malabaricus, cujas margens mediais dos dentários convergem em direção à sínfise mandibular e possuem dentes no basi-hial. A revisão taxonômica do grupo baseada em dados merísticos e morfométricos identificou cinco espécies distintas: Hoplias lacerdae distribuída nos rios Ribeira de Iguape e Uruguai; H. intermedius no rio São Francisco, alto rio Paraná e rio Doce; H. brasiliensis nos rios costeiros da drenagem Atlântica, desde o rio Paraguaçu até o rio Jequitinhonha; H. australis espécie nova, endêmica ao rio Uruguai; e H. curupira espécie nova no norte da América do Sul, incluindo os rios Negro, Trombetas, Tapajós, Xingu, Tocantins e Capim na bacia Amazônica; alto rio Orinoco próximo ao rio Casiquiare (Venezuela e rios costeiros da Guiana e Suriname. São designados um lectótipo para Hoplias intermedius e um neótipo para H. brasiliensis.

  5. A review of the parasitic mite family Psorergatidae (Cheyletoidea: Prostigmata: Acari) with hypotheses on the phylogenetic relationships of species and species groups

    OpenAIRE

    Giesen, K.M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive description of the mite family Psorergatidae starting with general morphology, a redescription of the type species of the family (Psorergates simplex (Tyrrell, 1883)), and keys to the genera (Psorergates, Psorergatoides, Psorobia) and all known species. Phylogenetic analyses, hypotheses of hosts and parasites are given. The last section contains tables of measurements and lists of psorergatic mite species and their hosts.

  6. The land crabs of the Discoplax longipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1867 species group, with description of a new species from Guam (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Peter K L; Shih, Hsi-Te

    2015-06-30

    Specimens of the gecarcinid land crab Discoplax longipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1867, from the western Pacific, can be separated into two distinct groups on the basis of DNA (mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and structure of the male first gonopod. On the basis of this data, the material that occurs from the Loyalty Islands to French Polynesia is shown to be D. longipes s. str., whereas specimens from Guam are here referred to a new pseudocryptic species, D. michalis n. sp. The two species are described and figured; and a revised key to the long-legged Discoplax species is provided.

  7. The New World tarantula-hawk wasp genus Pepsis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Part 1. Introduction and the P. rubra species-group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    The genus Pepsis is diagnosed and described, and its taxonomic and natural history reviewed. The following are newly synonymized under this genus: the genera Abripepsis Banks, 1946 and Brethesia Schrottky, 1909; and all the existing subgenera of Pepsis, viz. Chrysopepsis Haupt, 1952; Cirripepsis Ban

  8. 北部湾海域毛颚类组群的初步分析%A preliminary analysis of Chaetognatha species groups in Beibu Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜飞雁; 李纯厚; 贾晓平

    2005-01-01

    1998-1999年及2001-2002年对北部湾海域进行了6个航次生态环境综合调查.利用调查资料,以种为聚类变量进行了毛颚类的组群分析,结果表明北部湾毛颚类可分为3个组群.组群I及组群II为北部湾的主要组群.组群III组成种类和出现数量最少,为次要组群.组群I是一类分布广但适温盐范围较低,与北部湾高温、低盐的沿岸流关系较为密切的组群;而组群II则适温盐范围较高,与北部湾高温、高盐的外海水关系较为密切.

  9. 50 CFR Table 1c to Part 660... - 2009, Open Access and Limited Entry Allocations by Species or Species Group (weights in metric tons)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 660.302. A new stock assessment was conducted for blue rockfish in 2007. As a result of the new... allocated 55.7 percent (1,607 mt) of the commercial HG. t/ A bocaccio stock assessment and a rebuilding analysis were prepared in 2007. The bocaccio stock was estimated to be at 13.8 percent of its...

  10. A review of the parasitic mite family Psorergatidae (Cheyletoidea: Prostigmata: Acari) with hypotheses on the phylogenetic relationships of species and species groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, K.M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive description of the mite family Psorergatidae starting with general morphology, a redescription of the type species of the family (Psorergates simplex (Tyrrell, 1883)), and keys to the genera (Psorergates, Psorergatoides, Psorobia) and all known species. Phylogenetic analyses, hypotheses of

  11. Skrining Fitokimia dan Karakterisasi Simplisia serta Uji Efek Antidiare Ekstrak Etanol Majakani Terhadap Tikus

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhani, Eko

    2015-01-01

    Majakani or also called gall of majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) is the result of abnormal growth of young twigs of plants. Majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) is naturally used as astringents. The purpose of this research was to determine the chemical compounds content, the characteristic of simplex powder and the anti-diarrheal effect of the ethanolic extract of majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) to laboratory rats that were induced with castor oil beforehand. To the m...

  12. Nonpathogenic Binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. and Benzothiadiazole Protect Cotton Seedlings Against Rhizoctonia Damping-Off and Alternaria Leaf Spot in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaji-Hare, Suha; Neate, Stephen M

    2005-09-01

    ABSTRACT Recent reports have shown induction of resistance to Rhizoctonia root rot using nonpathogenic strains of binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. (np-BNR). This study evaluates the biocontrol ability of several np-BNR isolates against root and foliar diseases of cotton in greenhouse trials, provides evidence for induced systemic resistance (ISR) as a mechanism in this biocontrol, and compares the disease control provided by np-BNR with that provided by the chemical inducer benzothiadiazole (BTH). Pretreatment of cotton seedlings with np-BNR isolates provided good protection against pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by a virulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani (AG-4). Seedling stand of protected cotton was significantly higher (P control was superior to that observed with a chemical inducer. PMID:18943300

  13. Alternaria sp. MG1, a resveratrol-producing fungus: isolation, identification, and optimal cultivation conditions for resveratrol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its potential in preventing or slowing the occurrence of many diseases, resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene) has attracted great research interest. The objective of this study was to identify the microorganisms that possess resveratrol producing capability from selected plants and optimize ...

  14. Patogenicidade de Alternaria cichorii sobre espécies da família Asteraceae no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Milton L. Paz; Reis Ailton; Lopes Carlos A.

    2003-01-01

    Em 2001, plantas de chicória (Cichorium endivia) originárias do município de Catalão-GO apresentando sintomas de manchas e queima foliar foram recebidas na Clínica Fitopatológica da Embrapa Hortaliças (CNPH). Tecidos submetidos à câmara úmida produziram esporulação fúngica, de onde foi obtida cultura monospórica em BDA + cloranfenicol. Para o teste de patogenecidade, o fungo foi multiplicado em meio de cultura suco de tomate ágar (ST) e inoculado em plantas de chicória da cultivar comercial A...

  15. Partial Resistance of Carrot to Alternaria dauci Correlates with In Vitro Cultured Carrot Cell Resistance to Fungal Exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Mickaël Lecomte; Latifa Hamama; Linda Voisine; Julia Gatto; Jean-Jacques Hélesbeux; Denis Séraphin; Luis M Peña-Rodriguez; Pascal Richomme; Cora Boedo; Claire Yovanopoulos; Melvina Gyomlai; Mathilde Briard; Philippe Simoneau; Pascal Poupard; Romain Berruyer

    2014-01-01

    Article de revue (Article scientifique dans une revue à comité de lecture) International audience Although different mechanisms have been proposed in the recent years, plant pathogen partial resistance is still poorly understood. Components of the chemical warfare, including the production of plant defense compounds and plant resistance to pathogen-produced toxins, are likely to play a role. Toxins are indeed recognized as important determinants of pathogenicity in necrotrophic fungi. P...

  16. In-vitro evaluation of fungicides, bioagents and aqueous leaf extracts against Alternaria leaf blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Dey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available All the six fungicides viz.,Mancozeb (75% WP; Carbendazim (50WP, Copper oxychloride (50WP, Captan (50 WP, Thiram (75 % WP, Chlorothalonil (75 WP evaluated in vitro (@500, 1000 and 1500 ppm were found effective against A. macrospora and caused significant inhibition of test pathogen over untreated control. However, Thiram was found most effective and recorded significantly highest mean mycelial inhibition (90.42%. This was followed by the fungicides, Captan (82.04%, Mancozeb (79.88%, Carbendazim(77.5%, Chlorothalonil (74.52% and copper oxychloride (71.75%. All the five fungal and one bacterial bioagents/ antagonists evaluated in vitro against A. macrospora were found antifungal/ antagonistic against the test pathogen. However, T. viride was found most effective and recorded least linear mycelial growth (32.72 mm with corresponding significantly highest mycelial inhibition (63.64% of the test pathogen. The second and third best bioagents found were T. koningii and P. fluorescens, which recorded linear mycelial growth, respectively of 33.90 mm and 33.95 mm with corresponding mycelial inhibition, respectively of 62.33 and 62.27 per cent. All the six botanicals/plant extracts evaluated in vitro (@5, 10 and 15 % each were found fungistatic/ fungicidal against. A.macrospora. However, significantly least mean radial mycelial growth (56.18mm and significantly highest mean mycelial inhibition (37.47% was recorded with Garlic. The second and third best botanicals found were onion and Tulsi which recorded second and third least mean radial mycelial growth, respectively of 58.52 mm and 62.51 mm with corresponding mean mycelial inhibition of 34.97 and 32.86 per cent, respectively.

  17. PCR-SSCP-based reconstruction of the original fungal flora of heat-processed meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn-In, Samart; Hölzel, Christina S; Janke, Tobias; Schwaiger, Karin; Balsliemke, Joachim; Bauer, Johann

    2013-03-01

    Food processing of spoiled meat is prohibited by law, since it is a deception and does not comply with food safety aspects. In general, spoilage of meat is mostly caused by bacteria. However, a high contamination level of fungi could be also found in some meat or meat products with certain preserving conditions. In case that unhygienic meat is used to produce heat processed products, the microorganisms will be deactivated by heat, so that they cannot be detected by a standard cultivation method. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and apply a molecular biological method--polymerase chain reaction and single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP)--to reconstruct the original fungal flora of heat processed meat. Twenty primer pairs were tested for their specificity for fungal DNA. Since none of them fully complied with all study criteria (such as high specificity and sensitivity for fungal DNA; suitability of the products for PCR-SSCP) in the matrix "meat", we designed a new reverse primer, ITS5.8R. The primer pair ITS1/ITS5.8R amplified DNA from all tested fungal species, but not DNA from meat-producing animals or from ingredients of plant origin (spices). For the final test, 32 DNA bands in acrylamide gel from 15 meat products and 1 soy sauce were sequenced-all originating from fungal species, which were, in other studies, reported to contaminate meat e.g. Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida rugosa, C. tropicalis, C. zeylanoides, Eurotium amstelodami and Pichia membranifaciens, and/or spices such as Botrytis aclada, Guignardia mangiferae, Itersonilia perplexans, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Lewia infectoria, Neofusicoccum parvum and Pleospora herbarum. This confirms the suitability of PCR-SSCP to specifically detect fungal DNA in heat processed meat products, and thus provides an overview of fungal species contaminating raw material such as meat and spices. PMID:23361099

  18. Tyrosinase kinetic in the presence of three inhibitory medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Ansari; Farzaneh Etelaei; Fariba Sharififar

    2011-01-01

    Quercus infectoria, Terminalia chebula and Linum usita-tissimum. Different concentration of the extracts was examined against l-tyrosine oxidation in comparison to kojic acid and their IC 50 were calculated by probit analysis. The tyrosinase inhibition kinetics, analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots, and the parameters of K m and V max for each extract were calculated using the Linweaver--Burk equation. The results show that the methanolic extracts of Q. infectoria (MEQI) and T. chebula (METC) po...

  19. Effect of plant extracts formulated in different ointment bases on MDR strains

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar Pallavi; Nabar Bela

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of Aloe vera whole plant, Eucalyptus globulus leaves, Ficus infectoria bark, Ficus religiosa bark and Piper betel leaves were studied for antibacterial activity on resistant and sensitive strains, isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. A combination of hot alcoholic extracts of Ficus infectoria, Ficus religiosa and Piper betel were found to be more effective against all the isolates. The combined extract was formulated in different ointment bases such as polyethylene glycol, ...

  20. Screening of Plant Extracts with Bioactivity to Alternaria alternata%抗烟草赤星病的植物源粗提物筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少南; 杨立军; 杨小军; 成洪山

    2005-01-01

    为筛选对烟草赤星病有较高抗性的植物源提取物,进行了从10个科植物中以不同提取方法提取的12种粗提物对烟草赤星病室内孢子萌发和田间小区防治试验.结果表明:胡椒科的山鸡椒(Litsea cubeba)果实的水蒸气粗提物、菊科的牛蒡(Arctium lappa)种子的石油醚提取物和桃金娘科的丁子香(Syzygiumaromaticum)花的水蒸气粗提取物可明显抑制烟草赤星病菌孢子萌发,具有相对较好的田间防治效果.

  1. IN VITRO BIOACTIVITY OF CREOSOTE BUSH EXTRACTS (LARREA TRIDENTATA) ON THE INHIBITION OF POSTHARVEST FUNGI: PENICILLIUM POLONICUM, ASPERGILLUS NIGER, RHIZOPUS ORYZAE Y ALTERNARIA TENUISSIMA

    OpenAIRE

    O. Peñuelas-Rubio; M. Arellano-Gil; I. C. Vargas-Arispuro; Lares-Villa, F; E. U. Cantú-Soto; S. E. Hernández-Rodríguez; M. A. Gutiérrez-Coronado; C. Mungarro-Ibarra

    2015-01-01

    En el presente estudio se evaluó la eficiencia de extractos vegetales deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con diclorometano, etanol, metanol y agua, sobre el crecimiento radial in vitro de cuatro hongos fitopatógenos, los cuales primeramente fueron identificados en género y especie empleando claves taxonómicas y técnicas moleculares. Para los bioensayosin vitrose aplicaron diseños completamente al azar con cuatro tratamientos y tres repeticiones en cada hongo, utilizando las concentraciones: 0, 250,...

  2. 没食子对IgA肾病模型大鼠血清与肾组织NF-κB水平的影响%Effects of Quercus infectoria on NF-κB in Serum and Renal Tissue of IgA Nephropathy Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷; 李素华; 李团结; 桑晓红

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究没食子对IgA肾病大鼠血清与肾组织核转录因子-κB (NF-κB)的影响.方法:采用CCL+脂多糖+牛血清白蛋白联合法复制大鼠IgA肾病模型.80只SD大鼠随机均分为正常对照(等容生理盐水)组、模型(等容生理盐水)组与没食子高、中、低剂量(300、150、75 mg/kg)组,灌胃给药,每天1次,连续4周.测定大鼠24 h尿蛋白量;酶标仪法测定大鼠血清NF-κB含量;免疫组化法测定大鼠肾组织NF-κB的表达;观察大鼠肾脏病理损害程度.结果:与正常对照组比较,模型组大鼠24 h尿蛋白量增加,血清NF-κB含量增加,肾组织NF-κB表达增强,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);大鼠肾小球系膜增宽(节段)伴/不伴细胞增生,肾间质轻度纤维化,部分小管扩张.与模型组比较,没食子高、中、低剂量组大鼠24 h尿蛋白量减少;没食子高剂量组大鼠血清NF-κB含量减少,肾组织NF-κB表达减弱,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);大鼠肾脏病理情况有一定改善.结论:没食子能够减轻IgA肾病模型大鼠肾损害,其机制可能与下调NF-κB水平有关.

  3. Potential impact of a hybrid leaf blight disease that infects both carrot and potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria dauci and Alternaria solani are two forms of necrotrophic fungi. A. dauci targets carrot crops, while A. solani mainly targets potato. Both species of Alternaria have been able to produce blight on their respective target plants. Recently, an A. dauci hybrid has appeared that is able to i...

  4. Determination of Antimicrobial Activity of the Dyed Silk Fabrics with Some Natural Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Alkan, Rezan; TORGAN, Emine; AYDIN, Canan; Karadag, Recep

    2015-01-01

    In this study, silk fabric is dyed with natural indigo. Dyed silk fabric with natural indigo was cut in the 20x20 cm2 size. Excluding a fabric, all fabrics were mordanted in the same percentage with alum metal (KAl(SO4)2.12H2O). Then, silk fabrics for green color dyeing are dyed separately with weld (Reseda luteola), gall oak (Quercus infectoria Olivier) and together weld (Reseda luteola) and gall oak (Quercus infectoria) in different percentage. Antimicrobial functionality of the twenty seve...

  5. 广西茅尾海牡蛎天然种苗种类鉴定和群体组成的初步分析%Species identification species group structure analysis of the common oysters from the Maowei sea in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟方杰; 严雪瑜; 高扬; 蒋钦杨; 贾峥; 李琼珍; 李文红; 陈琴

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to learn the germplasm resource situation of oyster larvaes and juve-niles in Guangxi Maowei Sea, to improve the efficiency of oysters collecting. Five common oyster adults were col-lected from Maowei Sea, Two types of oyster D type larvae, named DⅠand DⅡwere collected during different breeding peaks of mature oysters. Three types of oyster juvenile, named MⅠ, MⅡand MⅢ were collected, during different attachment periods. Multiple PCR technology was used to identify the species of the oyster adults, juvenile and larvae. C.hongkongensis was the dominant species in breeding peaks of both mature oysters and oyster juvenile. The average proportion was 88.3%, 6.7%and 5%for C.hongkongensis, C. ariakensis and C.sikamea respectively in oyster juvenile. The quantity of C.hongkongensis was significant higher than that of C.sikamea and C. ariakensis(P0.05). C.hongkongensis was the dominant oyster in Maowei sea. In order to collect numerous C.hongkongensis with single species, oyster collectors should be placed before July 12. Otherwise, the proportion of oyster juvenile which adheres C. ariakensis and C.sikamea would increase, which would influence the collection and aquaculture production of Oyster.%了解广西茅尾海牡蛎种质资源现状,有助于提高牡蛎采苗效果。通过在茅尾海采集常见5种牡蛎成体,并在牡蛎不同繁殖高峰期分别采集牡蛎D型幼虫DⅠ、DⅡ,在不同附着期分别采集牡蛎幼苗MⅠ、MⅡ、MⅢ,采用多重PCR技术对牡蛎成体、稚贝及幼虫进行种类鉴定。香港巨牡蛎(Crassostrea hongkongensis)在茅尾海牡蛎稚贝和幼虫高峰期均属于优势种;稚贝中香港巨牡蛎、有明巨牡蛎(Crassostrea ariakensis)和熊本牡蛎(Crassostrea sikamea)3个种类的平均比例分别为88.3%、6.7%和5.0%,香港巨牡蛎与熊本牡蛎、有名巨牡蛎相比差异显著(P<0.05),熊本牡蛎与有明巨牡蛎差异不显著(P>0.05)。香港巨牡蛎是茅尾海牡蛎优势种,7月12日之前投放采苗器可采集到数量多、种类单一的香港巨牡蛎。7月12日之后投放采苗器,附着的稚贝中有明巨牡蛎和熊本牡蛎比例增加,影响采苗效果及养殖生产。

  6. 转外源法呢基焦磷酸合酶基因烟草抗赤星病研究%Expression of Foreign Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Gene in Transgenic Tobacco Enhances Disease Resistance to Alternaria alternata in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔红; 刘海礁; 李雪君

    2006-01-01

    将已克隆的薄荷(Mentha spicata L.)法呢基焦磷酸合酶(farnesyl diphosphate synthase,fps)的cDNA插入载体,构建CaMV35S启动子驱动下的植物表达载体pBinARfps.用捕获该质粒的根癌农杆菌菌株LBA4404与烟草叶片外植体共培养,并在附加30 mg/L Kan的MS+0.1 mg/L IAA+1.5 mg/LBA培养基上诱导植株分化,再生芽在附加30 mg/L Kan的MS培养基上生根,再生植株.Kan阳性植株经PCR-Southern检测筛选,得到5株PCR阳性植株(K-4,K-6,K-17,K-19,K-35),证明外源fps基因在烟草基因组中的整合;Northern blot检测证明外源fps基因在转录水平进行了表达;离体叶片接种实验表明,转基因植株(T1代)对赤星病抗性明显提高.这表明fps基因在植物抗病基因工程中具有潜在应用价值.

  7. Separation and determination of destruxin B in alternaria brassicae by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法分离和测定白菜黑斑病菌中的腐败菌素B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云惠; 董金皋; 谢令琴; 陈冠华

    2002-01-01

    建立了一种高效液相色谱分离和测定白菜黑斑病菌腐败菌素B的新方法.被真菌毒素感染的白菜病叶用乙酸乙酯萃取,用 Nove-Pak C18柱进行分离,流动相为乙腈-水(1+1),pH 3.42,流速1.0 mL/min,紫外检测波长206 nm,腐败菌素B的分离时间是11.49 min,检出限达到2.3 ng,线性动态范围至少是3个数量级.本方法应用于白菜黑斑病叶样品的测定,并进行了回收率试验,腐败菌素B的5次测定值RSD≤1.2%,平均回收率≥97.1%.

  8. Analysis of Meteorological Condition for Infection of the pathogen of Tobacco Brown Spot (Alternaria alternate)%烟草赤星病病原菌侵染的气象条件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫建国; 陈庆园; 于飞

    2012-01-01

    [目的]明确赤星病侵染与流行的适宜气象指标及其关键气象因子.[方法]对贵州省5个典型山地气候区烟草赤星病进行调查,在室内分析不同菌株间生物学特性差异;在人工气候箱内采用均匀设计法模拟不同气象条件(光照、温度和湿度),在离体叶片上采用悬滴法分析不同气候区赤星病病原菌的侵染能力差异.[结果]贵州省不同气候带的赤星病病原菌侵染率表现出一定的差异性,在湿度50%~60%、温度10~20℃即低温中等湿度条件下即可侵染烟叶,各菌株间有一定差异,但差异不大.[结论]为赤星病的流行预测和防治提供了理论依据.%[Objective]The aim was to study the change law of agronomic characters of winter wheat under different conditions of soil water.[Method]With the winter wheat variety Jimai 20 as experimental material, the variation of plant height, panel length and dry weight of organs were studied, and the relationship between agronomic characters and moisture content in soil was studied.[Result]Under the conditions of slight drought stress, the stem height was 63.4% -73.2% of that under appropriate moisture, while the internode length under ear increased by 9. 2%. Under severe drought, the length of internode under ear got shorter, while the length of penultimate and the third internode from top decreased firstly and then increased. The dry matter accumulation of stem, leaves and spikelet decreased while that of root increased. The length of the internode under ear, penultimate and the third intemodes from top increased firstly and then declined during the soil moisture pro cessing from appropriate to waterlogged, and also the variation of dry matter of organs.[Conclusion]The research provides theoretical basis for study on the water-saving and high yield of wheat.

  9. Screening Experiments for the Effective Fungicides of Black Rot Disease of Gonggan(Alternaria citri)%贡柑黑腐病有效防治药剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓明学; 谢艳芳; 谭有龙; 覃旭; 覃星瑜; 覃宗典

    2012-01-01

    [目的]筛选防治贡柑黑腐病的有效药剂.[方法]用生长速率法和孢子萌发法测定苯醚甲环唑等15种药剂的EC50、EC95值,并做氟硅唑等5种药剂的田间药效试验.[结果]以EC95(mg a.i./L)排序,抑菌活性较高的有氟硅唑、吡唑醚菌酯·咪鲜胺、吡唑醚菌酯、苯醚甲环唑、咪鲜胺、代森锰锌、丙森锌、百菌清·多菌灵·代森锰锌;田间防效较好的有10%氟硅唑WP、25%苯醚甲环唑·咪鲜胺WP、50%百菌清·多菌灵·代森锰锌WP和72%代森锰锌·霜脲氰WP,而10%氟硅唑EW防效较差.[结论]耐雨水冲刷的杀菌剂和剂型防效较好.%[Aims] This paper aims to screen out the effective fungicides for controlling black rot disease of Gonggan(Alteranria citri). [Methods] The EC50 and EC95(mg a.i./L) of 15 different kinds of fungicides, such as ifenoconazole, pyraclostrobin, were tested with the both methods of the growth rate and spore emergence, meanwhile, the field control of five kinds of fungicides, such as flusilazole, were conducted. [Results] Sorting by EC,,, the effect on inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination from high to low: flusilazole, pyraclostrobin+prochloraz, pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole, prochloraz, mancozeb, propineb. The field trial results showed that the following .fungicides have good effect: flusilazole 10% WP 1 g/L, difenoconazole+prochloraz 25% WP 1 g/L, chlorothalonil+carbendazim+mancozeb 50% WP 1.67 g/L and mancozeb+cymoxanil 72% WP 1.25 g/L, while flusilazole 10% EW 1 g/L with poor control efficiency. [Conclusions] The control effect is better of the fungicides whose formulations can resist rain erosion.

  10. Medicinal plant extracts as anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 agents and their effects on bacterial cell aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Limsuwan, Surasak

    2006-10-01

    Ethanolic extracts of eight Thai medicinal plants (representing five families) that are used as traditional remedies for treating diarrhea were examined with a salt aggregation test for their ability to modulate cell surface hydrophobicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains, including E. coli O157:H7. Four of these medicinal plants, Acacia catechu, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Punica granatum, and Quercus infectoria, have high bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities. The ethanolic extract of Q. infectoria was the most effective against all strains of E. coli, with MICs of 0.12 to 0.98 mg/ml and MBCs of 0.98 to 3.91 mg/ml. The ethanolic extract of P. granatum had MICs of 0.49 to 1.95 mg/ml and MBCs of 1.95 to 3.91 mg/ml. Ethanolic extracts of Q. infectoria, P. pterocarpum, and P. granatum were among the most effective extracts against the two strains of E. coli O157:H7. The other four plants, Andrographis paniculata, Pluchia indica, Tamarindus indica, and Walsura robusta, did not have high bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities but were able to affect hydrophobicity characteristics on their outermost surface. All plants except Q. infectoria had some ability to increase cell surface hydrophobicity. There appears to be no correlation between antibacterial activity and cell aggregative properties. PMID:17066910

  11. Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Shim, Jae-Seok; Chung, Jae-Youn

    2004-09-01

    The methanol extracts of five tropical plants, Baeckea frutescens, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Kaempferia pandurata, Physalis angulata and Quercus infectoria, exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. In particular, G. glabra, K. pandurata and P. angulata conferred fast killing bactericidal effect against S. mutans in 2 min at 50 microg/ml of extract concentration. PMID:15351117

  12. Reviewing morphologic specifications of acorn leaves and fruits in lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Nazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zagros forests, as the greatest jungle area of the country, are considered not only as a high-economic zone in wooden products, but also as a highly important zone in environmental values. It should be mentioned that acorn is one of the main elements in the forests of Lorestan, and grows on different ecologic conditions’ realizing the variance-range of quantities and qualities aspects of leaves and fruits. This research has been done within the seven zones of Lorestan province’s acorn forests. 40 samples of leaf and fruit have been gathered from various trees. For each sample, 8 morphological aspects of fruit, and 16 morphological aspect of leaf were measured and recorded. Received data were statistically analyzed by Minitab ver.14 software. Results show that there are three types of acorn in the province of Lorestan: Quercus Persica (Persian acorn, Quercus Branti (Broodar, and Quercus Infectoria (Darmazoo. The quercus infectoria can be seen separately on the zone of Zasht & Ghalai; two types of branti and persica can be seen irregularly. On Ghalai zone, due to the rain fall rate and more humidity in comparison to other zones, suitable conditions are available for the growth of Quercus infectoria. Among the reviewed aspects in this research, leaf color, the existence of fluff on leaves, existence of teeth, and the length of grain cover have the greatest effect on the separation of Persia and branti from infectoria.

  13. Synthesis and antifungal activities of 2-(N-arylsulfonylindol-3-yl)-3-aryl-1,3-thiazinan-4-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Huan; Zhang, Rui; Hu, Ying; Ke, Yazhen; Gao, Zhinan; Xu, Hui

    2013-01-01

    A series of 2-(N-arylsulfonylindol-3-yl)-3-aryl-1,3-thiazinan-4-one derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in vitro against seven phytopathogenic fungi, namely Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. vasinfectum, Alternaria brassicae, Valsa mali, Alternaria alternata, and Pyricularia oryzae. Among all derivatives, especially compound 4j exhibited a potential antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:23819301

  14. Inhibitory effects of sudanese medicinal plant extracts on hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, G; Miyashiro, H; Nakamura, N; Hattori, M; Kakiuchi, N; Shimotohno, K

    2000-11-01

    One hundred fifty-two methanol and water extracts of different parts of 71 plants commonly used in Sudanese traditional medicine were screened for their inhibitory effects on hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease (PR) using in vitro assay methods. Thirty-four extracts showed significant inhibitory activity (>/=60% inhibition at 100 microg/mL). Of these, eight extracts, methanol extracts of Acacia nilotica, Boswellia carterii, Embelia schimperi, Quercus infectoria, Trachyspermum ammi and water extracts of Piper cubeba, Q. infectoria and Syzygium aromaticum, were the most active (>/=90% inhibition at 100 microg/mL). From the E. schimperi extract, two benzoquinones, embelin (I) and 5-O-methylembelin (II), were isolated and found as potent HCV-PR inhibitors with IC(50) values of 21 and 46 microM, respectively. Inhibitory activities of derivatives of I against HCV-PR as well as their effects on other serine proteases were also investigated. PMID:11054840

  15. The fauna of cynipid oak gall wasps and their parasitoids in Lorestan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizkhani, E; Rasoulian, G R; Kharazi-Pakdel, A; Omid, R; Moniri, V R; Melika, G

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in the period 2003-2005 to collect and identify gall wasps and their parasitoids on oak species in Lorestan province. There are two oak species, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria, with different dispersion patterns in the province. Thus, 3 study sampling sites were selected to cover distributional pattern of oak forests. Collected galls maintained in the laboratory condition. Based on results obtained, overall, 26 different galls-formed on various plant parts (catkins, buds, fruits, leaves) were collected on two oak species; of which, 11 gall wasps are active on Q. brantii and 13 gall wasps on Q. infectoria. 19 parasitoid wasps of 12 genera and 6 families belong to Chalcidoidea superfamily with various frequency and dispersal were collected from mentioned galls. PMID:17385504

  16. Inhibition of Naja kaouthia venom activities by plant polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Bavovada, Rapepol; Pakmanee, Narumol; Suttisri, Rutt; Saen-oon, Suwipa

    2005-03-21

    Plant polyphenols from the aqueous extracts of Pentace burmanica, Pithecellobium dulce, Areca catechu and Quercus infectoria were tested for their inhibitory activities against Naja kaouthia (NK) venom by in vitro neutralization method. The first three extracts could completely inhibit the lethality of the venom at 4 LD50 concentration and the venom necrotizing activity at the minimum necrotizing dose while also inhibited up to 90% of the acetylcholinesterase activity of NK venom at much lower tannin concentrations than that of Quercus infectoria. The ED50 of plant tannins in inhibiting NK venom activities varied according to condensed tannins and their content in the extracts. Molecular docking of the complexes between alpha-cobratoxin and either hydrolysable or condensed tannins at their lowest energetic conformations were proposed. The anti-venom activities of these plant polyphenols by selectively blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and non-selectively by precipitation of the venom proteins were suggested. PMID:15740891

  17. Effect of Plant Extracts Formulated in Different Ointment Bases on MDR Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pallavi L; Nabar, Bela M

    2010-05-01

    Extracts of Aloe vera whole plant, Eucalyptus globulus leaves, Ficus infectoria bark, Ficus religiosa bark and Piper betel leaves were studied for antibacterial activity on resistant and sensitive strains, isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. A combination of hot alcoholic extracts of Ficus infectoria, Ficus religiosa and Piper betel were found to be more effective against all the isolates. The combined extract was formulated in different ointment bases such as polyethylene glycol, gelatin, sodium alginate, carbopol, cream base and honey. These were then evaluated to find a suitable base for preparation of an ointment. In vitro study of the release of antimicrobials and kill-time studies of the herbal ointments was carried out against multi-drug resistant isolate of Pseudomonas. The ointment showed bactericidal activity within 2 h against the resistant strain of Pseudomonas spp. PMID:21188057

  18. Effect of plant extracts formulated in different ointment bases on MDR strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar Pallavi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Aloe vera whole plant, Eucalyptus globulus leaves, Ficus infectoria bark, Ficus religiosa bark and Piper betel leaves were studied for antibacterial activity on resistant and sensitive strains, isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. A combination of hot alcoholic extracts of Ficus infectoria, Ficus religiosa and Piper betel were found to be more effective against all the isolates. The combined extract was formulated in different ointment bases such as polyethylene glycol, gelatin, sodium alginate, carbopol, cream base and honey. These were then evaluated to find a suitable base for preparation of an ointment. In vitro study of the release of antimicrobials and kill-time studies of the herbal ointments was carried out against multi-drug resistant isolate of Pseudomonas. The ointment showed bactericidal activity within 2 h against the resistant strain of Pseudomonas spp.

  19. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of Thai medicinal plants against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitpipit, L.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia catechu, Garcinia mangostana, Impatiens balsamina, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Quercus infectoria, Tamarindus indica, Uncaria gambir, Walsura robusta were primarily tested for their antibacterial activities against 35 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. aureus ATCC 25923 using disc diffusion method (2.5 mg/disc. Almost all extracts, except Tamarindus indica exhibited antibacterial activity. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia catechu, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Quercus infectoria, and Uncaria gambir, and ethanolic extracts of Garcinia mangostana, Impatiens balsamina, Peltophorum pterocarpum, and Walsura robusta demonstrated inhibition zones, ranging from 6 to 22 mm. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC values were performed using agar dilution method. The MIC/MBC values of aqueous extracts of Quercus infectoria against clinical isolates of MRSA and S. aureus were 0.2 to 0.4/0.4 to 1.6 and 0.2/1.6 mg/ ml, respectively. Ethanolic extracts of Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Quercus infectoria were demonstrated to be the most effective. The MIC values against MRSA isolates and S. aureus ranged from 0.05 to 0.4 and 0.1, 0.2 to 0.4 and 0.1, 0.2 to 0.4 and 0.2 mg/ml, respectively. The MBC values against MRSA ranged from 0.1 to 0.4, 0.4 to 1.6, and 1.6 to 3.1 mg/ml and against S. aureus at 0.4, 3.2, and 1.6 mg/ml, respectively.

  20. Inhibitory activity of Iranian plant extracts on growth and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a drug resistance opportunistic bacterium. Biofilm formation is key factor for survivalof P. aeruginosa in various environments. Polysaccharides may be involved in biofilm formation. The purpose of thisstudy was to evaluate antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of seven plant extracts with known alpha-glucosidaseinhibitory activities on different strains of P. aeruginosa.Methodology and results: Plants were extracted with methanol by the maceration method. Antimicrobial activities weredetermined by agar dilution and by growth yield as measured by OD560nm of the Luria Bertani broth (LB culture with orwithout extracts. In agar dilution method, extracts of Quercus infectoria inhibited the growth of all, while Myrtuscommunis extract inhibited the growth of 3 out of 8 bacterial strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 1000μg/mL. All extracts significantly (p≤0.003 reduced growth rate of the bacteria in comparison with the control withoutextracts in LB broth at sub-MIC concentrations (500 μg/mL. All plant extracts significantly (p≤0.003 reduced biofilmformation compared to the controls. Glycyrrhiza glabra and Q. infectoria had the highest anti-biofilm activities. Nocorrelation between the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity with growth or the intensity of biofilm formation was found.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Extracts of Q. infectoria and M. communis had the most antimicrobial,while Q. infectoria and G. glabra had the highest anti-biofilm activities. All plant extracts had anti-biofilm activities withmarginal effect on growth, suggesting that the mechanisms of these activities are unrelated to static or cidal effects.Further work to understand the relation between antimicrobial and biofilm formation is needed for development of newmeans to fight the infectious caused by this bacterium in future.

  1. Evidence from micromorphology and gross morphology of the genus Loranthus (Loranthaceae) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    SHAVVON, ROBABEH SHAHI; MEHRVARZ, Shahryar SAEIDI; GOLMOHAMMADI, Narges

    2012-01-01

    The genus Loranthus L. (Loranthaceae) is represented in Iran by 2 species: Loranthus europaeus Jacq. and L. grewingkii Boiss. & Buhse; the latter species is endemic to the area of Flora Iranica. The plants of Loranthus are hemiparasites growing on various host trees such as Quercus infectoria Oliv., Acer monspessulanum L., and Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. In order to investigate the range of morphological variation in different populations of these species, an inclusive gross morphological and...

  2. Effect of Cardinal Directions on Gall Morphology and Parasitization of the Gall Wasp, Cynips quercusfolii

    OpenAIRE

    Zargaran, Mohammed Reza; Safaralizadeh, Mohammed Hassan; Pourmirza, Ali Asghar; Valizadegan, Orouj

    2011-01-01

    This survey investigated the relationship between gall morphology and some fitness components in the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Results showed that larger C. quercusfolii galls were formed on the south side of oak trees Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagales: Fagaceae). Larval chamber diameter in the gall was similar, but gall diameter and gall wall thickness varied with the location of the gall on the tree. Cynips quercusfolii was attacked by parasito...

  3. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of Thai medicinal plants against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kitpipit, L.; Voravuthikunchai, S.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia catechu, Garcinia mangostana, Impatiens balsamina, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Quercus infectoria, Tamarindus indica, Uncaria gambir, Walsura robusta were primarily tested for their antibacterial activities against 35 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. aureus ATCC 25923 using disc diffusion method (2.5 mg/disc). Almost all extracts, except Tamarindus indica exhibited antibacterial activity. Both a...

  4. FORAGE QUALITY OF DECIDUOUS WOODY AND HERBACEOUS SPECIES THROUGHOUT A YEAR IN MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBLANDS OF WESTERN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Parlak, A. Gokkus, B. H. Hakyemez*, H. Baytekin

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional stress during dry summer period is considered as a primary factor limiting goat production in the Mediterranean region. In this study, forage quality of two deciduous woody species (gall oak (Quercus infectoria Oliv.) and Christ’s thorn (Paliurus spina-cristi Mill.)) and herbaceous species in a shrubland in the South Marmara was determined to assess their quality and capacity to meet goats needs. Dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid deterge...

  5. Effects of various host plants on nutritional indices and some biochemical compounds in green oak leaf roller, Tortrix viridana L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Yazdanfar; M. Ghodskhah Daryaei; J. Jalali Sendi; H. Ghobari; B. Valizadeh

    2015-01-01

    The green oak leaf roller, Tortrix viridana L., is one of the most destructive pests, causing damages to various species of oak, feeding on different host plants including Quercus infectoria Oliv, Q. branti Lindl, and Q. libani Oliv. Nutritional indices, activity of enzymatic and non-enzymatic compounds of T. viridana were studied under laboratory conditions. In addition, chemical components were analysed in the leaves of the three host plants. Fourth instar larvae reared on Q. branti showed ...

  6. Characterization of Acorn Fruit Oils Extracted from Selected Mediterranean Quercus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rousan, W. M.; Ajo, R. Y.; Al-Ismail, K. M.; Attlee, A.; Shaker, R. R.; Osaili, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to identifying the acorn fruit oil composition of three Mediterranean white oak group species, Quercus aegilops (QA), Quercus infectoria (QI), and Quercus calliprinus (QC). Samples were estimated for the oil contents of acorn fruits, oil chemical and physical constants, fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and sterols.The oil content, expressed as dry weight, was found to be 3.40-7.51%. The physical and chemical constants included specific gravity 0....

  7. Foliar epidermis morphology in Quercus (subgenus Quercus, section Quercus) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Panahi, Parisa; JAMZAD, Ziba; Pourmajidian, Mohammad R.; Fallah, Ashgar; Pourhashemi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The foliar morphology of trichomes, epicuticular waxes and stomata in Quercus cedrorum, Q. infectoria subsp. boissieri, Q. komarovii, Q. longipes, Q. macranthera, Q. petraea subsp. iberica and Q. robur subsp. pedunculiflora were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The trichomes are mainly present on abaxial leaf surface in most species, but rarely they appear on adaxial surface. Five trichome types are identified as simple uniseriate, bulbous, solitary, fasciculate and stellate. The stom...

  8. Damage, biology and natural enemies of the green oak moth, [Tortrix viridana L. 1758 (Lep.; Tortricidae)] in Dinar district oak forests

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncer, İsmail; Avcı, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the distribution of Tortrix viridana in Dinar region, its damage to the host plant stands as well as its biology and natural enemies were explored. Samples were examined and collected in the research area periodically from 2012 to 2014. The harmful insects were found on three oak species in the research area. They were Quercus coccifera, Q. infectoria and Q. pubescens. It was observed that adult insect emergence started in late May and continued decreasingly in June. It was als...

  9. Degradation of tannic acid by cell-free extracts of Lactobacillus plantarum

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Héctor; Rivas, Blanca de las; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Muñoz, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    The ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T to degrade hydrolysable tannins was evaluated. Three commercial tannic acids were incubated in presence of cell-free extracts containing soluble proteins from L. plantarum. By HPLC analyses, almost a complete tannic acid degradation was observed in the three samples assayed. By using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, we partially determined the composition of tannic acid from Quercus infectoria galls. This tannic acid is a gallotannin mainly composed o...

  10. Genetic and physical analysis of a YAC contig spanning the fungal disease resistance locus Asc of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, L.A.; Kneppers, T.J.A.; Takken, F.L.W.; Laurent, P.; Hille, J.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato is caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). The fungus produces AAL toxins that kill the plant tissue. Resistance to the fungus segregates as a single locus, called Asc, and has been genetically mapped on c

  11. Alternativní způsoby ochrany zeleniny proti houbovým patogenům

    OpenAIRE

    Zusková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focused on assessment of the effectiveness of 12 selected essential oils originaly from the following plants Thymus vulgaris, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus sinensis, Eucalypthus citriodora, Litsea cubeba, Pelargonium odoratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Artemisia dracunculus, against selected pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani and Alternaria brassicae. The first chapter of literature re...

  12. An evaluation of extracts of five traditional medicinal plants from Iran on the inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity and scavenging of free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaeli, P; Goldoozian, R; Sharififar, F

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the free radical scavenging and inhibition properties of five medicinal plants, including Quercus infectoria Olive., Terminalia chebula Retz., Lavendula stoechas L., Mentha longifolia L., Rheum palmatum L., toward the activity of mushroom tyrosinase using L-tyrosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as the substrate.The methanol extracts of Q. infectoria and T. chebula showed strong radical scavenging effect in 2,2'-dipheny L-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay(IC50 = 15.3 and 82.2 microg mL)1 respectively).These plants also showed inhibitory effects against the activity of mushroom tyrosinase in hydroxylation of L-tyrosine (85.9% and 82.2% inhibition,respectively). These two plants also inhibited the oxidation of l-DOPA similar to kojic acid as positive control (IC50 = 102.8 and 192.6 microg mL)1 respectively). In general Q. infectoria and T. chebula significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and DPPH radical. Both activities were concentration dependant but not in linear manner. It is needed to study the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts in pigment cell culture before further evaluation and moving to in vivo conditions. PMID:19467035

  13. 极细链格孢菌蛋白激发子PeaT1在酵母双杂交系统中转录激活活性的检测%Detection for Transcriptional Activity of Alternaria Tenuissim Protein Elicitor in Yeast Two-hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘延锋; 邱德文; 曾洪梅; 杨秀芬

    2008-01-01

    The peaT1 gene fragment was amplified from pGEM-6p-1-peaT1 by PCR,and recovered target gene was cloned into pLexA vector.After digestion and sequencing,the bait vector pLexA-peaT1 was transformed into yeast strain EGY48[p8op-lacZ]by PEG/LiAC,and the transcriptional activity of bait vector was detected.The results showed that recombinant bait plasmid pLexA-PEMG1 was constructed,for the two bands of recombinant bait plasmid in agarase gel electrophoresis were expected after digesting by restriction endonuclease EcoR I and Xho I.Therefore,the recombinant bait plasmid could be used in yeast two-hybrid system to screen a cDNA library.

  14. Tipo de Riego, la Aplicación de Acolchado Orgánico y Fungicidas Sobre las Pérdidas de Cosecha Ocasionadas por el Corazón Mohoso [Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler] en Manzanos [Malus sylvestrys (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh) Mansf.] cv. Red Delicious

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Rafael Ramírez-Legarreta; Juan Luis Jacobo-Cuéllar; Mario René Ávila-Marioni; Rafael Ángel Parra-Quezada; María Guadalupe Zacatenco-González

    2009-01-01

    En los ciclos 2006 y 2007 se evaluó el efecto del tipo de riego, presencia de acolchado orgánico y aspersiones de fungicidas sobre el daño del corazón mohos del cultivar Red Delicious en un huerto de la localidad de Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua, México. La parcela experimental consistió en cinco hileras de 21 árboles cada una. En los primeros 11 árboles de cada hilera se modificó el tipo de riego hacia goteo enterrado, el cual originalmente fue de micropasersión, dejando los 10 restantes con el rieg...

  15. Fungi isolated from Stewartia pseudocamellia Max. seeds and their pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Kurzawińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of studies was to determine typical composition of fungi occurring on seeds of Stewartia pseudocamellia.The studies conducted on 100 disinfected and 100 nondisinfected seeds of these plants.Isolates of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, Cylindrocarpon radicicola and Rhizoctonia solani were characterized by pathogenicity towards the investigated Stewartia pseudocamellia. In the laboratory experiment, 204 isolations of microorganisms were obtained that belonged to 20 species and form of fungi and bacteria. Among fungi there were both of parasite (Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and typical saprophytic (Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp., Mucor spp.. The dominant fungus on seeds was Alternaria alternata. Among the investigated isolates only one isolate (R4 Rhizoctonia solani, was strongly pathogenic, isolates (A1 Alternaria alternata were weakly pathogenic to seedlings of Stewartia pseudocamellia.

  16. Searching for eukaryotic life preserved in Antarctic permafrost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zucconi, L.; Selbmann, L.; Buzzini, P.;

    2012-01-01

    Fungi and yeasts isolated in pure culture from Antarctic permafrost collected at different depths in the McMurdo Dry Valleys were identified with cultural, physiological and molecular methods. Fungi belonged to the genera Penicillium, Eurotium, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Engyodonthium, Aureobasidium...

  17. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2008 and mid-2009. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, alternaria toxins, cyclopiazonic acid, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Developments in mycotoxin analysis c...

  18. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2009-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shephard, G.S.; Berthiller, F.; Burdaspal, P.; Crews, C.; Jonker, M.A.; Krska, R.; MacDonald, S.; Malone, B.; Maragos, C.; Sabino, M.; Solfrizzo, M.; Egmond, van H.P.; Whitaker, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2009 and mid-2010. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. New and improved methods for mycotoxins

  19. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2008-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shephard, G.S.; Berthiller, F.; Dorner, J.; Krska, R.; Lombaert, G.A.; Malone, B.; Maragos, C.; Sabino, M.; Solfrizzo, M.; Trucksess, M.W.; Egmond, van H.P.; Whitaker, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2008 and mid-2009. It covers the major mycotoxins: aflatoxins, alternaria toxins, cyclopiazonic acid, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes and zearalenone. Developments in mycotoxin analysis c

  20. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review summarizes developments in the determination of mycotoxins over a period between mid-2014 and mid-2015. In tradition with previous articles of this series, analytical methods to determine aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes, an...

  1. Developments in Mycotoxin Analysis: An Update for 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2007 and mid-2008. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, alternaria toxins, cyclopiazonic acid, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Some aspects of natural occurrence...

  2. Laboratory research on the efficacy of chlorine dioxide fumigation for the remediation of mold-contaminated buildings--conference paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this project was to determine the efficacy ofCl02 fumigation to inactivate viable mold, mycotoxins, and allergens on building materials. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus Jumigatus, Chaetomium globosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were indivi...

  3. Antifungal activity of the essential oils of wild-growing Mentha piperita L and Mentha spicata L from the Mariovo region, Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Bauer, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal activity of the essential oils isolated by hydro-distillation from the leaves of wild growing Mentha piperita and Mentha spicata (Lamiaceae) at the region of Mariovo, Republic of Macedonia was tested by disc diffusion method and the micro-dilution broth method (MIC) against six plant pathogenic fungi: Alternaria alternate Alternaria solani, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani and Rhizopus solani. The results from the disc diffusion method followed by MIC indi...

  4. Cutaneous alternariosis in a cardiac transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, T K; Rytina, E; O'Connell, P B; Sterling, J C

    2001-02-01

    A 55-year-old male cardiac transplant recipient presented with cutaneous nodules on the limbs caused by Alternaria alternata. Oral fluconazole 200 mg daily for 3 weeks was ineffective. Itraconazole 100 mg oral daily was ceased when hyperglycaemia developed. Individual lesions were successfully treated with either curettage and cautery or double freeze-thaw cryotherapy. Alternaria spp. are ubiquitous fungal saprophytes which may cause cutaneous infections particularly in immunocompromised patients. PMID:11233722

  5. Antifungal activities of some indole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Wang, Qin; Yang, Wen-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Nine indole derivatives were evaluated in vitro against Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria alternata, Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Pyricularia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumarinum, and Alternaria brassicae. Most of the compounds were found to possess antifungal activities. Especially compounds 2, 5, 8, and 9 exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activities against the above-mentioned seven phytopathogenic fungi, and showed more potent activities than hymexazole, a commercial agricultural fungicide. PMID:20737910

  6. Effect of Some Food Preservatives on the Lipolytic Activity of Beef Luncheon Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Abdel-Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Beef luncheon meat is one of the most popular meals in several countries in the world including Egypt. Thirty one fungal species and 3 species varieties were recovered from 30 samples of beef luncheon meat collected from different supermarkets in Qena. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Emericella, Mucor, Mycosphaerella, Penicillium and Rhizopus were the most common genera on the two types of media. From the above genera, the most prevalent species were Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumi...

  7. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus sp. Bacteria in the Presence of Xylitol and Galactosyl-Xylitol

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Lipińska; Robert Klewicki; Elżbieta Klewicka; Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk; Michał Sójka; Adriana Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is a natural method of antimicrobial food protection. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, taking part in this process, is directed mainly against the same or other microorganisms. In this work we determine the impact of the presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol on the antagonistic activity of 60 Lactobacillus sp. strains against indicator molds (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium latenicum, Geotrichum candi...

  8. Antifungal activity of aloe vera gel against plant pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloe vera gel extracted from the Aloe vera leaves was evaluated for their antifungal activity at the rate of 0.15%, 0.25% and 0.35% concentration against five plants pathogenic fungi viz., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata, Drechslera hawaiensis and Penicillum digitatum 0.35% concentration Aloe vera gel completely inhibited the growth of Drechslera hawaiensis and Alternaria alternata. (author)

  9. Penggunaan Jamur Endofit Dari Terong Belanda (Solanum betacea) untuk Mengendalikan Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.capsici dan Alternari solani Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia, Amalia Tri

    2015-01-01

    Amalia Tri Kurnia. Using of endophytic fungi from Solanum betacea to control Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici and Alternaria solani in vitro, supervised by Mukhtar Iskandar Pinem dan Syahrial Oemry. This research aimed to know efectivity of endophytic fungi from Solanum betacea to control Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici and Alternaria solani in vitro. This research was conducted on Plant Disease Laboratory of Fakultas Pertanian USU on May 2013 until January 2014, us...

  10. Effect of Thai medicinal plant extracts on cell aggregation of Escherichia coli O157: H7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limsuwan, S.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used for treating diarrhoea but the interference mechanisms are not clearly understood. One possible hypothesis is that of an effect on cell surface hydrophobicity of microbial cells. In this study, we examined cell aggregation affected by crude extracts of Thai medicinal plants on cell surface hydrophobicity of Escherichia coli strains by salt aggregation test. Correlation between minimal inhibitory concentration and cell aggregation was performed. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 8 medicinal plants including Acacia catechu, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Piper sarmentosum, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Quercus infectoria, and Tamarindus indica were tested with E. coli O157: H7 and other E. coli strains isolated from human, porcine, and foods. Aqueous extracts of Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava, and Punica granatum were highly effective against E. coli O157: H7 with the MIC values of 0.09 to 0.39, 0.19 to 0.78, and 0.09 to 1.56 mg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria and Punica granatum demonstrated good MIC values of 0.09 to 0.78, and 0.19 to 0.78 mg/ml, respectively. It was established that aqueous extracts of Punica granatum and Piper sarmentosum at high concentration (25 mg/ml enhanced cell aggregation of almost all E. coli strains while aqueous and ethanolic extracts ofQuercus infectoria enhanced cell aggregation of some E. coli strains. Correlation between minimal inhibitory concentration and cell aggregation was not found in this study.

  11. Effective medicinal plants against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang; Lortheeranuwat, Amornrat; Jeeju, Wanpen; Sririrak, Trechada; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Supawita, Thanomjit

    2004-09-01

    The stimulating effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the production of verocytotoxin (VT) by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been claimed. The purpose of this study was to find an alternative, but bioactive medicine for the treatment of this organism. Fifty-eight preparations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 38 medicinal plant species commonly used in Thailand to cure gastrointestinal infections were tested for their antibacterial activity against different strains of Escherichia coli, including 6 strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Escherichia coli O26:H11, Escherichia coli O111:NM, Escherichia coli O22; 5 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine; and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Inhibition of growth was primarily tested by the paper disc agar diffusion method. Among the medicinal plants tested, only 8 species (21.05%) exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Acacia catechu, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Quercus infectoria, Uncaria gambir, and Walsura robusta demonstrated antibacterial activity with inhibition zones ranging from 7 to 17 mm. The greatest inhibition zone against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (RIMD 05091083) was produced from the ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the agar microdilution method and agar dilution method in petri dishes with millipore filter. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Quercus infectoria and aqueous extract of Punica granatum were highly effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 with the best MIC and MBC values of 0.09, 0.78, and 0.19, 0.39 mg/ml, respectively. These plant species may provide alternative but bioactive medicines for the treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. PMID:15261962

  12. OAK GALLS: THE MEDICINAL BALLS

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh Imtiyaz; S Javed Ali; Mohd. Tariq,; Shahid S Chaudhary; Mohd Aslam

    2013-01-01

    From centuries ago man has been using herbs for medicinal purposes, in traditional system of medicine like Unani, Ayurveda, Chinese medicine number of herbs and drugs of plant origin are found to be useful in curing of various ailments. Oak galls (Mazu) is an out growths formed on the young twigs of the dyer's oak, Quercus infectoria (Fagaceae), as a result of the deposition of the eggs of the gall-wasp Adleria gallae-tinctoriae Olivier, this is used for medicinal purposes before escape of in...

  13. Effect of some plant extracts on the Culex pipiens molestus

    OpenAIRE

    A. Al-Khazraji; Mustafa, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of eight plant species collected from Ninavah governorate on the second instar of larval stage of Culex pipiens molestus Forskal. Three out of the eight plant extracts Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Cleome glaucescens Dc. and Quercus infectoria DL. caused 100% mortality of larvae at a concentration of 200 µg/mL after 3days of treatment. The LC50 values were less than 150µg/mL (62.5µg/mL-140µg/mL). The A. excelsa leave e...

  14. Anti-necrosis potential of polyphenols against snake venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols from the extracts of Areca catechu L. and Quercus infectoria Oliv. inhibited phospholipase A(2), proteases, hyaluronidase and L-amino acid oxidase of Naja naja kaouthia Lesson (NK) and Calloselasma rhodostoma Kuhl (CR) venoms by in vitro tests. Both extracts inhibited the hemorrhagic activity of CR venom and the dermonecrotic activity of NK venom by in vivo tests. The inhibitory activity of plant polyphenols against local tissue necrosis induced by snake venoms may be caused by inhibition of inflammatory reactions, hemorrhage, and necrosis. The result implies the therapeutic potential of plant polyphenols against necrosis in snakebite victims. PMID:19874222

  15. Nonpathogenic, environmental fungi induce activation and degranulation of human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshinari; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Shin, Seung-Heon; Ponikau, Jens U; Kita, Hirohito

    2005-10-15

    Eosinophils and their products are probably important in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, such as bronchial asthma, and in host immunity to certain organisms. An association between environmental fungal exposure and asthma has been long recognized clinically. Although products of microorganisms (e.g., lipopolysaccharides) directly activate certain inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages), the mechanism(s) that triggers eosinophil degranulation is unknown. In this study we investigated whether human eosinophils have an innate immune response to certain fungal organisms. We incubated human eosinophils with extracts from seven environmental airborne fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Candida albicans, Cladosporium herbarum, Curvularia spicifera, and Penicillium notatum). Alternaria and Penicillium induced calcium-dependent exocytosis (e.g., eosinophil-derived neurotoxin release) in eosinophils from normal individuals. Alternaria also strongly induced other activation events in eosinophils, including increases in intracellular calcium concentration, cell surface expression of CD63 and CD11b, and production of IL-8. Other fungi did not induce eosinophil degranulation, and Alternaria did not induce neutrophil activation, suggesting specificity for fungal species and cell type. The Alternaria-induced eosinophil degranulation was pertussis toxin sensitive and desensitized by preincubating cells with G protein-coupled receptor agonists, platelet-activating factor, or FMLP. The eosinophil-stimulating activity in Alternaria extract was highly heat labile and had an M(r) of approximately 60 kDa. Thus, eosinophils, but not neutrophils, possess G protein-dependent cellular activation machinery that directly responds to an Alternaria protein product(s). This innate response by eosinophils to certain environmental fungi may be important in host defense and in the exacerbation of inflammation in asthma and allergic diseases.

  16. The effects of extracts from anti-diarrheic Thai medicinal plants on the in vitro growth of the intestinal protozoa parasite: Blastocystis hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Sawangjaroen, Kitja

    2005-04-01

    The activities of n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from five anti-diarrheic Thai medicinal plants, Acacia catechu (Fabaceae) resin, Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae) whole plant, Brucea javanica (Simaroubaceae) seed, Piper longum (Piperaceae) fruit and Quercus infectoria (Fagaceae) nut gall were tested against the in vitro growth of fresh isolates of the intestinal protozoan parasite, Blastocystis hominis. The extracts at concentrations that ranged from 62.5 to 2000 microg/mL, were incubated with several isolates of Blastocystis hominis for 48 h. The activities were classified as killed, inhibited, moderately inhibited and not-inhibited. Dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the Brucea javanica seed and a methanol extract from Quercus infectoria nut gall showed the highest activity. At a concentration of 2000 microg/mL, the three extracts killed 82, 75 and 67% of the Blastocystis hominis samples tested and inhibited 94, 100 and 76% of them, respectively. Metronidazole, used as a reference antiprotozoan drug, at a concentration of 40 microg/mL, killed 97% of the Blastocystis hominis isolates and inhibited all samples tested at concentrations that ranged from 1.25 to 20 microg/mL. PMID:15763365

  17. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of traditional Thai herbal remedies for aphthous ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekseepralard, Chantana; Kamkaen, Narisa; Wilkinson, Jenny M

    2010-10-01

    Four medicinal plants (Quercus infectoria, Kaempferia galanga, Coptis chinensis and Glycyrrhiza uralensis) as well as one traditional Thai treatment for aphthous ulcers based on these four plants were tested for antimicrobial activity. MIC values for a range of bacteria and Candida albicans were determined, with both type strains and clinical isolates being used. Antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS radical scavenging assay. Among the four plants, Q. infectoria showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC of 0.41 mg/mL, while C. chinensis showed antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC of 6.25 mg/mL. Activity was also shown against a range of other organisms including Salmonella typhi, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis. The antimicrobial activity of the traditional aphthous ulcer preparation (a powder) was comparable to that for the individual plant extracts, however, incorporation of the powder into a gel formulation resulted in the loss of almost all activity. All extracts, with the exception of K. galanga, also showed good antioxidant activity. This study supports the traditional use of these plants and suggests that they may also be useful in the treatment of other infections. PMID:20878703

  18. Tyrosinase kinetic in the presence of three inhibitory medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ansari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus infectoria, Terminalia chebula and Linum usita-tissimum. Different concentration of the extracts was examined against l-tyrosine oxidation in comparison to kojic acid and their IC 50 were calculated by probit analysis. The tyrosinase inhibition kinetics, analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots, and the parameters of K m and V max for each extract were calculated using the Linweaver--Burk equation. The results show that the methanolic extracts of Q. infectoria (MEQI and T. chebula (METC potentially inhibit mushroom tyrosinase with IC 50 values of 3.34 and 3.87 μg/ml respectively in comparison to kojic acid (IC50 value = 1.56 μg/ml. The MEQI and METC exhibited the most V max (81.96 and 78.74 μg/ml/min respectively. This activity is comparable with one of kojic acid (Vmax = 103 μg/ml/min . The MEQI and METC also have shown the lowest value of K i (0.20 and 0.44 respectively in comparison to kojic acid (K i = 0.18. The MEQI and METC would be developed further as a natural source of tyrosinase inhibitors.

  19. SEED MYCOFLORA OF SAFFLOWER AND ITS CONTROL BY USING BOTANICALS, BIOAGENTS AND FUNGICIDES-A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amrutha Gayathri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spot of safflower caused by Alternaria carthami Chowdhury is common in all the safflower growing regions of the world. The disease was reported from India by Chowdhury (1944 and subsequently from erstwhile USSR (Nelen and Vasileva, 1960, United States (United States Department of Agriculture, 1961, Ethiopia and Kenya (Ellis and Holliday, 1970, Africa (Weiss, 1971, Australia (Irwin, 1975, Pakistan (Stovold,1979 and Italy (Zazzerini and Buonaurio, 1981. Zimmer et al., (1963 assessed that more than 15 per cent yield loss of safflower is caused by Alternaria spp. in the USA. In India, it is the major destructive disease of safflower and estimated to be causing 25-60 per cent yield loss every year (Krishna Prasad and Basuchaudhury, 1988. Preliminary surveys on the intensity of Alternaria leaf blight in northern India revealed 27-90 per cent yield loss when the disease appeared at early stages of crop growth (Krishna Prasad and Basuchaudhury, 1991. Siddaramaiah et al., (1963 and Mahabaleswarappa (1981 reported the severity of leaf blight of safflower in the state of Karnataka. Severe leaf blight leading to blighting of leaves was documented by Mohanty et al., (1981 in Orissa. Patil and Jadav (1985 and Indi et al., (1988 reported the economic losses caused due to Alternaria carthami in Maharashtra region. Singh et al., (1991 and Awadhiya (1992 noticed the occurrence of Alternaria leaf blight leading to considerable economic losses in Madhya Pradesh.

  20. A Re-examination of the Taxonomic Status of Embellisia astragali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianli; Li, Yanzhong; Creamer, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    The plant pathogen Embellisia astragali causes a disease termed yellow stunt and root rot in standing milk-vetch (Astragalus adsurgens). The genus Embellisia and 12 allied genera were redefined as being synonymous with Alternaria in 2013. However, that taxonomic revision did not include E. astragali. The objective of this study was to determine the taxonomic status of this fungal species by comparing its morphological and molecular characteristics with those of other species. A phylogenetic tree developed based on the sequences of 3 loci (GPD, RPB2, and TEF-1) strongly supported the placement of E. astragali in Alternaria sect. Undifilum. The fungus also exhibited germ tubes and mycelia with a 'wavy' appearance on potato carrot agar, which is a characteristic of sect. Undifilum. Embellisia astragali was described here as Alternaria gansuense comb. nov. because the species epithet "astragali" was already occupied. PMID:26693723

  1. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M. Halkjaer; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, B.

    2011-01-01

    University. Our study demonstrates that multispectral imaging with wavelengths ranging from 395-970 nm can be used to distinguish between uninfected spinach seeds and seeds infected with Verticillium spp., Fusarium spp., Stemphylium botryosum, Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria alternata. Analytical separation...... using only NIR gave a separation of 26-88% between uninfected and Fusarium spp. infected seeds. Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. could be distinguished from each other and from Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp. and Stemphylium spp. Separation of Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp...

  2. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    University. Our study demonstrates that multispectral imaging with wavelengths ranging from 395-970 nm can be used to distinguish between uninfected spinach seeds and seeds infected with Verticillium spp., Fusarium spp., Stemphylium botryosum, Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria alternata. Analytical separation...... using only NIR gave a separation of 26-88% between uninfected and Fusarium spp. infected seeds. Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. could be distinguished from each other and from Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp. and Stemphylium spp. Separation of Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp...

  3. Diagnóstico e quantificação de doenças fúngicas da acerola no Estado da Paraíba Diagnostic and quantification of barbados cherry diseases in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes A. Almeida; Egberto Araújo; Hermes Gonçalves Junior; Artur F. Barreto; Renato A. G. Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Objetivando o diagnóstico e quantificação das doenças da acerola (Malpighia emarginata) no Estado da Paraíba, realizou-se um levantamento nas microrregiões do Sertão, Curimatau, Brejo e Litoral. As doenças identificadas foram a cercosporiose (Cercospora sp.), fusariose (Fusarium oxysporum), fumagina (Capnodium sp.), antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) e mancha de Alternaria (Alternaria sp.). Além dessas, no teste de patogenicidade, verificou-se o desenvolvimento de lesões circulares, ...

  4. Antifungal activity of some diaryl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Jian, Kun-Zhong; Guan, Qiu; Ye, Fei; Lv, Min

    2007-12-01

    Several diaryl ethers were synthesized and tested in vitro against seven phytopathogenic fungi, namely Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria alternate, Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Pyricularia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumarinum and Alternaria brassicae. Compared to a commercial agricultural fungicide, hymexazol, especially compounds a, b, e, g and k were found to be more effective at 50 mug/ml against F. graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumarinum. Meantime, some structure-activity relationships were also observed. PMID:18057754

  5. [Effect of biopreparations on dynamics of the number of bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi in potato agroecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyka, N V; Borodaĭ, V V; Zhitkevich, N V; Khomenko, E V; Gnatiuk, T T; Koltunov, V A; Patyka, V F

    2012-01-01

    Application of biological preparations such as Phytotsid and Planryz favoures the growth of the general number of soil's bacteria population compared with control by 13.0-36.1% in the variant of potato variety Scarbnytsya and by 4.5-24.6% of potato variety Oberig. It also decreases 1.2-1.8 times the number of soil phytopathogens--Fusarium and Alternaria. During the application of Rovral Akvaflo the Shenon's ecological index of species biodiversity was lower than during the bioprepation application. One could observe a decrease of species biodiversity and dominance of dark pigmentation in fungi--Alternaria sp., Cladosporium sp., Phoma sp., Doratomyces sp., and pigmented bacteria.

  6. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Majchrzak; Tomasz P. Kurowski; Zofia Karpińska

    2013-01-01

    The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L.) cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were fo...

  7. Microwave-assisted Synthesis and antifungal activity of coumarin[8,7-e][1,3]oxazine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Zhang, Rong-Rong; Yin, Wen-Zheng; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Ling; Liu, Pin; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of novel coumarin[8,7-e][1,3]oxazine derivatives through a microwave-assisted three-component one-pot Mannich reaction is described in this study. All the target compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum capsici, Alternaria solani, Gibberella zeae, Rhizoctonia solani, and Alternaria mali. The preliminary bioassays showed that 5e, 5m, and 5s exhibited good antifungal activity and the most active compound was 5m with an [Formula: see text] value as low as 2.1 nM against Botrytis cinerea. PMID:26880591

  8. Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voravuthikunchai, S P; Kitpipit, L

    2005-06-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of ten traditional Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their ability to inhibit 35 hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nine medicinal plants displayed activity against all isolates tested. Ethanolic extracts of Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Quercus infectoria were most effective, with MICs for MRSA isolates of 0.05-0.4, 0.2-0.4 and 0.2-0.4 mg/mL, respectively, and for S. aureus ATCC 25923 of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively. MBCs for MRSA isolates were 0.1-0.4, 1.6-3.2 and 0.4-1.6 mg/mL, and for S. aureus ATCC 25923 were 0.4, 3.2 and 1.6 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:15882206

  9. OAK GALLS: THE MEDICINAL BALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Shaikh Imtiyaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available From centuries ago man has been using herbs for medicinal purposes, in traditional system of medicine like Unani, Ayurveda, Chinese medicine number of herbs and drugs of plant origin are found to be useful in curing of various ailments. Oak galls (Mazu is an out growths formed on the young twigs of the dyer's oak, Quercus infectoria (Fagaceae, as a result of the deposition of the eggs of the gall-wasp Adleria gallae-tinctoriae Olivier, this is used for medicinal purposes before escape of insects in dried form as described by classical Unani literature. Keeping in view of it this literature is reviewed about medicinal properties of Mazu described by ancient Unani scholars along with latest research on it this review paper is formulated and an attempt is made to correlate properties of Mazu with latest scientific research.

  10. Accumulation of sulfur and heavy metals in soil and tree leaves sampled from the surroundings of Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, A; Koparal, A S

    2004-11-01

    In this study, the quantities of sulfur and heavy metals, resulting from the Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant (TPP) in Turkey, have been assessed in tree leaves and soil samples within a 10 km radius of the plant. Leaves of Salix alba L., Populus tremula L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Quercus infectoria L., Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb) Holmboe. trees have been used with the aim of determining how far the gas and particles emitted from the TPP are carried, and for assessment of environmental impact. The results obtained from locations chosen at various distances to the TPP, indicate that the contaminating agents are very dense and effective; particularly in the prevailing wind direction and within 10 km of the plant. They gradually lose their density and effect beyond this distance. The sulfur and heavy metal analyses made in soils taken from these locations indicate a similarity with the data obtained from the leaves. PMID:15488593

  11. Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Abdel-Monem, Omnia A; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M; Alsohim, Abdullah S; El-Refai, Elham M

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE), was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes. PMID:24401783

  12. Accumulation of sulfur and heavy metals in soil and tree leaves sampled from the surroundings of Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, A; Koparal, A S

    2004-11-01

    In this study, the quantities of sulfur and heavy metals, resulting from the Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant (TPP) in Turkey, have been assessed in tree leaves and soil samples within a 10 km radius of the plant. Leaves of Salix alba L., Populus tremula L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Quercus infectoria L., Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb) Holmboe. trees have been used with the aim of determining how far the gas and particles emitted from the TPP are carried, and for assessment of environmental impact. The results obtained from locations chosen at various distances to the TPP, indicate that the contaminating agents are very dense and effective; particularly in the prevailing wind direction and within 10 km of the plant. They gradually lose their density and effect beyond this distance. The sulfur and heavy metal analyses made in soils taken from these locations indicate a similarity with the data obtained from the leaves.

  13. Production of biocontrol traits by banana field fluorescent Pseudomonads and comparison with chemical fungicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, S S; Patel, P R; Patel, S S; Nikam, S D; Rane, T U; Sayyed, R Z

    2014-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from banana field rhizosphere produced different antifungal metabolites like bactriocin, hydrogen cyanide and siderophore. Bacteriocinogenic, siderophoregenic, and HCN rich broth of isolate inhibited the growth of phytopathogen like Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. The isolate exhibited more antifungal activity and comparatively low MIC vis-a-vis commonly used copper based systemic chemical fungicide;bil cop.

  14. Location, cropping system, and genetic background influence carrot performance including top height and flavor in the CIOA (Carrot Improvement for Organic Agriculture) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. organic farmers surveyed listed improved seedling germination and Alternaria leaf blight resistance as top breeding priorities for field production of organic carrots. Nematode resistance is also very important for growers. Flavor was deemed the most important consumer trait to improve in carro...

  15. Fungal communities in wheat grain show significant co-existence patterns among species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, M.; Justesen, A. F.; Knorr, K.;

    2014-01-01

    90 samples that were taken from locations across Denmark during three years. These sequences could be grouped into 173 non-singleton operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of which 21 OTUs, identified as belonging to genera such as Fusarium, Alternaria, Cladosporium. Phaeosphaeria and Microdochium, were...

  16. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2012 – 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2012 and mid-2013. It covers the major mycotoxins: aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. A wide range of analytical methods for...

  17. Innate immune system targets asthma-linked fungus for destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2008-01-01

    A new study shows that the innate immune system of humans is capable of killing a fungus linked to airway inflammation, chronic rhinosinusitis, and bronchial asthma. Researchers at Mayo Clinic and the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech have revealed that eosinophils, a particular type of white blood cell, exert a strong immune response against the environmental fungus Alternaria alternata.

  18. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  19. Antifungal properties of propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Water extracts at the concentration of 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4%, of propolis were prepared and investigated for inhibition of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum i.sp. melonis and Penicillium digitatum in culture media. The concentration of 4% was the most inhibitory of 5 concentrations studied. Microorganisms the most effected from all the concentrations among tested fungi were Alternaria alternata and Penicillium digitatum. The concentration of 4% of propolis extract showed more than 50% inhibition against all tested microorganisms.

    Se prepararon extractos acuosos de propóleos a concentraciones de 0.5, 1, 2, 3 y 4%, estudiándose en nnedios de cultivo la inhibición por estos extractos de Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonisy Penicillium digitatum. La concentración más inhibidora de las 5 estudiadas fue la del 4%. Los microorganismos más afectados entre los hongos analizados, para todas las concentraciones, fueron Alternaria alternata y Penicillium digitatum. La concentración del 4% de extracto de propóleos mostró más del 50% de inhibición frente a todos los microorganismos estudiados.

  20. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2013 – 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review highlights developments in the determination of mycotoxins over a period between mid-2013 and mid-2014. It continues in the format of the previous articles of this series, emphasising on analytical methods to determine aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxi...