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Sample records for alternaria infectoria species-group

  1. Novel chemotaxonomic markers of the Alternaria infectoria species-group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, K.B.; Van Klink, J.W.; Weavers, R.T.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Andersen, B.; Phipps, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Two new structurally related metabolites, novae-zelandin A (1) and novae-zelandin B (2), as well as the novel metabolite 4Z-infectopyrone (3) were purified from extracts of filamentous fungi belonging to the Alternaria infectoria species-group. The structures were elucidated by a combination of 1 D...

  2. Novel chemotaxonomic markers of the Alternaria infectoria species-group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, K.B.; Van Klink, J.W.; Weavers, R.T.;

    2005-01-01

    Two new structurally related metabolites, novae-zelandin A (1) and novae-zelandin B (2), as well as the novel metabolite 4Z-infectopyrone (3) were purified from extracts of filamentous fungi belonging to the Alternaria infectoria species-group. The structures were elucidated by a combination of 1...

  3. A polyphasic approach to the taxonomy of the Alternaria infectoria species-group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2009-01-01

    Different taxa in the species-group of Alternaria infectoria (teleomorph Lewia spp.) are often isolated from various cereals including barley, maize and wheat grain, ornamental plants and skin lesions from animals and humans. In the present study we made a polyphasic characterization of 39 strains...... morphologically identifiable as belonging to the A. infectoria species-group together with 12 strains belonging to closely related species: Alternaria malorum (syn. Cladosporium malorum), Chalastospora cetera (syn. Alternaria cetera) and Embellisia abundans. Morphological examination separated the 51 strains in...... three groups based on conidial appearance and arrangement: the A. infectoria species-group, E. abundans and a group containing C cetera and A. malorum. The metabolite analyses on three different media showed two clusters, one containing all 39 A. infectoria species-group strains and one containing 10...

  4. Characterization of Alternaria isolates from the infectoria species-group and a new taxon from Arrhenatherum, Pseudoalternaria arrhenatheria sp. nov

    Science.gov (United States)

    The infectoria species-group within the genus Alternaria was originally conceived by Simmons in 1993 and was based upon common morphological characteristics that included the development of conidial chains with primary, secondary, and tertiary branching resulting in substantial three-dimensional com...

  5. Chemical and morphological segregation of Alternaria arborescens, A-infectoria and A-tenuissima species-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Krøger, Elisabeth; Roberts, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    belonging to the genus Alternaria were examined. They were grown under standardised conditions and subjected to morphological and chemical examination. All isolates were grouped according to their three-dimensional sporulation pattern on potato carrot agar and their colony colour on dichloran rose bengal......Correct morphological identification of Alternaria is important and demands a combination of modern standardised methods and up-to-date literature. The production of secondary metabolites has previously been used as a means of identification and classification. In this study, 153 fungal isolates...

  6. Chemical and morphological segregation of Alternaria arborescens, A-infectoria and A-tenuissima species-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Krøger, Elisabeth; Roberts, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Correct morphological identification of Alternaria is important and demands a combination of modern standardised methods and up-to-date literature. The production of secondary metabolites has previously been used as a means of identification and classification. In this study, 153 fungal isolates...... belonging to the genus Alternaria were examined. They were grown under standardised conditions and subjected to morphological and chemical examination. All isolates were grouped according to their three-dimensional sporulation pattern on potato carrot agar and their colony colour on dichloran rose bengal...... yeast extract sucrose agar (DRYES). After extraction, all isolates were analysed by a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode array detector and the resulting metabolite profiles were subjected to multivariate statistic analyses. The analyses of metabolite profiles showed that the...

  7. Infectopyrone, a potential mycotoxin from Alternaria infectoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Perry, N.B.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2003-01-01

    A new metabolite, infectopyrone (1), has been isolated from the filamentous fungus Alternaria infectoria. The structure of 1 was elucidated by analysis of 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 1 is an alpha-pyrone resembling known toxins, and is a useful phenotaxonomic marker for the A. infectoria ...

  8. Differentiation of Alternaria infectoria and Alternaria alternata based on morphology, metabolite profiles, and cultural characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf

    1996-01-01

    groups of small-spored Alternaria the Alternaria infectoria group and the Alternaria alternata group. Isolates in the A. infectoria group produced only unique metabolites of unknown identity, whereas all isolates in the A. alternata group produced alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. Furthermore......Some small-spored species belonging to the genus Alternaria Nees have been studied according to their chemical, morphological, and cultural characteristics. A data matrix was constructed based on a combination of characters. Cluster analysis of the combined data set showed good resolution of two...

  9. Differentiation of Alternaria infectoria and Alternaria alternata based on morphology, metabolite profiles, and cultural characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf

    1996-01-01

    Some small-spored species belonging to the genus Alternaria Nees have been studied according to their chemical, morphological, and cultural characteristics. A data matrix was constructed based on a combination of characters. Cluster analysis of the combined data set showed good resolution of two...... groups of small-spored Alternaria the Alternaria infectoria group and the Alternaria alternata group. Isolates in the A. infectoria group produced only unique metabolites of unknown identity, whereas all isolates in the A. alternata group produced alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. Furthermore...

  10. Toxigenic profile and AFLP variability of Alternaria alternata and Alternaria infectoria occurring on wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvina Oviedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability to produce alternariol (AOH, alternariol monomethyl ether (AME and tenuazonic acid (TA by A. alternata and A. infectoria strains recovered from wheat kernels obtained from one of the main production area in Argentina; to confirm using AFLPs molecular markers the identify of the isolates up to species level, and to evaluate the intra and inter-specific genetic diversity of these two Alternaria species. Among all the Alternaria strains tested (254, 84% of them were able to produce mycotoxins. The most frequent profile of toxin production found was the co-production of AOH and AME in both species tested. TA was only produced by strains of A. alternata. Amplified fragment polymorphism (AFLPs analysis was applied to a set of 89 isolates of Alternaria spp (40 were A. infectoria and 49 were A. alternata in order to confirm the morphological identification. The results showed that AFLPs are powerful diagnostic tool for differentiating between A. alternata and A. infectoria. Indeed, in the current study the outgroup strains, A. tenuissima was consistently classified. Characteristic polymorphic bands separated these two species regardless of the primer combination used. Related to intraspecific variability, A. alternata and A. infectoria isolates evaluated seemed to form and homogeneous group with a high degree of similarity among the isolates within each species. However, there was more scoreable polymorphism within A. alternata than within A. infectoria isolates. There was a concordance between morphological identification and separation up to species level using molecular markers. Clear polymorphism both within and between species showed that AFLP can be used to asses genetic variation in A. alternata and A. infectoria. The most important finding of the present study was the report on AOH and AME production by A. infectoria strains isolated from wheat kernels in Argentina on a semisynthetic

  11. Characterisation of Alternaria species-groups associated with core rot of apples in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serdani, M.; Kang, J.C.; Andersen, Birgitte; Crous, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    Alternaria core rot of red apple cultivars is a serious post-harvest disease in South Africa. Thirty isolates of Alternaria spp. previously isolated from apple, together with reference isolates of A. alternata and A. infectoria, were characterised and grouped according to their sporulation patterns...

  12. Characterisation of Alternaria species-groups associated with core rot of apples in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serdani, M.; Kang, J.C.; Andersen, Birgitte; Crous, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    Alternaria core rot of red apple cultivars is a serious post-harvest disease in South Africa. Thirty isolates of Alternaria spp. previously isolated from apple, together with reference isolates of A. alternata and A. infectoria, were characterised and grouped according to their sporulation patterns...... were artificially inoculated with the thirty-two Alternaria isolates and the resulting lesion types were recorded. A data matrix was constructed using all these characters and subjected to cluster analysis to show the similarity between different isolates. Isolates classified as A. infectoria species...

  13. Utility of Molecular Identification in Opportunistic Mycotic Infections: a Case of Cutaneous Alternaria infectoria Infection in a Cardiac Transplant Recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Cascio, G.; M. Ligozzi; Maccacaro, L.; Fontana, R

    2004-01-01

    We report on a case of cutaneous infection caused by Alternaria infectoria in a cardiac transplant recipient. A rapid molecular diagnosis was obtained by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer domain of the 5.8S ribosomal DNA region amplified from colonies developed on Sabouraud medium. Treatment consisted of a combination of systemic antifungal therapy, first with amphotericin B and then with itraconazole.

  14. Alternaria redefined

    OpenAIRE

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J. Z.; Binder, M.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Alternaria is a ubiquitous fungal genus that includes saprobic, endophytic and pathogenic species associated with a wide variety of substrates. In recent years, DNA-based studies revealed multiple non-monophyletic genera within the Alternaria complex, and Alternaria species clades that do not always correlate to species-groups based on morphological characteristics. The Alternaria complex currently comprises nine genera and eight Alternaria sections. The aim of this study was to delineate phy...

  15. COMPARISON OF OCCURRENCE AND TOXINOGENITY OF ALTERNARIA SPP. ISOLATED FROM SAMPLES OF CONVENTIONAL AND NEW CROSSBRED WHEAT OF SLOVAK ORIGIN

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    Soňa Felšöciová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the results of mycological and mycotoxicological analysis of two types of Slovak wheat samples, focusing on Alternaria genus. A total of 21 samples of conventional wheat grains and 3 samples of the new crossbred wheat were investigated for exogenous and endogenous mycobiota. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by using plate dilution method and the endogenous mycobiota by the method of direct placing of superficially sterilized grains on agar plates. Toxinogenity of selected isolates was analysed by means of thin layer chromatography. The obtained results of this study show a high isolation frequency of Alternaria isolates in samples of conventional as well as new crossbred wheat. A total of 4 species-groups of the genus Alternaria were isolated from conventional wheat (A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, A. tenuissima and 3 species-groups from new crossbred wheat (A. arborescens, A. infectoria, A. tenuissima. A. tenuissima species-group was isolated within the endogenous mycobiota from all samples of conventional and new crossbred wheat. Species-group with the second highest isolation frequency in all tested samples was A. infectoria. The highest relative density in all samples belongs to A. infectoria and A. tenuissima species-groups. Selected strains isolated from both types of wheat were tested for production of altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol. In neither case of A. infectoria species-group isolates was confirmed the production of tested mycotoxins. The highest toxinogenity (100% was observed in strains of A. arborescens and A. tenuissima.

  16. Colonization of grapes berries by Alternaria sp. and their ability to produce mycotoxins

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    Dana Tančinová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research focused on identify the Alternaria species from grapes (surface sterilized berries and non-surface sterilized berries of Slovak origin and characterize their toxinogenic potential in in vitro conditions. We analyzed 47 samples of grapes, harvested in years 2011, 2012 and 2013 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species, the method of direct plating berries and surface-sterilized berries (using 1 % freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar was used. For each analysis was used 50 berries. Only undamaged berries have been used for analysis. The cultivation was carried at 25 ±1°C, for 5 to 7 days in dark. After incubation, the colonies of Alternaria were transferred on PCA - potato-carrot agar and CYA - Czapek-yeast extract agar and cultured for 7 days at room temperature and natural light. A total 4 species-groups of the genus Alternaria were isolated from grapes berries: Alternaria alternata (1369 isolates, Alternaria arborescens (734 isolates, Alternaria infectoria (143 isolates, and Alternaria tenuissima (3579 isolates. According to European Union legislation mycotoxins produced by species genus Alternaria are not monitored in foods and food commodities. Mycotoxins such as alternariol and alternariol monomethylether are mutagenic and genotoxic in various in vitro systems. Selected strains were tested for production of altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol. In neither case of A. infectoria species-group isolates was confirmed the production of tested mycotoxins in in vitro conditions by TLC method. The ability to produce altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol in in vitro conditions was detected in isolates of Alternaria alternata, Alternaria arborescens and Alternaria tenuissima species-groups. Isolates of Alternaria alternata species-group (44 tested isolates were able to produce altenuene (24 isolates, alternariol monomethyleter (42 isolates

  17. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    fingerprints of A. cerasidanica and 167 strains of Alternaria spp. support the placement of A. cerasidanica within the A. infectoria species-group sensu Simmons and its segregation from other members of this group. A. cerasidanica is currently monotypic and known only from preharvest sweet cherry fruit in......The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...

  18. Alternaria and Fusarium in Norwegian grains of reduced quality - a matched pair sample study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    Fusarium spp. varied significantly in samples of reduced quality compared with acceptable samples. Alternaria spp. dominated in the acceptable samples with A. infectoria group as the most frequently isolated and most abundant species group of this genus while Fusarium spp. dominated in samples of reduced...... reduced quality. The results indicated a negative interaction between E graminearum and Alternaria spp. as well as between F graminearum and other Fusarium spp.......The occurrence and geographic distribution of species belonging to the genera Alternaria and Fusarium in grains of reduced and of acceptable quality were studied post-harvest in 1997 and 1998. A total of 260 grain samples of wheat, barley and oats was analysed. The distribution of Alternaria and...

  19. COLONIZATION OF GRAPE BERRIES BY REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS ALTERNARIA AND THEIR OCCURRENCE IN THE STUM

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    Zuzana Mašková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the mycobiota occurring on the grapes originating from Slovak wine-growing regions. The main focus was to discover the presence of the representatives of the genus Alternaria on/in grape berries and in the stum.Using the direct method of placing grape berries on the culture medium was analyzed their total and endogenous (after superficial sterilization mycobiota. Plate dilution method was used for stum mycobiota determination. Alternaria spp. colonized grapeson the surface and inside with anisolation frequency (Fr of 100%. Moreover, 100% of the stum samples were positive for the presence of this genus. Their relative density (RD was 44.9% (unsterilized grapes, 57.9% (sterilized grapes and 6.35% (stum. In all the areas analysed we recorded 4 species-groups: A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria and A. tenuissima. With the highest Fr and RD occurredA. tenuissima species-group, followed by A. alternata and A. arborescens species-groups. All of them are potential producers of mycotoxins as alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, tenuazonic acid, altertoxin I, II and III.

  20. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L

    2015-12-01

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit. PMID:26267542

  1. Alternaria blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria blight of chickpea is caused by the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. The pathogen has wide host range, and affects all above ground parts of the plant. The disease occurs sporadically and occasionally could be economically important and causes significant damage. The pathogen can ...

  2. Restyling Alternaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.

    2015-01-01

    The omnipresent dematiaceous hyphomycete genus Alternaria is associated with a wide variety of substrates including seeds, plants, agricultural products, humans, soil and even the atmosphere. It includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species, among which multiple plant pathogens, post-harve

  3. Pharmacology of Quercus infectoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, M S; Ikram, M; Fakouhi, T

    1976-12-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria (Fagaceae), a commonly available plant in Iran, were studied pharmacologically. Two fractions were employed, a dried acetone-treated methanol extract dissolved in water (Fraction A) and a subfraction prepared by chloroform-methanol extraction (Fraction B). Fraction A was active as an analgesic in rats and significantly reduced blood sugar levels in rabbits. Fraction B had CNS depressant activity. Data obtained with a treadmill indicated a decreased activity ratio by Fraction B, suggesting a possible interference in motor coordination. It potentiated the barbiturate sleeping time significantly without changing the onset time or the loss of the righting reflex. In addition, Fraction B exhibited a moderate antitremorine activity by causing a delay in the onset and a decrease in the severity of tremorine-induced tremors. The local anesthetic action of Fraction B was evident due to the complete blockade of the isolated frog sciatic nerve conduction. PMID:1032663

  4. [Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaría infectoria in renal transplant recipient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Marilia; Reis, Viviane; Godoy, Patricio; Gatti de Menezes, Fernando; Enokihara, Milvia; Tomimori, Jane

    2014-08-01

    Several species of black fungi have been reported as agents of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis. Although most of these fungi are considered opportunistic pathogens, they play an important role in phaeohyphomycosis, a disease considered an emergent mycosis among solid organ recipients. We report a case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria infectoria of the left hand and the 4th finger of the right hand of a 68-year-old male who underwent a renal transplant 35 months before. The lesion was treated with surgical excision. One year later, the patient presented a new lesion on the 5th finger of the right hand, but this time caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that was also removed surgically. Both lesions did not relapse after being removed. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against five antifungal drugs (amphotericin B, itraconazole, flucytosine, fluconazole and voriconazole). Alternaria infectoria was resistant to all five drugs and C. gloeosporioides was sensitive only to amphotericin B and voriconazole. We emphasize the need of histopathologic and microbiologic studies of new lesions of phaeohyphomycosis, since in this case the same patient was infected twice by two different fungi. PMID:25327202

  5. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Savitri Shrestha; Vasuki Srinivas Kaushik; Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa; Sundara Rajan Subaramaihha; Latha Muuaiah Ramanna; Dhananjaya Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external ...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria

    OpenAIRE

    Fırat Zafer Mengeloğlu; Umre Metin; Nesibe Özdemir; M. Kadir Oduncu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Gall oak (Quercus infectoria) is a species of tree belonging to fagaceae family and its galls has been used in the treatment of burn wounds traditionally. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the extract of oak galls on some microorganisms.Materials and methods: With using microdilution method, a solution which was obtained by boiling the galls was studied on 20 staphylococci, 20 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 20 Candida albicans isolates which were ...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria

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    Fırat Zafer Mengeloğlu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gall oak (Quercus infectoria is a species of tree belonging to fagaceae family and its galls has been used in the treatment of burn wounds traditionally. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the extract of oak galls on some microorganisms.Materials and methods: With using microdilution method, a solution which was obtained by boiling the galls was studied on 20 staphylococci, 20 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 20 Candida albicans isolates which were obtained from various clinical samples and the values of minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC were detected.Results: At the end of incubation MIC50 and MIC90 values were determined as 0,5 and 1 μg/ml for staphylococci, 1 and 2 μg/ml for Pseudomonas, 2 and 2 μg/ml for Candida, respectively.Conclusion: As a result, we concluded that galls of Q.infectoria has antimicrobial effect on common factors of burn wound infections. Larger studies about the antimicrobial and antiinflamatorial activity and in vivo effect of topical treatment of Q.infectoria will obtain more accurate data about using this plant in the treatment of burn wounds.

  8. A polyphasic approach for the characterization of endophytic Alternaria strains isolated from grapevines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polizzotto, Rachele; Andersen, Birgitte; Martini, Marta;

    2012-01-01

    A polyphasic approach was set up and applied to characterize 20 fungal endophytes belonging to the genus Alternaria, recovered from grapevine in different Italian regions.Morphological, microscopical, molecular and chemical investigations were performed and the obtained results were combined...... subjected to cluster analysis. The metabolites extracted from the 20 Alternaria endophytes were analyzed by a HPLC and the resulting metabolite profiles were subjected to multivariate statistic analyses. In comparison with reference 'small-spored' Alternaria species, the 20 strains were segregated into two...... morphological groups: one belonging to the A. arborescens species-group and a second to the A. tenuissima species-group. RAPD analysis also showed that grapevine endophytes belonged to either the A. arborescens or the A. tenuissima species-group and that they were molecularly distinct from strains belonging...

  9. STANDARDIZATION AND CONTAMINATION STUDIES ON NUTGALLS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER

    OpenAIRE

    Asif M; Ansari SH; Haque; Kalam N

    2012-01-01

    Drug consists of nutgalls of Quercus infectoria (Family-Fagaceae), commonly known as “Mazuphal”. Standardization parameters like, physical constants, ash content, solvent residues, phytochemical screening, fluorescence and microscopical analysis were carried out for the quality, strength and purity of the drug. The present work is an also attempt to evaluate contamination parameters for safety of an herbal drug Quercus infectoria such as microbial contamination, aflatoxins, pesticide residues...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria

    OpenAIRE

    Mengeloğlu, Fırat Zafer; Metin, Umre; Özdemir, Nesibe; Oduncu, M. Kadir

    2011-01-01

    Amaç: Mazı meşesi (Quercus infectoria), fagaceae famil­yasından geniş tepeli bir ağaç türü olup gal denilen to­humları halk arasında yanıklı hastaların tedavisinde kul­lanılagelmektedir. Bu çalışmada mazı meşesi gal tohumu ekstraktının bazı mikrorganizmalar üzerindeki antimikro­biyal etkisinin araştırılması amaçlandı. Gereç ve yöntem: Gal tohumlarının kaynatılmasıyla elde edilen solüsyon mikrodilüsyon yöntemi kullanılarak çeşitli klinik örneklerden izole ed...

  11. Alternaria infectoria brain abscess in a child with chronic granulomatous disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hipolito, E.; Faria, E.; Alves, A.; de Hoog, G.S.; Anjos, J.; Goncalves, T.; Morais, P.V.; Estevao, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the present report, we describe the first case of a phaeohyphomycotic brain abscess in a 5-year-old boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) admitted to hospital with seizures. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a cerebral abscess and the microbiology study showed a dark, melanin-pigmen

  12. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Saeida Baharuddin; Hasmah Abdullah; Wan Nor Amilah Wan Abdul Wahab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida t...

  13. A polyphasic approach for the characterization of endophytic Alternaria strains isolated from grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Rachele; Andersen, Birgitte; Martini, Marta; Grisan, Simone; Assante, Gemma; Musetti, Rita

    2012-01-01

    A polyphasic approach was set up and applied to characterize 20 fungal endophytes belonging to the genus Alternaria, recovered from grapevine in different Italian regions. Morphological, microscopical, molecular and chemical investigations were performed and the obtained results were combined in a pooled cluster analysis. Following morphological analyses, all strains were grouped according to their three-dimensional sporulation pattern on PCA and to the colony characteristics on different substrates. After DNA extraction, all strains were analyzed by RAPD-PCR and the resulting profiles were subjected to cluster analysis. The metabolites extracted from the 20 Alternaria endophytes were analyzed by a HPLC and the resulting metabolite profiles were subjected to multivariate statistic analyses. In comparison with reference 'small-spored' Alternaria species, the 20 strains were segregated into two morphological groups: one belonging to the A. arborescens species-group and a second to the A. tenuissima species-group. RAPD analysis also showed that grapevine endophytes belonged to either the A. arborescens or the A. tenuissima species-group and that they were molecularly distinct from strains belonging to A. alternata. Chemotaxonomy gave the same grouping: the grapevine endophytic strains belong to A. arborescens or A. tenuissima species-groups producing known metabolites typical of these species-groups. Interestingly, the 20 grapevine endophytes were able to produce also a number of unknown metabolites, whose characterization could be useful for a more precise segregation of the two species-groups. The results show how complementary morphological, molecular and chemical data can clarify relationships among endophyte species-groups of low morphological divergence. PMID:22123507

  14. Some new and noteworthy diseases of poplars in India. [Botryodiplodia sett-rot; Alternaria tip blight; Cladosporium leaf spot; Fusarium pink incrustation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.

    1983-09-01

    Four new diseases of poplars namely Botryodiplodia sett-rott, Alternaria tip blight, Cladosporium leaf spot and Fusarium pink incrustation are described in this paper. Botryodiplodia palmarum causes sett-rott of poplars both at pre-sprouting and post-sprouting stage. The pathogen also causes mortality of poplar plants in the field within 4-6 weeks after planting. Alternaria stage of Pleuspora infectoria has been found as the cause of blackening and dying of growing tips and young leaves of a Populus sp. and P. deltoides in nurseries. Cladosporium humile has been recorded as the cause of brown spot followed by crumpling and premature shedding of leaves in P. ciliata, P. nigra and P. alba. The cause of Fusarium incrustation disease on P. cilata has been identified as Fusarium sp. of Gibbosum group. Pathogenicity of Botryodiplodia palmarum and Alternaria stage of Pleospora infectoria was confirmed by artificial inoculations. Brief descriptions of Alternaria, Cladosporium and Fusarium are also given. The paper also gives a short account of some noteworthy diseases recorded on poplars namely Ganoderma root rot, foliage ruts and stem cankers. Ganoderma root-rot is found to reach alarming proportions in closely spaced poplar plantations. Melampsora ciliata, an indigenous rust, is found to attack mainly clones of P. deltoides, P. yunnanensis, P. trichocarpa, P. alba and some cultivars of P. x euramericana in nurseries. A brief account of three types of stem cankers i.e. cankers due to pink disease fungus, Corticium salmonicolor, sun-scaled cankers and cankers associated with slime flux on various clones of P. deltoides is also given.

  15. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans

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    Maryam Mohammadi-Sichani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Three different extracts of Q. infectoria galls were similar in their antibacterial activity against S. mutans. These extracts had the highest biofilm removal activities at 312.5 μg/ml concentration. The galls of Q. infectoria are potentially good sources of antibacterial and biofilm disinfection agent.

  16. Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Hamid, Hinna; Ali, Asif; Alam, M Sarwar; Athar, Mohammad

    2004-02-01

    Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae) possess pleiotropic therapeutic activities, with particular efficacy against inflammatory diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of Q. infectoria galls on various in vivo and in vitro experimental models of inflammation. Oral administration of gall extract significantly inhibited carrageenan, histamine, serotonin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced paw oedemas, while topical application of gall extract inhibited phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced ear inflammation. The extract also inhibited various functions of macrophages and neutrophils relevant to the inflammatory response. In vitro exposure of rat peritoneal macrophages to gall extract ameliorated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO) production and PMA stimulated superoxide (O2*-) production in a dose dependent manner. Gall extract also scavenged NO and O2*-. Probing into mechanism of NO inhibition in macrophages revealed gall extract to ameliorate the induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), respectively without any inhibitory effect on its catalytic activities even at higher concentrations. Gall extract also significantly inhibited formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) stimulated degranulation in neutrophils. These results suggest that alcoholic extract of galls of Q. infectoria exerts in vivo antiinflammatory activity after oral or topical administration and also has the ability to prevent the production of some inflammatory mediators. PMID:15013194

  17. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savitri Shrestha; Vasuki Srinivas Kaushik; Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa; Sundara Rajan Subaramaihha; Latha Muuaiah Ramanna; Dhananjaya Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results:Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions:The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications.

  18. Alternaria in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

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    Monireh Mokhtari Amirmajdi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of fungal spores is shown to participate in the development of allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this study, relation between presence of Alternaria in the human nasal cavity and allergic rhinitis is assessed.In a case-control study, 58 allergic rhinitis patients were compared with a well-matched control group of fifty healthy volunteers for sensitization to Alternaria (by skin prick test and detection of Alternaria in their nasal mucous by conventional methods (microscopy with Methylene Blue stain and culture in Sabourad dextrose agar. Severity of the disease was determined according to  the ARIA classification. Pearson chi-square test was applied to compare the proportional difference between the study groups for detection of Alternaria in the nasal cavity, and sensitization to Alternaria.Relation between detection of Alternaria and allergic rhinitis was significant [OR = 18.18 (4.02-82.50] In addition, sensitization to Alternaria showed a significant relation with the disease [OR  =  2.8 (2.1-3.8]. There  was a significant relation between the  presence  of Alternaria in the nasal cavity and sensitization to Alternaria [OR =  10.4 (3.8-28.3]. Both sensitization to  Alternaria and presence of Alternaria in the nasal cavity did not  have a significant relation with the severity of allergic rhinitis. This study suggests Alternaria as a major  allergen that  its  presence  in  the  nasal  cavity and  subsequent  development  of sensitization have significant role in the induction of allergic rhinitis.

  19. Alternaria in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Monireh Mokhtari Amirmajdi; Nemat Allah Mokhtari Amirmajdi; Iman Eftekharzadeh Mashhadi; Farahzad Jabari Azad; Jalil Tavakol Afshari; Mohammad-Taghi Shakeri

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of fungal spores is shown to participate in the development of allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this study, relation between presence of Alternaria in the human nasal cavity and allergic rhinitis is assessed.In a case-control study, 58 allergic rhinitis patients were compared with a well-matched control group of fifty healthy volunteers for sensitization to Alternaria (by skin prick test) and detection of Alternaria in their nasal mucous by conventional methods (microscopy with Methy...

  20. Metabolites from Alternaria Fungi and Their Bioactivities

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    Ligang Zhou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria is a cosmopolitan fungal genus widely distributing in soil and organic matter. It includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species. At least 268 metabolites from Alternaria fungi have been reported in the past few decades. They mainly include nitrogen-containing metabolites, steroids, terpenoids, pyranones, quinones, and phenolics. This review aims to briefly summarize the structurally different metabolites produced by Alternaria fungi, as well as their occurrences, biological activities and functions. Some considerations related to synthesis, biosynthesis, production and applications of the metabolites from Alternaria fungi are also discussed.

  1. STANDARDIZATION AND CONTAMINATION STUDIES ON NUTGALLS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER

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    Asif M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drug consists of nutgalls of Quercus infectoria (Family-Fagaceae, commonly known as “Mazuphal”. Standardization parameters like, physical constants, ash content, solvent residues, phytochemical screening, fluorescence and microscopical analysis were carried out for the quality, strength and purity of the drug. The present work is an also attempt to evaluate contamination parameters for safety of an herbal drug Quercus infectoria such as microbial contamination, aflatoxins, pesticide residues and heavy metals. Result revealed that the total ash content and acid insoluble siliceous matter were found 2.11% and 0.22% respectively in the drug. The extractive values were varies at different solvent at different condition. Loss on drying and pH at 25(ºC were 9.97 and 6.1 respectively. Study revealed that total bacterial count and total fungal count were found to be within the permissible limit. Heavy metal like cadmium and mercury were not detected in the drug but arsenic (0.31 mg/kg and lead (0.70 mg/kg were found under permissible limit. Pesticide residue such as o, p- DDD, p, p- DDD, o p- DDE, p, p- DDE, o, p- DDT, p, p- DDT, α- Endosulfan, β – Endosulfan, Parathion, α- HCH, β- HCH, γ- HCH, δ- HCH was absent in the nutgalls.

  2. Characterization of Alternaria and Penicillium species from similar substrata based on growth at different temperature, pH and water activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-eight Alternaria isolates representing 10 species or species-groups and 66 Penicillium isolates representing 18 species were examined for their growth response to the combined effects of water activity, temperature and pH in an extended Central Composite Design. Growth responses were recorded...

  3. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against Oral Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Dayang Fredalina Basri; Liy Si Tan; Zaleha Shafiei; Noraziah Mohamad Zin

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria are commonly used in Malay traditional medicine to treat wound infections after childbirth. In India, they are employed traditionally as dental applications such as that in treatment of toothache and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral bacteria which are known to cause dental caries and periodontitis. Methanol and acetone extracts were screened against two Gram-p...

  4. Real-time PCR quantification of the AM-toxin gene and HPLC qualification of toxigenic metabolites from Alternaria species from apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Jørring, Ida; Skouboe, Pernille; Pedersen, Lars Hagsholm

    2006-09-01

    Some Alternaria species are able to produce plant pathogenic as well as toxic metabolites. In both agriculture and the food industry it is important know if toxigenic Alternaria are present to rapidly employ the correct corrective actions. The purpose of this work was to establish a real-time PCR method, which can detect and quantify apple pathogenic and toxigenic Alternaria. An AM-toxin I primer set, which could recognize Alternaria DNA only, was designed by using primers complementary to the AM-toxin I gene. The method could detect small amounts of DNA (4 pg) and still obtain a large dynamic range (4 decades) without interference from apple material. Eight Alternaria isolates were analyzed for the presence of AM-toxin I gene and their production of secondary metabolites. Then analyses showed that all eight isolates contained the AM toxin gene and were able to produce the plant pathogenic tentoxin in addition to AM toxin I. The analyses also showed the production of tenuazonic acid, alternariols, Altenuene, altenusin and/or altertoxin I in pure culture. Analyses of inoculated apples showed that both the AM-toxin gene and alternariol monomethyl ether could be detected. Morphological analyses suggested that the eight Alternaria strains, though they all carried the AM toxin genes, probably belong to different but closely related un-described Alternaria taxa in the A. tenuissima species-group based on morphological and chemical differences. PMID:16890318

  5. Chemopreventive effect of Quercus infectoria against chemically induced renal toxicity and carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb U Rehman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have shown that Quercus infectoria attenuates Fe- NTA induced renal oxidative stress, hyperproliferative response and renal carcinogenesis in rats. Fe-NTA promoted DEN (N-diethyl nitrosamine initiated renal carcinogenesis by increasing the percentage incidence of tumors and induces early tumor markers viz. ornithine decarboxylase (ODC level and PCNA expression. Fe- NTA (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally enhances renal Malondialdehyde, xanthine oxidase and hydrogen peroxide generation with reduction in renal glutathione content, antioxidant enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and phase-II metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase. It also enhances blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Fe-NTA also lead to increase in levels of some inflammatory markers viz NO and MPO and some proinflammatory cytokines viz PGE-2 and TNF-1. The chemopreventive efficacy of Quercus infectoria was studied in terms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities, LPO, redox status, serum toxicity markers, inflammatory and proinflammatory markers and cell proliferation in the kidney tissue. Oral administration of Quercus infectoria at doses of 75 and 150 mg/kg b wt effectively suppressed renal oxidative stress, inflammation and tumor incidence. Chemopreventive effects of Quercus infectoria were associated with up-regulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities and down regulation of serum toxicity markers. Present study supports Quercus infectoria as a potent chemopreventive agent and suppresses Fe-NTA-induced renal carcinogenesis and oxidative and inflammatory response in Wistar rat.

  6. A revision of the Anastrepha robusta species group (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anastrepha robusta species group is revised to include the following 29 species: A. amaryllis Tigrero (Ecuador), A. amazonensis, n. sp. (Brazil: Amazonas), A. bella, n. sp. (Panamá), A. binodosa Stone (Colombia, Brazil: Amazonas, Pará), A. concava Greene (Costa Rica to Ecuador and Brazil: Amazon...

  7. Evaluation of Antihyperlipidemic, Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Potential of Ficus infectoria Methanolic Extract in Wistar Rats

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    Gajraj Singh Lodhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective- To explore the hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of Ficus infectoria on fructose induced hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in Wistar rats.Materials and Methods- Hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia in rats were induced by fructose solution (10% w/v, p.o., ad libitum for 3rd and 8th weeks respectively. These activities were measured by estimating the triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, HDL and serum glucose levels. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 assay method was used to determine the antioxidant activity.Results- In all model, F. infectoria at 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg showed significant effect. Fructose feeding increased serum biochemical parameters like triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and serum glucose levels while decreases the HDL level. In fructose fed rats, F. infectoria at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg significantly prevented the increase in serum biochemical parameters while decrease in HDL level. Also it was able to scavenge the free radical generated by Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2.Conclusion- The present study indicates that methanolic extract of F. infectoria leaf and bark (mixture has Antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant potentials. In future it may be useful in the management of insulin resistant.

  8. Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida species

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    Nur Saeida Baharuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-Candida activity of Q. infectoria gall extracts against selected Candida species. Materials and Methods: Methanol and aqueous extracts of Q. infectoria galls were tested for anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the two-fold serial dilution technique of concentrations ranging from 16 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. After 24 h, the minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined by subculturing the wells, which showed no turbidity on the agar plate. Potential phytochemical group in the crude extracts was screened by phytochemical qualitative tests and subsequently subjected to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Both methanol and aqueous extracts displayed substantial anti-Candida activity and pyrogallol was the major component of both crude extracts. Conclusions: Data from current study suggested that Q. infectoria gall extracts are a potential source to be developed as anti-candidiasis.

  9. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    OpenAIRE

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J. M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) pr...

  10. How complex is the Bufo bufo species group?

    OpenAIRE

    Arntzen, J. W.; Recuero, E.; Canestrelli, D.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2013-01-01

    Species delineation remains one of the most challenging tasks in the study of biodiversity, mostly owing to the application of different species concepts, which results in contrasting taxonomic arrangements. This has important practical consequences, since species are basic units in fields like ecology and conservation biology. We here review molecular genetic evidence relevant to the systematics of toads in the Bufo bufo species group (Anura, Bufonidae). Two studies recently published in thi...

  11. Species groups in the genus Ehrharta (Poaceae in southern Africa

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    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Ehrharta Thunb. is a genus of Gondwanaland distribution with its centre of diversity in the winter rainfall Fynbos Biome of southern Africa. In recent subfamily treatments Ehrharta has proved difficult to place satisfactorily, and during the past five years it has been moved between Bambusoideae and Arundinoideae. However, most previous systematic studies using cryptic characters have covered only four taxa out of about 35. The present study includes all African taxa, and demarcates seven species groups on the basis of both spikelet morphology and leaf blade anatomy. Parallelism and/or convergence in vegetative macromorphology within and between the species groups is widespread, and is similar, in some cases, to adaptations found in other plant families in the Fynbos Biome. However, these macromorphological trends are not reflected in the leaf anatomy. Leaf anatomy is generally consistent with the spikelet morphology. Some anatomical differences between the species groups in Ehrharta appear to be as great as differences between taxa of much higher ranks elsewhere in the Poaceae. This wide range of variability may be related to an early divergence of Ehrharteae from other grasses, as suggested by the Gondwanaland distribution, and may explain the difficulty of placing this fascinating yet baffling genus in a subfamily.

  12. Characterization of Alternaria and Penicillium species from similar substrata based on growth at different temperature, pH and water activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-eight Alternaria isolates representing 10 species or species-groups and 66 Penicillium isolates representing 18 species were examined for their growth response to the combined effects of water activity, temperature and pH in an extended Central Composite Design. Growth responses were recorded...... as colony diameter after one and two weeks of growth and analysed using different multivariate statistical analyses. The isolates, when analysed by principal Component Analysis, clustered according to their genus and to some degree to species or species groups and not according to substratum as......H for each isolate were important for modelling the data Sufficiently....

  13. Laboratory evaluation of molluscicidal activity of extracts from Cotula cinerea (L) and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwane, A; Markouk, M; Lazrek, H B; Amarouch, H; Jana, M

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the molluscicidal activity of different extracts obtained from Cotula cinerea and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea, acetonic extract and gallotanin of Quercus infectoria galls have presented high activity against Bulinus truncatus. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea was fractionated by chromatography on silica gel column. We have isolated two very active fractions at concentrations respectively of 52.5 and 27.5 ppm. PMID:9872015

  14. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents

    OpenAIRE

    Basri Dayang; Fan S

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria at 10 mg/ml were screened against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCT...

  15. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier) in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sook-Ha; Ali, Noraisah Akbar; Basri, Dayang Fredalina

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg) served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity. PMID:25254062

  16. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyang Burm; Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alte...

  17. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    R. Saini * and S.M. Patil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of roots of Quercus infectoria Olivier at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively was tested for anti-diabetic activity in Alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 2h, 4h and 6h after the treatment. The methanolic extract reduced the blood glucose Alloxan- induced diabetic rats from 285.52 to 206.57mg/dl, 6h after oral administration of extract (P<0.01. The antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Quercus infectoria Olivier was compared with glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycaemic agent (3mg/kg.

  18. Quercus infectoria: a candidate for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusri, S; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2008-04-01

    Acetone, ethyl acetate, 95% ethanol and aqueous extracts of Quercus infectoria (Q. infectoria) demonstrated significant antibacterial activities against all strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Inhibition zones were in the range 11.75-16.82 mm. Both MRSA and MSSA strains exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values at 0.13 and 0.13-1.00 mg/mL, respectively. At 2 MIC, the growth of two representative MRSA strains was continually inhibited for at least 20 h. Surviving MRSA cells were not detected within 12-14 h after treatment with the extract at 4 MIC concentration. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 demonstrated similar results. PMID:18338770

  19. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, P Sathiya; Sasikumar, J M; Gowsigan, G

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  20. Changes in cell surface properties of shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli by Quercus infectoria G. Olivier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Suwalak, Sakol

    2009-08-01

    The effects of Quercus infectoria (family Fagaceae) nutgalls on cell surface properties of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) were investigated with an assay of microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon. The surface of bacterial cells treated with Q. infectoria exhibited a higher level of cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) toward toluene than did the surface of untreated cells. With 50% ethanolic extract, the CSH of the three strains of STEC O157:H7 treated with 4X MIC of the extract resulted in moderate or strong hydrophobicity, whereas at 2x MIC and MIC, the CSH of only one strain of E. coli O157:H7 was significantly affected. The 95% ethanolic extract had a significant effect on CSH of all three strains at both 4X MIC and 2X MIC but not at the MIC. The effect on bacterial CSH was less pronounced with the other STEC strains. At 4X MIC, the 50% ethanolic extract increased the CSH of all non-O157 STEC strains significantly. At 2X MIC and 4X MIC, the 95% ethanolic extract affected the CSH of E. coli O26:H11 significantly but did not affect E. coli O111 :NM or E. coli O22. Electro microscopic examination revealed the loss of pili in the treated cells. The ability of Q. infectoria extract to modify hydrophobic domains enables this extract to partition the lipids of the bacterial cell membrane, rendering the membrane more permeable and allowing leakage of ions and other cell contents, which leads to cell death. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of Q. infectoria extract in food systems or in vivo and provide support for the use of this extract as a food additive for control of these STEC pathogens. PMID:19722403

  1. Hepatoprotective effects of Quercus infectoria gall extract against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Lodhi; Singh, Hemant K.; PANT, KAMLESH K.; Rao, Ch V; Zeashan Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Summary. In the present study, galls of Quercus infectoria possessing potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties were evaluated for their hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl4, administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Histological analysis of the liver of these rats re...

  2. Chemopreventive effect of Quercus infectoria against chemically induced renal toxicity and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Muneeb U.; Mir Tahir, Farrah Ali; Wajhul Qamar; Rehan Khan; Abdul Quaiyoom Khan; Abdul Lateef; Oday-O-Hamiza; Sarwat Sultana

    2012-01-01

    In this study we have shown that Quercus infectoria attenuates Fe- NTA induced renal oxidative stress, hyperproliferative response and renal carcinogenesis in rats. Fe-NTA promoted DEN (N-diethyl nitrosamine) initiated renal carcinogenesis by increasing the percentage incidence of tumors and induces early tumor markers viz. ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) level and PCNA expression. Fe- NTA (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) enhances renal Malondialdehyde, xanthine oxidase and hydrogen ...

  3. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Mohammadi-Sichani; Vajihe Karbasizadeh; Samaneh Chaharmiri Dokhaharani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting humans of all ages. Streptococcus mutans has an important role in the development of dental caries by acid production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and biofilm disinfective effects of the oak tree Quercus infectoria galls against S. mutans. Materials and Methods: The bacterial strain used in this study was S. mutans (ATCC: 35668). Two kinds of galls, Mazouj and Ghalghaf were...

  4. Hepatoprotective Potential of Extracts from Seeds of Areca catechu and Nutgalls of Quercus infectoria

    OpenAIRE

    Rapepol Bavovada; Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Saruth Nithitanakool

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae) (AC) and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) (QI) were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti−inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant an...

  5. Uji Aktivitas Antiinflamasi Ekstrak Etanol Majakani (Quercus Infectoria G. Olivier) Terhadap Tikus Putih Yang Diinduksi Karagenan

    OpenAIRE

    Rambe, Khairunnisa

    2015-01-01

    Obat-obat antiinflamasi non-steroid (OAINS) termasuk obat analgesik, antipiretik dan antiinflamasi yang mempunyai efek samping terhadap gastrointestinal, sehingga perlu dicari obat alami yang lebih aman. Majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) telah lama digunakan untuk pengobatan inflamasi secara tradisional yang diharapkan mempunyai efek yang sama dengan OAINS. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antiinflamasi ekstrak etanol majakani terhadap udem kaki tikus yang diinduksi ...

  6. Antifungal Activity of Lavandula Angustifolia and Quergues Infectoria Extracts in Comparison with Nystatin on Candida Albicans

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    F. Nouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays,herbal extracts are used to treat diseases, especially infec-tious ones. Candida albicans is the most common causes of oral opportunistic infections.In this study, antifungal effects of two herbal extracts were evaluated on an oral pathogen i.e. Candida albicans. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive- analytic study, the Department of Prosthodontics, ,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, school of Dentistry the oral samples of 25 patients with denture stomatitis were collected using sterile swabs. Then the isolated candida albicans and standard candida albicans PTCC 5027 were cultured. The antifungal effect was evaluated with disk plate method. Nystatin and methanol were used as positive and negative control groups, respectively. The power of antifungal activity was evaluated with the inhibition zone diameter of each of the extracts. At the end, the data were analyzed by ANOVA and Fried-man statistical tests. Results: Results showed that extracts of Querques infectoria had great antifungal effects. There was not statistically significant difference between nystatine and Querques infectoria extract (P>0.05 however , Querques infectoria was statistically more effective than lavender extract and nystatin showed the highest antifungal activity (P <0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that plant extracts had positive effects on Candida albicans as compared to nystatin. Thus, we hope to find new herbal medicines and compounds to treat candidiasis in the future. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:172-178

  7. In vitro antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Nor Amilah, W A W; Masrah, M; Hasmah, A; Noor Izani, N J

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial activities of plants have long been evaluated for their promising use as antimicrobial agent and in minimizing the unwanted resistance effects of microorganisms. The study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall crude extracts against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in vitro. The screening test was determined by disc diffusion technique using sterile filter paper discs impregnated with 1 mg/ disc (50 mg/ml) aqueous and ethanol extracts of Q. infectoria galls tested on five selected MDR bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the twofold serial micro dilution technique at concentration ranging from 5.00 mg/ml to 0.01 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by sub culturing the microtitre wells showing no turbidity on the agar plate to obtain the MBC value. Both extracts showed substantial inhibitory effects against methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCoNS) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A slightly reduced inhibitory zone diameter was observed with MDR Acinetobacter sp. while no inhibitory effect was displayed among the extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) K. pneumoniae and ESBL E. coli isolates. A significant difference in the zone sizes between both extracts was only observed in MRSA (p infectoria gall extracts have shown very promising in vitro antibacterial activities and may be considered as a potentially good source of antimicrobial agent especially against MDR Gram positive bacteria. PMID:25776593

  8. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Tan, Liy Si; Shafiei, Zaleha; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria are commonly used in Malay traditional medicine to treat wound infections after childbirth. In India, they are employed traditionally as dental applications such as that in treatment of toothache and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral bacteria which are known to cause dental caries and periodontitis. Methanol and acetone extracts were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586). The screening test of antibacterial activity was performed using agar-well diffusion method. Subsequently, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by using twofold serial microdilution method at a concentration ranging between 0.01 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained by subculturing microtiter wells which showed no changes in colour of the indicator after incubation. Both extracts showed inhibition zones which did not differ significantly (P infectoria galls exhibited similar antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Thus, the galls may be considered as effective phytotherapeutic agents for the prevention of oral pathogens. PMID:22203875

  9. Comparative Genomics of Pathogens Causing Brown Spot Disease of Tobacco: Alternaria longipes and Alternaria alternata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wenting; Long, Ni; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Yuntao; Duan, Shengchang; Zeng, Yan; Dong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The genus Alternaria is a group of infectious/contagious pathogenic fungi that not only invade a wide range of crops but also induce severe allergic reactions in a part of the human population. In this study, two strains Alternaria longipes cx1 and Alternaria alternata cx2 were isolated from different brown spot lesions on infected tobacco leaves. Their complete genomes were sequenced, de novo assembled, and comparatively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. longipes cx1 and A. alternata cx2 diverged 3.3 million years ago, indicating a recent event of speciation. Seventeen non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes and 13 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in A. longipes cx1 and 13 NRPS genes and 12 PKS genes in A. alternata cx2 were identified in these two strains. Some of these genes were predicted to participate in the synthesis of non-host specific toxins (non-HSTs), such as tenuazonic acid (TeA), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). By comparative genome analysis, we uncovered that A. longipes cx1 had more genes putatively involved in pathogen-plant interaction, more carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and more secreted proteins than A. alternata cx2. In summary, our results demonstrate the genomic distinction between A. longipes cx1 and A. altenata cx2. They will not only improve the understanding of the phylogenetic relationship among genus Alternaria, but more importantly provide valuable genomic resources for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:27159564

  10. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyang Burm; Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-06-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed. PMID:26190916

  11. Fungicidal activity of silver nanoparticles against Alternaria brassicicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-04-01

    This work highlighted the fungicidal properties of silver nanoparticles against Alternaria brassicicola. Alternaria brassicicola causes Black spot of Cauliflower, radish, cabbage, kale which results in sever agricultural loss. We treat the synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of 10, 25, 50, 100 and 110 ppm concentrations against Alternaria brassicicola on PDA containing Petri dish. We calculated inhibitory rate (%) in order to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of silver nanoparticles against pathogens. Treatment with 100ppm AgNPs resulted in maximum inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola i.e.92.2%. 110ppm of AgNPS also shows the same result, therefore 100ppm AgNPs was treated as optimize concentration. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a Alternaria brassicicola, which suggests that AgNPs could be used as fungicide in plant disease management. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into plant disease management strategies.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the Anaxyrus boreas species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Anna M; Ranker, Tom A; Corn, Paul Stephen; Olmstead, Richard G

    2009-02-01

    The Anaxyrus boreas species group currently comprises four species in western North America including the broadly distributed A. boreas, and three localized species, Anaxyrus nelsoni, Anaxyrusexsul and Anaxyrus canorus. Phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA 12S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase I, control region, and restriction sites data, identified three major haplotype clades. The Northwest clade (NW) includes both subspecies of A. boreas and divergent minor clades in the middle Rocky Mountains, coastal, and central regions of the west and Pacific Northwest. The Southwest (SW) clade includes A. exsul, A. nelsoni, and minor clades in southern California. Anaxyrus canorus, previously identified as paraphyletic, has populations in both the NW and SW major clades. The Eastern major clade (E) includes three divergent lineages from southern Utah, the southern Rocky Mountains, and north of the Great Basin at the border of Utah and Nevada. These results identify new genetic variation in the eastern portion of the toad's range and are consistent with previous regional studies from the west coast. Low levels of control region sequence divergence between major clades (2.2-4.7% uncorrected pair-wise distances) are consistent with Pleistocene divergence and suggest that the phylogeographic history of the group was heavily influenced by dynamic Pleistocene glacial and climatic changes, and especially pluvial changes, in western North America. Results reported here may impact conservation plans in that the current taxonomy does not reflect the diversity in the group. PMID:18662792

  13. Transcriptomic profile of tobacco in response to Alternaria longipes and Alternaria alternata infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shengchang; Ma, Xiao; Chen, Wei; Wan, Wenting; He, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaoqin; Ma, Yujin; Long, Ni; Tan, Yuntao; Wang, Yangzi; Hou, Yujie; Dong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco brown spot caused by Alternaria fungal species is one of the most damaging diseases, and results in significant yield losses. However, little is known about the systematic response of tobacco to this fungal infection. To fill this knowledge gap, de novo assemblies of tobacco leaf transcriptomes were obtained in cultivars V2 and NC89 after the inoculation of either Alternaria longipes (AL) or Alternaria alternata (AA) at three different time points. We studied the gene expression profile of each cultivar-pathogen combination, and identified eight differentially expressed genes shared among all combinations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed key components during the fungal infection, which included regulation of gene expression (GO:0010468), regulation of RNA metabolic process (GO:0051252), tetrapyrrole binding (GO:0046906), and external encapsulating structure (GO:0030312). Further analyses of the continuously upregulated/downregulated genes and the resistance genes demonstrated that the gene expression profile upon fungal infection was contingent on the specific cultivar and pathogen. In conclusion, this study provides a solid foundation for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction, and is of great importance for disease prevention and molecular breeding. PMID:27157477

  14. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents

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    Basri Dayang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria at 10 mg/ml were screened against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCTC 12079 serotype O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 74 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The MIC of the extracts were then determined using the twofold serial microdilution technique at a concentration ranging from 5 mg/ml to 0.0024 mg/ml. The MBC values were finally obtained from the MIC microtiter wells which showed no turbidity after 24 hrs of incubation by subculturing method. RESULTS: Out of the six bacterial species tested, S. aureus was the most susceptible. On the other hand, the extracts showed weak inhibitory effect against S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa while there was no inhibition zone observed for E. coli O157. The MIC values of the extracts ranged from 0.0781 mg/ml to 1.25 mg/ml whereas the MBC values ranged from 0.3125 mg/ml to 2.50 mg/ml. The MBC values of aqueous extract against S. aureus and S. typhimurium were higher than their MIC values. The MBC value of acetone extract against S. aureus was also higher than its MIC value. Interestingly, however, the MIC and MBC values of acetone extract against S. typhimurium were the same (1.25 mg/ml. CONCLUSION: The aqueous and acetone extracts displayed similarities in their antimicrobial activity on the bacterial species and as such, the galls of Quercus infectoria are potentially good source of antimicrobial agents.

  15. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The galls of Quercus infectoria are commonly used in Malay traditional medicine to treat wound infections after childbirth. In India, they are employed traditionally as dental applications such as that in treatment of toothache and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral bacteria which are known to cause dental caries and periodontitis. Methanol and acetone extracts were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and two Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586. The screening test of antibacterial activity was performed using agar-well diffusion method. Subsequently, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by using twofold serial microdilution method at a concentration ranging between 0.01 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was obtained by subculturing microtiter wells which showed no changes in colour of the indicator after incubation. Both extracts showed inhibition zones which did not differ significantly (P<0.05 against each tested bacteria. Among all tested bacteria, S. salivarius was the most susceptible. The MIC ranges for methanol and acetone extracts were the same, between 0.16 and 0.63 mg/mL. The MBC value, for methanol and acetone extracts, was in the ranges 0.31–1.25 mg/mL and 0.31–2.50 mg/mL, respectively. Both extracts of Q. infectoria galls exhibited similar antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Thus, the galls may be considered as effective phytotherapeutic agents for the prevention of oral pathogens.

  16. EFFECTS OF STEAMING AND MICROWAVE PRETREATMENTS ON MASS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF ALEPPE OAK (QUERCUS INFECTORIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Dashti,; Mahdi Shahverdi; Hamid Reza Taghiyari; Shoboo Salehpur,; Sina Heshmati

    2012-01-01

    In this research, effects of steaming and microwave pretreatments on the mass transfer properties of never-dried Q. infectoria were investigated. Specimens at green moisture content were exposed to microwaves of frequency 2450 MHz for 10 minutes. The pre-steaming was performed at a temperature of 160°C for 1 hour under a pressure of 2 to 3 bars. Air permeability values were measured to be 4.8 and 4.9 (× 10-16 m3 m-1) in the sapwood and heartwood, respectively. Results showed a significant gen...

  17. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwane, A; Lazrek, H B; Bouallam, S; Markouk, M; Amarouch, H; Jana, M

    2002-02-01

    The present study indicates the efficacy of extracts and fractions of Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.) as larvicidal agents and their possible use in biological control of Culex pipiens, the urban nuisance mosquito. Extracts and fractions were tested against second and fourth instar larvae. The LC(50) values of gallotannins were 335 and 373 ppm, respectively for the 2nd and 4th instar period. The most interesting value of LC(50) (24 h) is obtained with the fraction F(2) (60 ppm). PMID:11801390

  18. alpha-Glycosidase inhibitory activity of hexagalloylglucose from the galls of Quercus infectoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J K; Kong, T W; Baek, N I; Pyun, Y R

    2000-04-01

    Hexagalloylglucose (3-O-digalloyl-1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D- glucose), which was isolated from the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria, significantly inhibited alpha-glycosidases such as sucrase, maltase and isomaltase. Its inhibitory activity was comparable to acarbose being used as a hypoglycemic agent, while the inhibitory activity on alpha-amylase was approximately 10 times lower than that of acarbose. The results indicate that, when compared to acarbose, hexagalloylglucose might reduce the side effects by reducing inhibition of alpha-amylase. PMID:10821056

  19. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Saini * and S.M. Patil

    2012-01-01

    The methanolic extract of roots of Quercus infectoria Olivier at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively was tested for anti-diabetic activity in Alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 2h, 4h and 6h after the treatment. The methanolic extract reduced the blood glucose Alloxan- induced diabetic rats from 285.52 to 206.57mg/dl, 6h after oral administration of extract (P

  20. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J H C; Truter, M; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2014-09-01

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens (e.g. Alternaria porri, A. solani and A. tomatophila). We constructed a multi-gene phylogeny on parts of the ITS, GAPDH, RPB2, TEF1 and Alt a 1 gene regions, which, supplemented with morphological and cultural studies, forms the basis for species recognition in sect. Porri. Our data reveal 63 species, of which 10 are newly described in sect. Porri, and 27 species names are synonymised. The three known Alternaria pathogens causing early blight on tomato all cluster in one clade, and are synonymised under the older name, A. linariae. Alternaria protenta, a species formerly only known as pathogen on Helianthus annuus, is also reported to cause early blight of potato, together with A. solani and A. grandis. Two clades with isolates causing purple blotch of onion are confirmed as A. allii and A. porri, but the two species cannot adequately be distinguished based on the number of beaks and branches as suggested previously. This is also found among the pathogens of Passifloraceae, which are reduced from four to three species. In addition to the known pathogen of sweet potato, A. bataticola, three more species are delineated of which two are newly described. A new Alternaria section is also described, comprising two large-spored Alternaria species with concatenate conidia. PMID:25492985

  1. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Vermani Archa; Navneet; Prabhat

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water) of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens - Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated) and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated). Materials and Methods: The cup-plate method was used ...

  2. Quercus infectoria Gall Extract Enhanced the Proliferation and Activity of Human Fetal Osteoblast Cell Line (hFOB 1.19)

    OpenAIRE

    Hapidin, Hermizi; ROZELAN, Dalila; ABDULLAH, Hasmah; WAN HANAFFI, Wan Nurhidayah; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the effects of Quercus infectoria (QI) gall extract on the proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin, and the morphology of a human fetal osteoblast cell line (hFOB 1.19).

  3. An in Vitro Study on the Antibacterial Effect of Ferula Assa-Foetida L. and Quercus Infectoria Olivier Extracts on Streptococcus Mutans and Streptococcus Sanguis

    OpenAIRE

    Fani; Bazargani; Farboodniay Jahromi; Hasanpour; Zamani; Yousefi Manesh

    2015-01-01

    Background From the ancient times, medicinal herbs have been regarded as efficient resources for the treatment of diseases. Among the diseases that can be treated by medicinal herbs, infectious diseases like oral ones are of notable importance. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of Ferula assa-foetida L (F. assa-foetida L.) and Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria Olivier) aqueous and e...

  4. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Quercus infectoria Galls Extract in Combination with Vancomycin against MRSA Using Microdilution Checkerboard and Time-Kill Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Dayang Fredalina Basri; Radhiah Khairon

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier possess astringent properties which helps in the tightening of the vaginal epithelium in the post-natal period. The present study aimed to observe the time-kill kinetics of the acetone and methanol extracts of gall of Q. infectoria in combination with vancomycin against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains; ATCC 33591 and MU 9495 (laboratory-passaged strain). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts were determin...

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of Quercus infectoria gall extract against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats

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    Gaurav Lodhi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the present study, galls of Quercus infectoria possessing potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties were evaluated for their hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl4, administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Histological analysis of the liver of these rats revealed marked necro-inflammatory changes that were associated with increase in the levels of TBARS, PGE2 and catalase and decrease in the levels of glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Daily oral administration of aqueous ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria galls at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg doses produced a dose dependent reduction in the serum levels of liver enzymes and inflammatory mediators and attenuated the necroinflammatory changes in the liver. The QIE treatment also normalized various biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Our study shows that the hepatoprotective effects of QIE and silymarin were comparable and suggests that QIE could be used as a hepatoprotective agent. Industrial relevance. Research in traditional medicine has lead to the development of many modern medicines. In recent times, focus on plants research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. It is very interesting to note that there is no drug available in the modern system of medicine for treating hepatic disorders; only certain herbal preparations are available to treat this quite vulnerable disease. The situation/background thus explained above warrants for developing a safe, effective and scientifically validated hepatoprotective agent taking lead from traditional medicine, which is affordable for the rural poor

  6. Synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group with new Japanese Oxyethira species (Trichoptera, Hydroptilidae

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    Oláh, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group is produced by the examination of type materials. Diagrammatic drawings with similar style were prepared for all the known and for the new species. Short description of genus Oxyethira, subgenus Oxyethira, species group of Oxyethira flavicornis are presented together with the description of five species clusters: O. datra new species cluster, O. ecornuta new species cluster, O. flavicornis new species cluster, O. hiroshima new species cluster, O. tiunovae new species cluster. Five new species are described from the O. flavicornis species group: O chitosea sp. n., O. hena sp. n., O. hiroshima sp. n., O. kakida sp. n., O. mekunna sp. n. One new species is described from the Oxyethira grisea species group: Oxyethira ozea sp. n. and two new species from the Oxyethira ramosa species group: Oxyethira miea sp. n., Oxyethira okinawa sp. n.

  7. 40 CFR 180.1256 - Alternaria destruens strain 059; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternaria destruens strain 059... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1256 Alternaria destruens strain 059; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Alternaria destruens Strain 059 when used in or on all raw...

  8. Hepatoprotective potential of extracts from seeds of Areca catechu and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae) (AC) and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) (QI) were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats with AC and QI extracts reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl(4). It is suggested that extracts rich in either condensed or hydrolysable tannins and known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, may potentially confer protection against oxidative stress-induced liver injury. These data should contribute to evidence-based traditional medicines for anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of both extracts. PMID:20032872

  9. Larvicidal activity of oak Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) gall extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivazi, Ali-Ashraf; Vijayan, V A

    2009-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of botanical insecticides to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides in order to avoid environmental side effects. Anopheles stephensi is the primary vector of urban malaria, an endemic disease in India. So, an effort to assay An. stephensi larvae with gall extracts of Quercus infectoria was made under laboratory conditions at Mysore. Ethyl-acetate extract was found to be the most effective of all the five extracts tested for larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae, with LC(50) of 116.92 ppm followed by gallotannin, n-butanol, acetone, and methanol with LC(50) values of 124.62, 174.76, 299.26, and 364.61 ppm, respectively. The efficacy in killing mosquito larvae may make this plant promising for the development of new botanical larvicide. PMID:19148681

  10. Hepatoprotective Potential of Extracts from Seeds of Areca catechu and Nutgalls of Quercus infectoria

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    Rapepol Bavovada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae (AC and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae (QI were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti−inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats with AC and QI extracts reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl4. It is suggested that extracts rich in either condensed or hydrolysable tannins and known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, may potentially confer protection against oxidative stress−induced liver injury. These data should contribute to evidence-based traditional medicines for anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of both extracts.

  11. Pulmonary hypersensitivity to Alternaria and Aspergillus in baker's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaustermeyer, W B; Bardana, E J; Hale, F C

    1977-05-01

    In two cases of baker's asthma pulmonary hypersensitivity was found to the fungi Alternaria and Aspergillus. Provocative bronchial challenge revealed a dual response; an immediate and an Arthus type hypersensitivity to Aspergillus in the first case. A primary binding assay revealed high titres of anti-Aspergillus antibody in the serum. In the second case intradermal and bronchial challenge suggested an immediate type I hypersensitivity response to Alternaria. The suspected organisms were present in the room air of the bakeries. It is suggested that an immunological response to these airborne fungi may have contributed to the pathogenesis of baker's asthma. PMID:561668

  12. 2-D GEL ELECTROPHORESIS MAP OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TREATED WITH QUERCUS INFECTORIA GALL EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread outbreak of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA has caused clinical and epidemiological concern in hospital environment. The emergence of Vancomycin-Intermediate S. Aureus (VISA and, more recently, Vancomycin-Resistant S. Aureus (VRSA has further alarmed clinician and scientist worlwide. The objective of this study is to determine the optimum concentration of sample protein from MRSA after treatment with acetone extract from Quercus infectoria gall. Comparison of the Protein Expression Profile (PEP between the treated MRSA and untreated strain as control was obtained using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC value of acetone extract of galls from Q. infectoria against two strains of MRSA; ATCC 33591 and PPUKM clinical isolate was determined by broth microdilution method. The MIC value of acetone extracts against both strains of MRSA was 0.3125 mg mL-1 compared to vancomycin (0.00195 mg mL-1. The optimum concentration of MRSA protein that produced the best resolution was 100 µg. Manifold technique was observed to produce a gel with better resolution and greater number of spot compared with the strip holder technique. This study showed that there were 7 protein spots that represented the increased in the protein expression of more than 2-fold in the MRSA treated with acetone extract of galls Q. infectoria compared to the untreated group. This preliminary study on the PEP of Q. infectoria galls extract-treated MRSA may provide an insight of its antimicrobial mechanism which could lead to the identification of target protein in the future development of a new effective regimen for the treatment of MRSA infections.

  13. Conservation of nuclear SSR loci reveals high affinity of Quercus infectoria ssp. veneris A. Kern (Fagaceae) to section Robur

    OpenAIRE

    Neophytou, Charalambos; Dounavi, Aikaterini; Aravanopoulos, Filippos A.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of 16 nuclear microsatellite loci, originally developed for Quercus macrocarpa (section Albae), Q. petraea, Q. robur (section Robur) and Q. myrsinifolia, (subgenus Cyclobalanopsis) was tested in a Q. infectoria ssp. veneris population from Cyprus. All loci could be amplified successfully and displayed allele size and diversity patterns that match those of oak species belonging to the section Robur. At least in one case, limited amplification and high levels of homozygosity suppor...

  14. Eficiência e custo do controle químico da mancha de alternaria em tangor murcote Efficiency and cost of chemical control of alternaria brown spot

    OpenAIRE

    Adimara Bentivoglio Colturato; Tatiana Paulossi; Wilson Story Venâncio; Edson Luiz Furtado

    2009-01-01

    A mancha de alternaria, causada por Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri, afeta tangelos Minneola, tangerinas Dancy, tangores Murcote e, menos freqüentemente, tangelos Orlando, tangerinas Novas, Lees e Sunburst. Esta doença causa desfolha grave, queda de frutos e manchas nas frutas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer o melhor fungicida e a melhor dose para o controle da mancha marrom de alternaria. O delineamento experimental foi de parcelas subdivididas em blocos, com 10 tratamentos prin...

  15. Effects of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum root and Quercus infectoria nut gall on caecal amoebiasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Poonpanang, Pathana

    2004-04-01

    The anti-amoebic effects of crude methanol extracts of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum root and Quercus infectoria nut gall against Entamoeba histolytica infecting the caecum of mice were studied. Caecal amoebiasis in mice was induced by injection of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites directly into the caecum. The mice were then treated orally with the extract, a standard drug (metronidazole), or vehicle p.o. for five consecutive days, beginning 24 h after the infection and were examined on the sixth day. At a dose of 1000 mg/kg per day, the extracts of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum root and Quercus infectoria nut gall had a curative rate of 100, 40 and 26%, respectively. At a concentration of 500 and 250 mg/kg/day, extract from Piper longum fruit was still effective in 93 and 46% of the cases, respectively, while extract from Piper sarmentosum root at a dose of less than 1000 mg/kg per day did not cure any mice from amoebiasis. Extract of Quercus infectoria nut gall at a concentration of 500 and of 250 mg/kg per day cured 26 and 13% of mice, respectively. Metronidazole at a concentration of 125 and of 62.5 mg/kg per day had a curative rate of 100 and 60%, respectively. The severity of caecal wall ulceration was reduced in mice which received the extract and metronidazole as compared to the control animals. PMID:15120461

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Alternaria alternata ATCC 34957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai D T; Lewis, Christopher T; Lévesque, C André; Gräfenhan, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Alternaria alternata ATCC 34957. This strain was previously reported to produce alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether on weathered grain sorghum. The genome was sequenced with PacBio technology and assembled into 27 scaffolds with a total genome size of 33.5 Mb. PMID:26769939

  17. Genetic variability in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata, was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the rDNA region. Southern hybridization of EcoRI, HindIII, and Xbal digested fungal DNA with a RNA probe derived from Alt1, an rDNA clone isolated from ...

  18. THE GENERALIZED FUNCTIONAL-VARIATION SOLVING METHODS FOR NONLINEAR REACTION DIFFUSION IN BIONOMICS OF SPECIES GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a class of nonlinear predator-prey for reaction diffusion system is considered. Using the generalized functional-variational theory,the approximate expressions of the solution for nonlinear bionomics of species groups problem are obtained.

  19. Airborne fungal spores of Alternaria, meteorological parameters and predicting variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filali Ben Sidel, Farah; Bouziane, Hassan; del Mar Trigo, Maria; El Haskouri, Fatima; Bardei, Fadoua; Redouane, Abdelbari; Kadiri, Mohamed; Riadi, Hassane; Kazzaz, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Alternaria is frequently found as airborne fungal spores and is recognized as an important cause of respiratory allergies. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed using a Burkard volumetric spore traps. To establish predicting variables for daily and weakly spore counts, a stepwise multiple regression between spore concentrations and independent variables (meteorological parameters and lagged values from the series of spore concentrations: previous day or week concentration (Alt t - 1) and mean concentration of the same day or week in other years ( C mean)) was made with data obtained during 2009-2011. Alternaria conidia are present throughout the year in the atmosphere of Tetouan, although they show important seasonal fluctuations. The highest levels of Alternaria spores were recorded during the spring and summer or autumn. Alternaria showed maximum daily values in April, May or October depending on year. When the spore variables of Alternaria, namely C mean and Alt t - 1, and meteorological parameters were included in the equation, the resulting R 2 satisfactorily predict future concentrations for 55.5 to 81.6 % during the main spore season and the pre-peak 2. In the predictive model using weekly values, the adjusted R 2 varied from 0.655 to 0.676. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the results from the expected values and the pre-peak spore data or weekly values for 2012, indicating that there were no significant differences between series compared. This test showed the C mean, Alt t - 1, frequency of the wind third quadrant, maximum wind speed and minimum relative humidity as the most efficient independent variables to forecast the overall trend of this spore in the air.

  20. Proteome Analysis for Defense Response of Apple Leaves Induced by Alternaria Blotch ,Alternaria alternata Apple Pathotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caixia Zhang; Zhuang Li; Liyi Zhang; Yi Tian; Guodong Kang; Ying Chen; Peihua Cong

    2012-01-01

    Apple (Ma/us domestica) is considered a model fruit plant owing to its world-wide economic importance,and a large number of cultivars dominate world fruit production.To date,the cultivation of apple has been limited by many kinds of fungal diseases,and among the many fungal diseases affecting apple trees,Alternaria blotch,the disease caused by Alternaria alternata apple pathotype,is spreading worldwide and results in severe negative effect on apple production.Currently,management of a fungal disease such as Alternaria blotch mainly through traditional chemical control agents instead of using resistant cultivars.As in apple,the molecular mechanism of disease resistance against A.altemata apple pathotype has not been illustrated clearly,although most of the genes have been identified in apple,little is known about the biological roles for each protein in that plant.Considering that apple Altemaria blotch is the usual diseases influencing apple production,further studies about the interaction mechanism between the pathogen and its host,particularly some host self-defense response mechanisms which closely related to the anti-disease properties of apple should be performed.In this work we aimed to generate fundamental insights into the plant' s defense responses to infection with Altemaria blotch using a proteomics approach,to aid in the development and breeding of high-quality disease-resistant apple varieties.One seedlings which derived from the cross of ‘Huacui’ and ‘Golden Delicious’,with highly resistant,were chosen to be hosts for this study.The sample leaves were inoculated with spore suspension of A.altemata apple pathotype,and the control samples were treated with water instead of inoculums.Following inoculation,the samples were harvested 48 h after inoculation.The whole experiment was repeated three times in order to get a reliable result.The total soluble protein extracts prepared using modified phenol-precipitation procedures.Total protein extracts

  1. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Quercus infectoria Galls Extract in Combination with Vancomycin against MRSA Using Microdilution Checkerboard and Time-Kill Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Khairon, Radhiah

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier possess astringent properties which helps in the tightening of the vaginal epithelium in the post-natal period. The present study aimed to observe the time-kill kinetics of the acetone and methanol extracts of gall of Q. infectoria in combination with vancomycin against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains; ATCC 33591 and MU 9495 (laboratory-passaged strain). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts were determined using microdilution technique whereas the checkerboard and time-kill kinetics were employed to verify the synergistic effects of treatment with vancomycin. The FIC index value of the combinations against both MRSA strains showed that the interaction was synergistic (FIC index infectoria with vancomycin were synergistic according to FIC index values. The time-kill curves showed that the interaction was additive with a more rapid killing rate but, which did not differ significantly with vancomycin. PMID:22899953

  2. Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Sophie; Madrid, Hugo; Gerrits Van Den Ende, Bert; Andersen, Birgitte; Marinach-Patrice, Carine; Mazier, Dominique; De Hoog, G. Sybren

    2013-01-01

    The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes of...... morphologically similar taxa. This study aimed to assess if strains of four closely-related plant pathogens, i.e., accurately Alternaria dauci (ten strains), Alternaria porri (six), Alternaria solani (ten), and Alternaria tomatophila (ten) could be identified using multilocus phylogenetic analysis and Matrix......-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) profiling of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on three loci, i.e., the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rRNA, and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) and Alternaria major antigen (Alt a 1) genes. Phylogenetic...

  3. Tenuazonic acid: a promising antitubercular principle from Alternaria alternate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visalakchi Sonaimuthu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity guided isolation of dichloromethane extract of Alternaria alternata identified tenuazonic acid (1 as potentially active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, MIC at 250 μg/mL concentration. This active metabolite 1, was also evaluated for osmotic hemolysis using the erythrocyte as a model system. It was observed that this fungal metabolite showing antitubercular activity exhibited concentration dependent toxicity to human erythrocytes.

  4. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermani Archa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens - Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated. Materials and Methods: The cup-plate method was used in anti-bacterial activity of the extracts at concentration of 200 mg/ml against dental pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of most effective extracts against the most susceptible bacteria were determined using a two-fold serial micro dilution method. Results: Methanolic extract showed maximum anti-bacterial activity against all the bacteria. The most susceptible bacteria were S. sanguis followed by S. aureus, S. mutans, S. salivarius and L. acidophilus. The MIC values showed that methanolic extract was more effective than water extract. Conclusion: The plant has the potential to generate herbal metabolites. The crude extracts demonstrating anti-dental caries activity could result in the discovery of new chemical classes of antibiotics. These chemical classes of antibiotics could serve as selective agents for the maintenance of human health and provide bio-chemical tools for the study of infectious diseases.

  5. Investigation into the toxicity of traditional Uyghur medicine Quercus infectoria galls water extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubarak Iminjan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Quercus infectoria galls (QIG is being widely used in Traditional Uyghur Medicine. To gather preclinical safety information for the aqueous extract of QIG, a toxicity study was performed. METHODS: Subject animals were randomized, and divided into exposure and control groups. In the acute toxicity phase, three different doses--5, 7.5, and 10 g/kg, respectively--were administered via enema to imprinting control region (ICR mice. An experiment using the maximum tolerance dose (MTD i.e.10 g/kg was also performed. Data were gathered for 14 days, and study parameters were clinical signs, body weight, general behavior, adverse effects and mortality. At the day 14, major organs of the subjects were examined histologically. Chronic toxicity was also evaluated in Wistar rats for over 180 consecutive days. The rats were divided into three groups with different doses of 0.2 g/kg, 0.8 g/kg, and 2 g/kg, QIG. Furthermore, observations were carried out in rabbits to investigate if there were signs of irritation. RESULTS: In comparison to control group, acute, chronic toxicity and mortality were not significantly increased in exposure group. CONCLUSION: Study result suggests that the aqueous extract of QIG is unlikely to have significant toxicity and that clinical trials may proceed safely.

  6. EFFECTS OF STEAMING AND MICROWAVE PRETREATMENTS ON MASS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF ALEPPE OAK (QUERCUS INFECTORIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Dashti,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effects of steaming and microwave pretreatments on the mass transfer properties of never-dried Q. infectoria were investigated. Specimens at green moisture content were exposed to microwaves of frequency 2450 MHz for 10 minutes. The pre-steaming was performed at a temperature of 160°C for 1 hour under a pressure of 2 to 3 bars. Air permeability values were measured to be 4.8 and 4.9 (× 10-16 m3 m-1 in the sapwood and heartwood, respectively. Results showed a significant general increase in the air permeability and diffusion coefficients in the pretreated sapwood specimens. The presence of tyloses in the heartwood prevented the penetration of steam to the inner parts of the specimens, resulting in the diffusion coefficient remaining constant. The pressure gradient caused by the microwave heating resulted in the distortion of the tyloses structure in the heartwood, thus resulting in a significant increase in the air permeability. It may be concluded that the presence of tyloses has a significant effect on the final impact of either of the pretreatments.

  7. The Allolobophora sturanyi species group revisited: Integrated taxonomy and new taxa (Clitellata: Megadrili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi, T.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Allolobophora sturanyi Rosa, 1895 species group is revisited using DNA barcoding and morphology. Barcoding results corroborated the previous treatment of the Allolobophora sturanyi subspecies and furthermore proved that the morphologically similar Allolobophora gestroides Zicsi, 1970 species belong to this species group. Elaboration of new samples from the Apuseni Mts resulted in discovery of a new subspecies A. sturanyi biharica ssp. nov. from the summit of the Bihor range, and a new species A. zicsica from the Vladeasa range similar to A. gestroides described from Northern Hungary.

  8. Pathogenic, morphological and molecular characteristics of Alternaria Tenuissima from soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasnić Stevan M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2008 and 2009 phytopathological isolations were done from soybean plants and seed samples from several localities in Serbia. A total of 19 isolates of Alternaria spp. were isolated, 13 from the seed and 3 from both leaf and stem. In order to determine and characterize isolates, cultural, morphological, molecular and pathogenic characteristics were thoroughly investigated. The slowest growth of the examined isolates was noted on Malt agar (MA with average colony diameter of 42.9 mm after 7 days of incubation. On other two media (V8 and PCA, colony growth was uniform and faster, with average diameter of 66.8 mm and 66.1 mm, respectively. Isolates of fungi form unbranched or poorly branched conidial chains on short unbranched conidiophores. Conidia are dark in colour, multicellular with transverse and longitudinal septae. They are of different size regarding the place of formation in the chain. Based on these characteristics, the tested isolates were determined as Alternaria tenuissima. Molecular identification with sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA verified that investigated isolates belong to Alternaria tenuissima group. Pathogenicity test proved that all isolates were more or less virulent to soybean seed (12.5% to 40% of rotten seeds, while pathogenicity on plants was poorly expressed.

  9. Corneal Transplant Infection due to Alternaria alternata: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Konidaris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of Alternaria alternata keratitis in a patient with a corneal transplant in her right eye due to bullous pseudophakic keratopathy. Methods. A 66-year-old female underwent a full-thickness keratoplasty in her right eye due to bullous pseudophakic keratopathy. Three weeks after keratoplasty, epithelial edema and a stromal opacity with an infiltrate and development of peripheral corneal opacities appeared. The diagnosis of Alternaria alternata keratitis was made. Results. The patient underwent a second keratoplasty, due to the corneal melting as a result of the fungal infection. She was also given combined antifungal treatment locally and systematically. Conclusion. Corneal transplantation alone would not have been sufficient to keep the fungus in the anterior portion of the eye. Combined antifungal treatment, locally and systematically, was important in attempting to prevent the further spread of the fungus to the interior of the eye. To our knowledge, the case presented here is only the second one in the literature concerning a keratomycosis due to Alternaria alternata corneal transplant infection.

  10. Daily variations of Alternaria spores in the city of Murcia (semi-arid southeastern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera Giner, M.; Carrión García, J. S.

    1995-12-01

    Annual variations in the abundance of Alternaria spores were related to the length of the spore period for data from Murcia (southeastern Spain). To understand the relationship between the number of spores and climatic factors, Alternaria spore counts for March 1993 to February 1994 were examined by means of correlation and regression analyses with fourteen different weather parameters. The results indicated that there was a tendency for Alternaria spore concentrations to increase with increases in temperature, wind speed and hours of sunshine. Negative correlations were observed with air pressure, wind direction and humidity. Theoretical curves for Alternaria spore counts are given in relation to temperatures during the period studied.

  11. Chromatographic analysis of natural pigments L. and quercus infectoria oliv: produced from datisca cannabina plants and their antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, natural pigments from the hemp (Datisca cannabina L.) and dyer's oak ). 12H/sub 2/O (alum) mordant. A (Quercus infectoria Oliv.) dye plants were prepared by using KAl(SO/sub 4)/sub 2/ reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD) method was used in the identification of dyes in the natural pigments. The dye extractions from the natural pigments were carried out with 37% HCl/MeOH/H/sub 2/O (2:1:1 v/v/v) mixture. Also, antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of plants and pigments were investigated. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier) in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sook-Ha Fan; Noraisah Akbar Ali; Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg) served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P < 0.05) by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in co...

  13. First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrabi, Effat; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Panahi, Parisa; Barooti, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are the most serious plant parasitic nematodes having a broad host range exceeding 2,000 plant species. Quercus brantii Lindl. and Q. infectoria Oliv are the most important woody species of Zagros forests in west of Iran where favors sub-Mediterranean climate. National Botanical Garden of Iran (NBGI) is scheduled to be the basic center for research and education of botany in Iran. This garden, located in west of Tehran, was established in 1968 with an area of about 1...

  14. Quercus infectoria galls possess antioxidant activity and abrogates oxidative stress-induced functional alterations in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Athar, Mohammad; Alam, M Sarwar

    2008-02-15

    The present study reports the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria galls. The antioxidant potency of galls was investigated employing several established in vitro model systems. Their protective efficacy on oxidative modulation of murine macrophages was also explored. Gall extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and possess a potent reducing power. HPTLC analysis of the extract suggested it to contain 19.925% tannic acid (TA) and 8.75% gallic acid (GA). The extract potently scavenged free radicals including DPPH (IC(50)~0.5 microg/ml), ABTS (IC(50)~1 microg/ml), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (IC(50)~2.6 microg/ml) and hydroxyl (*OH) radicals (IC(50)~6 microg/ml). Gall extract also chelated metal ions and inhibited Fe(3+) -ascorbate-induced oxidation of protein and peroxidation of lipids. Exposure of rat peritoneal macrophages to tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) induced oxidative stress in them and altered their phagocytic functions. These macrophages showed elevated secretion of lysosomal hydrolases, and attenuated phagocytosis and respiratory burst. Activity of macrophage mannose receptor (MR) also diminished following oxidant exposure. Pretreatment of macrophages with gall extract preserved antioxidant armory near to control values and significantly protected against all the investigated functional mutilations. MTT assay revealed gall extract to enhance percent survival of tBOOH exposed macrophages. These results indicate that Q. infectoria galls possess potent antioxidant activity, when tested both in chemical as well as biological models. PMID:18076871

  15. Antibacterial activities of semipurified fractions of Quercus infectoria against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its verocytotoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Suwalak, Sakol

    2008-06-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the most important foodborne pathogens, causing nonbloody and bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Use of antibiotics has been demonstrated to result in increased levels of verocytotoxin (VT) production as well as antibiotic resistance. Quercus infectoria was investigated for its antibacterial activity against E. coli O157:H7 and other VT-producing enterohemorrhagic E. coli (VTEC). The MIC was determined by a broth microdilution method, and the MBC was assessed by subculturing the bacteria from the wells that showed no apparent growth onto Mueller-Hinton agar. The fractions Qi2, Qi3, and Qi4 of Q. infectoria were demonstrated to possess good antibacterial activity, with MICs and MBCs ranging from 250 to 500 microg/ml. The effect of the effective fraction, Qi4, on the production of VT was determined using a reversed passive latex agglutination. The results indicate that at 20 h, fraction Qi4 markedly inhibits the release of VT1 and VT2 from VTEC cells at both inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, verotoxicity assay demonstrated that bacterial cultures treated with fraction Qi4 exerted less toxic effect on Vero cells. These in vitro results clearly indicate that the fraction Qi4 might constitute a promising natural food additive for the control of food poisoning by E. coli O157:H7 as well as other VTEC strains. PMID:18592749

  16. Effect of Quercus infectoria and Rosa damascena on lipid profile and atherosclerotic plaque formation in rabbit model of hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhoseinian, A; Shahouzehi, B; Joukar, S; Iranpoor, M

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is the cause of many complications in the human societies. In this study, the effect of methanol extracts of Quercus infectoria (QI) galls and Rosa damascena (RD) Mill flower were studied on lipid profile and atherosclerotic plaques formation in hyperlipidemic rabbits. Thirty-six New Zeland white rabbits randomly divided into 6 groups as control (I), hyperlipidemic (II), hyperlipidemic+QI (III), hyperlipidemic+RD (IV), +Atorvastolin (V) and hyperlipidemic+Orlistat (VI) and were fed with high fat diet (0.5% cholesterol and 16% hydrogenated vegetable oil) for 45 days. At the end of the study period, lipid profile and plaque formation were assessed. Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly increased in hyperlipidemic group compared with control group (p Quercus infectoria significantly decreased plasma levels of TC, TG and LDL (p < 0.001). It also decreased plaques formation in semi lunar valve and thoracic aorta. Rosa damascena mill flower methanol extract moderately decreased the levels of TC, TG, LDL and plaques formation but it was not significant. HDL levels and weight of animals did not show significant difference among groups. Based on the doses used in this study, our finding indicated that QI but no RD methanol extract has anti atherogenic and hypolipidemic activities. PMID:22530439

  17. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Ha Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P<0.05 by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec. Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min, the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity.

  18. An in Vitro Study on the Antibacterial Effect of Ferula Assa-Foetida L. and Quercus Infectoria Olivier Extracts on Streptococcus Mutans and Streptococcus Sanguis

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    Fani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background From the ancient times, medicinal herbs have been regarded as efficient resources for the treatment of diseases. Among the diseases that can be treated by medicinal herbs, infectious diseases like oral ones are of notable importance. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of Ferula assa-foetida L (F. assa-foetida L. and Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria Olivier aqueous and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis. Materials and Methods The studied plants were F. assa-foetida L. and Q infectoria Olivier. Their extracts with different concentrations of 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, and 3.125 mg/mL were prepared in culture medium, with well diffusion method, and, for control, their antibacterial effects were compared with chlorhexidine. For each extract, the antibacterial ability was determined based on the created inhibition zone diameter in the microbial culture medium. Results The aqueous and ethanolic extract of F. assa-foetida L. lacked the inhibitory effect against the growth of S. mutans and S. sanguis bacteria. There was a significant difference among the inhibitory zones created by dissimilar concentrations of Q. infectoria (P = 0.025. Also, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts’ minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for S. mutans bacterium was calculated to be 12.5 mg/mL, while its value for S. sanguis bacterium was 6.25 mg/mL. Conclusions The results of our study, regarding the observed effects based on differences in concentrations, suggest that further and more comprehensive studies should be undertaken to determine the appropriate concentration for obtaining the effect of the extract of F. assa-foetida L. and Q infectoria Olivier on S. mutans and S. sanguis.

  19. Inheritance and genetic mapping of resistance to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici in Lycopersicon pennellii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biezen, Erik A. van der; Glagotskaya, Tatyana; Overduin, Bert; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1995-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici produces AAL-toxins that function as chemical determinants of the Alternaria stem canker disease in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). In resistant cultivars, the disease is controlled by the Asc locus on chromosome 3. Our aim was to cha

  20. Differential gene expression in Alternaria gaisen exposed to dark and light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Character states observed during sporulation have been the basis for segregation and description of many of the small-spored species of Alternaria. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and housekeeping genes from small-spored Alternaria spp. do not support most of the currently defined morphological specie...

  1. Phylogenetic, morphological and pathogenic characterization of Alternaria species associated with fruit rots of blueberry in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruits. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed fruits of blueberry in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. The aims of this study wer...

  2. Alternaria and Fusarium in Norwegian grains of reduced quality - a matched pair sample study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and geographic distribution of species belonging to the genera Alternaria and Fusarium in grains of reduced and of acceptable quality were studied post-harvest in 1997 and 1998. A total of 260 grain samples of wheat, barley and oats was analysed. The distribution of Alternaria and...

  3. Leaf Petiole and Stem Blight Disease of Sweet Potato Caused by Alternaria Bataticola in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight is an important disease of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus (L.) Lam.) in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In surveys conducted in Uganda from 2001 to 2003, disease incidence ranged from 0-49%. Symptoms of Alternaria leaf and stem blight disease consisted of sm...

  4. Alternaria roseogrisea, a new species from achenes of Helianthus annuus (sunflower)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria roseogrisea was isolated from the achenes of Helianthus annuus L. during studies conducted in 1983-85 to document the diversity of fungi occurring in sunflower seeds and the possible role these fungi play in degradation of oilseed quality. A. roseogrisea was reported as "Alternaria sp. 2...

  5. Specific PCR-based detection of Alternaria helianthi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udayashankar, A.C.; Nayaka, S. Chandra; Archana, B.;

    2012-01-01

    PCR analysis of DNA from 18 Alternaria helianthi strains isolated from India, 14 non-target Alternaria spp. and 11 fungal isolates of other genera. A single amplification product of 357-bp was detected from DNA of A. helianthi isolates. No cross-reaction was observed with any of the other isolates...

  6. Influence of environmental parameters on mycotoxin production by Alternaria arborescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquera, Sandra; Patriarca, Andrea; Fernández Pinto, V

    2016-02-16

    Alternaria arborescens has been reported as a common fungal species invading tomatoes and is capable of producing several mycotoxins in infected plants, fruits and in agricultural commodities. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants of food. This species can produce these toxic metabolites together with AAL toxins (Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersicum toxins), which can act as inhibitors of sphingolipid biosynthesis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of water activity (aw, 0.995, 0.975, 0.950) and temperature (6, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C) on mycotoxin production by A. arborescens on a synthetic tomato medium. The optimum production of AOH and AME occurred at 0.975 aw after 40 days of incubation at 30 °C. The maximum TeA accumulation was observed at 0.975 aw and 25 °C and at 0.950 aw and 30 °C. AAL TA was produced in higher quantities at 0.995 aw and 30 °C. At 6 °C no quantifiable levels of AOH or AME were detected, but significant amounts of TeA were produced at 0.975 aw. In general, high aw levels and high temperatures were favorable for mycotoxin production. The greatest accumulation of all four toxins occurred at 0.975 aw and 30 °C. The results obtained here could be extrapolated to evaluate the risk of tomato fruits and tomato products contamination caused by these toxins. PMID:26708802

  7. Modelling and visualizing morphology in the fungus Alternaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taralova, Ekaterina H; Schlecht, Joseph; Barnard, Kobus; Pryor, Barry M

    2011-11-01

    Alternaria is one of the most cosmopolitan fungal genera encountered and impacts humans and human activities in areas of material degradation, phytopathology, food toxicology, and respiratory disease. Contemporary methods of taxon identification rely on assessments of morphology related to sporulation, which are critical for accurate diagnostics. However, the morphology of Alternaria is quite complex, and precise characterization can be laborious, time-consuming, and often restricted to experts in this field. To make morphology characterization easier and more broadly accessible, a generalized statistical model was developed for the three-dimensional geometric structure of the sporulation apparatus. The model is inspired by the widely used grammar-based models for plants, Lindenmayer-systems, which build structure by repeated application of rules for growth. Adjusting the parameters of the underlying probability distributions yields variations in the morphology, and thus the approach provides an excellent tool for exploring the morphology of Alternaria under different assumptions, as well as understanding how it is largely the consequence of local rules for growth. Further, different choices of parameters lead to different model groups, which can then be visually compared to published descriptions or microscopy images to validate parameters for species-specific models. The approach supports automated analysis, as the models can be fit to image data using statistical inference, and the explicit representation of the geometry allows the accurate computation of any morphological quantity. Furthermore, because the model can encode the statistical variation of geometric parameters for different species, it will allow automated species identification from microscopy images using statistical inference. In summary, the approach supports visualization of morphology, automated quantification of phenotype structure, and identification based on form. PMID:22036294

  8. Kinetic behaviour of two-species-group aggregation process with complete annihilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯见洪; 林振权; 王向红

    2003-01-01

    We propose a two-species-group aggregation-annihilation model in which an irreversible aggregation reaction occurs between any two clusters of the same species, and an irreversible joint annihilation reaction occurs between two distinct species groups. Based on the mean-field theory, we have investigated the rate equations of the process with constant reaction rates to obtain the asymptotic descriptions of the cluster-mass distributions. The results indicate that for the symmetrical initial cases the kinetic behaviour of the system depends crucially on the ratio of the equivalent aggregation rate to the annihilation rate. The cluster-mass distribution of each species always obeys a conventional or modified scaling law in each individual case. Moreover, all the species cannot finally survive except for the cases in which at least one equivalent aggregation rate is less than twice the annihilation rate.

  9. A new compound from an endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Bin; Yue, Gao-Chao; Huang, Qi-Lin; Sun, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    A new secondary metabolite, named altertoxin IV (1), together with altertoxin II (2), was isolated from the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima, an endophytic fungal strain residing in the stem of Tribulus terrestris L. The structure of new compound 1 was established by HR-ESI-MS, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction method. In their in vitro bioassay, compound 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against PC-3 cell lines with an IC50 value of 14.28 μM. PMID:24660902

  10. Alternaria resistance of Brassicae campestris L. improved by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Seeds of 'YS 52', a cultivar susceptible to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc., were exposed to gamma rays (30-90 kR). Eight more resistant mutants were selected in M3 and subjected to further field evaluation. The best mutant '17-5-83' appeared resistant and gave 44% higher yield than the parent, mutant '70-7-82' was found to be moderately resistant and gave a yield 21% higher than the parent. The yield increases seem to be connected with plant architecture changes. (author)

  11. New Trachysphyrus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) in the albomarginatus species group from northwestern Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Charles C. Porter

    2009-01-01

    Three new species of the albomarginatus species group of the genus Trachysphyrus (T. fidalgoi, T. riojanus, and T. tmetus) are described from the Subandean Desert (Monte) of Northwest Argentina. A key is given to these and to the five described species also known from Neotropic Argentina in the semiarid Prepuna, Subandino, and Chaco Serrano as well as in such wetter habitats as the Chaco Húmedo and Selva Tucumano-Boliviana (Yungas). Four additional species occur in Neantarctic Chile from Sant...

  12. A phylogeny of Drosophilidae using the Amyrel gene : questioning the Drosophila melanogaster species group boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Da Lage, J.L.; Kergoat, G. J.; Maczkowiak, F.; Silvain, Jean-François; Cariou, M L; Lachaise, D

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the phylogenetic relationships of 164 species of the family Drosophilidae are discussed, using the Amyrel gene, a member of the alpha-amylase multigene family. This study focuses on numerous species groups in the subgenera Sophophora and Drosophila of the genus Drosophila but also includes other closely related genera. Nucleotide data were analysed by several methods: maximum parsimony, neighbour joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Heterogeneity of base composit...

  13. Characterization of Alternaria strains from Argentinean blueberry, tomato, walnut and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Patriarca, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    metabolites have been carried out on Argentinean cereals, fruit and vegetables. Knowing the full chemical potential and the distribution of Alternaria spp. on crops, it is necessary to establish a toxicological risk assessment for food products for human consumption. In the present study, 87 Alternaria......Alternaria species have the ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolite, which plays important roles in food safety. Argentina is the second largest exporter of fresh and processed food products to Europe, however, fewstudies on Alternaria mycotoxins and other bioactive secondary...... strains from different substrates (tomato, wheat, blueberries and walnuts) were characterized according to morphology and metabolite production. Aggressive dereplication (accurate mass, isotopic patterns and lists of all described compounds from Alternaria) was used for high-throughput evaluation of the...

  14. Plant extracts and essential oils on the control of Alternaria alternata , Alternaria dauci and on the germination and emergence of carrot seeds ( Daucus carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Batista Lima; Luana Lopes Assumpção Rentschler; João Tavares Bueno; Ana Cláudia Boaventura

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate garlic, pepper and coriander plant extract as well as neem and orange peel essential oil effective ness to control Alternaria alternata and Alternaria dauci and their efficiency during carrot seeds germination and emergence. A completely randomized design was used in three different experiments. The first experiment evaluated the effect of plant extracts and essential oils on the incidence of A. alternata and A. dauci . It was done by means of...

  15. Research on the karyotype and evolution of Drosophila melanogaster species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qiuhong; Zeng, Qingtao; Qian, Yuanhuai; Li, Chunxuan; Yang, Yong

    2007-03-01

    Mitotic metaphase chromosomes of 34 species of Drosophila melanogaster species group were examined. Certain new karyotypes were described for the first time, and their evolutionary and interspecific genetic relationships among 8 subgroups of D. melanogaster species group were analyzed systematically. The results were as follows. The basic karyotype of elegans subgroup was type A. The karyotypes of eugracilis subgroup, melanogaster subgroup, and ficusphila subgroup were all type C. The karyotypes of takahashii subgroup and suzukii subgroup were both type C and type D. The montium subgroup had six kinds of karyotypes: types B, C, C', D, D', and E. The ananassae subgroup had three kinds of karyotypes: types F, G, and H. Thus, the melanogaster species group was classified into five pedigrees based on the diversity of these karyotypes: 1) elegans; 2) eugracilis-melanogaster-ficusphila; 3) takkahashii-suzukii; 4) montium; 5) ananassae. The above-mentioned results in karyotypic evolution were consistent with those of DNA sequence analysis reported by Yang except for the elegans subgroup and this subgroup was considered as the ancestral subgroup. Karyotype analysis of the same drosophila from different isofemale lines indicated that the same Drosophila from different places showed karyotypic variation which might be due to different geographical environment and evolutionary degree or interaction between the two factors. PMID:17498617

  16. Chromosomal Speciation Revisited: Modes of Diversification in Australian Morabine Grasshoppers (Vandiemenella, viatica Species Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. B. Cooper

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal rearrangements can alter the rate and patterns of gene flow within or between species through a reduction in the fitness of chromosomal hybrids or by reducing recombination rates in rearranged areas of the genome. This concept, together with the observation that many species have structural variation in chromosomes, has led to the theory that the rearrangements may play a direct role in promoting speciation. Australian morabine grasshoppers (genus Vandiemenella, viatica species group are an excellent model for studying the role of chromosomal rearrangement in speciation because they show extensive chromosomal variation, parapatric distribution patterns, and narrow hybrid zones at their boundaries. This species group stimulated development of one of the classic chromosomal speciation models, the stasipatric speciation model proposed by White in 1968. Our population genetic and phylogeographic analyses revealed extensive non-monophyly of chromosomal races along with historical and on-going gene introgression between them. These findings suggest that geographical isolation leading to the fixation of chromosomal variants in different geographic regions, followed by secondary contact, resulted in the present day parapatric distributions of chromosomal races. The significance of chromosomal rearrangements in the diversification of the viatica species group can be explored by comparing patterns of genetic differentiation between rearranged and co-linear parts of the genome.

  17. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K Remold

    Full Text Available By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms' distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively. Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found.

  18. [The evolutionary traits of mitocondrial ND4-ND4L in Drosophila melanogaster species group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Shao Liang; Zeng, Qing Tao; Qian, Yuan Huai

    2004-12-01

    The sequences of the mitochondrial ND4-ND4L were determined for all the 33 extant taxaes of the Drosophila melanogaster species group, so evolutionary traits of ND4 gene sequences were analyzed. We found a strong transition bias in closed related species and saturation of transitional substitutions in distant related species. Moreover, we calculated the diverge time of eight subgroup according to the Tamura-Nei distance between D. melanogaster and D. yakuba. Our result suggested that ananassae subgroup branched off firstly, and montium, melanogaster, ficsphila, eugracilis, elegans, suzukii-takahashii branched off sequentially. PMID:15789764

  19. Taxonomic and biogeographic analysis of the Allolobophora sturanyi species group (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csuzdi, Cs.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric and biogeographic analysis of the Allolobophora sturanyi species group – containing A. sturanyi Rosa, 1895, Eophila dacica Pop, 1938 and A. sturanyi dacidoides Bouché, 1973 – proved that these taxa are distinct; consequently the proposed synonymy by Perel (1979 should be rejected. However, these taxa are morphologically close enough to regard them as subspecies of the polytypic Allolobophora sturanyi. The analysis also revealed a fourth, well separated group that represents a new species to science, Allolobophora prosellodacica sp. n.

  20. The Southeast Asian Pholcus halabala species group (Araneae, Pholcidae: new data from field observations and ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southeast Asian Pholcus halabala species group is revised and re-delimited, based mainly on field observations (life color pattern, web design, position of egg-sac when carried by female, microhabitat and ultrastructure (silk spigots, modifications of male cheliceral apophyses. The core group includes six leafdwelling species that have distinctive color patterns in life specimens (black and white or yellowish abdominal marks, dark pattern on posterior half of carapace and build round to oval silk platforms on the undersides of leaves. Seven further species are tentatively assigned to the group pending further study. Several species originally assigned to the Pholcus halabala group are transferred to three newly proposed species groups, the Ph. krabi, Ph. buatong, and Ph. andulau groups. Nine species are newly described, four in the Ph. halabala group (Ph. khaolek Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. kuhapimuk Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. lintang Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. ubin Huber, sp. nov.; three in the Ph. krabi group (Ph. kipungit Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. krabi Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. narathiwat Huber, sp. nov.; one in the Ph. buatong group (Ph. buatong Huber, sp. nov.; and one in the Ph. andulau group (Ph. lambir Huber, sp. nov.. The females of Ph. satun Huber, 2011 and Ph. schwendingeri Huber, 2011 (both members of the buatong group are newly described.

  1. A survey of the southernmost representatives of the tricolor species group, genus Phalotris (Serpentes, Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo C. Leynaud

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Colubrid snakes of the South American genus Phalotris are difficult to detect because of their secretive habits, and thus they are poorly represented in collections. The species Phalotris cuyanus and P. tricolor, the southernmost representatives of the tricolor species group, were studied to determine the limits of intraspecific variation of P. cuyanus and to consolidate the taxonomic relationship between both species, the phenetically and geographically closest members in the group. The distribution of selected external characters (cephalic, ventral and subcaudal scales, coloration pattern, width of white and black collars, and hemipenis morphology were analyzed. Comparative data on the other members of the group, P. mertensi and P. matogrossensis, are briefly discussed. Males of P. cuyanus have a higher number of ventral scales than males of P. tricolor (mean of 220.3 vs. 204.6. Cephalic melanism varies among individuals and does not have discriminant orgeographic value for this species group. The white nuchal collar may partially cover the parietal scales in the four species. The black collar is moderately narrow in P. cuyanus, but it can be up to 12 scales wide in P. tricolor. Vertebral dotting is neither constant nor exclusive of any species. The four species of the group are wellcharacterized by combinations of character states for each one. We suggest considering to P. cuyanus as an evolutionary species typical of the Monte biogeographic province.

  2. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bazdid Vahdati F, Saeidi Mehrvarz Sh, Naqinezhad A, Gholizadeh H. 2014. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 29-36. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

  3. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI¹,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 31-38. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

  4. 2-D GEL ELECTROPHORESIS MAP OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TREATED WITH QUERCUS INFECTORIA GALL EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Dayang Fredalina Basri; Lee Seng Aik; Radhiah Khairon; Mariati Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The widespread outbreak of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) has caused clinical and epidemiological concern in hospital environment. The emergence of Vancomycin-Intermediate S. Aureus (VISA) and, more recently, Vancomycin-Resistant S. Aureus (VRSA) has further alarmed clinician and scientist worlwide. The objective of this study is to determine the optimum concentration of sample protein from MRSA after treatment with acetone extract from Quercus infectoria gall. Comparison ...

  5. Potential of Aqueous and Alcohol Extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium as Antimicrobials and Curing of Antibiotic Resistance in E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Kamal Khder; Srwa A Muhammed

    2010-01-01

    Eighty two clinical isolates were collected from Sulaymani hospitals. The isolates show resistance to more than five antibiotics. The ethanol extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium were proved to be the most powerful against E. coli E45 and E62 isolates, than aqueous extracts. The extracts exhibited most of the antibiotics activity against these two isolates irrespective of their antibiotic resistance behaviour. A comparative evaluation of plasmid elimi...

  6. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of essential oil and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Quercus infectoria leaves on food-borne pathogenic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Shariatifar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are group of micro-organisms that cause food-borne illness thus, the research for finding effective natural product against this infection is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of essential oil and ethanolic and aqueous extracts Quercus infectoria against some important food borne bacteria. In this study, antibacterial activity of extracts and essential oil was evaluated against bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Yersinia entercolitica, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholera using disc diffusion method. Then broth micro-dilution method was used to determine their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC. The data was expressed as the mean and the standard deviation; and they were statistically analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS software (P<0.05. Result showed that ethanol extract of Quercus infectoria was found to be the most effective against B. cereus strains (inhibition zone=16.85±0.65 mm than Yersinia entercolitica strains (inhibition zone=14.15 ±0.75mm. Aqueous extract of Quercus infectoria was found to be the most effective against B. cereus strains (inhibition zone=7.25±0.45 mm than Yersinia entercolitica strains (inhibition zone=14.45 ±0.21mm. The MIC values of the essential oil, ethanolic and aqueous extracts against B. cereus were 0.064, 0.512, 0.256 μg/ml and against salmonella typhi were 0.256, 0.1024, 0.1024μg/ml, respectively. Essential oil and extracts of Quercus infectoria leave showed a good antimicrobial activity against food borne pathogens. Therefore, they can be used in food preservation systems to inhibit the growth of these bacteria and improve food quality and safety.

  7. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of essential oil and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Quercus infectoria leaves on food-borne pathogenic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi Shariatifar; Ayub Ebadi Fathabad; Gholamreza Jahed Khaniki; Hassan Gandomi Nasrabadi

    2014-01-01

    Food-borne pathogens are group of micro-organisms that cause food-borne illness thus, the research for finding effective natural product against this infection is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of essential oil and ethanolic and aqueous extracts Quercus infectoria against some important food borne bacteria. In this study, antibacterial activity of extracts and essential oil was evaluated against bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus...

  8. INOCULATION STRATEGIES TO ASSESS BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FUSARIUM AND ALTERNARIA SPECIES INFECTING SORGHUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three bioassays were assessed for experimental utility to either characterize fungal species potentially pathogenic to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] or to screen germplasm for advancement in breeding programs. Isolates of species commonly associated with sorghum, Alternaria alternata, Fusari...

  9. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xin Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea.

  10. GROWTH AND MASS SPECTROMETRY PROFILE OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA PIGMENT GROWN IN MAIZE GRAIN EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagarika Devi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria species are common saprophytes found in a variety of habitats as ubiquitous agents of decay. Alternaria spp. produces about sixty different secondary metabolites. In the present investigation, growth and production of pigment from Alternaria alternata was studied in maize grain extract at pH 4-9. The reddish brown pigment was extracted, estimated and partially purified by fractionation. Through mass spectrometry, major constituents of pigment from Alternaria alternata such as Tenuazoic acid (m/z 198, Stemphyperylenol (m/z 253, Alterperylenol (m/z 351, Alternariol (m/z 259.200, Altenuene (m/z 292, Alternarienoic acid (m/z 279.35 and Alternariol 5 methyl ether (m/z 273.20 were identified. The bio-prospecting of these secondary metabolites in industrial applications is also discussed.

  11. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Quercus infectoria Galls Extract in Combination with Vancomycin against MRSA Using Microdilution Checkerboard and Time-Kill Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier possess astringent properties which helps in the tightening of the vaginal epithelium in the post-natal period. The present study aimed to observe the time-kill kinetics of the acetone and methanol extracts of gall of Q. infectoria in combination with vancomycin against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains; ATCC 33591 and MU 9495 (laboratory-passaged strain. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts were determined using microdilution technique whereas the checkerboard and time-kill kinetics were employed to verify the synergistic effects of treatment with vancomycin. The FIC index value of the combinations against both MRSA strains showed that the interaction was synergistic (FIC index <0.5. Time-kill assays showed the bactericidal effect of the combination treatment at 1/8XMIC of the extract and 1/8XMIC of vancomycin, were respectively at 7.2±0.28 hr against ATCC 33591 compared to complete attenuation of the growth of the same strain after 8 hr of treatment with vancomycin alone. In conclusion, the combination extracts of Q. infectoria with vancomycin were synergistic according to FIC index values. The time-kill curves showed that the interaction was additive with a more rapid killing rate but, which did not differ significantly with vancomycin.

  12. Potencial de pseudomonas spp. fluorescentes para biocontrole de alternaria ricini em mamoneira Potential of fluorescent pseudomonas spp. For biological control of alternaria ricini on castorbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A.G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. to control Alternaria leaf spot on castorbean, caused by Alternaria ricini, was studied under greenhouse conditions. Two periods for antagonist applications were tested: 48h before and simultaneously to the pathogen inoculation. Among the antagonists tested JA4 and BJ22 were the most effectives showing disease severity reduction of 20.9% and 17.8% respectively, when applied simultaneously. The effect of Pseudomonas spp. on the micelial growth and sporulation was also studied throughout three different methods (funel, streak and celophane. Inhibition of micelial growth and sporulation was observed. There was no correlation between in vitro and in vivo data. Antibiosis was showed as a mode of action for Pseudomonas spp. in relation to Alternaria ricini. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the inhibition of spore germination by the bacteria.

  13. Determination of mycotoxin profiles characteristic of Alternaria strains isolated from Malbec grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Trinidad Andrea; Quevedo Ganoza Fernando; Fernández Pinto Virginia; Patriarca Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The world grape production has increased, reaching 751 million quintals (Mql) in 2013. Many Alternaria species have been studied for their ability to produce secondary metabolites in foods, some of which have toxic properties with tenu- azonic acid (TA), alternariol (AOH), alternariol methyl ether (AME) being the most important ones. The aim was to determine the characteristic mycotoxin production profiles of Alternaria strains isolated from Malbec grapes in the Patagonian region of Argentina...

  14. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Skóra; Anna Otlewska; Beata Gutarowska; Joanna Leszczyńska; Iwona Majak; Łukasz Stępień

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are signific...

  15. Seasonal patterns of mixed species groups in large East African mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, Christian; Kioko, John; Leweri, Cecilia; Krause, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Mixed mammal species groups are common in East African savannah ecosystems. Yet, it is largely unknown if co-occurrences of large mammals result from random processes or social preferences and if interspecific associations are consistent across ecosystems and seasons. Because species may exchange important information and services, understanding patterns and drivers of heterospecific interactions is crucial for advancing animal and community ecology. We recorded 5403 single and multi-species clusters in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro and Tarangire-Manyara ecosystems during dry and wet seasons and used social network analyses to detect patterns of species associations. We found statistically significant associations between multiple species and association patterns differed spatially and seasonally. Consistently, wildebeest and zebras preferred being associated with other species, whereas carnivores, African elephants, Maasai giraffes and Kirk's dik-diks avoided being in mixed groups. During the dry season, we found that the betweenness (a measure of importance in the flow of information or disease) of species did not differ from a random expectation based on species abundance. In contrast, in the wet season, we found that these patterns were not simply explained by variations in abundances, suggesting that heterospecific associations were actively formed. These seasonal differences in observed patterns suggest that interspecific associations may be driven by resource overlap when resources are limited and by resource partitioning or anti-predator advantages when resources are abundant. We discuss potential mechanisms that could drive seasonal variation in the cost-benefit tradeoffs that underpin the formation of mixed-species groups. PMID:25470495

  16. Induction of mutant resistant to alternaria blotch of apple by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apple cultivars resistant to Alternaria blotch disease have been produced by cross-breeding, but it is difficult to produce resistance by crossing without changing the properties of cultivar because the gene composition of the cultivar tree is almost heterozygous. This study aimed to investigate the resistant mutation in Alternaria blotch susceptible and semiresistant cultivars. The resistance to Alternaria blotch pathogen or AM toxin is classified into the following three groups: 1) highly sensitive group including Indo, Redgold and Starking delicious, 2) semi-resistant group including Fuji, Orin and Golden delicious and 3) resistant group including Gala and Tsugaru. After gamma ray exposure of 80 Gy (at 5 Gy/hour), AM-toxin insensitive clones were selected in the VM6 generation. These selected mutants could be rooted and habituated under field conditions. The degree of disease resistance was assessed by AM toxin treatment and Alternaria blotch fungi spore inoculation test. The leaves of these mutants were changed to variegated at high temperature, suggesting that some mutation related to chloroplast might have occurred. Alternaria blotch resistant strains could be produced by exposing to γray and selecting with AM toxin in shoot-tip culture system, but the functional effects of the AM toxin in Alternaria blotch and also the mechanism in the mutant lines were still unclear. (M.N.)

  17. Induction of mutant resistant to alternaria blotch of apple by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Toji [Hokuriku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Joetsu, Niigata (Japan); Ito, Yuji [National Inst. of Agrobiological Resources, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Masuda, Tetsuo [National Institute of Fruit Tree Science, Morioka, Iwate (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Apple cultivars resistant to Alternaria blotch disease have been produced by cross-breeding, but it is difficult to produce resistance by crossing without changing the properties of cultivar because the gene composition of the cultivar tree is almost heterozygous. This study aimed to investigate the resistant mutation in Alternaria blotch susceptible and semiresistant cultivars. The resistance to Alternaria blotch pathogen or AM toxin is classified into the following three groups: 1) highly sensitive group including Indo, Redgold and Starking delicious, 2) semi-resistant group including Fuji, Orin and Golden delicious and 3) resistant group including Gala and Tsugaru. After gamma ray exposure of 80 Gy (at 5 Gy/hour), AM-toxin insensitive clones were selected in the VM{sub 6} generation. These selected mutants could be rooted and habituated under field conditions. The degree of disease resistance was assessed by AM toxin treatment and Alternaria blotch fungi spore inoculation test. The leaves of these mutants were changed to variegated at high temperature, suggesting that some mutation related to chloroplast might have occurred. Alternaria blotch resistant strains could be produced by exposing to {gamma}ray and selecting with AM toxin in shoot-tip culture system, but the functional effects of the AM toxin in Alternaria blotch and also the mechanism in the mutant lines were still unclear. (M.N.)

  18. First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Effat; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Panahi, Parisa; Barooti, Shapour

    2015-03-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are the most serious plant parasitic nematodes having a broad host range exceeding 2,000 plant species. Quercus brantii Lindl. and Q. infectoria Oliv are the most important woody species of Zagros forests in west of Iran where favors sub-Mediterranean climate. National Botanical Garden of Iran (NBGI) is scheduled to be the basic center for research and education of botany in Iran. This garden, located in west of Tehran, was established in 1968 with an area of about 150 ha at altitude of 1,320 m. The Zagros collection has about 3-ha area and it has been designed for showing a small pattern of natural Zagros forests in west of Iran. Brant's oak (Q. brantii) and oak manna tree (Q. infectoria) are the main woody species in Zagros collection, which have been planted in 1989. A nematological survey on Zagros forest collection in NBGI revealed heavily infection of 24-yr-old Q. brantii and Q. infectoria to RKN, Meloidogyne hapla. The roots contained prominent galls along with egg sac on the surface of each gall. The galls were relatively small and in some parts of root several galls were conjugated, and all galls contained large transparent egg masses. The identification of M. hapla was confirmed by morphological and morphometric characters and amplification of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene. The obtained sequences of large-subunit rRNA gene from M. hapla was submitted to the GenBank database under the accession number KP319025. The sequence was compared with those of M. hapla deposited in GenBank using the BLAST homology search program and showed 99% similarity with those KJ755183, GQ130139, DQ328685, and KJ645428. The second stage juveniles of M. hapla isolated from Brant's oak (Q. Brantii) showed the following morphometric characters: (n = 12), L = 394 ± 39.3 (348 to 450) µm; a = 30.9 ± 4 (24.4 to 37.6); b = 4.6 ± 0.44 (4 to 5.1); b΄ = 3.3 ± 0.3 (2.7 to 3.7), c = 8.0 ± 1 (6.2 to 10.3), ć = 5.3 ± 0.8 (3.5 to 6.3); Stylet = 12

  19. Carrot (Daucus sativus Röhl.) colonization by Alternaria spp. and effect of fungicide spray on their population

    OpenAIRE

    Survilienė, Elena; Valiuškaitė, Alma

    2006-01-01

    In 2003–2005, at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture research was carried out to establish Alternaria dauci incidence in carrots (Daucus sativus Röhl.) during vegetation, and root damage by Alternaria radicina during storage. Resistance of 21 carrot cultivars to alternaria leaf blight (A. dauci) was established in natural infection conditions. In stored roots black rot (A. radicina) made up to 12% of all identified rots. The biological efficiency of fungicides Amistar 250 SC (azoxystrobi...

  20. The presence of Alternaria spp. on the seed of Apiaceae plants and their influence on seed emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Bulajić Aleksandra; Đekić Ivana; Lakić Nada; Krstić Branka

    2009-01-01

    Considerable damping-off of the seedlings of several commercial Apiaceae plant species was observed in Serbia. The infection of a total of 48 seed samples of nine vegetable and spice plants with phytopathogenic Alternaria spp. was established using the deep-freeze-blotter method. Identification of Alternaria species was performed using both conventional methods and PCR. Four different plant-pathogenic Alternaria species were detected in Serbia: A. dauci, A. radicina, A. petroselini, and A. al...

  1. Isotope fractionation of selenium during fungal biomethylation by Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Kathrin; Johnson, Thomas M; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    The natural abundance of stable Se isotopes may reflect sources and formation conditions of methylated Se. We aimed at (1) quantifying the degree of methylation of selenate [Se(VI)] and (hydro)selenite [Se(IV)] by the fungus Alternaria alternata at pH 4 and 7 and (2) determining the effects of these different Se sources and pH values on 82Se/76Se ratios (δ82/76Se) in methylselenides. Alternaria alternata was incubated with Se(VI) and Se(IV) in closed microcosms for 11-15 days and additionally with Se(IV) for 3-5 days at 30 °C. We determined Se concentrations and δ82/76Se values in source Se(VI) and Se(IV), media, fungi, and trapped methylselenides. In Se(VI) incubations, methylselenide volatilization ended before the 11th day, and the amounts of trapped methylselenide were not significantly different among the 11-15 day incubations. In 11-15 days, 2.9-11% of Se(VI) and 21-29% of Se(IV) were methylated, and in 3-5 days, 3-5% of Se(IV) was methylated. The initial δ82/76Se values of Se(VI) and Se(IV) were -0.69±SD 0.07‰, and -0.20±0.05‰, respectively. The δ82/76Se values of methylselenides differed significantly between Se(VI) (-3.97‰ to -3.25‰) and Se(IV) (-1.44‰ to -0.16‰) as sources after 11-15 days of incubation; pH had little influence on δ82/76Se values. Thus, the δ82/76Se values of methylselenide indicate the source species of methylselenides used in this study. The strong isotope fractionation of Se(VI) is probably attributable to the different reduction steps of Se(VI) to Se(-II) which were rate-limiting explaining the low methylation yields, but not to the methylation itself. The shorter incubation of Se(IV) for 3-5 days showed a large Se isotope fractionation of at least -6‰ before the biomethylation reaction reached its end. This initial Se isotope fractionation during methylation of Se(IV) is much larger than previously published. PMID:21366259

  2. Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-03-16

    Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. PMID:25560914

  3. The Aenictus ceylonicus species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Aenictinae from Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeyawat Jaitrong Jaitrong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aenictus is a diverse group of army ants in the Old World tropics and subtropics. The Southeast Asian species of the Aenictus ceylonicus group are revised to include twenty-three species (4 named and 19 new species: Aenictus appressipilosus sp. n., A. baliensis sp. n., A. brevipodus sp. n., A. concavus sp. n., A. cylindripetiolus sp. n., A. eguchii sp. n., A. formosensis Forel, 1913 stat. n., A. fuchuanensis Zhou, 2001, A. gonioccipus sp. n., A. itoi sp. n., A. jawadwipa sp. n., A. khaoyaiensis sp. n., A. lifuiae Terayama, 1984, A. longicephalus sp. n., A. maneerati sp. n., A. minipetiolus sp. n., A. pilosus sp. n., A. pinkaewi sp. n., A. sundalandensis sp. n., A. thailandianus Terayama & Kubota, 1993, A. watanasiti sp. n., A. wilaiae sp. n., and A. wiwatwitayai sp. n. Aenictus ceylonicus var. formosensis Forel is removed from synonymy with A. ceylonicus and raised to full species. Lectotype and paralectotypes are designated for A. ceylonicus. Redescriptions of Aenictus ceylonicus (Mayr, 1866 (India and Sri Lanka and A. doryloides Wilson, 1964 (India are provided. The queen of A. cylindripetiolus is described. A key to the Southeast Asian species of the group is given based on the worker caste. Most of the Southeast Asian species of this species group have more or less limited distribution ranges. This may be due to the poor dispersal ability generally seen among the Aenictus species, in which the propagule (reproductive unit is an apterous queen plus accompanying workers.

  4. Taxonomy and species-groups of the subgenus Crematogaster ( Orthocrema) in the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaimer, Bonnie B

    2012-01-01

    The species-level taxonomy of the subgenus Crematogaster (Orthocrema) in the Malagasy region is evaluated with both morphological data from worker and queen ants, and genetic data from three nuclear markers (long wavelength rhodopsin, arginine kinase and carbamoylphosphate synthase). These two types of data support the existence of six Orthocrema species: Crematogaster madecassa Emery, Crematogaster rasoherinae Forel, Crematogaster telolafysp. n., Crematogaster razanasp. n., Crematogaster volamenasp. n. and Crematogaster mpanjonosp. n.. Two new synonyms of Crematogaster rasoherinae Forel are recognized, Crematogaster rasoherinae brunneola Emery, syn.n. and Crematogaster voeltzkowi Forel, syn. n., as these were not supported as distinct taxa by the data. A neotype is designated for Crematogaster rasoherinae; lectotypes are designated for Crematogaster madecassa, Crematogaster rasoherinae brunneola and Crematogaster voeltzkowi. Species descriptions, images, distribution maps and identification keys based on worker and queen ants are given for all six species. A diagnosis of the subgenus Orthocrema in the Malagasy region is presented for both workers and queens. Within the Malagasy Orthocrema, three distinct phylogenetic lineages are suggested by molecular and morphological data. Newly defined monophyletic species-groups are thus the Crematogaster madecassa-group (Crematogaster madecassa, Crematogaster telolafy and Crematogaster razana) and the Crematogaster volamena-group (Crematogaster volamena and Crematogaster mpanjono); Crematogaster rasoherinae represents an isolated lineage in the Malagasy region and its closest relatives remain unclear. Other interesting biological findings are the presence of an intermediate caste between workers and queens in Crematogaster rasoherinae and Crematogaster madecassa, and unusually large workers in Crematogaster volamena resembling a major caste. PMID:22711995

  5. Kinetic Behaviour of the Aggregation-Annihilation Process of Two-Species-Group System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhen-Quan; KE Jian-Hong; WANG Xiang-Hong

    2003-01-01

    The kinetic behavior of an aggregation-annihilation system with two species groups is studied in this paper.We propose that an aggregation reaction occurs only between the same species and an irreversible joint annihilation reaction occurs only between the two species belonging to distinct groups. Based on the mean-field theory, we investigate the rate equations of the process with constant reaction rates and obtain the asymptotic descriptions of the cluster-mass distributions for the symmetrical cases. We find that the cluster-mass distribution of each species obeys a standard scaling description in certain cases. Meanwhile, breakdown of the standard scaling description is also found for the distribution in some special cases and the cluster-mass distribution comes in a peculiar scaling regime. The evolutionbehaviour of the system depends crucially on the reaction rates and the ratio of initial concentrations between the two groups. Moreover, the species numbers of the two groups also play important roles in the properties of the cluster distributions.

  6. Evaluation of Alternaria mycotoxins in strawberries: quantification and storage condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Cristina; Oueslati, Souheib; Mañes, Jordi

    2016-05-01

    Alternariol (AOH), alternariol methyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) are Alternaria mycotoxins produced by the most common post-harvest pathogens of fruits. The production of these metabolites depends on several environmental factors, mainly temperature, water activity, pH and the technological treatments that have been applied to the product. In this study, the occurrence of AOH, AME and TEN was evaluated in strawberries samples stored at different temperatures ranges (at 22 ± 2 or 6 ± 2°C) and different periods (up to 1 month) simulating the current practice of consumer's storage conditions. Sample extraction was performed using a liquid-liquid extraction method prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. AOH was the most prevalent mycotoxins with a 42% at strawberries stored at (22 ± 2)°C and 37% stored at (6 ± 2)°C. The highest AOH levels were found in samples conserved at (22 ± 2)°C ranging between 26 and 752 ng g(-1). AME levels ranged between 11 and 137 ng g(-)(1), which were found mainly in stored samples at (6 ± 2)°C for more than 28 days. None sample presented levels of TEN in either of the studied conditions. PMID:27103180

  7. Isolation and characterization of the grain mold fungi, Cochliobolus and Alternaria spp., from sorghum using semi-selective media and DNA sequence analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold diseases, caused by fungal complexes including Alternaria, Cochliobolus and Fusarium species, limit sorghum grain production. Media were tested by plating Fusarium thapsinum, Alternaria sp. and Curvularia lunata, individually and competitively. Dichloran chloramphenicol rose bengal (DRBC) and m...

  8. Taxonomy and species-groups of the subgenus Crematogaster (Orthocrema in the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Blaimer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The species-level taxonomy of the subgenus Crematogaster (Orthocrema in the Malagasy region is evaluated with both morphological data from worker and queen ants, and genetic data from three nuclear markers (long wavelength rhodopsin, arginine kinase and carbamoylphosphate synthase. These two types of data support the existence of six Orthocrema species: Crematogaster madecassa Emery, C. rasoherinae Forel, C. telolafy sp. n., C. razana sp. n., C. volamena sp. n. and C. mpanjono sp. n.. Two new synonyms of C. rasoherinae Forel are recognized, C. rasoherinae brunneola Emery, syn. n. and C. voeltzkowi Forel, syn. n., as these were not supported as distinct taxa by the data. A neotype is designated for C. rasoherinae; lectotypes are designated for C. madecassa, C. rasoherinae brunneola and C. voeltzkowi. Species descriptions, images, distribution maps and identification keys based on worker and queen ants are given for all six species. A diagnosis of the subgenus Orthocrema in the Malagasy region is presented for both workers and queens. Within the Malagasy Orthocrema, three distinct phylogenetic lineages are suggested by molecular and morphological data. Newly defined monophyletic species-groups are thus the C. madecassa-group (C. madecassa, C. telolafy and C. razana and the C. volamena-group (C. volamena and C. mpanjono; C. rasoherinae represents an isolated lineage in the Malagasy region and its closest relatives remain unclear. Other interesting biological findings are the presence of an intermediate caste between workers and queens in C. rasoherinae and C. madecassa, and unusually large workers in C. volamena resembling a major caste.

  9. The Dolichopus plumipes species group (Diptera, Dolichopodidae in the Palaearctic Region with the description of a new species from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Khaghaninia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dolichopus plumipes species group in the Palaearctic Region is redefined. It comprises eleven species including one new species, Dolichopus malekii sp. nov., from the East Azerbaijan province in north-western Iran. The species group is differentiated from other Dolichopus by the modified male mid tibia and/or mid basitarsus (except D. simplex. The mid tibia is often thin, having a longitudinal narrow dark streak (D. plumipes or clear whitish yellow dorsal area in distal third, rarely simple or inconspicuously modified (D. discifer. Mid basitarsus is pennate or bearing elongate setae or simple. Other tarsomeres are usually simple (except D. discifer. A revised key to the species group is provided, as well as remarks on its geographical distribution.

  10. Mutations at the Asc locus of tomato confer resistance to the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biezen, E.A. van der; Nijkamp, H.J.J.; Hille, J.

    1996-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici produces host-selective AAL-toxins that cause Alternaria stem canker in tomato. Susceptibility to the disease is based on the relative sensitivity of the host to the AAL-toxins and is controlled by the Asc locus on chromosome 3L. Chemical m

  11. Molecular genetic characterisation of the Asc locus of tomato conferring resistance to the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biezen, E.A. van der; Overduin, B.; Kneppers, T.J.A.; Mesbah, L.A.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.; Hille, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato is caused by the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici and its host-selective AAL-toxins. Resistance to the pathogen and insensitivity to the toxins are conferred by the Asc locus on chromosome 3L. Sensitivity to AAL-toxins is a relative

  12. The presence of Alternaria spp. on the seed of Apiaceae plants and their influence on seed emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulajić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable damping-off of the seedlings of several commercial Apiaceae plant species was observed in Serbia. The infection of a total of 48 seed samples of nine vegetable and spice plants with phytopathogenic Alternaria spp. was established using the deep-freeze-blotter method. Identification of Alternaria species was performed using both conventional methods and PCR. Four different plant-pathogenic Alternaria species were detected in Serbia: A. dauci, A. radicina, A. petroselini, and A. alternata, all of which caused reduction of carrot, parsley, parsnip, and celery seed emergence. Alternaria dauci, A. radicina, and A. petroselini were relatively more aggressive compared to A. alternata. Substantial seed infection levels and strong influence of Alternaria spp. on seed emergence indicated that production of Apiaceae seed needs to be improved in order to obtain pathogen-free seed.

  13. Determination of mycotoxin profiles characteristic of Alternaria strains isolated from Malbec grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Trinidad Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world grape production has increased, reaching 751 million quintals (Mql in 2013. Many Alternaria species have been studied for their ability to produce secondary metabolites in foods, some of which have toxic properties with tenu- azonic acid (TA, alternariol (AOH, alternariol methyl ether (AME being the most important ones. The aim was to determine the characteristic mycotoxin production profiles of Alternaria strains isolated from Malbec grapes in the Patagonian region of Argentina. Fifty Alternaria isolates (5 A. alternata, 5 A. arborescens and 40 A. tenuissima were analyzed for the produc- tion of mycotoxins (TA, AOH and AME in autoclaved rice media by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. All isolates were found to be producers of mycotoxins; the 100% was producer of TA (0.016–21.031 mg/kg, 98% produced AOH (0.003–0.057 mg/kg and 36% produced AME (0.001–0.133 mg/kg. Thirty-three isolates co-produced the three mycotoxins. In this study, it was demonstrated a high toxigenic potential of Alternaria isolates. Although Alternaria growth on grapes has been amply demonstrated, there are few studies about the incidence their more characteristic mycotoxin sand their toxicogenic capac- ity determination in grapes, wines and derivatives. In addition, mycotoxins studied in this work are not regulated in oenology. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to assess the health risk due to the presence of Alternaria toxins in grapes, wine, grape juice and raisins.

  14. Assessment of Safety and Therapeutic Efficacy of Rosa damascena L. and Quercus infectoria on Cardiovascular Performance of Normal and Hyperlipidemic Rabbits: Physiologically Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Siyavash Joukar; Masoumeh Askarzadeh; Beydolah Shahouzehi; Hamid Najafipour; Hossein Fathpour

    2013-01-01

    According to the use of Quercus infectoria (QI) and Rosa damascena L. (RD) for therapeutic purposes and lack of adequate information about their cardiovascular effects, we investigated the cardiovascular indices of rabbits which chronically pretreated with these agents. Animal groups were control group (CTL), RD and QI groups with normal chow plus 1.5 g RD and QI extracts, respectively, in each kg of the diet for 45 days; Hyperlipidemic (H) group received high-fat diet for 45 days; H+RD and H...

  15. Genetic variability of brazilian Alternaria spp. isolates as revealed by RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigano Myrian Silvana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of 22 isolates of the fungi Alternaria alternata and A. cassiae, obtained from Senna obtusifolia, was studied by RAPD analysis. A total of 491 scorable bands were produced with the use of 28 primers. Cluster analysis based on similarities computed from RAPD markers showed two distinct genetic groups of isolates related to both species. RAPD analysis proved to be an efficient method for detecting genetic variability of A. cassiae and A. alternata isolates occurring in S. obtusifolia, and also for distinguishing Alternaria species.

  16. Genetics of alternaria leaf blight resistance in Indian mustard [Brassica Juncea (L. Czern & Coss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chaurasia and Ram Bhajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance of Alternaria leaf blight disease in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss was carried-out using generation mean analysis. Results based on generation mean analysis of per cent disease index (PDI showed significant estimates of additive [d] and dominance [h] effects as well as all the three types of epistasis in all the three crosses. The opposite signs of [h] and [l] indicated that duplicate epistasis was operative in the inheritance of Alternaria leaf blight in the material studied.

  17. Asthma-associated allergen Alternaria induces STAT6 dependent epithelial FIZZ1 that promotes airway fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Khorram, Naseem Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Alternaria is a fungal allergen whereby sensitization to it serves as a risk factor for the development, persistence, and severity of asthma. Naïve WT C57/B6 mice received one intranasal challenge with Alternaria, Candida, or Aspergillus allergen extracts and airway eosinophil numbers analyzed 24 hours later. RNA from airway epithelial cells was processed for gene microarray analysis. Lung cells from naïve WT and collagen-1 GFP mice were incubated with rFIZZ1, stained for cell type, and analy...

  18. Alternaria toxins in wheat from the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia: a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić Hajnal, Elizabet; Orčić, Dejan; Torbica, Aleksandra; Kos, Jovana; Mastilović, Jasna; Škrinjar, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Although Fusarium species remain a main source of mycotoxin contamination of wheat, in recent years, due to the evident climatic changes, other mycotoxigenic fungi have been recognised as important wheat contaminants. Alternaria species, especially A. alternata, have been found as contaminants of wheat as well as wheat-based products. Under favourable conditions A. alternata very often produce alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA) and others Alternaria toxins. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of three Alternaria toxins (AOH, AME and TeA) in wheat samples harvested during three years (2011-13). To this end, 92 samples were collected during wheat harvesting from different growing regions of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, which represents the most important wheat-growing area in Serbia. The presence of Alternaria toxins was analysed by HPLC with electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Among all the analysed wheat samples, 63 (68.5%) were contaminated with TeA, 11 (12.0%) with AOH and 6 (6.5%) with AME. Furthermore, the maximum and mean toxin concentrations were 2676 and 92.4 µg kg(-1), 48.9 and 18.6 µg kg(-1), and 70.2 and 39.0 µg kg(-1) for TeA, AOH and AME, respectively. Co-occurrence of three Alternaria toxins in wheat samples was detected in six samples; a combination of two toxins was found in two samples; and 64 samples contained one toxin. The results showed that among 92 analysed wheat samples, only 20 (21.7%) samples were without Alternaria toxins. The presence of Alternaria toxins was also investigated in terms of weather conditions recorded during the period of investigation, as well as with the sampling region. This study represents the first preliminary report of the natural occurrence of Alternaria toxins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) from Serbia. PMID:25585540

  19. Proteome Analysis of Pathogen-Responsive Proteins from Apple Leaves Induced by the Alternaria Blotch Alternaria alternata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-xia Zhang

    Full Text Available Understanding the defence mechanisms used by apple leaves against Alternaria alternate pathogen infection is important for breeding purposes. To investigate the ultrastructural differences between leaf tissues of susceptible and resistant seedlings, in vitro inoculation assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis were conducted with two different inoculation assays. The results indicated that the resistant leaves may have certain antifungal activity against A. alternate that is lacking in susceptible leaves. To elucidate the two different host responses to A. alternate infection in apples, the proteomes of susceptible and resistant apple leaves that had or had not been infected with pathogen were characterised using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. MS identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in two different inoculation assays. The known proteins were categorised into 5 classes, among these proteins, some pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and mal d1, were identified in susceptible and resistant hosts and were associated with disease resistance of the apple host. In addition, the different levels of mal d1 in susceptible and resistant hosts may contribute to the outstanding anti-disease properties of resistant leaves against A. alternate. Taken together, the resistance mechanisms of the apple host against A. alternate may be a result of the PR proteins and other defence-related proteins. Given the complexity of the biology involved in the interaction between apple leaves and the A. alternate pathogen, further investigation will yield more valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of suppression of the A. alternate pathogen. Overall, we outline several novel insights into the response of apple leaves to pathogen attacks. These

  20. Phylogenetic relationships in the "grossulariae" species group of the genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae): Molecular evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcinaviciene, Jorga; Rakauskas, Rimantas; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2006-01-01

    two data sets; nodes with strong bootstrap support from one analysis never contradicted those strongly supported by the other analysis. Palaearctic species of the subgenus Bursaphis (= "grossulariae" species group of the genus Aphis) form a monophyletic group within the genus Aphis. All these analyses...

  1. Potential of Aqueous and Alcohol Extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium as Antimicrobials and Curing of Antibiotic Resistance in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Kamal Khder

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty two clinical isolates were collected from Sulaymani hospitals. The isolates show resistance to more than five antibiotics. The ethanol extracts of Quercus infectoria, Linusm usitatissium and Cinnamomum zeylanicium were proved to be the most powerful against E. coli E45 and E62 isolates, than aqueous extracts. The extracts exhibited most of the antibiotics activity against these two isolates irrespective of their antibiotic resistance behaviour. A comparative evaluation of plasmid elimination from E. coli E62 clinical isolate by sub-MIC of plant extracts showed that these extracts could cure plasmids effectively at their respective sub-MIC concentration. Maximum plasmid cured was observed by sub-MIC of ethanol extract of C. zeylanicum at 1100 :g/mL cured two plasmids 15 and 45 kb, followed by sub-MIC of L. usitatissimus extract at 1100 :g/mL was cured 45 kb plasmid and sub-MIC of aqueous and ethanol of Q. infectoria were cured 15 kb plasmid from E62 isolate. Curing of plasmid DNA from E. coli isolate confirmed by determining the loss of resistance markers in cured cultures.

  2. Effectiveness of selected preparations used in the fight against alternaria blight and late blight on potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Maciejewski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In experiments carried out in 2007-2008 the effect was explored of performance of preparations Gwarant 500 SC and Bravo 500 SC in alternaria blight and potato late blight. Both tested formulations limited the illnesses and had no significant effect on the tuber yield obtained, its structure and content of starch.

  3. Effect of Alternaria solani exudates on resistant and susceptible potato cultivars from two different pathogen isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resistance phenotypes of two potato cultivars to two isolates of Alternaria solani, causal agent of early blight, were studied under greenhouse conditions. The two isolates contain varying degrees of aggressiveness on both susceptible and resistant phenotypes of potatoes. A bioassay was used to ...

  4. Stability of Sweet Potato Cultivars to Alternaria Leaf and Stem Blight Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight is an economically important disease of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus L) in tropical and sub-tropical environments. Published research on cultivar resistance to the sweet potato disease is limited. To evaluate cultivar reaction and stability to the disease, mu...

  5. Biochemical Evaluation of Resistance Responses of Potato to Different Isolates of Alternaria Solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resistance phenotypes of nine potato cultivars to five isolates of Alternaria solani, causal agent of early blight, were studied after inoculation and growth under greenhouse conditions. We identified potato cultivars with both susceptible and resistant phenotypes as well as A. solani isolates ...

  6. Potato carrot agar with manganese as an isolation medium for Alternaria, Epicoccum and Phoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Thrane, Ulf;

    2009-01-01

    A semi-selective medium for isolation of Alternaria spp., Epicoccum sp. and Phoma spp. from soil and plant samples was developed. The basal medium was a modified potato carrot agar (PCA), containing 10 g/L of potato and carrot. It is known that the target genera sporulate well on standard PCA when...

  7. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...

  8. Eficiência e custo do controle químico da mancha de alternaria em tangor murcote Efficiency and cost of chemical control of alternaria brown spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimara Bentivoglio Colturato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A mancha de alternaria, causada por Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri, afeta tangelos Minneola, tangerinas Dancy, tangores Murcote e, menos freqüentemente, tangelos Orlando, tangerinas Novas, Lees e Sunburst. Esta doença causa desfolha grave, queda de frutos e manchas nas frutas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer o melhor fungicida e a melhor dose para o controle da mancha marrom de alternaria. O delineamento experimental foi de parcelas subdivididas em blocos, com 10 tratamentos principais e 3 doses (subparcelas, com 5 repetições. Foram feitas 5 aplicações, com intervalo de 15 dias. Os tratamentos foram: azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole (2 aplicações seguido de 3 aplicações de mancozeb, difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin + propiconazole, iprodione, trifloxystrobin + propineb (2 aplicações seguido de 3 aplicações de oxicloreto de cobre, oxicloreto de cobre + óleo e testemunha. Simultaneamente foram feitas avaliações de incidência e número de lesões por folha. Ao surgimento dos frutos foram avaliadas a incidência em frutos e a produtividade em Kg/ha. Todos os tratamentos foram superiores à testemunha quanto a produtividade. Entre os produtos utilizados o tratamento com trifloxystrobin + propiconazole foi rentável comparando-se custo e produtividade.Alternaria brown spot, caused by Alternaria alternata sp. citri, attacks with more intensity the Tangelos Minneola, tangerine Dancy, and Murcotts, and with less intensity the tangelos Orlando and the tangerinas Novas, Lees and Sunburst. This disease causes severe defoliation and drop or necrotic spots in the fruits. The aim of this work was to evaluated the chemical control of brown spot, and to define the most appropriate dosage of fungicide to control it. The experimental design was split-spot, with ten treatments and 3 doses of fungicides, with five replicates, the fungicides were: azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin

  9. Artificial neural network models of relationships between Alternaria spores and meteorological factors in Szczecin (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2008-11-01

    Alternaria is an airborne fungal spore type known to trigger respiratory allergy symptoms in sensitive patients. Aiming to reduce the risk for allergic individuals, we constructed predictive models for the fungal spore circulation in Szczecin, Poland. Monthly forecasting models were developed for the airborne spore concentrations of Alternaria, which is one of the most abundant fungal taxa in the area. Aerobiological sampling was conducted over 2004-2007, using a Lanzoni trap. Simultaneously, the following meteorological parameters were recorded: daily level of precipitation; maximum and average wind speed; relative humidity; and maximum, minimum, average, and dew point temperature. The original factors as well as with lags (up to 3 days) were used as the explaining variables. Due to non-linearity and non-normality of the data set, the modelling technique applied was the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The final model was a split model with classification (spore presence or absence) followed by regression for spore seasons and log(x+1) transformed Alternaria spore concentration. All variables except maximum wind speed and precipitation were important factors in the overall classification model. In the regression model for spore seasons, close relationships were noted between Alternaria spore concentration and average and maximum temperature (on the same day and 3 days previously), humidity (with lag 1) and maximum wind speed 2 days previously. The most important variable was humidity recorded on the same day. Our study illustrates a novel approach to modelling of time series with short spore seasons, and indicates that the ANN method provides the possibility of forecasting Alternaria spore concentration with high accuracy.

  10. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3rd palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  11. Pterygosomatid mites of a new species group ligare (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae: Pterygosoma) parasitizing tree iguanas (Squamata: Liolaemidae: Liolaemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfer, Monika; González Acuña, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A new species group, ligare, is established within the subgenus Pterygosoma (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae: Pterygosoma) based on an analysis of female morphology. This group includes 6 newly described species--all from Liolaemus spp. (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from Chile: P. ligare sp. nov., P. formosus sp. nov., P. ovata sp. nov., and P. levissima sp. nov. from Liolaemuspictus; P chilensis sp. nov. from L. chilensis, and P. cyanogasteri sp. nov. from L. cyanogaster. The ligare species group differs from other mites of the subgenus Pterygosoma by the presence of the movable cheliceral digit without a basal spur, solenidion Ω of the palp tarsus, anterior mid-dorsal setae, large number of setae (about 200-300 pairs) on the lateral and the posterior parts of the idiosomal dorsum and the lateral parts of the idiosomal venter, by the idiosomal hypertrichy of ventro-median setae vm, setae 3a located outside of coxal fields II, the absence of setae 4b, the presence of paired setae tc and vs on tarsi III-IV, 5 setae on tibiae II-IV, 4 or 5 setae on genua I, II, 3 setae on genua III-IV, 5 setae on femur I, 5 or 4 setae on femur II and 3 setae on femur III. A key to females of the new species group is provided. Pterygosoma patagonica Dittmar de la Cruz, Morando and Avila, 2004 insufficiently described but showing most characterisitcs of ligare group is considered as nomen dubium. PMID:26185849

  12. Vocal repertory of Scinax littoreus (Anura: Hylidae with comments on the advertisement call of the Scinax perpusillus species group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pontes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Scinax perpusillus species group consists of thirteen bromeligenous treefrogs, of which only six have had their acoustic parameters appropriately described. In this work, we present the vocal repertory of Scinax littoreus (Peixoto, 1988 based on recordings obtained from three different populations in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Based on our observations we suggest that the vocal repertory of S. littoreus is composed of two distinct types of calls. The call named type A, which corresponds to a long series of multipulsed notes, is likely to have a mating function. This type of call is similar to that reported for Scinax arduous Peixoto, 2002, Scinax peixotoi Brasileiro, Haddad, Sawaya & Martins, 2007, and Scinax perpusillus (Lutz & Lutz, 1939. However, the type A call of S. littoreus is nonetheless readily distinguishable from the comparable call observed in other congeneric species. The call named type B, which exhibits a multipulsed structure, presumably has an aggressive function. We observed that different types of calls could be emitted alone or combined according to the social context. Additionally, we discuss problems involving comparisons of call parameters among species belonging to the S. perpusillus species group, provide an updated geographic distribution map, discuss the conservation status of the included species, and emphasize the importance of acoustic data for the recognition of species groups within Scinax.

  13. A new species of the Rhinella margaritifera species group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the montane forest of the Selva Central, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Jiří; Lehr, Edgar; Cusi, Juan Carlos; Córdova, Jesús H; Gvoždík, Václav

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru). The new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confirmed by mtDNA data) and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5-65.5 mm, n = 5), moderately developed cranial crests, absence of neural crest of vertebrae, absence of bone protrusion at angle of jaw, presence of lateral rows of enlarged tubercles, and absence of subgular vocal sac and vocal slits in males. In addition, based on the molecular phylogenetic analyses of selected Rhinella species we propose the monophylum containing R. chavin, R. festae, R. macrorhina, R. manu, R. nesiotes, R. rostrata, and R. yanachaga as a new species group under the name Rhinella festae species group. PMID:24493953

  14. Effects of simulated rainfall on disease development and weed control of the bioherbicidal fungi Alternaria cassiae and Colletotrichum truncatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria cassiae and Colletotrichum truncatum are virulent pathogens of sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia), and hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), respectively, under favorable environmental conditions. In greenhouse experiments, the effects of simulated rainfall on pathogenesis and mortality of these ...

  15. In vitro mutagenesis for Alternaria resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to find out the possibility of inducing variability for Alternaria leaf spot resistance in sunflower variety Morden through in vitro mutagenesis. The explant of Morden variety was subjected to callus induction. The callus was treated with appropriate chemical mutagen viz., EMS with concentration of 0.1%,0.2% and 0.3% and also with Alternaria toxin/culture filtrate concentration of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5%. The resistant calli would be regenerated. Virulent Alternaria helianthi sunflower pathotype toxin was used. In the present study, between the two auxins, NAA was observed as a potent auxin in enhancing the embryogenic callus induction (48.0 %). An enhanced callusing (82.1%) was observed in MS + B5 vitamins medium supplemented with NAA (1.5 mg/l) and BAP (1.0 mg/l). A week old embryogenic calli from MS + B5 vitamin + NAA (1.5 mg/l + BAP (1.0 mg/l), when cultured in BAP (1, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l) containing MS + B5 vitamins medium showed greening response. Embryogenic calli turned greening / greening and browning when BAP was replaced by kinetin (1, 1.5 and 2.00 mg/l) containing MS + B5 vitamins. When Alternaria toxin was inoculated browning and blackening response of callus was observed irrespective of media composition and % concentration of EMS. In concluding, the mutated embryogenic calli with greening response when cultured with different concentration of Alternaria toxin for the combinations MS + B5 1.0 mg/l, MS + B5 + Kn 1.0 mg/l and MS + B5 1.0 mg/l + Kn 1.0 mg/l with 0.1% concentration of EMS produce no callus regeneration. This might be due to the fact that mutated embryogenic calli did not produce any virulent genetic modification for Alternaria resistance. (author)

  16. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina on carrot seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, E.; Schmitt, A.; Stephan, D; Kromphardt, C.; Jahn, M; Krauthausen, H.J.; G Forsberg; Werner, S.; Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; TINIVELLA, F; Gullino, M.L.; Roberts, S. J.; Wolf, de, H.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The current study was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and agents of natural origin (resistance inducers, plant derived products, micro-organisms) as seed treatments of carrots for control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina. Control of both Alternaria species by seed treatment with the resistance inducers was generally poor. Results were also not satisfactory with most of the formulated commercial micro-organism preparation...

  17. EVALUATION OF DISEASE RESISTANCE POTENTIAL OF SEVEN POTATO GENOTYPES AGAINST EARLY BLIGHT CAUSED BY Alternaria tenuissima UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Mirkarimi; Ahmad Abasi Moghadam; Javad Mozafari

    2013-01-01

    Early blight of potato was caused by various species of genus Alternaria, the disease has a prominent role in reducing crop yields in most of the countries, especially in Iran. Various studies has been conducted for the finding out the information regarding the diversity of pathogen and estimation of damage caused by genus Alternaria tenuissima in Iran, but the information regarding the resistance against this fungal pathogen in various genotype of potatoes are in scarcity. Seven isolat...

  18. Characterization of a novel single-stranded RNA virus, closely related to fusariviruses, infecting the plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie; Shang, Hong Hong; Zhu, Chuan Xia; Zhu, Jun Zi; Zhu, Hong Jian; Hu, Yan; Gao, Bi Da

    2016-06-01

    The alternaria blackspot of rapeseed is one of the most prominent diseases of rapeseed. It is caused by three species of the genus Alternaria: Alternaria brassicicola, Alternaria brassicae, and Alternaria raphanin. Here we report a novel positive-sense RNA virus from an A. brassicicola strain 817-14. The virus has a 6639 nucleotide (nt) long genome, excluding a poly (A)-tail, and was predicted to contain three putative open reading frames (ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3). The large ORF1 encoded a 174-kDa polyprotein (composed of 1522 amino acid residues) containing a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain and a helicase domain. The other two smaller ORFs encoded polypeptides with unknown function. Homology search and phylogenetic analysis, based on the RdRp and helicase domains, suggest that this virus is related to and grouped with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum fusarivirus 1 (SsFV1), Rosellinia necatrix fusarivirus 1 (RnFV1), Fusarium graminearum virus-DK21 (FgV1), and Penicillium roqueforti RNA mycovirus 1 (PrRV1), all of which belong to a newly proposed family Fusariviridae. For this study, we designed the virus as "Alternaria brassicicola fusarivirus 1" (AbFV1). Virus elimination revealed that AbFV1 has no conspicuous impact on the biological properties of its host. PMID:26707921

  19. A new species of the Rhinella margaritifera species group (Anura, Bufonidae) from the montane forest of the Selva Central, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Moravec; Edgar Lehr; Juan Carlos Cusi; Jesus Cordova; Vaclav Gvozdik

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru). The new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confirmed by mtDNA data) and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5–65.5 mm, n = 5), mod...

  20. ANTIBIOSE ENTRE O FUNGO ENDOFÍTICO Alternaria sp. E FUNGOS FITOPATOGÊNICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMBELONI, T.G.P.,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle biológico tem sido indicado como uma alternativa desejada no manejo de pragas, sendo estas consideradas como qualquer forma de vida, animal ou vegetal, daninha ou potencialmente daninha. A opção ao seu uso, quando disponível, altera diretamente a utilização e consumo de produtos químicos sintéticos, conhecidos como agrotóxicos ou agroquímicos. Dessa forma, diversas interações entre seres vivos, diferentes ou não, podem proporcionar condições a serem explorados pelo homem em seu benefício, dentre elas a antibiose. Essa relação beneficia um organismo e prejudica o outro e nesse contexto inúmeras espécies de fungos têm sido estudadas como agentes de biocontrole de doenças em diversas culturas agrícolas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção e difusão, em meio de cultura, de substâncias químicas produzidas por 17 isolados do fungo endofítico Alternaria spp. e a antibiose exercida sobre o desenvolvimento de alguns fungos fitopatogênicos. Todas as espécies de Alternaria foram obtidas por isolamento indireto de plantas de restinga e foram testadas contra os fungos Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Chalara paradoxa, Ceratocystis paradoxa e Myrothecium roridum, agentes causais de doenças de plantas e de frutos em pós-colheita. Para tanto, no centro de placas de petri contendo meio de cultura “BDA” foi semeado um disco de 0,5 cm de diâmetro da colônia de Alternaria, devidamente identificada, com sete dias de idade. Após três dias de crescimento, em pontos equidistantes na mesma placa foram semeados quatro discos, sendo um de cada fungo fitopatogênico ao redor da colônia de Alternaria. O tratamento controle foi constituído por dois discos do respectivo isolado de Alternaria pareados na mesma placa, a fim de se verificar a compatibilidade das colônias e o diâmetro máximo de crescimento. Todos os ensaios foram feitos em triplicatas e repetidos no tempo. As avaliações consistiram-se de duas

  1. Chemical and morphological segregation of Alternaria alternata, A-gaisen and A-longipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Krøger, Elisabeth; Roberts, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Correct identification of fungi to species level is important because a specific epithet embodies a set of characters that enables us to predict, for example, the mycotoxin production of a species. Many small-spored Alternaria isolates have been misidentified due to inappropriate growth conditions...... and the use of spore size as the only identifying character. In this study 39 Alternaria isolates were grown under standardised conditions and subjected to chemical, morphological and physiological analyses. All isolates were extracted and analysed by HPLC-DAD. Analysis showed that both A. gaisen and...... A. longipes were able to produce altertoxin I, which has not previously been reported. The resulting metabolite profiles were subjected to cluster analysis and principal component analysis. A subset of the isolates was grown at five different temperatures. Colony colour and diameter were recorded...

  2. Chitinase-mediated inhibitory activity of Brassica transgenic on growth of Alternaria brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Kalyan K; Chatterjee, Subhas Chandra; Viswakarma, Navin; Bhattacharya, Ram Charan; Grover, Anita

    2003-09-01

    Chitinase, capable of degrading the cell walls of invading phytopathogenic fungi, plays an important role in plant defense response, particularly when this enzyme is overexpressed through genetic engineering. In the present study, Brassica plant (Brassica juncea L.) was transformed with chitinase gene tagged with an overexpressing promoter 35 S CaMV. The putative transgenics were assayed for their inhibitory activity against Alternaria brassicae, the inducer of Alternaria leaf spot of Brassica both in vitro and under polyhouse conditions. In in vitro fungal growth inhibition assays, chitinase inhibited the fungal colony size by 12-56% over the non-trangenic control. The bioassay under artificial epiphytotic conditions revealed the delay in the onset of disease as well as reduced lesion number and size in 35S-chitinase Brassica as compared to the untransformed control plants. PMID:14570264

  3. In vitro Susceptibility of Alternaria solani to Several Iranian Soil Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sharifi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. are of the most attractive sources of biologically active compounds. In the recent decades, they have attracted high interests as biocontrol agents. In search of finding such principles, in vitro suppression of Alternaria solani was studied by use of Streptomyces antagonists. A. solani was sensitive to several species mainly Streptomyces plicatus, S. olivaceus and two unidentified actinomycetes. Activity versus time was monitored in S. olivaceus in solid and shaked cultures. Ongoing goals of this research include isolation, characterization and identification of the active metabolites. Future goals include identification of active genes for use in development of recombinant DNAs in transgenic hosts bearing elevated resistance to infections by Alternaria sp.

  4. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-01

    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products. PMID:20687560

  5. IN - VITRO AND GREENHOUSE EVALUATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC POTENTIAL OF FUNGAL ISOLATES Alternaria tenuissima IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkarimi HR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early blight of solanaceae is the most common reported disease in Iran. The disease caused by Alternaria species.Various isolates of Alternaria tenuissima were collected from various locations of the country. The collected Isolates were tested against tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicumL. crops in fields of Khansar Esfehan and National Plant Gene Bank of Iran. For d etermining the pathogenicity, these strains were tested against the genetic samples of Agria (susceptible, Delta (resistant control and Cosmos. Symptoms were recorded in both in vitro and greenhouse conditions. Under in vitro condition genetic samples of Agria and Cosmos shows the pathogenic symptoms second day while the Delta is showing symptoms fifth day after inoculation. The reported symptoms were necrosis, chlorosis and damping. Under greenhouse evaluation, the symptoms became apparent in the genetic Agria fourth day, while in Cosmos at the eighth day and in Delta fourteenth day after inoculation. Finally, morphology and pathogenicity tests, asserted the isolation of pathogenic A. tenuissima.

  6. Sensitivity to Alternaria alternata toxin in citrus because of altered mitochondrial RNA processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtani, Kouhei; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2002-01-01

    Specificity in the interaction between rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) and the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata rough lemon pathotype is determined by a host-selective toxin, ACR-toxin. Mitochondria from rough lemon are sensitive to ACR-toxin whereas mitochondria from resistant plants, including other citrus species, are resistant. We have identified a C. jambhiri mitochondrial DNA sequence, designated ACRS (ACR-toxin sensitivity gene), that confers toxin sensitivity to Escherichia co...

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN-VITRO ANTIFUNGAL INVESTIGATION OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS EXTRACTS AGAINST ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA

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    Singh Padma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of fungicides are polluting the environment and giving rise to undesirable biological effects on animal and human beings. Therefore use of plant extracts as biological control agents is being popularized in recent years. Alternaria alternata is reported for causing foliage disease in several important vegetables and crops. In an approach towards the development of eco friendly antifungal compound for controlling plant diseases caused by Alternaria alternata different extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus were tested for their antifungal potential. Parthenium hysterophorus is considered as an obnoxious weed, growing on waste land. The four different solvent extracts viz., aqueous, methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts of leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus was evaluated from antifungal potential against four different isolates of Alternaria alternata isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum, onion (Allium cepa, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and mustard (Brassica compestris by food poison technique. The ethanolic extract showed complete inhibition against the four isolates i.e. 100 % followed by acetone and methanol extracts which was approximately 96 % and 76 % respectively, while aqueous extract do not showed any antifungal activity. Thus the result showed that the ethanolic extract was the best extract to be used. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, glycoside, steroid, saponin in varying concentration in different extracts which might be the cause of antifungal potential. The present study supports the use of leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus as biofungicides for the disease caused by Alternaria alternata. This will help to save the environment from chemical hazards as most of the synthetic fungicide constitute mercury, zinc etc which are toxic for nature.

  8. Conservation of the genes for HC-toxin biosynthesis in Alternaria jesenskae

    OpenAIRE

    Wight, Wanessa D; Labuda, Roman; Walton, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    Background HC-toxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide, is a virulence determinant for the plant pathogenic fungus Cochliobolus carbonum. It was recently discovered that another fungus, Alternaria jesenskae, also produces HC-toxin. Results The major genes (collectively known as AjTOX2) involved in the biosynthesis of HC-toxin were identified from A. jesenskae by genomic sequencing. The encoded orthologous proteins share 75-85% amino acid identity, and the genes for HC-toxin biosynthesis are duplicated in...

  9. Bostrycin and 4-deoxybostrycin: two nonspecific phytotoxins produced by Alternaria eichhorniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Charudattan, R; Rao, K V

    1982-01-01

    Two crystalline red pigments with phytotoxic activity were isolated from culture filtrates of Alternaria eichhorniae, a pathogen of the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes. The pigments were present in the ratio of 4:1 and were identified as bostrycin and 4-deoxybostrycin, respectively. This is the first isolation of 4-deoxybostrycin from a natural source. Bostrycin, 4-deoxybostrycin, and their isopropylidene derivatives induced necrosis on tested plant leaves comparable to the A. eichhorniae...

  10. INTEGRATED USE OF NEOCHETINA BRUCHI AND ALTERNARIA EICHHORNIAE IN CONTROLLING WATER HYACINTH

    OpenAIRE

    KASNO; HER! S. HANDAYANI; OKKY S. DHARMAPUTRA; ASMARINA S.R. PUTRJ; SUNJAYA

    1999-01-01

    The study on the integrated use of the chevroned water hyacinth weevil (Neochetina bruchi Mustache) and the water hyacinth blight disease (Alternaria eichhorniae Nag Raj & Ponnappa) in s uppressing water hyacinth growth was carried out under field conditions at Situ Bagendit lake, Garut, West Java. The objectives of this study were (I) to inve stigate whether the combined use of the two control agents produced a better effect in suppressing water hyacinth growth, (ii) to evaluate whether t...

  11. Gene cluster involved in melanin biosynthesis of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata.

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kimura; Tsuge,T.

    1993-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata produces melanin, a black pigment, from acetate via 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene. To isolate a fungal gene required for melanin biosynthesis, we transformed an A. alternata Brm1- (light brown) mutant with the DNA of a wild-type strain genomic library constructed by use of a cosmid carrying the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene. When hygromycin B-resistant transformants were screened for melanin production, 1 of 1,363 transformants appeared to regain ...

  12. Comparison of methodologies for conidia production by Alternaria alternata from citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Daniel D. C.; Alves, Eduardo; Batista, Tereza R. S.; Camargos, Renato B.; Eloísa A. G. L. Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Conidia production is a problem in the study of Alternaria alternata from citrus. Thus, this study aimed to compare existing methodologies for conidial production of A. alternata isolated from Ponkan tangerine (2 isolates), Cravo lemon (1 isolate), Pêra orange (2 isolates) and Murcott tangor (1 isolate). The methodologies used were conidia production with 12 and 24 hours under white fluorescent light, evaluation with 24 and 48 hours after applying fungal mycelium stress technique, cold stress...

  13. Effects of meteorological factors on the levels of Alternaria spores on a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuredo, Olga; Seijo, Maria Carmen; Fernández-González, Maria; Iglesias, Isabel

    2011-03-01

    Alternaria solani Soraeur produces early blight in Solanum tuberosum L., leading to significant agricultural losses. The current study was carried out on the extensive potato crop situated in north-western of Spain during 2007, 2008 and 2009. In this area potato crops are the most important source of income. In this work we used a Hirst-type volumetric spore-trap for the aerobiological monitoring of Alternaria spores. The highest spore concentrations were recorded during the 2009 cycle (10,555 spores), and the lowest concentrations were recorded during the 2008 cycle (5,471 spores). Over the 3 years of study, the highest concentrations were registered during the last stage of the crop. The aim of the study was to observe the influence of meteorological factors on the concentration of Alternaria spores, which can lead to serious infection and early blight. Prediction of the stages during which a crop is particularly vulnerable to infection allows for adjustment of the application of fungicide and is of environmental and agricultural importance. For this reason, we tested three models (P-Days, DD and IWP) to predict the first treatment and decrease the negative effect that these spores have on potato crops. The parameter that showed the most significant correlation with spore concentrations was minimum temperature. We used ARIMA (autoregressive integrated model of running mean) time-series models to determine the forecast. We considered weather data as predictor variables and the concentration of spores on the previous day as the fixed variable.

  14. Crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

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    L. Frederiksen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source to airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the source to the overall load is mainly local, but with intermittent Long Distance Transport (LDT from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  15. Crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-06-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source to airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the source to the overall load is mainly local, but with intermittent Long Distance Transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  16. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong; GAO Shushan; LI Xiaoming; LI Chunshun; WANG Bingui

    2013-01-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192,an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa,resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites,including four indole-diterpenoids:penijanthine A (1),paspaline (2),paspalinine (3),and penitrem A (4); three tricycloaltemarene derivatives:tricycloalternarene 3a (5),tricycloaltemarene lb (6),and tricycloalternarene 2b (7); and two altemariol congeners:djalonensone (8) and altemariol (9).The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature.The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum,with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm,respectively,at 100 μ.g/disk.To the best of our knowledge,this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived Alternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus Alternaria.

  17. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingfeng; Yu, Ruiting; Wang, Xiaohan; Mao, Ziling; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75 μg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27 μg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18 μg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17 μg/mL and 74.62 μg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms. PMID:26887231

  18. Human eosinophil innate response to Alternaria fungus through protease-activated receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Wada, Kota; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kita, Hirohito

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. An association between eosinophilic inflammation and infection or colonization by fungi has also been long recognized. However, the mechanisms underlying how eosinophils are activated and how they release proinflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators such as major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin remain largely unknown. We used a fungus, i.e. Alternaria, as a model microbe relevant to human asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the immune recognition of ubiquitous environmental allergens. Human eosinophils are activated by live Alternaria alternata organisms, release their granule proteins, and kill the fungi. Eosinophils, but not neutrophils, respond to secreted products from A. alternata. We found that eosinophils are equipped with innate cellular activation machinery that responds to an extracellular aspartate protease secreted by Alternaria. Aspartate protease activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 probably involves a novel mechanism different from that for serine protease activation of PAR-2. Thus, human eosinophils may recognize certain danger signals or virulence factors produced by fungi and provoke inflammatory responses against these organisms. Dysregulation of such an innate immune mechanism may be involved in the pathophysiology of certain human inflammatory diseases, including asthma and CRS. PMID:21646807

  19. PCR and real-time PCR assays to detect fungi of Alternaria alternata species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordalewska, Milena; Brillowska-Dąbrowska, Anna; Jagielski, Tomasz; Dworecka-Kaszak, Bożena

    2015-01-01

    Fungi of the Alternaria genus are mostly associated with allergic diseases. However, with a growing number of immunocompromised patients, these fungi, with A. alternata being the most prevalent one, are increasingly recognized as etiological agents of infections (phaeohyphomycoses) in humans. Nowadays, identification of Alternaria spp. requires their pure culture and is solely based on morphological criteria. Clinically, Alternaria infections may be indistinguishable from other fungal diseases. Therefore, a diagnostic result is often delayed or even not achieved at all. In this paper we present easy to perform and interpret PCR and real-time PCR assays enabling detection of A. alternata species. On the basis of alignment of β-tubulin gene sequences, A. alternata-specific primers were designed. DNA from fungal isolates, extracted in a two-step procedure, were used in PCR and real-time PCR assays followed by electrophoresis or melting temperature analysis, respectively. The assays specificity was confirmed, since positive results were obtained for all A. alternata isolates, and no positive results were obtained neither for other molds, dermatophytes, yeast-like fungi, nor human DNA. The assays developed here enable fast and unambiguous identification of A. alternata pathogens. PMID:26610309

  20. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

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    Justyna Skóra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test. Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air. The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL. It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein.

  1. Production of the allergenic protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria isolates from working environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  2. Morphological and ultrastructural changes in the cell structure of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 following treatment with Quercus infectoria nut galls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalak, Sakol; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2009-10-01

    Some information is available on the oak (Quercus infectoria) nut gall as an effective medicinal plant against Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7. However, its antibacterial mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In this study, some antibacterial actions against STEC O157:H7 were investigated by observing cell viability as well as morphological and ultrastructural changes. An ethanolic extract of Q. infectoria demonstrated inhibitory and bactericidal effects on all of the strains tested with minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) at 0.78-1.56 mg ml(-1) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) at 1.56-3.12 mg ml(-1). Cell numbers treated with 4MIC of the extract decreased at least two log-fold within 4 h and were completely killed within 12 h. Scanning electron microscopy illustrated a complete loss of surface appendages and pronounced morphological changes at MIC and 2MIC. The whole cell collapsed at 4MIC. Ultrastructural changes from corresponding transmission electron micrographs further verified that damages in the treated cells increased with the increase in the extract concentrations. At MIC (0.78 mg ml(-1)), there was some evidence that the cytoplasmic membranes of the treated E. coli were bulging and/or ruptured, and the cells appeared to be discharging intracellular materials. At 2MIC, the outer membrane of the treated E. coli which was attached to the cell wall became separated from the wall. Disruption in the outer wall and cytoplasmic membranes, especially at the polar regions of the cells occurred and some vacuolization appeared. At 4MIC, the damage to E. coli cells was extensive, and there was loss of their cellular integrity. PMID:19451663

  3. Plant extracts and essential oils on the control of Alternaria alternata , Alternaria dauci and on the germination and emergence of carrot seeds ( Daucus carota L.

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    Cristina Batista de Lima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate garlic, pepper and coriander plant extract as well as neem and orange peel essential oil effective ness to control Alternaria alternata and Alternaria dauci and their efficiency during carrot seeds germination and emergence. A completely randomized design was used in three different experiments. The first experiment evaluated the effect of plant extracts and essential oils on the incidence of A. alternata and A. dauci . It was done by means of a factorial design applied to five treatments (garlic, pepper, coriander, and neem and orange peel essential oils at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30%.They also evaluated the controls untreated and with fungicide (Thiram.The second experiment evaluated the effect of the treatment at30% concentration on the germination and emergence of seedlings assessed on trays, and in the third experiment, the presence of A. alternata and A. dauci on the pericarp, endosperm and on the embryo. A. alternata showed higher incidence than A. dauci. The garlic extract and the orange essential oil showed the potential to control A. dauci and A. alternata, because their lower concentrations were able to sufficiently reduce the incidence of these fungi and because they do not affect carrot seeds germination and emergence. A. alternata conidia were found on the embryo (8%, pericarp (17% and endosperm (31%.

  4. Revision of Campsurus violaceus species group (Ephemeroptera: Polymitarcyidae) with new synonymies and nomina dubia in Campsurus Eaton, 1868.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineri, C; Salles, F F; Emmerich, D

    2015-01-01

    The violaceus species group (formerly notatus species group) of Campsurus Eaton is revised. All the species in the violaceus group are diagnosed. A new species, C. molinai sp. nov. is described based on male imagos from Bolivia, characterized by their large and sclerotized penes. The violaceus group is proposed to include the following species: C. assimilis Traver, C. truncatus Ulmer (=C. mahunkai Puthz = C. melanocephalus Pereira & da Silva, new synonyms), C. violaceus Needham & Murphy (= C. meyeri Navás = C. notatus Needham & Murphy = C. paranensis Navás, new synonyms), C. emersoni Traver, C. decoloratus (Hagen), and C. molinai sp.nov. Additionally we consider the following species as nomina dubia: C. longicauda Navás, C. pfeifferi Navás, C. zikani Navás, C. albicans (orig. Ephemera albicans Percheron in Guerin & Percheron), C. burmeisteri Ulmer, C. dallasi Navás, C. quadridentatus Eaton, C. claudus Needham & Murphy, C. corumbanus Needham & Murphy, C. dorsalis (Burmeister), C. mutilus Needham & Murphy, and C. striatus Needham & Murphy. Given the results presented herein (five species synonymized and 12 proposed as nomina dubia), only 28 valid species remain in the genus Campsurus. Additionally, the nymphal stages of C. violaceus and C. truncatus are described and illustrated. Female adult genitalia (sockets) and eggs of C. decoloratus are described for the first time. Diagnoses, new country records, and redescriptions of selected characters of the imagos for the species of the violaceus group are given. PMID:25781239

  5. FARMERS AWARENESS AND PERCEPTIONS OF ALTERNARIA LEAF PETIOLE AND STEM BLIGHT AND THEIR PREFERRED SWEETPOTATO TRAITS IN UGANDA

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    Godfrey Sseruwu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A participatory rural appraisal was conducted in Kabale district in south-western Uganda and Luwero district in central Uganda to establish farmers’ awareness and perceptions of Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight (commonly referred to as Alternaria blight and their varietal preferences. The study revealed that the two regions had similar production constraints but the degree of importance of the constraints varies between each region. Diseases, pests and drought are the most important production constraints in both regions. Among the diseases, Alternaria blight is the most important disease constraint in Kabale whereas sweetpotato virus disease is the most important in Luwero. Among the pests, caterpillars (Acraea acerata are a bigger problem in Luwero than in Kabale, while vermin, especially mole rats (Tachyoryctes splendens, are a bigger problem in Kabale than in Luwero. Healthy planting material availability and distribution are important constraints. Among the most desired sweetpotato attributes in both districts are high yield, early maturity, high dry mass, and storability in the soil after maturity to enable sequential harvesting. Most of the farmers consider Alternaria blight to be a serious production constraint and estimate the yield loss in severely infected fields to be above 50%. However, Alternaria blight incidence has seasonal variations with higher incidences in the wet and very wet seasons in Kabale. On the other hand, Alternaria blight is most severe during the dry season in Luwero. Most of the farmers are not aware of any control measures for these diseases. However, some of them use rogueing as a control measure and others cultivate resistant genotypes like Rwabafuruki and Nyinakamanzi in Kabale, and Kakamega in Luwero. Since most of the existing genotypes are susceptible, breeding for Alternaria blight is a priority in both districts combined with an effective seed distribution system to increase utilization of the

  6. A review of Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus chalybeatus species group from China, with the description of three new species (Diptera, Chironomidae

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    Wenbin Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus chalybeatus species group from China is reviewed. Three new species, R. (P. brochus sp. n., R. (P. rotundus sp. n. and R. (P. serratus sp. n. are described as adult males. R. (P. imperfectus Makarchenko & Makarchenko, 2005, R. (P. robacki (Beck & Beck, 1964 and R. (P. valgus Chaudhuri & Sinharay, 1983 are recorded from China for the first time and annotated. The diagnosis for the species group is emended and a key to adult males of the species group in China is presented.

  7. A new species of the rodent genus Hylomyscus from Angola, with a distributional summary of the H. anselli species group (Muridae: Murinae: Praomyini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Michael D; Banasiak, Rebecca A; Stanley, William T

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Hylomyscus, H. heinrichorum, is described from mountains in western Angola. Based on morphological traits and cranial morphometry, the new species is assigned to the H. anselli species group and is hypothesized to be most closely related to H. anselli Bishop proper, a species named from Zambia. Members of both the H. anselli and H. denniae species groups occupy the Afromontane Biotic Zone, found in various mountain systems to the south and east of the Congo Basin. Evidence is reviewed that supports the independent radiation of these two species groups within montane forest from different Guineo-Congolian ancestral stocks. PMID:26624655

  8. Genetic divergence within the Drosophila mayaguana subcluster, a closely related triad of Caribbean species in the repleta species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, P M; Durando, C M; Heed, W B; Wasserman, M; Etges, W; Desalle, R

    2002-01-01

    The mayaguana triad of the Drosophila repleta species group includes D. mayaguana, D. straubae, and D. parisiena, the latter two of which are very similar when examined morphologically. Many morphological characters used to define these taxa are quantitative and overlap substantially among some forms--it is only through suites of such characters that species can be identified. We apply Population Aggregation Analysis and tree building methods to five rapidly evolving gene regions--the mitochondrial AT rich region and the nuclear acetylcholinesterase, hunchback, mastermind, and vestigial loci to test the morphological species delineations within the morphocryptic mayaguana triad. We find that D. mayaguana is diagnosable using DNA sequences, but the other two species form a non-diagnosable paraphyletic assemblage. A single ecological factor, oviposition substrate, is an important diagnostic character distinguishing D. straubae from D. parisiena, highlighting the importance of examining a diverse array of data (morphological, molecular, ecological, and behavioral) when defining species limits. PMID:12471672

  9. A new species of Chaetostoma Tschudi (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Colombia with a definition of the C. anale species group

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    Gustavo A. Ballen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaetostoma formosae sp. nov. is described from piedmont tributaries of the upper río Meta on the Cordillera Oriental in Colombia. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the presence of an elongate unbranched anal-fin ray with two posterior dermal ridges in mature males, the presence of strongly recurved cheek odontodes, the presence of a parieto-supraoccipital dermal keel, the posterior margin of the pelvic-fin strongly projected and angulate in shape in mature males, and by details of coloration. The new species belongs to an informal monophyletic group herein called the Chaetostoma anale species group, along with two additional species, C. anale and C. jegui, from Colombia and Brazil respectively, based on an apomorphic modification of the anal fin in mature males.

  10. The Tetramorium tortuosum species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae revisited - taxonomic revision of the Afrotropical T. capillosum species complex

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    Francisco Hita Garcia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we revise the taxonomy of the Tetramorium tortuosum species group members encountered in the Afrotropical region, which we have placed in its own subgroup: the T. capillosum species complex. We re-describe the two previously known species T. capillosum Bolton and T. tabarum Bolton, and describe the new species T. hecate sp. n. The geographic distribution of the three species appears to be restricted to the equatorial rainforests of Central Africa. We provide a diagnosis of the T. capillosum species complex, an illustrated identification key to species level, and worker-based species descriptions, which include diagnoses, discussions, high-quality montage images, and distribution maps. Furthermore, we discuss biogeography and composition of the globally distributed T. tortuosum group.

  11. Living together: behavior and welfare in single and mixed species groups of capuchin (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Rebecca; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Dufour, Valérie; MacDonald, Charlotte; Whiten, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    There are potential advantages of housing primates in mixed species exhibits for both the visiting public and the primates themselves. If the primates naturally associate in the wild, it may be more educational and enjoyable for the public to view. Increases in social complexity and stimulation may be enriching for the primates. However, mixed species exhibits might also create welfare problems such as stress from interspecific aggression. We present data on the behavior of single and mixed species groups of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) housed at the Living Links to Human Evolution Research Centre in the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland's Edinburgh Zoo. These species associate in the wild, gaining foraging benefits and decreased predation. But Cebus are also predators themselves with potential risks for the smaller Saimiri. To study their living together we took scan samples at > or =15 min intervals on single (n=109) and mixed species groups (n=152), and all occurrences of intraspecific aggression and interspecific interactions were recorded. We found no evidence of chronic stress and Saimiri actively chose to associate with Cebus. On 79% of scans, the two species simultaneously occupied the same part of their enclosure. No vertical displacement was observed. Interspecific interactions were common (>2.5/hr), and equally divided among mildly aggressive, neutral, and affiliative interactions such as play. Only one aggressive interaction involved physical contact and was non-injurious. Aggressive interactions were mostly (65%) displacements and vocal exchanges, initiated almost equally by Cebus and Saimiri. Modifications to the enclosure were successful in reducing these mildly aggressive interactions with affiliative interactions increasing in frequency and diversity. Our data suggest that in carefully designed, large enclosures, naturally associating monkeys are able to live harmoniously and are enriched by each other

  12. Hourly predictive artificial neural network and multivariate regression tree models of Alternaria and Cladosporium spore concentrations in Szczecin (Poland)

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    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2009-11-01

    A study was made of the link between time of day, weather variables and the hourly content of certain fungal spores in the atmosphere of the city of Szczecin, Poland, in 2004-2007. Sampling was carried out with a Lanzoni 7-day-recording spore trap. The spores analysed belonged to the taxa Alternaria and Cladosporium. These spores were selected both for their allergenic capacity and for their high level presence in the atmosphere, particularly during summer. Spearman correlation coefficients between spore concentrations, meteorological parameters and time of day showed different indices depending on the taxon being analysed. Relative humidity (RH), air temperature, air pressure and clouds most strongly and significantly influenced the concentration of Alternaria spores. Cladosporium spores correlated less strongly and significantly than Alternaria. Multivariate regression tree analysis revealed that, at air pressures lower than 1,011 hPa the concentration of Alternaria spores was low. Under higher air pressure spore concentrations were higher, particularly when RH was lower than 36.5%. In the case of Cladosporium, under higher air pressure (>1,008 hPa), the spores analysed were more abundant, particularly after 0330 hours. In artificial neural networks, RH, air pressure and air temperature were the most important variables in the model for Alternaria spore concentration. For Cladosporium, clouds, time of day, air pressure, wind speed and dew point temperature were highly significant factors influencing spore concentration. The maximum abundance of Cladosporium spores in air fell between 1200 and 1700 hours.

  13. Técnica de obtenção de filtrado de cultura de Alternaria solani Technique to obtain of Alternaria solani culture filtrate

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    IÁRA V. GOMES-OLIVEIRA

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed to adapt culture filtrates of Alternaria solani to be used in vitro selection of resistant potato. Three isolates of A. solani (I1 and I2 from Eldorado do Sul and Rio Pardo were used. Two liquid media, V8 and Czapek, were used to grow each of the fungal isolate, giving six culture filtrates (I1V8, I2V8, I3V8, I1Cz, I2Cz and I3Cz. Two sterilization forms, Millipore and autoclave were tested. There was no difference in these two sterilization forms. Tissue culture and toxic filtrates of A. solani have a potential to reduce the time in selection of resistant potato.

  14. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

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    Ilenia Siciliano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower. A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  15. Phytotoxic effects of metabolites from Alternaria euphorbiicola against its host plant Euphorbia heterophylla

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    Eduardo Vinícius Vieira Varejão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioassay-guided fractionation of culture filtrates of the fungus Alternaria euphorbiicola, a pathogen of the weed Euphorbia heterophylla, led to the isolation of anhydromevalonolactone (1, tyrosol (2, (R-( - -mevalonolactone (3, and cycloglycylproline (4. When tested on the punctured leaves of the host plant, these compounds produced bleached lesions with dark brown margins at concentrations as low as 80 µM. When tested on the leaves of other relevant weeds, only cycloglycylproline showed selective activity against E. heterophylla. This is the first report on the isolation of phytotoxins from A. euphorbiicola and on the phytotoxicity of anhydromevalonolactone, (R-( - -mevalonolactone, and cycloglycylproline.

  16. Alternaria arborescens infection in a healthy individual and literature review of cutaneous alternariosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenying; Ran, Yuping; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Lama, Jebina; Zhang, Chaoliang

    2015-02-01

    A 28-year-old man presented at our clinic with 1-month history of an ulcer covered with crust on his left anterior tibia. Based on the morphological features and molecular identification, the patient was diagnosed as cutaneous alternariosis caused by Alternaria arborescens. He was successfully cured by oral itraconazole and topical use of 0.25% liposomal amphotericin B. A review of published studies revealed 29 cases of cutaneous alternariosis. Most cases (90%) occurred in immunosuppressed patients; itraconazole (59%) and voriconazole (24%) are the most effective treatments of choices. PMID:25370461

  17. INFLUENCE OF TRICHODERMA SPP AGAINST ALTERNARIA TENUISSIMA INCITING LEAF SPOT OF RUMEX ACETOSA L

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    M. G. Ambuse, V. S. Chatage and U. N. Bhale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spot of Sorrel (Rumex acetosa L. is caused by Alternaria tenuissima. This paper describes the efficacy of Trichoderma spp against sensitive and resistant isolates of A. tenuissima by dual culture method under invitro conditions. Trichoderma viride T. harzianum, T. virens, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii species were used for antagonistic study. Results indicate that all Trichoderma species showed antagonistic activity. But among them, T.viride, T.koningii and T.pseudokoningii showed 80% antagonistic activity than others in case of sensitive isolate of test fungus. Resistant isolate of pathogen was restricting the antagonism in some extent.

  18. 生于菊科植物上的两个链格孢新种%Two new species of Alternaria on plants of Compositae from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张猛; 张天宇

    2006-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Alternaria on plants of Compositae are reported. They are Alternaria tuberculata on Helianthus annuus and Alternaria lactucae on Lactuca sativa. Type specimens are deposited in the Herbarium of Shandong Agricultural University: Plant Pathology (HSAUP).%报道生于菊科植物上的两个链格孢新种:瘤链格孢Alternaria tuberculata和莴苣链格孢Alternaria lactucae.二者分生孢子隔膜均增厚,但瘤链格孢的分生孢子表面具瘤状突起,莴苣链格孢的分生孢子具长的假喙.模式标本保存在山东农业大学植物病理学标本室(HSAUP).

  19. Isozyme variation in four species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidae from the Brazilian Amazon

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    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic studies of isozymes were done with four closely related species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidade in the Brazilian Amazon, using last-instar larvae collected in the field. Ten enzymes were studied, which yielded 11 loci. Diagnostic loci were not found between Simulium maroniense cytotype D and Simulium rorotaense. Simulium maroniense and S. rorotaense differed from Simulium trombetense by two diagnostic loci (Me and Xdh, and Simulium perflavum differed from the other three species by four diagnostic loci (Me, Xdh, Mdh, and Got. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.30 to 2.30, the percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 18.2 to 63.6% and the mean heterozygosity values observed ranged from 0.062 to 0.108. Genetic distances among the species ranged from 0.010 to 0.581. The lowest value was obtained between S. maroniense and S. rorotaense, and the highest between S. perflavum and S. trombetense. The genetic relationships among the four S. perflavum group species indicate that they are closely related. The high similarity at the isozyme level, allied to previous studies of morphology and polytene chromosomes, may suggest that the divergence time since the separation of S. maroniense and S. rorotaense is still too recent for diagnostic loci to have evolved.

  20. Monophyly, divergence times, and evolution of host plant use inferred from a revised phylogeny of the Drosophila repleta species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Deodoro C S G; Almeida, Francisca C; O'Grady, Patrick M; Armella, Miguel A; DeSalle, Rob; Etges, William J

    2012-09-01

    We present a revised molecular phylogeny of the Drosophila repleta group including 62 repleta group taxa and nine outgroup species based on four mitochondrial and six nuclear DNA sequence fragments. With ca. 100 species endemic to the New World, the repleta species group represents one of the major species radiations in the genus Drosophila. Most repleta group species are associated with cacti in arid or semiarid regions. Contrary to previous results, maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies of the 10-gene dataset strongly support the monophyly of the repleta group. Several previously described subdivisions in the group were also recovered, despite poorly resolved relationships between these clades. Divergence time estimates suggested that the repleta group split from its sister group about 21millionyears ago (Mya), although diversification of the crown group began ca. 16Mya. Character mapping of patterns of host plant use showed that flat leaf Opuntia use is common throughout the phylogeny and that shifts in host use from Opuntia to the more chemically complex columnar cacti occurred several times independently during the history of this group. Although some species retained the use of Opuntia after acquiring the use of columnar cacti, there were multiple, phylogenetically independent instances of columnar cactus specialization with loss of Opuntia as a host. Concordant with our proposed timing of host use shifts, these dates are consistent with the suggested times when the Opuntioideae originated in South America. We discuss the generally accepted South American origin of the repleta group. PMID:22634936

  1. Toward Objective, Morphology-Based Taxonomy: A Case Study on the Malagasy Nesomyrmex sikorai Species Group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csősz, Sándor; Fisher, Brian L

    2016-01-01

    Madagascar is one of the world's greatest biodiversity hotspots, meriting special attention from biodiversity scientists. It is an excellent testing ground for novel techniques in taxonomy that aim to increase classification objectivity and yield greater taxonomic resolving power. Here we reveal the diversity of a unique and largely unexplored fragment of the Malagasy ant fauna using an advanced combination of exploratory analyses on quantitative morphological data allowing for increased objectivity in taxonomic workflow. The diversity of the Nesomyrmex sikorai species-group was assessed via hypothesis-free nest-centroid-clustering combined with recursive partitioning to estimate the number of morphological clusters and determine the most probable boundaries between them. This combination of methods provides a highly automated and objective species delineation protocol based on continuous morphometric data. Delimitations of clusters recognized by these exploratory analyses were tested via confirmatory Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Multivariate Ratio Analysis (MRA). The final species hypotheses are corroborated by many qualitative characters, and the recognized species exhibit different spatial distributions and occupy different ecological regions. We describe and redescribe eight morphologically distinct species including six new species: Nesomyrmex excelsior sp. n., N. modestus sp. n., N. reticulatus sp. n., N. retusispinosus (Forel, 1892), N. rugosus sp. n., N. sikorai (Emery, 1896), N. striatus sp. n., and N. tamatavensis sp. n. An identification key for their worker castes using morphometric data is provided. PMID:27097219

  2. Plant species diversity in the ecological species groups in the Kandelat Forest Park, Guilan, North of Iran

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    HASSAN POURBABAEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haghgooy T. 2012. Plant species diversity in the ecological species groups in the Kandelat Forest Park, Guilan, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 7-12. Forest vegetation indicates conditions and productivity potential of forest habitat, because it reflects the interaction of climate, soil and topography. The aim of this research was to study the relationship between vegetation and topography factors. In order to do this research, type, number and percentage cover of trees, shrubs (sample plot with 1000 m2 area and type and percentage cover of herbaceous species (sample plot with 64 m2 area investigated and recorded. The coverage percent of species were estimated on the basis of Domin scale. Vegetation classified using Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN. The results revealed that there were 6 ecosystem units (ecological groups in the region. The comparison of diversity indices and topographic factors between groups were performed with ANOVA test. Results also indicated that there were significant differences between groups in terms of biodiversity indices and topographic factors. The formation of a particular group is affected by a combination of environment variables. The aspect was the most important variable of topographic factors in this study.

  3. Resistance and susceptibility of mandarins and their hybrids to Alternaria alternata

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    Camilla de Andrade Pacheco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Caused by Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brown spot (ABS is a major fungal disease of mandarins in Brazil, causing serious losses in commercial orchards of Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco and Murcott tangor [C. sinensis (L. Osbeck × C. reticulata Blanco]. The response of 31 accessions/genotypes of mandarins and their hybrids to A. alternata, was evaluated in São Paulo state, Brazil. The incidence and severity of the disease in fruit were evaluated in the field, using diagrammatic scale, four times during 2008 and 2009. Based on these data, the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC was calculated. In parallel, in vivo and in vitro inoculations with A. alternata were made on leaves to confirm field results. Resistance and susceptibility was evaluated in controlled experiments by counting the number of lesions per leaf using a diagrammatic scale. Most of the genotypes were symptomatic after inoculation with A. alternata with disease most severe on the hybrids Nova, África do Sul, Ponkan and Murcott. Cultivars like Cravo, Nules and Ortanique that have excellent fruit quality and had lower AUDPCs, whereas Fremont and Thomas were highly resistant to the fungus and did not show any symptoms in the field or in controlled inoculations. The attractiveness and pronounced flavor of Fremont and Thomas fruit make them new options for the citriculture.

  4. Biocontrol Potential of Four Deadly Strains of Alternaria macrospora Isolated from Parthenium Weed

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    M. Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parthenium hysterophorus is a weed of global significance causing severe economic, environmental, human and animal health problems in Asia, Africa, Australia and the Pacific. A field survey and the systematic sampling were made during two years (November 2012 to October 2014 in KUK campus and its surrounding area. During a series of extensive surveys for natural enemies of Parthenium hysterophorus, leaf spot diseases creating epiphytotics were regularly observed on P. hysterophorus. The organism was isolated from the affected parts of the Parthenium by following the standard isolation techniques using Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA and Parthenium Dextrose Agar (PeDA medium. Koch’s postulate was performed and found satisfactory for all the isolates and proved to be pathogenic to this weed. On the basis of cultural, morphological and molecular characteristics, these pathogens were identified as different strains of Alternaria macrospora. The literature survey indicates that Alternaria macrospora has never been reported on the Parthenium weed and it is the first report of occurrence of this pathogen causing leaf spot on Parthenium weed from the world. Further study will be conducted to develop mycoherbicide by using these fungal pathogens in combination or single.

  5. Alt a 15 is a new cross-reactive minor allergen of Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, M F; Postigo, I; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Suñén, E; Guisantes, J A; Fernández, J; Tomaz, C T; Martínez, J

    2016-02-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the most common saprophytes worldwide that is clinically and epidemiologically associated with severe asthma. Therefore, the identification and characterization of all A. alternata allergens are of major clinical importance. This study describes a new cross-reactive A. alternata allergen that was officially named Alt a 15 by the official Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The complete coding region for Alt a 15 was amplified using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and PCR. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a 65-kDa fusion protein, and the protein sequence exhibits high homology with several important fungal allergens. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that IgE antibodies from A. alternata-sensitized patients (n=59) bound to rAlt a 15 with a prevalence of 10.2%. All patients who presented sIgE to rAlt a 15 were apparently poly-sensitized to A. alternata and C. lunata. The extensive cross-reactivity between A. alternata and C. lunata serine proteases was confirmed using immunoblotting inhibition assays. Overall, Alt a 15 is an important new cross-reactive allergen of A. alternata that explains some allergies to A. alternata without Alt a 1 sensitization and initial diagnostic errors for allergies to Alternaria. This molecule may improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, the understanding, and the management of IgE-mediated fungal diseases. PMID:26395961

  6. New cytotoxic compounds of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naidan; Zhang, Chunyan; Xiao, Xiao; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Huang, Baokang

    2016-04-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of a culture of the endophytic fungus Alternaria species G7 in Broussonetia papyrifera, a new compound altertoxin IV (1) together with nine known compounds were isolated and identified by means of bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, among which the absolute configuration of compound 1, a new tetrahydroperylenone derivative, was determined by means of X-Ray Crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were subjected to cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines (A549, MG-63, and SMMC-7721). Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activities against tested cell lines, with IC50 values of 1.47, 2.11 and 7.34μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, compound 4 also exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against cell lines MG-63 and SMMC-7721, with IC50 values of 0.53 and 2.92μg/mL. Endophytic fungi Alternaria from B. papyrifera might be promising sources of natural bioactive and novel metabolites. PMID:27001249

  7. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF TRICHODERMA SPECIES ISOLATES AGAINST ALTERNARIA LEAF SPOT DISEASE OF SESAME

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    A. S. Lubaina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria leaf spot disease is a major threat to sesame (Sesamum orientale L. caused by Alternari asesami. Induced resistance is an alternative to systemic disease resistance response of plants. The present study aims to evaluate Trichoderma species efficacy as biocontrol via induction of resistance against A. sesami in sesame species. During in vitro bio control test, T. harzianum colonize and parallely inhibit the growth of the fungal pathogen. Expression of various defence related enzymes observed in sesame induce resistance against the pathogen infection in the host. T. harzianum coupled with inoculation of A. sesami enhance the remarkable induction of defence enzyme such as peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and also the phenolic content compared with the control. The enzyme activity increased from 48 h of sampling and peaked at 72 h and then decreased after 72 h. In greenhouse and field experiments, soil treatment with a powder formulation of T. harzianum two weeks before planting or at the time of planting reduced significantly the incidence of diseases on both the wild and cultivar Thilarani.The results demonstrate that T. harzianumcan be successfully applied as a biological control against Alternaria leaf spot disease in sesame.

  8. Genome sequence of a novel victorivirus identified in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria arborescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Ken; Katayama, Yukie; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu; Teraoka, Tohru; Moriyama, Hiromitsu

    2016-06-01

    Strains of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp. have been found to contain a variety of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements indicative of mycovirus infection. Here, we report the molecular characterization of a novel dsRNA mycovirus, Alternaria arborescens victorivirus 1 (AaVV1), from A. arborescens, the tomato pathotype of A. alternata. Using next-generation sequencing of dsRNA purified from an A. arborescens strain from the United States of America, we found that the AaVV1 genome is 5203 bp in length and contains two open reading frames (ORF1 and 2) that overlap at the tetranucleotide AUGA. Proteins encoded by ORF1 and ORF2 showed significant similarities to the coat protein (CP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively, of dsRNA mycoviruses of the genus Victorivirus. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of both CP and RdRp indicated that AaVV1 is a member of a distinct species of the genus Victorivirus in the family Totiviridae. PMID:26923927

  9. Possibility of Alternaria toxins reduction by extrusion processing of whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić Hajnal, Elizabet; Čolović, Radmilo; Pezo, Lato; Orčić, Dejan; Vukmirović, Đuro; Mastilović, Jasna

    2016-12-15

    This study represents the first report about possibility of reduction of Alternaria toxins in wheat using the extrusion process. Effects of extrusion processing parameters - moisture content (w=16, 20, 24g/100g), feeding rate (q=15, 20, 25kg/h), and screw speed (v=300, 390, 480rpm), on reduction rate of tenuazonic acid (TeA), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), in whole wheat flour were investigated. Temperature ranged between 111.1 and 160.8°C, while the absolute pressure was from 0.17 to 0.23MPa. The simultaneous influence of w and v was the most important for TeA reduction (p<0.05), while v and q were the most influential for AOH reduction (p<0.01). Level of AME reduction was mostly influenced by w and v (p<0.10). Optimal parameters for reduction of all three Alternaria toxins were as follows: w=24g/100g, q=25kg/h, v=390rpm, with a reduction of 65.6% for TeA, 87.9% for AOH and 94.5% for AME. PMID:27451248

  10. Genetic variability of Brazilian isolates of Alternaria alternata detected by AFLP and RAPD techniques Variabilidade genética de isolados Brasileiros de Alternaria alternata por meio de marcadores moleculares de AFLP e RAPD

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    Francisco Dini-Andreote

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alternaria brown spot (ABS is a disease caused in tangerine plants and its hybrids by the fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri which has been found in Brazil since 2001. Due to the recent occurrence in Brazilian orchards, the epidemiology and genetic variability of this pathogen is still an issue to be addressed. Here it is presented a survey about the genetic variability of this fungus by the characterization of twenty four pathogenic isolates of A. alternata f. sp. citri from citrus plants and four endophytic isolates from mango (one Alternaria tenuissima and three Alternaria arborescens. The application of two molecular markers Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP had revealed the isolates clustering in distinct groups when fingerprintings were analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA. Despite the better assessment of the genetic variability through the AFLP, significant modifications in clusters components were not observed, and only slight shifts in the positioning of isolates LRS 39/3 and 25M were observed in PCA plots. Furthermore, in both analyses, only the isolates from lemon plants revealed to be clustered, differently from the absence of clustering for other hosts or plant tissues. Summarizing, both RAPD and AFLP analyses were both efficient to detect the genetic variability within the population of the pathogenic fungus Alternaria spp., supplying information on the genetic variability of this species as a basis for further studies aiming the disease control.A mancha marrom ou mancha de Alternaria é uma doença causada pelo fungo Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri, encontrada no Brasil desde 2001 em plantas de tangerina e seus híbridos. Por se tratar de uma doença recente no Brasil, a epidemiologia e variabilidade genética deste patógeno compõem importantes pontos a serem estudados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a variabilidade genética deste pat

  11. Assessment of Safety and Therapeutic Efficacy of Rosa damascena L. and Quercus infectoria on Cardiovascular Performance of Normal and Hyperlipidemic Rabbits: Physiologically Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Askarzadeh, Masoumeh; Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Najafipour, Hamid; Fathpour, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    According to the use of Quercus infectoria (QI) and Rosa damascena L. (RD) for therapeutic purposes and lack of adequate information about their cardiovascular effects, we investigated the cardiovascular indices of rabbits which chronically pretreated with these agents. Animal groups were control group (CTL), RD and QI groups with normal chow plus 1.5 g RD and QI extracts, respectively, in each kg of the diet for 45 days; Hyperlipidemic (H) group received high-fat diet for 45 days; H+RD and H+QI groups received high fat diet plus QI and RD extracts, respectively. Blood pressure was greater in H+RD group than CTL, RD, and H groups. Left ventricular developed pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure increased significantly in H+RD group versus CTL and RD groups (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, resp.) and in H+QI groups (P < 0.01 versus QI groups). Left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) showed significant reduction in H+QI group versus H group. QI attenuated the values of total cholesterol, LDL, TG, and atherogenic indices of plasma when coadministrated with a high-fat diet. The results suggest the antilipidemic and antiatherogenic effects of QI. In addition, the use of RD along with a high-fat diet may increase the risk of hypertension in rabbits. PMID:24163695

  12. Assessment of Safety and Therapeutic Efficacy of Rosa damascena L. and Quercus infectoria on Cardiovascular Performance of Normal and Hyperlipidemic Rabbits: Physiologically Based Approach

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    Siyavash Joukar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the use of Quercus infectoria (QI and Rosa damascena L. (RD for therapeutic purposes and lack of adequate information about their cardiovascular effects, we investigated the cardiovascular indices of rabbits which chronically pretreated with these agents. Animal groups were control group (CTL, RD and QI groups with normal chow plus 1.5 g RD and QI extracts, respectively, in each kg of the diet for 45 days; Hyperlipidemic (H group received high-fat diet for 45 days; H+RD and H+QI groups received high fat diet plus QI and RD extracts, respectively. Blood pressure was greater in H+RD group than CTL, RD, and H groups. Left ventricular developed pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure increased significantly in H+RD group versus CTL and RD groups ( and , resp. and in H+QI groups ( versus QI groups. Left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP showed significant reduction in H+QI group versus H group. QI attenuated the values of total cholesterol, LDL, TG, and atherogenic indices of plasma when coadministrated with a high-fat diet. The results suggest the antilipidemic and antiatherogenic effects of QI. In addition, the use of RD along with a high-fat diet may increase the risk of hypertension in rabbits.

  13. Revision of the Agrilus adonis species-group (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilini with description of sixteen new species from southeastern Asia

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    Eduard Jendek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The newly defined Agrilus adonis species-group comprising thirty taxa from Southeast Asia is revised based on the examination of type specimens. The taxonomic concept and distribution of all known taxa is reexamined for the first time since they were described. The complete commented bibliographic data are given for each name. The key to species is provided and complemented with illustration of habitus and genitalia. Images of all primary types are also included. The distribution of selected species is shown on maps. The following sixteen new species are described: Agrilus acrobeles sp. nov.; A. bunsu sp. nov.; A. cechovskyi sp. nov.; A. curiosus sp. nov.; A. garo sp. nov.; A. iban sp. nov.; A. jakli sp. nov.; A. kuchingi sp. nov.; A. lembik sp. nov.; A. meratus sp. nov.; A. orangulu sp. nov.; A. serratus sp. nov.; A. strbai sp. nov.; A. upsilon sp. nov.; A. vir sp. nov. and A. xiphos sp. nov.. The name emeritus Descarpentries & Villiers, 1963 is removed from the synonymy of Agrilus perlisensis Fisher 1936 and revalidated as the name for species A. emeritus Descarpentries & Villiers, 1963. Nine new synonyms are proposed: Agrilus adonis Deyrolle, 1864 (= A. perlisensis Fisher, 1936 syn. nov. = A. testor Kerremnas, 1900 syn. nov.; A. emeritus Descarpentries & Villiers, 1963 (= A. deuvei Baudon, 1965 syn. nov. = A. souvannavongsi Baudon, 1968 syn. nov.; A. famulus Kerremans, 1900 (= A. convergens Fisher, 1930 syn. nov. = A. japanensis Obenberger, 1935 syn. nov.; A. insularis Deyrolle, 1864 (= A. nigrocyaneus Deyrolle, 1864 syn. nov. = A. falsulus Obenberger, 1924 syn. nov.; A. malasicus Fisher, 1930 (=A. bettotanus Fisher, 1930 syn. nov.. Some of those names were already treated as invalid ones but in the synonymy of different species. Their taxonomic history is recognizable from commented references cited at each name.

  14. Survey of Alternaria toxin contamination in food from the German market, using a rapid HPLC-MS/MS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickert, Sebastian; Bergmann, Marian; Ersen, Seyma; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    A HPLC-MS/MS-based method for the quantification of nine mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Alternaria in various food matrices was developed. The method relies on a single-step extraction, followed by dilution of the raw extract and direct analysis. In combination with an analysis time per sample of 12 min, the sample preparation is cost-effective and easy to handle. The method covers alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA), altenuene (ALT), iso-altenuene (isoALT), tentoxin (TEN), altertoxin-I (ATX-I), and the AAL toxins TA1 and TA2. Some Alternaria toxins which are either not commercially available or very expensive, namely AOH, AME, ALT, isoALT, and ATX-I, were isolated as reference compounds from fungal cultures. The method was extensively validated for tomato products, bakery products, sunflower seeds, fruit juices, and vegetable oils. AOH, AME, TeA, and TEN were found in quantifiable amounts and 92.1% of all analyzed samples (n = 96) showed low level contamination with one or more Alternaria toxins. Based on the obtained results, the average daily exposure to Alternaria toxins in Germany was calculated. PMID:26408172

  15. First Report of a Leaf Spot Caused by Alternaria brassicae on the Invasive Weed Lepidium draba in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    A second leaf spot disease on the perennial invasive weed white top, aka hoary cress, was found in a stand of white top in south central Montana. The plant pathogen causing the lesions was identified as the fungus Alternaria brassicae. It was isolated, purified grown on a V-8 agar growth medium and ...

  16. Molecular characterization and detection of mutations associated with resistance to succinate dehydrogenase inhibiting (SDHI) fungicides in Alternaria solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, is an economically important foliar disease of potato in several production areas of the United States. Few potato cultivars possess resistance to early blight, therefore, the application of fungicides is a primary means of achieving disease control. Previo...

  17. Review of the Eulamprotes wilkella species-group based on morphology and DNA barcodes, with descriptions of new taxa (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huemer, Peter; Elsner, Gustav; Karsholt, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Eulamprotes wilkella species-group is revised based on morphological characters and on DNA barcodes of the mtCOI (Cytochrome c Oxidase 1) gene. Adult morphology combined with sequence information for 9 species supports the existence of 12 species, 7 of which are described as new to science: E...

  18. 50 CFR Table 1c to Part 660... - 2009, Open Access and Limited Entry Allocations by Species or Species Group (weights in metric tons)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2009, Open Access and Limited Entry... Part 660, Subpart G—2009, Open Access and Limited Entry Allocations by Species or Species Group... limited entry fixed gear, 2.5 mt for directed open access, 4.9 mt for Washington recreational, 16.0 mt...

  19. Unusual fungal sepsis of Alternaria alternata in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of unusual fungal sepsis of Alternaria alternata in a patient of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in 62-year-old male who presented with complaints of 'off and on' fever with decreased oral intake. On evaluation, haemogram showed low platelet count and 68% blast cells in peripheral blood. On flow cytometry of peripheral blood, the gated blasts (approximately 55% highly express CD45, CD10, CD19, CD22 and condition was diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. He was started on standard induction treatment along with supportive therapies. During the course of treatment, two sets of paired blood cultures were sent 48 h apart. All of blood cultures were done on Bac-T alert 3D system. All of them yielded fungus. The fungus was then grown on Sabouraud's Dextrose agar media. It was identified as A. alternata. The patient condition worsened and later had cardiac arrest in ICU and could not be revived.

  20. Secondary metabolite profiling of Alternaria dauci, A. porri, A. solani, and A. tomatophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Dongo, Anita; Pryor, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Chemotaxonomy (secondary metabolite profiling) has been shown to be of great value in the classification and differentiation in Ascomycota. However, few studies have investigated the use of metabolite production for classification and identification purposes of plant pathogenic Alternaria species....... The purpose of the present study was to describe the methodology behind metabolite profiling in chemotaxonomy using A. dauci, A. porri, A. solani, and A. tomatophila strains as examples of the group. The results confirmed that A. dauci, A. solani, and A. tomatophila are three distinct species each...... with their own specific metabolite profiles, and that A. solani and A. tomatophila both produce altersolanol A, altertoxin 1, and macrosporin. By using automated chemical image analysis and other multivariate statistic analyses, three sets of species-specific metabolites could be selected, one each for...

  1. Trichoderma harzianum as a biocontrol agent against Alternaria alternata on tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugoslav Ziberoski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma fungi are the most popular agents used in a biological control. Therefore, our aim was to determine an impact of Trichoderma harzianum on the fungus Alternaria alternata - a causing agent of the brown spot disease on tobacco. In vitro analyses were made in several variants of double culture, in order to study the effect of difusible and volatile metabolites. There was strong reducing effect on the development of A.alternata with various mechanisms of antagonistic influence. The volatile metabolites have also shown reducing effect. Some abnormalities were observed in the pathogen's morphology both in difusible and volatile metabolites. The strong reducing effect of T.harzianum towards A. alternata can be applied in biological control of this pathogen.

  2. Three New Resveratrol Derivatives from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new resveratrol derivatives, namely, resveratrodehydes A–C (1–3, were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human liver HepG2, and human colon HCT-116 by MTT assay (IC50 < 50 μM. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited marked cytotoxic activities against MDA-MB-435 and HCT-116 cell lines (IC50 < 10 μM. Additionally, compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay.

  3. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Lupo Compound Miroemulsion(LCM) against Alternaria alternata in Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; Jinqing; Dai; Yi; Li; Xiaoshuang; Liang; Huan; Cai; Junlong; Li; Qiang; Guo; Shengnan

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The paper was to study effect of Lupo compound microemulsion( LCW) on Alternaria alternata. [Method]The activity of spore germination and mycelial growth was investigated by filter paper method and mycelial growth rate method,and field test was also conducted to determine the effect of LCW on tobacco plants. [Result]LCW could inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of A. alternate. The higher concentration led to more severe reduction of sporulation and heavier inhibition against mycelial growth. When LCW was diluted into 200 times,inhibition rate of sporulation reached 91. 23%,and the inhibition rate of mycelial growth reached 93. 50%. Field test also proved that LCW had significant inhibitory effect on tobacco brown spot disease. [Conclusion]The study provided the reference for using botanical pesticide to control A. alternate in fields.

  4. AGGRESSIVENESS AND MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF SMALL SPORE Alternaria SPECIES ISOLATED FROM ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabahat Bessadat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural epidemics of blight disease are strongly influenced by environmental conditions, even though several diseases appears every year in north western of Algeria which can cause complete loss of the crop when the infection is severe. The fungi which are frequently associated with leaf blight, stem blight and apical fruit rot of Solanaceae family are Alternaria arborescens, A. alternata and A. tenuissima. These fungi were identified on morphological characteristics. For that, eighty one small spore strains belonging to the A. alternata section were assessed for disease symptoms, percent disease incidence (PDI and area under the diseases progress curve (AUDPC on three different tomato cultivars. Among the tested fungal isolates, it revealed that PDI of the isolates were changed according to the cultivar and the highest blight disease incidence was found in A. tenuissima strain 164 (96% in Saint Pierre, 59% in Cherry tomato and 69% in Rio Grande, it was followed be A. alternata strain 156 (90% in Saint Pierre, 82% in cherry tomato and 46% in Rio Grande and A. arborescens strain 65 (49% in Saint Pierre, 85% in cherry tomato and 63,15% in Rio Grande. According to the aggressiveness component of the isolates, the classical behavior of the cultivars was confirmed, and Saint Pierre and Rio Grande cultivars were found susceptible with a slightly higher mean of AUDPC (413.72 and 390.48 respectively but Cherry tomato cultivar was found to be resistant with the lowest AUDPC mean 227.18 ± 166.10. Based upon results of present study, it was concluded that a complex of small spore Alternaria species and isolates found on Solanaceae lesions are not equally pathogenic but majority of A. tenuissima isolates are not the part of this complex.

  5. Conidios de 'alternaria', factor de riesgo de alegria en Castilla-La Mancha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sabariego Ruiz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el comportamiento estacional de los conidios de Alternaria en la atmósfera de Castilla-La Mancha, cuyo inte- rés se basa en que los niveles en el aire de estos conidios suponen un riesgo de alergia para las personas sensibilizadas a los mismos. El estudio se ha llevado a cabo en cinco estaciones de muestreo pertenecientes a la Red de Aerobiología de Castilla-La Mancha (Red Aerocam: Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Guadalajara y Toledo, durante el año 2008. Los captadores utilizados y la metodología de muestreo siguen las directrices de la Red Española de Aerobiología (REA. Los conidios de Alternaria se detectan en la atmósfera de Castilla-La Mancha durante todo el año, aunque los meses de mayores concentraciones se obtienen en mayo, junio y julio. Ciudad Real, Toledo y Guadalajara son las ciudades en las que se detecta una mayor concentración anual, con 5.624 conidios, 4.527 conidios y 4.173 conidios, respectivamente, seguidas de Albacete y de Cuenca. En algunas de las localidades muestreadas, los valores máximos diarios han sido elevados en un importante número de días, destacamos los registrados en Ciudad Real el 20 de marzo (722 conidios/m3, en Toledo el 18 de junio (324 conidios/m3 y en Guadalajara el 26 de junio (220 conidios/m3.

  6. Alternaria alternata allergens: Markers of exposure, phylogeny and risk of fungi-induced respiratory allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Marta F; Postigo, Idoia; Tomaz, Cândida T; Martínez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata spores are considered a well-known biological contaminant and a very common potent aeroallergen source that is found in environmental samples. The most intense exposure to A. alternata allergens is likely to occur outdoors; however, Alternaria and other allergenic fungi can colonize in indoor environments and thereby increase the fungal aeroallergen exposure levels. A consequence of human exposure to fungal aeroallergens, sensitization to A. alternata, has been unequivocally associated with increased asthma severity. Among allergenic proteins described in this fungal specie, the major allergen, Alt a 1, has been reported as the main elicitor of airborne allergies in patients affected by a mold allergy and considered a marker of primary sensitization to A. alternata. Moreover, A. alternata sensitization seems to be a triggering factor in the development of poly-sensitization, most likely because of the capability of A. alternata to produce, in addition to Alt a 1, a broad and complex array of cross-reactive allergens that present homologs in several other allergenic sources. The study and understanding of A. alternata allergen information may be the key to explaining why sensitization to A. alternata is a risk factor for asthma and also why the severity of asthma is associated to this mold. Compared to other common environmental allergenic sources, such as pollens and dust mites, fungi are reported to be neglected and underestimated. The rise of the A. alternata allergy has enabled more research into the role of this fungal specie and its allergenic components in the induction of IgE-mediated respiratory diseases. Indeed, recent research on the identification and characterization of A. alternata allergens has allowed for the consideration of new perspectives in the categorization of allergenic molds, assessment of exposure and diagnosis of fungi-induced allergies. PMID:26826364

  7. Substrates and enzyme activities related to biotransformation of resveratrol from phenylalanine by Alternaria sp. MG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhua; Shi, Junling; Liu, Yanlin

    2013-12-01

    To identify the substrates and enzymes related to resveratrol biosynthesis in Alternaria sp. MG1, different substrates were used to produce resveratrol, and their influence on resveratrol production was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Formation of resveratrol and related intermediates was identified using mass spectrum. During the biotransformation, activities of related enzymes, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), trans-cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), were analyzed and tracked. The reaction system contained 100 mL 0.2 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 120 g/L Alternaria sp. MG1 cells, 0.1 g/L MgSO₄, and 0.2 g/L CaSO₄ and different substrates according to the experimental design. The biotransformation was carried out for 21 h at 28 °C and 120 rpm. Resveratrol formation was identified when phenylalanine, tyrosine, cinnamic acid, and p-coumaric acid were separately used as the only substrate. Accumulation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, and resveratrol and the activities of PAL, C4H, and 4CL were identified and changed in different trends during transformation with phenylalanine as the only substrate. The addition of carbohydrates and the increase of phenylalanine concentration promoted resveratrol production and yielded the highest value (4.57 μg/L) when 2 g/L glucose, 1 g/L cyclodextrin, and phenylalanine (4.7 mmol/L) were used simultaneously. PMID:24068334

  8. Enhancement of the citrus immune system provides effective resistance against Alternaria brown spot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Eugenio; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Vicedo, Begonya; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2013-01-15

    In addition to basal defense mechanisms, plants are able to develop enhanced defense mechanisms such as induced resistance (IR) upon appropriate stimulation. We recently described the means by which several carboxylic acids protect Arabidopsis and tomato plants against fungi. In this work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of hexanoic acid (Hx) in the control of Alternaria brown spot (ABS) disease via enhancement of the immune system of Fortune mandarin. The application of 1mM Hx in irrigation water to 2-year-old Fortune plants clearly reduced the incidence of the disease and led to smaller lesions. We observed that several of the most important mechanisms involved in induced resistance were affected by Hx application. Our results demonstrate enhanced callose deposition in infected plants treated with Hx, which suggests an Hx priming mechanism. Plants treated with the callose inhibitor 2-DDG were more susceptible to the fungus. Moreover, polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene expression was rapidly and significantly upregulated in treated plants. However, treatment with Hx decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected plants. Hormonal and gene analyses revealed that the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was activated due to a greater accumulation of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and JA along with a rapid accumulation of JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Furthermore, we observed a more rapid accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), which could act as a positive regulator of callose deposition. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that both enhanced physical barriers and the JA signaling pathway are involved in hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) to Alternaria alternata. PMID:23260526

  9. Comparison of methodologies for conidia production by Alternaria alternata from citrus Comparação de metodologias para produção de conídios por Alternaria alternata do citros

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Daniel D. C.; Eduardo Alves; Batista, Tereza R. S.; Camargos, Renato B.; Eloísa A. G. L. Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Conidia production is a problem in the study of Alternaria alternata from citrus. Thus, this study aimed to compare existing methodologies for conidial production of A. alternata isolated from Ponkan tangerine (2 isolates), Cravo lemon (1 isolate), Pêra orange (2 isolates) and Murcott tangor (1 isolate). The methodologies used were conidia production with 12 and 24 hours under white fluorescent light, evaluation with 24 and 48 hours after applying fungal mycelium stress technique, cold stress...

  10. Effects of chemical treatments on infestation of Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. in correlation with technological wheat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Jovana N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the time of infestation by fungi from genus Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. was investigated in different stages of wheat maturity (milk, waxy, and technological maturity; the effects of different fungicides on the yield, technological properties, and content of mycotoxin DON were studied also. The results showed that Alternaria spp. attacked spike and kernel in f lowering and end-f lowering stage, as it was already known for Fusarium species. Fungicide treatment increases the yield up to 20%, test weight by 3.7%, and thousand-kernel weight up to 19.1%. High content of mycotoxin DON, above tolerable limits, was detected only in the treatment with fungicide Caramba and in untreated control.

  11. EVALUATION OF DISEASE RESISTANCE POTENTIAL OF SEVEN POTATO GENOTYPES AGAINST EARLY BLIGHT CAUSED BY Alternaria tenuissima UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Mirkarimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Early blight of potato was caused by various species of genus Alternaria, the disease has a prominent role in reducing crop yields in most of the countries, especially in Iran. Various studies has been conducted for the finding out the information regarding the diversity of pathogen and estimation of damage caused by genus Alternaria tenuissima in Iran, but the information regarding the resistance against this fungal pathogen in various genotype of potatoes are in scarcity. Seven isolates of potato were obtained from the National Plant Gene Bank of Iran. Amongst these seven, on the basis of mean comparison curve progress Cosmos was recognized as the most sensitive genetic samples while the samples Armida was reported as a most resistant to the disease. Other cultivars showed different levels of resistance against this pathogen.

  12. Fluctuation range of the concentration of airborne Alternaria conidiospores sampled at different geographical locations in Poland (2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of seasonal and diurnal fluctuations of allergenic and phytopathogenic fungal spores in the air and the determination of the influence of weather and environmental parameters on spore concentrations are of great practical use in control of both human and animal health as well as plant diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of the occurrence of Alternaria spores in the air at three sites located in different geographical regions of Poland. The study was done from 15 April to 30 September in 2010–2011 in Rzeszów (Carpathian Foothills, south-east Poland, Lublin (Lublin Upland, central east, and Poznań (central west; the distance between the experimental sites ranged from 138 to 441 km. To assess the concentration of Alternaria spores, the volumetric method was used. In both years, the highest concentration of spores was observed in Poznań and the lowest in Rzeszów. In 2010 the annual total, monthly total and maximum spore concentration were higher than in 2011 at all monitoring sites. The greatest concentration of Alternaria spores was recorded in August, followed by July. High spore concentrations were also noted at the beginning of September. The differences in daily concentrations, average concentrations and cumulative numbers of spores were statistically significant. The reasons for this can be related not only to weather parameters, which is often raised in the literature, but also to the type of landscape. Landscape and geo-botanical conditions of Great Poland and Carpathian Foothills greatly differ. In both years, the highest number of Alternaria spores was found in Poznań – the city with the highest urbanization factor and the capital of the region with large-scale farming, connected with the intensification of agricultural practices.

  13. Pengaruh Kepekatan Esktrak Daun Nimba Terhadap Penekanan Serangan (Alternaria porri (EII.CIF) Pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium ascalonicum L)

    OpenAIRE

    Enni Sahrani Nst

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kepekatan ekstrak daun mimba terhadap penekanan Alternaria porri (EII. Cif.) pada tanaman bawang merah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di BPTP (Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian) Sumatera Utara, pada ketinggian tempat lebih kurang 25 m dpl. Penelitian dimulai bulan Nopember 2007 sampai Januari 2008. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Kelompok Non factorial yang terdiri dari P0 (Kontrol tanpa perlakuan), P1 (100 gr daun mimba d...

  14. Production and oil-emulsion formulation of Cadophora malorum and Alternaria jacinthicola, two biocontrol agents against Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    OpenAIRE

    Dagno, Karim; Lahlali, Rachid; Diourté, Mamourou; Jijakli, Haissam

    2011-01-01

    Cadophora malorum isolate Mln715 and Alternaria jacinthicola strain MUCL 53159 are under development as biocontrol agents against Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Mali. Production of spores of these agents on locally available substrates (Water Hyacinth, powdered paddy rice chaff, wheat semolina) was assessed with a view to mass production. The C. malorum isolate sporulated best on Water Hyacinth (4.08 × 107 spores ml-1), followed by wheat (1.06 ×107 spores ml-1), whereas A. jacint...

  15. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance in rose plants against rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosivorum): effect of tenuazonic acid*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fa-zhong; Yang, Bin; Li, Bei-Bei; Xiao, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Many different types of toxins are produced by the fungus, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Little is known, however, regarding the influence of these toxins on insects. In this study, we investigated the toxin-induced inhibitory effects of the toxin produced by A. alternata on the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosivorum, when the toxin was applied to leaves of the rose, Rosa chinensis. The results demonstrated that the purified crude toxin was non-harmful to rose plants and rose aphids, but ha...

  16. Alternaria sp. MG1, a resveratrol-producing fungus: isolation, identification, and optimal cultivation conditions for resveratrol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junling; Zeng, Qin; Liu, Yanlin; Pan, Zhongli

    2012-07-01

    Due to its potential in preventing or slowing the occurrence of many diseases, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has attracted great research interest. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms from selected plants that produce resveratrol and to optimize the conditions for resveratrol production. Endophytes from Merlot wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot), wild Vitis (Vitis quinquangularis Rehd.), and Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc.) were isolated, and their abilities to produce resveratrol were evaluated. A total of 65 isolates were obtained and 21 produced resveratrol (6-123 μg/L) in liquid culture. The resveratrol-producing isolates belonged to seven genera, Botryosphaeria, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, and Alternaria. The resveratrol-producing capability decreased or was completely lost in most isolates after three rounds of subculture. It was found that only the strain Alternaria sp. MG1 (isolated from cob of Merlot using GA1 medium) had stable and high resveratrol-producing capability in all subcultures. During liquid cultivation of Alternaria sp. MG1 in potato dextrose medium, the synthesis of resveratrol began on the first day, increased to peak levels on day 7, and then decreased sharply thereafter. Cell growth increased during cultivation and reached a stable and high level of biomass after 5 days. The best fermentation conditions for resveratrol production in liquid cultures of Alternaria sp. MG1 were an inoculum size of 6 %, a medium volume of 125 mL in a 250-mL flask, a rotation speed of 101 rpm, and a temperature of 27 °C. PMID:22526800

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of Drosophila melanogaster species group deduced from spacer regions of histone gene H2A-H2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Zhang, Ya-ping; Qian, Yuan-huai; Zeng, Qing-tao

    2004-02-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the spacer region of the histone gene H2A-H2B from 36 species of Drosophila melanogaster species group were determined. The phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods by using Drosophila pseudoobscura as the out group. Our results show that the melanogaster species group clustered in three main lineages: (1). montium subgroup; (2). ananassae subgroup; and (3). the seven oriental subgroups, among which the montium subgroup diverged first. In the third main lineage, suzukii and takahashii subgroups formed a clade, while eugracilis, melanogaster, elegans, ficusphila, and rhopaloa subgroups formed another clade. The bootstrap values at subgroup levels are high. The phylogenetic relationships of these species subgroups derived from our data are very different from those based on some other DNA data and morphology data. PMID:14715225

  18. Phylogeny of Protopolybia Ducke, 1905 and taxonomic revision of the Protopolybia exigua species-group (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae), with description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Junior, José N A; Silveira, Orlando T; Carpenter, James M

    2015-01-01

    A first phylogenetic hypothesis is proposed for Protopolybia Ducke, 1905 based on cladistic analysis of 31 species. New evidence in support of monophyly of the genus is presented. A revision of the Protopolybia exigua species-group is also presented. Protopolybia diligens (Smith, 1857), stat. resurr. is revalidated. Four new species are described: P. collombiana Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov., P. clypeata Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov., P. similis Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov., and P. potiguara Santos, Silveira & Carpenter, sp. nov. Protopolybia holoxantha (Ducke, 1904) and P. rubrithorax Bequaert, 1944 are redescribed. New synonymy is proposed for P. bituberculata Silveira & Carpenter, 1995 =Polybia nana Cameron, 1912 (nom. praeocc., nec de Saussure 1863), syn. nov. New records and description of the male genitalia are provided for some of the species of the P. exigua species-group. PMID:26248912

  19. Preserving species populations in the boreal zone in a changing climate: contrasting trends of bird species groups in a protected area network

    OpenAIRE

    Raimo Virkkala; Ari Rajasärkkä

    2012-01-01

    A protected area network should ensure the maintenance of biodiversity. Because of climate change, species ranges are expected to move polewards, causing further demand for the protected area network to be efficient in preserving biota. We compared population changes of different bird species groups according to their habitat preferences in boreal protected areas in Finland on the basis of large-scale censuses carried out in 1981–1999 and in 2000–2009. Population densities of comm...

  20. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group ( Opiliones , Laniatores , Phalangodidae ), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands

    OpenAIRE

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa ( Arachnida , Opiliones ), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct “beads on a stri...

  1. A New Species Group in the Genus Tanytarsus van der Wulp(Diptera:Chironomidae)Based on a Fossil Record from Baltic Amber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wojciech GI(L)KA

    2010-01-01

    A new fossil chironomid,Tanytarsus serafini,found in Baltic amber is described and illustrated based on adult males.The new species and similar extant species of the genus Tanytarsus van der Wulp are compared.Due to several distinct characters of wing,legs and hypopygium,a new species group for Tanytarsus serafini is proposed,and its diagnostic features are evaluated.

  2. New species and records of Stenus (Nestus) of the canaliculatus group, with the erection of a new species group (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Steninae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandr B. Ryvkin

    2012-01-01

    The canaliculatus species group of Stenus (Nestus) is redefined. Four new Palaearctic species of the group are described and illustrated: S. (N.) alopex sp. nov. from the Putorana Highland and Taymyr Peninsula, Russia; S. (N.) canalis sp. nov. from SE Siberia and the Russian Far East; S. (N.) canosus sp. nov. from the Narat Mt Ridge, Chinese Tien Shan; S. (N.) delitor sp. nov. from C & SE Siberia. New distributional data as well as brief analyses of old records for fourteen species described ...

  3. Neutralization of non-vaccine human papillomavirus pseudoviruses from the A7 and A9 species groups by bivalent HPV vaccine sera

    OpenAIRE

    Draper, Eve; Bissett, Sara L; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Edwards, Debbie; Munslow, Graham; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The majority of cervical cancers are associated with infection by one or more Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types from just two distinct Alpha-Papillomavirus species groups, A7 and A9. The extent to which the current HPV16/18 vaccines will protect against other genetically related HPV types is of interest to inform vaccine implementation, cervical disease surveillance and the development of second generation HPV vaccines. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and titer of neutrali...

  4. A new species of the gamasid mite genus Arctoseius Thor, 1930 (Parasitiformes, Mesostigmata, Ascidae) from Russia with a key to the multidentatus species-group

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Makarova; Lindquist, Evert E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new gamasid mite species belonging to the genus Arctoseius Thor, 1930 is described from Russia. Arctoseius koltschaki sp. n. is distributed in the plain and mountain tundras from Khibiny Mountains to Chukotka on the north and to West Sayan Mountains on the south. A diagnosis and a key for identification of species comprising the multidentatus species-group ( Arctoseius multidentatus Evans, 1955; Arctoseius wisniewskii Gwiazdowicz & Kamczyc, 2009; Arctoseius sexsetus Lindquist & Mak...

  5. Crop harvest in Denmark and Central Europe contributes to the local load of airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Frederiksen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source of airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the contribution to the overall load is mainly local or regional, but with intermittent long distance transport (LDT from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes (daily average spore concentration above 100 m−3 with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  6. Impact of Alternaria toxins on CYP1A1 expression in different human tumor cells and relevance for genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, G; Tiessen, C; Domnanich, K; Kahle, N; Groh, I A M; Schreck, I; Weiss, C; Marko, D

    2016-01-01

    The Alternaria toxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) have been reported previously to act as activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in murine hepatoma cells, thus enhancing the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A monooxygenases. Concomitantly, both benzopyrones represent substrates of CYP1A, giving rise to catecholic metabolites. The impact of AOH and AME on CYP1A expression in human cells of different tissue origin colon (HT29), esophagus (KYSE510), liver (HepG2) and their effects on cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA integrity were investigated. ROS production was induced by both mycotoxins in all cell lines with AOH exhibiting the highest potency in esophageal cells concomitant with the most prominent CYP1A induction level. Of note, altertoxin-II (ATX-II), the more potent DNA-damaging mutagen formed by Alternaria alternata, induces CYP1A even at significant lower concentrations. AhR-siRNA knockdown in human esophageal cells supported the hypothesis of AhR-mediated CYP1A1 induction by AOH. However, DNA damage was minor at CYP1A1-inducing AOH concentrations. AhR-depletion did not affect the DNA-damaging properties of AOH indicating no substantial impact of AhR in this regard. However, in combination with xenobiotics prone to metabolic activation by CYP1A the induction of CYP1A by Alternaria toxins deserves further attention. PMID:26474839

  7. Crop harvest in Denmark and Central Europe contributes to the local load of airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source of airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the contribution to the overall load is mainly local or regional, but with intermittent long distance transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes (daily average spore concentration above 100 m-3) with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  8. Analysis of the predicting variables for daily and weekly fluctuations of two airborne fungal spores: Alternaria and Cladosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Marta; del Mar Trigo, María; Docampo, Silvia; Melgar, Marta; García-Sánchez, José; Bootello, Lourdes; Cabezudo, Baltasar

    2012-11-01

    Alternaria and Cladosporium are two fungal taxa whose spores (conidia) are included frequently in aerobiological studies of outdoor environments. Both spore types are present in the atmosphere of Malaga (Spain) throughout almost the entire year, although they reach their highest concentrations during spring and autumn. To establish predicting variables for daily and weekly fluctuations, Spearman's correlations and stepwise multiple regressions between spore concentrations (measured using a volumetric 7-day recorder) and meteorological variables were made with results obtained for both spore types in 1996 and 1997. Correlations and regressions were also made between the different taxa and their concentrations in different years. Significant and positive correlation coefficients were always obtained between spore concentrations of both taxa, followed by temperature, their concentrations in different years, sunshine hours and relative humidity (this last in a negative sense). For the two spore types we obtained higher correlation and regression coefficients using weekly data. We showed different regression models using weekly values. From the results and a practical point of view, it was concluded that weekly values of the atmospheric concentration of Alternaria spores can be predicted from the maximum temperature expected and its concentrations in the years sampled. As regards the atmospheric concentration of Cladoposrium spores, the weekly values can be predicted based on the concentration of Alternaria spores, thus saving the time and effort that would otherwise be employed in counting them by optical microscopy.

  9. Combination of UV-C treatment and Metschnikowia pulcherrimas for controlling Alternaria rot in postharvest winter jujube fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dongqi; Zhu, Lixia; Hou, Xujie

    2015-01-01

    The potential of using antagonistic yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrimas alone or in combination with ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment for controlling Alternaria rot of winter jujube, and its effects on postharvest quality of fruit was investigated. The results showed that spore germination of Alternaria alternata was significantly inhibited by each of the 3 doses (1, 5, and 10 kJ m(-2) ) in vitro. In vivo, UV-C treatment (5 kJ m(-2) ) or antagonist yeast was capable of reducing the percentage of infected wounds and lesion diameter in artificially inoculated jujube fruits, however, in fruit treated with combination of UV-C treatment and M. pulcherrima, the percentage of infected wounds and lesion diameter was only 16.0% and 0.60 cm, respectively. The decay incidence on winter jujube fruits treated with the combination of UV-C treatment and M. pulcherrima was 23% after storage at 0 ± 1 °C for 45 d followed by 22 °C for 7 d. None of the treatments impaired quality parameters of jujube fruit. Thus, the combination of UV-C radiation and M. pulcherrima could be an alternative to synthetic fungicides for controlling postharvest Alternaria rot of winter jujube. PMID:25495035

  10. The phylogeny of the subgroups within the melanogaster species group: likelihood tests on COI and COII sequences and a Bayesian estimate of phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca L; Beckenbach, Andrew T; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2005-10-01

    The relationships among the majority of the subgroups in the Drosophila melanogaster species group remain unresolved. We present a 2223basepair dataset for mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome oxidase II for 43 species (including new data from 11 species), sampled to include the major subgroups. After a brief review of competing hypotheses for the ananassae, montium, suzukii, and takahashii subgroups, we combine the two genes based on a new use of the SH test and present KH and SH likelihood comparisons (Kishino and Hasegawa, 1989. J. Mol. Evol. 29, 170-179; Shimodaira and Hasegawa, 1999) to test the monophyly and placement of these subgroups within the larger species group. Although we find insignificant differences between the two suggested placements for the ananassae subgroup, the ananassae is sister to the rest of the subgroups in the melanogaster species group in every investigation. For the takahashii subgroup, although we cannot reject monophyly, the species are so closely related to the suzukii subgroup for these data that the two subgroups often form one clade. Finally, we present a Bayesian estimate of the phylogeny for both genes combined, utilizing a recently published method that allows for different models of evolution for different sites. PMID:16182148

  11. A new species of the Rhinella margaritifera species group (Anura, Bufonidae from the montane forest of the Selva Central, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Moravec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru. The new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confirmed by mtDNA data and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5–65.5 mm, n = 5, moderately developed cranial crests, absence of neural crest of vertebrae, absence of bone protrusion at angle of jaw, presence of lateral rows of enlarged tubercles, and absence of subgular vocal sac and vocal slits in males. In addition, based on the molecular phylogenetic analyses of selected Rhinella species we propose the monophylum containing R. chavin, R. festae, R. macrorhina, R. manu, R. nesiotes, R. rostrata, and R. yanachaga as a new species group under the name Rhinella festae species group.

  12. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Gao, Shushan; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Chunshun; Wang, Bingui

    2013-03-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192, an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites, including four indole-diterpenoids: penijanthine A ( 1), paspaline ( 2), paspalinine ( 3), and penitrem A ( 4); three tricycloalternarene derivatives: tricycloalternarene 3a ( 5), tricycloalternarene 1b ( 6), and tricycloalternarene 2b ( 7); and two alternariol congeners: djalonensone ( 8) and alternariol ( 9). The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature. The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm, respectively, at 100 μg/disk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived A lternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus A lternaria.

  13. INTEGRATED USE OF NEOCHETINA BRUCHI AND ALTERNARIA EICHHORNIAE IN CONTROLLING WATER HYACINTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KASNO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on the integrated use of the chevroned water hyacinth weevil (Neochetina bruchi Mustache and the water hyacinth blight disease (Alternaria eichhorniae Nag Raj & Ponnappa in s uppressing water hyacinth growth was carried out under field conditions at Situ Bagendit lake, Garut, West Java. The objectives of this study were (I to inve stigate whether the combined use of the two control agents produced a better effect in suppressing water hyacinth growth, (ii to evaluate whether there is a change in oviposition and feeding habit of the chevroned water hyacinth weevil if the water hyacinth is seriously infected by A. eichhorniae, and (iii to evaluate the progress of weevil establishment in the field. The following results were obtained: (1 The concentration of Tween 80 which did not interfere with spore germination was 3%. (2 There was no difference between distilled water and 1% Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB as a medium for fungal spores production. (3 The combined use of chevroned water hyacinth weevil and the water hyacinth blight produces a better suppressing on water hyacinth growth. (4 There was no significant effect of heavy infection by the water hyacinth blight on oviposition habit of chevroned water hyacinth weevil. Heavy fungal infection only affected feeding habit of the adult chevroned water hyacinth weevil. (5 Establishment of the chevroned water hyacinth weevil is in progress at Situ Bagendit lake, Garut regency, West Java.

  14. Identification and antifungal activity of an actinomycete strain against Alternaria spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Gao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria alternata (Fries Keissler is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for tobacco brown spot disease. This study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity of strain 163 against A. alternata and clarify its taxonomic status. The evaluation of the antifungal activity of strain 163 and its bacteria-free filtrate of fermentation broth was done through measuring the diameters of inhibition zones, and testing the antimicrobial spectrum and the inhibition effect on mycelial growth in vitro. The biocontrol activity of the bacteria-free filtrate in vivo was evaluated by using detached tobacco leaves method and assaying the inhibition rate to disease incidence in growth chamber. A polyphasic approach was taken in the identification of strain 163. The bacterial strain 163 showed inhibitory effect in vitro against A. alternata. The bacteria-free filtrate of the strain 163 fermentation broth showed a 56.7% inhibition rate in a detached leaf assay. In growth chamber conditions, it showed greater biocontrol activity when applied before plants being inoculated with A. alternata than after, the inhibition rate being 46.05%. Investigations into the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical properties of strain 163 found it to be most similar to Streptomyces microflavus. Its classification into cell wall type I and sugar type C further confirmed its Streptomyces characteristics. Construction of a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA verified that strain 163 was most closely related to Streptomyces microflavus. From polyphasic taxonomical analysis, strain 163 was found to be identical to S. microflavus.

  15. Effects of γ-radiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata in artificially inoculated cereal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different γ-radiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata in artificially inoculated cereal samples. Seeds and grains were divided into four groups: Control Group (not irradiated), and Groups 1, 2 and 3, inoculated with an A. alternata spore suspension (1x106 spores/mL) and exposed to 2, 5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Serial dilutions of the samples were prepared and seeded on DRBC (dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar) and DCMA (dichloran chloramphenicol malt extract agar) media, after which the number of colony-forming units per gram was determined in each group. In addition, fungal morphology after irradiation was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that ionizing radiation at a dose of 5 kGy was effective in reducing the growth of A. alternata. However, a dose of 10 kGy was necessary to inhibit fungal growth completely. SEM made it possible to visualize structural alterations induced by the different γ-radiation doses used.

  16. Fungicidal activity of volatile oil from eucalyptus Citriodora Hook. against Alternaria triticina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Hesamedin

    2006-01-01

    Use of plant products for the management of phytopathogenic fungi is fast becoming an important component of Integrated Disease Management (I.D.M.) programme. The natural plant products are bio-degradable and thus eco-friendly, are catching the attention of the scientist worldwide. Such products from higher plants are relatively broad spectrum, bio-efficacious, economical and environmentally safe. Among these essential oils from higher plants because of their greater inhibitory action are being explored preferably worldwide. In this context, a study was undertaken to explore the effect of volatile oil from Eucalyptus citriodora against Alternaria triticina. The radial growth, dry weight and spore germination of pathogen were drastically reduced in response to the different concentrations of volatile oil. A complete inhibition of radial growth, dry weight and spore germination were observed at 1500, 1000 and 100 ppm, respectively. In contrast, similar complete inhibition of test pathogen was observed at very high concentration (6500, 6500 and 1000 ppm) of mancozeb--a commercially available synthetic fungicide. Based on these observations, it was therefore concluded that eucalypt volatile oil has potential to suppress the phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:17390838

  17. Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria from Phyllosphere towards Tobacco Brown Spot Fungus Alternaria alternata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chengsheng; KONG Fanyu; LI Duochuan; WANG Jing; WANG Fenglong

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of employing antagonistic bacteria for the control of tobacco brown spot was studied. Approximately 136 strains of bacteria were isolated from phyllospheres of tobacco and 9 of these possessed high levels of antagonistic properties. They significantly reduced brown spot in detached tobacco leaves when artificially inoculated with Alternaria alternata. Culture filtrate of the most effective bacterial isolate which designated as Tpb88 was shown to be very efficient in inhibiting mycelial growth of A alternata in dual cultures. Culture filtrate of Tpb88 inhibited germination and germ tube elongation of A alternata. The results showed that the culture filtrate directly inhibited spore germination of A. alternata, especially during the first hours of the paired cultivation. The rate of antagonistic activity of culture filtrate of Tpb88 depended on its concentration in the mixture. The greatest inhibition of spore germination was ob served at the highest concentration of filtrate (filtrate to fungal spores inocula mixed in proportion 1: 50). These suggest that the hypothetic mechanism of Tpb88 against tobacco brown spot is to produce antagonistic substances.

  18. THE EFFECT OF MEDIA AND LIGHT ON IN VITRO SPORULATION OF ALTERNARIA SOLANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kishore Varma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Early blight of tomato incited by Alternaria solani is an economically significant disease especially in commercial tomato cultivation under greenhouse and field conditions. Since, A. solani is a shy sporulator, the present investigation was taken to assess the optimum in vitro conditons for growth and sporulation of early blight pathogen. Ten A. solani isolates obtained from diseased leaf samples collected different crop growing areas of India were used in the present study. The effect of different incubation periods, fluorescent light, cold-water treatment and media were evaluated. Our results revealed maximum sporulation of A. solani on tomato fruit extract agar medium (TFEA under continuous light for 7 days at 250C, followed by cold-water treatment and further incubated in darkness at 200C for 48 h. The sporulation of test pathogen was however sparse on V-8 juice agar. Further, the A. solani isolates on V-8 juice agar did not respond to the treatments imposed. Among the isolates, JAS (Jhajjar isolate, that is more versatile in its ability to produce spores recorded irregular margin with abundant aerial mycelium.

  19. Synthesis of N-substituted phthalimides and their antifungal activity against Alternaria solani and Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Le; Li, Xiuzhuang; Gong, Chengwen; Jin, Hui; Qin, Bo

    2016-06-01

    As organosulfur and organophosphorus agents, phaltane and phosmet are facing great challenges for the environmental contamination, mammalian toxicity and increasing resistance with long term use. It is efficient and meaningful to develop phthalimide-based alternatives with non-sulfur and non-phosphorus groups. A series of N-substituted phthalimides were synthesized and their antifungal activity against two disastrous phytopathogenic fungi, Alternaria solani and Botrytis cinerea was evaluated in vitro. Most of them showed significant antifungal activity against both of fungi, or either of them selectively. N-vinylphthalimide (4) and 8-[4-(phthalimide-2-yl) butyloxy] quinoline (13) were identified as the most promising candidates against B. cinerea and A. solani with the IC50 values of 7.92 μg/mL and 10.85 μg/mL respectively. The brief structure-activity relationships have revealed that vinyl, quinolyl, bromide alkyl and benzyl substitutions were appropriate substituents and coupling functional moieties indirectly with optimum alkyl chain was efficient to prepare phthalimides related fungicides. PMID:27079471

  20. Evaluation of the anti-alternaria solani activity of allium hirtifolium boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of 100 plant species from 45 plant families were investigated on mycelial growth of Alternaria solani, the cause of early blight of tomatoes, based on paper disc diffusion method. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. The results showed that methanolic extracts of 21 species exhibited measurable inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of A. solani. The stongest inhibitory effect was obtained for the extracts of Allium hirtifolium and Teucrium chamaedrys with radius inhibitory zones of 19.08 mm +- 0.48 and 15.58 mm +- 0.48, respectively. Furthermore, an experiment was performed to investigate synergistic effect of A. hirtifolium, Ferula assa-foetida and Artemisia sieberi separately and in combinations with each other based on agar dilution method on the growth of A. solani. Results indicated that a mixture of Allium hirtifolium and F. assa-foetida extracts caused complete mycelial growth inhibition of A. solani. The IC50 and IC95 values for A. hirtifolium bulbs were equal to 78 and 946 ppm, respectively. Moreover, methanolic extract of A. hirtifolium bulb significantly showed the highest inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of A. solani when compared with other plant parts. The results of inhibitory effect of fractions obtained by thin layer chromatography of A. hirtifolium bulbs showed that one band with Rf= 0.41 had an inhibitory effect against A. solani. (author)

  1. Changes in concentration of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores during summer storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2013-09-01

    Fungal spores are known to cause allergic sensitization. Recent studies reported a strong association between asthma symptoms and thunderstorms that could be explained by an increase in airborne fungal spore concentrations. Just before and during thunderstorms the values of meteorological parameters rapidly change. Therefore, the goal of this study was to create a predictive model for hourly concentrations of atmospheric Alternaria and Cladosporium spores on days with summer storms in Szczecin (Poland) based on meteorological conditions. For this study we have chosen all days of June, July and August (2004-2009) with convective thunderstorms. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and meteorological parameters: positive for air temperature and ozone content while negative for relative humidity. In general, before a thunderstorm, air temperature and ozone concentration increased, which was accompanied by a considerable increase in spore concentration. During and after a storm, relative humidity increased while both air temperature ozone concentration along with spore concentrations decreased. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to assess forecasting possibilities. Good performance of ANN models in this study suggest that it is possible to predict spore concentrations from meteorological variables 2 h in advance and, thus, warn people with spore-related asthma symptoms about the increasing abundance of airborne fungi on days with storms.

  2. Fungitoxic potential of tagetes erectus for the management of alternaria alternata strains of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) is economically the most vital vegetable crops of this world but diseases reduce tomato production to a greater extent worldwide. Plants exudates contribute a lot in fight against pathogens. The current study indicates the pathogenic potential of Alternaria alternata FCBP-573 against tomato. RAPD analysis confirmed that A. alternata FCBP-573 had variability in its genetic constitution with other two isolates; this disparity in genetic constitution might be a cause to stir up more pathogenicity in this isolate. Therefore, it was selected as the most pathogenic isolate and subjected to biological control through Tagetes erectus L. In antifungal bioassays different plant parts of T. erectus with 1-4% concentrations of aqueous, and organic extracts of each part were evaluated against A. alternata FCBP- 573. Results revealed that the growth of A. alternata FCBP-573 was greatly inhibited at 4% concentration of methanol extract followed by aqueous and n-hexane extract. Among different plant parts tested, root extract exhibited more promising results by causing 81-92% reduction in biomass. The research concludes that aqueous and organic extracts of ornamentals have potential to obstruct dreadful effect of pathogenic fungi by suppressing their growth. T. erectus conferred vital and surprisingly stable compounds having inhibitory potential against A. alternata FCBP-573. (author)

  3. Stress Response and Pathogenicity of the Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogen Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ren Chung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of host-selective toxins by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata is essential for the pathogenesis. A. alternata infection in citrus leaves induces rapid lipid peroxidation, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and cell death. The mechanisms by which A. alternata avoids killing by reactive oxygen species (ROS after invasion have begun to be elucidated. The ability to coordinate of signaling pathways is essential for the detoxification of cellular stresses induced by ROS and for pathogenicity in A. alternata. A low level of H2O2, produced by the NADPH oxidase (NOX complex, modulates ROS resistance and triggers conidiation partially via regulating the redox-responsive regulators (YAP1 and SKN7 and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase (HOG1 mediated pathways, which subsequently regulate the genes required for the biosynthesis of siderophore, an iron-chelating compound. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition plays a key role in ROS detoxification because of the requirement of iron for the activities of antioxidants (e.g., catalase and SOD. Fungal strains impaired for the ROS-detoxifying system severely reduce the virulence on susceptible citrus cultivars. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge of signaling pathways associated with cellular responses to multidrugs, oxidative and osmotic stress, and fungicides, as well as the pathogenicity/virulence in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata.

  4. BIOUTILIZATION OF GRAPE WASTE FOR EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION USING ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA NON-PIGMENT STRAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation, five mutant strains from A. alternate were isolated after exposure to gamma irradiation at dose level 8 kGy. The mutant isolated strains (MIS) were non-producing dark pigment and producing polysaccharide. The mutant isolated strain (MIS) belong to the Alternaria alternata MIS (1-5). In shake flask experiments, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was 2.90-5.24 g/l and biomass 5.8-8.31g/l. The effect of some fermentation conditions on grape wastes by A. alternata were investigated to produce EPS using gamma irradiation and non-pigment strain. The economical optimum fermentation condition for the highest EPS production by MIS4 when grown on grape waste containing 150 g/l sugar, incubation temperature 28oC, pH 7 with addition of both 2 % yeast extract and 1.5 % surfactant triton x-100 achieved 14.68 g/l EPS and 6.22 g/l biomass

  5. Cultural, Morphological and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria porri Causing Purple Blotch of Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad MOHSIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven (27 isolates of Alternaria porri were isolated from diseased leaf samples collected from different onion growing regions of Bangladesh and characterized for cultural, morphological and pathogenic variabilities. A. porri colonies colony colour ranged between light to dark olivacious and grayish white with irregular, regular with concentric ring and regular without concentric ring shape. Margin of colonies were entire, irregular and wavy with effuse, fluffy and velvety texture. Isolates impregnated media with colour ranged between grey to brown on the reverse of the plates. Growth rate of isolates ranged between 2.433 and 3.950 mm/day with fast growth in isolate DSTR 02 and least in MMBH. Morphological variation in conidia production was between 7.720×103 to 47.02×103 per mm2 with sporulation time 3.33 to 11.00 days. The conidial shape was straight to curve with light to deep brown colour. The number of horizontal and vertical separation in the conidia ranged from 3.00 to 6.00 × 1.00 to 2.00 with size from 11.20 to 39.20 × 4.76 to 11.43 µm. In pathogenicity test isolates also exhibited variations in size of the lesions (2.77 to 7.55 mm produced on onion leaves. The results demonstrate existence of considerable variation in cultural, morphological, and pathogenic characters of A. porri isolates prevalent in Bangladesh environment.

  6. Non-synergistic cytotoxic effects of Fusarium and Alternaria toxin combinations in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdovszky, Katharina; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Marko, Doris

    2016-01-22

    Exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins via food and feed generally involves a conglomeration of compounds contaminating the consumed products. Investigations on combinatory effects of mycotoxins are therefore of great importance. In this study, cytotoxic effects of binary mixtures of the Fusarium toxins enniatin B, aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, and tenuazonic acid produced by Alternaria spp., were evaluated by the WST-1 assay in the colorectal carcinoma cell-line Caco-2 after 24h of incubation. The selection of these mycotoxins was based on typically occurring natural contamination patterns in grains. Aurofusarin, which can be found abundantly in contaminated foodstuff and has not been toxicologically characterized properly so far, showed pronounced cytotoxicity, decreasing the mitochondrial activity at 10μM to 51% compared to a solvent control. Combinations of other mycotoxins with aurofusarin showed additive effects. In contrast, binary mixtures of enniatin B, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone at cytotoxic concentrations, predominantly resulted in antagonistic effects. Binary combinations of these four Fusarium toxins with tenuazonic acid also revealed interacting effects leading to a decrease in cytotoxicity, compared to expected combinatory effects. Especially in combination with deoxynivalenol, tenuazonic acid was found to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of this mycotoxin in Caco-2 cells. Synergistic effects were not observed for any toxin combination under the chosen conditions. PMID:26529482

  7. Identification and Bioactivity of Compounds from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

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    Jinhua Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Racemic new cyclohexenone and cyclopentenone derivatives, (±-(4R*,5S*,6S*-3-amino-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (1 and (±-(4S*,5S*-2,4,5-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-4-methoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one (2, and two new xanthone derivatives 4-chloro-1,5-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (3 and 2,8-dimethoxy-1,6-dimethoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (4, along with one known compound, fischexanthone (5, were isolated from the culture of the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS (Mass, one and two dimensional NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] scavenging activities with EC50 values of 8.19 ± 0.15 and 16.09 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. In comparison to Triadimefon, compounds 2 and 3 exhibited inhibitory activities against Fusarium graminearum with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 215.52 and 107.14 μM, respectively, and compound 3 exhibited antifungal activity against Calletotrichum musae with MIC value of 214.29 μM.

  8. Heptaketides with antiviral activity from three endolichenic fungal strains Nigrospora sp., Alternaria sp. and Phialophora sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun-Wei; Chen, Guo-Dong; Gao, Hao; Yang, Fan; Li, Xiao-Xia; Peng, Tao; Guo, Liang-Dong; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Two new heptaketides, (+)-(2S,3S,4aS)-altenuene (1a) and (-)-(2S,3S,4aR)-isoaltenuene (2a), together with six known compounds, (-)-(2R,3R,4aR)-altenuene (1b), (+)-(2R,3R,4aS)-isoaltenuene (2b), 5'-methoxy-6-methyl-biphenyl-3,4,3'-triol (3), alternariol (4), alternariol-9-methyl ether (5), and 4-hydroxyalternariol-9-methyl ether (6) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of an endolichenic fungal strain Nigrospora sphaerica (No.83-1-1-2). Compounds 1a and 1b were separated from enantiomers 1 by chiral HPLC, and so were 2a and 2b from enantiomers 2. Interestingly, 1-6 were also obtained from other two endolichenic fungal strains Alternaria alternata (No.58-8-4-1) and Phialophora sp. (No.96-1-8-1). The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by means of MS, HR-MS, NMR, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the absolute configurations of 1a-2b were determined by CD experiments and CD calculation. Of these compounds, 4 and 5 showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro, with IC(50) values of 13.5 and 21.3 μM, and with selective index (SI) values of 26.5 and 17.1, respectively. PMID:22613072

  9. Effects of Propionibacterium on the growth and mycotoxin production by some species of Fusarium and Alternaria.

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    Gwiazdowska, Daniela; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Filipiak, Marian; Gwiazdowski, Romuald

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the antifungal properties of propionibacteria. Three fractions from cultures of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 41 and ssp. freudenreichii 111 (i.e. culture containing viable bacteria, cell-free supernatant and bacteriocin preparation) were tested for their ability to inhibit the growth and mycotoxin production of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. The growth of the fungi was monitored during cultivation using a plating method. The concentration of toxins produced was measured by HPLC on the 14th day of culture. Altenuene and tenuazonic acid were determined in cultures of A. alternata whilst concentration of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1 and zearalenone was measured in Fusarium cultures. The strongest inhibition of growth and toxin production was observed in the presence of cultures containing viable cells and supernatants obtained from propionibacteria cultures. The bacteriocin extracts generally had a weak fungistatic effect on the growth of A. alternata, F. culmorum and F. graminearum. Despite the fact that growth was slower in the presence of bacteriocin extracts than in control trials, none of the preparations prepared from the propionibacteria significantly reduced the level of mycotoxin production. The ability of P. freudenreichii ssp. freudenreichii 111 to remove zearalenone from liquid medium was also evaluated. It was shown that both viable and non-viable cells caused a decrease in zearalenone concentration in the medium. PMID:19004241

  10. Role of mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmes, Benoit; Guillemette, Thomas; Teyssier, Lény; Siegler, Benjamin; Pigné, Sandrine; Landreau, Anne; Iacomi, Béatrice; Lemoine, Rémi; Richomme, Pascal; Simoneau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the physiological functions of fungal mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Mannitol metabolism was examined during infection of Brassica oleracea leaves by sequential HPLC quantification of the major soluble carbohydrates and expression analysis of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, i.e., a mannitol dehydrogenase (AbMdh), and a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (AbMpd). Knockout mutants deficient for AbMdh or AbMpd and a double mutant lacking both enzyme activities were constructed. Their capacity to cope with various oxidative and drought stresses and their pathogenic behavior were evaluated. Metabolic and gene expression profiling indicated an increase in mannitol production during plant infection. Depending on the mutants, distinct pathogenic processes, such as leaf and silique colonization, sporulation, survival on seeds, were impaired by comparison to the wild-type. This pathogenic alteration could be partly explained by the differential susceptibilities of mutants to oxidative and drought stresses. These results highlight the importance of mannitol metabolism with respect to the ability of A. brassicicola to efficiently accomplish key steps of its pathogenic life cycle. PMID:23717316

  11. Oxidative in vitro metabolism of the Alternaria toxins altenuene and isoaltenuene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Erika; Herrmann, Carina; Altemöller, Martina; Podlech, Joachim; Metzler, Manfred

    2009-04-01

    The mycotoxins altenuene (ALT) and isoaltenuene (iALT) frequently occur in food and feed items infested by fungi of the genus Alternaria, but nothing is known about their oxidative metabolism in mammals. We have therefore incubated ALT and iALT with microsomes from rat liver in the presence of a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-generating system and analyzed the extracted metabolites with HPLC and GC-MS after trimethylsilylation. Both toxins formed a major metabolite, which was tentatively identified as the 8-hydroxylation product by GC-MS analysis and by its methylation by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase. Three minor metabolites were tentatively identified as 10-hydroxy- and two stereoisomers of 4-hydroxy-ALT and -iALT. The same metabolic pattern was observed in microsomes from different rat strains and from pigs and humans. Moreover, incubation of ALT with rat liver slices provided evidence that the same oxidative metabolites were formed under in vivo-like conditions. Thus, ALT and iALT exhibit a considerable propensity for undergoing metabolic hydroxylation reactions, and the toxicological properties of the oxidative metabolites should now be studied. PMID:19065583

  12. Grouping sunflower genotypes for yield, oil content, and reaction to Alternaria leaf spot using GGE biplot

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    Regina Maria Villas Bôas de Campos Leite

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the suitability of the multivariate method of principal component analysis (PCA using the GGE biplot software for grouping sunflower genotypes for their reaction to Alternaria leaf spot disease (Alternariaster helianthi, and for their yield and oil content. Sixty-nine genotypes were evaluated for disease severity in the field, at the R3 growth stage, in seven growing seasons, in Londrina, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, using a diagrammatic scale developed for this disease. Yield and oil content were also evaluated. Data were standardized using the software Statistica, and GGE biplot was used for PCA and graphical display of data. The first two principal components explained 77.9% of the total variation. According to the polygonal biplot using the first two principal components and three response variables, the genotypes were divided into seven sectors. Genotypes located on sectors 1 and 2 showed high yield and high oil content, respectively, and those located on sector 7 showed tolerance to the disease and high yield, despite the high disease severity. The principal component analysis using GGE biplot is an efficient method for grouping sunflower genotypes based on the studied variables.

  13. Population genetic analysis reveals cryptic sex in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing-Wen; Zhu, Wen; He, Meng-Han; Wu, E-Jiao; Duan, Guo-Hua; Xie, Ye-Kun; Jin, Yu-Jia; Yang, Li-Na; Shang, Li-Ping; Zhan, Jiasui

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive mode can impact population genetic dynamics and evolutionary landscape of plant pathogens as well as on disease epidemiology and management. In this study, we monitored the spatial dynamics and mating type idiomorphs in ~700 Alternaria alternata isolates sampled from the main potato production areas in China to infer the mating system of potato early blight. Consistent with the expectation of asexual species, identical genotypes were recovered from different locations separated by hundreds of kilometers of geographic distance and spanned across many years. However, high genotype diversity, equal MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 frequencies within and among populations, no genetic differentiation and phylogenetic association between two mating types, combined with random association amongst neutral markers in some field populations, suggested that sexual reproduction may also play an important role in the epidemics and evolution of the pathogen in at least half of the populations assayed despite the fact that no teleomorphs have been observed yet naturally or artificially. Our results indicated that A. alternata may adopt an epidemic mode of reproduction by combining many cycles of asexual propagation with fewer cycles of sexual reproduction, facilitating its adaptation to changing environments and making the disease management on potato fields even more difficult. PMID:26666175

  14. Role of mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola

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    Benoit eCalmes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the physiological functions of fungal mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Mannitol metabolism was examined during infection of Brassica oleracea leaves by sequential HPLC quantification of the major soluble carbohydrates and expression analysis of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, i.e. a mannitol dehydrogenase (AbMdh, and a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (AbMpd. Knockout mutants deficient for AbMdh or AbMpd and a double mutant lacking both enzyme activities were constructed. Their capacity to cope with various oxidative and drought stresses and their pathogenic behaviour were evaluated. Metabolic and gene expression profiling indicated an increase in mannitol production during plant infection. Depending on the mutants, distinct pathogenic processes, such as leaf and silique colonization, sporulation, survival on seeds, were impaired by comparison to the wild-type. This pathogenic alteration could be partly explained by the differential susceptibilities of mutants to oxidative and drought stresses. These results highlight the importance of mannitol metabolism with respect to the ability of A. brassicicola to efficiently accomplish key steps of its pathogenic life cycle.

  15. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Some Medicinal Plants of Iran against Alternaria alternate

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    I. Hadizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing public concern over the level of pesticide residues in food especially fresh produce has built up adequate pressure for scientists to look for less hazardous and environmentally safer compounds for controlling post harvest diseases. Essential oils as registered food grade materials have the potential to be applied as alternative anti-fungal treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables. Approach: We present in this study, the identification of the essential oils with antifungal activity from some medicinal plants of Iran (nettle (Urtica dioica L., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp., Rue (Ruta graveolens L. and common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., and their potential application as "generally regarded as safe" antifungal compounds against Alternaria alternate on tomato as a model pathosystem. Results: Both the nettle and the thyme oils exhibited antifungal activity against A. alternata. The thyme oil exhibited a lower degree of inhibition 68.5 and 74.8% at 1500 and 2000 ppm, respectively. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of the pathogens in potato dextrose broth was strongly reduced in the presence of 1500 ppm of the nettle oil. The same concentration of this oil reduced the percentage of decayed tomatoes. The experiments on reducing the development of natural tomato rot gave similar results. Conclusions: Application of essential oils for postharvest disease control of fresh produce, as a novel emerging alternative to hazardous anti-fungal treatments will allow a safer and environmentally more acceptable management of postharvest diseases.

  16. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata in response to oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingshuang; Sun, Xuepeng; Yu, Dongliang; Xu, Jianping; Chung, Kuangren; Li, Hongye

    2016-01-01

    The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces the A. citri toxin (ACT) and is the causal agent of citrus brown spot that results in significant yield losses worldwide. Both the production of ACT and the ability to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required for A. alternata pathogenicity in citrus. In this study, we report the 34.41 Mb genome sequence of strain Z7 of the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata. The host selective ACT gene cluster in strain Z7 was identified, which included 25 genes with 19 of them not reported previously. Of these, 10 genes were present only in the tangerine pathotype, representing the most likely candidate genes for this pathotype specialization. A transcriptome analysis of the global effects of H2O2 on gene expression revealed 1108 up-regulated and 498 down-regulated genes. Expressions of those genes encoding catalase, peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin and glutathione were highly induced. Genes encoding several protein families including kinases, transcription factors, transporters, cytochrome P450, ubiquitin and heat shock proteins were found associated with adaptation to oxidative stress. Our data not only revealed the molecular basis of ACT biosynthesis but also provided new insights into the potential pathways that the phytopathogen A. alternata copes with oxidative stress. PMID:27582273

  17. Optimization of protease production by endophytic fungus, Alternaria alternata, isolated from an Australian native plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaferanloo, Bita; Quang, Trung D; Daumoo, Smita; Ghorbani, Mahmood M; Mahon, Peter J; Palombo, Enzo A

    2014-06-01

    Endophytes are recognised as potential sources of novel secondary metabolites, including enzymes and drugs, with applications in medicine, agriculture and industry. There is a growing need for new enzymes, including proteases, for use in industry that can function under a variety of conditions. In this study, three fungal endophytes (Alternaria alternata, Phoma herbarum and an unclassified fungus), were isolated from the Australian native plant, Eremophilia longifolia, and assessed for production of proteases. The lyophilised growth media obtained after fungal fermentation were analysed for protease production using enzyme activity assays. Protease production was optimised by assessing the effects of temperature, pH, carbon source and nitrogen source on activity. A. alternata showed the greatest protease activity in a wide range of pH (3-9). The broadest activity between 9 and 50 °C was observed at pH 7, suggesting a neutral protease. Overall, the optimum conditions were 37 °C and pH 7 with a maximum specific activity value of 69.86 BAEE units/mg. The characteristics demonstrated by this fungal endophyte showed that it is a potential source of an enzyme with particular application in the dairy industry. However, further studies of the tolerance to higher temperatures and pH will indicate whether the enzyme is suitable to such applications. PMID:24419660

  18. Green Chemistry Approach for the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using the Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, Naresh Niranjan; Rahul, Ganga Ravindran; Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Raman, Gurusamy; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles has gained tremendous attention owing to their immense applications in the field of biomedical sciences. Although several chemical procedures are used for the synthesis of nanoparticles, the release of toxic and hazardous by-products restricts their use in biomedical applications. In the present investigation, gold nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using the culture filtrate of the filamentous fungus Alternaria sp. The culture filtrate of the fungus was exposed to three different concentrations of chloroaurate ions. In all cases, the gold ions were reduced to Au(0), leading to the formation of stable gold nanoparticles of variable sizes and shapes. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis confirmed the formation of nanoparticles by reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0). TEM analysis revealed the presence of spherical, rod, square, pentagonal, and hexagonal morphologies for 1 mM chloroaurate solution. However, quasi-spherical and spherical nanoparticles/heart-like morphologies with size range of about 7-13 and 15-18 nm were observed for lower molar concentrations of 0.3 and 0.5 mM gold chloride solution, respectively. The XRD spectrum revealed the face-centered cubic crystals of synthesized gold nanoparticles. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of aromatic primary amines, and the additional SPR bands at 290 and 230 nm further suggested that the presence of amino acids such as tryptophan/tyrosine or phenylalanine acts as the capping agent on the synthesized mycogenic gold nanoparticles. PMID:25737119

  19. Effects of {gamma}-radiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata in artificially inoculated cereal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braghini, R. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas II, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: raquelbraghini@yahoo.com.br; Pozzi, C.R. [Instituto de Zootecnia, Rua Heitor Penteado 56, CEP 13460-000, Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Aquino, S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355 , CEP 01246-902, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, L.O.; Correa, B. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas II, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different {gamma}-radiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata in artificially inoculated cereal samples. Seeds and grains were divided into four groups: Control Group (not irradiated), and Groups 1, 2 and 3, inoculated with an A. alternata spore suspension (1x10{sup 6} spores/mL) and exposed to 2, 5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Serial dilutions of the samples were prepared and seeded on DRBC (dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar) and DCMA (dichloran chloramphenicol malt extract agar) media, after which the number of colony-forming units per gram was determined in each group. In addition, fungal morphology after irradiation was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that ionizing radiation at a dose of 5 kGy was effective in reducing the growth of A. alternata. However, a dose of 10 kGy was necessary to inhibit fungal growth completely. SEM made it possible to visualize structural alterations induced by the different {gamma}-radiation doses used.

  20. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata in response to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingshuang; Sun, Xuepeng; Yu, Dongliang; Xu, Jianping; Chung, Kuangren; Li, Hongye

    2016-01-01

    The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces the A. citri toxin (ACT) and is the causal agent of citrus brown spot that results in significant yield losses worldwide. Both the production of ACT and the ability to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required for A. alternata pathogenicity in citrus. In this study, we report the 34.41 Mb genome sequence of strain Z7 of the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata. The host selective ACT gene cluster in strain Z7 was identified, which included 25 genes with 19 of them not reported previously. Of these, 10 genes were present only in the tangerine pathotype, representing the most likely candidate genes for this pathotype specialization. A transcriptome analysis of the global effects of H2O2 on gene expression revealed 1108 up-regulated and 498 down-regulated genes. Expressions of those genes encoding catalase, peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin and glutathione were highly induced. Genes encoding several protein families including kinases, transcription factors, transporters, cytochrome P450, ubiquitin and heat shock proteins were found associated with adaptation to oxidative stress. Our data not only revealed the molecular basis of ACT biosynthesis but also provided new insights into the potential pathways that the phytopathogen A. alternata copes with oxidative stress. PMID:27582273

  1. Ellagitannin from Quercus infectoria eradicates intestinal colonization and prevents renal injuries in mice infected with Escherichia coli O157 : H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Suwalak, Sakol; Mitranan, Winyou

    2012-10-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the management of patients infected with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 : H7 remains controversial. Here, we examined the antibacterial efficacy of a natural product, ellagitannin from Quercus infectoria (Qi 4), against the organism in a murine model. Streptomycin-pretreated mice were orogastrically inoculated with 2×10(9) c.f.u. streptomycin-resistant E. coli O157 : H7. The results demonstrated a stable high level of STEC present in the faeces of the infected animals. The bacterial levels in infected mice receiving Qi 4 at MIC and 2×MIC were not significantly different from those of the untreated group (t-test; P>0.05). In contrast, Qi 4 at 4×MIC significantly reduced the numbers of STEC within 2 days (t-test; 0.05>P>0.01). No viable bacteria were detected between day 5 and day 10. Similarly, at day 10, no organisms were detected from the intestines of the Qi 4-treated group, while they were recovered at levels of 10(8-11) and 10(5-10) c.f.u. g(-1) in the colons and caeca of the infected mice, respectively. Histopathological findings from the infected kidneys revealed a marked increase in the number of mesangial cells and mesangial matrix. Ultrastructural examination of the kidneys from the infected mice also demonstrated proliferation of mesangial cells and an increase in the mesangial matrix. Cellular injury of endothelial cells with irregular borders and cytoplasmic bleb formation were noted. In contrast, the effects were not observed in the animals treated with Qi 4. The results clearly indicated that administration of Qi 4 could effectively eradicate the colonization of STEC O157 : H7 in the intestinal tract of mice and prevent renal injury. This compound may be an alternative candidate for a therapeutic agent against infections caused by this dangerous organism. PMID:22790205

  2. Occurrence of the Drosophila flavopilosa species group (Diptera, Drosophilidae in the state of São Paulo (Brazil with description of one new species

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    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available One new Brazilian species of Drosophila belonging to the nesiota subgroup of the flavopilosa group, which is recorded for the first time from the State of São Paulo, is illustrated and described as D. mariaehelenae, sp. nov. It has been found breeding on flowers of Cestrum intermedium Sendtn., together with D. cestri Brncic, D. cordeiroi Brncic, D. cordeiroi Brncic, D. flavopilosa Frey and D. incompta Wheeler & Takada, Zygothrica vittimaculosa Burla and one undetermined species of the Drosophila tripunctata species group. Photographs are provided of the male genitalia of the first four species.

  3. A new species of the gamasid mite genus Arctoseius Thor, 1930 (Parasitiformes, Mesostigmata, Ascidae from Russia with a key to the multidentatus species-group

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    Olga Makarova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new gamasid mite species belonging to the genus Arctoseius Thor, 1930 is described from Russia. Arctoseius koltschaki sp. n. is distributed in the plain and mountain tundras from Khibiny Mountains to Chukotka on the north and to West Sayan Mountains on the south. A diagnosis and a key for identification of species comprising the multidentatus species-group (A. multidentatus Evans, 1955; Arctoseius wisniewskii Gwiazdowicz & Kamczyc, 2009; A. sexsetus Lindquist & Makarova, 2011; A. haarlovi Lindquist & Makarova, 2011; and A. koltschaki sp. n. are given.

  4. A new species of the gamasid mite genus Arctoseius Thor, 1930 (Parasitiformes, Mesostigmata, Ascidae) from Russia with a key to the multidentatus species-group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Olga L; Lindquist, Evert E

    2013-01-01

    A new gamasid mite species belonging to the genus Arctoseius Thor, 1930 is described from Russia. Arctoseius koltschaki sp. n. is distributed in the plain and mountain tundras from Khibiny Mountains to Chukotka on the north and to West Sayan Mountains on the south. A diagnosis and a key for identification of species comprising the multidentatus species-group (Arctoseius multidentatus Evans, 1955; Arctoseius wisniewskii Gwiazdowicz & Kamczyc, 2009; Arctoseius sexsetus Lindquist & Makarova, 2011; Arctoseius haarlovi Lindquist & Makarova, 2011; and Arctoseius koltschaki sp. n.) are given. PMID:23840162

  5. Padrões isoenzimáticos e morfologia de isolados de Alternaria spp. patogênicos a Senna obtusifolia Isoenzyme patterns and morphology of isolates of Alternaria species pathogenic to Senna obtusifolia

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    SUELI C. M. MELLO

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolados de Alternaria spp. patogênicos ao fedegoso (Senna obtusifolia foram estudados quanto aos aspectos morfológicos e padrões isoenzimáticos, em gel de poliacrilamida. Com base nas características culturais, morfologia de colônias e morfometria de conídios, verificou-se que 11 dos 13 isolados pertenciam à espécie A. cassiae e os outros dois à A. alternata. Os resultados da análise eletroforética corroboraram as informações obtidas por meio de critérios morfológicos. Portanto, esta técnica tem potencial para ser usada na separação destas espécies de Alternaria. A ocorrência de mais de uma espécie deste gênero fúngico em S. obtusifolia foi constatada, ampliando o número de patógenos a serem avaliados no programa de desenvolvimento de um bioherbicida para esta espécie de planta daninha.Alternaria spp. isolates pathogenic to sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia were characterized based on morphological characteristics and isozyme patterns. Colonial morphology and conidial shape showed that 11 of the 13 isolates belong to A. cassiae. The other two isolates were identified as A. alternata. Isoenzyme patterns confirmed the results of morphological criteria. The occurrence of more than one species of this fungus infecting S. obtusifolia was found, widening the range of suitable pathogens to be evaluated in bioherbicide programs for sicklepod control.

  6. Fungal-specific transcription factor AbPf2 activates pathogenicity in Alternaria brassicicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yangrae; Ohm, Robin A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Srivastava, Akhil

    2012-12-03

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. To identify molecular determinants of pathogenicity, we created non-pathogenic mutants of a transcription factor-encoding gene, AbPf2. The frequency and timing of germination and appressorium formation on host plants were similar between the non-pathogenic abpf2 mutants and wild-type A. brassicicola. The mutants were also similar in vitro to wild-type A. brassicicola in terms of vegetative growth, conidium production, and responses to a phytoalexin, reactive oxygen species and osmolites. The hyphae of the mutants grew slowly but did not cause disease symptoms on the surface of host plants. Transcripts of the AbPf2 gene increased exponentially soon after wild-type conidia contacted their host plants . A small amount of AbPf2 protein, as monitored using GFP fusions, was present in young, mature conidia. The protein level decreased during saprophytic growth, but increased and was located primarily in fungal nuclei during pathogenesis. Levels of the proteins and transcripts sharply decreased following colonization of host tissues beyond the initial infection site. When expression of the transcription factor was induced in the wild-type during early pathogenesis, 106 fungal genes were also induced in the wild-type but not in the abpf2 mutants. Notably, 33 of the 106 genes encoded secreted proteins, including eight putative effector proteins. Plants inoculated with abpf2 mutants expressed higher levels of genes associated with photosynthesis, the pentose phosphate pathway and primary metabolism, but lower levels of defense-related genes. Our results suggest that AbPf2 is an important regulator of pathogenesis, but does not affect other cellular processes in A. brassicicola.

  7. Transcription Factor Amr1 Induces Melanin Biosynthesis and Suppresses Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yangrae; Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A.; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.

    2012-05-01

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. Several A. brassicicola genes have been characterized as affecting pathogenesis of Brassica species. To study regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis, we mined 421 genes in silico encoding putative transcription factors in a machine-annotated, draft genome sequence of A. brassicicola. In this study, targeted gene disruption mutants for 117 of the transcription factor genes were produced and screened. Three of these genes were associated with pathogenesis. Disruption mutants of one gene (AbPacC) were nonpathogenic and another gene (AbVf8) caused lesions less than half the diameter of wild-type lesions. Unexpectedly, mutants of the third gene, Amr1, caused lesions with a two-fold larger diameter than the wild type and complementation mutants. Amr1 is a homolog of Cmr1, a transcription factor that regulates melanin biosynthesis in several fungi. We created gene deletion mutants of ?amr1 and characterized their phenotypes. The ?amr1 mutants used pectin as a carbon source more efficiently than the wild type, were melanin-deficient, and more sensitive to UV light and glucanase digestion. The AMR1 protein was localized in the nuclei of hyphae and in highly melanized conidia during the late stage of plant pathogenesis. RNA-seq analysis revealed that three genes in the melanin biosynthesis pathway, along with the deleted Amr1 gene, were expressed at low levels in the mutants. In contrast, many hydrolytic enzyme-coding genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than in the wild type during pathogenesis. The results of this study suggested that a gene important for survival in nature negatively affected virulence, probably by a less efficient use of plant cell-wall materials. We speculate that the functions of the Amr1 gene are important to the success of A. brassicicola as a competitive saprophyte and plant parasite.

  8. Increasing the data size to accurately reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships between nine subgroups of the Drosophila melanogaster species group (Drosophilidae, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Hou, Zhuo-Cheng; Qian, Yuan-Huai; Kang, Han; Zeng, Qing-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Previous phylogenetic analyses of the melanogaster species group have led to conflicting hypotheses concerning their relationship; therefore the addition of new sequence data is necessary to discover the phylogeny of this species group. Here we present new data derived from 17 genes and representing 48 species to reconstruct the phylogeny of the melanogaster group. A variety of statistical tests, as well as maximum likelihood mapping analysis, were performed to estimate data quality, suggesting that all genes had a high degree of contribution to resolve the phylogeny. Individual locus was analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML), and the concatenated dataset (12,988 bp) were analyzed using partitioned maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses. Separated analysis produced various phylogenetic relationships, however, phylogenetic topologies from ML and Bayesian analysis based on concatenated dataset, at the subgroup level, were completely identical to each other with high levels of support. Our results recovered three major clades: the ananassae subgroup, followed by the montium subgroup, the melanogaster subgroup and the oriental subgroups form the third monophyletic clade, in which melanogaster (takahashii, suzukii) forms one subclade and ficusphila [eugracilis (elegans, rhopaloa)] forms another. However, more data are necessary to determine the phylogenetic position of Drosophila lucipennis which proved difficult to place. PMID:21985965

  9. New species and records of Stenus (Nestus of the canaliculatus group, with the erection of a new species group (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Steninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr B. Ryvkin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The canaliculatus species group of Stenus (Nestus is redefined. Four new Palaearctic species of the group are described and illustrated: S. (N. alopex sp. nov. from the Putorana Highland and Taymyr Peninsula, Russia; S. (N. canalis sp. nov. from SE Siberia and the Russian Far East; S. (N. canosus sp. nov. from the Narat Mt Ridge, Chinese Tien Shan; S. (N. delitor sp. nov. from C & SE Siberia. New distributional data as well as brief analyses of old records for fourteen species described earlier are provided from both Palaearctic and Nearctic material. S. (N. milleporus Casey, 1884 ​(= sectilifer Casey, 1884 is revalidated as a species propria. S. (N. sphaerops Casey, 1884 is redescribed; its aedeagus is figured for the first time; the aedeagus of S. (N. caseyi Puthz, 1972 as well as aedeagi of eight previously described Palaearctic species are illustrated anew. A key for the identification of all the known Palaearctic species of the group is given. A morphology and ecology based analysis of the main evolutionary trends within the group is provided. A lectotype is designated for S. (N. melanopus Marsham, 1802; its Siberian and NE European records are supposed to be erroneous; the monotypic melanopus species group is erected.

  10. Management of Onion Leaf Blight by Alternaria alternata (FR. Keissler by Botanicals and Bio-control Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Ebenezar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was carried out to assess the efficacy of plant oils, plant extracts and antagonistic microorganisms against leaf blight disease of onion caused by Alternaria alternata. Two sprays of neem oil (3% given on onion plants at the first appearance of the disease and the second on 15 days later recorded significantly the lowest percent disease index (22.22% and besides increasing the yield. In plant extracts Acorus calamus rhizome extract 10% was significantly reduced the disease incidence (34.78% followed by Mentha arvensis leaf extract.

  11. Altertoxins with potent anti-HIV activity from Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se, a fungal endophyte of Quercus emoryi

    OpenAIRE

    Bashyal, Bharat P.; Wellensiek, Brian P.; Ramakrishnan, Rajesh; Faeth, Stanley H.; Ahmad, Nafees; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Screening of a small library of natural product extracts derived from endophytic fungi of the Sonoran desert plants in a cell-based anti-HIV assay involving T-cells infected with the HIV-1 virus identified the EtOAc extract of a fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se inhabiting the stem tissue of Quercus emoryi as a promising candidate for further investigation. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation and identification of two new metabolites, alterto...

  12. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts against phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp Actividad antifúngica de extractos de plantas medicinales contra el hongo fitopatógeno Alternaria spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Díaz Dellavalle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of extracts of 10 plant species used in traditional Uruguayan medicine against the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp. The plants were selected on the basis of their reported ethnobotanical uses. Aqueous, saline buffer and acid extracts of different plant species were screened in vitro for their antifungal activity against Alternaria spp. For the antifungal evaluation we used a microspectrophotometric assay. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of the extracts were determined. Three solvents were assayed on different tissues of the plants and among the 29 evaluated extracts, 31% of the extracts inhibited growth, similar to the effects of a chemical fungicide. Acid extracts of the plants were more effective than the aqueous or buffer extracts against Alternaria spp. The MIC values of the extracts were determined ranging between 1.25 and 25 µg mL-1. The MFC values of the extracts ranged between 1.25 µg mL-1 (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and 10 µg mL-1 (Cynara scolymus L.. MICs and MFCs values obtained from leaves (Salvia officinalis L. and R. officinalis and seeds extracts (Salvia sclarea L. were quite comparable to values obtained with the conventional fungicide captan (2.5 µg mL-1. The extracts of Salvia sclarea, S. officinalis and R. officinalis could be considered as potential sources of antifungal compounds for treating diseases in plants. These extracts showed maximum activity, even at very low concentrations, and the same fungicide effects as chemical fungicide. We conclude from this that these extracts exhibit amazing fungicidal properties that support their traditional use as antiseptics.El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la actividad antifúngica de extractos vegetales de 10 especies utilizadas en la medicina tradicional uruguaya contra el hongo fitopatógeno Alternaria spp. Las plantas fueron seleccionadas en base a usos

  13. Description of a new species of Epicauta Dejean, 1834 from Mexico with a review of the Epicauta cupraeola species group (Coleoptera, Meloidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-París, M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a morphologically remarkable new species of the Epicauta cupraeola species group from the highlands of the State of Nayarit, Mexico. The external appearance of Epicauta cora sp. nov., is similar to that of Epicauta rufipennis and Epicauta diana, but it is distinct from both species based on male antennae structure, shape and pilosity of the head and pronotum, color of pronotal pilosity, and male fore-tarsal structure. The nine species integrating now the E. cupraeola species group have been revised. This study of 323 specimens, including diverse type material, confirms the synonymy of Cantharis rufescens with Epicauta basimacula first proposed by Pinto (1991, and reports new geographic records for Mexican taxa. The species of the E. cupraeola group are included in a key and illustrated photographically, including type specimens of five taxa. A phylogenetic re-analysis of the E. cupraeola species group results in the placement of the new species as sister to E. rufipennis, which together form a sister clade to the remaining species of the E. cupraeola group.Se describe una especie nueva, morfológicamente singular, del grupo de especies de Epicauta cupraeola de las zonas altas del Estado de Nayarit, México. La apariencia externa de Epicauta cora sp. nov., es similar a la de Epicauta rufipennis y Epicauta diana, pero difiere de ambas en la estructura de las antenas del macho, forma y pilosidad de la cabeza y pronoto, y estructura de las tibias anteriores del macho. Se revisan las nueve especies incluidas ahora en el grupo de especies de E. cupraeola. Este estudio que incluye 323 especímenes, entre ellos material tipo diverso, confirma la sinonimia de Cantharis rufescens con Epicauta basimacula propuesta por Pinto (1991, y aporta nuevos registros geográficos para las especies de México. Se presenta una clave para las especies del grupo de E. cupraeola y se ilustran foto gráficamente, incluyendo ejemplares tipo de cinco taxones. Un

  14. Sesquiterpene emissions from Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum: Effects of age, nutrient availability, and co-cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikl, Fabian; Ghirardo, Andrea; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Pritsch, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the most studied fungi to date because of its impact on human life - from plant pathogenicity to allergenicity. However, its sesquiterpene emissions have not been systematically explored. Alternaria regularly co-occurs with Fusarium fungi, which are common plant pathogens, on withering plants. We analyzed the diversity and determined the absolute quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace above mycelial cultures of A. alternata and Fusarium oxysporum under different conditions (nutrient rich and poor, single cultures and co-cultivation) and at different mycelial ages. Using stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we observed A. alternata to strongly emit sesquiterpenes, particularly during the early growth stages, while emissions from F. oxysporum consistently remained comparatively low. The emission profile characterizing A. alternata comprised over 20 sesquiterpenes with few effects from nutrient quality and age on the overall emission profile. Co-cultivation with F. oxysporum resulted in reduced amounts of VOCs emitted from A. alternata although its profile remained similar. Both fungi showed distinct emission profiles, rendering them suitable biomarkers for growth-detection of their phylotype in ambient air. The study highlights the importance of thorough and quantitative evaluations of fungal emissions of volatile infochemicals such as sesquiterpenes. PMID:26915756

  15. [Colonization characteristics of endophytic bacteria NJ13 in Panax ginseng and its biocontrol efficiency against Alternaria leaf spot of ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Li, Tong; Li, Xin-Lian; Jiang, Yun; Tian, Lei; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    To reveal the colonization characteristics in host of endophytic biocontrol bacteria NJ13 isolated from Panax ginseng, this study obtained the marked strain NJ13-R which was double antibiotic resistant to rifampicin and streptomycin through enhancing the method of inducing antibiotic. The colonization characteristics in ginseng and its biocontrol efficiency against Alternaria spot of ginseng in the field were studied. The results showed that the strain could colonize in root, stem and leaf of ginseng and the colonization amount was positive correlated with inoculation concentration. Meanwhile, the strain could infect and then transfer in different tissues of ginseng The colonization amount of strain in roots and leaves of ginseng increased first and then decreased. However, the tendency of colonization amount of strain in stems was ascend at first and then descend slowly, and was more than that in roots and leaves along with time, which had a preference to specific tissue of its host. In field experiment, the endophytic bacteria NJ13 was proved to be effective in controlling Alternaria leaf spot of ginseng. The biocontrol efficiency of fermentation broth at the concentration of 0.76 x 10(8) cfu x mL(-1) reached 75.62%, which was close to the controlling level (73.06%) of 0.67 mg x L(-1) 50% cyprodinil WG. PMID:25282882

  16. Review of the paper wasps of the Parapolybia indica species-group (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) in eastern parts of Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Morooka, Fuki; Nguyen, Lien T P; Kojima, Jun-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Nine species of the Parapolybia indica species-group in eastern parts of Asia are reviewed. Four new species are described: P. flava sp. nov. (Vietnam), P. crocea sp. nov. (Japan), P. nana sp. nov. (Vietnam), and P. albida sp. nov. (Vietnam). Parapolybia indica (de Saussure, 1854), P. bioculata van der Vecht, 1966 and P. tinctipennis (Cameron, 1900) are redescribed. The status is reinstanted for P. fulvinerva (Cameron, 1900), stat. resurr. and P. tinctipennis (Cameron, 1900), stat. resurr. and new status is proposed for P. bioculata van der Vecht, 1966, stat. nov. Parapolybia tinctipennis (Cameron, 1900) is newly recorded from China, Vietnam and Laos. The key to species is given. The nests of P. indica, P. bioculata, P. tinctipennis, P. flava and P. crocea are remarked. PMID:25947731

  17. Estimates of the Direct Effect of Seawater pH on the Survival Rate of Species Groups in the California Current Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, D Shallin; McElhany, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) has the potential to restructure ecosystems due to variation in species sensitivity to the projected changes in ocean carbon chemistry. Ecological models can be forced with scenarios of OA to help scientists, managers, and other stakeholders understand how ecosystems might change. We present a novel methodology for developing estimates of species sensitivity to OA that are regionally specific, and applied the method to the California Current ecosystem. To do so, we built a database of all published literature on the sensitivity of temperate species to decreased pH. This database contains 393 papers on 285 species and 89 multi-species groups from temperate waters around the world. Research on urchins and oysters and on adult life stages dominates the literature. Almost a third of the temperate species studied to date occur in the California Current. However, most laboratory experiments use control pH conditions that are too high to represent average current chemistry conditions in the portion of the California Current water column where the majority of the species live. We developed estimates of sensitivity to OA for functional groups in the ecosystem, which can represent single species or taxonomically diverse groups of hundreds of species. We based these estimates on the amount of available evidence derived from published studies on species sensitivity, how well this evidence could inform species sensitivity in the California Current ecosystem, and the agreement of the available evidence for a species/species group. This approach is similar to that taken by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to characterize certainty when summarizing scientific findings. Most functional groups (26 of 34) responded negatively to OA conditions, but when uncertainty in sensitivity was considered, only 11 groups had relationships that were consistently negative. Thus, incorporating certainty about the sensitivity of species and functional groups to

  18. Associated field mycobiota on malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf; Svendsen, Anne; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    1996-01-01

    composition of field mycobiota compared with the pesticide-free barley. The determining factor on the mycobiota was the location. The dominant species on barley was Alternaria infectoria Simmons. The most frequent Fusarium species detected were F. tricinctum (Corda) Sacc. and F. avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc. Results...... implied an interaction between Alternaria and Fusarium on the surface of the kernels....

  19. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  20. Expression of ß-1,3-glucanase and ß-1,4-glucanase in two potato cultivars following challenge by the fungal pathogen Alternaria solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early blight of potato, caused by Alternaria solani, is a ubiquitous disease in many countries around the world. We have previously found that variation in resistance phenotypes exist between two different Iranian cultivars of potato. Cultivar ‘Diamond’ is more resistant to multiple isolates of A. s...

  1. Functional analyses of the Diels-Alderase gene sol5 of Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani indicate that the Solanapyrone phytotoxins are not required for pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani, the causal agents of Ascochyta blight of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), respectively, produce a set of phytotoxic compounds incuding solanapyrones A, B, and C. Although both the phytotoxicity of solanopyrones and the...

  2. Evaluation of a triplex real-time PCR system to detect the plant-pathogenic molds Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and C. purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Sabrina; Schönling, Jutta; Prange, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development of a triplex real-time PCR system for the simultaneous detection of three major plant-pathogenic mold genera (Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and the species Claviceps purpurea). The designed genus-specific primer-probe systems were validated for sensitivity, specificity and amplification in the presence of background DNA. PMID:26545945

  3. The dynamics of the fungal aerospores Alternaria sp. and Cladosporium sp. in Parisian atmospheric air, in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezoczki, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The bioallergens occurring naturally in the atmospheric air are microorganisms, pollen grains, plant seeds, leaf and stem scrap, or their protein molecules. The presence of various airborne fungal spores determines a high allergenic potential for public health. This effect is due to the high number of produced spores, which under favourable meteorological conditions (dry weather and wind) reach the surrounding air. This paper traces the dynamics of two types of fungi, Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp, fungi which can be found outdoors, in the surrounding air, as well as indoors, inside houses (especially the conidia of Cladosporium sp). The effects of these fungal spores on human health are varies, ranging from seasonal allergies (hay fever, rhinitis, sinusitis etc.) to sever afflictions of the respiratory system, onset of asthma, disfunctionalities of the nervous systems, of the immune system, zymoses etc. The monitoring of the dynamics of the aerospores Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp was carried out between 2010 and 2013, over a period of 42 weeks during one calendar year, from February to the end of September, in the surrounding air in the French capital, Paris. The regional and global climate and meteorological conditions are directly involved in the occurrence and development of fungi colonies, the transportation and dispersion of fungal spores in the atmospheric air, as well as in the creation of the environment required for the interaction of chemical and biological components in the air. Knowledge of the dynamics of the studied fungal aerospores, coupled with climate and meteorological changes, offers a series of information on the magnitude of the allergenic potential these airborne spores can determine. Legal regulations in this domain set the allergen risk threshold for the Alternaria sp aerospores at 3500 ÷ 7000 spores/m3 air/week, and for the Cladosporium sp aerospores at 56,000 spores/m3 air/week. Besides these regulations there exist a series of

  4. 河北鸭梨病果上链格孢分离系的形态及分子特性研究%Morphological and molecular characterization of Alternaria isolates on fruits of Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. "Ya Li"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 张天宇

    2008-01-01

    A total of 123 Alternaria isolates were obtained from roting fruits of Pyrus bretschneideri "Ya Li" collected in Hebei Province, China. The isolates, according to morphological characteristics of conidia and sporulation patterns, were segregated into four groups: A. alternata group, A. tenuissima group, A. yaliinficiens group and Alternaria sp. group. Molecular characteristics of part of the isolates were determined using random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) analysis. Based on cluster analysis of RAPD data, large- and small-spored Alternaria spp. were evidently distinguished, and the small-spored species can form five clusters that fundamentally paralleled the morphological groupings.

  5. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sokolov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (G. gimlii Erwin, G. integripennis (Bates and G. zullinii Vigna Taglianti and 12 described here as new. They are: G. andersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec and G. vignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez from Mexico; G. antigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua, G. balini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán, G. erwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros, G. jalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla, G. longinoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón, and G. minimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua from Guatemala; and G. celaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park, G. comayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua, G. disjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park, and G. lencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at elevations above 1300m, with no species shared among them. Major faunal barriers in the region limiting present species distributions

  6. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina) from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Igor M; Kavanaugh, David H

    2014-01-01

    Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (Geocharidiusgimlii Erwin, Geocharidiusintegripennis (Bates) and Geocharidiuszullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidiusandersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidiusvignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez) from Mexico; Geocharidiusantigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua), Geocharidiusbalini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán), Geocharidiuserwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros), Geocharidiusjalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla), Geocharidiuslonginoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón), and Geocharidiusminimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua) from Guatemala; and Geocharidiuscelaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park), Geocharidiuscomayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua), Geocharidiusdisjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park), and Geocharidiuslencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park) from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at

  7. The Schistosoma indicum species group in Nepal: presence of a new lineage of schistosome and use of the Indoplanorbis exustus species complex of snail hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Ramesh; Brant, Sara V; Loker, Eric S

    2015-11-01

    From 2007-2014, 19,360 freshwater snails from the Terai and Hilly regions of Nepal were screened for cercariae of mammalian schistosomes. Based on analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I, 12S, 16S and 28S sequences (3,675bp) of the cercariae recovered, we provide, to our knowledge, the first report of the Schistosoma indicum species group in Nepal. Five samples of Schistosoma nasale, nine of Schistosoma spindale and 17 of Schistosoma sp. were recovered, all from the snail Indoplanorbis exustus. The last-mentioned lineage failed to group in any of our analyses with S. nasale, S. spindale or S. indicum. It diverged in cox1 sequence from them by 16%, 13% and 13%, respectively, levels of difference comparable to well-studied species pairs of Schistosoma. Analysis of cox1, 16S and internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences (1,874bp) for Nepalese specimens of I. exustus was also surprising in revealing the presence of four genetically distinct clades. They diverged from one another at levels comparable to those noted for species pairs in the sister genus Bulinus. There was no obvious pattern of use by Nepalese Schistosoma of the Indoplanorbis clades. We found high support for a close relationship between S. indicum and Schistosoma haematobium groups, but failed to retrieve support for a clean separation of the two, with a tendency for S. nasale to fall as the most basal representative. If this pattern holds, hypotheses for the origin of the Asian Indoplanorbis-transmitted S. indicum group from the Bulinus-transmitted S. haematobium group may require modification, including consideration of more contemporaneous origins of the two groups. The Indian subcontinent is under-studied with respect to schistosome diversity and our current knowledge of the S. indicum and I. exustus species groups is inadequate. Further study is warranted given the ability of indicum group species to cause veterinary problems and cercarial dermatitis, with a worrisome potential in the future to

  8. Conidia of Alternaria in the atmosphere of the city of Cordoba, Spain in relation to meteorological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Romero, J.; Mediavilla-Molina, Ana; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio

    In this study, we have analyzed the presence of conidia belonging to different species of the genus Alternaria in the atmosphere of the city of Cordoba, using a Hirst sampler. The results show that spores of this genus are present all year, with a clear seasonal pattern which shows two peaks, one in spring and the other in fall. A total of 26,822 conidia/m3 have been sampled, which implies a daily mean of 74.3 conidia/m3. Statistical analyses comparing the data with meteorological parameters show a positive correlation with maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, and a negative correlation with rain. Nevertheless, meteorological parameters seem to affect the number of conidia differently according to the season of the year. Regression analyses carried out in order to obtain a predictive pattern show that the best fit is between the 7-day running mean of the number of conidia and a week's accumulated mean temperature.

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p potato plants.

  10. Capsaicin production by Alternaria alternata, an endophytic fungus from Capsicum annum; LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devari, Shekaraiah; Jaglan, Sundeep; Kumar, Manjeet; Deshidi, Ramesh; Guru, Santosh; Bhushan, Shashi; Kushwaha, Manoj; Gupta, Ajai P; Gandhi, Sumit G; Sharma, Jai P; Taneja, Subhash C; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Shah, Bhahwal Ali

    2014-02-01

    Alternaria alternata, an endophytic fungus capable of producing capsaicin (1) was isolated from Capsicum annum. The endophyte was found to produce capsaicin upto three generations. Upscaling of the fermentation broth led to the isolation of one known and one compound characterized as 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol (2) and alternariol-10-methyl ether (3) respectively. Compound 1 and 3 were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) system through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Furthermore, compound 3 displayed a range of cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines and was found to induce apoptosis evidenced by Hoechst staining and loss of mitochondrial-membrane potential in HL-60 cells. PMID:24378219

  11. Revised taxonomy of Temognatha duponti (Boisduval and T. stevensii (Gehin (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Stigmoderini, with definition of the grandis and stevensii species-groups

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    Magnus Peterson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The nominal species Temognatha duponti (Boisduval, 1835 and T. barbiventris (Carter, 1916 are considered conspecific. The specific name barbiventris (Carter, 1916 syn. nov. is a subjective synonym of the name duponti (Boisduval, 1835. The nominal species Temognatha stevensii (Gehin, 1855 is not considered conspecific with Temognatha duponti (Boisduval, 1835. The specific name stevensii (Gehin, 1855 is revalidated as the name of the species Temognatha stevensii (Gehin, 1855. The specific name tibialis (Waterhouse, 1874 is a subjective synonym of the name stevensii (Gehin, 1855. The prevailing usage (ICZN, Article 33.3.1 of the name stevensii over stewensii is preserved for the species Temognatha stevensii (Gehin, 1855. Both valid species are diagnosed/redescribed and illustrated, and their relationships, biology and distributions are discussed. Complete synonymies and references, and photos/illustrations of some diagnostic head, elytral and genitalic structural features, are also provided. The Temognatha grandis and T. stevensii species-groups are defined. Lectotypes are designated for Buprestis duponti Boisduval, 1835 and Stigmodera tibialis Waterhouse, 1874.

  12. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAF BLIGHT OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CAUSED BY Alternaria dauci (KÜHN GROVES & SKOLKO: SURVIVAL OF Alternaria dauci IN VEGETAL RESIDUES OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CROP ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA QUEIMA DAS FOLHAS DA CENOURA (Daucus carota L. CAUSADA POR Alternaria dauci (Kühn GROVES & SKOLKO: Sobrevivência de Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & SKOLKO em restos culturais da cenoura (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Martins Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The spore viability of Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & Skolko in carrot (Daucus carota L. debris which were kept at different levels of temperature and relative humidity, without light, was studied. The temperature levels tested were 8, 16, 24 and 32°C, and the relative humidity levels 3, 18, 51, 73 and 100%. The treatments were different combinations of these levels. Humidity was the more important factor in preserving the fungus spore ability to germinate and its infectivity. Under conditions of high relative humidity and temperatures of 24 and 32°C, the spores rapidly lost their viability. This did not happen when the relative humidity was equal to, or below, 51%. The survival of fungus mycelium on carrot petioles was studied in non-treated organic soil, at different humidity levels, at three different depths, during a period of 120 days. Soil humidity was the factor of major significance in the persistence of the mycelium, followed by depths and time factors. In petioles kept at depths of 10 and 20 cm in humid soil, the survival was greatly reduced, while survival was markedly higher in those kept at the surface of dry soil. The effect of humidity on the viability of mycelium was studied also under soiless condition. Petioles were maintained in relative humidity controlled chamber, at 24°C. In saturated atmosphere (100% humidity, the mycelium viability was lost in less than 20 days. It was concluded that both, the conidial and mycelial form of Alternaria dauci are quite sensitive to high humidity levels.

    Estudou-se a sobrevivência das formas conidial e miceliana de Alternaria dauci, respectivamente, sobre folhas necrosadas e pecíolos de cenoura, sob diferentes condições mesológicas. Os esporos do fungo sobre conidióforos em folhas necrosadas de cenoura foram mantidos por 120 dias sob condi

  13. Genetically based location from triploid populations and gene ontology of a 3.3-mb genome region linked to alternaria brown spot resistance in citrus reveal clusters of resistance genes

    OpenAIRE

    José Cuenca; Pablo Aleza; Antonio Vicent; Dominique Brunel; Patrick Ollitrault; Luis Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis of phenotypical traits and marker-trait association in polyploid species is generally considered as a challenge. In the present work, different approaches were combined taking advantage of the particular genetic structures of 2n gametes resulting from second division restitution (SDR) to map a genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot (ABS) resistance in triploid citrus progeny. ABS in citrus is a serious disease caused by the tangerine pathotype of the fungus Alternaria ...

  14. Ecological Species Groups of Wetland Vegetation on Lianbotan in Fen River, Shanxi%汾河连伯滩湿地植被生态种组

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦磊; 张峰

    2011-01-01

    根据42个野外样方调查资料,采用Fisher精确检验、Pearson相关系数和Spearman秩相关系数,研究汾河连伯滩湿地21个优势种的种间关系,结合组平均法的聚类结果,对生态种组进行了划分.结果表明:1)在210个种对中,Fisher精确检验结果表明共有16个种对为正关联,1个种对为负关联;Pearson相关系数有20个种对为正相关,5个种对为负相关;Spearman秩相关系数有34个种对为正相关,7个种对为负相关;2)在所有的种对中,大多数种对间表现为不显著关联,种间不显著相关,说明优势种群间生态位相对分离;3)综合种间关联、种间相关和聚类分析结果,将21个优势种划分成4个生态种组,分别是芦苇生态种组、赖草生态种组、白茅生态种组和野艾蒿生态种组,这4个生态种组反映了随水分条件变化连伯滩湿地植被群落的组成特征.%Interspecies relationships between the dominant species of wetland vegetation on Lianbotan in Fen River,Shanxi by Fishers exact test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation based on the data collected from 42 field plots. Ecological species groups of those dominant species were studied by using group averaging clustering.The results indicated that: Sixteen species-pairs had positive association coefficient and one species-pair had negative association coefficient by Fisher's exact test. In addition, 20 species-pairs had positive correlation coefficient and 5 species-pairs had negative correlation coefficient by Pearson's correlation analysis. Furthermore, 34 species-pairs displayed positive and 7 were negative correlations by Spearman. Associations and correlations between most species-pairs were not significant, which suggested that the dominant species distributed in an isolated pattern and their inches separated. On the basis of the results of association and correlation of those dominant species as well as that of analysis of clustering, those

  15. Preserving species populations in the boreal zone in a changing climate: contrasting trends of bird species groups in a protected area network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimo Virkkala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A protected area network should ensure the maintenance of biodiversity. Because of climate change, species ranges are expected to move polewards, causing further demand for the protected area network to be efficient in preserving biota. We compared population changes of different bird species groups according to their habitat preferences in boreal protected areas in Finland on the basis of large-scale censuses carried out in 1981–1999 and in 2000–2009. Population densities of common forest habitat generalists remained the same between the two periods, while densities of species of conservation concern showed contrasting trends: species preferring old-growth forests increased, but those living in mires and wetlands, and species of Arctic mountains decreased. These trends are most probably connected with climate change, but successional changes in protected areas and regional habitat alteration should also be taken into account. Of species preferring old-growth forests, a larger proportion are southern than among species of mires and wetlands, or of Arctic mountains, most or all of which, respectively, had a northerly distribution. In general, northern species have decreased and southern increased with the exception of northern species of old-growth forests which had not declined. On the other hand, bird species of mires and wetlands decreased also in the northernmost protected areas although mires had not been drained in the region in contrast with southern and central Finland thus indicating that regional-scale direct habitat loss did not cause the decline of these species in the north. It is suggested that climate change effects on species in natural boreal and Arctic habitats most probably are habitat-specific with large differences in response times and susceptibility.

  16. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  17. Phylogeny of Laniarius: molecular data reveal L. liberatus synonymous with L. erlangeri and "plumage coloration" as unreliable morphological characters for defining species and species groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguembock, Billy; Fjeldså, Jon; Couloux, Arnaud; Pasquet, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Laniarius is one of the larger genera within the avian bush-shrike radiation, the family Malaconotidae. Fairly homogenous by size and shape but highly variable by colours, these have been classified mainly on basis of plumage colours. In the present study, which is the first taxon-dense analysis of the genus Laniarius based on molecular sequence data (nuclear BRM15 intron-15, and mitochondrial ND2 and ATPase6 genes), we investigate interrelationships between 16 species and 34 subspecies of Laniarius. Altogether 2094bp were aligned and subjected to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses. Results strongly support the monophyly of Laniarius, and place it close to Chlorophoneus, but without outlining a precise sister-group. In a generally well-resolved phylogeny of Laniarius, L. leucorhynchus and L. atrococcineus constitute deep branches and the remaining species form five clades which are not concordant with previously defined superspecies. The black and white boubous belong to two different clades. L. aethiopicus appears polyphyletic and our results support the resurrection of Laniarius major, Laniarius erlangeri and Laniarius sublacteus. We also find that L. liberatus, described in 1991 based on the only known live individual, is identified as an unusual colour morph from L. erlangeri. The black boubous are not monophyletic; L. funebris and L. leucorhynchus appear as isolated species whereas L. poensis and L. fuelleborni are sister-taxa. We recovered the polyphyly of crimson boubous and new hypotheses on their relationships have been generated. Overall, the variation in pigments and patterns does not follow phylogenetic lineages. The plumage coloration could be thoroughly subject to modification and it could not reflect exactly colour plumages of the parents. From then on, the plumage coloration appears as an unreliable morphological character for defining species and species groups. PMID:18514549

  18. Sobrevivência saprofítica de Alternaria brassicicola e manejo de restos foliares de brócolos Saprophytic survival of Alternaria brassicicola and management of broccoli leaf debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Martins Peruch

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A sobrevivência saprofítica do fungo Alternaria brassicicola foi investigada em restos foliares de brócolos (Brassica oleracea var. italica, em diferentes profundidades de incorporação no solo, períodos do ano e sistemas de manejo do solo. Os restos foliares infectados pelo patógeno foram distribuídos em parcelas no campo, na superfície do solo e nas profundidades de 5 e 10cm. Periodicamente, os restos foliares foram coletados e a concentração de conídios quantificada, sendo obtida a longevidade da esporulação e a taxa de extinção da esporulação. Foi verificada maior longevidade da esporulação nos restos foliares no período com temperaturas amenas, maior umidade relativa do ar e menor precipitação pluvial. Menor esporulação ocorreu quando os restos culturais foram incorporados a 10cm de profundidade. Quando comparados os sistemas de manejo convencional e orgânico, houve diferença na taxa de extinção da esporulação do patógeno quando a fonte de inóculo foi depositada nas profundidades de 5 e 10cm, sendo superior no solo sob manejo convencional, enquanto na superfície do solo não houve diferença. O manejo da alternariose em brócolos na região do estudo pode ser realizado pela incorporação dos restos foliares infectados no solo, à profundidade mínima de 10cm, visando a um intervalo mínimo de 60 dias entre cultivos de brássicas.The saprophytic survival of the fungus Alternaria brassicicola was investigated in leaf debris of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica, at different depths of soil incorporation, periods of the year, and systems of soil management. Infected leaf debris were distributed in field plots, at the soil surface and at depths of 5 and 10cm. Periodically, the debris in the bags were collected and conidia concentrations were quantified for longevity of spore production and extinction rate. Higher spore production longevity was observed on leaf debris in the period with lower temperatures

  19. Determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in wine and juice using ionic liquid modified countercurrent chromatography as a pretreatment method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chen; Cao, Xueli; Liu, Man; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants in food materials. The objective of this study was to develop a pretreatment method with countercurrent chromatography (CCC) for enrichment and cleanup of trace Alternaria mycotoxins in food samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. An Analytical CCC instrument with a column volume 22.5mL was used, and a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate and water modified with 6% [HOOMIM][Cl] in mass to volume ratio was selected. Under the optimized CCC operation conditions, trace amounts of AOH, AME, and TeA in large volume of liquid sample were efficiently extracted and enriched in the stationary phase, and then eluted out just by reversing the stationary phase as mobile phase in the opposite flowing direction tail-to-head. The enrichment and elution strategies are unique and can be fulfilled online with high enrichment factors (87-114) and high recoveries (81.14-110.94%). The method has been successively applied to the determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in real apple juice and wine samples with the limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.03-0.14μgL(-1). Totally 12 wine samples and 15 apple juice samples from the local market were analyzed. The detection rate of AOH and AME in both kinds of the samples were more than 50%, while TeA was found in relatively high level of 1.75-49.61μgL(-1) in some of the apple juice samples. The proposed method is simple, rapid, and sensitive and could also be used for the analysis and monitoring of Alternaria mycotoxin in other food samples. PMID:26858114

  20. Onychomycosis and keratomycosis caused by Alternaria sp. A bipolar opportunistic infection in a wood-pulp worker on chronic steroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrese, J E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    1996-12-01

    We report a case of Alternaria infection of the nail and cornea in an immunocompromised patient working in the paper-manufacturing industry. This unusual clinical presentation could represent an occupational disorder. The importance of histologic examination of the altered nails is emphasized. The proof of a real nondermatophytic onychomycosis is established only when hyphae of culture-proven molds are shown inside the nail plate. PMID:8989935

  1. PATHOGENIC BEHAVIOUR OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA AND PHYTOTOXICITY OF ITS CULTURE FILTRATES ON LEPIDIUM SATIVUM: A MEDICINAL HERB OF IMMENSE PHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. K. KHARE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot in Lepidium sativum was isolated and purified from diseased leaf tissuescollected from collected from the Medicinal and Aromatic plant garden, Department of Crop and HerbalPhysiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.; isolated and purified on Potato DextroseAgar media. Microscopic examination of a seven days old culture revealed hyaline, septate and branched mycelia,conidiophores with 30.0-80.2 µ length and 3-6 µ width and obclavate to obpyriform conidia (23-30 x 9.2-12.7µ with short conical beak arranged in acropetal fashion. The isolated culture and its culture filtrates wereinoculated to germinated seedlings of chandrasur and also incubated with healthy leaves in a growth chamber.Typical symptoms of Alternaria leaf spot was observed both in in vivo and in vitro inoculated plantlets anddetached leaves respectively. Chlorosis on the hypocotyls and leaves were observed. A. alternata was consistentlyreisolated from symptomatic leaf tissues on PDA. Thus, an efficient and reliable screening method wherein theeffect of the selection agent (pathogen culture, culture filtrate/phytotoxin was demonstrated providing soundpharmacological rational in terms of micro propagation and development of Alternaria resistant L. sativum, animportant medicinal herb.

  2. Patogenicidade de Alternaria cichorii sobre espécies da família Asteraceae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Milton L. Paz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 2001, plantas de chicória (Cichorium endivia originárias do município de Catalão-GO apresentando sintomas de manchas e queima foliar foram recebidas na Clínica Fitopatológica da Embrapa Hortaliças (CNPH. Tecidos submetidos à câmara úmida produziram esporulação fúngica, de onde foi obtida cultura monospórica em BDA + cloranfenicol. Para o teste de patogenecidade, o fungo foi multiplicado em meio de cultura suco de tomate ágar (ST e inoculado em plantas de chicória da cultivar comercial AG-3804, em casa-de-vegetação. Após dez dias de incubação, verificou-se nas plantas inoculadas a presença de sintomas, semelhantes àqueles observados inicialmente. O patógeno foi reisolado a partir destas lesões, completando os postulados de Koch. Em seguida, visando testar a possibilidade deste patógeno infetar outras plantas da família Asteraceae, conídios produzidos em ST e atomizados em plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa (três variedades, almeirão (Cichorium intybus (duas variedades, Catalonha (Cichorium intybus folha fina, serralha (Sonchus oleraceus e uma outra variedade de chicória. Houve infecção em todas as plantas inoculadas, sendo que os sintomas variaram nas espécies e nas variedades testadas. Em chicória os sintomas surgiram mais cedo e se desenvolveram rapidamente. O fungo foi caracterizado morfológica e morfometricamente permitindo identificá-lo como sendo Alternaria cichorii. Não se encontra registro desta espécie de Alternaria infetando plantas da família Asteraceae no Brasil. Neste trabalho relata-se pela primeira vez, a ocorrência de A. cichorii infetando chicória no Brasil e o potencial deste fungo como patógeno de outras espécies da família Asteraceae.

  3. Screening of allelopathic trees for their antifungal potential against Alternaria alternata strains isolated from dying-back Eucalyptus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Arshad; Samad, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of leaves of three tree species, namely Azadirachta indica L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Melia azedarach L. was evaluated against two strains of Alternaria alternata, isolated from dying-back trees of two Eucalyptus spp., namely Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus. All the concentrations (1, 2, … , 5% w/v) of the methanolic extracts of the three tree species significantly reduced the fungal biomass. There were reductions in the ranges 82-88%, 88-96% and 83-96% in the biomass of A. alternata strains due to different concentrations of the leaf extracts of S. cumini, A. indica and M. azedarach, respectively. Methanolic extract of M. azedarach was subjected to further fractionation using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol successively in the order of increasing polarity. Aqueous and n-butanol fractions gave promising results in the significant decrease in fungal biomass. This study concludes that aqueous and n-butanol fractions of methanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach can be used as biofungicides for the management of A. alternata. PMID:22007991

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of Alternaria spores in the Iberian Peninsula atmosphere, and meteorological relationships: 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, Francisco-Javier; Fernández-González, María; Seijo, Carmen; Elvira-Rendueles, Belén; Abreu, Ilda; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, Montserrat; Pérez-Sánchez, Elena; Oliveira, Manuela; Recio, Marta; Tormo, Rafael; Morales, Julia

    2013-03-01

    This paper provides an updated of airborne Alternaria spore spatial and temporal distribution patterns in the Iberian Peninsula, using a common non-viable volumetric sampling method. The highest mean annual spore counts were recorded in Sevilla (39,418 spores), Mérida (33,744) and Málaga (12,947), while other sampling stations never exceeded 5,000. The same cities also recorded the highest mean daily spore counts (Sevilla 109 spores m-3; Mérida 53 spores m-3 and Málaga 35 spores m-3) and the highest number of days on which counts exceeded the threshold levels required to trigger allergy symptoms (Sevilla 38 % and Mérida 30 % of days). Analysis of annual spore distribution patterns revealed either one or two peaks, depending on the location and prevailing climate of sampling stations. For all stations, average temperature was the weather parameter displaying the strongest positive correlation with airborne spore counts, whilst negative correlations were found for rainfall and relative humidity.

  5. Transcriptional Responses of the Bdtf1-Deletion Mutant to the Phytoalexin Brassinin in the Necrotrophic Fungus Alternaria brassicicola

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    Yangrae Cho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brassica species produce the antifungal indolyl compounds brassinin and its derivatives, during microbial infection. The fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola detoxifies brassinin and possibly its derivatives. This ability is an important property for the successful infection of brassicaceous plants. Previously, we identified a transcription factor, Bdtf1, essential for the detoxification of brassinin and full virulence. To discover genes that encode putative brassinin-digesting enzymes, we compared gene expression profiles between a mutant strain of the transcription factor and wild-type A. brassicicola under two different experimental conditions. A total of 170 and 388 genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than the wild type during the infection of host plants and saprophytic growth in the presence of brassinin, respectively. In contrast, 93 and 560 genes were expressed, respectively, at lower levels in the mutant than the wild type under the two conditions. Fifteen of these genes were expressed at lower levels in the mutant than in the wild type under both conditions. These genes were assumed to be important for the detoxification of brassinin and included Bdtf1 and 10 putative enzymes. This list of genes provides a resource for the discovery of enzyme-coding genes important in the chemical modification of brassinin.

  6. Oxidative burst and the activity of defense-related enzymes in compatible and incompatible tomato-Alternaria solani interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Balbi-Peña

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, hypersensitive response (HR, and the activity of the enzymes guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, polyphenol oxidase, B-1,3-glucanase and chitinase, were studied in leaves of resistant [CNPH 1287 (Solanum habrochaites syn. Lycopersicon hirsutum] and susceptible [Santa Cruz Kada (S. lycopersicum syn. L. esculentum] tomato genotypes inoculated with Alternaria solani. Leaves were collected at the time of inoculation and at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours post inoculation. Conidia germination occurred equally onto the leaf surface in both genotypes and germination tubes grew without apparent orientation. Lesion frequency was lower in CNPH 1287, and it was the consequence of a lower number of appressoria formed in that genotype. ROS were observed in low frequency in both genotypes. HR was observed in penetrated epidermal host cells also in both genotypes. It seems that ROS and HR would not contribute to the resistance of S. habrochaites to A. solani in this study. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, B-1,3-glucanase and chitinase was significantly increased in the resistant genotype. These results suggest that defense-related enzymes but no oxidative burst play a role in the defense response of S. habrochaites to A. solani.

  7. Decolorization and biodegradation of congo red dye by a novel white rot fungus Alternaria alternata CMERI F6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Samayita; Basak, Bikram; Dutta, Subhasish; Bhunia, Biswanath; Dey, Apurba

    2013-11-01

    A novel white rot fungus Alternaria alternata CMERI F6 decolorized 99.99% of 600 mg/L congo red within 48 h in yeast extract-glucose medium at 25 °C, pH 5 and 150 rpm. Physicochemical parameters like carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, pH and aeration were optimized to develop faster decolorization process. Dye decolorization rate was maximal (20.21 mg/L h) at 25 °C, pH 5, 150 rpm and 800 mg/L dye, giving 78% final decolorization efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis revealed that the fungus become amorphous after dye adsorption. HPLC and FTIR analysis of the extracted metabolites suggested that the decolorization occurred through biosorption and biodegradation. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and acid-alkali and 70% ethanol treatment revealed the efficient dye retention capability of the fungus. The foregoing results justify the applicability of the strain in removal of congo red from textile wastewaters and their safe disposal. PMID:24034987

  8. In vitro antifungal activity of four chemotypes of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) essential oils against Alternaria solani (Pleosporeaceae) isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazoni, Elisa Z; Pansera, Márcia R; Pauletti, Gabriel F; Moura, Sidnei; Ribeiro, Rute T S; Schwambach, Joséli

    2016-05-31

    Several volatile natural compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism have been proven to present antimicrobial action, enabling their use in phytopathogen control. They also present low environmental impact when compared to conventional pesticides. Essential oils contain these compounds and can be found in several plant species, such as Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae). Essential oils of four chemotypes of L. alba, characterized by their major compounds, namely camphor, citral, linalool and camphor/1,8-cineole, were tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer (Pleosporaceae), which causes early blight on tomatoes and is responsible for great economic losses regarding production. Essential oils antifungal action was tested in vitro using potato dextrose agar medium with essential oil concentrations at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µL mL-1. The chemotype that had the best performance was citral, showing significant inhibition compared to the others, starting at the 0.5 µL mL-1 concentration. The essential oil belonging to the linalool chemotype was efficient starting at the 1.5 µL mL-1 concentration. Conversely, the camphor chemotype did not show any action against the phytopathogen. Moreover, the essential oils had no remarkable effect on tomato germination and growth. In conclusion, these essential oils presented fungicidal action against A. solani. PMID:27254445

  9. In vitro antifungal activity of four chemotypes of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae essential oils against Alternaria solani (Pleosporeaceae isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISA Z. TOMAZONI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several volatile natural compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism have been proven to present antimicrobial action, enabling their use in phytopathogen control. They also present low environmental impact when compared to conventional pesticides. Essential oils contain these compounds and can be found in several plant species, such as Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae. Essential oils of four chemotypes of L. alba, characterized by their major compounds, namely camphor, citral, linalool and camphor/1,8-cineole, were tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer (Pleosporaceae, which causes early blight on tomatoes and is responsible for great economic losses regarding production. Essential oils antifungal action was tested in vitro using potato dextrose agar medium with essential oil concentrations at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µL mL-1. The chemotype that had the best performance was citral, showing significant inhibition compared to the others, starting at the 0.5 µL mL-1 concentration. The essential oil belonging to the linalool chemotype was efficient starting at the 1.5 µL mL-1 concentration. Conversely, the camphor chemotype did not show any action against the phytopathogen. Moreover, the essential oils had no remarkable effect on tomato germination and growth. In conclusion, these essential oils presented fungicidal action against A. solani.

  10. Altertoxins with potent anti-HIV activity from Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se, a fungal endophyte of Quercus emoryi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyal, Bharat P; Wellensiek, Brian P; Ramakrishnan, Rajesh; Faeth, Stanley H; Ahmad, Nafees; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2014-11-01

    Screening of a small library of natural product extracts derived from endophytic fungi of the Sonoran desert plants in a cell-based anti-HIV assay involving T-cells infected with the HIV-1 virus identified the EtOAc extract of a fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se inhabiting the stem tissue of Quercus emoryi as a promising candidate for further investigation. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation and identification of two new metabolites, altertoxins V (1) and VI (2) together with the known compounds, altertoxins I (3), II (4), and III (5). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis and those of 3-5 were established by comparison with reported data. When tested in our cell-based assay at concentrations insignificantly toxic to T-cells, altertoxins V (1), I (3), II (4), and III (5) completely inhibited replication of the HIV-1 virus at concentrations of 0.50, 2.20, 0.30, and 1.50 μM, respectively. Our findings suggest that the epoxyperylene structural scaffold in altertoxins may be manipulated to produce potent anti-HIV therapeutics. PMID:25260957

  11. Posibilidades del antagonista Trichoderma harzianum PARA EL manejo del “tizon temprano” (Alternaria solani Sor en papa

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    Marialys Trujillo Albelo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron pruebas de laboratorio y de campo para evaluar las posibilidades del antagonista Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai como biorregulador del hongo Alternaria solani Sor, en el cultivo de la papa. Se consideró como factor de estudio la Protección fitosanitaria, definiéndose la Protección Química como testigo estándar y la Protección Biológica a base de aplicaciones combinadas de T. harzianum  y Extracto Acuoso de Humus y de cada uno por separado, como tratamientos alternativos.  Se trabajó con la variedad Cal White en un diseño de parcelas grandes. Los resultados de las observaciones de laboratorio y de campo fueron analizados  mediante el uso del paquete estadístico Stargraphic versión 5,0  y se les hizo la prueba de comparaciones múltiples de Duncan. Como resultado del trabajo se concluye que el antagonista Trichoderma  harzianum  cepa TS3,  en aplicaciones combinadas con Extracto Acuoso de Humus con una frecuencia semanal, puede alcanzar un nivel de protección similar e incluso superior al alcanzado con los estándares químicos evaluados frente al ataque del Tizón Temprano, con lo que se confirman sus posibilidades de uso como biorregulador de tan importante enfermedad.

  12. Effects of temperature and incubation period on production of toxic metabolites by Alternaria radicina and A. alternata

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    Krystyna Tylkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of toxic metabolites by four isolates of Alternaria radicina and two isolates of A. alternata in rice grains and carrot discs at 1, 10 and 20°C was investigated. Incubation lasted 21 and 35 days or 14 and 28 days for rice grains and carrot discs, respectively. Accumulation of toxins in inoculated carrot roots stored for 24 weeks and in inoculated dried carrots stored for 48 weeks was also determined. It was found that A. radicina produced radicinin (RAD and epi-radicinol (epi-ROH, whereas tenuazonic acid (TeA, altertoxin I (ATX I, alternariol (AOH and alternariol methyl ether (AME were produced by A. alternata. Although the isolates tested were capable of producing toxins in rice grains at 1°C, none of them was detected in carrot discs. Accumulation of epi-ROH was observed in carrot roots stored for 24 weeks, whereas decreased amounts of RAD and epi-ROH were observed in dried carrots stored for 48 weeks. No A. alternata toxins were detected in stored carrot roots, whereas trace amounts of AOH were recorded in dried carrots after 32 and 48 weeks of storage.

  13. Transmissão de Alternaria spp. através de sementes de feijão e seu efeito sobre a qualidade fisiológica das sementes Transmission of Alternaria spp. by common bean seeds and its effects on physiological quality

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    Maria Heloisa Duarte de Moraes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de feijão podem transportar grande número de patógenos que têm a capacidade de afetar sua qualidade fisiológica ou causar doenças em diferentes estádios da cultura, afetando seu rendimento. O agente causal da mancha de Alternária do feijoeiro é um desses patógenos, porém não existem muitos estudos avaliando a transmissão de diferentes espécies de Alternaria associadas a essa doença e seu efeito sobre a qualidade fisiológica. Sendo assim, desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de verificar a transmissão de espécies de Alternaria através das sementes de feijão e seu efeito sobre a germinação das mesmas e sobre a emergência de plântulas em casa de vegetação. Isolados de Alternaria alternata, A. carthami e A. cichorii foram inoculados em sementes de feijão e estas foram submetidas aos testes de sanidade, germinação e emergência de plântulas em casa de vegetação. A inoculação com os isolados de A. alternata proporcionou sementes com quase 100% de incidência; os resultados obtidos com os demais isolados variaram de zero, para os isolados 3 (A. cichorii e 8 e 9 (A. carthami, até 75% para o isolado 7 (A. carthami. A maioria dos isolados foi transmitida para as plântulas, sendo os isolados 1 (Alternaria cichorii e 4, 5, 8, 9 e 11 (A. carthami transmitidos em maior porcentagem. Não se constatou efeito dos isolados sobre a emergência das plântulas e não houve correlação positiva entre a porcentagem de incidência do fungo e a porcentagem de plântulas infectadas. Alguns isolados de A. carthami causaram queda na germinação das sementes.A great number of pathogens can be transported by seeds; they had capacity to affect physiological quality or to cause diseases in many stages of the culture, reducing yield. One of these pathogens is the causal agent of Alternaria leaf spot. There aren't many researches about seed transmission of distinct Alternaria species and its effects on common bean

  14. Controle de Alternaria solani em tomateiro por extratos de Curcuma longa e curcumina: I. avaliação in vitro Control of Alternaria solani in tomato by Curcuma longa extracts and curcumin: I. In vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Balbi-Peña

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta de compostos secundários de plantas medicinais com atividade antimicrobiana mostra-se promissora para o controle de fitopatógenos. A cúrcuma, Curcuma longa, apresenta em seus rizomas compostos com atividade antifúngica. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fungitoxidade in vitro dos extratos de cúrcuma e da curcumina contra Alternaria solani. Foram utilizados extratos brutos aquosos (EB de rizomas de cúrcuma (esterilizados por autoclavagem nas concentrações de 0, 1, 5, 10 e 20% e curcumina nas concentrações de 0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mg/L, os quais foram incorporados em meio de cultura batata-dextrose-ágar para avaliação de crescimento micelial e esporulação do fungo. Também foram testados extratos de cúrcuma a 10 e 15% esterilizados por filtração. O efeito dos extratos de cúrcuma autoclavados e não autoclavados e da curcumina na germinação de esporos in vitro foi também avaliado. Os extratos de cúrcuma a 10 e 15% não autoclavados inibiram em 38,2% e 23,2%, respectivamente, o crescimento micelial e 71,7% e 87%, respectivamente, a esporulação do fungo. Quando autoclavados, não apresentaram inibição do crescimento micelial nem da germinação de esporos e a inibição da esporulação foi menor, indicando a presença de compostos antimicrobianos termolábeis. O extrato não autoclavado na concentração de 5% inibiu em até 15% a germinação dos esporos. A curcumina inibiu o crescimento micelial em 29,5% na maior concentração testada, sem, contudo, afetar a esporulação e a germinação de esporos in vitro. Esses resultados indicam o potencial antifúngico da cúrcuma e curcumina contra A. solani.The discovery of plant secondary compounds with antimicrobial activity is very promising. Turmeric, Curcuma longa, has compounds in its rhizomes with fungicidal activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro fungitoxic activity of turmeric extracts and curcumin against Alternaria

  15. Atividades amilolítica e pectinolítica de Alternaria solani e a relação com a agressividade em tomateiro Amilolytic and pectinolytic activities of Alternaria solani and aggressiveness in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Marchi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As atividades amilolítica e pectinolítica de 45 isolados de Alternaria solani, provenientes de diferentes hospedeiros, foram estimadas por meio da difusão enzimática em meio sólido específico e mensuração do halo de degradação do substrato. Todos os isolados degradaram pectina. Apenas 17 isolados apresentaram atividade amilolítica, sendo nove isolados provenientes de batateira. Somente o isolado AS18 se destacou como bom produtor de ambas as enzimas. Uma vez que a atividade pectinolítica foi mais evidente, avaliou-se a influência de pectinases na agressividade de A. solani ao tomateiro. Para isso, cinco isolados (2 de berinjela, 2 de tomateiro e 1 de batateira contrastantes quanto à produção de pectinases foram selecionados para testes em folíolos destacados e plantas inteiras. Quatro isolados foram utilizados no teste em folíolos destacados (AS6, AS7, AS12 e AS26, e constatou-se haver variabilidade patogênica. A correlação obtida entre o tamanho das lesões e a atividade pectinolítica foi de r = 0,963 (P = 0,087. Cinco isolados (AS6, AS7, AS12, AS25 e AS26 foram inoculados em plantas inteiras de tomate. Os isolados não diferiram quanto ao número de lesões/cm² de área foliar, porém variaram em agressividade. Houve correlação (r = 0,916; P = 0,042 entre a atividade de pectinases e o índice de doença, sugerindo possível papel para as enzimas pécticas durante a infecção de A. solani em tomateiro. É provável que as diferenças no perfil enzimático dos isolados estejam associadas ao hospedeiro original de onde os mesmos foram obtidos. Os resultados reforçaram evidências de especificidade por hospedeiro em populações de A. solani.Amilolytic and pectinolytic activities of 45 isolates of Alternaria solani from distinct hosts were investigated. Enzyme secretion was evaluated in glucose-free medium amended with pectin or starch as carbon source. All isolates degraded pectin. Only 17 isolates had amilolytic

  16. Establishment of Protoplast Transformation System in Alternaria tenuissima Using G418 Selection Marker%以G418为筛选标记的极细链格孢菌(Alternaria tenuissima)原生质体转化体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万英; 张大军; 黄云; 蒋伶活

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to establish a protoplast transformation system in Alternaria tenuissima. [Method] The protoplast of A.tenuissima was firstly prepared by enzymolysis method; then the yielded protoplast was transformed by G418 resistant DNA plasmid using PEG/CaCl2 method. [Result] The growth phenotype and PCR detection showed that resistance gene had integrated into A.tenuissima genome. The transformation efficiency of this method reached per μg DNA 3-4 transformants. After subculture thrice under nonselective condition, G418 resistance could still inherit stably. [Conclusion] The transformation system of A.tenuissima was successfully established, which laid basis for studying of the gene function of Alternaria tenuissima.

  17. Designation of a new genus Bathymenes for the deep-sea pontoniine shrimps of the ` Periclimenes alcocki species group' (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae), with a checklist of the species assigned to the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Qi; Li, Xinzheng; Bruce, Alexander J.

    2016-01-01

    A new genus of the deep-sea pontoniine shrimps, Bathymenes gen. nov., is established for the ` Periclimenes alcocki species group' of the genus Periclimenes Costa, 1844. The new genus is distinguished from other genera of the Pontoniinae by a combination of characters: the posteriormost dorsal rostral tooth remote from other teeth, situated in the epigastric position, cornea usually reduced, the propodus of second pereiopods covered with fine granules, the dactylus of the major second chela being generally flanged, the ambulatory pereiopods with the dactyli being biunguiculate and telson with more than two pairs of dorsolateral spines. The genus is mainly distributed in the tropical to warm-temperate Indo-West Pacific waters at depths greater than 200 m. Fifteen species previously recognized as belonging to the `P. a lcocki species group' are now placed in Bathymenes gen. nov. A key for their identification and a checklist of congeneric species are provided.

  18. Division of ecological species groups and functional groups based on interspecific association - a case study of the tree layer in the tropical lowland rainforest of Jianfenling in Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yide LI; Han XU; Dexiang CHEN; Tushou LUO; Jinhua MO; Wen LUO; Huangqiang CHEN; Zhongliang JIANG

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-three sample plots dominated by Vatica mangachapoi at various elevations in the tropical lowland rainforest in the Jianfengling National Nature Reserve of Hainan Island were established. The interspecific asso-ciation among the 32 dominant species was analyzed and the division of ecological species groups and functional groups are discussed. The results showed that these dom-inant populations had an overall positive interspecific asso-ciation. The species pairs with significant, positive association accounted for only about 10% of the total 496 species pairs. Most of the other species pairs showed weak association or non-association, i.e., the dominant popula-tions investigated had relatively independent distributions. The 32 dominant species were divided into four ecological species groups and ten functional groups according to their interspecific association coefficients, based on a cluster ana-lysis of the species. Recognition characteristics of the ten functional groups are proposed.

  19. Biological activities of the fermentation extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata isolated from Coffea arabica L.

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    Maurette dos Reis Vieira Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 endophytic fungi isolated from coffee (Coffea arabica L. were cultivated in vitro and their crude extracts tested. The screening was carried out using the agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The most effective isolate was Alternaria alternata, and subsequently, its extract was assayed. The total phenolic content was 3.44 μg GAE/mg of the crude extract. For the antibacterial and antifungal activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations (MBC and MFC were determined. The ranges of MIC values were 50-100 μg/mL for S. aureus and 400-800 μg/mL for E. coli. The extract did not show activity in the tested concentrations for C. albicans. The fungal crude extract was assayed for antioxidant activities. Its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and antioxidant activity by β-carotene/linoleic acid system oxidation was not significant. In addition, antitumor activity was studied using the MTT assay. At a dilution of 400 μg/mL, the extract displayed a cytotoxic activity of approximately 50% towards HeLa cells in vitro. The results indicate that endophytic fungi could be a promising source of bioactive compounds and warrant further study.Total de 22 fungos endofíticos isolados de café (Coffea arabica L. foi cultivado in vitro e seus extratos testados. A triagem foi conduzida pelo método de difusão em agar contra bactérias Gram-positiva, Gram-negativa e uma levedura. O isolado mais efetivo foi Alternaria alternata e, subsequentemente, seu extrato foi analisado. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais do extrato bruto foi de 3,44 μg EAG/mg de extrato. Para os testes de atividade antimicrobiana, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração bactericida e fungicida mínima (CBM e CFM contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e Candida albicans foram determinadas. Resultados da CIM variaram entre 50-100 μg/mL para

  20. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds

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    Sharma Bechan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz, against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 μg/ml of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100% of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 μg/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 μg/ml of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata.

  1. DNA damage and repair kinetics of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, altertoxin II and stemphyltoxin III in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Stefanie C; Sauter, Friederike; Pfeiffer, Erika; Metzler, Manfred; Hartwig, Andrea; Köberle, Beate

    2016-03-01

    The Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and altertoxin II (ATX II) have previously been shown to elicit mutagenic and genotoxic effects in bacterial and mammalian cells, although with vastly different activities. For example, ATX II was about 50 times more mutagenic than AOH. We now report that stemphyltoxin III (STTX III) is also highly mutagenic. The more pronounced effects of the perylene quinones ATX II and STTX III at lower concentrations compared to the dibenzo-α-pyrone AOH indicate a marked dependence of the genotoxic potential on the chemical structure and furthermore suggest that the underlying modes of action may be different. We have now further investigated the type of DNA damage induced by AOH, ATX II and STTX III, as well as the repair kinetics and their dependence on the status of nucleotide excision repair (NER). DNA double strand breaks induced by AOH due to poisoning of topoisomerase IIα were completely repaired in less than 2h. Under cell-free conditions, inhibition of topoisomerase IIα could also be measured for ATX II and STTX III at low concentrations, but the perylene quinones were catalytic inhibitors rather than topoisomerase poisons and did not induce DSBs. DNA strand breaks induced by ATX II and STTX III were more persistent and not completely repaired within 24h. A dependence of the repair rate on the NER status could only be demonstrated for STTX III, resulting in an accumulation of DNA damage in NER-deficient cells. Together with the finding that the DNA glycosylase formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), but not T4 endonuclease V, is able to generate additional DNA strand breaks measurable by the alkaline unwinding assay, we conclude that the genotoxicity of the perylene quinones with an epoxide group is probably caused by the formation of DNA adducts which may be converted to Fpg sensitive sites. PMID:26994491

  2. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p < 0.0001) between disease rating group means. In the majority of the experiments, comparisons of diseased plants with healthy plants using Fisher's LSD revealed more heavily diseased plants were significantly different from healthy plants. PLS analysis demonstrated the feasibility of detecting early blight infected plants, finding four optimal factors for raw spectra with the predictor variation explained ranging from 93.4% to 94.6% and the response variation explained ranging from 42.7% to 64.7%. Cluster analysis successfully distinguished healthy plants from all diseased plants except for the most mildly diseased plants, showing clustering analysis was an effective method for detection of early blight. Analysis of the reflectance spectra using the simple ratio (SR) and the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) was effective at differentiating all diseased plants from healthy plants, except for the

  3. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance in rose plants against rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosivorum): effect of tenuazonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fa-zhong; Yang, Bin; Li, Bei-bei; Xiao, Chun

    2015-04-01

    Many different types of toxins are produced by the fungus, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Little is known, however, regarding the influence of these toxins on insects. In this study, we investigated the toxin-induced inhibitory effects of the toxin produced by A. alternata on the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosivorum, when the toxin was applied to leaves of the rose, Rosa chinensis. The results demonstrated that the purified crude toxin was non-harmful to rose plants and rose aphids, but had an intensive inhibitory effect on the multiplication of aphids. The inhibitory index against rose aphids reached 87.99% when rose plants were sprayed with the toxin solution at a low concentration. Further results from bioassays with aphids and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that tenuazonic acid (TeA) was one of the most important resistance-related active components in the crude toxin. The content of TeA was 0.1199% in the crude toxin under the HPLC method. Similar to the crude toxin, the inhibitory index of pure TeA reached 83.60% 15 d after the rose plants were sprayed with pure TeA solution at the lower concentration of 0.060 μg/ml, while the contents of residual TeA on the surface and in the inner portion of the rose plants were only 0.04 and 0.00 ng/g fresh weight of TeA-treated rose twigs, respectively, 7 d after the treatment. Our results show that TeA, an active component in the A. alternata toxin, can induce the indirect plant-mediated responses in rose plants to intensively enhance the plant's resistances against rose aphids, and the results are very helpful to understand the plant-mediated interaction between fungi and insects on their shared host plants. PMID:25845360

  4. Inducible and constitutive expression of an elicitor gene Hrip1 from Alternaria tenuissima enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xue-Cong; Qiu, De-Wen; Zeng, Hong-Mei; Guo, Li-Hua; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Hrip1 is a novel hypersensitive response-inducing protein secreted by Alternaria tenuissima that activates defense responses and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco. This study investigates the role that Hrip1 plays in responses to abiotic and biotic stress using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the Hrip1 gene under the control of the stress-inducible rd29A promoter or constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Bioassays showed that inducible Hrip1 expression in rd29A∷Hrip1 transgenic lines had a significantly higher effect on plant height, silique length, plant dry weight, seed germination and root length under salt and drought stress compared to expression in 35S∷Hrip1 lines and wild type plants. The level of enhancement of resistance to Botrytis cinerea by the 35S∷Hrip1 lines was higher than in the rd29A∷Hrip1 lines. Moreover, stress-related gene expression in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines was significantly increased by 200 mM NaCl and 200 mM mannitol treatments, and defense genes in the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated after Botrytis inoculation in the Hrip1 transgenic plants. Furthermore, the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidase and catalase increased after salt and drought stress and Botrytis infection. These results suggested that the Hrip1 protein contributes to abiotic and biotic resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis and may be used as a useful gene for resistance breeding in crops. Although the constitutive expression of Hrip1 is suitable for biotic resistance, inducible Hrip1 expression is more responsive for abiotic resistance. PMID:25120219

  5. Systemic jasmonic acid modulation in mycorrhizal tomato plants and its role in induced resistance against Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, A; Kolet, S P; Thulasiram, H V; Bhargava, S

    2015-05-01

    Tomato plants colonised with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum show systemic induced resistance to the foliar pathogen Alternaria alternata, as observed in interactions of other AM-colonised plants with a range of pathogens. The role of jasmonic (JA) and salicylic (SA) acid in expression of this mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) against A. alternata was studied by measuring: (i) activity of enzymes reported to be involved in their biosynthesis, namely lipoxygenase (LOX) and phenylammonia lyase (PAL); and (ii) levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and SA. Transcript abundance of some defence genes associated with JA and SA response pathways were also studied. Both LOX and PAL activity increased twofold in response to pathogen application to control plants. AM-colonised plants had three-fold higher LOX activity compared to control plants, but unlike controls, this did not increase further in response to pathogen application. Higher LOX activity in AM-colonised plants correlated with four-fold higher MeJA in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. Treatment of plants with the JA biosynthesis inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) led to 50% lower MeJA in both control and AM-colonised plants and correlated with increased susceptibility to A. alternata, suggesting a causal role for JA in expression of MIR against the pathogen. Genes involved in JA biosynthesis (OPR3) and response (COI1) showed six- and 42-fold higher expression, respectively, in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. AM-colonised plants also showed increased expression of the SA response gene PR1 and that of the wound-inducible polypeptide prosystemin. Our results suggest that the systemic increase in JA in response to AM colonisation plays a key role in expression of MIR against A. alternata. PMID:25327848

  6. IN VITRO BIOACTIVITY OF CREOSOTE BUSH EXTRACTS (LARREA TRIDENTATA ON THE INHIBITION OF POSTHARVEST FUNGI: PENICILLIUM POLONICUM, ASPERGILLUS NIGER, RHIZOPUS ORYZAE Y ALTERNARIA TENUISSIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Peñuelas-Rubio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la eficiencia de extractos vegetales deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con diclorometano, etanol, metanol y agua, sobre el crecimiento radial in vitro de cuatro hongos fitopatógenos, los cuales primeramente fueron identificados en género y especie empleando claves taxonómicas y técnicas moleculares. Para los bioensayosin vitrose aplicaron diseños completamente al azar con cuatro tratamientos y tres repeticiones en cada hongo, utilizando las concentraciones: 0, 250, 500 y 750 ppm paraAlternaria sp.; 0, 2000, 2500 y 3000 paraAspergillus sp.; 0, 1500, 1750 y 2000 paraPenicillium sp. y 0, 150, 200 y 250 ppm paraRhizopus sp. Cada tratamiento tuvo tres repeticiones. El análisis molecular determinó la especie tenuissima paraAlternaria,nigerparaApergillus,polonicumparaPenicilliumyoryzaeparaRhizopus. En cuanto a las pruebasin vitro, se determinaron inhibiciones del 100% para tres de los hongos en estudio:Alternaria tenuissimacon extracto EtOH a 750 ppm;Aspergillus nigercon extracto DCM a 3000 ppm yRhizopus oryzaea partir de 150 ppm y 250 ppm de los extractos DCM y EtOH respectivamente. Se presentó una inhibición del 82% a 2000 ppm paraPenicillium polonicum. Se concluye que a pesar de las diferencias en susceptibilidad entre las especies fúngicas, los extractos deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con etanol y dicloromentano son efectivos para el control de los hongos fitopatógenos bajo estudioin vitro.

  7. Detección de Alternaria spp mediante técnicas genéticas como índice de calidad de materias primas y marcador de bioseguridad en productos hortofrutícolas frescos y procesados

    OpenAIRE

    Pavón Moreno, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    NOTA 520 8 La contaminación de alimentos con hongos filamentosos productores de toxinas tiene efectos negativos sobre la salud animal y humana, además de causar pérdidas millonarias en la industria agroalimentaria. Entre los mohos toxigénicos más frecuentemente encontrados en los alimentos predominan las especies pertenecientes a los géneros Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus y Alternaria. En el género Alternaria se incluyen numerosas especies patógenas y saprofitas ampliamente distribuidas...

  8. Mass-screening of mutants resistant to Alternaria blotch from in vitro-cultured apple shoots irradiated with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have established mass screening methods for producing mutants resistant to Alternaria blotch disease in several cultivars of apple (Malus domestica) by irradiation with X-rays. An in vitro assay system using chemically-synthesised AM-toxin I of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler is successful for screening the resistant mutants. The degree of resistance to the disease was assayed by the number of necrotic lesions induced by applying various concentrations of AM-toxin I to leaf disks of the first, third and fifth leaves from the shoot apex of plants. Following the establishment of the optimal screening conditions, we produced several disease-resistant mutants by irradiating in vitro shoots with various doses of X-rays. After resistant mutants were selected by the first and second screening tests with AM-toxin I, they were tested by spraying them with a spore suspension of the pathogen. The resistance to the disease was maintained for five years during field cultivation of the mutants, implying that the resistance was not due to environmental factors but due to genetic fixation. No differences were observed in the number of fruiting trees or colouration of fruits between mutants and the original plants. (author)

  9. Development of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid and Specific Identification of ACT Producing Alternaria alternata, the Agent of Brown Spot Disease in Tangerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Hamid; Moradi, Amir; Hamedi, Javad; Basiri, Mina

    2016-03-01

    Rapid, accurate, and easy identification of pathogenic agents has always been important in medicine, veterinary, and agriculture. The brown spot infection is among the most common diseases in tangerine caused by Alternaria alternata. Due to the existence of seven various pathotypes of A. alternata species, it is challenging and time consuming to detect a pathotype responsible for citrus brown spot. In this study, we were seeking a rapid and specific approach to identify the tangerine pathotype within the A. alternata-pathogenic species, using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method and actts2 gene as a marker molecule. Nine pathogenic samples were obtained from the region of Ramsar, Iran, and certified as A. alternata-pathogenic isolates. Specific primers were designed for regions coding for Alternaria citri toxin (ACT), and the PCR and LAMP reactions were performed. Our data showed that the primers designed for the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata were specific, and in both reactions, positive results were only observed in desired pathotypes. In the other pathotypes of this species as well as other standard fungal samples as negative controls, no positive result was observed. Therefore, our results suggest the possibility to detect the tangerine-specific A. alternata pathotype from other related species with a high accuracy and in early stages of the disease. PMID:26638210

  10. Comparison of methodologies for conidia production by Alternaria alternata from citrus Comparação de metodologias para produção de conídios por Alternaria alternata do citros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. C. Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conidia production is a problem in the study of Alternaria alternata from citrus. Thus, this study aimed to compare existing methodologies for conidial production of A. alternata isolated from Ponkan tangerine (2 isolates, Cravo lemon (1 isolate, Pêra orange (2 isolates and Murcott tangor (1 isolate. The methodologies used were conidia production with 12 and 24 hours under white fluorescent light, evaluation with 24 and 48 hours after applying fungal mycelium stress technique, cold stress followed by injury of mycelium and evaluation with 24 hours, using healthy vegetable tissue and the use of black fluorescent near ultraviolet (NUV lamp. Satisfactory result was obtained with A. alternata isolate from Murcott tangor, with the production of 2.8 x 10(5 conidia mL-1, when fungal mycelium was stressed (Petri dish with 66.66% of fungi growth and subsequently 24 h of growth. The use of white light (24 h and black fluorescent NUV lamp also induced expressive conidia production by one isolate of Ponkan tangerine, which produced 17.2 x 10(5 and 10.1 x 10(5 conidia mL-1 and another of Murcott tangor, which produced 13.9 x 10(5 and 10.1 x 10(5 conidia mL-1, respectively. The remaining methodologies analyzed in this study were not able to induce conidia production in satisfactory quantity. The use of both mycelium stress technique and white light (24 h and black fluorescent NUV lamp allowed the production of enough quantities of conidia to be used in vitro (detection of fungitoxic substancesand in vivo (pathogenicity testassays, respectively.A produção de conídios consiste em problema no estudo de Alternaria alternata do citros. Assim, este estudo objetivou comparar metodologias existentes para a produção de conídios de A. alternata por dois isolados de tangerina Ponkan, um de limão Cravo, dois de laranja Pêra e um de tangor Murcott. As metodologias empregadas foram a produção de conídios com 12 e 24 horas sob luz branca, avaliação com 24 e 48

  11. Arabidopsis Elongator subunit 2 positively contributes to resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggang; Ding, Yezhang; Yao, Jin; Zhang, Yanping; Sun, Yijun; Colee, James; Mou, Zhonglin

    2015-09-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex functions in diverse biological processes including salicylic acid-mediated immune response. However, how Elongator functions in jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-mediated defense is unknown. Here, we show that Elongator is required for full induction of the JA/ET defense pathway marker gene PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2) and for resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola. A loss-of-function mutation in the Arabidopsis Elongator subunit 2 (ELP2) alters B. cinerea-induced transcriptome reprogramming. Interestingly, in elp2, expression of WRKY33, OCTADECANOID-RESPONSIVE ARABIDOPSIS AP2/ERF59 (ORA59), and PDF1.2 is inhibited, whereas transcription of MYC2 and its target genes is enhanced. However, overexpression of WRKY33 or ORA59 and mutation of MYC2 fail to restore PDF1.2 expression and B. cinerea resistance in elp2, suggesting that ELP2 is required for induction of not only WRKY33 and ORA59 but also PDF1.2. Moreover, elp2 is as susceptible as coronatine-insensitive1 (coi1) and ethylene-insensitive2 (ein2) to B. cinerea, indicating that ELP2 is an important player in B. cinerea resistance. Further analysis of the lesion sizes on the double mutants elp2 coi1 and elp2 ein2 and the corresponding single mutants revealed that the function of ELP2 overlaps with COI1 and is additive to EIN2 for B. cinerea resistance. Finally, basal histone acetylation levels in the coding regions of WRKY33, ORA59, and PDF1.2 are reduced in elp2 and a functional ELP2-GFP fusion protein binds to the chromatin of these genes, suggesting that constitutive ELP2-mediated histone acetylation may be required for full activation of the WRKY33/ORA59/PDF1.2 transcriptional cascade. PMID:26216741

  12. A new species of Lachesilla (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae from Dominica, representing a new species group Una especie nueva de Lachesilla (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae de Dominica, que representa un nuevo grupo de especies

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    Alfonso N. García Aldrete

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Lachesilla, from Cabrits National Park, St. John's Parish, Dominica, is here described and illustrated. The phallosome is V-shaped, and it is autapomorphic in having the distal ends of the apodeme arms articulated to each clasper. Based on these characters, a new species group is created, close to the L. forcepeta and L. palmera species groups (the latter also diagnosed in this paper. The holotype is deposited in the National Insect Collection (CNIN, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Lachesilla, procedente de Cabrits National Park, St. John's Parish, Dominica. El falosoma tiene forma de V, y es autapomórfico en tener los extremos distales de los brazos articulados a cada clásper. Con base en estos caracteres, se crea un nuevo grupo de especies, cercano a los grupos de L. forcepeta y L. palmera (este último también definido en este trabajo. El holotipo está depositado en la Colección Nacional de Insectos (CNIN, alojada en el Instituto de Biología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D. F.

  13. Molecular characterization and detection of mutations associated with resistance to succinate dehydrogenase-inhibiting fungicides in Alternaria solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, I; Arabiat, S; Pasche, J S; Bolton, M D; Patel, J S; Gudmestad, N C

    2014-01-01

    Early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, is an economically important foliar disease of potato in several production areas of the United States. Few potato cultivars possess resistance to early blight; therefore, the application of fungicides is the primary means of achieving disease control. Previous work in our laboratory reported resistance to the succinate dehydrogenase-inhibiting (SDHI) fungicide boscalid in this plant pathogen with a concomitant loss of disease control. Two phenotypes were detected, one in which A. solani isolates were moderately resistant to boscalid, the other in which isolates were highly resistant to the fungicide. Resistance in other fungal plant pathogens to SDHI fungicides is known to occur due to amino acid exchanges in the soluble subunit succinate dehydrogenase B (SdhB), C (SdhC), and D (SdhD) proteins. In this study, the AsSdhB, AsSdhC, and AsSdhD genes were analyzed and compared in sensitive (50% effective concentration [EC50] 100 μg ml(-1)) A. solani isolates. In total, five mutations were detected, two in each of the AsSdhB and AsSdhD genes and one in the AsSdhC gene. The sequencing of AsSdhB elucidated point mutations cytosine (C) to thymine (T) at nucleotide 990 and adenine (A) to guanine (G) at nucleotide 991, leading to an exchange from histidine to tyrosine (H278Y) or arginine (H278R), respectively, at codon 278. The H278R exchange was detected in 4 of 10 A. solani isolates moderately resistant to boscalid, exhibiting EC50 values of 6 to 8 μg ml(-1). Further genetic analysis also confirmed this mutation in isolates with high and very high EC50 values for boscalid of 28 to 500 μg ml(-1). Subsequent sequencing of AsSdhC and AsSdhD genes confirmed the presence of additional mutations from A to G at nucleotide position 490 in AsSdhC and at nucleotide position 398 in the AsSdhD, conferring H134R and H133R exchanges in AsSdhC and AsSdhD, respectively. The H134R exchange in AsSdhC was observed in A. solani isolates with

  14. Efeito da incorporação no solo de sementes de fedegoso (Senna obtusifolia) colonizadas por Alternaria cassiae no controle desta planta infestante Effects of soil incorporation of sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) seeds colonized of Alternaria cassiae on the control this weed

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda De Simoni; Robinson Luiz Campos Machado Pitelli; Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2006-01-01

    Na última década, com o uso excessivo de herbicidas, começaram a surgir alguns problemas como a resistência de plantas daninhas e seleção de flora, além do acúmulo destes produtos contaminando mananciais hídricos e solos. Como alternativa, há uma tendência recente em se estudar e desenvolver inimigos naturais para o controle das plantas daninhas, ou seja, o controle biológico. Sementes de fedegoso colonizadas por Alternaria cassiae foram incorporadas no solo, visando o controle de plantas de ...

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata and on mycotoxins Alternariol and Alternariol monomethyl ether in artificially contaminated cereal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different gamma irradiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata and on production of mycotoxins Alternariol (AOH) and Alternariol Monomethyl Ether (AME) in cereal samples. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of CFU/g in rice grains and sunflower seeds, which were proportional to radiation dose used. However, in corn and wheat grains was observed an increase in the number of CFU/g with the increase of gamma irradiation. The radiation doses used resulted in a reduction of AOH levels. In rice and corn grains, the production of AOH was highest in the group irradiated with 5 kGy. Similar result was obtained with relation to AME. Scanning electron microscopy made it possible to visualize structural alterations on A. alternata induced by the different g-radiation doses used. Analysis of irradiated AOH and AME toxins standards did not show any alteration comparing to the control group. (author)

  16. Identification and characterization of cDNA sequences encoding the HIS3 and LEU2 genes of the fungus Alternaria tenuissima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Wan; Xuli Wang; Yun Huang; Dewen Qiu; Linghuo Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Alternaria tenuissima is a fungus widely present in the environment and could cause diseases in plants and humans.In this study,through a yeast genetic approach,cDNA sequences were isolated and characterized for the AtHIS3 and AtLEU2 genes.AtHIS3 cDNA encodes a protein of 238 amino acids,while AtLEU2 cDNA encodes a protein of 363 amino acids.Based on the phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of AtHis3p and AtLeu2p,A.tenuissima is closely related to the plant pathogenic fungus Phaeosphaeria nodorum.This study provides two genetic markers for studies of functions of genes regulating development,morphology,and virulence of A.tenuissima.

  17. Direct detection and quantification of Alternaria alternata lycopersici toxins using high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light-scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Du, Liangcheng

    2006-03-01

    Alternaria alternata lycopersici toxins are produced by the tomato pathogenic fungus A. alternata f. sp. lycopersici. They are primary determinants for stem canker disease of tomato and induce apoptosis in animals and plants. Due to the lack of a UV chromophore, their detection has relied on derivatizations or immunoassays, which require tedious pre-assay processes. Here, we describe a method for direct and quantitative detection of the toxins. The method employs an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) coupled to HPLC. It gives a linear response in the range of 400-4000 ng toxin, with a detection limit of about 6 ng/mul. The detection of all major toxin congeners by HPLC-ESLD was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thus, the method provides a simple and sensitive tool for the studies of this group of host-specific mycotoxins. PMID:16014317

  18. Azole-synergistic anti-candidal activity of altenusin, a biphenyl metabolite of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata isolated from Terminalia chebula Retz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaopongthai, Jatuporn; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Sriubolmas, Nongluksna; Suwanborirux, Khanit

    2013-12-01

    In this study, a tropical endophytic fungus, Alternaria alternata Tche-153 was isolated from a Thai medicinal plant Terminalia chebula Rezt. The ethyl acetate extract prepared from the fermentation broth exhibited significant ketoconazole-synergistic activity against Candida albicans. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract led to the isolation of altenusin (1), isoochracinic acid (2), and altenuic acid (3) together with 2,5-dimethyl-7-hydroxychromone (4). Using the disc diffusion method and the microdilution chequerboard technique, only altenusin (1) in combination with each of three azole drugs, ketoconazole, fluconazole or itraconazole at their low sub-inhibitory concentrations exhibited potent synergistic activity against C. albicans with the fractional inhibitory concentration index range of 0.078 to 0.188. This first discovery of altenusin (1) as a new azole-synergistic prototype possessing a biphenyl structure is of significance for further development of new azole-synergists to treat invasive candidiasis. PMID:24385360

  19. Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure from synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae): an enigmatic species-group needing phylogeographic analysis, with an overview on the origin and distribution of centipedes in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood, 1862, and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure, 1860, from junior synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach, 1815, is proposed. A neotype specimen of Scolopendra longipes is designated. Scolopendra longipes has a restricted range from the Dry Tortugas up through the Florida Keys of Monroe County into the mainland Florida counties of Collier and Dade southeast to the Bahamas, while Scolopendra cubensis is endemic to Cuba. Characters distinguishing S. longipes, and S. cubensis from S. alternans are illustrated and compared using digital photography, micrography and morphometric data. It is suggested that what has been considered Scolopendra alternans from southern Florida through the Caribbean and into northern South America is probably an evolving species-group that has undergone major diversification sometime during the Paleocene and early Eocene ~65.5-50 million years ago (Ma), mainly due to geographic isolation caused by a combination of plate tectonics and 100,000 year cycles of glaciation/deglaciation. PMID:27394893

  20. Survey and prevalence of species causing Alternaria leaf spots on brassica species in Pernambuco Levantamento e prevalência de espécies causadoras da alternariose em brássicas em Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami J Michereff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassicaceae family comprises plant species that are very important as vegetable crops, such as the species complex Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae are among the most important pathogens of Brassicaceae causing Alternaria leaf spot disease. The occurrence and prevalence of Alternaria species causing leaf spots in brassica crops in Pernambuco was acessed, as well as the existence of a possible preference by vegetable host for these pathogens. Twenty-eight fields were surveyed in the Agreste region of Pernambuco state, in the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. In each year, 10 Chinese cabbage, six cabbage, six cauliflower and six broccoli fields were visited. In each field, 50 leaves showing at least five lesions were randomly collected. Species identification was performed taking into account morphology of the conidia that was compared with literature data. Among the two Alternaria species found, A. brassicae was found in all Chinese cabbage fields while A. brassicicola was found in all fields of cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli. Overall, A. brassicicola was more prevalent than A. brassicae. In Chinese cabbage there was predominance of A. brassicae, with mean prevalence of 91.0% and 96.5% in 2005 and 2006. On the other hand, in broccoli and cabbage there was high predominance of A. brassicicola, with mean prevalence between 95.1% and 99.8%. In cauliflower, although the prevalence has been of A. brassicicola, high frequency of A. brassicae was noted. The frequency of co-occurrence of both Alternaria species was very low. The results of this study reinforce the hypothesis of existence of host preference within species of Alternaria that cause leaf spots in brassica crops, especially when Chinese cabbage, broccoli and cabbage are considered. This information is critical to developing strategies for managing Alternaria leaf spots in Brassicaceae species.A família Brassicaceae possui espécies importantes

  1. Report on the development of a method for the determination of Alternaria toxins and citrinin in wheat, tomato juice and sunflower seeds by liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    TOELGYESI ADAM; Stroka, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    A new method was developed for the determination of five Alternaria toxins and citrinin in wheat, tomato juice and sunflower seed samples based on a liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometric determination. The optimized sample preparation involved a solid – liquid extraction with pure methanol, a derivatization step, and subsequent, solid-phase extraction purification on Strata-XL cartridges. The separation was carried out using HPLC column packed with core-shell C-18 particles. HPLC ...

  2. Revision of the genus Macrostomus Wiedemann (Diptera: Empididae: Empidinae: II. The pictipennis species-group Revisão do gênero Macrostomus Wiedemann (Diptera: Empididae: Empidinae: II. O grupo de espécies pictipennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albertino Rafael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available All species of Macrostomus Wiedemann allied with Macrostomus pictipennis (Bezzi, are treated in the pictipennis species-group. Three currently recognized species and four new species are included, namely M. cervicicauda Smith, M. cysticercus Smith, M. manauara, sp. nov. from Brazil (Amazonas and Pará states, M. pacaraima, sp. nov. from Brazil (Roraima, Amazonas and Pará states, M. pictipennis (Bezzi, M. smithi, sp. nov. from Guyana and Brazil (Roraima State and M. utinga, sp. nov. from Brazil (Pará State. All primary types were examined and a key to species is presented.As espécies de Macrostomus Wiedemann afins de Macrostomus pictipennis (Bezzi estão sendo tratadas no grupo M. pictipennis, o qual inclui três espécies já descritas e quarto espécies novas, a saber: M. cervicicauda Smith, M. cysticercus Smith, M. manauara, sp. nov. do Brasil (Amazonas e Pará, M. pictipennis (Bezzi, M. smithi, sp. nov. da Guiana e Brasil (Roraima, M. utinga, sp. nov. do Brasil (Pará e M. pacaraima, sp. nov. do Brasil (Roraima, Amazonas e Pará. Todos os tipos primários foram examinados e uma chave para espécie é apresentada.

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on the fungus Alternaria alternata and on mycotoxins Alternariol and Alternariol monomethyl ether in artificially contaminated cereal samples;Efeitos da radiacao gama no fungo Alternaria alternata e nas micotoxinas Alternariol e Alternariol monometil eter em amostras de cereais artificialmente contaminadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braghini, Raquel

    2009-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different gamma irradiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata and on production of mycotoxins Alternariol (AOH) and Alternariol Monomethyl Ether (AME) in cereal samples. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of CFU/g in rice grains and sunflower seeds, which were proportional to radiation dose used. However, in corn and wheat grains was observed an increase in the number of CFU/g with the increase of gamma irradiation. The radiation doses used resulted in a reduction of AOH levels. In rice and corn grains, the production of AOH was highest in the group irradiated with 5 kGy. Similar result was obtained with relation to AME. Scanning electron microscopy made it possible to visualize structural alterations on A. alternata induced by the different g-radiation doses used. Analysis of irradiated AOH and AME toxins standards did not show any alteration comparing to the control group. (author)

  4. CONTROL OF Alternaria porri (E11 CIF. AND TOXIC EFFECT OF CAPTAFOL SPRAYING IN GARLIC (Allium sativum L. CONTROLE DE Alternaria porri (E11 Cif. E EFEITO FITOTÓXICO DE CAPTAFOL EM PULVERIZAÇÃO NA CULTURA DO ALHO (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraídes Fernandes Carneiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of the present work was to verify the effect of the different concentrations of the captafol fungicide (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 g.i.a./100 l of water, in the control of Alternaria porri (E11 Cif. and their toxic effects on plants, in two cultivars of garlic (Lavinia and Centenário. The results show that, for the cultivars tested, the fungicide, in the concentrations utilized, didn’t control the pathogen, and it didn’t show fitotoxicity.

    Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do Captafol no controle de Alternaria porri (E11 Cif. na cultura do alho, e seus efeitos fitotóxicos nesta A1iácea, foi instalado um experimento nas dependências da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas utilizando-se as cultivares Lavinia e Centenário, submetidas a pulverizações com o fungicida nas seguintes concentrações: 0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 gramas do princípio ativo por 100 litros de água. Os resultados indicam que, para as duas cultivares utilizadas, o Captafol não controlou o patógeno, nem se mostrou fitotóxico.

  5. Examination of fungi in domestic interiors by using factor analysis: Correlations and associations with home factors. [Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, Aureobasidium, Aspergillus; Penicillium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, H.J.; Rotnitzky, A.; Spengler, J.D. (Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States)); Burge, H.A. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Factor analysis was utilized to investigate correlations among airborne microorganisms collected with Andersen samplers from homes in Topeka, Kans., during the winter of 1987 to 1988. The factors derived were used to relate microbial concentrations with categorical, questionnaire-derived descriptions of housing conditions. This approach successfully identified groups of common aboveground decay fungi including Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, and Aureobasidium spp. The common soil fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. were also separated as a group. These previously known ecological groupings were confirmed with air sampling data by a quantitative evaluation technique. The above ground decay fungi sampled indoors in winter were present at relatively high concentrations in homes with gas stoves for cooking, suggesting a possible association between these fungi and increased humidity from the combustion process. Elevated concentrations of the soil fungi were significantly associated with the dirt floor, crawl-space type of basement. Elevated concentrations of water-requiring fungi, such as Fusarium spp., were shown to be associated with water collection in domestic interiors. Also, elevated mean concentrations for the group of fungi including Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Aureobasidium, and yeast spp. were found to be associated with symptoms reported on a health questionnaire. This finding was consistent with the authors previous study of associations between respiratory health and airborne microorganisms by univariate logistic regression analysis.

  6. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  7. The glutathione peroxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species resistance, fungicide sensitivity and cell wall construction in the citrus fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Siwy Ling; Yu, Pei-Ling; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2016-03-01

    The ability to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for pathogenicity in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata. We report a glutathione peroxidase 3 (AaGPx3) involved in the complex signalling network that is essential for the detoxification of cellular stresses induced by ROS and for A. alternata pathogenesis in citrus. AaGPx3 deletion mutants displayed increased sensitivity to H2 O2 and many ROS-generating compounds. AaGPx3 is required for correct fungal development as the AaGPx3 mutant strains showed a severe reduction in conidiation. AaGPx3 mutants accumulated higher chitin content than the wild-type and were less sensitive to the cell wall-targeting compounds calcofluor white and Congo red, as well as the fungicides fludioxonil and vinclozolin, suggesting a role of the glutathione systems in fungal cell wall construction. Virulence assays revealed that AaGPx3 is required for full virulence. The expression of AaGPx3 was downregulated in fungal strains carrying defective NADPH oxidase (Nox) or the oxidative stress responsive regulators YAP1 and HOG1, all implicated in ROS resistance. These results further support the important role of ROS detoxification during A. alternata pathogenesis in citrus. Overall, our study provides genetic evidence to define the central role of AaGPx3 in the biological and pathological functions of A. alternata. PMID:26567914

  8. Analysis of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether on flavedo and albedo tissues of tangerines (Citrus reticulata) with symptoms of alternaria brown spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Rodrigo F; De Souza, Gezimar D; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

    2007-06-27

    A method was developed for the quantification of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether on tangerines with and without symptoms of Alternaria brown spot disease. The method employs solid-phase extraction for cleanup, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for detection. This method was validated on flavedo (exocarp or epicarp, exterior yellow peel) and on albedo tissue (mesocarp, interior white peel). An excellent linearity over a range of 0.50-20.0 mg/kg was achieved, with r2 >or= 0.997. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were fewer than 0.13 and 0.50 microg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were

  9. Antibacterial effect of an extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata and its cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 tumour cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EZHIL ARIVUDAINAMBI U.S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for new and effective antimicrobial agents to treat life-threatening diseases. Fungal endophytes are receiving increasing attention by natural product chemists due to the diverse and structurally unprecedented compounds, which make them interesting candidates for drug discovery. The present study evaluates the antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata VN3 on multi-resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as its cytotoxicity on MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 tumour cell lines of breast cancer. The maximum inhibition zone of 21.4±0.07 mm and 21.5±0.25 mm was observed for S. aureus strain 10 and P. aeruginosa strain 2, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 100 to 900 μg/ml for S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Further, the ethyl acetate extract of A. alternata VN3 exhibited moderate anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cell lines. At 30 μg/ml the cell viability was decreased to 75.5% and 71.8% for MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the metabolites of A. alternata VN3 are a potential source for production of new drugs.

  10. Solvent Effects on the Ultrastructure and Chemical Composition of Cuticular Wax and Its Potential Bioactive Role Against Alternaria alternata in Pingguoli Pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Song-jiang; LI Yong-cai; BI Yang; YIN Yan; GE Yong-hong; WANG Yi

    2014-01-01

    Effects of different polarity solvents on the ultrastructure and chemical composition of cuticular wax in Pingguoli pear as well as their bioactive role against Alternaria alternate were studied and the results showed that the highest wax content was extracted with chloroform, and its wax content was up to 322.2 µg cm-2. Long-chain fatty acids predominated in menthol extracts and n-alkanes were predominant in wax extracted with ether, chloroform and n-hexane. Pingguoli pear fruit surface was covered by a smooth and amorphous wax layer with small, scattered crystal. The morphology of recrystallized wax in vitro after removal with different solvents was not similar to that of the intact fruit surface. Removal of cuticular wax with various solvents signiifcantly enhanced A. alternata infection, except for wax removed by methanol. The solvent extracts of methanol and chloroform stimulated the spore germination and mycelium growth of A. alternata, but the ether and n-hexane extracts showed antifungal activity.

  11. A Zinc-Finger-Family Transcription Factor, AbVf19, Is Required for the Induction of a Gene Subset Important for Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Akhil [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Ohm, Robin A. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Oxiles, Lindsay [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Brooks, Fred [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Lawrence, Christopher B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Grigoriev, Igor V. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Cho, Yangrae [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States)

    2011-10-26

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen with a broad host range within the family Brassicaceae. It produces secondary metabolites that marginally affect virulence. Cell wall degrading enzymes (CDWE) have been considered important for pathogenesis but none of them individually have been identified as significant virulence factors in A. brassicicola. In this study, knockout mutants of a gene, AbVf19, were created and produced considerably smaller lesions than the wild type on inoculated host plants. The presence of tandem zinc-finger domains in the predicted amino acid sequence and nuclear localization of AbVf19- reporter protein suggested that it was a transcription factor. Gene expression comparisons using RNA-seq identified 74 genes being downregulated in the mutant during a late stage of infection. Among the 74 downregulated genes, 28 were putative CWDE genes. These were hydrolytic enzyme genes that composed a small fraction of genes within each family of cellulases, pectinases, cutinases, and proteinases. The mutants grew slower than the wild type on an axenic medium with pectin as a major carbon source. This study demonstrated the existence and the importance of a transcription factor that regulates a suite of genes that are important for decomposing and utilizing plant material during the late stage of plant infection.

  12. EXPLORATION OF SUITABLE SOLID MEDIA FOR MASS MULTIPLICATION OF Cochliobolus lunatus AND Alternaria alternata USED AS MYCOHERBICIDE FOR WEED MANAGEMENT (BARNYARD GRASS IN RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens viz. Cochliobolus lunatus and Alternaria alternata were isolated from barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crusgalli and their pathogenicity was re - confirmed on same weed through various bioassays using spore suspension of both pathogens under green house conditi ons. For development of formulations of these mycoherbicide, large biomass is required and it is essential to find cheaper growth media to reduce the cost of the product. For this purpose, various solid substrates such as wheat and its bran, rice and its bran, broken sorghum and E. crusgalli seeds supplemented with yeast extract and molasses were used for mass multiplication of these weed pathogens. Among six substrates tested, rice supplemented with molasses (10g/L and yeast extract (3.0g/L produced high est conidia for both mycoherbicide after 14 days with 12h photoperiod at 25 0 C. The pathogenicity test with conidia obtained from both pathogens was conducted on 5 leaf stage of E. crusgalli and rice under glass house conditions. The results revealed that 100% mortality of the target weed within 14 days after treatment (DAT and no effect on rice.

  13. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica) and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Menghan; Wang, Sanhong; Dong, Hui; Cai, Binhua; Tao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), plum (Prunus mume) and strawberry (Fragaria vesca) in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA]), while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA). Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR). Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae. PMID:27186637

  14. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghan Wei

    Full Text Available As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica, pear (Pyrus communis, peach (Prunus persica, plum (Prunus mume and strawberry (Fragaria vesca in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA], while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA. Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR. Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae.

  15. Report and characterization of alternaria alternata (fr.) keissler on avicennia marina (forsk.) vierh forests of industrial yanb'a city, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the leaf spot disease of Avicennia marina (Forski) Vierh in Saudi Arabia. The leaf spot disease is reported for the first time in mangrove plants of SA. The symptoms of leaf spot disease and the morphological characters of the causal organism are also described. The radial growth and sporulation of A. alternata were variable with obvious trend on the different growth media. The optimum pH range for maximum growth was 6.0 to 6.5 and any fluctuation in pH caused significant decrease in linear growth of the mold. The chromatographic (TLC) analysis of chloroform extract of fungal culture broth indicated clearly that the mold was able to produce both alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. The gas liquid chromatographic analysis of mycelial fatty acids demonstrated the presence of caproic, caprylic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, margaric, stearic, arachidic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, ? linolenic, Cis-11 eicosenoic, eicosatrienoic and arachidonic fatty acids in the mycelia of the causal organism. The analysis of free amino acids in the mycelia of causal organism indicated the presence of 13 amino acids namely, alanine, threonine, valine, proline, methionine, tryptophan, tyrosine, lysin, cystin, glycine, asparatic acid, tyrosine, and phenyl alanine. The PCR product amplified with A. alternata DNA indicates that the 370-bp PCR product is a useful diagnostic tool to identify the causal organism in mangrove leaves. This study demonstrated that the causal organism of leaf spot disease of A. marina was typically similar to Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler via classical, biochemical and molecular characterization. (author)

  16. Isolation, characterization and molecular three-dimensional structural predictions of metalloprotease from a phytopathogenic fungus, Alternaria solani (Ell. and Mart.) Sor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Chandrasekar, Raman; Chun, Se-Chul; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2016-08-01

    The present study aims at isolation, identification, characterization and prediction of three-dimensional molecular architecture of a proteolytic enzyme from the early blight pathogen, Alternaria solani which are hypothesized to be a marker of phytopathogenicity. Maximum enzyme production by A. solani was observed in Czapex's Dox broth amended with 2% (w/v) casein than other inducer amendments. Results indicate that the enzyme remained highly active in a pH range of 7.0-10.0 and a temperature range of 45-50°C. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by EDTA, whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and monovalent cations (Na(+), K(+)) had little effect. Metal ions such as MgSO4, CaCl2, KCl at 10 mM concentration showed a stimulatory effect (>85%) on protease activity. Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight/mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified enzyme revealed the presence of protease belonging to a keratinolytic protein (metalloprotease) of exopeptidase nature. Putative A. solani keratinolytic enzyme (AsK) is made up of 216 amino acid residues with molecular weight (MW) 24.5 kDa, having a molecular formula of C1094H1704N290O342S4. Ramachandran plot analysis of the protein residues falling into the most favored secondary structures was observed at 84.2%. The major protein structural blocks, 2-β-sheets, and 9-α-helices have a greater tendency to be conserved during the evolutionary process than do mere sequences of amino acids. Besides, AsK, model prediction showed the presence of a Zinc atom at helix regions (Helix 3, 6, 7: His(57), His(130), His(169), and Cys(123)). Thus, it can be concluded that the major proteinases of AsK are divalent cation-requiring metalloproteinases and make them potential targets of protease inhibitors designing. PMID:26924427

  17. Efeito de meios de cultura e fatores físicos no crescimento e esporulação de Alternaria dauci e A. solani Effect of culture media and physical factors on growth and sporulation of Alternaria dauci and A. solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pulz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria dauci e Alternaria solani são espécies / 24 h. O método desenvolvido neste trabalho foi comparado ao reconhecidamente difíceis de esporular em meios de cultura. Este tradicionalmente utilizado (BDA, 25 ºC, 12 h luz branca / 12 h trabalho teve o objetivo de verificar a influência de alguns meios escuro e raspagem da colônia. O meio V8-ágar, temperatura de 25 de cultura e fatores fisicos sobre o crescimento micelial e a ºC, luz NUV e raspagem das colônias exerceram influência mais esporulação dessas espécies. Testaram-se os meios de cultura BDA, marcante no crescimento e esporulação. O fotoperíodo 12 h luz NUV Aveia e V8; temperaturas (15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC, 30ºC e 35ºC / 12 h escuro foi o que mais estimulou a esporulação. Observou-se que, comprimentos de onda da luz durante a incubação (amarelo, azul, de modo geral, períodos de escuro maiores que os períodos de luz, branco, NUV, verde e vermelho; tipos de injúria aplicados à aplicados após injúria da colônia, favoreceram a esporulação. O colônia (raspagem, UV, irradiação de microondas, e temperatura método desenvolvido mostrou-se nitidamente superior ao de 100 ºC e fotoperíodos (luz / escuro, respectivamente, de 24 h tradicionalmente utilizado, para crescimento e esporulação de ambas / 0 h, 22 h / 2 h, 17 h / 7 h, 12 h / 12 h, 7 h / 17 h, 2 h / 22 e 0 h as espécies.Alternaria dauci and A. solani are fungal species known for h and 0 h / 24 h were tested. The method developed in this study was difficult sporulation in culture media. This study had the objective of compared to the traditional procedure (BDA, 25 ºC, 12 h white / 12 verifying the influence of some physical factors on mycelia growth h dark light and scratching of the colony. V8-agar medium, and sporulation of these two species. Culture media (BDA, oat and temperature of 25 ºC, NUV light and scratching of the colonies had a V8, temperature (15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC, 30ºC and 35ºC, light

  18. Entwicklung und Bewertung von direkten Bekämpfungsstrategien gegen das Auftreten der Möhrenschwärze (Alternaria dauci) beim Anbau von Möhren für die industrielle Verarbeitung

    OpenAIRE

    Rau, Florian; Weier, Ulrike; Wonneberger, Christoph; Brand, Thomas; Jahn, Marga

    2006-01-01

    Im Rahmen des BLE-Forschungsprojektes „Entwicklung und Bewertung von direkten Bekämpfungsstrategien gegen das Auftreten der Möhrenschwärze (Alternaria dauci) beim Anbau von Möhren für die industrielle Verarbeitung“ (03OE488) wurde in den Jahren 2004-2006 Feldversuche zur Optimierung des ökologischen Möhrenanbaus unter norddeutschen Bedingungen durchgeführt. Sortenvergleichsanbau In den drei Jahren wurden auf den zwei Versuchsstandorten jeweils 10 bis 12 Möhrensorten auf ihre Eignung ...

  19. A method for the determination of two Alternaria toxins, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, in tomato products Um método para determinação de duas toxinas de Alternaria, alternariol monometil éter e alternariol, em produtos de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana da Motta

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes, as any soft skinned fruit, are easily susceptible to fungal rot. Alternaria is the genus most frequently encountered in tomatoes. A. alternata and other spp. have been shown to produce the toxins alternariol monomethyl ether (AME and alternariol (AOH in tomatoes. A method for determining AME and AOH in tomato products was developed and evaluated. The method involves extraction with methanol, clarification with ammonium sulfate, and partition to chloroform. Quantification was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (DAD. Average recoveries were 98.7% and 84.1% for AME and AOH, respectively. The quantification limits of the method, defined as the minimum amount that allowed quantification and confirmation by the DAD detector, were 2.0 ng/g for AME and 5.0 ng/g for AOH.Tomates são frutas de pele fina e assim facilmente susceptíveis a deterioração por fungos. Alternaria é o gênero que mais freqüentemente invade tomates. A. alternata e outras espécies deste gênero produzem as toxinas alternariol (AOH e alternariol monometil (AME. Um método analítico para determinação de AME e AOH em produtos de tomate foi desenvolvido e avaliado. O método consiste em uma extração com metanol, clarificação com sulfato de amônio e partição para clorofórmio. Quantificação foi executada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detetor de arranjo de diodos (DAD. Recuperações médias foram 98,7% e 84,1% para AME e AOH, respectivamente. Os limites de detecção do método, definidos como a menor quantidade das toxinas que permitiu quantificação e confirmação pelo DAD, foram 2,0 ng/g para AME e 5,0 ng/g para AOH.

  20. Simultaneous determination of gallic acid, methyl gallate and ellagic acid in gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier by HPLC%HPLC法同时测定维药没食子中没食子酸、没食子酸甲酯和鞣花酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧亮苗; 阿来·赛坎; 李柯翱; 季志红; 田树革

    2015-01-01

    Objective To dertermine the content of gallic acid, methyl gallate and ellagic acid in galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier from different batches by HPLC. Methods The chromatogram colume was Agilent Zorbax SB-C18(4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5μm), gradiently eluting with methanol as mobile phase A and 0.01%phosphoric acid as B at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The injection volumn was 5 μl. Detection wavelength was at 258 nm. Results Gallic acid was linear in the range of 0.0318-0.1871 g/L with correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The average recovery was 97.52%with RSD 1.41%. Methyl gallate was linear in the range of 0.0769-0.4612 g/L with correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The average recovery was 99.15% with RSD at 1.46%. Ellagic acid was linear in the range of 0.0158-0.0553 g/L with correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The average recovery was 102.75% with RSD at 0.87%. Conclusion The method is convenient, fast, accurate and practicable, and can be used for controling the quality of the galls of Q. infectoria.%目的 建立维药没食子中没食子酸、没食子酸甲酯和鞣花酸的HPLC含量测定的方法,并检测10批没食子中没食子酸、没食子酸甲酯和鞣花酸的含量. 方法 采用高效液相色谱法,Agilent Zorbax SB-C18柱(4.6 mm × 250 mm,5μm),流动相甲醇(A)-0.05%磷酸水溶液(B)进行梯度洗脱,流速1 ml/min,进样量5 μl, 检测波长258 nm.结果 没食子酸的质量浓度在0.0318 ~ 0.1871 g/L(r=0.9994)呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率为97.52%,RSD为1.41%;没食子酸甲酯的质量浓度在0 . 0769~ 0 . 4612 g/L(r=0 . 9994)呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率为99 . 15%, RSD为1 . 46%;鞣花酸的质量浓度在0 . 0158~0.0553 g/L(r=0.9998)呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率为102.75%,RSD为0.87%.结论 本方法简便、快速、准确、重复性好,为维药没食子质量控制提供定量依据.

  1. Genetically based location from triploid populations and gene ontology of a 3.3-mb genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot resistance in citrus reveal clusters of resistance genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cuenca

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis of phenotypical traits and marker-trait association in polyploid species is generally considered as a challenge. In the present work, different approaches were combined taking advantage of the particular genetic structures of 2n gametes resulting from second division restitution (SDR to map a genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot (ABS resistance in triploid citrus progeny. ABS in citrus is a serious disease caused by the tangerine pathotype of the fungus Alternaria alternata. This pathogen produces ACT-toxin, which induces necrotic lesions on fruit and young leaves, defoliation and fruit drop in susceptible genotypes. It is a strong concern for triploid breeding programs aiming to produce seedless mandarin cultivars. The monolocus dominant inheritance of susceptibility, proposed on the basis of diploid population studies, was corroborated in triploid progeny. Bulk segregant analysis coupled with genome scan using a large set of genetically mapped SNP markers and targeted genetic mapping by half tetrad analysis, using SSR and SNP markers, allowed locating a 3.3 Mb genomic region linked to ABS resistance near the centromere of chromosome III. Clusters of resistance genes were identified by gene ontology analysis of this genomic region. Some of these genes are good candidates to control the dominant susceptibility to the ACT-toxin. SSR and SNP markers were developed for efficient early marker-assisted selection of ABS resistant hybrids.

  2. Heterologous expression of the Hsp24 from Trichoderma asperellum improves antifungal ability of Populus transformant Pdpap-Hsp24 s to Cytospora chrysosperma and Alternaria alternate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S D; Wang, Z Y; Fan, H J; Zhang, R S; Yu, Z Y; Wang, J J; Liu, Z H

    2016-09-01

    The tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses could be improved by transforming with fungal resistance-related genes. In this study, the cDNA sequence (GenBank Acc. No. KP337939) of the resistance-related gene Hsp24 encoding the 24 kD heat shock protein was obtained from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma asperellum ACCC30536. The promoter region of Hsp24 contained many cis-regulators related to stresses response, such as "GCN4" and "GCR1" etc. Hsp24 transcription in T. asperellum was up-regulated under six different environmental stresses, compared with the control. Furthermore, following heterologous transformation into Populus davidiana × P. alba var. Pyramidalis (Pdpap), Hsp24 was successfully transcribed in transformant Pdpap-Hsp24s. Pathogen-related genes (PRs) in four Pdpap-Hsp24s were up-regulated compared with those in the control Pdpap (Pdpap-Con). After co-culture of Pdpap-Hsp24s with the weak parasite Cytospora chrysosperma, the transcription of genes related to hormone signal pathway (JA and SA) were up-regulated in Pdpap-Hsp24s, and ethidium bromide (EtBr) and Nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining assays indicated that the cell membrane permeability and the active oxygen content of Pdpap-Hsp24s leaves were lower than that of the control Pdpap-Con. And when the Pdpap-Hsp24s were under the Alternaria alternate stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) got higher in Pdpap-Hsp24s than that in Pdpap-Con, and the disease spots in Pdpap-Con leaves were obviously larger than those in Pdpap-Hsp24s leaves. In summary, Hsp24 of T. asperellum ACCC30536 is an important defense response gene, and its heterologous expression improved the resistance of transformant Pdpap-Hsp24s to C. chrysosperma and A. alternate. PMID:27193371

  3. Efeito da adubação sobre a incidência de traça-do-tomateiro e alternaria em plantas de tomate Effect of fertilization on the incidence of leafminer and early blight on tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano L.D. Leite

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de quatro níveis de adubação nitrogenada e potássica (NK na resposta do tomateiro Lycopersicon esculentum, c.v Santa Clara, ao ataque de mancha de alternaria (Alternaria solani, e da traça-do-tomateiro (Tuta absoluta, em casa de vegetação, em três diferentes idades da planta. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados com sete repetições, no esquema fatorial 3 x 4. Foram avaliados a altura da planta (cm, área foliar (cm² e o número de cachos por planta, flores por cacho, flores abortadas por cacho, frutos por cacho, frutos com mancha de alternaria por cacho, frutos atacados por traça-do-tomateiro por cacho, peso dos frutos por planta e minas de traça-de-tomateiro. A maior percentagem de frutos atacados pela traça foi observado em plantas de tomate cultivadas com altas doses de N. Com o aumento do número de flores ocorreu menor número de frutos atacados por alternaria. Tanto o ataque de A. solani como o de traça-do-tomateiro foi concentrado em frutos de menor peso, sendo que quanto maior o número de flores atacadas por A. solani, menor foi o ataque da traça aos frutos. O ataque da traça aos frutos foi maior em plantas de dois meses do que em plantas de quatro meses de idade, sendo o mesmo observado para o número de minas da traça-do-tomateiro.The effect of NK fertilization on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum, cv. "Santa Clara", over early blight (Alternaria solani and the leafminer (Tuta absoluta attack in greenhouse, in the different plant ages, was evaluated. The 3 x 4 factorial experiment was established in a randomized blocks design with seven replicates. Plant height (cm, leaf area (cm² and number of raceme per plant, number of flowers per raceme, flower drop per raceme, number of fruits per raceme, damaged fruits per raceme by early blight and leafminer, fruit weight per plant and number of mines of leafminer were evaluated. Greater percentage of fruits damaged by leafminer was

  4. Revisão taxonômica e relações filogenéticas das espécies de Roeboides grupo-microlepis (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic relationships of the Roeboides microlepis species-group (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae

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    Carlos Alberto Santos Lucena

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The Roeboides microlepis species-group is revised. Four species are recognized: R. myersii Gill, 1870 from the Amazon basin, R. microlepis (Reinhardt, 1851 from river Paraguay, middle and lower river Paraná, R. araguaito sp. nov. from the river Orinoco basin, and R. margareteae sp. nov. known only from Rio Parnaíba and Pindaré-Mearim, northeastern Brazil. The type-locality of R. microlepis is restricted to river Paraguay; R. bonariensis (Steindachner, 1879 is considered a synonym of R. microlepis. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that R. myersii and R. araguaito are most parsimoniously related and may be a sister group. These two species are here considered as sister group of the monophyletic lineage which includes R. microlepis and R. margareteae. A key to the microlepis species-group genus Roeboides is given.

  5. Efeito do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC e do emulsificante Tween® 80 sobre o crescimento micelial de Alternaria alternata (Fungi: Hyphomycetes The effect of Long-pepper essential oil (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. and of Tween®; 80 emulsifier on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternate (Fungi: Hyphomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Reis Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do óleo essencial de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC, sobre o crescimento micelial de Alternaria alternata e a análise da influência da concentração do emulsificante Tween® 80 no controle deste fitopatógeno. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se aparelho de Clevenger modificado, e posteriormente submetido, à análise por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massas CG-EM a CG. Para os ensaios biológicos, o método foi o bioanalítico in vitro observando-se o crescimento ou inibição do micélio de A. alternata no meio de cultura BDA na presença de diferentes concentrações do óleo essencial (0, 100, 250, 500 e 1000 mgL-1 sob diferentes concentrações de Tween® 80. Adotou-se esquema fatorial com quatro repetições, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. Observou-se que o óleo essencial de pimenta longa apresentou inibição sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo A. alternataem todas as concentrações analisadas, sendo que na concentração de 1000 mgL-1 esta inibição foi de 100% , e a porcentagem de emulsificante (Tween® 80, influenciou na atividade fungitóxica das concentrações de 250 mgL -1 e 500 mgL -1 do óleo essencial.The object of this work was to evaluate the effectof essential oils from Long-pepper leaves Piper hispidinervum on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata and to analyze the influence of emulsifier Tween® 80 concentration in the control of this phytopathogen. The essential oil was obtained by steam stream distillation, using a modified Clevenger apparatus, and the chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy GC-MS and GC. For biological tests, the bioanalytical in vitro method was used, observing the growth or inhibition of such phytopathogen in BDA culture media, in the presence of different essential oil concentrations (0, 100

  6. Severidade da mancha-de-alternária em cultivares de girassol na região do Cerrado do Distrito Federal Severity of alternaria in sunflower crop in the Cerrado region of Federal District, Brazil

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    Renato Fernando Amabile

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a severidade da mancha-de-alternária (Alternaria helianthi em cinco genótipos de girassol (Helianthus annuus L., em duas densidades populacionais e duas épocas de semeadura. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no campo experimental da Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Cerrados, em Planaltina, DF, no ano agrícola de 1998/1999, num Latossolo areno-argiloso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial de 5 x 2, com três repetições. A porcentagem de plantas com sintomas da mancha foi estimada por meio de observações semanais, empregandose notas de 0 a 5 nos terços inferior, médio e superior da planta. A população de plantas não influenciou na incidência de alternária. Todas as cultivares estudadas foram suscetíveis à doença. As condições climáticas transcorridas em cada época de semeadura modificaram a severidade da doença.Severity of alternaria leaf spot was evaluated in five genotypes of sunflower as a result of two densities of population and two sowing dates. The experiments were conducted in the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Cerrados experimental field, at Planaltina, DF, Brazil, on the crop season of 1998/1999 on an Oxisol soil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks in a 5 x 2 factorial with three replicates. The percentage of infected plants was estimated based on weekly observations considering scores from 0 to 5 in lower, middle and upper parts of the plant. The occurrence of alternaria was not influenced by density of population of 42,000 or 49,000 plants/ha. All cultivars were susceptible to the disease. The climatic conditions for each sowing date changed the disease severity.

  7. SCAR Marker Resistance-related to Cucumber Alternaria Leaf Spot and Resistance Identification of Cucumber Germplasm%与黄瓜抗黑斑病基因连锁的SCAR标记及抗病资源筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠哲; 李淑菊; 杨瑞环; 管炜; 邓强; 曹明明

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish molecular marker-assisted selection system of cucumber alternaria leaf spot with F1,F2and BC1population between a susceptible parent(L 63) and a resistant parent(L 9),a co-dominant AFLP marker was successfully converted into a simple, applied and co-dominant SCAR marker. Special marker SCEM 126/122 were designed according to the sequence information of AFLP( E-CC/M-CAT) fragments. The marker was closely linked to the cucumber alternaria leaf spot resistance-related gene, and the genetic distance between the marker and the gene was 4. 4 cM. The marker could be useful in marker-assisted selection in cucumber breeding. The acquired SCAR marker had many advantages including fast,accurate,low cost,free from an environmental in-fluence et. 64 resistant germplasm were abtained from total 290. Application of the acquired marker will inhance cu-cumber alternaria leaf spot disease resistant germplasm evaluation.%为建立黄瓜抗黑斑病分子标记辅助育种体系,以黄瓜感黑斑病母本L 63和抗黑斑病父本L 9及其F1、F2分离群体为试材,将与黑斑病抗性相关基因连锁的一个共显性AFLP标记E-CC/M-CAT进行了测序,根据序列特点设计了特异的SCAR引物SCEM126/122,成功地转换成了简单实用的共显性SCAR标记,经验证该标记与黄瓜抗黑斑病相关基因连锁遗传距离为4.4 cM,可以作为黄瓜抗黑斑病辅助选择的标记。且该标记具有迅速、简便、成本低、不受环境条件限制的优点,扩增条带清晰,无杂带和拖尾现象,适合用于大量样本分析。利用引物SCEM126/122对290份材料进行抗病性检测,结果表明有64份抗病材料,为进行抗黑斑病黄瓜新品种的选育奠定了基础。

  8. Development of a high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based analysis for the simultaneous quantification of various Alternaria toxins in wine, vegetable juices and fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickel, Theresa; Klaffke, Horst; Richards, Keith; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-07-15

    An analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection for the simultaneous quantification of 12 Alternaria toxins in wine, vegetable juices and fruit juices was developed. Excellent chromatographic performance was demonstrated for tenuazonic acid (TeA) in a multi-analyte method. This comprehensive study is also the first to report the determination of TeA, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tentoxin (TEN) and altenuene (ALT), altertoxin I (ATX-I), altertoxin II (ATX-II), altenuisol (ATL), iso-altenuene (isoALT), altenuic acid III (AA-III) and the AAL toxins TB1 und TB2 in samples from the German market. Several types of HPLC columns were tested for the liquid chromatographic separation of the toxins of interest that widely differ in their polarities. The focus was on gaining suitable retention while avoiding derivatization steps especially for TeA and AA-III. Three atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used with liquid chromatography (electrospray, chemical and photo ionization) were tested to obtain the best selectivity and sensitivity. Samples were diluted with sodium hydrogen carbonate buffer and extracted on a diatomaceous earth solid phase extraction cartridge. Method validation was carried out by using tomato juice, citrus juice and white wine as blank matrices. Limits of detection ranged from 0.10 to 0.59μgL(-1) and limits of quantification ranged from 0.4-3.1μgL(-1) depending on the toxin and matrix. Recoveries were around 100±9% for all toxins except stemphyltoxin III (STTX-III) and altenusin (ALS) due to instability during sample clean up. Matrix-induced effects leading to ion suppression especially for ATX-I, ATX-II and AA-III were investigated. Relative standard deviations of repeatability (RSDr) and intermediate reproducibility (RSDR) were ≤9.3 and ≤17.1, respectively, for the toxins in different matrices at levels of 5 and 30μgL(-1). Finally, 103

  9. 木醋液对人参黑斑病菌和人参灰霉病菌的抑菌作用%Inhibition Effects of Wood Vinegar on Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔国; 韩莲花; 吴松权; 朴仁哲; 刘海峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Less fungicides could be used to bio-control Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea,this experiment can offer preliminary theory for wood vinegar as a botanic fungicide.Methods:The in vitro inhibition activities of wood vinegar on Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea were tested by using mycelial growth rate method and spore germination method.Results:Inhibition of mycelium growth rate to Alternaria panax was 100% when the concentration of wood vinegar was no less than 3.0%,while the inhibition of mycelium growth rate and spore germination rate were 70.68% and 84.47 %,respectively,at concentration of wood vinegar 2.25%.Inhibition of mycelium growth rate and spore germination rate to Botrytis cinerea were 100% when the concentration of wood vinegar was no less than 2.25%.Conclusion:Wood vinegar concentration of no less than 2.25 % can be used as a bio-control agent of Alternaria panax and Botrytis cinerea,it is useful for the further field trial.%目的:生产上用于生物防治人参黑斑病菌和灰霉病菌的药剂种类较少,本试验为将木醋液作为一种新型植物源杀菌剂提供理论依据.方法:采用菌丝生长速率法和孢子萌发法,测试了木醋液对人参黑斑病菌和灰霉病菌的离体抑菌活性.结果:木醋液的浓度在3.0%及以上时,对人参黑斑病菌的菌丝生长抑制率为100%,而木醋液的浓度在2.25%时,菌丝生长抑制率和孢子萌发抑制率分别为70.68%和84.47%;木醋液的浓度在2.25%及以上时,对人参灰霉病菌的菌丝生长抑制率和孢子萌发抑制率均为100%.结论:2.25%以上浓度的木醋液可作为生物防治人参黑斑病菌和灰霉病菌的药剂,为进一步田间药效试验奠定了基础.

  10. Development and validation of an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of free and conjugated Alternaria toxins in cereal-based foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walravens, Jeroen; Mikula, Hannes; Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan; Ediage, Emmanuel Njumbe; Di Mavungu, José Diana; Van Landschoot, Anita; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Saeger, Sarah

    2014-10-31

    A UPLC-ESI(+/-)-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of free (alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, tenuazonic acid, tentoxin, altertoxin-I) and conjugated (sulfates and glucosides of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether) Alternaria toxins in cereals and cereal products (rice, oat flakes and barley) was developed. Optimization of the sample preparation and extraction methodology was achieved through experimental design, using full factorial design for extraction solvent composition optimization and fractional factorial design to identify the critical factors in the sample preparation protocol, which were in turn subjected to optimization. Final extracts were analysed using an Waters Acquity UPLC system coupled to a Quattro Premier XE mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray interface operated in both positive and negative ionization mode. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column, and the applied gradient elution programme allowed for the simultaneous determination of 10 Alternaria toxins in a one-step chromatographic run with a total run time of only 7min. Subsequently, the method, applying isotopically labelled internal standards ([(2)H4]-alternariol monomethyl ether and [(13)C6,(15)N]-tenuazonic acid), was validated for several parameters such as linearity, apparent recovery, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, measurement uncertainty and specificity (in agreement with the criteria mentioned in Commission Regulation No. 401/2006/EC and Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC). During validation, quality of the bioanalytical data was improved by counteracting the observed heteroscedasticity through the application of weighted least squares linear regression (WLSLR). Finally, 24 commercially available cereal-based foodstuffs were subjected to analysis, revealing the presence of tenuazonic acid in both rice and oat flake samples (

  11. 白菜黑斑病抗性鉴定及QTL定位%Evaluation and QTL Mapping for Resistance to Black Spot (Alternaria brassicicola) in Brassica rapa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 柳李旺; 谢学文; 孟霖; 刘博; 王晓武; 李宝聚; 武剑

    2013-01-01

    [目的]鉴定白菜类作物黑斑病抗性,同时进行白菜黑斑病抗病 QTL 定位研究,为白菜抗黑斑病品种改良提供理论依据。[方法]以喷雾法接种芸薹生链格孢(Alternariabrassicicola)分生孢子液于30 d苗龄的白菜离体叶片或植株,黑暗保湿处理后统计病情指数,比较在接种后不同接种部位和不同保湿天数抗性的差异。以优化后的方法鉴定白菜品种的黑斑病抗性,利用白菜重组自交系(RILs)群体进行黑斑病抗性QTL定位。[结果]优化了白菜黑斑病抗性鉴定方法,并利用该方法鉴定了70份白菜类作物品种的黑斑病抗性,筛选出14份抗黑斑病材料。同时利用白菜RILs群体,定位出两个黑斑病抗性QTL位点,分别位于A05和A06染色体上。[结论]利用离体叶法对白菜接种芸薹生链格孢,并黑暗保湿处理5d后进行病情调查可以有效鉴定不同白菜材料对黑斑病的抗性差异,且最大程度区分材料间的抗性水平。白菜类作物中缺少对黑斑病的高抗材料。利用白菜RILs群体,在白菜A05与A06号染色体上各定位出一个黑斑病抗性QTL位点。%[Objective]The aim of this study is to evaluate Brassica rapa resistance to black spot disease (Alternaria brassicicola), and map QTL related to this trait. The result will provide theoreticalbasis for genetic improvement on resistance to black spot disease in B. rapa crops.[Method]Conidia of A. brassicicola was sprayed to 30-day-old B. rapa seedlings or detached leaves. Disease index was scored after seedlings or detached leaves being kept in dark and wet for three to six days to determine the number of days for inoculation to distinguish the difference in resistance among B. rapa accessions. Using the optimized method, 70 B. rapa accessions were screened for their resistance to black spot disease. Furthermore, a population with 122 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to map QTL for black spot

  12. Levantamento da intensidade da alternariose e da podridão negra em cultivos orgânicos de brássicas em Pernambuco e Santa Catarina Survey of the intensity of Alternaria black spot and black rot on brassica species under organic farming systems in Pernambuco and Santa Catarina states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A M Peruch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a intensidade da alternariose, causada por Alternaria brassicicola e/ou Alternaria brassicae, e da podridão negra, causada por Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, em cultivos orgânicos de brássicas em Pernambuco e Santa Catarina. Os levantamentos foram realizados no período de novembro de 2001 a fevereiro de 2002, num total de 103 cultivos orgânicos de várias espécies de brássicas. Foram registradas elevadas prevalências das doenças nos estados, com exceção em couve-chinesa em Santa Catarina. A prevalência da alternariose foi 100% nos cultivos de brócolis em Pernambuco, bem como em couve-flor nos dois estados, enquanto a podridão negra atingiu esse nível nos cultivos de brócolis e couve-flor em Santa Catarina. Na média das diferentes espécies de brássicas, as doenças foram mais prevalentes em Pernambuco que Santa Catarina. Entretanto, as médias de severidade de cada doença no conjunto das brássicas não foram diferentes entre os estados, embora as condições climáticas tenham sido nitidamente distintas. A severidade da alternariose variou entre as espécies de brássicas somente em Pernambuco, com a menor severidade registrada em couve-manteiga. Em relação à podridão negra, apenas em Santa Catarina houve diferença na severidade entre as brássicas, sendo registrados os menores níveis em couve-chinesa. Não foram constatadas correlações significativas entre os níveis de severidade da alternariose e da podridão negra, bem como da severidade destas com o número total de plantas e a idade das plantas nos cultivos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the intensity of Alternaria black spot, caused by Alternaria brassicicola and/or Alternaria brassicae, and black rot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in organic cultivation of brassicas in Pernambuco and Santa Catarina. The survey was carried aut from November 2001 to February 2002, in 103 fields under

  13. Epidemiologia comparativa da podridão negra e da alternariose do repolho no Agreste de Pernambuco Comparative epidemiology of black rot and Alternaria black spot of cabbage in the Agreste of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE S. AZEVÊDO

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A podridão negra causada por Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, e a alternariose causada por Alternaria brassicicola constituem importantes doenças do repolho no estado de Pernambuco. Em virtude do desconhecimento sobre a epidemiologia dessas doenças a nível regional, foi efetuada a análise comparativa das epidemias com ênfase nos aspectos temporais e espaciais, em 1997 e 1998, cada ano em uma área de plantio diferente, localizadas no município de Camocim de São Félix, Agreste de Pernambuco. Em cada área, a intervalos semanais, foram avaliadas 1.920 plantas quanto à incidência e severidade das duas doenças, bem como efetuado o mapeamento espacial de plantas assintomáticas e sintomáticas. Os valores iniciais (y o e máximos (y max de incidência e severidade, as taxas estimadas de progresso da doença (k e as áreas abaixo das curvas de progresso das doenças (AACPD, apresentaram pequena variação entre as doenças, sendo as diferenças mais evidentes entre os anos de plantio. As maiores intensidades das doenças foram observadas em 1998, uma vez que próximo à área de plantio havia grande quantidade de plantas e restos culturais infetados, o que não ocorreu em 1997. Pelas análises de "ordinary runs", ajuste à distribuição beta-binomial e autocorrelação espacial, na maioria das situações, foi constatado um arranjo aleatório de plantas doentes nas avaliações iniciais, evoluindo posteriormente para um arranjo agregado, indicando que as doenças podem ter sido originadas de aloinfecções pela chegada de inóculo externo, seguidas de autoinfecções decorrentes da disseminação planta-a-planta.The black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Alternaria black spot caused by Alternaria brassicicola are significant cabbage diseases in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A lack of knowledge on the epidemiology of these diseases at a regional level motivated a comparative analysis of the epidemics in

  14. Intensidade de ataque de tripes, de alternaria e da queima-das-pontas em cultivares de cebola Intensity of attacks of thrips, purple blotch and gray mold on onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano L.D. Leite

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a intensidade de ataque de Thrips tabaci Lind., a incidência de Alternaria porri (Ellis e Botrytis squamosa J.C. Walker em nove cultivares de cebola [Aurora, Primavera, CNPH 6400, Crioula Alto-Vale, Vale-Ouro (IPA 11, Franciscana (IPA-16, Piraouro, Conquista e Serrana], num experimento no delineamento em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. Foram feitas avaliações semanais, do transplantio até a colheita, em dez plantas/parcela do número de T. tabaci presente na bainha das folhas bem como da percentagem de área foliar danificada pelo mesmo a partir da primeira folha expandida e também da presença ou da ausência de lesões causadas por A. porri e B. squamosa. A cv. Franciscana mostrou-se mais resistente em relação às demais ao ataque de T. tabaci. Não houve diferença significativa de plantas afetadas por A. porri e B. squamosa. T. tabaci e A. porri foram ambos afetados positiva e negativamente pela temperatura e pela umidade relativa do ambiente, respectivamente.The intensity of attack of T. tabaci and incidence of Alternaria porri (Ellis Cif and Botrytis squamosa J.C. Walker in nine onion cultivars [Aurora, Primavera, CNPH 6400, Crioula Alto-Vale, Vale-Ouro (IPA 11, Franciscana (IPA-16, Piraouro, Conquista and Serrana] was evaluated, in an experiment in randomized blocks design, with five replications. Weekly evaluations were done from the transplanting until harvesting date, in ten plants/parcel of the number of T. tabaci on the leaves, the percentage of damaged foliar area from the first expanded leaf up and the presence or absence of injuries caused by A. porri and B. squamosa. The cv. Franciscana was more resistant to the attack of T. tabaci in comparison to the other onion cultivars. There was no significant difference between cvs for A. porri and Botrytis squamosa resistance. T. tabaci and A. porri were influenced positively and negatively by temperature and relative humidity, respectively.

  15. Phylogeography of Pipistrellus pipistrellus species group: radiation and reticulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulva, P.; Fornůsková, Alena; Chudárková, A.; Allegrini, B.; Evin, A.; Benda, P.; Horáček, I.; Bartonička, T.; Bryja, Josef

    Kostelec nad Černými lesy: Lesnická práce, 2010 - (Horáček, I.; Benda, P.). s. 177-178 ISBN 978-80-87154-46-5. [International Bat Research Conference /15./. 23.08.2010-27.08.2010, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : phylogeography * bats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  16. Investigation of the Control Effects of "Polypeptide-product" Against Tobacco Alternaria alternata%“多肽保”对烟草赤星病的防治效果探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    端永明; 徐兴阳; 尹平; 陈树林; 岳绍启; 陈穗云; 王建光

    2011-01-01

    通过20/1年的小区试验表明,在移栽期和中耕期施用植物有机诱导抗病剂“多肽保”,可以促进大田烟株生长整齐、发育良好,对烟草赤星病的防效达到71.23%-78.83%,单位面积内产量增加7.97%-15.97%,产值增加11.00%~20.77%,为防治烟草赤星病提供了一条新途径.%The district tests in the year 2011 showed that the application of plant organic induced resistant agent of "polypeptide-product" during transplanting and cultivating period can not only promote the growth and development of tobacco plants, but also achieve the control effects to 71.23%--78.83% on tobacco Alternaria alternata. The production per unit area increased 7.97%--15.97%, and the output value increased 11.00% --20. 77%. The usage of "polypeptide-product" provides a new way of prevent and control the tobacco brown spot disease by application of biotechnology on tobacco industry.

  17. Estimation of Provincial Spatial Distribution Information of Forest Tree Species ( Group) Composition Using Multi-Sources Data%基于多源数据的省级树种(组)成数空间分布信息估测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宇佳; 陈尔学; 李世明

    2016-01-01

    的基于多源数据的森林树种(组)成数空间分布估测方法是一种有效的森林参数估测方法,基于该方法能够获取较高精度的树种(组)成数空间分布图.为了得到最佳的估测效果,需要对 k-NN 方法中的 k值进行优选,该值将随试验区和数据有所不同.另外,采用分层估测的策略可以有效提高最终估测精度.%[Objective]Remote sensing technique provides a highly effective means for extracting tree species ( group) spatial distribution information. The objective of this paper is to develop a method for estimating the provincial spatial distribution information of forest tree species ( group) composition using multi-sources data. Thus it could indicate the spatial distribution information of the main tree species ( group ) and provide a new method for extracting vegetation information in large area. [Method]The experiments were carried out over the test site of the whole Jilin Province. The time series MODIS NDVI product of 250 m pixel size and 8 days cloudy free composite and the permanent forest plot data collected by the national forest inventory ( NFI ) were used as the key data sources. The weather observation data and topography data were also integrated into the data sources. We developed a gradient nearest neighbor ( GNN ) based approach for estimating provincial forest tree species ( group) composition distribution information. Firstly,the method of canonical correspondence analysis ( CCA ) was implemented to extract effective composited features from the original dataset. Secondly,the k-nearest neighbors ( k-NN) method was applied on the extracted feature space to estimate forest tree species ( group ) composition number using one two-layer stratification scheme. As the value of k needs to be determined,the changing trend of k-NN estimation accuracy with the k values was analyzed. Finally,the estimation accuracy for each tree species ( group ) of the developed method was validated using

  18. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri Shrestha

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications.

  19. NOTES ON SPECIES GROUPS OF SUBGENUS HOMONEURA FROM CHINA WTTH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES (DIPTERA, LAUXANIIDAE)%中国同脉缟蝇亚属种团划分及二新种记述(双翅目,缟蝇科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史丽; 杨定

    2009-01-01

    The subgenus Homoneura Van der Wulp includes more than 500 known species in the world and 94 known species in China, of which 66 species from China are placed into 20 species groups. A key to separate these species groups is presented. Two new species, Homoneura (Homoneura) longinotata sp. nov. and Homoneura (Homoneura) trunciformis sp. nov., are described and illustrated from China. All types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of China Agricultural University (CAU).%记述了中国同脉缟蝇亚属20个种团,其中17个种团,即异突同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)abnormis group,双带同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)bistriata group,短突同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)brevis group,台湾同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)formosae group,河南同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)henanensis group,叉突同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)laticosta group,李氏同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)lii group,背斑同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)notostigma group,美额同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)ornatifrons group,多斑同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)picta group,五斑同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)quiquenotat group,单突同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)singularis group,纹额同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)striatifrons group,斑腿同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)substigmata group,西藏同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)tibetensis group,三尖同脉缟蝇种团H.(H.)trispina group,爪突同脉缟蝇种团日.(H.)unguiculata group为首次提出,并描述了2新种,平截同脉缟蝇H.(H.)trunciformis sp.nov.和长膜同脉缟蝇H.(H.)longinotata sp.nov.,提供了该亚属分种团检索表.所有观察标本均保存于中国农业大学昆虫标本馆.

  20. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF DROSOPHILA IMMIGRANS SPECIES GROUP BASED ON H2a-H2b SPACER AND Cyt b SEQUENCES%伊米果蝇种组(Drosophila immigrans pecies group)H2a-H2b和Cyt b分子系统发育关系(简报)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫秀英; 曾庆韬; 杨勇; 钱远槐

    2006-01-01

    @@ 伊米果蝇种组(Drosophila immigrans species group)是果蝇科(Drosophilidae)、果蝇属(Drosophila)、果蝇亚属(Drosophila)中数量最多的一个类群,主要分布于东洋区.在分类学上该种组分为nasuta、immigrans、hypocausta、quadrilineata和curviceps五个种亚组(species subgroup)[1],东洋区果蝇区系中伊米果蝇种组中包括94个种,其中有45个种分布在中国[2].而且curviceps种亚组是1992年新建立的中国特有果蝇类群[3].迄今,对伊米果蝇种组分子系统关系的报道还很少,有些物种的归属仍存在争议.伊米果蝇种组还有些问题需要探讨[4].

  1. 中国链格孢属分类研究Ⅴ. 生于锦葵科、睡莲科和蔷薇科植物上的新种、新名称和中国新记录种%TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF ALTERNARIA FROM CHINA Ⅴ. NEW TAXA AND NEW RECORDS ON MALVACEAE,NYMPHAEACEAE AND ROSACEAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天宇; 高民侠

    2000-01-01

    含链格孢2个新种、1个新名称和4个新记录:朱槿链格孢Alternaria rosa-sinensis M.X.Gaoet T.Y.Zhang,sp.nov.、地榆链格孢A.sanguisorbae M.X.Gaoet T.Y.Zhang,sp.nov.、莲生链格孢A.nelumbicola T.Y.Zhang,nom.nov.、锦葵链格孢A.malvae Roum.et Letendre.、苹果生链格孢A.pomicola A.S.Horne、杏链格孢A.pruni和塔米链格孢A.tamijiana.新种有拉丁文特征描述和绘图.新种的模式标本分别保藏在山东农业大学植物病理学标本室(HSAUP)和西北农业大学真菌标本室(HMUABO).%Two new species, Alternaria rosa-sinensis M. X. Gao et T. Y. Zhang and A. sanguisorbae M. X. Gao et T. Y. Zhang, one new name, A. nelumbicola T. Y. Zhang, and four new records to China, A. malvae, A. pomicola, A. pruni and A. tamijiana are reported. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in Herbarium of Plant Pathology of Shandong Agricultural University (HSAUP) and Mycological Herbarium of Northwestern Agricultural University (HMUABO), respectively.

  2. 人参立枯病与黑斑病拮抗细菌的筛选及其促生防病能力∗%Screening, Growth Promoting and Control Effect of Antagonistic Strains Against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Alternaria panax Whetz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卓; 杨利民

    2015-01-01

    By filter paper method and Oxford cup method,a strain of Bacillus endophyticus SZ-56, which was strongly antagonistic to Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Alternaria panax Whetz, was screened from ginseng rhizosphere soil, and control ability and growth⁃promoting effect at the root of the ginseng were determined. The results indicated that the inhibitive rate of the bacterial strain SZ-56 to Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Alternaria panax Whetz were 87�77%and 65�40% respectively. The bacterial strain SZ-56 had good control effect on ginseng fungal pathogens. The strain SZ-56 had flat or slightly higher efficacy ( P<0. 05) compared with the pesticides treatments, with no dilu⁃tion in pots trails,the protective and the therapeutic efficacy of the aseptic filtrate of SZ-56 reached 70�25% and 73�94% on Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, 52�9% and 53�41% on Alternaria panax Whetz, respectively. The study on the growth⁃promoting effect indicated that after drenching the ginseng root with SZ-56 was significantly higher than ck in pots trails, the average plant height, stem and leaf fresh weight, stem and leaf dry weight, root length, root fresh weight and root dry weight increased to varying degrees. Wherein, the fresh and dry root mass as well as the dry mass of the stem and leaf in the natural soil was more than 2 times of that of the control plant, the dry mass of the root in⁃creased at a rate as high as 239�99%, and the observation group was significantly better than the control group.%采用滤纸片法和牛津杯法从多年生人参根际土壤中筛选出1株对立枯丝核菌( Rhizoctonia solani Ku⁃hn)和人参链格孢菌( Alternaria panax Whetz)均有较强拮抗能力的内生芽孢杆菌( Bacillus endophyticus) SZ-56,并测定了其防病促生效果。结果表明:SZ-56对立枯丝核菌和人参链格孢的抑菌率分别为87�77%和65�40%,其还具备广谱拮抗性;SZ-56具备盆栽防控能力,对人参

  3. Control Effects of Bacillus subtilis BL03 Strain on Alternaria alternata and Colltotrichum gossypii in Field%枯草芽孢杆菌BL03对苹果霉心病和棉苗病害田间防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛玉成

    2000-01-01

    @@ 枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)BL03菌株,是作者从苹果树体上分离得到的拮抗菌株之一.室内测定对苹果霉心病菌(Alternaria alternata)、炭疽病菌(Colltotrichum gossypii)、红霉病菌(Trichothecium roseum)和镰刀菌(Fusarium sp.)等10种病原菌的抑制效果均为100%.本文报道枯草芽孢杆菌BL03菌液对苹果霉心病和棉花苗期病害的田间防治效果.

  4. First report of alternaria leaf spot of banana caused by Alternaria alternata in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research efforts were initiated in 2003 to identify and introduce banana (Musa spp.) cultivars suitable for production in Georgia. In spring and summer 2012, seven of the cultivars (Veinte Cohol, Novaria, Cacambou, Chinese Cavendish, Raja Puri, Blue Torres Island, and African Red) grown in the field...

  5. Severidade de ocorrência das manchas de alternária e septoriose em girassol semeado em diferentes épocas no Rio Grande do Sul Alternaria and septoria leaf spot severity on sunflower at different sowing dates in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Loose

    2012-01-01

    the growing season determine the occurrence or not of the disease, so that this knowledge is critical for choosing the best growing season. This study aimed to determine the severity of Alternaria and Septoria leaf spots on sunflower (Helianthus annuus at different sowing dates. Experiments were carried out during four seasons, from 2007 to 2011, in Santa Maria, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experiments had a completely randomized design with two-factor (sowing dates vs. sunflower hybrids. The measurements of plant growth and severity of leaf spots caused by Alternaria and Septoria were taken once and twice a week, respectively. The final severity (SVFO and the variables area under the disease progress curve (AACPD and days of healthy leaf area (DAFS were determined and used for comparing hybrids and sowing dates. In the crop seasons of 2007/2008, 2008/2009 and 2010/2011, the severity of disease was lower for early sowing dates from August to September, while the later ones tended to increase the disease severities. In 2009/2010 growing season, period under El Niño influence and with rainfall above normal, all sowing dates resulted in high disease severity, especially negative for the first sowing dates because of the highest rainfall in years under the phenomenon influence. Therefore, the late sowing or sowing during El Niño years are favorable to high Alternaria and septoria leaf spots severity in sunflower crop and then the sowing should be avoided under those conditions.

  6. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species Groups: Herd Management Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the location of HMAs, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for climate change and energy development.

  7. Taxonomic revision of the species group rubripes of Corinna Koch, 1842 (Araneae; Corinnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Bruno V B; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2014-01-01

    The species of the group rubripes, which harbors the type species of the genus Corinna C. L. Koch, 1842, are revised, including 20 Neotropical species. Three previously known species are re-diagnosed: Corinna rubripes C. L. Koch, 1842, Corinna nitens (Keyserling, 1891) and Corinna mourai Bonaldo, 2000. New records of Corinna nitens are provided, including the first ones from Peru and Bolivia. Seventeen new species, all from Brazil, were described: C. aechmea n. sp., C. balacobaco n. sp., C. caatinga n. sp., C. demersa n. sp., C. escalvada n. sp., C. hyalina n. sp., C. jecatatu n. sp., C. kuryi n. sp., C. loiolai n. sp., C. maracas n. sp., C. regii n. sp., C. telecoteco n. sp., C. tranquilla n. sp., C. vesperata n. sp., C. vilanovae n. sp., C. zecarioca n. sp. and C. ziriguidum n. sp. A key for all twenty species of the group is presented. PMID:24943629

  8. Chromosome numbers in three species groups of freshwater flatworms increase with increasing latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Sven; Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Polyploidy in combination with parthenogenesis offers advantages for plasticity and the evolution of a broad ecological tolerance of species. Therefore, a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and increasing latitude as a surrogate for environmental harshness has been suggested. Such a positive correlation is well documented for plants, but examples for animals are still rare. Species of flatworms (Platyhelminthes) are widely distributed, show a remarkably wide range of chromosome numbers, and offer therefore good model systems to study the geographical distribution of chromosome numbers. We analyzed published data on counts of chromosome numbers and geographical information of three flatworm "species" (Phagocata vitta, Polycelis felina and Crenobia alpina) sampled across Europe (220 populations). We used the mean chromosome number across individuals of a population as a proxy for the level of ploidy within populations, and we tested for relationships of this variable with latitude, mode of reproduction (sexual, asexual or both) and environmental variables (annual mean temperature, mean diurnal temperature range, mean precipitation and net primary production). The mean chromosome numbers of all three species increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature. For two species, chromosome number also decreased with mean precipitation and net primary production. Furthermore, high chromosome numbers within species were accompanied with a loss of sexual reproduction. The variation of chromosome numbers within individuals of two of the three species increased with latitude. Our results support the hypothesis that polyploid lineages are able to cope with harsh climatic conditions at high latitudes. Furthermore, we propose that asexual reproduction in populations with high levels of polyploidization stabilizes hybridization events. Chromosomal irregularities within individuals tend to become more frequent at the extreme environments of high latitudes, presumably because of mitotic errors and downsizing of the genome. PMID:27087923

  9. Evolutionary Genomics of Genes Involved in Olfactory Behavior in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Group

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás Lavagnino; François Serra; Leonardo Arbiza; Hernán Dopazo; Esteban Hasson

    2012-01-01

    Previous comparative genomic studies of genes involved in olfactory behavior in Drosophila focused only on particular gene families such as odorant receptor and/or odorant binding proteins. However, olfactory behavior has a complex genetic architecture that is orchestrated by many interacting genes. In this paper, we present a comparative genomic study of olfactory behavior in Drosophila including an extended set of genes known to affect olfactory behavior. We took advantage of the recent bur...

  10. A multi-gene approach reveals a complex evolutionary history in the Cyanistes species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Koivula, Kari; Broggi, Juli; Päckert, Martin; Martens, Jochen; Kvist, Laura

    2011-10-01

    Quaternary climatic oscillations have been considered decisive in shaping much of the phylogeographic structure around the Mediterranean Basin. Within this paradigm, peripheral islands are usually considered as the endpoints of the colonization processes. Here, we use nuclear and mitochondrial markers to investigate the phylogeography of the blue tit complex (blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, Canary blue tit C. teneriffae and azure tit C. cyanus), and assess the role of the Canary Islands for the geographic structuring of genetic variation. The Canary blue tit exhibits strong genetic differentiation within the Canary Islands and, in combination with other related continental species, provides an ideal model in which to examine recent differentiation within a closely related group of continental and oceanic island avian species. We analysed DNA sequences from 51 breeding populations and more than 400 individuals in the blue tit complex. Discrepancies in the nuclear and mitochondrial gene trees provided evidence of a complex evolutionary process around the Mediterranean Basin. Coalescent analyses revealed gene flow between C. caeruleus and C. teneriffae suggesting a dynamic process with multiple phases of colonization and geographic overlapping ranges. Microsatellite data indicated strong genetic differentiation among the Canary Islands and between the Canary archipelago and the close continental areas, indicating limited contemporary gene flow. Diversification of the blue tit complex is estimated to have started during the early Pliocene (≈ 5 Ma), coincident with the end of Messinian salinity crisis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the North African blue tit is derived from the Canary blue tits, a pattern is avian 'back colonization' that contrasts with more traditionally held views of islands being sinks rather than sources. PMID:21880092

  11. Taxonomic reassessment of two Indian shieldtail snakes in the Uropeltis ceylanicus species group (Reptilia: Uropeltidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropeltis is the most speciose of all shieldtail snake (uropeltid genera, particularly in India, and has been bedeviled by a complex and intricate taxonomic history, with several weakly established synonyms and widely disjunct geographic ranges. Our present work on two Indian Uropeltis species revealed greater species diversity than what is currently recognised. We elevate Uropeltis arcticeps madurensis to species level, and revive Silybura shorttii (in the combination Uropeltis shorttii from the subjective synonymy of U. ceylanicus. We provide differential diagnoses, descriptions of examined material and comparisons with similar species based on an examination of voucher specimens as well as fresh, uncollected topotypes documented in the field.

  12. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided. PMID:27396014

  13. Antifungal Activity of Lavandula Angustifolia and Quergues Infectoria Extracts in Comparison with Nystatin on Candida Albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, F; A. Raoofi; S. Dadfar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Nowadays,herbal extracts are used to treat diseases, especially infec-tious ones. Candida albicans is the most common causes of oral opportunistic infections.In this study, antifungal effects of two herbal extracts were evaluated on an oral pathogen i.e. Candida albicans. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive- analytic study, the Department of Prosthodontics, ,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, school of Dentistry the oral samples of 25 patients with dentu...

  14. 紫斑病菌粗毒素对大蒜幼苗防御酶活性和叶片解剖结构的影响%Effects of Alternaria porri (Elliott) Cif. Crude Toxin on Protective Enzyme Activities and Leaf Anatomical Structure of Garlic Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓敏; 程智慧; 董殷鑫

    2012-01-01

    以抗病品种G087和感病品种G025为试材,研究了大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素对大蒜幼苗叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量及叶片解剖结构的影响.结果表明:在大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素处理后120 h内,抗病品种和感病品种叶片SOD活性呈现一致的变化趋势,均在96 h达到峰值,但抗病品种SOD活性始终高于感病品种.随着大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素处理时间的延长,感病品种叶片POD和PAL活性均呈先持续升高后稍下降的趋势,均有1个峰值;而抗病品种叶片POD和PAL活性均出现2个峰值,POD活性的2个峰值分别出现在48 h和96 h,PAL活性的2个峰值分别出现48 h和120 h;抗病品种酶活性的最大峰值高于感病品种.在大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素处理后的大部分时间内,抗病品种叶片MDA含量低于感病品种.抗病品种叶肉组织结构比感病品种紧密;经大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素处理后,两个品种叶片栅栏组织及海绵组织的密度都比处理前增加,抗病品种叶肉组织结构比感病品种更加紧密.%The effects of Alternaria porri (Elliott) Cif. crude toxin on the activities of SOD, POD, PAL and contents of MDA and leaf anatomical structure were studied, taking the resistant cultivar G087 and susceptible cultivar G025 of garlic ( Allium sativum L.) as experiment materials. The results showed that the SOD activities of both cultivars appeared the same dynamic changing trend in 120 hours after the pathogen crude toxin treatment and reached the peak at 96 hours. But the SOD activities in resistant cultivar were higher than that in susceptible cultivar. The POD and PAL activities in the leaves of susceptible cultivar showed a trend of sustaining increase first then a slight decrease and had a peak value. However, the activities of POD and PAL in the leaves of resistant cultivar had 2 peak values, which presented at 48 hours and 96 hours for POD

  15. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cobalt complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Co(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activity against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cobalt(II) chloride was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine had antifungal activity against all species of fungi studied except Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Candida tropicalis, and Alternaria infectoria. Cobalt(II) nicotine was found to be effective against all selected species of fungi but ineffective against Candida solani, Penicillium notalum, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme. (author)

  16. The fungal community changes over time in developing wheat heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Morten; Jensen, Iben Ravnborg; Jensen, Laura Østergaard; Thomsen, Søren Nøhr; Winde, Jacob; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Sørensen, Lydia Henriette; Wollenberg, Rasmus Dam; Sørensen, Hans Otto; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2016-04-01

    Under normal conditions, wheat is colonized by a multitude of fungi that can have beneficial or adverse effects on plant growth and yield. To study the effect of spraying wheat heads with fungicides on the fungal community from emergence to harvest we applied an amplicon sequencing approach on single wheat heads. The climatic data showed that the spring of 2014 was very dry and without precipitation in the two weeks around flowering. An initial quantitative PCR showed that the total amount of fungal DNA increased during the entire period, without significant difference between sprayed and control wheat heads. Amplicon sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region showed that operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified as Sporobolomyces roseus dominated in the first weeks, whereas Alternaria infectoria OTUs dominated in the last weeks before harvest. The only observed significant difference was that the control wheat heads contained more of the powdery mildew causing Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici OTUs compared with the sprayed wheat heads. The dry conditions around flowering most likely also had an effect on Fusarium head blight infection as Fusarium OTUs were only sporadically encountered. Analyses of secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium and Alternaria in the wheat heads confirmed the observations from the amplicon sequencing. Enniatin B was the most frequent contaminant present in four sprayed (49-538 ng/g) and three control (56-355 ng/g) wheat heads. The A. infectoria secondary metabolites infectopyrone and 4Z-infectopyrone were however consistently observed in all samples collected the last five weeks before harvest. PMID:26836252

  17. 赞皇枣黑腐病菌拮抗链霉菌的室内多重筛选及发酵条件优化%Screening in vitro of Antagonistic Streptomyces against the Black Rot Disease (Alternaria tenuissima) of Zanhuang Jujube Fruit and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高芬; 李静虹; 王俊宏; 王梦亮

    2015-01-01

    being free of fungicide pollution. The objective of the present study is to screen out a Streptomyces strain with good inhibitory effect against the fungal disease pathogen ( Alternaria tenuissima) and optimize the fermentation medium formula, as well as fermentation conditions with the purpose of laying a foundation for field experiment and the development of bio-control agent.[Method]The agar block method,the Oxford cup method and the medicated plate method were applied in the multiple screening in vitro of 10 Streptomyces strains against A. tenuissima, which were originally isolated from special habitats. The optimum fermentation medium and conditions for the selected strain were determined by using a quadratic orthogonal rotation combination design and a single-factor experiment design, respectively. [Result]During in vivo experiment,strains AC03,AC04 and AC07 showed significant antagonistic effect, their diameter of inhibition zone being (32. 09 ± 1. 45)mm,(15. 75 ± 1. 34)mm and (18. 33 ± 0. 78)mm respectively. The fermentation filtrate activity test of the three strains demonstrated that the strains AC03 and AC07 had a diameter of inhibition zone of (20. 94 ± 0. 92)mm and (23. 44 ± 1. 63)mm respectively,while the strain AC04 had a diameter of only (14. 5 ± 0. 71)mm. The further conducted test of the inhibition effect of the fermentation filtrates of the strain AC03 and AC07 on mycelial growth displayed that the antagonistic substance produced by the strain AC07 had a better and longer inhibition effect than that produced by the strain AC03. These tests demonstrated that of the 10 isolates,the strain AC07 had the best inhibition effect on A. tenuissima,that is the main cause of the black rot disease on Zanhuang jujube. The optimum fermentation medium for the strain AC07 consists of maltose,5. 7%; soybean meal,2. 7%; ( NH4 ) 2 SO4 , 0. 17%; CaCO3 ,0. 22%; NaCl,0. 17% and Yeast Powder,0. 2%. The optimum fermentation conditions were defined as follows

  18. A new species of Chaetostoma Tschudi (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Colombia with a definition of the C. anale species group

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo A. Ballen

    2011-01-01

    Chaetostoma formosae sp. nov. is described from piedmont tributaries of the upper río Meta on the Cordillera Oriental in Colombia. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the presence of an elongate unbranched anal-fin ray with two posterior dermal ridges in mature males, the presence of strongly recurved cheek odontodes, the presence of a parieto-supraoccipital dermal keel, the posterior margin of the pelvic-fin strongly projected and angulate in shape in mature males, and by ...

  19. A refined concept of the Critoniopsis bogotana species group in Colombia with two new species (Vernonieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Robinson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Critoniopsis bogotana is more precisely delimited, and two related Colombian species are described as new. The form of trichomes on the abaxial surfaces of the leaves is found to be of major importance. A short key to the C. bogotana group is provided.

  20. A new species of the Camponotus aureopilus VIEHMEYER, 1914 species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shattuck, S.; Janda, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2009), s. 251-253. ISSN 1994-4136 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR KJB612230701 Grant ostatní: U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-02-11591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : taxonomic description * Hymenoptera * Formicidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  1. A taxonomic revision of the silphaeformis species-group of the genus Tachinus Gravenhorst (Staphylinidae, Tachyporinae) from China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ting; Schülke,Michael; Li ,Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese species of the silphaeformis group of the genus Tachinus Gravenhorst are revised with fifteen species being treated. Thirteen of them are described as new: T. armatus Feng & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), T. cavazzutii Feng, Li & Schülke, sp. n. (Sichuan), T. coronatus Feng, Li & Schülke, sp. n. (Ningxia, Qinghai), T. hercules Feng, Li & Schülke, sp. n. (Sichuan), T. hujiayaoi Feng, Li & Schülke, sp. n. (Shaanxi), T. jiuzhaigouensis Feng, Li & Schülke, sp. n. (Sichuan), T. linzhie...

  2. Darwin’s earthworms (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megadrilacea with review of cosmopolitan Metaphire peguana–species group from Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blakemore, R.J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A chance visit to Darwin allowed inspection of and addition to Northern Territory (NT Museum’s earthworm collection. Native Diplotrema zicsii sp. nov. from Alligator River, Kakadu NP is described. Town samples were dominated by cosmopolitan exotic Metaphire bahli (Gates, 1945 herein keyed and compared morpho-molecularly with M. peguana (Rosa, 1890 requiring revision of allied species including Filipino Pheretima philippina (Rosa, 1891, P. p. lipa and P. p. victorias sub-spp. nov. A new P. philippina-group now replaces the dubia-group of Sims & Easton, 1972 and Amynthas carinensis (Rosa, 1890 further replaces their sieboldi-group. Lumbricid Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826 and Glossoscolecid Pontoscolex corethrurus (Müller, 1857 are confirmed introductions to the NT. mtDNA barcodes newly include Metaphire houlleti (Perrier, 1872 and Polypheretima elongata (Perrier, 1872 spp.-complexes from the Philippines. Pithemera philippinensis James & Hong, 2004 and Pi. glandis Hong & James, 2011 are new synonyms of Pi. bicincta (Perrier, 1875 that is common in Luzon. Vietnamese homonym Pheretima thaii Nguyen, 2011 (non P. thaii Hong & James, 2011 is replaced with Pheretima baii nom. nov. Two new Filipino taxa are also described: Pleionogaster adya sp. nov. from southern Luzon and Pl. miagao sp. nov. from western Visayas.

  3. Morphometric variation of the Herichthys bartoni (Bean, 1892 species group (Teleostei: Cichlidae: How many species comprise H. labridens (Pellegrin, 1903?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mejía

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cichlids of the tribe Heroini have long been a source of taxonomical conflict. In particular, the species included in the Herichthys bartoni group have failed to be recovered as monophyletic in different molecular studies. In this paper we use traditional and geometric morphometrics to evaluate morphological variation in the species included in the H. bartoni complex in order to evaluate the number of species it contains. An update of a previously published DNA barcoding study suggests the existence of three genetic clusters that included the six recognized species analyzed in this study, none of them recovered as monophyletic. On the other hand, geometric morphometrics arise as a useful tool to discriminate species due that traditional morphometrics showed a high overlap in the characters analyzed that prevents the proposal of diagnostic characters.

  4. Distinction and relatedness – Taxonomic and genetic studies reveal a new species group of goatfishes (Upeneus; Mullidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Uiblein, Franz; Gouws, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic and genetic differentiation among goatfish species of the genus Upeneus which had been formerly included in the so-called ‘vittatus group’ were examined using a comprehensive alpha-taxonomic and barcoding approach. Four of the five species of this group, U. indicus, U. suahelicus, U. supravittatus and U. vittatus, occur in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), while U. parvus occurs in the Western Atlantic. An updated diagnosis of the WIO species, followed by detailed inter- and intraspe...

  5. Replacement names and nomenclatural comments for problematic species-group names in Europe's Neogene freshwater Gastropoda. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Neubauer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a new database project on Miocene to Recent freshwater gastropods of Europe, a great many of primary and secondary homonyms were revealed. Such nomenclatural issues need clarification in order to avoid misunderstandings and wrong statements about geographical distributions and temporal ranges. The following 16 new names are introduced to replace existing homonyms: Theodoxus militaris jurisicpolsakae nom. n., Viviparus stevanovici nom. n., Melanopsis haueri ripanjensis nom. n., Melanopsis wolfgangfischeri nom. n., Micromelania ramacanensis nom. n., Pseudamnicola welterschultesi nom. n., Muellerpalia haszprunari nom. n., Muellerpalia pseudovalvatoides nom. n., Lithoglyphus gozhiki nom. n., Valvata heidemariae willmanni nom. n., Radix macaleti nom. n., Gyraulus okrugljakensis nom. n., Gyraulus rasseri nom. n., Gyraulus vrapceanus nom. n., Planorbarius halavatsi nom. n., and Segmentina mosbachensis nom. n. Additionally, six cases of homonyms are discussed that are not replaced by new names, because they are considered junior synonyms.

  6. Uji Efek Ekstrak Etanol Majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) Terhadap Penurunan Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Putih Yang Diinduksi Aloksan

    OpenAIRE

    Solin, Evi Susi Yanti

    2014-01-01

    The amount of diabetes mellitus patients in Indonesia takes the fourth place in the world after India, China and the United States. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease caused by impaired insulin production. Lack of resources and the amount of insulin causes glucose can not be used cells and therefore accumulates in the blood. Diabetes can be cure various disease such as hypertension, stroke, coronary hearth disease, kidney failure, cataracts, etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate th...

  7. Importancia del género Alternaria como productor de micotoxinas y agente causal de enfermedades humanas The importance of genus Alternaria in mycotoxins production and human diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Á. Pavón Moreno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternaría es un género fúngico muy común, donde se incluyen numerosas especies saprofitas, endofíticas y patógenas ampliamente distribuidas en el suelo y la materia orgánica en descomposición. Incluye especies patógenas que pueden invadir los cultivos vegetales antes y después de la recolección y es responsable de considerables pérdidas económicas, debido a que reduce el rendimiento de las cosechas y produce alteraciones en los vegetales durante su almacenamiento. Las especies del género Alternaría sintetizan más de 70 metabolitos secundarios tóxicos para las plantas (fitotoxinas, algunos de los cuales afectan también a personas y animales, por lo que se consideran micotoxinas. La exposición a las toxinas de Alternaría spp. se ha relacionado con la aparición de efectos adversos para la salud en personas y animales y, en muchos casos, se ha demostrado que tienen capacidad genotóxica, mutagénica, carcinogénica y citotóxica. Las micotoxinas de Alternaría spp. se han aislado de frutas (manzana, pera, melón, albaricoque, uvas, uvas pasas, fresa, aceituna, cítricos e higos desecados, hortalizas (tomate, pimiento y zanahoria y tubérculos (patata, así como de numerosos alimentos procesados elaborados con materias primas contaminadas (zumos, conservas, salsas, etc.. Además, determinadas especies de Alternaría están implicadas en infecciones y alergias humanas, hasta el punto de que Alternaría se considera uno de los principales géneros fúngicos causantes de alergias.Alternaría is a cosmopolitan fungal genus that includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species, widely distributed in soil and organic matter in decomposition. Plant pathogenic species affect cereals, vegetables and fruit crops in the field and during storage. Alternaría spp. contamination is responsible for some of the world's most devastating plant diseases, causing serious reduction of crop yields and considerable economic losses. Alternaría species produce more than 70 secondary metabolites which are toxic to plants, and some of these phytotoxins have been chemically characterised and reported to act as mycotoxins to humans and animals. Exposure to Alternaría spp. toxins has been linked to a variety of adverse effects on human and animal health, including genotoxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic effects. Alternaría spp. mycotoxins have been isolated from fruits (apple, pear, melon, apricot, grapes, raisins, strawberry, olive, citrus fruits and dried figs, vegetables (tomato, pepper and carrot and tubers (potato, as well as from several processed foodstuffs manufactured with damaged raw materials (juices, preserves, sauces, etc.. Moreover, Alternaría spp. are frequently associated with allergic reactions in sensitized individuals.

  8. Importancia del género Alternaria como productor de micotoxinas y agente causal de enfermedades humanas The importance of genus Alternaria in mycotoxins production and human diseases

    OpenAIRE

    M. Á. Pavón Moreno; I. González Alonso; R. Martín de Santos; T. García Lacarra

    2012-01-01

    Alternaría es un género fúngico muy común, donde se incluyen numerosas especies saprofitas, endofíticas y patógenas ampliamente distribuidas en el suelo y la materia orgánica en descomposición. Incluye especies patógenas que pueden invadir los cultivos vegetales antes y después de la recolección y es responsable de considerables pérdidas económicas, debido a que reduce el rendimiento de las cosechas y produce alteraciones en los vegetales durante su almacenamiento. Las especies del género Alt...

  9. Enhanced cellulase and β-glucosidase production by a mutant of Alternaria alternata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cellulolytic activity of the wild type and a mutant strain of A. alternata was investigated. Mutants were induced by gamma radiation. A suspension of about 105 condidia/mL in 0.05M phosphate buffer pH 5 were irradiated in a gamma-cell-type (Cammacell 220, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ottawa, Canada) 60Co source with a dose rate of 2.5 krad/min. The amount of radiation given was 70 krad which resulted in about 10% survival level. The stock culture was maintained on a sterile growth medium supplemented with 1% cellulose 123 and 0.3% agar. Following the incubation period, the fungal biomass was harvested by centrifugation (5000g for 10 min) and the clarified supernatant was used as the source of cellulase and β-glucosidase

  10. Cutaneous infection by different Alternaria species in a liver transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Brás

    2015-06-01

    To our knowledge this is the first case of cutaneous concomitant infection due to those two species reported not only in Portugal but also worldwide. The patient was treated with surgical excision of the lesions and oral itraconazol without relapse.

  11. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations amplify Alternaria alternata sporulation and total antigen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Although the association between rising levels of carbon dioxide, the principle anthropogenic greenhouse gas, and pollen production has been established, few data are available regarding the function of rising carbon dioxide on quantitative or qualitative changes in allergenic fungal sp...

  12. Role of mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola

    OpenAIRE

    Calmes, Benoit; Guillemette, Thomas; Teyssier, Lény; Siegler, Benjamin; Pigné, Sandrine; Landreau, Anne; Iacomi, Béatrice; Lemoine, Rémi; Richomme, Pascal; Simoneau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the physiological functions of fungal mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic fungus Alternada brassicicola. Mannitol metabolism was examined during infection of Brass/ca oleracea leaves by sequential HPLC quantification of the major soluble carbohydrates and expression analysis of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, i.e., a mannitol dehydrogenase (AbMdh), and a mannito1-1-phosp...

  13. Automated and unbiased image analyses as tools in phenotypic classification of small-spored Alternaria species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Hansen, Michael Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    often has been broadly applied to various morphologically and chemically distinct groups of isolates from different hosts. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate automated and unbiased image analysis systems that will analyze different phenotypic characters and facilitate testing...

  14. Study of the Interactions Between Penicillium Oxalicum Currie & Thom And Alternaria Alternata (Fr.) Keissler

    OpenAIRE

    F. Sempere; Santamarina, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was the analysis of the possible antagonistic effect of Penicillium oxalicum over the pathogen rice fungus A. alternata under different conditions of temperature, water activity and culture media. The macroscopic study of the dual growth revealed that according to the Index of Dominance P. oxalicum was more competitive that A. alternata at 25ºC whereas at 15ºC was this species. Microscopic analysis showed that P. oxalicum was a mycoparasite of A. alternata at all cond...

  15. Study of the interactions between Penicillium oxalicum Currie & Thom and Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sempere

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was the analysis of the possible antagonistic effect of Penicillium oxalicum over the pathogen rice fungus A. alternata under different conditions of temperature, water activity and culture media. The macroscopic study of the dual growth revealed that according to the Index of Dominance P. oxalicum was more competitive that A. alternata at 25ºC whereas at 15ºC was this species. Microscopic analysis showed that P. oxalicum was a mycoparasite of A. alternata at all conditions tested. The antagonist penetrated into A. alternata and disintegrated its conidiophores and conidia. The results suggests that P. oxalicum may be a possible biological control agent of the rice pathogens in a future.

  16. Biochemical characterization of resistance against Alternaria helianthi in cultivated and wild sunflowers

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi K.J.; Sujatha M; Reddy Ram Raja P.; Rao Chander

    2005-01-01

    The biochemical basis of resistance to the leaf spot/blight pathogen A. helianthi was compared in six wild Helianthus species, possessing three ploidy levels (dlploid, telrapiold and hexaplotd) and different degrees of resistance to helianthi, and cultivated sunflower (H. annuus cv. CO-4 susceptible check) in terms of sugar, phenols and isozymes of peroxidase. polyhenol oxidase and chitinase. The resistant species of wild sunflowers (H. tuberosus. H. occidentalis) possessed higher levels of c...

  17. Genetic, comparative genomic, and expression analyses of the Mc1r locus in the polychromatic Midas cichlid fish (Teleostei, Cichlidae Amphilophus sp.) species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Frederico; Renz, Adina Josepha; Fukamachi, Shoji; Meyer, Axel

    2010-05-01

    Natural populations of the Midas cichlid species in several different crater lakes in Nicaragua exhibit a conspicuous color polymorphism. Most individuals are dark and the remaining have a gold coloration. The color morphs mate assortatively and sympatric population differentiation has been shown based on neutral molecular data. We investigated the color polymorphism using segregation analysis and a candidate gene approach. The segregation patterns observed in a mapping cross between a gold and a dark individual were consistent with a single dominant gene as a cause of the gold phenotype. This suggests that a simple genetic architecture underlies some of the speciation events in the Midas cichlids. We compared the expression levels of several candidate color genes Mc1r, Ednrb1, Slc45a2, and Tfap1a between the color morphs. Mc1r was found to be up regulated in the gold morph. Given its widespread association in color evolution and role on melanin synthesis, the Mc1r locus was further investigated using sequences derived from a genomic library. Comparative analysis revealed conserved synteny in relation to the majority of teleosts and highlighted several previously unidentified conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) in the upstream and downstream regions in the vicinity of Mc1r. The identification of the CNEs regions allowed the comparison of sequences from gold and dark specimens of natural populations. No polymorphisms were found between in the population sample and Mc1r showed no linkage to the gold phenotype in the mapping cross, demonstrating that it is not causally related to the color polymorphism in the Midas cichlid. PMID:20449580

  18. Revision of the Neotropical trahiras of the Hoplias lacerdae species-group (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Erythrinidae with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo T. Oyakawa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hoplias lacerdae was originally described from the rio Ribeira de Iguape, Iporanga, São Paulo State. The Hoplias lacerdae group is defined as containing generally large trahiras with the medial margins of dentaries running parallel to each other and lacking teeth on the basihyal compared to the H. malabaricus group in which the medial margins of the dentaries converge towards the mandibular symphysis and which have teeth on the basihyal. A taxonomic revision of the group based on meristic and morphometric data identified five distinct species: H. lacerdae distributed in the rio Ribeira de Iguape and rio Uruguai; H. intermedius from the rio São Francisco, upper rio Paraná basin, and rio Doce; H. brasiliensis from rivers of the Atlantic Coastal drainage from the rio Paraguaçu to the rio Jequitinhonha; H. australis new species, endemic to the rio Uruguai; and H. curupira new species present in northern South America, including the rios Negro, Trombetas, Tapajós, Xingu, Tocantins and Capim in the Amazon basin, upper rio Orinoco near the rio Casiquiare (Venezuela, and coastal rivers of Guyana and Suriname. A lectotype for Hoplias intermedius and a neotype for H. brasiliensis are designated.Hoplias lacerdae foi descrita originalmente do rio Ribeira de Iguape, Iporanga, São Paulo. O grupo Hoplias lacerdae foi definido como um conjunto de espécies para abrigar as traíras geralmente de grande porte, com as margens mediais dos dentários dispostas paralelamente e sem dentes no basi-hial, em oposição às traíras do grupo Hoplias malabaricus, cujas margens mediais dos dentários convergem em direção à sínfise mandibular e possuem dentes no basi-hial. A revisão taxonômica do grupo baseada em dados merísticos e morfométricos identificou cinco espécies distintas: Hoplias lacerdae distribuída nos rios Ribeira de Iguape e Uruguai; H. intermedius no rio São Francisco, alto rio Paraná e rio Doce; H. brasiliensis nos rios costeiros da drenagem Atlântica, desde o rio Paraguaçu até o rio Jequitinhonha; H. australis espécie nova, endêmica ao rio Uruguai; e H. curupira espécie nova no norte da América do Sul, incluindo os rios Negro, Trombetas, Tapajós, Xingu, Tocantins e Capim na bacia Amazônica; alto rio Orinoco próximo ao rio Casiquiare (Venezuela e rios costeiros da Guiana e Suriname. São designados um lectótipo para Hoplias intermedius e um neótipo para H. brasiliensis.

  19. Oogonal biometry and phylogenetic analysis of the Pythium vexans species group from woody agricultural hosts in South Africa reveal distinct groups within this taxon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pythium vexans fits into the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clade K. In South Africa, as well as in other regions of the world, P. vexans isolates are known to be heterogeneous in their ITS sequences and may consist of more than one species. Therefore, this study examined the diversity of South...

  20. A review of the parasitic mite family Psorergatidae (Cheyletoidea: Prostigmata: Acari) with hypotheses on the phylogenetic relationships of species and species groups

    OpenAIRE

    Giesen, K.M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive description of the mite family Psorergatidae starting with general morphology, a redescription of the type species of the family (Psorergates simplex (Tyrrell, 1883)), and keys to the genera (Psorergates, Psorergatoides, Psorobia) and all known species. Phylogenetic analyses, hypotheses of hosts and parasites are given. The last section contains tables of measurements and lists of psorergatic mite species and their hosts.

  1. A mountain of millipedes I: An endemic species-group of the genus Chaleponcus Attems, 1914, from the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    constitute the Chaleponcus dabagaensis-group, well characterized by apparently apomorphic gonopodal characters, presumably monophyletic, and the first example of a major radiation within the Udzungwas. All species are restricted to altitudes >1390 m, all but one were found in only one, rarely two forest...

  2. Records of the Steinernema glazeri group (Nematoda:Rhabditida) in Europe, with notes on the morphological characteristics of this species group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sturhan, D.; Mráček, Zdeněk

    Noordwijkerhout : SIP , 2001. s. 52. [Annual Meeting /34./. 25.08.2001-30.08.2001, Noordwijkerhout] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 446 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Steinernema glazeri Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  3. Limnephilid taxa revised by speciation traits: Rhadicoleptus, Isogamus, Melampophylax genera, Chaetopteryx rugulosa, Psilopteryx psorosa species groups, Drusus bolivari, Annitella kosciuszkii species complexes (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oláh, J.; Chvojka, P.; Coppa, G.; Godunko, Roman J.; Lodovici, O.; Majecka, K.; Majecki, J.; Szczęsny, B.; Urbanic, G.; Valle, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2015), s. 3-117. ISSN 0237-5419 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : speciation traits * neutral and adaptive molecular markers * neutral and adaptive traits Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  4. 北部湾海域毛颚类组群的初步分析%A preliminary analysis of Chaetognatha species groups in Beibu Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜飞雁; 李纯厚; 贾晓平

    2005-01-01

    1998-1999年及2001-2002年对北部湾海域进行了6个航次生态环境综合调查.利用调查资料,以种为聚类变量进行了毛颚类的组群分析,结果表明北部湾毛颚类可分为3个组群.组群I及组群II为北部湾的主要组群.组群III组成种类和出现数量最少,为次要组群.组群I是一类分布广但适温盐范围较低,与北部湾高温、低盐的沿岸流关系较为密切的组群;而组群II则适温盐范围较高,与北部湾高温、高盐的外海水关系较为密切.

  5. A review of the parasitic mite family Psorergatidae (Cheyletoidea: Prostigmata: Acari) with hypotheses on the phylogenetic relationships of species and species groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, K.M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive description of the mite family Psorergatidae starting with general morphology, a redescription of the type species of the family (Psorergates simplex (Tyrrell, 1883)), and keys to the genera (Psorergates, Psorergatoides, Psorobia) and all known species. Phylogenetic analyses, hypotheses of

  6. Short communication: Species group-specific predictors at the cow and quarter level for intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in dairy cattle throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2015-08-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are frequently isolated from quarters with subclinical mastitis, teat apices, and the cows' environment. Virulence, ecology, epidemiological behavior, and effect on udder health vary between different CNS species. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. simulans, and Staph. xylosus are frequently present in milk and have a more substantial effect on quarter milk somatic cell count than other species. Therefore, these species are considered the "more relevant" CNS. As species-specific factors associated with CNS intramammary infection (IMI) have not yet been identified and susceptibility for IMI differs between cows and quarters, this study aimed to identify predictors for CNS IMI at the cow and quarter level (some of them changing over time) with a specific focus on the aforementioned more relevant CNS. Precise data were available from a longitudinal study (3,052 observations from 344 quarters from 86 dairy cows belonging to 3 commercial dairy herds). All CNS were molecularly identified to the species level, and multivariable, multilevel logistic regression models taking into account the longitudinal nature of the data, were fit to study the likelihood of infection. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species from CNS IMI in older cows, whereas Staph. chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. simulans were the main species found in IMI in heifers. Quarters from heifers (as opposed to multiparous cows), from heifers and multiparous cows in third or fourth month in lactation (as opposed to early lactation, <60 d in milk), and with an increasing quarter milk SCC were more likely to be infected with the more relevant CNS species. Quarter milk SCC was identified as the sole statistically significant predictor for IMI with other CNS species, although the size of the effect was lower [odds ratio of 1.6 (1.4-1.9) vs. 2.1 (1.8-2.5)] than the effect for IMI with the more relevant CNS. As a strong herd effect was present, studying herd-level predictors is warranted. PMID:26051318

  7. Mycoflora and Ochratoxin A Control in Wheat Grain Using Natural Extracts Obtained from Wine Industry By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata-Maria Sumalan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some natural extracts obtained from grape pomace (GPE and grape seeds (GSE as compared to a synthetic food, antioxidant-butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, in order to control fungal population and ochratoxin A (OTA production in naturally contaminated wheat. The results showed that the addition of these extracts was efficient with OTA content decreasing. On treatment with these extracts the loss of OTA content after 14 days was in the range 7.8–28.3% relative to the control sample, but increased up to 26.48–37% after 28 days. The highest loss in OTA content was recorded for treatment with GPE at the 500 ppm level. Regarding the fungal development, the obtained results show that the total fungal populations were significantly reduced by using natural extracts. The most efficient extract was GPE. Both BHT and GPE inhibit the growth of Penicillium verrrucosum, for all doses, but less with Aspergillus genera. GPE affects the growth of other types of moulds such as Rhizopus microsporus, Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria infectoria and Cladosporium herbarum. Our data suggested that GPE and GSE are able to provide fungicidal and fungistatic protection and to control the OTA accumulation in wheat, at least in a similar manner to BHT.

  8. 维药没食子水提液的稳定性研究%Examine Stability of Uygur Medicine Quercus infectoria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木巴拉克·伊明江; 布海里且木·阿里; 曾灿丽; 哈木拉提·吾甫尔

    2014-01-01

    目的:考察影响没食子水提液(MSZST)稳定性的主要因素、观察不同储存条件下稳定性.方法:①分别将未包装和带包装MSZST放置高温、强光条件下,考察不同时间颜色、pH、离心前后,总酚、鞣质、没食子酸含量、沉淀量等指标变化;②将包装MSZST放置常温及4℃条件下,定期考察影响因素条件下各指标变化.结果:①高温和强光是影响MSZST稳定性的主要因素,高温影响>强光;包装材料可提高其物理稳定性;②常温和4℃条件下分别留洋观察24,36个月,各考察指标符合质量标准.结论:通过药效物质基础有效部位及有效成分等多指标全面评价MSZST稳定性,为MSZST生产环境、包装、储存、运输条件提供参考,为以没食子有效部位及有效成分为评价指标的复方,提供实验数据依据.

  9. Skrining Fitokimia dan Karakterisasi Simplisia serta Uji Efek Antidiare Ekstrak Etanol Majakani Terhadap Tikus

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhani, Eko

    2015-01-01

    Majakani or also called gall of majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) is the result of abnormal growth of young twigs of plants. Majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) is naturally used as astringents. The purpose of this research was to determine the chemical compounds content, the characteristic of simplex powder and the anti-diarrheal effect of the ethanolic extract of majakani (Quercus infectoria G. Olivier) to laboratory rats that were induced with castor oil beforehand. To the m...

  10. Alternaria sp. MG1, a resveratrol-producing fungus: isolation, identification, and optimal cultivation conditions for resveratrol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its potential in preventing or slowing the occurrence of many diseases, resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene) has attracted great research interest. The objective of this study was to identify the microorganisms that possess resveratrol producing capability from selected plants and optimize ...

  11. Nonpathogenic Binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. and Benzothiadiazole Protect Cotton Seedlings Against Rhizoctonia Damping-Off and Alternaria Leaf Spot in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaji-Hare, Suha; Neate, Stephen M

    2005-09-01

    ABSTRACT Recent reports have shown induction of resistance to Rhizoctonia root rot using nonpathogenic strains of binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. (np-BNR). This study evaluates the biocontrol ability of several np-BNR isolates against root and foliar diseases of cotton in greenhouse trials, provides evidence for induced systemic resistance (ISR) as a mechanism in this biocontrol, and compares the disease control provided by np-BNR with that provided by the chemical inducer benzothiadiazole (BTH). Pretreatment of cotton seedlings with np-BNR isolates provided good protection against pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by a virulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani (AG-4). Seedling stand of protected cotton was significantly higher (P control was superior to that observed with a chemical inducer. PMID:18943300

  12. Patogenicidade de Alternaria cichorii sobre espécies da família Asteraceae no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Milton L. Paz; Reis Ailton; Lopes Carlos A.

    2003-01-01

    Em 2001, plantas de chicória (Cichorium endivia) originárias do município de Catalão-GO apresentando sintomas de manchas e queima foliar foram recebidas na Clínica Fitopatológica da Embrapa Hortaliças (CNPH). Tecidos submetidos à câmara úmida produziram esporulação fúngica, de onde foi obtida cultura monospórica em BDA + cloranfenicol. Para o teste de patogenecidade, o fungo foi multiplicado em meio de cultura suco de tomate ágar (ST) e inoculado em plantas de chicória da cultivar comercial A...

  13. Partial Resistance of Carrot to Alternaria dauci Correlates with In Vitro Cultured Carrot Cell Resistance to Fungal Exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Mickaël Lecomte; Latifa Hamama; Linda Voisine; Julia Gatto; Jean-Jacques Hélesbeux; Denis Séraphin; Luis M Peña-Rodriguez; Pascal Richomme; Cora Boedo; Claire Yovanopoulos; Melvina Gyomlai; Mathilde Briard; Philippe Simoneau; Pascal Poupard; Romain Berruyer

    2014-01-01

    Article de revue (Article scientifique dans une revue à comité de lecture) International audience Although different mechanisms have been proposed in the recent years, plant pathogen partial resistance is still poorly understood. Components of the chemical warfare, including the production of plant defense compounds and plant resistance to pathogen-produced toxins, are likely to play a role. Toxins are indeed recognized as important determinants of pathogenicity in necrotrophic fungi. P...

  14. In-vitro evaluation of fungicides, bioagents and aqueous leaf extracts against Alternaria leaf blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Dey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available All the six fungicides viz.,Mancozeb (75% WP; Carbendazim (50WP, Copper oxychloride (50WP, Captan (50 WP, Thiram (75 % WP, Chlorothalonil (75 WP evaluated in vitro (@500, 1000 and 1500 ppm were found effective against A. macrospora and caused significant inhibition of test pathogen over untreated control. However, Thiram was found most effective and recorded significantly highest mean mycelial inhibition (90.42%. This was followed by the fungicides, Captan (82.04%, Mancozeb (79.88%, Carbendazim(77.5%, Chlorothalonil (74.52% and copper oxychloride (71.75%. All the five fungal and one bacterial bioagents/ antagonists evaluated in vitro against A. macrospora were found antifungal/ antagonistic against the test pathogen. However, T. viride was found most effective and recorded least linear mycelial growth (32.72 mm with corresponding significantly highest mycelial inhibition (63.64% of the test pathogen. The second and third best bioagents found were T. koningii and P. fluorescens, which recorded linear mycelial growth, respectively of 33.90 mm and 33.95 mm with corresponding mycelial inhibition, respectively of 62.33 and 62.27 per cent. All the six botanicals/plant extracts evaluated in vitro (@5, 10 and 15 % each were found fungistatic/ fungicidal against. A.macrospora. However, significantly least mean radial mycelial growth (56.18mm and significantly highest mean mycelial inhibition (37.47% was recorded with Garlic. The second and third best botanicals found were onion and Tulsi which recorded second and third least mean radial mycelial growth, respectively of 58.52 mm and 62.51 mm with corresponding mean mycelial inhibition of 34.97 and 32.86 per cent, respectively.

  15. Free tropospheric transport of microorganisms from Asia to North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Smith; Dan Jaffe; Michele Birmele; Griffin, Dale W.; Andrew Schuerger; Hee, J.; Michael Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are abundant in the troposphere and can be transported vast distances on prevailing winds. This study measures the abundance and diversity of airborne bacteria and fungi sampled at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (located 2.7 km above sea level in North America) where incoming free tropospheric air routinely arrives from distant sources across the Pacific Ocean, including Asia. Overall deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) concentrations for microorganisms in the free troposphere, derived from quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays, averaged 4.94 × 10(-5) ng DNA m(-3) for bacteria and 4.77 × 10(-3) ng DNA m(-3) for fungi. Aerosols occasionally corresponded with microbial abundance, most often in the springtime. Viable cells were recovered from 27.4 % of bacterial and 47.6 % of fungal samples (N = 124), with 49 different species identified by ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. The number of microbial isolates rose significantly above baseline values on 22-23 April 2011 and 13-15 May 2011. Both events were analyzed in detail, revealing distinct free tropospheric chemistries (e.g., low water vapor, high aerosols, carbon monoxide, and ozone) useful for ruling out boundary layer contamination. Kinematic back trajectory modeling suggested air from these events probably originated near China or Japan. Even after traveling for 10 days across the Pacific Ocean in the free troposphere, diverse and viable microbial populations, including presumptive plant pathogens Alternaria infectoria and Chaetomium globosum, were detected in Asian air samples. Establishing a connection between the intercontinental transport of microorganisms and specific diseases in North America will require follow-up investigations on both sides of the Pacific Ocean.

  16. fRNAdb Summary: FR139771 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FR139771 AB026159,AB094666,AB120857,AB120858,AB120859,AB120861,AB120862,AB120863,AB120864,AB1995 ... Dendryphiella sp. CBS 430.5,Alternaria sp. 63-14-O-Mexico ,foliar endophyte of Picea glauca sp. M4,Alternaria ... MosID1,Alternaria sp. MosID2,Alternaria sp. 91-924-Mexico ,Alternaria sp. 71-A47-Mexico ,Alternaria sp. 89-T21 ...

  17. Veliidae (Insecta, Heteroptera, Gerromorpha from southeastern Brazil: three new species from Rio de Janeiro State, a new species group for Neotropical Rhagovelia Mayr, and notes on distribution and synonymy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microvelia nelsoni sp. nov., M. takiyae sp. nov., and Rhagovelia mangaratiba sp. nov. are described. Rhagovelia scitula and R. whitei are transferred from the robusta group to the new whitei group. Rhagovelia denticulata is synonymized under R. scitula. Microvelia longipes, Oiovelia brasiliensis, Rhagovelia sooretama, R. trianguloides, R. vaniniae, and Stridulivelia quadrispinosa are recorded for the first time from Rio de Janeiro State. Additional new municipality records in Rio de Janeiro State are presented for Microvelia braziliensis, M. ioana, M. mimula, M. pulchella, Paravelia basalis, P. itatiayana, Rhagovelia accedens, R. agra, R. aiuruoca, R. elegans, R. hambletoni, R. henryi, R. itatiaiana, R. lucida, R. macta, R. modesta, R. novana, R. scitula, R. tenuipes, R. tijuca, R. triangula, and R. zela. Corrections are presented for the previously published distributions of Rhagovelia aiuruoca, R. lucida, R. macta, and R. triangula.

  18. Veliidae (Insecta, Heteroptera, Gerromorpha) from southeastern Brazil: three new species from Rio de Janeiro State, a new species group for Neotropical Rhagovelia Mayr, and notes on distribution and synonymy

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira; Julianna Freires Barbosa; José Ricardo Inacio Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Microvelia nelsoni sp. nov., M. takiyae sp. nov., and Rhagovelia mangaratiba sp. nov. are described. Rhagovelia scitula and R. whitei are transferred from the robusta group to the new whitei group. Rhagovelia denticulata is synonymized under R. scitula. Microvelia longipes, Oiovelia brasiliensis, Rhagovelia sooretama, R. trianguloides, R. vaniniae, and Stridulivelia quadrispinosa are recorded for the first time from Rio de Janeiro State. Additional new municipality records in Rio de Janeiro S...

  19. The genus .i.Hylebainosoma./i. Verhoeff, 1899 (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Haaseidae): Redescription of .i.Hylebainosoma tatranum./i., description of a new troglobiont species and notes to the .i.Hylebainosoma-Romanosoma./i. species group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel; Mock, A.; Papáč, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3764, č. 5 (2014), s. 501-523. ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK189 Grant ostatní: ESF(BE) 26110230056; Vega(SK) 1/0139/09 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hylebainosoma * gononopods * vulvae * postvulval structures * new species * redescription Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  20. MULTIPLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASES IN ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA F. SP. LYCOPERSICI AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO MEDIUM COMPOSITION AND HOST-SPECIFIC TOXIN PRODUCTION. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...