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Sample records for altered vector competence

  1. Vector competence of selected North American Culex and Coquillettidia mosquitoes for West Nile virus.

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    Sardelis, M R; Turell, M J; Dohm, D J; O'Guinn, M L

    2001-01-01

    To control West Nile virus (WNV), it is necessary to know which mosquitoes are able to transmit this virus. Therefore, we evaluated the WNV vector potential of several North American mosquito species. Culex restuans and Cx. salinarius, two species from which WNV was isolated in New York in 2000, were efficient laboratory vectors. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus from Florida were competent but only moderately efficient vectors. Coquillettidia perturbans was an inefficient laboratory vector. As WNV extends its range, exposure of additional mosquito species may alter its epidemiology.

  2. The insect microbiome modulates vector competence for arboviruses.

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    Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-11-11

    Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global health burden and are increasing in incidence and geographic range. The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector competence for arboviruses and other pathogens. This reduction can occur through mechanisms, such as immune response activation, resource competition, or the production of anti-viral molecules. Studying the interactions between insect vectors and their microbiota is an important step toward developing alternative strategies for arbovirus transmission control.

  3. Vector competence of New Zealand mosquitoes for selected arboviruses.

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    Kramer, Laura D; Chin, Pam; Cane, Rachel P; Kauffman, Elizabeth B; Mackereth, Graham

    2011-07-01

    New Zealand (NZ) historically has been free of arboviral activity with the exception of Whataroa virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), which is established in bird populations and is transmitted by local mosquitoes. This naive situation is threatened by global warming, invasive mosquitoes, and tourism. To determine the threat of selected medically important arboviruses to NZ, vector competence assays were conducted using field collected endemic and introduced mosquito species. Four alphaviruses (Togaviridae): Barmah Forest virus, Chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus, and five flaviviruses (Flaviviridae): Dengue virus 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and Yellow fever virus were evaluated. Results indicate some NZ mosquito species are highly competent vectors of selected arboviruses, particularly alphaviruses, and may pose a threat were one of these arboviruses introduced at a time when the vector was prevalent and the climatic conditions favorable for virus transmission.

  4. The Insect Microbiome Modulates Vector Competence for Arboviruses

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    Natapong Jupatanakul

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global health burden and are increasing in incidence and geographic range. The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector competence for arboviruses and other pathogens. This reduction can occur through mechanisms, such as immune response activation, resource competition, or the production of anti-viral molecules. Studying the interactions between insect vectors and their microbiota is an important step toward developing alternative strategies for arbovirus transmission control.

  5. Insect-specific viruses detected in laboratory mosquito colonies and their potential implications for experiments evaluating arbovirus vector competence.

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    Bolling, Bethany G; Vasilakis, Nikos; Guzman, Hilda; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Popov, Vsevolod L; Thangamani, Saravanan; Tesh, Robert B

    2015-02-01

    Recently, there has been a dramatic increase in the detection and characterization of insect-specific viruses in field-collected mosquitoes. Evidence suggests that these viruses are ubiquitous in nature and that many are maintained by vertical transmission in mosquito populations. Some studies suggest that the presence of insect-specific viruses may inhibit replication of a super-infecting arbovirus, thus altering vector competence of the mosquito host. Accordingly, we screened our laboratory mosquito colonies for insect-specific viruses. Pools of colony mosquitoes were homogenized and inoculated into cultures of Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The infected cells were examined by electron microscopy and deep sequencing was performed on RNA extracts. Electron micrograph images indicated the presence of three different viruses in three of our laboratory mosquito colonies. Potential implications of these findings for vector competence studies are discussed.

  6. Zika Virus Vector Competency of Mosquitoes, Gulf Coast, United States

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    Hart, Charles E.; Roundy, Christopher M.; Azar, Sasha R.; Huang, Jing H.; Yun, Ruimei; Reynolds, Erin; Leal, Grace; Nava, Martin R.; Vela, Jeremy; Stark, Pamela M.; Debboun, Mustapha; Rossi, Shannan; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has recently spread throughout the Americas. Although Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are considered the primary vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and mosquitoes of other species may also be vectors. We tested Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. taeniorhynchus mosquitoes from the US Gulf Coast; both were refractory to infection and incapable of transmission. PMID:28005002

  7. Zika Virus Vector Competency of Mosquitoes, Gulf Coast, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Charles E; Roundy, Christopher M; Azar, Sasha R; Huang, Jing H; Yun, Ruimei; Reynolds, Erin; Leal, Grace; Nava, Martin R; Vela, Jeremy; Stark, Pamela M; Debboun, Mustapha; Rossi, Shannan; Vasilakis, Nikos; Thangamani, Saravanan; Weaver, Scott C

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus has recently spread throughout the Americas. Although Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are considered the primary vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and mosquitoes of other species may also be vectors. We tested Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. taeniorhynchus mosquitoes from the US Gulf Coast; both were refractory to infection and incapable of transmission.

  8. Vector competence of selected North American Culex and Coquillettidia mosquitoes for West Nile virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Sardelis, M. R.; Turell, M.J.; Dohm, D. J.; O'Guinn, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    To control West Nile virus (WNV), it is necessary to know which mosquitoes are able to transmit this virus. Therefore, we evaluated the WNV vector potential of several North American mosquito species. Culex restuans and Cx. salinarius, two species from which WNV was isolated in New York in 2000, were efficient laboratory vectors. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus from Florida were competent but only moderately efficient vectors. Coquillettidia perturbans was an inefficient laboratory v...

  9. Genome Investigations of Vector Competence in Aedes aegypti to Inform Novel Arbovirus Disease Control Approaches.

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    Severson, David W; Behura, Susanta K

    2016-10-30

    Dengue (DENV), yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission to humans by a mosquito host is confounded by both intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Besides virulence factors of the individual arboviruses, likelihood of virus transmission is subject to variability in the genome of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The "vectorial capacity" of A. aegypti varies depending upon its density, biting rate, and survival rate, as well as its intrinsic ability to acquire, host and transmit a given arbovirus. This intrinsic ability is known as "vector competence". Based on whole transcriptome analysis, several genes and pathways have been predicated to have an association with a susceptible or refractory response in A. aegypti to DENV infection. However, the functional genomics of vector competence of A. aegypti is not well understood, primarily due to lack of integrative approaches in genomic or transcriptomic studies. In this review, we focus on the present status of genomics studies of DENV vector competence in A. aegypti as limited information is available relative to the other arboviruses. We propose future areas of research needed to facilitate the integration of vector and virus genomics and environmental factors to work towards better understanding of vector competence and vectorial capacity in natural conditions.

  10. Properties and use of novel replication-competent vectors based on Semliki Forest virus

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    Lulla Valeria

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semliki Forest virus (SFV has a positive strand RNA genome and infects different cells of vertebrates and invertebrates. The 5' two-thirds of the genome encodes non-structural proteins that are required for virus replication and synthesis of subgenomic (SG mRNA for structural proteins. SG-mRNA is generated by internal initiation at the SG-promoter that is located at the complementary minus-strand template. Different types of expression systems including replication-competent vectors, which represent alphavirus genomes with inserted expression units, have been developed. The replication-competent vectors represent useful tools for studying alphaviruses and have potential therapeutic applications. In both cases, the properties of the vector, such as its genetic stability and expression level of the protein of interest, are important. Results We analysed 14 candidates of replication-competent vectors based on the genome of an SFV4 isolate that contained a duplicated SG promoter or an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES-element controlled marker gene. It was found that the IRES elements and the minimal -21 to +5 SG promoter were non-functional in the context of these vectors. The efficient SG promoters contained at least 26 residues upstream of the start site of SG mRNA. The insertion site of the SG promoter and its length affected the genetic stability of the vectors, which was always higher when the SG promoter was inserted downstream of the coding region for structural proteins. The stability also depended on the conditions used for vector propagation. A procedure based on the in vitro transcription of ligation products was used for generation of replication-competent vector-based expression libraries that contained hundreds of thousands of different genomes, and maintained genetic diversity and the ability to express inserted genes over five passages in cell culture. Conclusion The properties of replication-competent vectors

  11. Vector competence in West African Aedes aegypti Is Flavivirus species and genotype dependent.

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    Laura B Dickson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vector competence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is a quantitative genetic trait that varies among geographic locations and among different flavivirus species and genotypes within species. The subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus, found mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered to be refractory to both dengue (DENV and yellow fever viruses (YFV compared to the more globally distributed Ae. aegypti aegypti. Within Senegal, vector competence varies with collection site and DENV-2 viral isolate, but knowledge about the interaction of West African Ae. aegypti with different flaviviruses is lacking. The current study utilizes low passage isolates of dengue-2 (DENV-2-75505 sylvatic genotype and yellow fever (YFV BA-55 -West African Genotype I, or YFV DAK 1279-West African Genotype II from West Africa and field derived Ae. aegypti collected throughout Senegal to determine whether vector competence is flavivirus or virus genotype dependent.Eight collections of 20-30 mosquitoes from different sites were fed a bloodmeal containing either DENV-2 or either isolate of YFV. Midgut and disseminated infection phenotypes were determined 14 days post infection. Collections varied significantly in the rate and intensity of midgut and disseminated infection among the three viruses.Overall, vector competence was dependent upon both viral and vector strains. Importantly, contrary to previous studies, sylvatic collections of Ae. aegypti showed high levels of disseminated infection for local isolates of both DENV-2 and YFV.

  12. Genome Investigations of Vector Competence in Aedes aegypti to Inform Novel Arbovirus Disease Control Approaches

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    David W. Severson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue (DENV, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission to humans by a mosquito host is confounded by both intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Besides virulence factors of the individual arboviruses, likelihood of virus transmission is subject to variability in the genome of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The “vectorial capacity” of A. aegypti varies depending upon its density, biting rate, and survival rate, as well as its intrinsic ability to acquire, host and transmit a given arbovirus. This intrinsic ability is known as “vector competence”. Based on whole transcriptome analysis, several genes and pathways have been predicated to have an association with a susceptible or refractory response in A. aegypti to DENV infection. However, the functional genomics of vector competence of A. aegypti is not well understood, primarily due to lack of integrative approaches in genomic or transcriptomic studies. In this review, we focus on the present status of genomics studies of DENV vector competence in A. aegypti as limited information is available relative to the other arboviruses. We propose future areas of research needed to facilitate the integration of vector and virus genomics and environmental factors to work towards better understanding of vector competence and vectorial capacity in natural conditions.

  13. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus

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    Dodson, Brittany L.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus. PMID:28316896

  14. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus

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    Brittany L. Dodson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus.

  15. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus.

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    Dodson, Brittany L; Rasgon, Jason L

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus.

  16. Fighting Arbovirus Transmission: Natural and Engineered Control of Vector Competence in Aedes Mosquitoes.

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    Kean, Joy; Rainey, Stephanie M; McFarlane, Melanie; Donald, Claire L; Schnettler, Esther; Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie

    2015-03-23

    Control of aedine mosquito vectors, either by mosquito population reduction or replacement with refractory mosquitoes, may play an essential role in the fight against arboviral diseases. In this review, we will focus on the development and application of biological approaches, both natural or engineered, to limit mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. The study of mosquito antiviral immunity has led to the identification of a number of host response mechanisms and proteins that are required to control arbovirus replication in mosquitoes, though more factors influencing vector competence are likely to be discovered. We will discuss key aspects of these pathways as targets either for selection of naturally resistant mosquito populations or for mosquito genetic manipulation. Moreover, we will consider the use of endosymbiotic bacteria such as Wolbachia, which in some cases have proven to be remarkably efficient in disrupting arbovirus transmission by mosquitoes, but also the use of naturally occurring insect-specific viruses that may interfere with arboviruses in mosquito vectors. Finally, we will discuss the use of paratransgenesis as well as entomopathogenic fungi, which are also proposed strategies to control vector competence.

  17. Vector competence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for filarial nematodes is affected by age and nutrient limitation.

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    Ariani, Cristina V; Juneja, Punita; Smith, Sophia; Tinsley, Matthew C; Jiggins, Francis M

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are one of the most important vectors of human disease. The ability of mosquitoes to transmit disease is dependent on the age structure of the population, as mosquitoes must survive long enough for the parasites to complete their development and infect another human. Age could have additional effects due to mortality rates and vector competence changing as mosquitoes senesce, but these are comparatively poorly understood. We have investigated these factors using the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. Rather than observing any effects of immune senescence, we found that older mosquitoes were more resistant, but this only occurred if they had previously been maintained on a nutrient-poor diet of fructose. Constant blood feeding reversed this decline in vector competence, meaning that the number of parasites remained relatively unchanged as mosquitoes aged. Old females that had been maintained on fructose also experienced a sharp spike in mortality after an infected blood meal ("refeeding syndrome") and few survived long enough for the parasite to develop. Again, this effect was prevented by frequent blood meals. Our results indicate that old mosquitoes may be inefficient vectors due to low vector competence and high mortality, but that frequent blood meals can prevent these effects of age.

  18. Vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus say from different regions of Brazil to Dirofilaria immitis

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    Ahid Silvia Maria Mendes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus from five localities in Brazil to Dirofilaria immitis was evaluated experimentally. Females from each locality were fed on an infected dog (~ 6 microfilariae/µl blood. A sample of blood fed mosquitoes were dissected approximately 1 h after blood meal. These results demonstrated that all had ingested microfilariae (mean, 4.8 to 24.6 microfilariae/mosquito. Fifteen days after the infected blood meal, the infection and infective rates were low in all populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The mean number of infective larvae detected in the head and proboscis of these mosquitoes was 1-1.5. The vector efficiency, the number of microfilariae ingested/number of infective larvae, was low for all populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, the survival rate for all populations was high (range 50-75%. The survival rate of Aedes aegypti assayed simultaneously for comparison was low (24.7%, while the vector efficiency was much higher than for Cx. quinquefasciatus. These data suggest that the vector competence of all assayed populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus to D. immitis in Brazil is similar and that this species is a secondary vector due to its low susceptibility. Nevertheless, vector capacity may vary between populations due to differences in biting frequency on dogs that has been reported in Brazil.

  19. Vector competence of the tick Ixodes ricinus for transmission of Bartonella birtlesii.

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    Caroline Reis

    Full Text Available Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites.

  20. Effects of larval rearing temperature on immature development and West Nile virus vector competence of Culex tarsalis

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    Dodson Brittany L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature is known to induce changes in mosquito physiology, development, ecology, and in some species, vector competence for arboviruses. Since colonized mosquitoes are reared under laboratory conditions that can be significantly different from their field counterparts, laboratory vector competence experiments may not accurately reflect natural vector-virus interactions. Methods We evaluated the effects of larval rearing temperature on immature development parameters and vector competence of two Culex tarsalis strains for West Nile virus (WNV. Results Rearing temperature had a significant effect on mosquito developmental parameters, including shorter time to pupation and emergence and smaller female body size as temperature increased. However, infection, dissemination, and transmission rates for WNV at 5, 7, and 14 days post infectious feeding were not consistently affected. Conclusions These results suggest that varying constant larval rearing temperature does not significantly affect laboratory estimates of vector competence for WNV in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes.

  1. Adenovirus replication-competent vectors (KD1, KD3) complement the cytotoxicity and transgene expression from replication-defective vectors (Ad-GFP, Ad-Luc).

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    Habib, Nagy A; Mitry, Ragai; Seth, Prem; Kuppuswamy, Mohan; Doronin, Konstantin; Toth, Karoly; Krajcsi, Peter; Tollefson, Ann E; Wold, William S M

    2002-08-01

    The successful clinical application of adenovirus (Ad) in cancer control has been of limited success because of the current inability to infect the majority of cancer cells with a large amount of vector. In this study, we show that when human lung tumors growing in immunodeficient nude mice were coinfected with a replication-defective (RD) Ad vector expressing green fluorescent protein and a replication-competent (RC) Ad vector named KD3, KD3 enhanced the expression of green fluorescent protein throughout the tumor. Also, KD3 and another RC vector named KD1 complemented the expression of luciferase from a RD vector in a human liver tumor xenotransplant in nude mice. Altogether, these results suggest that the combination of a RD vector with a RC vector might be a more effective treatment for cancer than either vector alone due to more widespread dissemination of the virus.

  2. Evaluation of vector competence for West Nile virus in Italian Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) mosquitoes.

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    Fortuna, C; Remoli, M E; Severini, F; Di Luca, M; Toma, L; Fois, F; Bucci, P; Boccolini, D; Romi, R; Ciufolini, M G

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic arboviral pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes in a cycle that involves wild birds as reservoir hosts. The virus is responsible for outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans and horses. In Europe, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered to be the main vector of WNV, but other species such as Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae) may also act as competent vectors of this virus. Since 2008 human cases of WNV disease have been reported in northeast Italy. In 2011, new areas of southern Italy became involved and a first outbreak of WNV lineage 1 occurred on the island of Sardinia. On the assumption that a potential involvement of St. albopicta in WNV transmission cannot be excluded, and in order to evaluate the competence of this species for the virus, an experimental infection of an St. albopicta laboratory colony, established from mosquitoes collected in Sardinia, was carried out. The results were compared with those obtained in a colony of the main vector Cx. pipiens. The study showed St. albopicta collected on Sardinia to be susceptible to WNV infection, which suggests this Italian mosquito species is able to act as a possible secondary vector, particularly in urban areas where the species reaches high levels of seasonal abundance.

  3. Vector competence of Culex tarsalis from Orange County, California, for West Nile virus.

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    Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Dohm, David J; Webb, James P; Sardelis, Michael R

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the vector competence of Culex tarsalis Coquillett for West Nile virus (WN), females reared from larvae collected in Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA, were fed on 2-3-day-old chickens previously inoculated with a New York strain (Crow 397-99) of WN. The Cx. tarsalis mosquitoes were efficient laboratory vectors of WN, with estimated transmission rates of 81% and 91% for mosquitoes that ingested 10(6.5) or 10(7.3) plaque-forming units of WN/mL of blood, respectively. Based on efficiency of viral transmission and the role of this species in the transmission of the closely related St. Louis encephalitis virus, Cx. tarsalis should be considered a potentially important vector of WN in the western United States.

  4. Population of Aedes sp in Highland of Wonosobo District and Its Competence as A Dengue Vector

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    Martini, Martini; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Hestiningsih, Retno; Purwantisari, Susiana; Yuliawati, Sri

    2017-02-01

    The increased cases of dengue fever have occurred in the highland of Wonosobo District, and the epidemic taken place in 2009 had 59.3 cases per 100,000 populations. This study aimed to describe of vector competence of the mosquitoes as a dengue vector in the highland of Wonosobo District, Central Java Province. The serial laboratory work was done to measure of vector competence complementary with vector bionomic study. The samples were 20 villages, which were located at Wonosobo sub district. Every village was observed about 15-20 houses. The observed variables were vector competition, bionomic and transovarial infection level, and titer of virus on the mosquitoes after injection. Immunohistochemistry or IHC methods were used to identify transovarial infection status. The number of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were almost similar and both were found indoors or outdoors. Based on HI and OI index, the larvae density in the highland was enough high than standard of the program. Transovarial infection was found on Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Environment parameters such as temperature and relative humidity fulfilled the optimum requirement to support the vectors’ life cycle. Transovarial infection has been proven, thus, it indicates that the local transmission has been occurred in this area. Titer of virus was also increasing after day per day. This indicate that the mosquitoes has the ability being vector. As used to do in other area, it is important to conduct breeding places elimination (PSN) indoors as well as outdoors, through active participation of the community in highland area.

  5. Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis Populations from French Polynesia for Chikungunya Virus.

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    Vaea Richard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From October 2014 to March 2015, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a chikungunya outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to chikungunya virus (CHIKV transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito.To investigate the vector competence of French Polynesian populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis for CHIKV, mosquitoes were exposed per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At 2, 6, 9, 14 and 21 days post-infection (dpi, saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of CHIKV infectious particles. Legs and body (thorax and abdomen of each mosquito were also collected at the different dpi and submitted separately to viral RNA extraction and CHIKV real-time RT-PCR.CHIKV infection rate, dissemination and transmission efficiencies ranged from 7-90%, 18-78% and 5-53% respectively for Ae. aegypti and from 39-41%, 3-17% and 0-14% respectively for Ae. polynesiensis, depending on the dpi. Infectious saliva was found as early as 2 dpi for Ae. aegypti and from 6 dpi for Ae. polynesiensis. Our laboratory results confirm that the French Polynesian population of Ae. aegypti is highly competent for CHIKV and they provide clear evidence for Ae. polynesiensis to act as an efficient CHIKV vector.As supported by our findings, the presence of two CHIKV competent vectors in French Polynesia certainly contributed to enabling this virus to quickly disseminate from the urban/peri-urban areas colonized by Ae. aegypti to the most remote atolls where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating. Ae. polynesiensis was probably involved in the recent chikungunya outbreaks in Samoa and the Cook Islands. Moreover, this vector may contribute to the risk for CHIKV to emerge in other Polynesian islands like Fiji, and more particularly Wallis where there is no Ae. aegypti.

  6. Replication-competent human adenovirus 11p vectors can propagate in Vero cells

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    Gokumakulapalle, Madhuri; Mei, Ya-Fang, E-mail: ya-fang.mei@umu.se

    2016-08-15

    The use of continuous cell lines derived from the African green monkey kidney (AGMK) has led to major advances in virus vaccine development. However, to date, these cells have not been used to facilitate the creation of human adenoviruses because most human adenoviruses undergo abortive infections in them. Here, we report the susceptibility of AGMK-derived cells to adenovirus 11p (Ad11p) infection. First, we showed that CD46 molecules, which act as receptors for Ad11p, are expressed in AGMK cells. We then monitored Ad11p replication by measuring GFP expression as an indicator of viral transcription. We found that AGMK-derived cells were as capable as carcinoma cells at propagating full-length replication-competent Ad11p (RCAd11p) DNA. Of the AGMK cell lines tested, Vero cells had the greatest capacity for adenovirus production. Thus, AGMK cells can be used to evaluate RCAd11p-mediated gene delivery, and Vero cells can be used for the production of RCAd11pGFP vectors at relatively high yields. - Highlights: • Africa green monkey cell lines were monitored for human adenovirus 11p GFP vector infection. • Human CD46 molecules were detectable in these monkey cell lines. • Adenovirus 11p GFP vector can be propagated in Vero cells increases the safety of Ad11p-based vectors for clinical trials. • To use Vero cells for preparation of Ad11p vector avoids the potential inclusion of oncogenes from tumor cells.

  7. A dengue receptor as possible genetic marker of vector competence in Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black William C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector competence refers to the intrinsic permissiveness of an arthropod vector for infection, replication and transmission of a virus. Notwithstanding studies of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL that influence the ability of Aedes aegypti midgut (MG to become infected with dengue virus (DENV, no study to date has been undertaken to identify genetic markers of vector competence. Furthermore, it is known that mosquito populations differ greatly in their susceptibility to flaviviruses. Differences in vector competence may, at least in part, be due to the presence of specific midgut epithelial receptors and their identification would be a significant step forward in understanding the interaction of the virus with the mosquito. The first interaction of DENV with the insect is through proteins in the apical membrane of the midgut epithelium resulting in binding and receptor-mediated endocytosis of the virus, and this determines cell permissiveness to infection. The susceptibility of mosquitoes to infection may therefore depend on their specific virus receptors. To study this interaction in Ae. aegypti strains that differ in their vector competence for DENV, we investigated the DS3 strain (susceptible to DENV, the IBO-11 strain (refractory to infection and the membrane escape barrier strain, DMEB, which is infected exclusively in the midgut epithelial cells. Results (1 We determined the MG proteins that bind DENV by an overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes of the DS3, DMEB and IBO-11 strains. The main protein identified had an apparent molecular weight of 67 kDa, although the protein identified in the IBO-11 strain showed a lower mass (64 kDa. (2 The midgut proteins recognized by DENV were also determined by VOPBA after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. (3 To determine whether the same proteins were identified in all three strains, we obtained polyclonal antibodies against R67 and R64 and tested them against

  8. Vector competence of three North American strains of Aedes albopictus for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardelis, Michael R; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Andre, Richard G; Roberts, Donald R

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the potential for North American (NA) Aedes albopictus to transmit West Nile virus (WN), mosquito strains derived from 3 NA sources (Frederick County, Maryland, FRED strain; Cheverly, MD, CHEV strain; Chambers and Liberty counties, Texas, TAMU strain) were tested. These strains were tested along with a previously tested strain from a Hawaiian source (OAHU strain). Mosquitoes were fed on 2- to 3-day-old chickens previously inoculated with a New York strain (Crow 397-99) of WN. All of the NA strains were competent laboratory vectors of WN, with transmission rates of 36, 50, 83, and 92% for the FRED, CHEV, OAHU, and TAMU strains, respectively. The extrinsic incubation period for WN in Ae. albopictus held at 26 degrees C was estimated to be 10 days. Based on efficiency of viral transmission, evidence of natural infection, bionomics, and distribution, Ae. albopictus could be an important bridge vector of WN in the southeastern USA.

  9. Vector Competence of French Polynesian Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis for Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Vaea; Paoaafaite, Tuterarii; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2013–2014, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a Zika outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate their vector competence for ZIKV, mosquitoes were infected per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At several days post-infection (dpi), saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of ZIKV infectious particles. Legs and body of each mosquito were also collected and submitted separately to RNA extraction and ZIKV RT-PCR. In Ae. aegypti the infection rate was high as early as 6 dpi and the dissemination efficiency get substantial from 9 dpi while the both rates remained quite low in Ae. polynesiensis. The transmission efficiency was poor in Ae. aegypti until 14 dpi and no infectious saliva was found in Ae. polynesiensis at the time points studied. Conclusions/Significance In our experimental conditions, the late ability of the French Polynesian Ae. aegypti to transmit ZIKV added by the poor competence of Ae. polynesiensis for this virus suggest the possible contribution of another vector for the propagation of ZIKV during the outbreak, in particular in remote islands where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating. PMID:27654962

  10. Climate change and infectious diseases of wildlife: Altered interactions between pathogens, vectors and hosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milena GALLANA; Marie-Pierre RYSER-DEGIORGIS; Thomas WAHLI; Helmut SEGNER

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases result from the interactions of host,pathogens,and,in the case of vector-borne diseases,also vectors.The interactions involve physiological and ecological mechanisms and they have evolved under a given set of environmental conditions.Environmental change,therefore,will alter host-pathogen-vector interactions and,consequently,the distribution,intensity,and dynamics of infectious diseases.Here,we review how climate change may impact infectious diseases of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife.Climate change can have direct impacts on distribution,life cycle,and physiological status of hosts,pathogens and vectors.While a change in either host,pathogen or vector does not necessarily translate into an alteration of the disease,it is the impact of climate change on the interactions between the disease components which is particularly critical for altered disease risks.Finally,climate factors can modulate disease through modifying the ecological networks host-pathogen-vector systems are belonging to,and climate change can combine with other environmental stressors to induce cumulative effects on infectious diseases.Overall,the influence of climate change on infectious diseases involves different mechanisms,it can be modulated by phenotypic acclimation and/or genotypic adaptation,it depends on the ecological context of the host-pathogen-vector interactions,and it can be modulated by impacts of other stressors.As a consequence of this complexity,non-linear responses of disease systems under climate change are to be expected.To improve predictions on climate change impacts on infectious disease,we suggest that more emphasis should be given to the integration of biomedical and ecological research for studying both the physiological and ecological mechanisms which mediate climate change impacts on disease,and to the development of harmonized methods and approaches to obtain more comparable results,as this would support the discrimination of case-specific versus

  11. European Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens Are Competent Vectors for Japanese Encephalitis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprès, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. JEV transmission cycle involves mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts. The detection of JEV RNA in a pool of Culex pipiens caught in 2010 in Italy raised the concern of a putative emergence of the virus in Europe. We aimed to study the vector competence of European mosquito populations, such as Cx. pipiens and Aedes albopictus for JEV genotypes 3 and 5. Findings After oral feeding on an infectious blood meal, mosquitoes were dissected at various times post-virus exposure. We found that the peak for JEV infection and transmission was between 11 and 13 days post-virus exposure. We observed a faster dissemination of both JEV genotypes in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, when compared with Cx. pipiens mosquitoes. We also dissected salivary glands and collected saliva from infected mosquitoes and showed that Ae. albopictus mosquitoes transmitted JEV earlier than Cx. pipiens. The virus collected from Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens saliva was competent at causing pathogenesis in a mouse model for JEV infection. Using this model, we found that mosquito saliva or salivary glands did not enhance the severity of the disease. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that European populations of Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens were efficient vectors for JEV transmission. Susceptible vertebrate species that develop high viremia are an obligatory part of the JEV transmission cycle. This study highlights the need to investigate the susceptibility of potential JEV reservoir hosts in Europe, notably amongst swine populations and local water birds. PMID:28085881

  12. Testing of UK Populations of Culex pipiens L. for Schmallenberg Virus Vector Competence and Their Colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Manley

    Full Text Available Schmallenberg virus (SBV, an arboviral pathogen of ruminants, emerged in northern Europe during 2011 and has subsequently spread across a vast geographic area. While Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae have been identified as a biological transmission agent of SBV, the role of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae as potential vectors has not been defined beyond small-scale field collections in affected areas. Culex pipiens L. are one of the most widespread mosquitoes in northern Europe; they are present on farms across the region and have previously been implicated as vectors of several other arboviruses. We assessed the ability of three colony lines of Cx. pipiens, originating from geographically diverse field populations, to become fully infected by SBV using semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR (sqPCR.Two colony lines of Cx. pipiens were created in the UK ('Brookwood' and 'Caldbeck' from field collections of larvae and pupae and characterised using genetic markers. A third strain of Cx. pipiens from CVI Wageningen, The Netherlands, was also screened during experiments. Intrathoracic inoculation of the Brookwood line resulted in infections after 14 days that were characterised by high levels of RNA throughout individuals, but which demonstrated indirect evidence of salivary gland barriers. Feeding of 322 individuals across the three colony lines on a membrane based infection system resulted in no evidence of full dissemination of SBV, although infections did occur in a small proportion of Cx. pipiens from each line.This study established two novel lines of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes of UK origin in the laboratory and subsequently tested their competence for SBV. Schmallenberg virus replication and dissemination was restricted, demonstrating that Cx. pipiens is unlikely to be an epidemiologically important vector of the virus in northern Europe.

  13. Recombination of replicon and helper RNAs and the emergence of propagation-competent vectors upon Sindbis virus vector production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Anna; Yongabi, Felicitas; Mäkinen, Kimmo; Wahlfors, Jarmo; Pellinen, Riikka

    2013-08-01

    Sindbis vectors have shown remarkable antitumor efficacy and tumor-targeting capacity in animal models and hold promise for cancer therapy. Different packaging systems are used to produce propagation-incompetent Sindbis vectors. However, the vectors produced using either DH-BB single helper RNA or split helper RNA can spread in permissive cell cultures. We investigated the mechanisms of vector spreading and show, here, that recombination occurs between the replicon and DH-BB helper RNA, leading to formation of the full-length virus genome. Split helper RNA may not completely prevent wild-type reversion, although the frequency is greatly reduced. Contrary to propagation of Sindbis DH-BB vectors, Sindbis split helper vectors were frequently able to spread without cytopathic effect (CPE), a feature that was linked to wild-type reversion. Our results support the hypothesis that the non-cytopathic local spreading constantly observed with Sindbis split helper vector results from unspecific packaging of helper RNAs into vector particles and co-infection with particles containing replicon and helper RNAs. Several malignant cell lines with defective interferon responses were found to be permissive for non-cytopathic spreading of the Sindbis split helper vector. Interferon-α suppressed the spreading providing a possible option to control the vector.

  14. Vector competence of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Dohm, D J; Jones, J W

    2001-03-01

    We evaluated the potential for several North American mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced West Nile (WN) virus. Mosquitoes collected in the New York City metropolitan area during the recent WN virus outbreak, at the Assateague Island Wildlife Refuge, VA, or from established colonies were allowed to feed on chickens infected with WN virus isolated from a crow that died during the 1999 outbreak. These mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 wk later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus (Theobald) were highly susceptible to infection, and nearly all individuals with a disseminated infection transmitted virus by bite. Culex pipiens L. and Aedes sollicitans (Walker) were moderately susceptible. In contrast, Aedes vexans (Meigen), Aedes aegypti (L.), and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) were relatively refractory to infection, but individual mosquitoes inoculated with WN virus did transmit virus by bite. Infected female Cx. pipiens transmitted WN virus to one of 1,618 F1 progeny, indicating the potential for vertical transmission of this virus. In addition to laboratory vector competence, host-feeding preferences, relative abundance, and season of activity also determine the role that these species could play in transmitting WN virus.

  15. Vectores

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Documento que contiene la explicación sobre las temáticas de Sistemas coordenados, Cantidades vectoriales y escalares, Algunas propiedades de los vectores, Componentes de un vector y vectores unitarios

  16. Vector-averaged gravity does not alter acetylcholine receptor single channel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitstetter, R.; Gruener, R.

    1994-01-01

    To examine the physiological sensitivity of membrane receptors to altered gravity, we examined the single channel properties of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), in co-cultures of Xenopus myocytes and neurons, to vector-averaged gravity in the clinostat. This experimental paradigm produces an environment in which, from the cell's perspective, the gravitational vector is "nulled" by continuous averaging. In that respect, the clinostat simulates one aspect of space microgravity where the gravity force is greatly reduced. After clinorotation, the AChR channel mean open-time and conductance were statistically not different from control values but showed a rotation-dependent trend that suggests a process of cellular adaptation to clinorotation. These findings therefore suggest that the ACHR channel function may not be affected in the microgravity of space despite changes in the receptor's cellular organization.

  17. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...... on the most salient vectors, and this works well, but many images contain a plethora of vectors, which makes their structure quite different from the linguistic transitivity structures with which Kress and van Leeuwen have compared ‘narrative’ images. It can also be asked whether facial expression vectors...... should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined...

  18. Replication-competent infectious hepatitis B virus vectors carrying substantially sized transgenes by redesigned viral polymerase translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihua Wang

    Full Text Available Viral vectors are engineered virus variants able to deliver nonviral genetic information into cells, usually by the same routes as the parental viruses. For several virus families, replication-competent vectors carrying reporter genes have become invaluable tools for easy and quantitative monitoring of replication and infection, and thus also for identifying antivirals and virus susceptible cells. For hepatitis B virus (HBV, a small enveloped DNA virus causing B-type hepatitis, such vectors are not available because insertions into its tiny 3.2 kb genome almost inevitably affect essential replication elements. HBV replicates by reverse transcription of the pregenomic (pg RNA which is also required as bicistronic mRNA for the capsid (core protein and the reverse transcriptase (Pol; their open reading frames (ORFs overlap by some 150 basepairs. Translation of the downstream Pol ORF does not involve a conventional internal ribosome entry site (IRES. We reasoned that duplicating the overlap region and providing artificial IRES control for translation of both Pol and an in-between inserted transgene might yield a functional tricistronic pgRNA, without interfering with envelope protein expression. As IRESs we used a 22 nucleotide element termed Rbm3 IRES to minimize genome size increase. Model plasmids confirmed its activity even in tricistronic arrangements. Analogous plasmids for complete HBV genomes carrying 399 bp and 720 bp transgenes for blasticidin resistance (BsdR and humanized Renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP produced core and envelope proteins like wild-type HBV; while the hrGFP vector replicated poorly, the BsdR vector generated around 40% as much replicative DNA as wild-type HBV. Both vectors, however, formed enveloped virions which were infectious for HBV-susceptible HepaRG cells. Because numerous reporter and effector genes with sizes of around 500 bp or less are available, the new HBV vectors should become highly useful tools to

  19. Vector competence of Culicoides for arboviruses: three major periods of research, their influence on current studies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, S; Veronesi, E; Mullens, B; Venter, G

    2015-04-01

    The spectacular and unprecedented outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) that have occurred in Europe since 1998 have led to increased interest in those factors that determine competence of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for arboviruses. In this review the authors critically examine three major periods of research into the biological transmission by Culicoides of two economically important arboviruses ofthefamily Reoviridae: African horse sicknessvirus (AHSV) and BTV. First they examine early studies, largely conducted in southern Africa, that played a key role in initially implicating Culicoides as agents of AHSV and BTV transmission. Then they examine advances in understanding made following the establishment of colonies of the BTV vector species Culicoides sonorensis, which have largely shaped our current understanding of BTV and AHSV transmission. They then consider attempts in recent years to implicate vectors of BTV in the European Union during what has become the most economically damaging series of outbreaks in recorded history. In some cases the origin of these outbreaks was uncertain and unexpected, particularly in northern Europe, where BTV had not previously occurred. Limitations imposed on studies of vector competence by the biology of Culicoides are then discussed, along with advances in the technologies now available and the logistics of working upon agents requiring biosecure containment outside their endemic range. Finally, the authors suggest areas that have either been poorly addressed to date or entirely ignored and ways in which studies could be conducted to provide standardised data for comparison worldwide.

  20. Expression of heterologous genes from an IRES translational cassette in replication competent murine leukemia virus vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Duch, Mogens R.; Carrasco, M L;

    1999-01-01

    of spliced env mRNA for the SL3-3 derived vector relative to the Akv derived vectors, seemingly contributing to its low replication capacity. The EGFP expressing Akv-MLV was genetically stable for multiple rounds of infection; marker-cassette deletion revertants appeared after several replication rounds...

  1. Development of new transformation-competent artificial chromosome vectors and rice genomic libraries for efficient gene cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-Guang; Liu, Hongmei; Chen, Letian; Qiu, Weihua; Zhang, Qunyu; Wu, Hao; Yang, Chunyi; Su, Jing; Wang, Zhonghua; Tian, Dongsheng; Mei, Mantong

    2002-01-09

    The transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector (TAC) system has been shown to be very useful for efficient gene isolation in Arabidopsis thaliana (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1998) 6535). To adapt the vector system for gene isolation in crops, two new TAC vectors and rice genomic libraries were developed. The new vectors pYLTAC17 and pYLTAC27 use the Bar gene and Hpt gene driven by the rice Act1 promoter as the plant selectable markers, respectively, and are suitable for transformation of rice and other grasses. Two representative genomic libraries (I and II) of an Indica rice variety Minghui63, a fertility restorer line for hybrid rice, were constructed with pYLTAC17 using different size classes of partially digested DNA fragments. Library I and library II consisted of 34,560 and 1.2 x 10(5) clones, with average insert sizes of approximately 77 and 39 kb, respectively. The genome coverage of the libraries I and II was estimated to be about 5 and 11 haploid genome equivalents, respectively. Clones of the library I were stored individually in ninety 384-well plates, and those of the library II were collected as bulked pools each containing 30-50 clones and stored in eight 384-well plates. A number of probes were used to hybridize high-density colony filters of the library I prepared by an improved replicating method and each detected 2-9 positive clones. A method for rapid screening of the library II by pooled colony hybridization was developed. A TAC clone having an 80 kb rice DNA insert was successfully transferred into rice genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The new vectors and the genomic libraries should be useful for gene cloning and genetic engineering in rice and other crops.

  2. High density recombinant AAV particles are competent vectors for in vivo transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors have recently achieved clinical successes in human gene therapy. However, the commonly observed heavier particles found in AAV preparations have traditionally been ignored due to its low in vitro infectivity. In this study, we systemically compared t...

  3. Larval habitats of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae influences vector competence to Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouagna Louis C

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of highly competent malaria vectors has been linked to productive larval habitats in the field, but there isn't solid quantitative or qualitative data to support it. To test this, the effect of larval habitat soil substrates on larval development time, pupation rates and vector competence of Anopheles gambiae to Plasmodium falciparum were examined. Methods Soils were collected from active larval habitats with sandy and clay substrates from field sites and their total organic matter estimated. An. gambiae larvae were reared on these soil substrates and the larval development time and pupation rates monitored. The emerging adult mosquitoes were then artificially fed blood with infectious P. falciparum gametocytes from human volunteers and their midguts examined for oocyst infection after seven days. The wing sizes of the mosquitoes were also measured. The effect of autoclaving the soil substrates was also evaluated. Results The total organic matter was significantly different between clay and sandy soils after autoclaving (P = 0.022. A generalized liner model (GLM analysis identified habitat type (clay soil, sandy soil, or lake water and autoclaving (that reduces presence of microbes as significant factors affecting larval development time and oocyst infection intensities in adults. Autoclaving the soils resulted in the production of significantly smaller sized mosquitoes (P = 0.008. Autoclaving clay soils resulted in a significant reduction in Plasmodium falciparum oocyst intensities (P = 0.041 in clay soils (unautoclaved clay soils (4.28 ± 0.18 oocysts/midgut; autoclaved clay soils = 1.17 ± 0.55 oocysts/midgut although no difference (P = 0.480 in infection rates was observed between clay soils (10.4%, sandy soils (5.3% or lake water (7.9%. Conclusion This study suggests an important nutritional role for organic matter and microbial fauna on mosquito fitness and vector competence. It shows that the quality of

  4. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus from Houston, Texas, for dengue serotypes 1 to 4, yellow fever and Ross River viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C J; Miller, B R; Gubler, D J

    1987-09-01

    A combination of virus infection and transmission experiments showed that a Houston, Texas strain of Aedes albopictus is a competent vector for dengue (DEN), yellow fever (YF) and Ross River (RR) viruses. However, at 14 days incubation, DEN virus infection rates in a Puerto Rican strain of Aedes aegypti were significantly higher for each of the four DEN serotypes, except DEN-1, than in Houston Ae. albopictus fed simultaneously on the same virus suspensions. The degree of correlation between disseminated DEN infection rates in Houston Ae. albopictus and transmission to an in vitro system ranged from 42 to 88% for the four DEN serotypes. No significant difference was noted in YF virus infection rates or transmission rates in the two mosquito species fed on the same virus suspensions and incubated for the same time period. Also, RR virus infection and transmission rates in Houston and Hawaiian strains of Ae. albopictus were generally comparable.

  5. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi Yadav; Varun Tyagi; Tikar, Sachin N; Sharma, Ajay K.; Murlidhar J Mendki; Jain, Ashok K; Devanathan Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyp...

  6. The vector competence of colonized Aedes (Stegomyia) katherinensis for dengue-2 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, C J

    1984-01-01

    Colonized Aedes (Stegomyia) katherinensis mosquitoes from Australia were infected with the PR-159 strain of dengue-2 virus using a membrane feeding technique and by intrathoracic inoculation. Virus replication to low levels was detected when mosquitoes infected by both routes were assayed using the virus-sensitive Ae. pseudoscutellaris (LSTM-AP-61) mosquito cell line in a microculture system. Analysis by indirect immunofluorescence revealed the expected 100% infection rates in inoculated mosquitoes compared with only 45% in orally infected mosquitoes. Few of the orally infected mosquitoes showed any viral antigen associated with the head and no virus transmission was detected. Preliminary studies also demonstrated that Ae. (S.) katherinesis was refractory to oral infection with Japanese encephalitis virus but was readily infected by intrathoracic inoculation. On the basis of this data, it is concluded that there is a high threshold of infection in this mosquito and that it is unlikely that Ae. (S.) katherinensis could be important as a vector of dengue-2 virus in Australia.

  7. Tick Thioester-Containing Proteins and Phagocytosis Do Not Affect Transmission of Borrelia afzelii from the Competent Vector Ixodes ricinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Hönig Mondeková, Helena; Šíma, Radek; Kopáček, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The present concept of the transmission of Lyme disease from Borrelia-infected Ixodes sp. ticks to the naïve host assumes that a low number of spirochetes that manage to penetrate the midgut epithelium migrate through the hemocoel to the salivary glands and subsequently infect the host with the aid of immunomodulatory compounds present in tick saliva. Therefore, humoral and/or cellular immune reactions within the tick hemocoel may play an important role in tick competence to act as a vector for borreliosis. To test this hypothesis we have examined complement-like reactions in the hemolymph of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus against Borrelia afzelii (the most common vector and causative agent of Lyme disease in Europe). We demonstrate that I. ricinus hemolymph does not exhibit borreliacidal effects comparable to complement-mediated lysis of bovine sera. However, after injection of B. afzelii into the tick hemocoel, the spirochetes were efficiently phagocytosed by tick hemocytes and this cellular defense was completely eliminated by pre-injection of latex beads. As tick thioester-containing proteins (T-TEPs) are components of the tick complement system, we performed RNAi-mediated silencing of all nine genes encoding individual T-TEPs followed by in vitro phagocytosis assays. Silencing of two molecules related to the C3 complement component (IrC3-2 and IrC3-3) significantly suppressed phagocytosis of B. afzelii, while knockdown of IrTep (insect type TEP) led to its stimulation. However, RNAi-mediated silencing of T-TEPs or elimination of phagocytosis by injection of latex beads in B. afzelii-infected I. ricinus nymphs had no obvious impact on the transmission of spirochetes to naïve mice, as determined by B. afzelii infection of murine tissues following tick infestation. This result supports the concept that Borrelia spirochetes are capable of avoiding complement-related reactions within the hemocoel of ticks competent to transmit Lyme disease. PMID:28361038

  8. Vaccination with Ad5 vectors expands Ad5-specific CD8 T cells without altering memory phenotype or functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie A Hutnick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adenoviral (Ad vaccine vectors represent both a vehicle to present a novel antigen to the immune system as well as restimulation of immune responses against the Ad vector itself. To what degree Ad-specific CD8(+ T cells are restimulated by Ad vector vaccination is unclear, although such knowledge would be important as vector-specific CD8(+ T cell expansion could potentially further limit Ad vaccine efficacy beyond Ad-specific neutralizing antibody alone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we addressed this issue by measuring human Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5-specific CD8(+ T cells in recipients of the Merck Ad5 HIV-1 vaccine vector before, during, and after vaccination by multicolor flow cytometry. Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cells were detectable in 95% of subjects prior to vaccination, and displayed primarily an effector-type functional profile and phenotype. Peripheral blood Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cell numbers expanded after Ad5-HIV vaccination in all subjects, but differential expansion kinetics were noted in some baseline Ad5-neutralizing antibody (Ad5 nAb seronegative subjects compared to baseline Ad5 nAb seropositive subjects. However, in neither group did vaccination alter polyfunctionality, mucosal targeting marker expression, or memory phenotype of Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cells. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that repeat Ad5-vector administration in humans expands Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cells without overtly affecting their functional capacity or phenotypic properties. This is a secondary analysis of samples collected during the 016 trial. Results of the Merck 016 trial safety and immunogenicity have been previously published in the journal of clinical infectious diseases [1]. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00849680[http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00849680].

  9. Vector competence of Glossina austeni and Glossina brevipalpis for Trypanosoma congolense in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhosazana Motloang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis (nagana has been the cause of stock losses in the recent past and still presents a major problem to livestock owners in certain areas of KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa. Over 10 000 cattle mortalities were reported in the 1990 nagana outbreak. Although information on the distribution and abundance of the tsetse flies Glossina brevipalpis and Glossina austeni in KwaZulu-Natal exists, data on their vector competence are lacking. This study aimed to determine the rate of natural Trypanosoma congolense infection by field-collected as well as colony-reared flies of these species. A total of 442 field-collected G. brevipalpis and 40 G. austeni flies were dissected immediately after collection to determine their infection rates, whilst 699 G. brevipalpis and 49 G. austeni flies were fed on susceptible animals in 10 and four batches, respectively, for use in xenodiagnosis experiments. Teneral colony flies were fed on infected animals and dissected 21 days post infection to confirm their infectivity testing. Glossina austeni harboured 8% immature and mature infections. In G. brevipalpis, the infection with the immature stages was lower (1% and no mature infections were observed. Although all four batches of G. austeni transmitted T. congolense to four susceptible animals, no transmission resulted from 10 batches of G. brevipalpis fed on susceptible cattle. Colony-derived G. austeni (534 and G. brevipalpis (882 were fed on four bovines infected with different T. congolense isolates. Both G. austeni and G. brevipalpis acquired trypanosome infection from the bovines, with immature infection ranges of 20% – 33% and 1% – 4%, respectively. Parasites, however, only matured in G. austeni (average = 4%. Glossina austeni plays a larger role in the epidemiology of animal trypanosomosis in KwaZulu-Natal than G. brevipalpis and therefore more focus should be aimed at the former when control measures are implemented.

  10. Transduction and oncolytic profile of a potent replication-competent adenovirus 11p vector (RCAd11pGFP in colon carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Silver

    Full Text Available Replication-competent adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 vectors promise to be more efficient gene delivery vehicles than their replication-deficient counterparts, and chimeric Ad5 vectors that are capable of targeting CD46 are more effective than Ad5 vectors with native fibers. Although several strategies have been used to improve gene transduction and oncolysis, either by modifying their tropism or enhancing their replication capacity, some tumor cells are still relatively refractory to infection by chimeric Ad5. The oncolytic effects of the vectors are apparent in certain tumors but not in others. Here, we report the biological and oncolytic profiles of a replication-competent adenovirus 11p vector (RCAd11pGFP in colon carcinoma cells. CD46 was abundantly expressed in all cells studied; however, the transduction efficiency of RCAd11pGFP varied. RCAd11pGFP efficiently transduced HT-29, HCT-8, and LS174T cells, but it transduced T84 cells, derived from a colon cancer metastasis in the lung, less efficiently. Interestingly, RCAd11p replicated more rapidly in the T84 cells than in HCT-8 and LS174T cells and as rapidly as in HT-29 cells. Cell toxicity and proliferation assays indicated that RCAd11pGFP had the highest cell-killing activities in HT29 and T84 cells, the latter of which also expressed the highest levels of glycoproteins of the carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA family. In vivo experiments showed significant growth inhibition of T84 and HT-29 tumors in xenograft mice treated with either RCAd11pGFP or Ad11pwt compared to untreated controls. Thus, RCAd11pGFP has a potent cytotoxic effect on colon carcinoma cells.

  11. Vector electrocardiographic alterations after percutaneous septal ablation in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: possible anatomic causes

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    Pérez Riera Andrés Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyze the dromotropic disturbances (vector-electrocardiographic, and the possible anatomic causes, provoked by selective alcohol injection in the septal branch, for percutaneous treatment, of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Ten patients with a mean age of 52.7 years underwent percutaneous septal ablation (PTSA from october 1998; all in functional class III/IV. Twelve-lead electrocardiogram was performed prior to and during PTSA, and later electrocardiogram and vectorcardiogram according to Frank's method. The patients were followed up for 32 months. RESULTS: On electrocardiogram (ECG prior to PTSA all patients had sinus rhythm and left atrial enlargement, 8 left ventricular hypertrophy of systolic pattern. On ECG immediately after PTSA, 8 had complete right bundle-branch block; 1 transient total atrioventricular block; 1 alternating transient bundle-branch block either right or hemiblock. On late ECG 8 had complete right bundle-branch block confirmed by vectorcardiogram, type 1 or Grishman. CONCLUSION: Septal fibrosis following alcohol injection caused a predominance of complete right bundle-branch block, different from surgery of myotomy/myectomy.

  12. Vector competence of Mexican and Honduran mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for enzootic (IE) and epizootic (IC) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Navarro, Roberto; Romero, Guadeloupe; Estrada-Franco, José G

    2003-05-01

    Experimental studies evaluated the vector competence of Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Culex cancer Theobald, Culex pseudes (Dyar and Knab), Culex taeniopus Dyar and Knab, and a Culex (Culex) species, probably Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Culex nigripalpus Theobald from Chiapas, Mexico, and Tocoa, Honduras, for epizootic (IC) and enzootic (IE) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus. Culex pseudes was highly susceptible to infection with both the IC and IE strains of VEE (infection rates >78%). Patterns of susceptibility to VEE were similar for Oc. taeniorhynchus collected in Mexico and Honduras. Although Oc. taeniorhynchus was highly susceptible to the epizootic IC strains (infection rates > or = 95%, n = 190), this species was less susceptible to the enzootic IE strain (infection rates < or = 35%, n = 233). The Culex (Culex) species were refractory to both subtypes of VEE, and none of 166 contained evidence of a disseminated infection. Virus-exposed Cx. pseudes that refed on susceptible hamsters readily transmitted virus, confirming that this species was an efficient vector of VEE. Although Oc. taeniorhynchus that fed on hamsters infected with the epizootic IC strain transmitted VEE efficiently, only one of six of those with a disseminated infection with the enzootic IE virus that fed on hamsters transmitted virus by bite. These data indicate that Cx. pseudes is an efficient laboratory vector of both epizootic and enzootic strains of VEE and that Oc. taeniorhynchus could be an important vector of epizootic subtypes of VEE.

  13. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus.

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    Ruchi Yadav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Prosopis juliflora, Vernonia cinerea against Aedes albopictus mosquito in laboratory.Leaf extracts of all the six plants species in five different solvents of various polarities were used in the range of 20-400ppm for larval bioassay and 50,100 and 200ppm for cage bioassay (for the study of oviposition behavior against Ae. albopictus. The larval mortality data were recorded after 24 h and subjected to Probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50, while OAI (Oviposition activity index was calculated for oviposition altering activity of the plant extracts.Vernonia cinerea extract in acetone and C. viminalis extract in isopropanol were highly effective against Aedes albopictus larvae with LC50 value 64.57, 71.34ppm respectively. Acetone extract of P. juliflora found to be strong oviposition-deterrent which inhibited >2 fold egg laying (OAI-0.466 at 100ppm.Vernonia cinerea and C. viminallis leaf extracts have the potential to be used as larvicide and P. juliflora as an oviposition-deterrent for the control of Ae. albopictus mosquito.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of the Vector Competence of Four South American Populations of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus Group for the Bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the Agent of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Krawczak, Felipe S; Costa, Francisco B; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the vector competence of four populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks for the bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ticks (larvae and nymphs) from the four populations-one from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (BSP), one from Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (BRS), one from Argentina (ARG), and one from Uruguay (URU)-were exposed to E. canis infection by feeding on dogs that were experimentally infected with E. canis. Engorged ticks (larvae and nymphs) were allowed to molt to nymphs and adults, respectively, which were tested by molecular analysis (E. canis-specific PCR assay) and used to infest naïve dogs. Through infestation of adult ticks on naïve dogs, after nymphal acquisition feeding on E. canis-infected dogs, only the BSP population was shown to be competent vectors of E. canis, i.e., only the dogs infested with BSP adult ticks developed clinical illness, seroconverted to E. canis, and yielded E. canis DNA by PCR. This result, demonstrated by two independent replications, is congruent with epidemiological data, since BSP ticks were derived from São Paulo state, Brazil, where CME is highly endemic. On the other hand, BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were derived from a geographical region (South America southern cone) where CME has never been properly documented. Molecular analysis of unfed adults at 30 days post molting support these transmission results, since none of the BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were PCR positive, whereas 1% of the BSP nymphs and 31.8% of the BSP adults contained E. canis DNA. We conclude that the absence or scarcity of cases of CME due to E. canis in the South America southern cone is a result of vector incompetence of the R. sanguineus group ticks that prevail on dogs in this part of South America.

  15. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for DEN2-43 and New Guinea C virus strains of dengue 2 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dong, Yan-De; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Xue, Rui-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2013-12-01

    The vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti with regard to DEN2-43 and New Guinea C (NGC) virus strains of Dengue 2 viruses was assessed and compared. The infection and dissemination rate and distribution of DEN2-43 antigens in orally infected Ae. albopictus was investigated using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. To better understand the initial infection, dissemination and transmission of these viral strains in vector mosquitoes, Ae. albopoictus and Ae. aegypti were fed an artificial blood meal containing either the DEN2-43 or NGC strain. There was no significant difference in the infection and dissemination rates of DEN2-43 and NGC virus strains in Ae. albopictus, however, Ae. aegypti was more susceptible to infection by NGC than DEN2-43 vrius strain. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes infected with the NGC strain developed a higher percentage of midgut infections than those infected with the DEN2-43 strain (t=2.893, df=7, P=0.024). Approximately 26.7% of midgut samples were positive for the NGC antigen 5 days after infection, and 80% of mosquitoes had infected midgets after 15 days. The NGC antigen first became evident in mosquito salivary glands on Day 5, and 40% of mosquitoes had infected salivary by Day 9. In contrast, the DEN2-43 antigen first became evident in salivary glands on Day 7. The infection rate of NGC and DEN2-43 virus strains in salivary glands were similar. These results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti are moderately competent vectors for the DEN2-43 virus, which could provide basic data for the epidemiology study of dengue fever in China.

  16. Are the specialized bird ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, competent vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, D.; Sprong, H.; Van Oers, K.; Fonville, M.; Matthysen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Our study tested whether two European bird-specialized ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, can act as vectors in the transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. The ticks have contrasting ecologies but share songbird hosts (such as the great tit, Parus major) with the generalist I. ricin

  17. Are the specialized bird ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, competent vectors for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, D.; Sprong, H.; Oers, van K.; Fonville, M.; Leirs, H.; Matthysen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Our study tested whether two European bird-specialized ticks, Ixodes arboricola and I. frontalis, can act as vectors in the transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. The ticks have contrasting ecologies but share songbird hosts (such as the great tit, Parus major) with the generalist I. ricin

  18. Quantification of vector and host competence and abundance for Japanese Encephalitis Virus: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) that affects humans in Eastern and Southeastern Asia. Although it could be prevented by a vaccine, JE has no treatment and the inadvertent introduction of the virus into JEV-free countries, such as t...

  19. Plasma Ghrelin Concentrations Were Altered with Oestrous Cycle Stage and Increasing Age in Reproductively Competent Wistar Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffrey, M. Jill; Taylor, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in appetite occur during the ovarian cycle in female mammals. Research on appetite-regulatory gastrointestinal peptides in females is limited, because reproductive changes in steroid hormones present additional experimental factors to control for. This study aimed to explore possible changes in the orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin during the rodent oestrous cycle. Fed and fasted plasma and stomach tissue samples were taken from female Wistar rats (32–44 weeks of age) at each stage of the oestrous cycle for total ghrelin quantification using radioimmunoassay. Sampling occurred during the dark phase when most eating takes place in rats. Statistical analysis was by paired-samples t-test, one-way ANOVA on normally distributed data, with Tukey post-hoc tests, or Kruskal-Wallis if not. GLM univariate analysis was used to assess main effects and interactions in ghrelin concentrations in the fed or fasted state and during different stages of the ovarian cycle, with age as a covariate. No consistent fed to fasted ghrelin increases were measured in matched plasma samples from the same animals, contrary to expectations. Total ghrelin concentrations did not significantly change between cycle stages with ANOVA, in either fed or fasted plasma or in stomach tissue. This was despite significantly decreased fasted stomach contents at oestrus (P = 0.028), suggesting decreased food intake. There was however a significant interaction in ghrelin plasma concentrations between fed and fasted proestrus rats and a direct effect of age with rats over 37 weeks old having lower circulating concentrations of ghrelin in both fed and fasted states. The biological implications of altered ghrelin plasma concentrations from 37 weeks of age are as yet unknown, but warrant further investigation. Exploring peripheral ghrelin regulatory factor changes with increasing age in reproductively competent females may bring to light potential effects on

  20. Field detection of Tembusu virus in western Thailand by rt-PCR and vector competence determination of select culex mosquitoes for transmission of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Guinn, Monica L; Turell, Michael J; Kengluecha, Ampornpan; Jaichapor, Boonsong; Kankaew, Prasan; Miller, R Scott; Endy, Timothy P; Jones, James W; Coleman, Russell E; Lee, John S

    2013-11-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV; Ntaya serocomplex) was detected in two pools of mosquitoes captured near Sangkhlaburi, Thailand, as well as from sera from sentinel ducks from the same area. Although TMUV has been isolated from several mosquito species in Asia, no studies have ever shown competent vectors for this virus. Therefore, we allowed mosquitoes captured near Sangkhlaburi to feed on young chickens that had been infected with TMUV. These mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 weeks later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Culex vishnui developed high viral titers after feeding on TMUV-infected chicks and readily transmitted virus to naïve chickens. In contrast, Cx. fuscocephala seemed less susceptible to infection, and more importantly, zero of five fuscocephala with a disseminated infection transmitted virus by bite, indicating a salivary gland barrier. These results provide evidence for the involvement of Culex mosquitoes in the transmission of TMUV in the environment.

  1. A novel replication-competent vaccinia vector MVTT is superior to MVA for inducing high levels of neutralizing antibody via mucosal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxing; Lu, Bin; Yu, Wenbo; Fang, Qing; Liu, Li; Zhuang, Ke; Shen, Tingting; Wang, Haibo; Tian, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2009-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination offers great advantage for inducing protective immune response to prevent viral transmission and dissemination. Here, we report our findings of a head-to-head comparison of two viral vectors modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and a novel replication-competent modified vaccinia Tian Tan (MVTT) for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) via intramuscular and mucosal vaccinations in mice. MVTT is an attenuated variant of the wild-type VTT, which was historically used as a smallpox vaccine for millions of Chinese people. The spike glycoprotein (S) of SARS-CoV was used as the test antigen after the S gene was constructed in the identical genomic location of two vectors to generate vaccine candidates MVTT-S and MVA-S. Using identical doses, MVTT-S induced lower levels ( approximately 2-3-fold) of anti- SARS-CoV neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) than MVA-S through intramuscular inoculation. MVTT-S, however, was capable of inducing consistently 20-to-100-fold higher levels of Nabs than MVA-S when inoculated via either intranasal or intraoral routes. These levels of MVTT-S-induced Nab responses were substantially (approximately 10-fold) higher than that induced via the intramuscular route in the same experiments. Moreover, pre-exposure to the wild-type VTT via intranasal or intraoral route impaired the Nab response via the same routes of MVTT-S vaccination probably due to the pre-existing anti-VTT Nab response. The efficacy of intranasal or intraoral vaccination, however, was still 20-to-50-fold better than intramuscular inoculation despite the subcutaneous pre-exposure to wild-type VTT. Our data have implications for people who maintain low levels of anti-VTT Nabs after historical smallpox vaccination. MVTT is therefore an attractive live viral vector for mucosal vaccination.

  2. A novel replication-competent vaccinia vector MVTT is superior to MVA for inducing high levels of neutralizing antibody via mucosal vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Huang

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccination offers great advantage for inducing protective immune response to prevent viral transmission and dissemination. Here, we report our findings of a head-to-head comparison of two viral vectors modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA and a novel replication-competent modified vaccinia Tian Tan (MVTT for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs via intramuscular and mucosal vaccinations in mice. MVTT is an attenuated variant of the wild-type VTT, which was historically used as a smallpox vaccine for millions of Chinese people. The spike glycoprotein (S of SARS-CoV was used as the test antigen after the S gene was constructed in the identical genomic location of two vectors to generate vaccine candidates MVTT-S and MVA-S. Using identical doses, MVTT-S induced lower levels ( approximately 2-3-fold of anti- SARS-CoV neutralizing antibodies (Nabs than MVA-S through intramuscular inoculation. MVTT-S, however, was capable of inducing consistently 20-to-100-fold higher levels of Nabs than MVA-S when inoculated via either intranasal or intraoral routes. These levels of MVTT-S-induced Nab responses were substantially (approximately 10-fold higher than that induced via the intramuscular route in the same experiments. Moreover, pre-exposure to the wild-type VTT via intranasal or intraoral route impaired the Nab response via the same routes of MVTT-S vaccination probably due to the pre-existing anti-VTT Nab response. The efficacy of intranasal or intraoral vaccination, however, was still 20-to-50-fold better than intramuscular inoculation despite the subcutaneous pre-exposure to wild-type VTT. Our data have implications for people who maintain low levels of anti-VTT Nabs after historical smallpox vaccination. MVTT is therefore an attractive live viral vector for mucosal vaccination.

  3. Altered expression of BRG1 and histone demethylases, and aberrant H3K4 methylation in less developmentally competent embryos at the time of embryonic genome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzner, Werner G; Wachter, Audrey; Coutinho, Ana Rita S; Albornoz, Marcelo S; Duggavathi, Raj; GonÇAlves, Paulo B D; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetics is a fundamental regulator underlying many biological functions, such as development and cell differentiation. Epigenetic modifications affect key chromatin regulation, including transcription and DNA repair, which are critical for normal embryo development. In this study, we profiled the expression of epigenetic modifiers and patterns of epigenetic changes in porcine embryos around the period of embryonic genome activation (EGA). We observed that Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) and Lysine demethylase 1A (KDM1A), which can alter the methylation status of lysine 4 in histone 3 (H3K4), localize to the nucleus at Day 3-4 of development. We then compared the abundance of epigenetic modifiers between early- and late-cleaving embryos, which were classified based on the time to the first cell cleavage, to investigate if their nuclear localization contributes to developmental competence. The mRNA abundance of BRG1, KDM1A, as well as other lysine demethylases (KDM1B, KDM5A, KDM5B, and KDM5C), were significantly higher in late- compared to early-cleaving embryos near the EGA period, although these difference disappeared at the blastocyst stage. The abundance of H3K4 mono- (H3K4me) and di-methylation (H3K4me2) during the EGA period was reduced in late-cleaving and less developmentally competent embryos. By contrast, BRG1, KDM1A, and H3K4me2 abundance was greater in embryos with more than eight cells at Day 3-4 of development compared to those with fewer than four cells. These findings suggest that altered epigenetic modifications of H3K4 around the EGA period may affect the developmental capacity of porcine embryos to reach the blastocyst stage. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 19-29, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Competence is Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramming, Pia

    2004-01-01

    The article will address competence, its' diffusion, application, and the consequence of this application within the field of Human Resource Management (HRM). The concept competence-in-practice will be presented and in conclusion the article will consider implications and possibilities...... of competence-in-practice as an alternative approach to Competence Development within Human Resource Management....

  5. Alteration of viral lipid composition by expression of the phospholipid floppase ABCB4 reduces HIV vector infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Til Niek P

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of cholesterol in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV lipid envelop is important for viral function as cholesterol depleted viral particles show reduced infectivity. However, it is less well established whether other viral membrane lipids are also important for HIV infection. The ABCB4 protein is a phosphatidyl choline (PC floppase that mediates transport of PC from the inner to the outer membrane leaflet. This property enabled us to modulate the lipid composition of HIV vectors and study the effects on membrane composition and infection efficiency. Results Virus generated in the presence of ABCB4 was enriched in PC and cholesterol but contained less sphingomyelin (SM. Viral titers were reduced 5.9 fold. These effects were not observed with an inactive ABCB4 mutant. The presence of the ABC transport inhibitor verapamil abolished the effect of ABCB4 expression on viral titers. The ABCB4 mediated reduction in infectivity was caused by changes in the viral particles and not by components co purified with the virus because virus made in the presence of ABCB4 did not inhibit virus made without ABCB4 in a competition assay. Incorporation of the envelope protein was not affected by the expression of ABCB4. The inhibitory effect of ABCB4 was independent of the viral envelope as the effect was observed with two different envelope proteins. Conclusion Our data indicate that increasing the PC content of HIV particles reduces infectivity.

  6. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus in Fujian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Dong, Yan-De; Zhang, Heng-Duan; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is an acute, emerging, infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that has become a serious global public health problem. The DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus were originally isolated from the serum of a patient with dengue fever in Fujian Province, China, in 1999. Our data provide the first assessment of the vector competence of Aedes mosquitoes with respect to the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus. There were significant differences in the replication rates of these two viral strains in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Paegypti than in Ae. albopictus 5 days post infection whereas replication of the DEN2-FJ11 was greater in Ae. albopictus than in Ae. aegypti 7 days post infection. The replicative ability of the DEN2-FJ11 strain was greater than that of the DEN2-FJ10 strain in infected Ae. albopictus. In infected Ae. aegypti, rapid proliferation of the DEN2-FJ10 strain occurred earlier than in the DEN2-FJ11 strain. There were no significant differences in the midgut and salivary gland infection rates of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti with respect to either viral strain. Although the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains differ in their virulence to neonatal rats, there was no significant difference in the ability of either Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti to transmit the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ10 strains of the dengue 2 virus (P>0.05). In summary, our results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are moderately competent vectors of the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus and provide the first evidence of the effect of these two viral strains on the vector competence of mosquitoes in China.

  7. Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2011-10-01

    The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas

  8. Vector competence: Entomological considerations and its implications on the epidemiology of Dengue Competencia vectorial: consideraciones entomológicas y su influencia sobre la epidemiología del Dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Emilio Osorio Benítez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Vector-borne diseases are a serious problem in public health, especially in tropical and subtropical areas where environmental conditions favor the survival and expansion of vectors into new habitats.

     

    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases transmitted by arthropods (arbovirosis worldwide. The etiologic agent of the disease is the dengue virus, which is transmitted by the bite of bloodsucking Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The virus-vector interaction is essential for the efficient transmission of the disease, and depends on both, viral factors and vector competence or intrinsic vector capacity to be infected with the virus. Vector competence allows virus replication and subsequent transmission to susceptible hosts. Factors that influence vector capacity include: natural barriers to infection, immunological defenses as well as the presence of receptors for the virus. All these factors in addition to the viral characteristics will determine the degree of transmission. There is a need for a better understanding of the virus-vector relationship and its epidemiological implications. These issues are addressed in this article.

    Las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores constituyen un complejo problema de salud en el ámbito mundial, especialmente en áreas tropicales y

  9. Vector competence of Peruvian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for a subtype IIIC virus in the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex isolated from mosquitoes captured in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, M J; Dohm, D J; Fernandez, R; Calampa, C; O'Guinn, M L

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, for their susceptibility to a subtype IIIC strain of the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex. This virus had been previously isolated from a pool of mixed Culex vomerifer and Cx. gnomatos captured near Iquitos, Peru, in 1997. After feeding on hamsters with viremias of about 10(8) plaque-forming units of virus per ml, Cx. gnomatos was the most efficient vector. Other species, such as Ochlerotatus fulvus and Psorophora cingulata, although highly susceptible to infection, were not efficient laboratory vectors of this virus due to a significant salivary gland barrier. The Cx. (Culex) species, consisting mostly of Cx. (Cux.) coronator, were nearly refractory to subtype IIIC virus and exhibited both midgut infection as well as salivary gland barriers. Additional studies on biting behavior, mosquito population densities, and vertebrate reservoir hosts of subtype IIIC virus are needed to determine the role that these species play in the maintenance and spread of this virus in the Amazon Basin region.

  10. Introducing Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, John

    1997-01-01

    Suggests an approach to teaching vectors that promotes active learning through challenging questions addressed to the class, as opposed to subtle explanations. Promotes introducing vector graphics with concrete examples, beginning with an explanation of the displacement vector. Also discusses artificial vectors, vector algebra, and unit vectors.…

  11. Mutational library analysis of selected amino acids in the receptor binding domain of envelope of Akv murine leukemia virus by conditionally replication competent bicistronic vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrami, Shervin; Pedersen, Finn Skou; Duch, Mogens R.

    2003-01-01

    The envelope protein of retroviruses is responsible for viral entry into host cells. Here, we describe a mutational library approach to dissect functional domains of the envelope protein involving a retroviral vector, which expresses both the envelope protein of Akv murine leukemia virus (MLV...... mutational library of Arg 85 and Asp 86 in the first variable region of Akv envelope protein. Homologous amino acids to Asp 86 in Moloney and Friend murine leukemia viruses are thought to be directly involved in receptor binding. Subsequent selection of mutants capable of infecting murine NIH 3T3 cells...... indicated that the wild type aspartic acid or another hydrophilic residue at position 86 is an important determinant for envelope function....

  12. Mutational Analysis of the Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2) Capsid Gene and Construction of AAV2 Vectors with Altered Tropism

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Pei; Xiao, Wu; Conlon, Thomas; Hughes, Jeffrey; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; FERKOL, THOMAS; Flotte, Terence; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) has proven to be a valuable vector for gene therapy. Characterization of the functional domains of the AAV capsid proteins can facilitate our understanding of viral tissue tropism, immunoreactivity, viral entry, and DNA packaging, all of which are important issues for generating improved vectors. To obtain a comprehensive genetic map of the AAV capsid gene, we have constructed 93 mutants at 59 different positions in the AAV capsid gene by site-directed mut...

  13. Alteration of intersubunit acid–base pair interactions at the quasi-threefold axis of symmetry of Cucumber mosaic virus disrupts aphid vector transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricault, Christine A. [Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, 334 Plant Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Perry, Keith L., E-mail: KLP3@cornell.edu [Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, 334 Plant Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    In the atomic model of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), six amino acid residues form stabilizing salt bridges between subunits of the asymmetric unit at the quasi-threefold axis of symmetry. To evaluate the effects of these positions on virion stability and aphid vector transmissibility, six charged amino acid residues were individually mutated to alanine. All of the six engineered viruses were viable and exhibited near wild type levels of virion stability in the presence of urea. Aphid vector transmissibility was nearly or completely eliminated in the case of four of the mutants; two mutants demonstrated intermediate aphid transmissibility. For the majority of the engineered mutants, second-site mutations were observed following aphid transmission and/or mechanical passaging, and one restored transmission rates to that of the wild type. CMV capsids tolerate disruption of acid–base pairing interactions at the quasi-threefold axis of symmetry, but these interactions are essential for maintaining aphid vector transmissibility. - Highlights: ► Amino acids between structural subunits of Cucumber mosaic virus affect vector transmission. ► Mutant structural stability was retained, while aphid vector transmissibility was disrupted. ► Spontaneous, second-site mutations restored aphid vector transmissibility.

  14. Mathematical Competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphael, Henning; Mogensen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In this article we present the notion of Mathematical competences as a tool to describe the mathematically gifted students.......In this article we present the notion of Mathematical competences as a tool to describe the mathematically gifted students....

  15. HIV-1 infected and immune competent mononuclear phagocytes induce quantitative alterations in neuronal dendritic arbor: relevance for HIV-1-associated dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J; Thylin, M R; Cotter, R L; Lopez, A L; Ghorpade, A; Persidsky, Y; Xiong, H; Leisman, G B; Che, M H; Gendelman, H E

    2001-10-01

    Neuronal loss, alterations in dendritic arbor, and decreased synaptic density, in infected brain tissue, are neuropathological signatures of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). Brain mononuclear phagocyte (MP) (macrophage and microglia) secretory products can effect neuronal compromise, although the underlying mechanism(s) remain incompletely defined. To these ends, we quantitatively assessed the effects of virus-infected and/or immune activated MP secretory products on multiple aspects of neuronal morphology. Rat cortical and hippocampal neurons were exposed to secretory products from HIV-1-infected and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated human monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM). Our assays for alterations in neuronal dendritic arbor and cell loss included the quantification of neurofilament (NF), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and MAP-2 by ELISA and cellular morphology. MDM conditioned media (MCM) enhanced neuronal survival. HIV-1 infection or activation by LPS had modest neurotoxic effects. In contrast, the combination of HIV-1 infection and activation of MDM produced significant neurotoxicity. Such MDM products altered dendritic arbor, decreased synaptic density, and increased LDH release. Comparable neurotrophic/toxic responses were observed when neurons were exposed to MCM collected from 12 separate human donors. Similar responses were observed with MCM from human fetal microglia, further supporting the role of HIV-1-infected and immune-activated brain MP in the overall neurotoxic responses. This work provides quantitative measures of neuronal damage by which virus infected and activated MP can elicit neuronal injury in HAD.

  16. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1975-01-01

    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  17. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  18. Vector Competence of Mosquitoes for Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-30

    ml) on the titers of three alphaviruses , Sindbis(A), western equine encephalomyelitis (B), Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (C), and the...population have been delineated and discussed with reference to the mosquito, Culex tarsalis, and the alphavirus , western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE...mechanism that appears to control WEE viral replication (Hardy et al., 1983; Kramer et al., 1989; Ann. Prog. Rpt., 1988). The ability of a mosquito to

  19. Mutational Analysis of the Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2) Capsid Gene and Construction of AAV2 Vectors with Altered Tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei; Xiao, Wu; Conlon, Thomas; Hughes, Jeffrey; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Ferkol, Thomas; Flotte, Terence; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) has proven to be a valuable vector for gene therapy. Characterization of the functional domains of the AAV capsid proteins can facilitate our understanding of viral tissue tropism, immunoreactivity, viral entry, and DNA packaging, all of which are important issues for generating improved vectors. To obtain a comprehensive genetic map of the AAV capsid gene, we have constructed 93 mutants at 59 different positions in the AAV capsid gene by site-directed mutagenesis. Several types of mutants were studied, including epitope tag or ligand insertion mutants, alanine scanning mutants, and epitope substitution mutants. Analysis of these mutants revealed eight separate phenotypes. Infectious titers of the mutants revealed four classes. Class 1 mutants were viable, class 2 mutants were partially defective, class 3 mutants were temperature sensitive, and class 4 mutants were noninfectious. Further analysis revealed some of the defects in the class 2, 3, and 4 mutants. Among the class 4 mutants, a subset completely abolished capsid formation. These mutants were located predominantly, but not exclusively, in what are likely to be β-barrel structures in the capsid protein VP3. Two of these mutants were insertions at the N and C termini of VP3, suggesting that both ends of VP3 play a role that is important for capsid assembly or stability. Several class 2 and 3 mutants produced capsids that were unstable during purification of viral particles. One mutant, R432A, made only empty capsids, presumably due to a defect in packaging viral DNA. Additionally, five mutants were defective in heparan binding, a step that is believed to be essential for viral entry. These were distributed into two amino acid clusters in what is likely to be a cell surface loop in the capsid protein VP3. The first cluster spanned amino acids 509 to 522; the second was between amino acids 561 and 591. In addition to the heparan binding clusters, hemagglutinin epitope tag

  20. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  1. Timespacing competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup

    2016-01-01

    . By perceiving competences from a subjective child perspective, we learn how children do what we call timespacing competence. On that basis, we suggest paying attention to how children themselves timespace competence by focusing (more consistently) on the subjective, social, spatial and temporal dimensions......Drawing on Kramsch’s (2009) conceptualization of the multilingual subject and the symbolic self, in this paper, we explore how multilingual children re-signify three intertwined myths about the bilingual student, linguistic diversity and language competence, when, in the researcher......-generated activity My linguistic world 2014, they are invited to map and talk about their lived experiences as multiple language users seen in the light of place and movement. By demythifying themselves and their linguistic worlds, the children also raise important questions about the notion of linguistic competence...

  2. The ecological foundations of transmission potential and vector-borne disease in urban landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDeau, Shannon L; Allan, Brian F; Leisnham, Paul T; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-07-01

    Urban transmission of arthropod-vectored disease has increased in recent decades. Understanding and managing transmission potential in urban landscapes requires integration of sociological and ecological processes that regulate vector population dynamics, feeding behavior, and vector-pathogen interactions in these unique ecosystems. Vectorial capacity is a key metric for generating predictive understanding about transmission potential in systems with obligate vector transmission. This review evaluates how urban conditions, specifically habitat suitability and local temperature regimes, and the heterogeneity of urban landscapes can influence the biologically-relevant parameters that define vectorial capacity: vector density, survivorship, biting rate, extrinsic incubation period, and vector competence.Urban landscapes represent unique mosaics of habitat. Incidence of vector-borne disease in urban host populations is rarely, if ever, evenly distributed across an urban area. The persistence and quality of vector habitat can vary significantly across socio-economic boundaries to influence vector species composition and abundance, often generating socio-economically distinct gradients of transmission potential across neighborhoods.Urban regions often experience unique temperature regimes, broadly termed urban heat islands (UHI). Arthropod vectors are ectothermic organisms and their growth, survival, and behavior are highly sensitive to environmental temperatures. Vector response to UHI conditions is dependent on regional temperature profiles relative to the vector's thermal performance range. In temperate climates UHI can facilitate increased vector development rates while having countervailing influence on survival and feeding behavior. Understanding how urban heat island (UHI) conditions alter thermal and moisture constraints across the vector life cycle to influence transmission processes is an important direction for both empirical and modeling research.There remain

  3. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (<50%). Less than 20% of trees surveyed at ' Ainahou Ranch had treeholes and few mosquito larvae were detected. Aerial surveys at 'Ainahou Ranch detected 56% (95% CI: 42-68%) of the potential larval habitat identified in ground surveys. At Mauna Loa Strip Road, Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were only found in the rock holes of small intermittent stream drainages that made up 20% (5 of 25) of the total potential larval habitat. The volume of the potential larval habitat did not influence the probability of mosquito occurrence at Mauna Loa Strip Road. Our results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance, and subsequently avian malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  4. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  5. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  6. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  7. Therapeutic and prophylactic applications of alphavirus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Gregory J; Fleeton, Marina N; Sheahan, Brian J

    2008-11-11

    Alphavirus vectors are high-level, transient expression vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic use. These positive-stranded RNA vectors, derived from Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, multiply and are expressed in the cytoplasm of most vertebrate cells, including human cells. Part of the genome encoding the structural protein genes, which is amplified during a normal infection, is replaced by a transgene. Three types of vector have been developed: virus-like particles, layered DNA-RNA vectors and replication-competent vectors. Virus-like particles contain replicon RNA that is defective since it contains a cloned gene in place of the structural protein genes, and thus are able to undergo only one cycle of expression. They are produced by transfection of vector RNA, and helper RNAs encoding the structural proteins. Layered DNA-RNA vectors express the Semliki Forest virus replicon from a cDNA copy via a cytomegalovirus promoter. Replication-competent vectors contain a transgene in addition to the structural protein genes. Alphavirus vectors are used for three main applications: vaccine construction, therapy of central nervous system disease, and cancer therapy.

  8. Safety considerations in vector development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, J C; Wu, X

    2001-11-01

    The inadvertent production of replication competent retrovirus (RCR) constitutes the principal safety concern for the use of lentiviral vectors in human clinical protocols. Because of limitations in animal models to evaluate lentiviral vectors for their potential to recombine and induce disease, the vector design itself should ensure against the emergence of RCR in vivo. Issues related to RCR generation and one approach to dealing with this problem are discussed in this chapter. To assess the risk of generating RCR, a highly sensitive biological assay was developed to specifically detect vector recombination in transduced cells. Analysis of lentiviral vector stocks has shown that recombination occurs during reverse transcription in primary target cells. Rejoining of viral protein-coding sequences of the packaging construct and cis-acting sequences of the vector was demonstrated to generate env-minus recombinants (LTR-gag-pol-LTR). Mobilization of recombinant lentiviral genomes was also demonstrated but was dependent on pseudotyping of the vector core with an exogenous envelope protein. 5' sequence analysis has demonstrated that recombinants consist of U3, R, U5, and the psi packaging signal joined with an open gag coding region. Analysis of the 3' end has mapped the point of vector recombination to the poly(A) tract of the packaging construct's mRNA. The state-of-the-art third generation packaging construct and SIN vector also have been shown to generate env-minus proviral recombinants capable of mobilizing retroviral DNA when pseudotyped with an exogenous envelope protein. A new class of HIV-based vector (trans-vector) was recently developed that splits the gag-pol component of the packaging construct into two parts: one that expresses Gag/Gag-Pro and another that expresses Pol (RT and IN) fused with Vpr. Unlike other lentiviral vectors, the trans-vector has not been shown to form recombinants capable of DNA mobilization. These results indicate the trans-vector

  9. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L. Coffey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.

  10. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  11. Research of Competency Evaluation for Decoration Company Designers Based on Support Vector Machine%基于支持向量机的建筑内环境设计师胜任力评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈小翌; 甘英健; 沈书立

    2015-01-01

    在分析经典胜任力模型的基础上运用扎根理论的方法,对建筑内环境设计师的胜任力进行了内容维度的分析与提取,并建立了一套合理可行的胜任力指标体系。在此基础上,提出了运用支持向量机对设计师的胜任力等级进行评价的方法。通过实证分析发现,文章提出的评价体系和评价方法可以有效针对设计师胜任力水平进行评价,从而为建筑内环境企业的人力资源管理提供参考和借鉴。%s:On the basis of the analysis of the classical competency model , this thesis enlightened under the grounded theo-ry analyzes and extracts decoration designers ’ competence from a content dimension .A set of feasible competency index system is also established in this paper .Based on this , an evaluation method which is used to evaluate the designer ’ s com-petence level is proposed in this thesis .The evaluation system was proved to be effective for the evaluation of designer com -petency level through the empirical analysis .Thus the conclusion can provide a reference for decoration enterprises to opti -mize their human resource management .

  12. Vector velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    for generation of a reference beam, a detector system comprising a first detector arrangement arranged in such a way that the signal beam and the reference beam are incident upon the first detector arrangement with the reference beam propagating at an angle relative to a signal beam, and wherein the first......The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...... assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator...

  13. Transcriptional Silencing of Retroviral Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik; Duch, M.; Pedersen, F.S.

    1996-01-01

    . Extinction of long-term vector expression has been observed after implantation of transduced hematopoietic cells as well as fibroblasts, myoblasts and hepatocytes. Here we review the influence of vector structure, integration site and cell type on transcriptional silencing. While down-regulation of proviral...... transcription is known from a number of cellular and animal models, major insight has been gained from studies in the germ line and embryonal cells of the mouse. Key elements for the transfer and expression of retroviral vectors, such as the viral transcriptional enhancer and the binding site for the t......RNA primer for reverse transcription may have a major influence on transcriptional silencing. Alterations of these elements of the vector backbone as well as the use of internal promoter elements from housekeeping genes may contribute to reduce transcriptional silencing. The use of cell culture and animal...

  14. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    execution, language difficulties, loosing perception of time and space, changes in mood and behaviour, personality alterations, loss of interests and initiative). Towards more accurate determination of legal competency the psychometric tests are being used. The appliance of these tests must be guided with basic question during evaluation: "For what is or is not he/she capable?" In prediction of possible dementia development, the modern diagnostic procedures are used as help for potentially demented individuals in order to plan own affairs and by oneself determine future guardian. This ensures the maximal respect and protection of rights among persons with dementia in order to independently manage life one step ahead of progressive illness. Finally, it is to be distinguished medical concept of legal capacity which is universal and judicial concept which is restricted by rules of national legal system differing from country to country.

  15. Containment of arthropod disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Thomas W

    2005-01-01

    Effective containment of arthropod vectors of infectious diseases is necessary to prevent transmission of pathogens by released, infected vectors and to prevent vectors that escape from establishing populations that subsequently contribute to increased disease. Although rare, past releases illustrate what can go wrong and justify the need for guidelines that minimize risks. An overview of recommendations for insectary facilities, practices, and equipment is provided, and features of four recently published and increasingly rigorous arthropod containment levels (ACLs 1-4) are summarized. ACL-1 is appropriate for research that constitutes the lowest risk level, including uninfected arthropods or vectors that are infected with micro-organisms that do not cause disease in humans, domestic animals, or wildlife. ACL-2 is appropriate for indigenous and exotic arthropods that represent a moderate risk, including vectors infected or suspected of being infected with biosafety level (BSL)-2 infectious agents and arthropods that have been genetically modified in ways that do not significantly affect their fecundity, survival, host preference, or vector competence. ACL-3 is recommended for arthropods that are or may be infected with BSL-3 infectious agents. ACL-3 places greater emphasis on pathogen containment and more restricted access to the insectary than ACL-2. ACL-4 is intended for arthropods that are infected with the most dangerous BSL-4 infectious agents, which can cause life-threatening illness by aerosol or arthropod bite. Adherence to these guidelines will result in laboratory-based arthropod vector research that minimizes risks and results in important new contributions to applied and basic science.

  16. Vector nematicons

    CERN Document Server

    Horikis, Theodoros P

    2016-01-01

    Families of soliton pairs, namely vector solitons, are found within the context of a coupled nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger system of equations, as appropriate for modeling beam propagation in nematic liquid crystals. In the focusing case, bright soliton pairs have been found to exist provided their amplitudes satisfy a specific condition. In our analytical approach, focused on the defocusing regime, we rely on a multiscale expansion methods, which reveals the existence of dark-dark and antidark-antidark solitons, obeying an effective Korteweg-de Vries equation, as well as dark-bright solitons, obeying an effective Mel'nikov system. These pairs are discriminated by the sign of a constant that links all physical parameters of the system to the amplitude of the stable continuous wave solutions, and, much like the focusing case, the solitons' amplitudes are linked leading to mutual guiding.

  17. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  18. Assessment of Innovation Competency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2015-01-01

    of the recorded talk in interaction that occurred in teacher group discussion sessions at 5 upper secondary schools. Based on the analysis, it was possible to extrapolate assessment criteria for 5 subcompetencies relevant to innovation (creative competency, collaboration competency, navigation competency, action...... competency, and communication competency) as well as assessment criteria for a number of skills relevant to these subcompetencies. These assessment criteria, it is argued, largely resonate with existing literature and they provide a detailed glimpse into how assessment of innovation competency could...

  19. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  20. Generation of Infectious Poliovirus with Altered Genetic Information from Cloned cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujaki, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The effect of specific genetic alterations on virus biology and phenotype can be studied by a great number of available assays. The following method describes the basic protocol to generate infectious poliovirus with altered genetic information from cloned cDNA in cultured cells.The example explained here involves generation of a recombinant poliovirus genome by simply replacing a portion of the 5' noncoding region with a synthetic gene by restriction cloning. The vector containing the full length poliovirus genome and the insert DNA with the known mutation(s) are cleaved for directional cloning, then ligated and transformed into competent bacteria. The recombinant plasmid DNA is then propagated in bacteria and transcribed to RNA in vitro before RNA transfection of cultured cells is performed. Finally, viral particles are recovered from the cell culture.

  1. Competencies for midwifery teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joyce E

    2002-12-01

    Saving women's lives with cost-quality effective midwifery care is based on sound pre-service and ongoing education. Effective midwifery education requires competent, caring, and compassionate teachers. In this paper, I address the basic competencies required of midwives who teach others to be midwives. These competencies are important regardless of level of student taught, type of educational programme, or number of years of midwifery experience that learners bring to the educational setting. The competencies are based on the midwifery philosophy, values and model of care. Competent midwifery teachers must be competent midwifery clinicians for their primary role is to set the boundaries of safety for each level of learner. Formal preparation for teaching, understanding how adults learn, understanding how to develop an appropriate plan for learning (curriculum), and developing competency in a variety of teaching methods for both theory and clinical practice are included in the competencies discussed in this paper.

  2. Developing mathematical modelling competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten; Jensen, Tomas Højgaard

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of mathematical modelling competence, by which we mean being able to carry through a whole mathematical modelling process in a certain context. Analysing the structure of this process, six sub-competences are identified. Mathematical modelling competence...... cannot be reduced to these six sub-competences, but they are necessary elements in the development of mathematical modelling competence. Experience from the development of a modelling course is used to illustrate how the different nature of the sub-competences can be used as a tool for finding...... the balance between different kinds of activities in a particular educational setting. Obstacles of social, cognitive and affective nature for the students' development of mathematical modelling competence are reported and discussed in relation to the sub-competences....

  3. Evidence of clinical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt; Eriksson, Katie; Meretoja, Riitta

    2012-06-01

    This cross-sectional research used a qualitative questionnaire to explore clinical competence in nursing. The aim was to look for evidence of how clinical competence showed itself in practice. In the research, the views from both education and working life are combined to broadly explore and describe clinical competence from the perspective of students, clinical preceptors and teachers. The questions were formulated on how clinical competence is characterised and experienced, what contributes to it and how it is maintained, and on the relation between clinical competence and evidence-based care. The answers were analysed by inductive content analysis. The results showed that clinical competence in practice is encountering, knowing, performing, maturing and improving. Clinical competence is an ongoing process, rather than a state and manifests itself in an ontological and a contextual dimension.

  4. Concise vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eliezer, C J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Concise Vector Analysis is a five-chapter introductory account of the methods and techniques of vector analysis. These methods are indispensable tools in mathematics, physics, and engineering. The book is based on lectures given by the author in the University of Ceylon.The first two chapters deal with vector algebra. These chapters particularly present the addition, representation, and resolution of vectors. The next two chapters examine the various aspects and specificities of vector calculus. The last chapter looks into some standard applications of vector algebra and calculus.This book wil

  5. Light axial vector mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the abundant experimental observation of axial vector states, we study whether the observed axial vector states can be categorized into the conventional axial vector meson family. In this paper we carry out analysis based on the mass spectra and two-body Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed decays. Besides testing the possible axial vector meson assignments, we also predict abundant information for their decays and the properties of some missing axial vector mesons, which are valuable to further experimental exploration of the observed and predicted axial vector mesons.

  6. VectorBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...

  7. On Double Vector Bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo CHEN; Zhang Ju LIU; Yun He SHENG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we construct a category of short exact sequences of vector bundles and prove that it is equivalent to the category of double vector bundles. Moreover, operations on double vector bundles can be transferred to operations on the corresponding short exact sequences. In particular, we study the duality theory of double vector bundles in term of the corresponding short exact sequences. Examples including the jet bundle and the Atiyah algebroid are discussed.

  8. On Double Vector Bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Zhangju; Sheng, Yunhe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we construct a category of short exact sequences of vector bundles and prove that it is equivalent to the category of double vector bundles. Moreover, operations on double vector bundles can be transferred to operations on the corresponding short exact sequences. In particular, we study the duality theory of double vector bundles in term of the corresponding short exact sequences. Examples including the jet bundle and the Atiyah algebroid are discussed.

  9. Zika mosquito vectors: the jury is still out

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    After a 40-year hiatus, the International Congress of Entomology (ICE 2016) convened in Orlando, Florida (September 25-30, 2016). One of the symposia at ICE 2016, the Zika Symposium, covered multiple aspects of the Zika epidemic, including epidemiology, sexual transmission, genetic tools for reducing transmission, and particularly vector competence. While there was a consensus among participants that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a vector of the Zika virus, there is growing evi...

  10. Custodial vector model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan;

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...

  11. Environmental risk assessment of replication competent viral vectors in gene therapy trials. Supplementary document: Overview of replication competent viral vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker HCM van den; SEC

    2008-01-01

    Het RIVM heeft een methode uitgewerkt waarmee de risico's voor mens en milieu van replicatiecompetente virussen als kankertherapie kunnen worden beoordeeld. Zo'n methode bestond nog niet. De verwachting is dat de risicobeoordeling, en daarmee de vergunningverlening, van klinische studi

  12. Alterations in muscular enzymes of horses competing long-distance endurance rides under tropical climate Alterações em enzimas musculares de cavalos em competições de enduro de longa distância em clima tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Teixeira-Neto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to monitor the alterations of muscle enzymes activity - creatinokinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST - in a group of horses that participated of 70 and 100km distance rides in five competitions of an annual endurance championship under tropical climate. Pre ride levels (U/l were 245.13±9.84 for CK, 496.61±14.76 for LDH, and 328.95±8.65 for AST. When compared to these levels, the results revealed a significant decrease in all enzymes activities in the first moment of the rides. Peak levels, significantly different, were reached, immediately after rides by CK (413.591±50.75; 24 hours post rides by LDH (628.61±33.30; and 48 hours after rides by AST (389.89±16.96. Monitoring of recovery period revealed different behavior among enzymes activities with CK values returning to pre ride values (279.61±23.05 24 hours post rides, while LDH and AST values returned to pre ride values (505.25±33.78 and 359.35±24.90, respectively 72 hours post rides. These data revealed different alterations in concentration of muscular enzymes in endurance horses directly related to the duration of the effort.Estudaram-se as alterações de atividade das enzimas musculares creatino quinase (CK, lactato desidrogenase (LDH e aspartato aminotransferase (AST em um grupo de cavalos que utilizados em provas de enduro de 70 e 100km de distância, em cinco competições. Os valores (U/l basais (antes da largada foram 245,13±9,84 para CK, 496,61±14,76 para LDH e 328,95±8,65 para AST. Todas as atividades das enzimas decresceram no primeiro momento das provas (~30km. Valores de pico, significativamente diferentes, foram alcançados para CK (413,59±50,75 imediatamente após 70km de distância; 24 horas após para LDH (628,61±33,30; e 48 horas após as provas para AST (389,89±16,96. A monitoração do período de recuperação revelou diferente comportamento entre as concentrações enzimáticas com CK retornando aos

  13. Competencies in Ornamental Horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Curtis E.

    1974-01-01

    Based on the author's dissertation, this article pertains to the identification of competencies for ornamental horticulture workers in Oregon. Findings were based on interviews with 56 ornamental horticulture business employers regarding 100 competencies. The method used can serve as a model for obtaining occupational information to develop and…

  14. The Spiritual Competency Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which was based on the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling's original Spiritual Competencies. Participants were 662 counseling students from religiously based and secular universities nationwide. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 22-item,…

  15. Assessment of Innovation Competency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The author employed a 3-step qualitative research design with multiple instances of source validation to capture expert teachers’ (n = 28) reflections on which manifest signs they would look for when they asses students’ innovation competency. The author reports on the thematic analysis of the re......The author employed a 3-step qualitative research design with multiple instances of source validation to capture expert teachers’ (n = 28) reflections on which manifest signs they would look for when they asses students’ innovation competency. The author reports on the thematic analysis...... of the recorded talk in interaction that occurred in teacher group discussion sessions at 5 upper secondary schools. Based on the analysis, it was possible to extrapolate assessment criteria for 5 subcompetencies relevant to innovation (creative competency, collaboration competency, navigation competency, action...... competency, and communication competency) as well as assessment criteria for a number of skills relevant to these subcompetencies. These assessment criteria, it is argued, largely resonate with existing literature and they provide a detailed glimpse into how assessment of innovation competency could...

  16. Validating clinical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Kathy; Koithan, Mary

    2012-07-01

    Professional registered nurses must be competent to provide care in today's fast-paced, highly technical clinical environment. Competency programs designed to teach and evaluate essential knowledge, skills, and abilities of registered nurses are one method organizations may use to demonstrate nursing proficiency.

  17. Developing Clinical Competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.F. Wimmers (Paul)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe development of clinical competence is the main purpose of medical education. The long road to become clinically competent starts on the first day of medical school, and every institution strives to select the best students. The responsibility of medical schools is to train th

  18. Intercultural Competence Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI Ran

    2015-01-01

    It is widely realized that cultural competence is playing an increasingly important role in language teaching because of the close associations between culture and language. To enhance the efficiency of language teaching, this essay will elucidate the importance of intercultural competence teaching and introduce three methods of cultural teaching.

  19. Analyzing ADN competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P R

    1989-01-01

    El Paso Community College District, using the DACUM Process, identified 19 major competency areas with 313 specific competencies for AD Nursing. This article provides an overview of the DACUM Process, a discussion of the application to the ADN program, a summary of the results, and future activities.

  20. Competence, Curriculum, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nancy S.

    1988-01-01

    Draws upon a case study of a community college program review to examine the application of a competency-based approach to the process of curriculum design. Suggests that competency-based curriculum development shifts the basis for decision making from teacher knowledge to an objectified accounting system of employers and curriculum technicians.…

  1. Competencies and Their Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, James W.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores competencies and methods for their assessment in higher education and in social work's accreditation standards. Many contemporary policy and educational accreditation efforts employ the model of competency assessment. The current emphasis on accountability in higher education, including the Council on Social Work…

  2. Data-driven identification of potential Zika virus vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michelle V; Dallas, Tad A; Han, Barbara A; Murdock, Courtney C; Drake, John M

    2017-01-01

    Zika is an emerging virus whose rapid spread is of great public health concern. Knowledge about transmission remains incomplete, especially concerning potential transmission in geographic areas in which it has not yet been introduced. To identify unknown vectors of Zika, we developed a data-driven model linking vector species and the Zika virus via vector-virus trait combinations that confer a propensity toward associations in an ecological network connecting flaviviruses and their mosquito vectors. Our model predicts that thirty-five species may be able to transmit the virus, seven of which are found in the continental United States, including Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens. We suggest that empirical studies prioritize these species to confirm predictions of vector competence, enabling the correct identification of populations at risk for transmission within the United States. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22053.001 PMID:28244371

  3. Integrating Transgenic Vector Manipulation with Clinical Interventions to Manage Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi W Okamoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many vector-borne diseases lack effective vaccines and medications, and the limitations of traditional vector control have inspired novel approaches based on using genetic engineering to manipulate vector populations and thereby reduce transmission. Yet both the short- and long-term epidemiological effects of these transgenic strategies are highly uncertain. If neither vaccines, medications, nor transgenic strategies can by themselves suffice for managing vector-borne diseases, integrating these approaches becomes key. Here we develop a framework to evaluate how clinical interventions (i.e., vaccination and medication can be integrated with transgenic vector manipulation strategies to prevent disease invasion and reduce disease incidence. We show that the ability of clinical interventions to accelerate disease suppression can depend on the nature of the transgenic manipulation deployed (e.g., whether vector population reduction or replacement is attempted. We find that making a specific, individual strategy highly effective may not be necessary for attaining public-health objectives, provided suitable combinations can be adopted. However, we show how combining only partially effective antimicrobial drugs or vaccination with transgenic vector manipulations that merely temporarily lower vector competence can amplify disease resurgence following transient suppression. Thus, transgenic vector manipulation that cannot be sustained can have adverse consequences-consequences which ineffective clinical interventions can at best only mitigate, and at worst temporarily exacerbate. This result, which arises from differences between the time scale on which the interventions affect disease dynamics and the time scale of host population dynamics, highlights the importance of accounting for the potential delay in the effects of deploying public health strategies on long-term disease incidence. We find that for systems at the disease-endemic equilibrium, even

  4. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating...mechanics. An acoustic vector sensor measures the particle motion via an accelerometer and combines Attorney Docket No. 300001 2 of 16 the

  5. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Degbomont

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.

  6. On Verbal Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxin Dai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored a new concept, verbal competence, to present a challenge to Chomsky’s linguistic competence and Hymes’ communicative competence. It is generally acknowledged that Chomsky concerned himself only with the syntactic/grammatical structures, and viewed the speaker’s generation and transformation of syntactic structures as the production of language. Hymes challenged Chomsky’s conception of linguistic competence and argued for an ethnographic or sociolinguistic concept, communicative competence, but his concept is too broad to be adequately grasped and followed in such fields as linguistics and second language acquisition. Communicative competence can include abilities to communicate with nonverbal behaviors, e.g. gestures, postures or even silence. The concept of verbal competence concerns itself with the mental and psychological processes of verbal production in communication. These processes originate from the speaker’s personal experience, in a certain situation of human communication, and with the sudden appearance of the intentional notion, shape up as the meaning images and end up in the verbal expression.

  7. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...

  8. Vectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept

  9. Competence development in UAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Jørgen; Brodersen, Anne Mygind

    2011-01-01

    As a University of Applied Science (UAS) University College Lillebaelt in Denmark is addressing education, knowledge production and professional development in perspective of life-long and life-wide learning. It is our basic assumption that that internal competence development ? individually...... education to universities of applied science (UAS). Competence development strategies should thus include objectives for the institutions ability to contribute to knowledge production....... and organizationally - among UAS educators should be based on same learning concepts as used in professional development to avoid parallelism. Do for yourself, what you preach for others. Second, competence development of faculty is a central element in transformation of our institutions from schools of higher...

  10. Building Project Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiora, Anna

    This research investigates the development of project competence, and particularly, three related dynamic capabilities (shifting, adapting, leveraging) that contribute to project competence development. In doing so, we make use of the emerging literature on knowledge governance and theorize how...... knowledge governance mechanisms can move the organization towards desired knowledge-based goals. A multiple-case study comprising 23 cases advances our understanding of the elements that trigger, enable, hamper, and drive shifting, leveraging and adapting. Finally, the paper offers a tentative framework...... of dynamic capability building promoting project competence development....

  11. Competence development in UAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Jørgen; Brodersen, Anne Mygind

    2011-01-01

    As a University of Applied Science (UAS) University College Lillebaelt in Denmark is addressing education, knowledge production and professional development in perspective of life-long and life-wide learning. It is our basic assumption that that internal competence development ? individually...... and organizationally - among UAS educators should be based on same learning concepts as used in professional development to avoid parallelism. Do for yourself, what you preach for others. Second, competence development of faculty is a central element in transformation of our institutions from schools of higher...... education to universities of applied science (UAS). Competence development strategies should thus include objectives for the institutions ability to contribute to knowledge production....

  12. Production competence revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szász, Levente; Demeter, Krisztina; Boer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to seek remedy to two major flaws of the production competence literature, which concern: the way the production competence construct is operationalized and the way its effects on performance are measured. Design/methodology/approach – The paper proposes...... to measure production competence as the two-dimensional operational level construct it actually is, and to use Slack’s (1994) importance performance matrix to study its business level performance effects. The three hypotheses developed are tested using a subsample of the International Manufacturing Strategy...... Survey database, which includes 465 manufacturing companies from 21 countries. Findings – The study offers additional empirical support for production competence theory. Going beyond supporting existing theory, the results give more detailed insight by indicating that low operational performance on even...

  13. Metaphorical Competence: A Neglected Component of Communicative Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to comprehend and use metaphors in L2 which is referred to as metaphorical competence is an important issue in second language acquisition. Metaphors are so pervasive in our life that we might not realize their presence and simply neglect them even in our first language. Different models of communicative competence have been suggested in the literature; however, the model of Bachman and Palmer (1996 is the one considered in the present study. It includes two major nodes of organizational and pragmatic competences. Under the organizational competence are grammatical and textual competences, and pragmatic competence includes illocutionary and sociolinguistic competences. In this paper it is argued that among the many competences required to be considered proficient in a language, metaphorical competence is also central. As such, after illuminating the concept of metaphor and metaphorical competence, some models of communicative competence (CC are presented. Moreover, in line with Littlemore and Low (2006, it is emphasized that metaphorical competence which is present in most of the components of CC should receive more attention in L2 classrooms. In fact, it is concluded that having an acceptable metaphorical competence contributes to the learners’ overall communicative competence. Keywords: Metaphor, Metaphorical competence, Communicative competence, L2

  14. Advancing vector biology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K.; Kersey, Paul J.; Maslen, Gareth L.; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.; Oliva, Clelia F.; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F.X.; Failloux, Anna Bella; Levashina, Elena A.; Wilson, Anthony J.; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target t

  15. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  16. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  17. Analysis of comparative efficiencies of different transformation methods of E. coli using two common plasmid vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Basu, Supratim; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2009-10-01

    The efficiencies of different transformation methods of E. coli DH5Qalpha train, induced by several cations like Mg2+, Mn2+ Rb+ and especially Ca2+, with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were compared using the two commonly used plasmid vectors pCAMBIA1201 and pBI121. The widely used calcium chloride (CaCl2) method appeared to be the most efficient procedure, while rubidium chloride (RbCl) method was the least effective. The improvements in the classical CaCl2 method were found to further augment the transformation efficiency (TR)E for both the vectors like repeated alternate cycles of heat shock, followed by immediate cold, at least up to the third cycle; replacement of the heat shock step by a single microwave pulse and even more by double microwave treatment and administration of combined heat shock-microwave treatments. The pre-treatment of CaCl2-competent cells with 5% (v/v) ethanol, accompanied by single heat shock also triggered the (TR)E, which was further enhanced, when combined heat shock-microwave was applied. The minor alterations or improved approaches in CaCl2 method suggested in the present study may thus find use in more efficient E. coli transformation.

  18. Global traffic and disease vector dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J; Hay, Simon I; Rogers, David J

    2006-04-18

    The expansion of global air travel and seaborne trade overcomes geographic barriers to insect disease vectors, enabling them to move great distances in short periods of time. Here we apply a coupled human-environment framework to describe the historical spread of Aedes albopictus, a competent mosquito vector of 22 arboviruses in the laboratory. We contrast this dispersal with the relatively unchanged distribution of Anopheles gambiae and examine possible future movements of this malaria vector. We use a comprehensive database of international ship and aircraft traffic movements, combined with climatic information, to remap the global transportation network in terms of disease vector suitability and accessibility. The expansion of the range of Ae. albopictus proved to be surprisingly predictable using this combination of climate and traffic data. Traffic volumes were more than twice as high on shipping routes running from the historical distribution of Ae. albopictus to ports where it has established in comparison with routes to climatically similar ports where it has yet to invade. In contrast, An. gambiae has rarely spread from Africa, which we suggest is partly due to the low volume of sea traffic from the continent and, until very recently, a European destination for most flights.

  19. ON VECTOR NETWORK EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangya CHEN

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we define a concept of weak equilibrium for vector network equilibrium problems.We obtain sufficient conditions of weak equilibrium points and establish relation with vector network equilibrium problems and vector variational inequalities.

  20. Students' communicative competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šafranj Jelisaveta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Communicative competence is the ability to send messages which promote attainment of goals while maintaining social acceptability. Competent communicators attempt to align themselves with each others goals and methods to produce a smooth, productive and often enjoyable dialogue. The aim of this research was to investigate self-perceived communicative competence (SPCC of students of Engineering Management in General English and English for Specific Purposes (ESP. A longitudinal study was carried out starting with the first year students at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad and was repeated with the same sample of students during their second and third year of study. Participation was voluntary and took place during regular class time. The measure of communicative competence employed was the Self-perceived Communication Competence Scale. The results of the study indicated that differences in SPCC between the years do exist. The SPCC gradually improved between the first, the second and the third year. The research was also motivated by gaining better overview of the teaching activity. An anonymous questionnaire provided many useful hints and ideas for further work and thus, language teacher made a thorough analysis of the overall teaching procedure. However, it is essential to get some feedback and talk to students in order to evaluate both them and ourselves as well as the teaching syllabus.

  1. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  2. Language competence in movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus...... is shifted from viewing the individual's language competence as a mental linguistic or communicative property, to viewing language as a series of social and spatial practices. Looking at data from the research project Tegn på Sprog (in the following referred to as Signs of Language), which examines...... multilingual children's language and literacy acquisition processes, we direct our focus to a single child's active exploration of what it means to know a language. Through analysis of interviews and researcher generated activities, we see how this child both describes and does language competence...

  3. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  4. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  5. Noncausal Bayesian Vector Autoregression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanne, Markku; Luoto, Jani

    We propose a Bayesian inferential procedure for the noncausal vector autoregressive (VAR) model that is capable of capturing nonlinearities and incorporating effects of missing variables. In particular, we devise a fast and reliable posterior simulator that yields the predictive distribution...

  6. Vector Lattice Vortex Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-Dong; YE Fang-Wei; DONG Liang-Wei; LI Yong-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ Two-dimensional vector vortex solitons in harmonic optical lattices are investigated. The stability properties of such solitons are closely connected to the lattice depth Vo. For small Vo, vector vortex solitons with the total zero-angular momentum are more stable than those with the total nonzero-angular momentum, while for large Vo, this case is inversed. If Vo is large enough, both the types of such solitons are stable.

  7. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  8. The Vector Curvaton

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro, Andres A

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a massive vector field with a non-canonical kinetic term in the action, minimally coupled to gravity, where the mass and kinetic function of the vector field vary as functions of time during inflation. The vector field is introduced following the same idea of a scalar curvaton, which must not affect the inflationary dynamics since its energy density during inflation is negligible compared to the total energy density in the Universe. Using this hypothesis, the vector curvaton will be solely responsible for generating the primordial curvature perturbation \\zeta. We have found that the spectra of the vector field perturbations are scale-invariant in superhorizon scales due to the suitable choice of the time dependence of the kinetic function and the effective mass during inflation. The preferred direction, generated by the vector field, makes the spectrum of \\zeta depend on the wavevector, i.e. there exists statistical anisotropy in \\zeta. This is discussed principally in the case where the mass of th...

  9. Improved NYVAC-based vaccine vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen V Kibler

    Full Text Available While as yet there is no vaccine against HIV/AIDS, the results of the phase III Thai trial (RV144 have been encouraging and suggest that further improvements of the prime/boost vaccine combination of a poxvirus and protein are needed. With this aim, in this investigation we have generated derivatives of the candidate vaccinia virus vaccine vector NYVAC with potentially improved functions. This has been achieved by the re-incorporation into the virus genome of two host range genes, K1L and C7L, in conjunction with the removal of the immunomodulatory viral molecule B19, an antagonist of type I interferon action. These novel virus vectors, referred to as NYVAC-C-KC and NYVAC-C-KC-ΔB19R, have acquired relevant biological characteristics, giving higher levels of antigen expression in infected cells, replication-competency in human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, activation of selective host cell signal transduction pathways, and limited virus spread in tissues. Importantly, these replication-competent viruses have been demonstrated to maintain a highly attenuated phenotype.

  10. Repulsive Vector Interaction in Three Flavor Magnetized Quark and Stellar Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, Débora P; Castro, Luis B; Costa, Pedro; Providência, Constan\\cca

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the vector interaction on three flavor magnetized matter is studied within the SU(3) Nambu--Jona-Lasiono quark model. We have considered cold matter under a static external magnetic field within two different models for the vector interaction in order to investigate how the form of the vector interaction and the intensity of the magnetic field affect the equation of state as well as the strangeness content. It was shown that the flavor independent vector interaction predicts a smaller strangeness content and, therefore, harder equations of state. On the other hand, the flavor dependent vector interaction favors larger strangeness content the larger the vector coupling. We have confirmed that at low densities the magnetic field and the vector interaction have opposite competing effects: the first one softens the equation of state while the second hardens it. Quark stars and hybrid stars subject to an external magnetic field were also studied. Larger star masses are obtained for the flavor indepen...

  11. Competencies in Teaching English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    This paper discusses suggested requirements for a competency-based English teacher training program on the high school or college level. The author argues that an English teacher needs to demonstrate a basic knowledge of the subject matter in three areas: the structure and history of the English language, rhetorical theory and practice, and…

  12. Competing Auctions of Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Daniel

    We generalize McAfee’s (1993) game of competing sellers to the case of heterogeneous sellers. In the generalized McAfee (GM) game, the equilibrium expected job offer distribution of each worker (seller) type evolves over time as a function of stochastic events. We derive a tractable method...... shocks, and the equivalence of alternative games, are also characterized....

  13. Strategic Leader Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-08

    competencies in line with his "visionary leadership theory." His concept draws extensively from sound, quantitative research and social learning theory . A key...means for constructing social systems B. SELF-EFFICACY - STRONG SENSE OF INTERNAL CONTROL OR DIRECTION - (from social learning theory - a requisite

  14. Connecting Competing Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; Saloul, I.A.M.

    Research Expert Meeting: Connecting Competing Memories of War in Contemporary Europe5 March 2014NIAS hosts, 6 - 7 March, the expert meeting of the Consortium for 'The Cultural Heritage of War in Contemporary Europe'. The aim is to draft main themes and discuss financial and research structures regar

  15. Evolution of subsidiary competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben; Dhanaraj, Charles

    of competitive advantage of nations, we hypothesize the contingencies under which heterogeneity in host environments influences subsidiary competence configuration. We test our model with data from more than 2,000 subsidiaries in seven Western European countries. Our results provide new insights on the evolution...

  16. Assessing cataract surgical competency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Andrew G.; Greenlee, Emily; Oetting, Thomas A.; Beaver, Hilary A.; Johnson, A. Tim; Boldt, H. Culver; Abramoff, Michael; Olson, Richard; Carter, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has mandated that all residency training programs teach and assess 6 general competencies.1 A.G. Lee and K.D. Carter, Managing the new mandate in resident education: A blueprint for translating a national mandate into local compliance, Ophthal

  17. Calibrating Communication Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surges Tatum, Donna

    2016-11-01

    The Many-faceted Rasch measurement model is used in the creation of a diagnostic instrument by which communication competencies can be calibrated, the severity of observers/raters can be determined, the ability of speakers measured, and comparisons made between various groups.

  18. Assessment of Clinical Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newble, David I.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews current approaches to the examination of medical students' clinical competence, mentioning differences in approaches adopted in Australia, Great Britain, and North America. Test methods used in examination are discussed critically and their separate strengths and weaknesses are highlighted. Newer approaches involving multiple methods and…

  19. Supporting Lifelong Competence Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The slides of a keynote for the EFODL conference about Demonstrating Transformation in Learning: Practice, Process and Product. 23rd & 24th May 2007, Belfast (http://efodl.belfastinstitute.ac.uk/). It introduces the core concepts of TENCompetence: Learning Networks, Personal Competence Management, P

  20. Competency in the Cockpit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    Examines how modern technology is redefining competences, particularly those required by aircrews in state-of-the-art cockpits and how rule-based descriptions may not always be as practical as cognitive schemas and frames or case-based reasoning. Concludes that a wider systems perspective must include a balance between intuitive and analytic…

  1. Assessment Mathematics Teacher's Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnoor, A. G.; Yuanxiang, Guo; Abudhuim, F. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aimed to identifying the professional efficiencies for the intermediate schools mathematics teachers and tries to know at what level the math teachers experience those competencies. The researcher used a descriptive research approach, the study data collected from specialist educators and teacher's experts and previous studies to…

  2. Adult educators' core competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  3. Pragmatics and Communicative Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin; Su, Simon Chun Feng; Ho, Max Ming Hsuang

    2009-01-01

    Pragmatics is included in one of four communicative competences (Canale, 1980). It is necessary and important to teach pragmatics at school in our globalized world in order to avoid as much as misunderstanding, which is likely to stem from cultural difference. As a result, greater importance should be attached to diverse customs and pragmatics.…

  4. Competencies: requirements and acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenn, A.C.; Meng, C.M.; Peters, Z.; Verhagen, A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is given the key task to prepare the highly talented among the young to fulfil highly qualified roles in the labour market. Successful labour market performance of graduates is generally associated with the acquisition of the correct competencies. Education as an individual investme

  5. Competence Enhancement Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Goforth, Jennifer B.; Hives, Jacqueline; Aaron, Annie; Jackson, Frances; Sgammato, Adrienne

    2006-01-01

    Competence Enhancement Behavior Management is presented as a framework for supporting students with challenging behaviors in general education classrooms. This approach emphasizes classroom management and discipline strategies that (a) help to build positive relations with students, (b) communicate to students that they are important, and (c)…

  6. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives on the f......, and entrepreneurship to advance and stimulate economic strategy research....

  7. Competing Auctions of Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    The model of competing sellers McAfee (1993) is applied to a labor market environment with heterogeneous workers, who differ by outside option and skill type, and heterogeneous firms, who differ by the amount of output produced when matched to each possible worker tyoe. We derive both a static...

  8. Classical competing risks

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, Martin J

    2001-01-01

    If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...

  9. Adult educators' core competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or “core...

  10. Competencies, skills and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the challenge of assessing student learning and how that is affected by using descriptions of competencies as a core element when describing the aims of the learning process. Assessment is modelled as a three step process; characterising, identifying and judging, to a...

  11. Vector cross product in n-dimensional vector space

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xiu-Lao; Yang, Chao; Hu, Yang; Tian, Chao

    2013-01-01

    The definition of vector cross product (VCP) introduced by Eckmann only exists in thethree- and the seven- dimensional vector space. In this paper, according to the orthogonal completeness, magnitude of basis vector cross product and all kinds of combinations of basis vector $\\hat{e}_i$, the generalized definition of VCP in the odd n-dimensional vector space is given by introducing a cross term $X_{AB}$. In addition, the definition is validated by reducing the generalization definition to the...

  12. Competency assessment of nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the healthcare industry have created great challenges for leaders of acute-care organizations. One of the greatest challenges is ensuring a competent nursing staff to care for patients within this changing environment (Boylan & Westra, 1998). Patients are more acutely ill and have shorter lengths of stay, placing greater demands on nurses who must demonstrate competency in caring for increasingly complex patients in a continually changing healthcare environment. Competency is defined as "the knowledge, skills, ability and behaviors that a person possesses in order to perform tasks correctly and skillfully" (O'Shea, 2002, p. 175). Competency assessment involves more than a checklist and a test. Hospitals are required to assess, maintain, demonstrate, track, and improve the competence of the staff. Competency assessment is an ongoing process of initial development, maintenance of knowledge and skills, educational consultation, remediation, and redevelopment. Methods to assess competencies include competency fairs, Performance Based Development System and online programs. Certain key people should be involved in the development of competencies. The department managers can give input related to department-specific competencies. Experienced staff members can provide valuable insight into the competencies that need to be assessed. Educators should be involved for providing the input for the methods used to validate competencies. Competencies are an important part of the work world. They are a part of a continual process to help ensure that the organization provides a high-quality care to its customers and patients.

  13. Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanur Rahaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.

  14. Bunyavirus-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, B J; Bishop, D H

    1988-06-01

    Recent advances in the genetics and molecular biology of bunyaviruses have been applied to understanding bunyavirus-vector interactions. Such approaches have revealed which virus gene and gene products are important in establishing infections in vectors and in transmission of viruses. However, much more information is required to understand the molecular mechanisms of persistent infections of vectors which are lifelong but apparently exert no untoward effect. In fact, it seems remarkable that LAC viral antigen can be detected in almost every cell in an ovarian follicle, yet no untoward effect on fecundity and no teratology is seen. Similarly the lifelong infection of the vector would seem to provide ample opportunity for bunyavirus evolution by genetic drift and, under the appropriate circumstances, by segment reassortment. The potential for bunyavirus evolution by segment reassortment in vectors certainly exists. For example the Group C viruses in a small forest in Brazil seem to constitute a gene pool, with the 6 viruses related alternately by HI/NT and CF reactions, which assay respectively M RNA and S RNA gene products (Casals and Whitman, 1960; Shope and Causey, 1962). Direct evidence for naturally occurring reassortant bunyaviruses has also been obtained. Oligonucleotide fingerprint analyses of field isolates of LAC virus and members of the Patois serogroup of bunyaviruses have demonstrated that reassortment does occur in nature (El Said et al., 1979; Klimas et al., 1981; Ushijima et al., 1981). Determination of the genotypic frequencies of viruses selected by the biological interactions of viruses and vectors after dual infection and segment reassortment is an important issue. Should a virus result that efficiently interacts with alternate vector species, the virus could be expressed in different circumstances with serious epidemiologic consequences. Dual infection of vectors with different viruses is not unlikely, because many bunyaviruses are sympatric in

  15. Clinical Competence/Clinical Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorapah, David

    1997-01-01

    In interviews with 10 nurse teachers and 10 clinicians, respondents could describe clinical competence more fluently than clinical credibility. Responses raised the question of whether nursing teachers must be clinically competent/credible to teach nursing. (SK)

  16. Competency Mapping of the Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, N.

    2012-10-01

    Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each other are met. Nowadays it is not possible to show a good financial or operating report unless your personnel relations are in order. Over the years, highly skilled and knowledge based jobs are increasing while low skilled jobs are decreasing. Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization, the jobs and functions within it. Competency mapping, the buzz word in any industry is not complicated as it may appear. At the heart of any successful activity lies a competence or skill. In the recent years, various thought leaders in business strategy have emphasized the need to identify what competencies a business needs, in order to compete in a specific environment. In this article explains the why competencies needed and how is measured competency of employees in the organization.

  17. Dimensions of Intercultural Communication Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭飞燕

    2016-01-01

    Intercultural communication competence can help us adapt better to the host culture and deal with culture shock suc-cessfully. This paper mainly discusses the dimensions of intercultural communication competence.

  18. Vector Fields on Product Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This short report establishes some basic properties of smooth vector fields on product manifolds. The main results are: (i) On a product manifold there always exists a direct sum decomposition into horizontal and vertical vector fields. (ii) Horizontal and vertical vector fields are naturally isomorphic to smooth families of vector fields defined on the factors. Vector fields are regarded as derivations of the algebra of smooth functions.

  19. Boosting Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Eduardo García Díaz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se presenta un algoritmo de clasificación binaria basado en Support Vector Machines (Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte que combinado apropiadamente con técnicas de Boosting consigue un mejor desempeño en cuanto a tiempo de entrenamiento y conserva características similares de generalización con un modelo de igual complejidad pero de representación más compacta./ In this paper we present an algorithm of binary classification based on Support Vector Machines. It is combined with a modified Boosting algorithm. It run faster than the original SVM algorithm with a similar generalization error and equal complexity model but it has more compact representation.

  20. Robustifying Vector Median Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Gregori

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two methods for impulse noise reduction in colour images that outperform the vector median filter from the noise reduction capability point of view. Both methods work by determining first the vector median in a given filtering window. Then, the use of complimentary information from componentwise analysis allows to build robust outputs from more reliable components. The correlation among the colour channels is taken into account in the processing and, as a result, a more robust filter able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts is obtained. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter. Objective measures demonstrate the goodness of the achieved improvement.

  1. Spiritual Competency Scale: Further Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Stephanie F.; Robertson, Linda A.; Gill, Carman S.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a follow-up analysis of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which initially validated ASERVIC's (Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling) spiritual competencies. The study examined whether the factor structure of the Spiritual Competency Scale would be supported by participants (i.e., ASERVIC…

  2. Structured assessments of clinical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursicot, Katharine A M

    2010-06-01

    Clinical teachers are often involved in assessing clinical competence in the workplace, in universities and colleges. Assessments commonly used to formally assess clinical competence include long and short cases and the objective structured clinical examination which, if well designed, is a fair and reliable method of assessing clinical competence.

  3. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  4. Free topological vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.

    2016-01-01

    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  5. Duality in vector optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bot, Radu Ioan

    2009-01-01

    This book presents fundamentals and comprehensive results regarding duality for scalar, vector and set-valued optimization problems in a general setting. After a preliminary chapter dedicated to convex analysis and minimality notions of sets with respect to partial orderings induced by convex cones a chapter on scalar conjugate duality follows. Then investigations on vector duality based on scalar conjugacy are made. Weak, strong and converse duality statements are delivered and connections to classical results from the literature are emphasized. One chapter is exclusively consecrated to the s

  6. Scalar-Vector Bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Rejon-Barrera, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.

  7. Topological vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Narici, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundTopology Valuation Theory Algebra Linear Functionals Hyperplanes Measure Theory Normed SpacesCommutative Topological GroupsElementary ConsiderationsSeparation and Compactness Bases at 0 for Group Topologies Subgroups and Products Quotients S-Topologies Metrizability CompletenessCompleteness Function Groups Total BoundednessCompactness and Total Boundedness Uniform Continuity Extension of Uniformly Continuous Maps CompletionTopological Vector SpacesAbsorbent and Balanced Sets Convexity-AlgebraicBasic PropertiesConvexity-Topological Generating Vector Topologies A Non-Locally Convex Spa

  8. WHO NEEDS INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen – Laura ZARZU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current essay focuses on the need for formal education in the area of intercultural communication and training of intercultural competences. It builds on cultural identity and diversity literature, on the experiment conducted in the Low Countries in introducing a new topic for students from social sciences referring to intercultural communication and on reports and papers of international companies, organizations and agencies. The argument of globalization which should give equal opportunities to each and every world’s citizen adds pressure on managers dealing with multicultural teams. Intercultural competences gain importance in recruiting, while turning cultural diversity in team performance requires skills, knowledge and experience. Managing cultural diversity presupposes that people are aware, recognize, understand and deal with differences. Thus intercultural communication should be studied as a stand-alone topic or imbedded in other subjects in different forms of education or training, so people are prepared for intercultural, social and professional relationships.

  9. Developing Creative Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a theoretical framework for how to think about and understand creativity – and how to work with the development of creative competencies in design education. Most design students experience recurrent, individual challenges in design work, which have to do with their personal......, psychological configuration. The objective of the present research is to provide new insight into the dynamics underlying our individual strengths and challenges, and develop approaches to help design students come full circle in creative work processes. The paper builds on contemporary theory and techniques...... from the field of psychology, as well as research-in-practice with students at the Kolding School of Design and presents the outline of a model for how to work with and facilitate the development of creative competencies. While the research is still in its early phases, response from participants...

  10. Competing sovereignties, contested processes

    OpenAIRE

    McGee Schiavoni, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides a preliminary theoretical and empirical exploration into how ‘competing sovereignties’ are shaping the political construction of food sovereignty—broadly defined as ‘the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems.’ This study was motivated by a lack of clarity on the ‘sovereignty’ of food sovereignty that had been noted by numerous ...

  11. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  12. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-08

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  13. Calculus with vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Treiman, Jay S

    2014-01-01

    Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM. fields. The approach introduces vector-valued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between one-variable and multi-variable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. All three-dimensional graphs have rotatable versions included as extra source materials and may be freely downloaded and manipulated with Maple Player; a free Maple Player App is available for the iPad on iTunes. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits, and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additio...

  14. Synthetic Space Vector Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Modulation RF Radio Frequency SVM Space Vector Modulation VCO Voltage Controlled Oscillator VSI Voltage Source Inverter xvi THIS PAGE...examining the literature, an NE566 voltage controlled oscillator ( VCO ) chip as seen in Figure 10 was used to design a circuit that produced the

  15. Vectors Point Toward Pisa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    The author shows that the set of all sequences in which each term is the sum of the two previous terms forms a vector space of dimension two. He uses this result to obtain the formula for the Fibonacci sequence and applies the same technique to other linear recursive relations. (MM)

  16. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  17. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  18. PLURILINGUAL COMPETENCE, STYLES AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kalliokoski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores plurilingual competence in respect to language proficiency, language education and pluri- and multilingualism. The notion of communicative competence was introduced by Hymes (1972 as a reaction to chomskyan view of language as an autonomous system. Hymes’ notion of communicative competence originally included plurilingualism. The concept of communicative competence was quickly adopted to applied linguistics but the idea of a linguistic repertoire consisting of the competencies of linguistic varieties was not imported to SLA or language testing. The Hymesian perspective to plurilingualism as an essential dimension of communicative competence was revived in the Common European Framework (CEFR. However,the practice of applying the CEFR has mostly neglected the dimension on plurilingualism and plurilingual competence. The focus in the use of the CEFR has been on the different areas of language skills within one single language at a time, while the application of plurilingual practices has gained very little attention. The Hymesian notion of communicative competence has lived on in the sociolinguistic research tradition, especially within interactional sociolinguistics. The present paper relates the notion of plurilingual competence to its hymesian origin, to recent trends in plurilingual and pluricultural education, and to the sociolinguistic study of style and linguistic variation in multilingual communities. The article uses Finnish L2 data to show how plurilingual competence is used as an interactional resource.From the perspective of language learning, plurilingual competence enables speakers with different linguistic backgrounds to use their shared linguistic repertoire in order to ensure smooth interaction and achieve mutual understanding.

  19. Competencies assessment using fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Jevšček

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Competencies evaluation is complex. The question is how to evaluate a competency which was assessed with 360° feedback, in one result using fuzzy logic tools so the result represents an actual competency development in an individual. Purpose: The purpose and goal of the study is to determine a possible process of competency evaluation that would enable creating a single competency assessment using fuzzy logic methods. Method: The theoretical part examines the current state and terminology of competencies and fuzzy logic. The empirical part consists of a quantitative research study. Data from the survey questionnaire was used for model testing. Results: An example of an »Initiative« competency evaluation model is created and tested in the research study. Testing confirmed that evaluation using fuzzy logic is efficient. Organization: The study directly affects the development of the HR function in organizations. It enables an easier and more oriented competency evaluation. Society: The study enables easier orientation in competencies development that can improve the social order as well as social responsibility and the environment indirectly. Originality: The study presents a new competency evaluation model using fuzzy logic. Limitations/Future Research: The study is restricted to one competency and certain assessors. Further research could explore the model with several assessors of the same rank.

  20. Retrotransposon vectors for gene delivery in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Yi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are abundant components of plant genomes, and although some plant retrotransposons have been used as insertional mutagens, these mobile genetic elements have not been widely exploited for plant genome manipulation. In vertebrates and yeast, retrotransposons and retroviruses are routinely altered to carry additional genes that are copied into complementary (cDNA through reverse transcription. Integration of cDNA results in gene delivery; recombination of cDNA with homologous chromosomal sequences can create targeted gene modifications. Plant retrotransposon-based vectors, therefore, may provide new opportunities for plant genome engineering. Results A retrotransposon vector system was developed for gene delivery in plants based on the Tnt1 element from Nicotiana tabacum. Mini-Tnt1 transfer vectors were constructed that lack coding sequences yet retain the 5' and 3' long terminal repeats (LTRs and adjacent cis sequences required for reverse transcription. The internal coding region of Tnt1 was replaced with a neomycin phosphotransferase gene to monitor replication by reverse transcription. Two different mini-Tnt1 s were developed: one with the native 5' LTR and the other with a chimeric 5' LTR that had the first 233 bp replaced by the CaMV 35 S promoter. After transfer into tobacco protoplasts, both vectors undergo retrotransposition using GAG and POL proteins provided in trans by endogenous Tnt1 elements. The transposition frequencies of mini-Tnt1 vectors are comparable with native Tnt1 elements, and like the native elements, insertion sites are within or near coding sequences. In this paper, we provide evidence that template switching occurs during mini-Tnt1 reverse transcription, indicating that multiple copies of Tnt1 mRNA are packaged into virus-like particles. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that mini-Tnt1 vectors can replicate efficiently in tobacco cells using GAG and POL proteins provided in trans by

  1. VECTOR BUNDLE, KILLING VECTOR FIELD AND PONTRYAGIN NUMBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建伟

    1991-01-01

    Let E be a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold M. We construct a natural metric on the bundle space E and discuss the relationship between the killing vector fields of E and M. Then we give a proof of the Bott-Baum-Cheeger Theorem for vector bundle E.

  2. Biosafety challenges for use of lentiviral vectors in gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Michael; Modlich, Ute; Schambach, Axel

    2013-12-01

    Lentiviral vectors are promising tools for the genetic modification of cells in biomedical research and gene therapy. Their use in recent clinical trials for the treatment of adrenoleukodystrophy, β-thalassemia, Wiskott-Aldrich- Syndrome and metachromatic leukodystrophy underlined their efficacy for therapies especially in case of hereditary diseases. In comparison to gammaretroviral LTR-driven vectors, which were employed in the first clinical trials, lentiviral vectors present with some favorable features like the ability to transduce also non-dividing cells and a potentially safer insertion profile. However, genetic modification with viral vectors in general and stable integration of the therapeutic gene into the host cell genome bear concerns with respect to different levels of personal or environmental safety. Among them, insertional mutagenesis by enhancer mediated dysregulation of neighboring genes or aberrant splicing is still the biggest concern. However, also risks like immunogenicity of vector particles, the phenotoxicity of the transgene and potential vertical or horizontal transmission by replication competent retroviruses need to be taken into account. This review will give an overview on biosafety aspects that are relevant to the use of lentiviral vectors for genetic modification and gene therapy. Furthermore, assay systems aiming at evaluating biosafety in preclinical settings and recent promising clinical trials including efforts of monitoring of patients after gene therapy will be discussed.

  3. Shifting suitability for malaria vectors across Africa with warming climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson A Townsend

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climates are changing rapidly, producing warm climate conditions globally not previously observed in modern history. Malaria is of great concern as a cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly across Africa, thanks in large part to the presence there of a particularly competent suite of mosquito vector species. Methods I derive spatially explicit estimates of human populations living in regions newly suitable climatically for populations of two key Anopheles gambiae vector complex species in Africa over the coming 50 years, based on ecological niche model projections over two global climate models, two scenarios of climate change, and detailed spatial summaries of human population distributions. Results For both species, under all scenarios, given the changing spatial distribution of appropriate conditions and the current population distribution, the models predict a reduction of 11.3–30.2% in the percentage of the overall population living in areas climatically suitable for these vector species in coming decades, but reductions and increases are focused in different regions: malaria vector suitability is likely to decrease in West Africa, but increase in eastern and southern Africa. Conclusion Climate change effects on African malaria vectors shift their distributional potential from west to east and south, which has implications for overall numbers of people exposed to these vector species. Although the total is reduced, malaria is likely to pose novel public health problems in areas where it has not previously been common.

  4. Developing professional competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    professional practice. There is too little transfer from the training programs to application in the workplace. Based on Danish research the relation between school and professional work, between scholastic knowledge and practical knowledge, is analyzed. Guideline for a new and more efficient curricula......The purpose of university programs for professionals is to qualify the students to act competently in a subsequent job situation. Practical experiences as well as comprehensive research studies have shown that only a limited part of what is learned during the coursework is applied in the subsequent...

  5. Vector grammars and PN machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊

    1996-01-01

    The concept of vector grammars under the string semantic is introduced.The dass of vector grammars is given,which is similar to the dass of Chomsky grammars.The regular vector grammar is divided further.The strong and weak relation between the vector grammar and scalar grammar is discussed,so the spectrum system graph of scalar and vector grammars is made.The equivalent relation between the regular vector grammar and Petri nets (also called PN machine) is pointed.The hybrid PN machine is introduced,and its language is proved equivalent to the language of the context-free vector grammar.So the perfect relation structure between vector grammars and PN machines is formed.

  6. On Generalized Vector Equilibrium Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-hua Wan; Jun-yi Fu; Wei-hua Mao

    2006-01-01

    A new generalized vector equilibrium problem involving set-valued mappings and the proper quasi-concavity of set-valued mappings in topological vector spaces are introduced; its existence theorems and the convexity of the solution sets are established.

  7. Forming key competences from the position of competence approach

    OpenAIRE

    Latypova E. R.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching foreign languages pursues practical, educational, bringing-up and developing aims in non-linguistic educational institution. The practical aim in teaching foreign languages is preparation of a highly trained specialist, which masters key competences and can work hard on his specialty according to world standards and is ready to act in professional communication with foreigners. New requirements direct the system of education toward competence approach. The main aim of competence appr...

  8. Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) as Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W.; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:25404068

  9. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-02-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease.

  10. Competence development: Key issues and trends in European competence policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    papers, reports, and communications that led to directives and resolutions concerning the development and recognition of skills and competences in a lifelong learning perspective. In 2005 this process led to the definition of a European Framework on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning - covering those...... competences that are given priority within the Union - as well as a European Qualification Framework, a reference tool for making qualifications - here described in terms of progressive levels of competence - transparent and transferable within the European borders. The aim of the paper is to investigate...

  11. Vector mesons in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gy Wolf

    2006-04-01

    One consequence of the chiral restoration is the mixing of parity partners. We look for a possible signature of the mixing of vector and axial vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. We suggest an experimental method for its observation. The dynamical evolution of the heavy-ion collision is described by a transport equation of QMD-type evolving nucleons, * and resonances, ’s and $\\sum$ baryons, and furthermore, ’s, ’s ’s ’s ’s and kaons with their isospin degrees of freedom. The input cross-sections and resonance parameters of the model are fitted to the available nucleon–nucleon and pion–nucleon cross-sections.

  12. Vector fields in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    Vector fields can arise in the cosmological context in different ways, and we discuss both abelian and nonabelian sector. In the abelian sector vector fields of the geometrical origin (from dimensional reduction and Einstein-Eddington modification of gravity) can provide a very non-trivial dynamics, which can be expressed in terms of the effective dilaton-scalar gravity with the specific potential. In the non-abelian sector we investigate the Yang-Mills SU(2) theory which admits isotropic and homogeneous configuration. Provided the non-linear dependence of the lagrangian on the invariant F*F(dual), one can obtain the inflationary regime with the exponential growth of the scale factor. The effective amplitudes of the 'electric' and 'magnetic' components behave like slowly varying scalars at this regime, what allows the consideration of some realistic models with non-linear terms in the Yang-Mills lagrangian.

  13. Helices and vector bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Rudakov, A N

    1990-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).

  14. Culex nigripalpus: a natural vector of wild turkey malaria (Plasmodium hermani) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, D J; Nayar, J K; Foster, G W

    1980-07-01

    Durking 1977 and 1978, more than 21,000 female mosquitoes of 15 species were live-trapped in south Florida where high numbers of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are known to harbor malarial infections. By inoculation of mosquito extracts into uninfected domestic poults, the presence of sporozoites of Plasmodium hermani was demonstrated in Culex nigrapalpus. This mosquito, previously shown to be a competent experimental vector, is believed to be the primary natural vector of wild turkey malaria in Florida.

  15. Student Preconceptions about Vector Kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Jose M.

    1988-01-01

    Examines preconceptions regarding several implicit vector characteristics that 15- to 17-year-old students possess just before taking their first physics course. Shows seven vector characteristics and three tasks for interviewing students. Presents the most common student preconceptions regarding each of the implicit vector characteristics. (YP)

  16. Decay Constants of Vector Mesons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Heng-Mei; WAN Shao-Long

    2008-01-01

    @@ The light vector mesons are studied within the framework of the Bethe-Salpeter equation with the vector-vectortype flat-bottom potential The Bethe-Salpeter wavefunctions and the decay constants of the vector mesons are obtained. All the obtained results, fρ, fφ, and fΚ* , are in agreement with the experimental values, respectively.

  17. Interpolation of Vector Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo del CAMPO; Antonio FERN(A)NDEZ; Fernando MAYORAL; Francisco NARANJO; Enrique A. S(A)NCHEZ-P(E)REZ

    2011-01-01

    Let (Ω, ∑) be a measurable space and m0: ∑→ X0 and m1: ∑ -→ X1 be positive vector measures with values in the Banach K(o)the function spaces X0 and X1. If 0 < α < 1, we define a X10-αXα1 and we analyze the space of integrable functions with respect to measure [m0, m1]α in order to prove suitable extensions of the classical Stein-Weiss formulas that hold for the complex interpolation of Lp-spaces.Since each p-convex order continuous K(o)the function space with weak order unit can be represented as a space of p-integrable functions with respect to a vector measure, we provide in this way a technique to obtain representations of the corresponding complex interpolation spaces. As applications, we provide a Riesz-Thorin theorem for spaces of p-integrable functions with respect to vector measures and a formula for representing the interpolation of the injective tensor product of such spaces.

  18. Maintaining medical competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. I recently renewed my Arizona medical license and meet all the requirements. I far exceed the required CME hours and have no Medical Board actions, removal of hospital privileges, lawsuits, or felonies. None of the bad things are likely since I have not seen patients since July 1, 2011 and I no longer have hospital privileges. However, this caused me to pause when I came to the question of “Actively practicing”? A quick check of the status of several who do not see patients but are administrators, retired or full time editors of other medical journals revealed they were all listed as “active”. I guess that “medical journalism” is probably as much a medical activity as “administrative medicine” which is recognized by the Arizona Medical Board. This got me to thinking about competence and the Medical Board’s obligation to ensure competent physicians. Medical boards focused on preventing the unlicensed practice …

  19. Predicting the effect of climate change on African trypanosomiasis: integrating epidemiology with parasite and vector biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, S.; Shrestha, S.; Tomlinson, K.W.; Vuong, H.

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming over the next century is expected to have a large impact on the interactions between pathogens and their animal and human hosts. Vector-borne diseases are particularly sensitive to warming because temperature changes can alter vector development rates, shift their geographical distri

  20. Pragmatic Competence in Classroom Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何梦宇

    2013-01-01

    Pragmatic competence is a branch of language education studies within the overall framework of linguistics. The paper discusses relationship between pragmatics and classroom teaching from the perspectives of pragmatic competence, features of class-room teaching and how to cultivate pragmatics competence in classroom teaching. It is argued that there are positive role of prag-matics in classroom teaching. This thesis tries to finally give some advise from pragmatics for further language education research.

  1. Understanding Discourse Competence in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masduki Masduki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse as a communication event is influenced by topic being communicated, interpersonal relationship between the communicants, and communication channel used in context. Whatever senses created by the communicants is fully related to culture and situation being involved. Participating in conversation, reading, writing, and translating, activates discourse competence, which requires the use of a set of strategy to realize or mobilize all declarative knowledge in the real context of communication. Further, this article highlights the discourse competence and how it is culturally implemented in translation as an activity of transferring messages. The discussion covers the overview of discourse competence, discourse approach, and discourse competence in translation.

  2. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations.

  3. eCompetence Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Bækkelund

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches.......In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches....

  4. Fostering Communicative Competence through Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Sipra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the use of technology in EFL classes to promote communicative competence. It elucidates communicative competence and explicates obstructions in communicative tasks. Moreover, it interprets the use of technology in fostering and supporting the development of communicative competence and explains how it is pragmatic in maintaining learners’ level of motivation and interest in learning a foreign language. The present article identifies the significance and use of mobile phone, camera, computer and internet, tape recorder, projector, and language labs in EFL classes. Besides, it discusses the use of technology as an educational tool in language teaching and learning.Keywords: Educational technology, fostering, communicative competence, language teaching, learning

  5. Current status of genome editing in vector mosquitoes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-01-16

    Mosquitoes pose a major threat to human health as they spread many deadly diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and Zika. Identification and use of novel molecular tools are essential to combat the spread of vector borne diseases. Genome editing tools have been used for the precise alterations of the gene of interest for producing the desirable trait in mosquitoes. Deletion of functional genes or insertion of toxic genes in vector mosquitoes will produce either knock-out or knock-in mutants that will check the spread of vector-borne diseases. Presently, three types of genome editing tools viz., zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) are widely used for the editing of the genomes of diverse organisms. These tools are also applied in vector mosquitoes to control the spread of vector-borne diseases. A few studies have been carried out on genome editing to control the diseases spread by vector mosquitoes and more studies need to be performed with the utilization of more recently invented tools like CRISPR/Cas9 to combat the spread of deadly diseases by vector mosquitoes. The high specificity and flexibility of CRISPR/Cas9 system may offer possibilities for novel genome editing for the control of important diseases spread by vector mosquitoes. In this review, we present the current status of genome editing research on vector mosquitoes and also discuss the future applications of vector mosquito genome editing to control the spread of vectorborne diseases.

  6. Comparison of replication-competent, first generation, and helper-dependent adenoviral vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Weaver

    Full Text Available All studies using human serotype 5 Adenovirus (Ad vectors must address two major obstacles: safety and the presence of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies. Helper-Dependent (HD Ads have been proposed as alternative vectors for gene therapy and vaccine development because they have an improved safety profile. To evaluate the potential of HD-Ad vaccines, we compared replication-competent (RC, first-generation (FG and HD vectors for their ability to induce immune responses in mice. We show that RC-Ad5 and HD-Ad5 vectors generate stronger immune responses than FG-Ad5 vectors. HD-Ad5 vectors gave lower side effects than RC or FG-Ad, producing lower levels of tissue damage and anti-Ad T cell responses. Also, HD vectors have the benefit of being packaged by all subgroup C serotype helper viruses. We found that HD serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 6 induce anti-HIV responses equivalently. By using these HD serotypes in heterologous succession we showed that HD vectors can be used to significantly boost anti-HIV immune responses in mice and in FG-Ad5-immune macaques. Since HD vectors have been show to have an increased safety profile, do not possess any Ad genes, can be packaged by multiple serotype helper viruses, and elicit strong anti-HIV immune responses, they warrant further investigation as alternatives to FG vectors as gene-based vaccines.

  7. Assessing Romantic Competence in Adolescence: The Romantic Competence Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Joanne; Steinberg, Sara J.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Yoneda, Athena

    2009-01-01

    This article presents preliminary psychometric data on the reliability and validity of the newly developed Romantic Competence Interview (RCI). The RCI is an interviewer-assessed measure designed to assess competence among adolescents regardless of romantic relationship status. Eighty-three early adolescent girls (m age = 13.45 years) recruited…

  8. Competence Based Educational Metadata for Supporting Lifelong Competence Development Programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampson, Demetrios; Fytros, Demetrios

    2008-01-01

    Sampson, D., & Fytros, D. (2008). Competence Based Educational Metadata for Supporting Lifelong Competence Development Programmes. In P. Diaz, Kinshuk, I. Aedo & E. Mora (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2008), pp. 288-292. July, 1-

  9. Competence Models in Technology-enhanced Competence-based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampson, Demetrios; Fytros, Demetrios

    2008-01-01

    Please cite as: Sampson, D., & Fytros, D. (2008). Competence Models in Technology-enhanced Competence-based Learning. In H. H. Adelsberger, Kinshuk, J. M. Pawlowski & D. Sampson (Eds.), International Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training, 2nd Edition, Springer, June 2008

  10. Where Cultural Competency Begins: Changes in Undergraduate Students' Intercultural Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Elizabeth J.; Tupy, Samantha J.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher preparation programs and accreditation organizations have acknowledged need for educators to demonstrate intercultural knowledge, skills, and abilities. Teacher educators are responding to emphasis in higher education to assure that graduates achieve intercultural competence (NCATE, 2008). This study compared the cultural competency of…

  11. Building Intercultural Competence through Intercultural Competency Certification of Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeiro, Maria G. Fabregas; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Nuno de la Parra, Jose Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The Intercultural Competency Certificate (CCI in Spanish) designed for the Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP University) is a theory based comprehensive plan to develop undergraduate students' intercultural competence. This Certificate is based in the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) developed by…

  12. Competence and Competency-based Training: What the Literature Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This literature review, commissioned by the National Quality Council, provides a historical account of the development of competency-based training in Australia and summarises the issues arising from the range of reviews conducted on elements of the national training system. It also explores the variety of ways in which competence is conceived…

  13. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    that a firm's percentage of unwanted customers decreases significantly as acceptance of termination increases, if the firm's definition of unwanted customers is well understood, and if a firm has clear termination routines. In addition, general focus on profitability and external constraints on relationship...... termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...

  14. Customer satisfaction and competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Paola; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    We empirically address how customer satisfaction and loyalty in the banking industry may affect profitability. This helps to identify the strategy and competencies necessary to benefit from customer relationships which are important sources for improved performance in the banking. We do......, loyalty is a mediator between financial and not-financial customer value and two sources of customer satisfaction, namely relationships with the front office and the branch, on the one hand, and the products offered, on the other....... this by analyzing data collected on 2,105 customers of 118 branches of one of the biggest banks of an Italian banking group. We find that customer satisfaction impacts loyalty, which in turn has a direct effect on financial and non-financial customer value/total customer value/complex customer value. Moreover...

  15. Competing For industry Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnstad, Marit

    1998-12-31

    This presentation by Norway`s Minister of Petroleum and Energy describes (1) Norway in the energy picture, (2) oil market developments, (3) the establishment of an energy policy and (4) the investment level of the Norwegian petroleum activities. Value creation from Norwegian petroleum resources is directly connected with the commercial companies` participation in the activities. Thus, it has been a main challenge for Norway to establish a balanced petroleum policy and a legal framework. Presumably Norway will remain a prospective and attractive petroleum province for a long time. Over the years, Norway has developed three very competent and competitive national oil companies and a significant national supply industry. This industry is highly competitive internationally. Many new petroleum provinces are opening up for foreign investors and energy consumption of the world is expected to increase significantly the next 20 - 30 years. This implies increased demand for the products, but also strong competition for industry resources

  16. Competing on talent analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise.

  17. Competent and Warm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Karolina; Rakić, Tamara; Steffens, Melanie C

    2017-01-01

    Most research on ethnicity has focused on visual cues. However, accents are strong social cues that can match or contradict visual cues. We examined understudied reactions to people whose one cue suggests one ethnicity, whereas the other cue contradicts it. In an experiment conducted in Germany, job candidates spoke with an accent either congruent or incongruent with their (German or Turkish) appearance. Based on ethnolinguistic identity theory, we predicted that accents would be strong cues for categorization and evaluation. Based on expectancy violations theory we expected that incongruent targets would be evaluated more extremely than congruent targets. Both predictions were confirmed: accents strongly influenced perceptions and Turkish-looking German-accented targets were perceived as most competent of all targets (and additionally most warm). The findings show that bringing together visual and auditory information yields a more complete picture of the processes underlying impression formation.

  18. Epidemiological Implications of Host Biodiversity and Vector Biology: Key Insights from Simple Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Andrew D M; Auld, Stuart K J R

    2016-04-01

    Models used to investigate the relationship between biodiversity change and vector-borne disease risk often do not explicitly include the vector; they instead rely on a frequency-dependent transmission function to represent vector dynamics. However, differences between classes of vector (e.g., ticks and insects) can cause discrepancies in epidemiological responses to environmental change. Using a pair of disease models (mosquito- and tick-borne), we simulated substitutive and additive biodiversity change (where noncompetent hosts replaced or were added to competent hosts, respectively), while considering different relationships between vector and host densities. We found important differences between classes of vector, including an increased likelihood of amplified disease risk under additive biodiversity change in mosquito models, driven by higher vector biting rates. We also draw attention to more general phenomena, such as a negative relationship between initial infection prevalence in vectors and likelihood of dilution, and the potential for a rise in density of infected vectors to occur simultaneously with a decline in proportion of infected hosts. This has important implications; the density of infected vectors is the most valid metric for primarily zoonotic infections, while the proportion of infected hosts is more relevant for infections where humans are a primary host.

  19. Feline Foamy Virus-Based Vectors: Advantages of an Authentic Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Löchelt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New-generation retroviral vectors have potential applications in vaccination and gene therapy. Foamy viruses are particularly interesting as vectors, because they are not associated to any disease. Vector research is mainly based on primate foamy viruses (PFV, but cats are an alternative animal model, due to their smaller size and the existence of a cognate feline foamy virus (FFV. The potential of replication-competent (RC FFV vectors for vaccination and replication-deficient (RD FFV-based vectors for gene delivery purposes has been studied over the past years. In this review, the key achievements and functional evaluation of the existing vectors from in vitro cell culture systems to out-bred cats will be described. The data presented here demonstrate the broad application spectrum of FFV-based vectors, especially in pathogen-specific prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination using RD vectors in cats and in classical gene delivery. In the cat-based system, FFV-based vectors provide an advantageous platform to evaluate and optimize the applicability, efficacy and safety of foamy virus (FV vectors, especially the understudied aspect of FV cell and organ tropism.

  20. Estimating the magnitude and direction of altered arbovirus transmission due to viral phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Christofferson

    Full Text Available Vectorial capacity is a measure of the transmission potential of a vector borne pathogen within a susceptible population. Vector competence, a component of the vectorial capacity equation, is the ability of an arthropod to transmit an infectious agent following exposure to that agent. Comparisons of arbovirus strain-specific vector competence estimates have been used to support observed or hypothesized differences in transmission capability. Typically, such comparisons are made at a single time point during the extrinsic incubation period, the time in days it takes for the virus to replicate and disseminate to the salivary glands. However, vectorial capacity includes crucial parameters needed to effectively evaluate transmission capability, though often this is based on the discrete vector competence values. Utilization of the rate of change of vector competence over a range of days gives a more accurate measurement of the transmission potential. Accordingly, we investigated the rate of change in vector competence of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the resulting vectorial capacity curves. The areas under the curves represent the effective vector competence and the cumulative transmission potentials of arboviruses within a population of mosquitoes. We used the calculated area under the curve for each virus strain and the corresponding variance estimates to test for differences in cumulative transmission potentials between strains of dengue virus based on our dynamic model. To further characterize differences between dengue strains, we devised a displacement index interpreted as the capability of a newly introduced strain to displace the established, dominant circulating strain. The displacement index can be used to better understand the transmission dynamics in systems where multiple strains/serotypes circulate or even multiple arbovirus species. The use of a rate of a rate of change based model of vectorial capacity and the

  1. Relativistic Rotating Vector Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    The direction of polarization produced by a moving source rotates with the respect to the rest frame. We show that this effect, induced by pulsar rotation, leads to an important correction to polarization swings within the framework of rotating vector model (RVM); this effect has been missed by previous works. We construct relativistic RVM taking into account finite heights of the emission region that lead to aberration, time-of-travel effects and relativistic rotation of polarization. Polarizations swings at different frequencies can be used, within the assumption of the radius-to-frequency mapping, to infer emission radii and geometry of pulsars.

  2. Números, vectores y funciones

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    El texto Números, Vectores y Funciones que han elaborado los profesores Asociados Omar Evelio Ospina y Bernardo Acevedo, responden a esta necesidad con sobresalientes cualidades pedagógicas, entre las cuales se destacan el desarrollo detallado de los temas y la proliferación de ejercicios resueltos, lo cual genera un diálogo directo con el lector que puede así aprovechar totalmente su lectura. El material presentado es el fruto de un cuidadoso análisis de los autores, sobre las experiencias d...

  3. Vector potential photoelectron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R

    2011-10-01

    A new class of electron microscope has been developed for the chemical microanalysis of a wide range of real world samples using photoelectron spectroscopy. Highly structured, three-dimensional samples, such as fiber mats and fracture surfaces can be imaged, as well as insulators and magnetic materials. The new microscope uses the vector potential field from a solenoid magnet as a spatial reference for imaging. A prototype instrument has demonstrated imaging of uncoated silk, magnetic steel wool, and micron-sized single strand tungsten wires.

  4. Ticks as vectors: taxonomy, biology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, A

    2015-04-01

    Ticks are prominent parasites and competent vectors of pathogens that affect both humans and animals. This review outlines and illustrates the main features of the morphology of ticks of the families Ixodidae and Argasidae, and summarises the basic components of their life cycles. It focuses mainly on development processes and mortality among tick populations so as to provide an overview of how they are regulated in nature and how pathogens can be transmitted under such a framework. The effects of the weather on these life cycles are reviewed. The author also examines how landscape structure and biotic factors, such as the presence and abundance of hosts, may shape the density of tick populations. The uncertainty inherent in dealing with the transmission of pathogens by ticks is highlighted; this results from the sometimes complex relationships among the vectors, the climate and the presence and density of host populations. The need to obtain reliable field estimations of such relationships before drawing conclusions about the effects of the isolated components of the system is stressed. A section is devoted to addressing the expected (and not yet totally understood) effects of trends in climate on the spread of ticks, and how these can be analysed and tracked.

  5. Assessing Competence in Pediatric Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Apul E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In response to the need to assure physician competence, a rating scale was developed at the University of Minnesota Medical School for use in evaluating clinical competence in pediatric cardiology. It was tested on first- and second-year specialists. Development and testing procedures are described. (JT)

  6. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.

  7. Model of Intercultural Communicative Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘星

    2015-01-01

    ntercultural communication is regarded as both an important course in Chinese universities but also a necessary skill which global citizens must own.How to define the term of intercultural communicative competence becomes vital in developing and assessing learners’ intercultural competence.

  8. Model of Intercultural Communicative Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘星

    2015-01-01

    Intercultural communication is regarded as both an important course in Chinese universities but also a necessary skill which global citizens must own.How to define the term of intercultural communicative competence becomes vital in developing and assessing learners’ intercultural competence.

  9. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  10. Conditions for Developing Communicative Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Individuals need communicative competence for personal fulfillment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment. Materials and Methods. The meaning of the key concepts of "communicative competence" and "opportunities" is studied within the search for conditions to develop. Conclusion. The theoretical findings…

  11. Assessment of Clinical Supervisor Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Hildy

    1999-01-01

    Presents a focus and process to assist those training clinical supervisors to assess competencies of the supervisor. States that process creates a practical framework that can be adapted for supervision competencies in other fields. Concludes that assessment methodology gives meaning to the support and structure vital at all levels of training…

  12. Personal Competencies in Personalized Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Personal competencies--cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, and social/emotional--are applied by students in learning (mastery of knowledge and skills). These competencies are both acquired through learning and applied in the learning process. Personalized learning--a promising approach to education made practical by advances in…

  13. Cultural competence: a constructivist definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2015-01-01

    In nursing education, most of the current teaching practices perpetuate an essentialist perspective of culture and make it imperative to refresh the concept of cultural competence in nursing. The purpose of this article is to propose a constructivist definition of cultural competence that stems from the conclusions of an extensive critical review of the literature on the concepts of culture, cultural competence, and cultural safety among nurses and other health professionals. The proposed constructivist definition is situated in the unitary-transformative paradigm in nursing as defined by Newman and colleagues. It makes the connection between the field of competency-based education and the nursing discipline. Cultural competence in a constructivist paradigm that is oriented toward critical, reflective practice can help us develop knowledge about the role of nurses in reducing health inequalities and lead to a comprehensive ethical reflection about the social mandate of health care professionals.

  14. Constructivism in cultural competence education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer L; Krantz, Steven

    2010-04-01

    A graduate course on cultural diversity, based in constructivist theory and structured on the Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services model, was developed and taught through classroom and online methods. The following research questions were explored: 1) Can an educational experience, built on constructivist learning theory tenets, change students' perceptions, attitudes, knowledge, and skills in the area of cultural competence? 2) Does the delivery method, online or traditional classroom, influence the degree of change? The study used a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest control group design using the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among healthcare Professionals Revised. Findings showed significant changes (p<0.001) in cultural competence scores and subscores for all learners with both teaching modalities based on interval scale and in categories of cultural knowledge, skills, desire, and overall competence based on a nominal scale. The untaught construct of cultural desire showed the most significant improvement.

  15. Continued professional competence and portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michelle; Delarose, Teresa; King, Cecil A; Leske, Jane; Sapnas, Kathryn G; Schroeter, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    It is traditionally assumed that licensure of healthcare professionals means that they are minimally competent. Many nursing specialty organizations offer examinations and other processes for certification, suggesting that certification is associated with continued competency. Can standardized examination for certification and continuing education for recertification ensure continued competency? Continuing education and testing provide a limited picture of an individual's knowledge and/or skill acquisition in a limited area at one point in time. However, portfolios promote critical thinking, self-assessment, and individual accountability. A portfolio is a portable mechanism for evaluating competencies that may otherwise be difficult to assess. This article summarizes some of the literature addressing portfolios, including aspects of portfolio development process, the value of portfolios versus continuing education for competency assessment, evidence associated with portfolio usage, and suggestions for organizing nursing portfolios.

  16. Mediational Competencies for Online Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Chan Núñez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressed in the article is a position taken within and in favor of education and virtuality, considering the importance of training constructors of the digital environment. The competencies needed by actors of educational processes, the same which are necessary for their construction, are conceptualized as mediational. Because these are not usually the competencies most visibly when teachers and students are trained for online education, we found it of interest to present part of a research project on this type of competencies. The work starts out from an axiological position on virtual education, the recognition of the way the technologies model educational interactions on line. It follows with the notion of mediation and meditational competency, and comes to a design model that would consider these competencies in the development of learning environments. The article closes with reflections about the interdisciplinary integration necessary for a technological and educational development based on a communicative paradigm.

  17. Intercultural Competence – Key Competence of Multicultural Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bebenova - Nikolova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with intercultural competence of multicultural teams elaborating European projects. Firstly, it discusses basic theoretical aspects of the related concepts: culture and intercultural competence, then presents its impact on multicultural team effectiveness and models for improving it. The article finds ground on studies of intercultural competence as a set of strategic, personal, social and professional competences. The paper uses the project cycle management theory and proves that in multi-ethnic surroundings, the project membersř communication skills might not be sufficient to generate mutual understanding. Provisionally, the study performed a standardized Internet survey on self-assessment of intercultural competence among 50 experts on European projects. Another applied approach is field observation (attendance and note-taking of the 5- day training "To become diplomats between cultures", based on Bennettřs theoretical model for "Development of Intercultural Sensitivity". A training model for improving intercultural competence of multicultural team members. Possible approach for improvement of project management of crossborder or trans-border funding programs. Building intercultural competence in European project management is important, timely and necessity-driven, especially under the framework of the Danube Region Strategy.

  18. Forming key competences from the position of competence approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latypova E. R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Teaching foreign languages pursues practical, educational, bringing-up and developing aims in non-linguistic educational institution. The practical aim in teaching foreign languages is preparation of a highly trained specialist, which masters key competences and can work hard on his specialty according to world standards and is ready to act in professional communication with foreigners. New requirements direct the system of education toward competence approach. The main aim of competence approach in teaching foreign languages is an intensifying of practical studying.

  19. Extended vector-tensor theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Rampei; Naruko, Atsushi; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Recently, several extensions of massive vector theory in curved space-time have been proposed in many literatures. In this paper, we consider the most general vector-tensor theories that contain up to two derivatives with respect to metric and vector field. By imposing a degeneracy condition of the Lagrangian in the context of ADM decomposition of space-time to eliminate an unwanted mode, we construct a new class of massive vector theories where five degrees of freedom can propagate, corresponding to three for massive vector modes and two for massless tensor modes. We find that the generalized Proca and the beyond generalized Proca theories up to the quartic Lagrangian, which should be included in this formulation, are degenerate theories even in curved space-time. Finally, introducing new metric and vector field transformations, we investigate the properties of thus obtained theories under such transformations.

  20. Semitopological Vector Spaces and Hyperseminorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Burgin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce and study semitopological vector spaces. The goal is to provide an efficient base for developing the theory of extrafunction spaces in an abstract setting of algebraic systems and topological spaces. Semitopological vector spaces are more general than conventional topological vector spaces, which proved to be very useful for solving many problems in functional analysis. To study semitopological vector spaces, hypermetrics and hyperpseudometrics are introduced and it is demonstrated that hyperseminorms, studied in previous works of the author, induce hyperpseudometrics, while hypernorms induce hypermetrics. Sufficient and necessary conditions for a hyperpseudometric (hypermetric to be induced by a hyperseminorm (hypernorm are found. We also show that semitopological vector spaces are closely related to systems of hyperseminorms. Then defining boundedness and continuity relative to associated systems of hyperseminorms, we study relations between relative boundedness and relative continuity for mappings of vector spaces with systems of hyperseminorms and systems of hypernorms.

  1. SVM-Maj: a majorization approach to linear support vector machines with different hinge errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); G.I. Nalbantov (Georgi); J.C. Bioch (Cor)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSupport vector machines (SVM) are becoming increasingly popular for the prediction of a binary dependent variable. SVMs perform very well with respect to competing techniques. Often, the solution of an SVM is obtained by switching to the dual. In this paper, we stick to the primal suppor

  2. Competency courts: a creative solution for restoring competency to the competency process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkle, Michael J; Kurth, Russell; Cadle, Christopher; Mullan, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    It is well accepted that jail is a poor setting for treating the acutely mentally ill, yet the number of mentally ill persons in jail has increased such that Los Angeles County Jail and Riker's Island in New York house more mentally ill than any psychiatric hospital. The number of mentally ill persons charged with a crime whose competency to stand trial is in question has also increased dramatically. Inefficiencies within the competency process result in mentally ill persons charged with crimes remaining in jail longer than necessary. One solution is "competency court", a specialty court within a mental health court. The same judges, attorneys, and mental health professionals staff both courts. By combining their Mental Health Court experience, they can work with the mentally ill using their expertise in competency law and processes, and thereby improve the competency process and reduce the unnecessary time that mentally ill persons spend in jail.

  3. Creating competence: perspectives and practices in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Creating competence has become a major issue in organizations. Various authors contend that competency management has the potential of integrating organizational strategy, human-resource instruments, and human-resource development; that competency development can lead to performance improvement; and

  4. Revisiting purchasing competence - In a project context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla

    2015-01-01

    purchasing and competences required undertaking these activities. Four overall purchasing competence areas were identified. Hence, four propositions related to the purchasing competence were developed by iteratively combining elements from the purchasing literature with an empirical inquiry in an offshore...

  5. COMPETENCE IN MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Teixeira MD.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical competence is the result of a lifelong evolving process, based on the development of efficiency, experience and ethical principles. Efficiency in medical practice depends on scientific knowledge, technical abilities and communication skills. Experience is a process of personal refinement, breeding knowledge and wisdom. Finally, medical ethics is founded on the quest for justice, compassion and love. Didactically, we can distinguish three phases in the professional evolution of a physician: a Professional infancy, or linear vision: the physician restricts his attention to the morbid process only, often neglecting the patient in his totality. His approach is almost exclusively technical, with limited perception of medicine as an art. b Professional maturity or humanistic vision: it results from the evolution of personality, culture and experience of the physician, who foccuses now on the patient as a whole with his disease(s. c Professional excellence, or holistic vision, the highest stage: when the physician's integrated dimensions and wisdom are projected into the patient, fostering the natural conditions for optimal healing. We conclude that the practice of medicine is best fulfilled when both, art and cience, are considered and exercised together by the doctor.

  6. VLSI Processor For Vector Quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1995-01-01

    Pixel intensities in each kernel compared simultaneously with all code vectors. Prototype high-performance, low-power, very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit designed to perform compression of image data by vector-quantization method. Contains relatively simple analog computational cells operating on direct or buffered outputs of photodetectors grouped into blocks in imaging array, yielding vector-quantization code word for each such block in sequence. Scheme exploits parallel-processing nature of vector-quantization architecture, with consequent increase in speed.

  7. Entangled vector vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Carvacho, Gonzalo; Graffitti, Francesco; Vitelli, Chiara; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Light beams having a vectorial field structure, or polarization, that varies over the transverse profile and a central optical singularity are called vector vortex (VV) beams and may exhibit specific properties such as focusing into "light needles" or rotation invariance. VV beams have already found applications in areas ranging from microscopy to metrology, optical trapping, nano-optics, and quantum communication. Individual photons in such beams exhibit a form of single-particle quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the quantum states of two photons can be also entangled with each other. Here, we combine these two concepts and demonstrate the generation of quantum entanglement between two photons that are both in VV states: a form of entanglement between two complex vectorial fields. This result may lead to quantum-enhanced applications of VV beams as well as to quantum information protocols fully exploiting the vectorial features of light.

  8. Vectors in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Buchin, Kevin; Moser, Robin A; Pálvölgyi, Dömötör

    2009-01-01

    For an integer d>=1, let tau(d) be the smallest integer with the following property: If v1,v2,...,vt is a sequence of t>=2 vectors in [-1,1]^d with v1+v2+...+vt in [-1,1]^d, then there is a subset S of {1,2,...,t} of indices, 2= d^{d/2-o(d)}. These results contribute to understanding the master equality polyhedron with multiple rows defined by Dash et al., which is a "universal" polyhedron encoding valid cutting planes for integer programs (this line of research was started by Gomory in the late 1960s). In particular, the upper bound on tau(d) implies a pseudo-polynomial running time for an algorithm of Dash et al. for integer programming with a fixed number of constraints. The algorithm consists in solving a linear program, and it provides an alternative to a 1981 dynamic programming algorithm of Papadimitriou.

  9. Resonance vector mode locking

    CERN Document Server

    Kolpakov, Stanislav A; Loika, Yuri; Tarasov, Nikita; Kalashnikov, Vladimir; Agrawal, Govind P

    2015-01-01

    A mode locked fibre laser as a source of ultra-stable pulse train has revolutionised a wide range of fundamental and applied research areas by offering high peak powers, high repetition rates, femtosecond range pulse widths and a narrow linewidth. However, further progress in linewidth narrowing seems to be limited by the complexity of the carrier-envelope phase control. Here for the first time we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a new mechanism of resonance vector self-mode locking where tuning in-cavity birefringence leads to excitation of the longitudinal modes sidebands accompanied by the resonance phase locking of sidebands with the adjacent longitudinal modes. An additional resonance with acoustic phonons provides the repetition rate tunability and linewidth narrowing down to Hz range that drastically reduces the complexity of the carrier-envelope phase control and so will open the way to advance lasers in the context of applications in metrology, spectroscopy, microwave photonics, astronomy...

  10. Core competencies in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, José Manuel; Casademont, Jordi; Conthe, Pedro; Pinilla, Blanca; Pujol, Ramón; García-Alegría, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The working group on Competencies of Internal Medicine from the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) proposes a series of core competencies that we consider should be common to all European internal medicine specialists. The competencies include aspects related to patient care, clinical knowledge, technical skills, communication skills, professionalism, cost-awareness in medical care and academic activities. The proposal could be used as a working document for the Internal Medicine core curriculum in the context of the educational framework of medical specialties in Europe.

  11. "Teaching as a Competency": competencies for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Malathi; Li, Su-Ting T; Meyers, Fredrick J; Pratt, Daniel D; Collins, John B; Braddock, Clarence; Skeff, Kelley M; West, Daniel C; Henderson, Mark; Hales, Robert E; Hilty, Donald M

    2011-10-01

    Most medical faculty receive little or no training about how to be effective teachers, even when they assume major educational leadership roles. To identify the competencies required of an effective teacher in medical education, the authors developed a comprehensive conceptual model. After conducting a literature search, the authors met at a two-day conference (2006) with 16 medical and nonmedical educators from 10 different U.S. and Canadian organizations and developed an initial draft of the "Teaching as a Competency" conceptual model. Conference participants used the physician competencies (from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education [ACGME]) and the roles (from the Royal College's Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists [CanMEDS]) to define critical skills for medical educators. The authors then refined this initial framework through national/regional conference presentations (2007, 2008), an additional literature review, and expert input. Four core values grounded this framework: learner engagement, learner-centeredness, adaptability, and self-reflection. The authors identified six core competencies, based on the ACGME competencies framework: medical (or content) knowledge; learner- centeredness; interpersonal and communication skills; professionalism and role modeling; practice-based reflection; and systems-based practice. They also included four specialized competencies for educators with additional programmatic roles: program design/implementation, evaluation/scholarship, leadership, and mentorship. The authors then cross-referenced the competencies with educator roles, drawing from CanMEDS, to recognize role-specific skills. The authors have explored their framework's strengths, limitations, and applications, which include targeted faculty development, evaluation, and resource allocation. The Teaching as a Competency framework promotes a culture of effective teaching and learning.

  12. Metaphorical Competence: A Neglected Component of Communicative Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Khalili Sabet; Marjaneh Tavakoli

    2016-01-01

    The ability to comprehend and use metaphors in L2 which is referred to as metaphorical competence is an important issue in second language acquisition. Metaphors are so pervasive in our life that we might not realize their presence and simply neglect them even in our first language. Different models of communicative competence have been suggested in the literature; however, the model of Bachman and Palmer (1996) is the one considered in the present study. It includes two major nodes of organi...

  13. Vector-Tensor and Vector-Vector Decay Amplitude Analysis of B0->phi K*0

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, R; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Altenburg, D D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Asgeirsson, D J; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D S; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Bomben, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Briand, H; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Bóna, M; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chia, Y M; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Clarke, C K; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Corwin, L A; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cunha, A; Curry, S; Côté, D; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Del Buono, L; Del Re, D; Della Ricca, G; Denig, A G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dingfelder, J C; Dittongo, S; Dong, L; Dorfan, J; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Ebert, M; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fang, F; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gao, Y; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Gaz, A; George, K A; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Golubev, V B; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M T; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Z J; Hadavand, H K; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Höcker, A; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jain, V; Jasper, H; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Judd, D; Kadyk, J A; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kolb, J A; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kreisel, A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; La Vaissière, C de; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Latour, E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lee, C L; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, S; Li, X; Lista, L; Liu, H; Lo Vetere, M; LoSecco, J M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; Long, O; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lopez-March, N; Lou, X C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lü, C; Lüth, V; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Mclachlin, S E; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Merkel, J; Messner, R; Meyer, N T; Meyer, W T; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mishra, K; Mohanty, G B; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Nagel, M; Naisbit, M T; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; Nugent, I M; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, B; Pan, Y; Panduro, W; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Park, W; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petrella, A; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Playfer, S; Poireau, V; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prencipe, E; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pruvot, S; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rahmat, R; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Regensburger, J J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roberts, D A; Robertson, A I; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roudeau, P; Rubin, A E; Ruddick, W O; Röthel, W; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Sanders, D A; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schilling, C J; Schindler, R H; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schröder, T; Schröder, H; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Serrano, J; Sharma, V; Shen, B C; Sherwood, D J; Simard, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spitznagel, M; Spradlin, P; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stocchi, A; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stängle, H; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, J M; Tisserand, V; Todyshev, Y K; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Ulmer, K A; Uwer, U; Van Bakel, N; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Vazquez, A; Verderi, M; Viaud, F B; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Volk, A; Wagner, A P; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walker, D; Walsh, J J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wang, W F; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wren, A C; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Wulsin, H W; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yi, J I; Yi, K; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yéche, C; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Ziegler, V; Zito, M; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; al, et

    2007-01-01

    We perform an amplitude analysis of the decays B0->phi K^*_2(1430)0, phi K^*(892)0, and phi(K pi)^0_S-wave with a sample of about 384 million BBbar pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. The fractions of longitudinal polarization f_L of the vector-tensor and vector-vector decay modes are measured to be 0.853 +0.061-0.069 +-0.036 and 0.506 +-0.040 +-0.015, respectively. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay and seven parameters for the vector-tensor decay, including the branching fractions and parameters sensitive to CP-violation.

  14. Variation in Aedes aegypti Mosquito Competence for Zika Virus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, Christopher M.; Azar, Sasha R.; Rossi, Shannan L.; Huang, Jing H.; Leal, Grace; Yun, Ruimei; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Vitek, Christopher J.; Paploski, Igor A.D.; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Hanley, Kathryn A.

    2017-01-01

    To test whether Zika virus has adapted for more efficient transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, leading to recent urban outbreaks, we fed mosquitoes from Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and the United States artificial blood meals containing 1 of 3 Zika virus strains (Senegal, Cambodia, Mexico) and monitored infection, dissemination, and virus in saliva. Contrary to our hypothesis, Cambodia and Mexica strains were less infectious than the Senegal strain. Only mosquitoes from the Dominican Republic transmitted the Cambodia and Mexica strains. However, blood meals from viremic mice were more infectious than artificial blood meals of comparable doses; the Cambodia strain was not transmitted by mosquitoes from Brazil after artificial blood meals, whereas 61% transmission occurred after a murine blood meal (saliva titers up to 4 log10 infectious units/collection). Although regional origins of vector populations and virus strain influence transmission efficiency, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes appear to be competent vectors of Zika virus in several regions of the Americas. PMID:28287375

  15. Variation in Aedes aegypti Mosquito Competence for Zika Virus Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, Christopher M; Azar, Sasha R; Rossi, Shannan L; Huang, Jing H; Leal, Grace; Yun, Ruimei; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Vitek, Christopher J; Paploski, Igor A D; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Hanley, Kathryn A; Weaver, Scott C; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2017-04-01

    To test whether Zika virus has adapted for more efficient transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, leading to recent urban outbreaks, we fed mosquitoes from Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and the United States artificial blood meals containing 1 of 3 Zika virus strains (Senegal, Cambodia, Mexico) and monitored infection, dissemination, and virus in saliva. Contrary to our hypothesis, Cambodia and Mexica strains were less infectious than the Senegal strain. Only mosquitoes from the Dominican Republic transmitted the Cambodia and Mexica strains. However, blood meals from viremic mice were more infectious than artificial blood meals of comparable doses; the Cambodia strain was not transmitted by mosquitoes from Brazil after artificial blood meals, whereas 61% transmission occurred after a murine blood meal (saliva titers up to 4 log 10 infectious units/collection). Although regional origins of vector populations and virus strain influence transmission efficiency, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes appear to be competent vectors of Zika virus in several regions of the Americas.

  16. Cultural competence in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The cultural competence training of healthcare professionals is a key element in ensuring the quality of both the access and delivery of healthcare to increasingly ethnically diverse populations. The aim of this study is to investigate Danish medical teachers’ opinions about cultural...... competence, their willingness to receive training and preparedness to teach cultural competence topics. Methods: The survey was sent to medical teachers, clinical teachers and external lecturers who teach in the medical programme at the University of Copenhagen. A total of 1400 medical teachers received...... include training on cultural issues, and 60.3% agreed or strongly agreed that students should be assessed on their cultural competence skills. Regarding preparedness to teach a diverse classroom, 88.4% felt somewhat or very prepared to engage and motivate all students. About 70% were interested...

  17. Testing identifiablility of cointegrating vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Boswijk

    1996-01-01

    This article analyzes the identification and normalization of cointegrating vectors. Normalizing a cointegrating relation with respect to one of the relevant variables is with loss of generality; and restrictions that are supposed to identify a vector may fail to do so for particular parameter value

  18. The Neural Support Vector Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco; van der Ree, Michiel; Embrechts, Mark; Stollenga, Marijn; Meijster, Arnold; Nolte, A; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new machine learning algorithm for regression and dimensionality reduction tasks. The Neural Support Vector Machine (NSVM) is a hybrid learning algorithm consisting of neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). The output of the NSVM is given by SVMs that take a centr

  19. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  20. Vectors on the Basketball Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An Idea Bank published in the April/May 2009 issue of "The Science Teacher" describes an experiential physics lesson on vectors and vector addition (Brown 2009). Like its football predecessor, the basketball-based investigation presented in this Idea Bank addresses National Science Education Standards Content B, Physical Science, 9-12 (NRC 1996)…

  1. Simplified Representation of Vector Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    1999-01-01

    Vector field visualization remains a difficult task. Although many local and global visualization methods for vector fields such as flow data exist, they usually require extensive user experience on setting the visualization parameters in order to produce images communicating the desired insight. We

  2. Estimation of Motion Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...

  3. [Altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  4. Multi-competence and personality

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Book synopsis: How are two or more languages learned and contained in the same mind or the same community? This handbook presents an up-to-date view of the concept of multi-competence, exploring the research questions it has generated and the methods that have been used to investigate it. The book brings together psychologists, sociolinguists, Second Language Acquisition (SLA) researchers, and language teachers from across the world to look at how multi-competence relates to their own areas o...

  5. Multi-competence and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Book synopsis: How are two or more languages learned and contained in the same mind or the same community? This handbook presents an up-to-date view of the concept of multi-competence, exploring the research questions it has generated and the methods that have been used to investigate it. The book brings together psychologists, sociolinguists, Second Language Acquisition (SLA) researchers, and language teachers from across the world to look at how multi-competence relates to their own areas o...

  6. Mathematical Competence, Teaching, and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, I focus on the notion of competence and issues related to the distinction between knowing how mathematical problems are solved versus knowing how to teach mathematics. Although definitions of competence may necessarily be affected by value judgements and thus less amenable to factual answers, providing a defensible definition is important because it affects eligibility for intervention and treatment. One way to tackle this issue is to focus on the identification of prerequ...

  7. A competence executive coaching model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Koortzen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Psychologists in industry are increasingly required to provide executive coaching services in their organisations or as part of their consulting services. An evaluation of coaching models as well as the development needs of individuals being trained as coaches, both locally and internationally, has led the authors to believe that there is a need for a competence executive coaching model.Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the training and development needs of these consulting psychologists by presenting a competence executive coaching model for the planning, implementation and evaluation of executive coaching interventions.Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted while one of the authors was involved in teaching doctoral students in consulting psychology and executive coaching, specifically in the USA. The approach involved a literature review of executive coaching models and a qualitative study using focus groups to develop and evaluate the competence executive coaching model.Main findings: The literature review provided scant evidence of competence executive coaching models and there seems to be a specific need for this in the training of coaches in South Africa. Hence the model that was developed is an attempt to provide trainers with a structured model for the training of coaches.Contribution/value-add: The uniqueness of this competence model is not only described in terms of the six distinct coaching intervention phases, but also the competencies required in each.

  8. Simian virus 40 vectors for pulmonary gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppenheim Ariella

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. One of the primary organs affected by sepsis is the lung, presenting as the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. Organ damage in sepsis involves an alteration in gene expression, making gene transfer a potential therapeutic modality. This work examines the feasibility of applying simian virus 40 (SV40 vectors for pulmonary gene therapy. Methods Sepsis-induced ARDS was established by cecal ligation double puncture (2CLP. SV40 vectors carrying the luciferase reporter gene (SV/luc were administered intratracheally immediately after sepsis induction. Sham operated (SO as well as 2CLP rats given intratracheal PBS or adenovirus expressing luciferase served as controls. Luc transduction was evaluated by in vivo light detection, immunoassay and luciferase mRNA detection by RT-PCR in tissue harvested from septic rats. Vector abundance and distribution into alveolar cells was evaluated using immunostaining for the SV40 VP1 capsid protein as well as by double staining for VP1 and for the surfactant protein C (proSP-C. Immunostaining for T-lymphocytes was used to evaluate the cellular immune response induced by the vector. Results Luc expression measured by in vivo light detection correlated with immunoassay from lung tissue harvested from the same rats. Moreover, our results showed vector presence in type II alveolar cells. The vector did not induce significant cellular immune response. Conclusion In the present study we have demonstrated efficient uptake and expression of an SV40 vector in the lungs of animals with sepsis-induced ARDS. These vectors appear to be capable of in vivo transduction of alveolar type II cells and may thus become a future therapeutic tool.

  9. Pneumococcal Competence Coordination Relies on a Cell-Contact Sensing Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Prudhomme

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved various inducible genetic programs to face many types of stress that challenge their growth and survival. Competence is one such program. It enables genetic transformation, a major horizontal gene transfer process. Competence development in liquid cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae is synchronized within the whole cell population. This collective behavior is known to depend on an exported signaling Competence Stimulating Peptide (CSP, whose action generates a positive feedback loop. However, it is unclear how this CSP-dependent population switch is coordinated. By monitoring spontaneous competence development in real time during growth of four distinct pneumococcal lineages, we have found that competence shift in the population relies on a self-activated cell fraction that arises via a growth time-dependent mechanism. We demonstrate that CSP remains bound to cells during this event, and conclude that the rate of competence development corresponds to the propagation of competence by contact between activated and quiescent cells. We validated this two-step cell-contact sensing mechanism by measuring competence development during co-cultivation of strains with altered capacity to produce or respond to CSP. Finally, we found that the membrane protein ComD retains the CSP, limiting its free diffusion in the medium. We propose that competence initiator cells originate stochastically in response to stress, to form a distinct subpopulation that then transmits the CSP by cell-cell contact.

  10. Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eSavic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples

  11. Competence building capacity shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather

  12. COMPETING CONCEPTIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sklair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a relatively new idea in the social sciences, although people who work in and write about the mass media, transnational corporations and international business have been using it for some time. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the ways in which sociologists and other social scientists use ideas of globalization and to evaluate the fruitfulness of these competing conceptions. The central feature of the idea of globalization is that many contemporary problems cannot be adequately studied at the level of nation-states, that is, in terms of each country and its inter-national relations. Instead, they need to be conceptualized in terms of global processes. Some have even gone so far as to predict that global forces, by which they usually mean transnational corporations and other global economic institutions, global culture or globalizing belief systems/ideologies of various types, or a combination of all of these, are becoming so powerful that the continuing existence of the nation-state is in serious doubt. This is not a necessary consequence of most theories of globalization. The argument of this paper is that much of the globalization literature is confused because not all those who use the term distinguish it clearly enough from internation-alization, and some writers appear to use the two terms interchangeably. I argue that a clear distinction must be drawn between the inter-national and the global. The hyphen in inter-national is to distinguish (inadequate conceptions of the global' founded on the existing even if changing system of nation-states, from (genuine conceptions of the global based on the emergence of global processes and a global system of social relations not founded on national characteristics or nation-states. This global system theory is the framework for my own research. Globalization studies can be categorized on the basis of four research clusters:1. The world-systems approach; 2. The global

  13. Alphavirus vectors for vaccine production and gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2003-06-01

    Alphavirus vectors demonstrate high expression of heterologous proteins in a broad range of host cells. Replication-deficient as well as replication-competent variants exist. Systemic delivery of many viral antigens has elicited strong antibody responses in immunized mice and primates, and protection against challenges with lethal viruses was obtained. Similarly, prophylactic vaccination was established against tumor challenges. Attention has been paid to the engineering of improved targeting to immunologically active cells, such as dendritic cells. In the area of gene therapy, intratumoral injections of alphavirus vectors have resulted in potentially promising tumor rejection. Moreover, encapsulation of alphavirus particles into liposomes demonstrated efficient tumor targeting in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency, which permitted the initiation of clinical trials for patients with advanced kidney carcinoma and melanoma.

  14. Clinical Competence: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, William K.

    1979-01-01

    Competence, defined as the ability to accomplish an essential performance characteristic in a satisfactory fashion, is examined from the podiatric education viewpoint. The factors involved in continuing competence, factors making continuing competence essential in health professions, and basic problems relating to clinical competence are…

  15. Machine Trades. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for machine trades. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  16. Poultry Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a poultry producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  17. Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pessoa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988 and Kozlova (1984 and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995 in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002 providing conditions on $(X,Y$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.

  18. Competences, competences assessment, validity of instruments, Preschool Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Marín Uribe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe the design process, validation and assurance of an instrument for the assessment of the success level of competences in preschool children. Initially is presented a theoretical and contextual framework of the competences in preschool. With this, it is problematized about the absence of tools for that the educators could perform the diagnostic evaluation of competences required in the reform of preschool education 2004. In the design of the instrument, the concept of “situation” is central. The validation and assurance included a process of pilotage with 512 preschool children with the implementing in practice of three different ways of application of the instrument. The results show high levels of assurance and power of discrimination that allow to distinguish significantly people by age and socioeconomic level, not finding differences by genre.

  19. Assessing Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marches in 1987. Assessment in the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). It is widely recognized that sophisticated computing technologies are becoming a key element in today's classroom instructional techniques. Regardless, the Professor must be held responsible for creating an instructional environment in which the technology actually supplements learning outcomes of the students. Almost all academic disciplines have found a niche for computer-based instruction in their respective professional domain. In many cases, it is viewed as an essential and integral part of the educational process. Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology

  20. Vector fields on nonorientable surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Ghisa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-to-one correspondence is established between the germs of functions and tangent vectors on a NOS X and the bi-germs of functions, respectively, elementary fields of tangent vectors (EFTV on the orientable double cover of X. Some representation theorems for the algebra of germs of functions, the tangent space at an arbitrary point of X, and the space of vector fields on X are proved by using a symmetrisation process. An example related to the normal derivative on the border of the Möbius strip supports the nontriviality of the concepts introduced in this paper.

  1. Vector boson scattering at CLIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, Wolfgang; Fleper, Christian [Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [DESY Theory Group, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sekulla, Marco [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Linear colliders operating in a range of multiple TeV are able to investigate the details of vector boson scattering and electroweak symmetry breaking. We calculate cross sections with the Monte Carlo generator WHIZARD for vector boson scattering processes at the future linear e{sup +} e{sup -} collider CLIC. By finding suitable cuts, the vector boson scattering signal processes are isolated from the background. Finally, we are able to determine exclusion sensitivities on the non-Standard Model parameters of the relevant dimension eight operators.

  2. Vector control of induction machines

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for

  3. On the Witt vector Frobenius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Kedlaya, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    We study the kernel and cokernel of the Frobenius map on the p-typical Witt vectors of a commutative ring, not necessarily of characteristic p. We give many equivalent conditions to surjectivity of the Frobenius map on both finite and infinite length Witt vectors. In particular, surjectivity...... on finite Witt vectors turns out to be stable under certain integral extensions; this provides a clean formulation of a strong generalization of Faltings’s almost purity theorem from p-adic Hodge theory, incorporating recent improvements by Kedlaya–Liu and by Scholze....

  4. Crucial market demands and company competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    they were good at compared to their competitors. The result was 11 different competencies of which product development, customer relations and quality management are the three competencies mentioned most often. The competence structure shows that competencies are complex entities consisting of six different...... but interdependent elements. Four of these six entities are related to different forms of knowledge. These seem decisive for how well a company manages a specific competence....

  5. One Health Core Competency Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankson, Rebekah; Hueston, William; Christian, Kira; Olson, Debra; Lee, Mary; Valeri, Linda; Hyatt, Raymond; Annelli, Joseph; Rubin, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting "One Health" approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education, as they describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches.

  6. One Health Core Competency Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Frankson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting ‘One Health’ approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education as they describe the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches.

  7. One Health Core Competency Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankson, Rebekah; Hueston, William; Christian, Kira; Olson, Debra; Lee, Mary; Valeri, Linda; Hyatt, Raymond; Annelli, Joseph; Rubin, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting “One Health” approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education, as they describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches. PMID:27679794

  8. All optical vector magnetometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research project will investigate a novel method of operating an atomic magnetometer to simultaneously measure total magnetic fields and vector magnetic...

  9. Introduction to matrices and vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Jacob T

    2001-01-01

    In this concise undergraduate text, the first three chapters present the basics of matrices - in later chapters the author shows how to use vectors and matrices to solve systems of linear equations. 1961 edition.

  10. GRE Enzymes for Vector Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Microbial enzyme data that were collected during the 2004-2006 EMAP-GRE program. These data were then used by Moorhead et al (2016) in their ecoenzyme vector...

  11. Acoustic vector sensor signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guiqing; LI Qihu; ZHANG Bin

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic vector sensor simultaneously, colocately and directly measures orthogonal components of particle velocity as well as pressure at single point in acoustic field so that is possible to improve performance of traditional underwater acoustic measurement devices or detection systems and extends new ideas for solving practical underwater acoustic engineering problems. Although acoustic vector sensor history of appearing in underwater acoustic area is no long, but with huge and potential military demands, acoustic vector sensor has strong development trend in last decade, it is evolving into a one of important underwater acoustic technology. Under this background, we try to review recent progress in study on acoustic vector sensor signal processing, such as signal detection, DOA estimation, beamforming, and so on.

  12. Successful strategies for competing networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, Jacobo; Buldú, Javier M

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions represent one of the driving forces behind evolution and natural selection in biological and sociological systems. For example, animals in an ecosystem may vie for food or mates; in a market economy, firms may compete over the same group of customers; sensory stimuli may compete for limited neural resources in order to enter the focus of attention. Here, we derive rules based on the spectral properties of the network governing the competitive interactions between groups of agents organized in networks. In the scenario studied here the winner of the competition, and the time needed to prevail, essentially depend on the way a given network connects to its competitors and on its internal structure. Our results allow assessing the extent to which real networks optimize the outcome of their interaction, but also provide strategies through which competing networks can improve on their situation. The proposed approach is applicable to a wide range of systems that can be modeled as networks.

  13. Organizational Factors and Intrapreneurial Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzete Antonieta Lizote

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between organizational factors and entrepreneurial competencies of coordinators of undergraduate courses in two community universities in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The organizational factors studied were: management support, freedom at work, rewards, and time available and organizational limitations. Eight entrepreneurial competencies were considered; five included in an achievement set, and three in a planning set. The method was quantitative and descriptive, adopting a structured questionnaire as the data collection tool. Factor analysis, canonical analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results revealed a positive relationship between the constructs. The most relevant competencies were organizational limitations or uncertainty about tasks, and freedom at work, which indicates the importance having clarity about rules and decisions that should exist both at the level of performance expected of the coordinator, and the freedom that they must feel in their work.

  14. Unsupervised learning of binary vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelli Lopes da Silva, Mauro

    In this thesis, unsupervised learning of binary vectors from data is studied using methods from Statistical Mechanics of disordered systems. In the model, data vectors are distributed according to a single symmetry-breaking direction. The aim of unsupervised learning is to provide a good approximation to this direction. The difference with respect to previous studies is the knowledge that this preferential direction has binary components. It is shown that sampling from the posterior distribution (Gibbs learning) leads, for general smooth distributions, to an exponentially fast approach to perfect learning in the asymptotic limit of large number of examples. If the distribution is non-smooth, then first order phase transitions to perfect learning are expected. In the limit of poor performance, a second order phase transition ("retarded learning") is predicted to occur if the data distribution is not biased. Using concepts from Bayesian inference, the center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble is shown to have maximal average (Bayes-optimal) performance. This upper bound for continuous vectors is extended to a discrete space, resulting in the clipped center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble having maximal average performance among the binary vectors. To calculate the performance of this best binary vector, the geometric properties of the center of mass of binary vectors are studied. The surprising result is found that the center of mass of infinite binary vectors which obey some simple constraints, is again a binary vector. When disorder is taken into account in the calculation, however, a vector with continuous components is obtained. The performance of the best binary vector is calculated and shown to always lie above that of Gibbs learning and below the Bayes-optimal performance. Making use of a variational approach under the replica symmetric ansatz, an optimal potential is constructed in the limits of zero temperature and mutual overlap 1. Minimization of this potential

  15. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Cordillera Oriental. Studies in Norte de Santander Department in 1985 indicate 15.6% of the houses were infested with the vector, 30% of the...population studied had positive serologies, and 9% displayed abnormal heart function. Trypanosoma cruzi is found in animals and extradomiciliary vectors...drainage toward Lopez, the river slows and Simulium exiguum are less abundant than they are near San Antonio. From 1990-1995, Ivermectin (antihelminthic

  16. Alphavirus transducing system: tools for visualizing infection in mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Aaron; Mossel, Eric; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Foy, Brian; Olson, Ken

    2010-11-24

    -length RNA is transcribed from the linearized cDNA clone. Infectious RNA is introduced into permissive target cells by electroporation. Transfected cells generate infectious virus particles expressing the GOI. Harvested virus is used to infect mosquitoes, as described here, or other host species (not shown herein). Vector competence is assessed by detecting fluorescence outside the midgut or by monitoring virus transmission. Use of a fluorescent reporter as the GOI allows for convenient estimation of virus spread throughout a cell culture, for determination of rate of infection, dissemination in exposed mosquitoes, virus transmission from the mosquito and provides a rapid gauge of vector competence.

  17. Zika mosquito vectors: the jury is still out [version 1; referees: 5 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S. Leal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After a 40-year hiatus, the International Congress of Entomology (ICE 2016 convened in Orlando, Florida (September 25-30, 2016. One of the symposia at ICE 2016, the Zika Symposium, covered multiple aspects of the Zika epidemic, including epidemiology, sexual transmission, genetic tools for reducing transmission, and particularly vector competence. While there was a consensus among participants that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a vector of the Zika virus, there is growing evidence indicating that the range of mosquito vectors might be wider than anticipated. In particular, three independent groups from Canada, China, and Brazil presented and discussed laboratory and field data strongly suggesting that the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, also known as the common mosquito, is highly likely to be a vector in certain environments.

  18. Zika mosquito vectors: the jury is still out [version 2; referees: 5 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S. Leal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After a 40-year hiatus, the International Congress of Entomology (ICE 2016 convened in Orlando, Florida (September 25-30, 2016. One of the symposia at ICE 2016, the Zika Symposium, covered multiple aspects of the Zika epidemic, including epidemiology, sexual transmission, genetic tools for reducing transmission, and particularly vector competence. While there was a consensus among participants that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a vector of the Zika virus, there is growing evidence indicating that the range of mosquito vectors might be wider than anticipated. In particular, three independent groups from Canada, China, and Brazil presented and discussed laboratory and field data strongly suggesting that the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, also known as the common mosquito, is highly likely to be a vector in certain environments.

  19. Handling S/MAR vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Baiker, Armin; Postberg, Jan; Ehrhardt, Anja; Lipps, Hans J

    2012-06-01

    Nonviral episomal vectors represent attractive alternatives to currently used virus-based expression systems. In the late 1990s, it was shown that a plasmid containing an expression cassette linked to a scaffold/matrix attached region (S/MAR) replicates as a low copy number episome in all cell lines tested, as well as primary cells, and can be used for the genetic modification of higher animals. Once established in the cell, the S/MAR vector replicates early during S-phase and, in the absence of selection, is stably retained in the cells for an unlimited period of time. This vector can therefore be regarded as a minimal model system for studying the epigenetic regulation of replication and functional nuclear architecture. In theory, this construct represents an almost "ideal" expression system for gene therapy. In practice, S/MAR-based vectors stably modify mammalian cells with efficiencies far below those of virus-based constructs. Consequently, they have not yet found application in gene therapy trials. Furthermore, S/MAR vector systems are not trivial to handle and several critical technical issues have to be considered when modifying these vectors for various applications.

  20. Decays of the vector glueball

    CERN Document Server

    Giacosa, Francesco; Janowski, Stanislaus

    2016-01-01

    We calculate two- and three-body decays of the (lightest) vector glueball into (pseudo)scalar, (axial-)vector, as well as pseudovector and excited vector mesons. By setting the mass of this yet hypothetical vector glueball to 3.8 GeV as predicted by Lattice QCD, many branching ratios can be computed and represent a parameter-free prediction of our approach. We find that the decay mode $\\omega\\pi\\pi$ should be one of the largest (both through the decay chain $\\mathcal{O}\\rightarrow b_{1}\\pi\\rightarrow$ $\\omega\\pi\\pi$ and through the direct coupling $\\mathcal{O}\\rightarrow\\omega\\pi\\pi$)$.$ Similarly, the (direct and indirect) decay into $\\pi KK^{\\ast}(892)$ is sizable. Moreover, the decays into $\\rho\\pi$ and $K^{\\ast}(892)K$ are, although subleading, possible and could play a role in explaining the $\\rho\\pi$ puzzle of the charmonium state $\\psi(2S)$ thank to a (small) mixing with the vector glueball. The vector glueball can be directly formed at the ongoing BESIII experiment as well as at the future PANDA exper...

  1. Intercultural Competence in Host Students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Ulla Egidiussen; Lyngdorf, Niels Erik; Du, Xiangyun

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial work in intercultural education has been done on the intercultural competences of mobile students engaging in international study visits, there is a need to explore intercultural competences in host students. This chapter seeks to answer questions about the challenges......-secondary students hosting same-age Chinese students in homestays during a four-day study visit to Denmark in 2012. Qualitative data from student portfolios and focus group interviews are analysed with a focus on host students’ pre-understandings, experiences during the visit and overall reflections on the host...

  2. Competence linguistique et environnement social (Linguistic Competence and Social Environment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Simon; Berger, Jacques

    1988-01-01

    A study found native French-speaking and native English-speaking university students had similar writing skill levels and error patterns despite their position as language-minority or language-majority members of society. It is concluded that language competency is not necessarily linked to language difficulty or to the position of the language.…

  3. Enseigner la competence de communication (Teaching Communicative Competence).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Henri

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that the methodology for developing communicative competence in a second language is not always in keeping with the principles behind it. Two directions are suggested: use of grammatical sequencing for those students it suits best, and gradual introduction of complexity into the communicative situation. (MSE)

  4. Black holes with vector hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a vector field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type V = 2{Λ}_0+1/2{m}^2{A}^2 + {γ}_4{A}^4 . For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with Λ0 = m = γ4 = 0, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find that the thermodynamical first law of the extremal black holes is modified by a one form associated with the vector field. In particular, due to the existence of the non-minimal coupling, the vector forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and partly contributes to the one form modifying the first law. For a minimally coupled theory with Λ0 ≠ 0, we also obtain one class of asymptotically flat extremal black hole solutions in general dimensions. This is possible because the parameters ( m 2 , γ4) take certain values such that V = 0. In particular, we find that the vector also forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and contributes to the corresponding first law, although the non-minimal coupling has been turned off. Thus all the extremal black hole solutions that we obtain provide highly non-trivial examples how the first law of thermodynamics can be modified by a either minimally or non-minimally coupled vector field. We also study Gauss-Bonnet gravity non-minimally coupled to a vector and obtain asymptotically flat black holes and Lifshitz black holes.

  5. Death Competence: An Ethical Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamino, Louis A.; Ritter, R. Hal, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death…

  6. Handwriting Development, Competency, and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Katya P.; Majnemer, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Failure to attain handwriting competency during the school-age years often has far-reaching negative effects on both academic success and self-esteem. This complex occupational task has many underlying component skills that may interfere with handwriting performance. Fine motor control, bilateral and visual-motor integration, motor planning,…

  7. Decentering and recentering communicative competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kataoka, K.; Ikeda, K.; Besnier, N.

    2013-01-01

    Communicative competence, a concept that emerged in the 1970s, is in need of rethinking. This rethinking operates in two directions: on the one hand, by taking into account the new forms of interaction and contexts associated with globalization; on the other hand, by locating communicative competenc

  8. Instruction of Competent Psychomotor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Valerie Dong

    2008-01-01

    Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…

  9. What Core Competencies Are Related to Teachers' Innovative Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang; Wang, Di; Cai, Yonghong; Engels, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' core competencies in relation to their innovative teaching performance. Based on the literature and previous studies in this field, four competencies (learning competency, educational competency, social competency and technological competency) are theorised as core competencies for teachers'…

  10. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  11. A large U3 deletion causes increased in vivo expression from a nonintegrating lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Matthew; Kantor, Boris; Cockrell, Adam; Ma, Hong; Zeithaml, Brian; Li, Xiangping; McCown, Thomas; Kafri, Tal

    2008-12-01

    The feasibility of using nonintegrating lentiviral vectors has been demonstrated by recent studies showing their ability to maintain transgene expression both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) vectors packaged with a mutated integrase were able to correct retinal disease in a mouse model. Interestingly, these results differ from earlier studies in which first-generation nonintegrating lentiviral vectors yielded insignificant levels of transduction. However, to date, a rigorous characterization of transgene expression from the currently used self-inactivating (SIN) nonintegrating lentiviral vectors has not been published. In this study, we characterize transgene expression from SIN nonintegrating lentiviral vectors. Overall, we found that nonintegrating vectors express transgenes at a significantly lower level than their integrating counterparts. Expression from nonintegrating vectors was improved upon introducing a longer deletion in the vector's U3 region. A unique shuttle-vector assay indicated that the relative abundance of the different episomal forms was not altered by the longer U3 deletion. Interestingly, the longer U3 deletion did not enhance expression in the corpus callosum of the rat brain, suggesting that the extent of silencing of episomal transcription is influenced by tissue-specific factors. Finally, and for the first time, episomal expression in the mouse liver was potent and sustained.

  12. Forming engineers' sociocultural competence: Engineering ethics at tomsk polytechnic university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanina, E.; Dulzon, A.; Schwab, A.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present research is to discuss Tomsk Polytechnic University in respect of forming engineers’ sociocultural competence and teaching engineering ethics. Today international standards of training engineers cover efficient communication skills, ability to understand societal and environment context, professional and ethical responsibility. This article deals with the problem of contradiction between the need to form engineers’ sociocultural competence in Russian higher education institutions in order to meet the requirements of international accreditation organizations and the real capabilities of existing engineering curricula. We have described ethics teaching experience of TPU, studied the engineering master programs of TPU to see how the planned results are achieved. We have also given our recommendations to alter the structure of TPU educational curricula, which can also be applied in other higher education institutions.

  13. Project Physics Programmed Instruction, Vectors 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    This programmed instruction booklet is an interim version of instructional materials being developed by Harvard Project Physics. It is the first in a series of three booklets on vectors and covers the definitions of vectors and scalars, drawing vector quantities to scale, and negative vectors. For others in this series, see SE 015 550 and SE 015…

  14. Project Physics Programmed Instruction, Vectors 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    This is the second of a series of three programmed instruction booklets on vectors developed by Harvard Project Physics. It covers adding two or more vectors together, and finding a third vector that could be added to two given vectors to make a sum of zero. For other booklets in this series, see SE 015 549 and SE 015 551. (DT)

  15. The Duality on Vector Optimization Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Long-guang

    2012-01-01

    Duality framework on vector optimization problems in a locally convex topological vector space are established by using scalarization with a cone-strongly increasing function.The dualities for the scalar convex composed optimization problems and for general vector optimization problems are studied.A general approach for studying duality in vector optimization problems is presented.

  16. A NOTE ON VECTOR CASCADE ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-hui Chen; Jin-zhao Liu; Wen-sheng Zhang

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the relationship between accuracy of multivariate refinable vector and vector cascade algorithm. We show that, if the vector cascade algorithm (1.5) with isotropic dilation converges to a vector-valued function with regularity, then the initial function must satisfy the Strang-Fix conditions.

  17. The biological control of disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2012-09-21

    Vector-borne diseases are common in nature and can have a large impact on humans, livestock and crops. Biological control of vectors using natural enemies or competitors can reduce vector density and hence disease transmission. However, the indirect interactions inherent in host-vector disease systems make it difficult to use traditional pest control theory to guide biological control of disease vectors. This necessitates a conceptual framework that explicitly considers a range of indirect interactions between the host-vector disease system and the vector's biological control agent. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the efficacy of different types of biological control agents in controlling vector-borne diseases. We report three key findings. First, highly efficient predators and parasitoids of the vector prove to be effective biological control agents, but highly virulent pathogens of the vector also require a high transmission rate to be effective. Second, biocontrol agents can successfully reduce long-term host disease incidence even though they may fail to reduce long-term vector densities. Third, inundating a host-vector disease system with a natural enemy of the vector has little or no effect on reducing disease incidence, but inundating the system with a competitor of the vector has a large effect on reducing disease incidence. The comparative framework yields predictions that are useful in developing biological control strategies for vector-borne diseases. We discuss how these predictions can inform ongoing biological control efforts for host-vector disease systems.

  18. Implementing Bayesian Vector Autoregressions Implementing Bayesian Vector Autoregressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Todd

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Implementing Bayesian Vector Autoregressions This paper discusses how the Bayesian approach can be used to construct a type of multivariate forecasting model known as a Bayesian vector autoregression (BVAR. In doing so, we mainly explain Doan, Littermann, and Sims (1984 propositions on how to estimate a BVAR based on a certain family of prior probability distributions. indexed by a fairly small set of hyperparameters. There is also a discussion on how to specify a BVAR and set up a BVAR database. A 4-variable model is used to iliustrate the BVAR approach.

  19. Quad-Quaternion MUSIC for DOA Estimation Using Electromagnetic Vector Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Gong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new quad-quaternion model is herein established for an electromagnetic vector-sensor array, under which a multidimensional algebra-based direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation algorithm, termed as quad-quaternion MUSIC (QQ-MUSIC, is proposed. This method provides DOA estimation (decoupled from polarization by exploiting the orthogonality of the newly defined “quad-quaternion” signal and noise subspaces. Due to the stronger constraints that quad-quaternion orthogonality imposes on quad-quaternion vectors, QQ-MUSIC is shown to offer high robustness to model errors, and thus is very competent in practice. Simulation results have validated the proposed method.

  20. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  1. Ensemble Dynamics and Bred Vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Balci, Nusret; Restrepo, Juan M; Sell, George R

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the new concept of an EBV to assess the sensitivity of model outputs to changes in initial conditions for weather forecasting. The new algorithm, which we call the "Ensemble Bred Vector" or EBV, is based on collective dynamics in essential ways. By construction, the EBV algorithm produces one or more dominant vectors. We investigate the performance of EBV, comparing it to the BV algorithm as well as the finite-time Lyapunov Vectors. We give a theoretical justification to the observed fact that the vectors produced by BV, EBV, and the finite-time Lyapunov vectors are similar for small amplitudes. Numerical comparisons of BV and EBV for the 3-equation Lorenz model and for a forced, dissipative partial differential equation of Cahn-Hilliard type that arises in modeling the thermohaline circulation, demonstrate that the EBV yields a size-ordered description of the perturbation field, and is more robust than the BV in the higher nonlinear regime. The EBV yields insight into the fractal structure of th...

  2. A reduce and replace strategy for suppressing vector-borne diseases: insights from a stochastic, spatial model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi W Okamoto

    Full Text Available Two basic strategies have been proposed for using transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to decrease dengue virus transmission: population reduction and population replacement. Here we model releases of a strain of Ae. aegypti carrying both a gene causing conditional adult female mortality and a gene blocking virus transmission into a wild population to assess whether such releases could reduce the number of competent vectors. We find this "reduce and replace" strategy can decrease the frequency of competent vectors below 50% two years after releases end. Therefore, this combined approach appears preferable to releasing a strain carrying only a female-killing gene, which is likely to merely result in temporary population suppression. However, the fixation of anti-pathogen genes in the population is unlikely. Genetic drift at small population sizes and the spatially heterogeneous nature of the population recovery after releases end prevent complete replacement of the competent vector population. Furthermore, releasing more individuals can be counter-productive in the face of immigration by wild-type mosquitoes, as greater population reduction amplifies the impact wild-type migrants have on the long-term frequency of the anti-pathogen gene. We expect the results presented here to give pause to expectations for driving an anti-pathogen construct to fixation by relying on releasing individuals carrying this two-gene construct. Nevertheless, in some dengue-endemic environments, a spatially heterogeneous decrease in competent vectors may still facilitate decreasing disease incidence.

  3. Predicting the effect of climate change on African trypanosomiasis: integrating epidemiology with parasite and vector biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean; Shrestha, Sourya; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Vuong, Holly

    2012-05-07

    Climate warming over the next century is expected to have a large impact on the interactions between pathogens and their animal and human hosts. Vector-borne diseases are particularly sensitive to warming because temperature changes can alter vector development rates, shift their geographical distribution and alter transmission dynamics. For this reason, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), a vector-borne disease of humans and animals, was recently identified as one of the 12 infectious diseases likely to spread owing to climate change. We combine a variety of direct effects of temperature on vector ecology, vector biology and vector-parasite interactions via a disease transmission model and extrapolate the potential compounding effects of projected warming on the epidemiology of African trypanosomiasis. The model predicts that epidemics can occur when mean temperatures are between 20.7°C and 26.1°C. Our model does not predict a large-range expansion, but rather a large shift of up to 60 per cent in the geographical extent of the range. The model also predicts that 46-77 million additional people may be at risk of exposure by 2090. Future research could expand our analysis to include other environmental factors that influence tsetse populations and disease transmission such as humidity, as well as changes to human, livestock and wildlife distributions. The modelling approach presented here provides a framework for using the climate-sensitive aspects of vector and pathogen biology to predict changes in disease prevalence and risk owing to climate change.

  4. Frameworks of competence: common or specific?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Grant, S. (2006). Frameworks of competence: common or specific?. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. September 12th, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from

  5. Competencies - a roadmap for CERN Staff

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Back in November, the new CERN Competency Model (CCM), a framework defining the competencies that “ drive performance and lead to excellence”, was introduced by Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, in a special edition of the "Spotlight on CERN" interviews.   What are competencies? Competencies are the characteristics that allow you to do the job you have been assigned. In more precise terms, competencies may be described as the knowledge, skills and types of behaviour that individuals demonstrate in carrying out a given task. Listing all the competencies that make CERN work is an impossible task but one can identify the two main types: technical and behavioural. Both are needed to work effectively in this Organization. While technical competencies are simply the domains of expertise that CERN needs – examples include physics, mechanical engineering and information technology – behavioural competencies are th...

  6. Gauge Theories of Vector Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.

    1961-04-24

    The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.

  7. Vector bundles on toric varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gharib, Saman

    2011-01-01

    Following Sam Payne's work, we study the existence problem of nontrivial vector bundles on toric varieties. The first result we prove is that every complete fan admits a nontrivial conewise linear multivalued function. Such functions could potentially be the Chern classes of toric vector bundles. Then we use the results of Corti\\~nas, Haesemeyer, Walker and Weibel to show that the (non-equivariant) Grothendieck group of the toric 3-fold studied by Payne is large, so the variety has a nontrivial vector bundle. Using the same computation, we show that every toric 3-fold X either has a nontrivial line bundle, or there is a finite surjective toric morphism from Y to X, such that Y has a large Grothendieck group.

  8. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    studies and in vivo. Phantom measurements are compared with their corresponding reference value, whereas the in vivo measurement is validated against the current golden standard for non-invasive blood velocity estimates, based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study concludes, that a high precision......, if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges......For the last decade, the field of ultrasonic vector flow imaging has gotten an increasingly attention, as the technique offers a variety of new applications for screening and diagnostics of cardiovascular pathologies. The main purpose of this PhD project was therefore to advance the field of 3-D...

  9. Skyrmions with vector mesons revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Yongseok

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a model that can describe both a single baryon and multi-baryon systems on the same footing, we re-investigate the Skyrme model in a chiral Lagrangian derived from the hidden local symmetry (HLS) up to $O(p^4)$ including the homogeneous Wess-Zumino terms. We use the master formulas that connect the parameters of the HLS Lagrangian and a class of holographic QCD models, which provides a controllable way to determine the low-energy constants of the Lagrangian once the pion decay constant and the vector meson mass are given. Therefore, this model allows us to study the role of vector mesons in the skyrmion structure. We find that the $\\rho$ and $\\omega$ vector mesons have different roles in the skyrmion structure and that the $\\omega$ meson has an important role in the properties of the nucleon.

  10. Quantum contextuality for rational vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, Adan

    2010-01-01

    The Kochen-Specker theorem states that noncontextual hidden variable models are inconsistent with the quantum predictions for every yes-no question on a qutrit, corresponding to every projector in three dimensions. It has been suggested [D. A. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3751 (1999)] that the inconsistency would disappear when we are restricted to projectors on unit vectors with rational components; that noncontextual hidden variables could reproduce the quantum predictions for rational vectors. Here we show that a qutrit state with rational components violates an inequality valid for noncontextual hidden-variable models [A. A. Klyachko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 020403 (2008)] using rational projectors. This shows that the inconsistency remains even when using only rational vectors.

  11. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  12. Evaluating Adult's Competency: Application of the Competency Assessment Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Dominique; Tétreault, Sylvie; Landry, Marie-Pier

    2015-01-01

    Competency assessment of adults with cognitive impairment or mental illness is a complex process that can have significant consequences for their rights. Some models put forth in the scientific literature have been proposed to guide health and social service professionals with this assessment process, but none of these appear to be complete. A new model, the Competency Assessment Process (CAP), was presented and validated in other studies. This paper adds to this corpus by presenting both the CAP model and the results of a survey given to health and social service professionals on its practical application in their clinical practice. The survey was administered to 35 participants trained in assessing competency following the CAP model. The results show that 40% of participants use the CAP to guide their assessment and the majority of those who do not yet use it plan to do so in the future. A large majority of participants consider this to be a relevant model and believe that all interdisciplinary teams should use it. These results support the relevance of the CAP model. Further research is planned to continue the study of the application of CAP in healthcare facilities.

  13. Relationship between language competence and emotional competence in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Luna; Kumschick, Irina R; Eid, Michael; Klann-Delius, Gisela

    2012-06-01

    Research on children's emotional competence has received considerable attention in the last decade, including the role of language. Language competence (LC) and emotional competence (EC) comprise multiple components. These components and their specific interrelations have not been studied sufficiently. In our study, we examined relations between multiple components of LC and EC in a sample of 210 school-age children. Five measures represented LC: receptive vocabulary, verbal fluency, literacy, narrative structure, and the narrative use of evaluative devices. Four measures represented EC: expressive emotion vocabulary, declarative emotion knowledge, awareness of mixed emotions, and facial emotion recognition. Results showed strong positive correlations between LC and EC ranging between r = .12 and r = .45. In particular, receptive vocabulary and literacy were closely related to emotion knowledge and awareness of mixed emotions. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed that there is a common general ability factor for LC and EC. We discuss why receptive vocabulary and literacy might be so strongly related to emotion knowledge in school-age children. Our findings have implications for developmental psychologists, educational research, and speech-language pathologists.

  14. Competency development and labour remuneration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Sabetova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the problems of competency development and of competency-based approach to labour stimulation. The objective of the performed research was to determine the key types of professional competencies, their influence upon work performance, and way of their development. Two variants of competency understanding are outlined depending on the actual performance enabled by the competency presence and maturity: competency as an employee’s potential, and competency as the measure of labour activity goal achievement, which is in fact the realization of the potential. The system of labour remuneration based on the competency approach and including three types of bonuses was worked out. It includes minimum bonus applied for one-time reward of an employee’s success, qualification bonus requiring formal proof of the qualification level, bonus rewarding successful competency appliance. The competency classification based on three key features was suggested for more efficient analysis of competency appliance opportunities: maturity, or development degree; source or way of acquire ment; scope of possible appliance. The need to spend time and effort for obtaining and developing nearly all possible competencies was po inted out. Special attention is paid to forming labour competencies during the period of a person’s life when he is emp loyed. The sources of the competency formation for the employees were discussed and the problem of performing competency development activities at the expense of other types of activities was stressed out. The conclusion was made, that the employers and em ployees need to share the weight of means and efforts required for competency formation and development to enable the latter to perfo rm their duties more effectively in the future.

  15. Rater Wealth Predicts Perceptions of Outgroup Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Wayne; McCrae, Robert R.; Rogers, Darrin L.; Weimer, Amy A.; Greenberg, David M.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    National income has a pervasive influence on the perception of ingroup stereotypes, with high status and wealthy targets perceived as more competent. In two studies we investigated the degree to which economic wealth of raters related to perceptions of outgroup competence. Raters’ economic wealth predicted trait ratings when 1) raters in 48 other cultures rated Americans’ competence and 2) Mexican Americans rated Anglo Americans’ competence. Rater wealth also predicted ratings of interpersona...

  16. THE COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakhomova Irina Yurevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the concept of "communicative competence of future teachers," describes the essential characteristics and features of pedagogical communication. Objective: To define the notion of "communicative competence of future teachers' Methodology of work: competence approach. Scope of the results: the preparation of future teachers at the Pedagogical University. Results: This article describes the concept of "communicative competence of future teachers," describes the essential characteristics and features of pedagogical communication.

  17. Inducing RNA interference in the arbovirus vector, Culicoides sonorensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M K; Nayduch, D; Michel, K

    2015-02-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides are important vectors of arboviral diseases, including epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bluetongue and most likely Schmallenberg, which cause significant economic burdens worldwide. Research on these vectors has been hindered by the lack of a sequenced genome, the difficulty of consistent culturing of certain species and the absence of molecular techniques such as RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we report the establishment of RNAi as a research tool for the adult midge, Culicoides sonorensis. Based on previous research and transcriptome analysis, which revealed putative small interfering RNA pathway member orthologues, we hypothesized that adult C. sonorensis midges have the molecular machinery needed to perform RNA silencing. Injection of control double-stranded RNA targeting green fluorescent protein (dsGFP), into the haemocoel of 2-3-day-old adult female midges resulted in survival curves that support virus transmission. dsRNA injection targeting the newly identified C. sonorensis inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (CsIAP1) orthologue resulted in a 40% decrease of transcript levels and 73% shorter median survivals as compared with dsGFP-injected controls. These results reveal the conserved function of IAP1. Importantly, they also demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi by dsRNA injection in adult midges, which will greatly facilitate studies of the underlying mechanisms of vector competence in C. sonorensis.

  18. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus: a potential vector to transmit Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Li, Chun-Xiao; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Xing, Dan; Liu, Qin-Mei; Wu, Qun; Sun, Ai-Juan; Dong, Yan-de; Cao, Wu-Chun; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-09-07

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a threat to global health since the outbreak in Brazil in 2015. Although ZIKV is generally considered an Aedes-transmitted pathogen, new evidence has shown that parts of the virus closely resemble Culex-transmitted viruses. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the competence of Culex species for ZIKV to understand their potential as vectors. In this study, female Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were orally exposed to ZIKV. Mosquito midguts, salivary glands and ovaries were tested for ZIKV to measure infection and dissemination at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 18 days post exposure (pe). In addition, saliva was collected from mosquitoes after infection and infant mice were bitten by infected mosquitoes to measure the transmission ability of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. The results showed that the peak time of virus appearance in the salivary glands was day 8 pe, with 90% infection rate and an estimated virus titer of 3.92±0.49 lg RNA copies/mL. Eight of the nine infant mice had positive brains after being bitten by infected mosquitoes, which meant that Cx. p. quinquefasciatus could be infected with and transmit ZIKV following oral infection. These laboratory results clearly demonstrate the potential role of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus as a vector of ZIKV in China. Because there are quite different vector management strategies required to control Aedes (Stegomyia) species and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, an integrated approach may be required should a Zika epidemic occur.

  19. Learning with Support Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Support Vectors Machines have become a well established tool within machine learning. They work well in practice and have now been used across a wide range of applications from recognizing hand-written digits, to face identification, text categorisation, bioinformatics, and database marketing. In this book we give an introductory overview of this subject. We start with a simple Support Vector Machine for performing binary classification before considering multi-class classification and learning in the presence of noise. We show that this framework can be extended to many other scenarios such a

  20. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  1. Vector Theory in Relativistic Thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽文

    1994-01-01

    It is pointed out that five defects occur in Planck-Einstein’s relativistic thermodynamics (P-E theory). A vector theory in relativistic thermodynamics (VTRT) is established. Defining the internal energy as a 4-vector, and supposing the entropy and the number of. particles to be invariants we have derived the transformations of all quantities, and subsequently got the Lagrangian and 4-D forms of thermodynamic laws. In order to test the new theory, several exact solutions with classical limits are given. The VTRT is free from the defects of the P-E theory.

  2. Minimum Competency Testing and the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    This brief overview of minimum competency testing and disabled high school students discusses: the inclusion or exclusion of handicapped students in minimum competency testing programs; approaches to accommodating the individual needs of handicapped students; and legal issues. Surveys of states that have mandated minimum competency tests indicate…

  3. Marketing Management. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  4. Evaluating Positive Social Competence in Preschool Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Social competence is seen as a critical aspect of academic and social success; however, the construct is often minimized to a set of social skills or the absence of negative behaviors. The current study aims to broaden the understanding of social competence by incorporating the factors associated with the development of social competence and the…

  5. 18 CFR 5.28 - Competing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competing applications. 5.28 Section 5.28 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Competing applications. (a) Site access for a competing applicant. The provisions of § 16.5 of this...

  6. Competency Mapping of Teachers in Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumar, V. Raji

    2009-01-01

    Competency of teachers assumes a lot of importance in the era of knowledge society who are expected to produce students of high calibre. In India however competency development and mapping still remains an unexplored process. Not much study has been done on competency mapping in higher education sector, thus the present study is ventured upon. The…

  7. Towards a Taxonomy for Project Management Competences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.A.; Vrijhoef, R.; Kessels, J.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on project management competences did not use a standard set of competences. Twenty-five publications, published in or after 2000, show little agreement on their competences: of the 353 only twelve percent is named more than once. Of the 353, 31 are linked to communication, but a cla

  8. Assessing clinical competency: reports from discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnwald, Grant; Stone, Elizabeth; Bristol, David; Fuentealba, Carmen; Hardie, Lizette; Hellyer, Peter; Jaeger, Laurie; Kerwin, Sharon; Kochevar, Deborah; Lissemore, Kerry; Olsen, Christopher; Rogers, Kenita; Sabin, Beth; Swanson, Cliff; Warner, Angeline

    2008-01-01

    This report describes proposed new models for assessment of eight of the nine clinical competencies the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education requires for accreditation. The models were developed by discussion groups at the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges' Clinical Competency Symposium. Clinical competencies and proposed models (in parentheses) are described. Competency 1: comprehensive patient diagnosis (neurologic examination on a dog, clinical reasoning skills); Competency 2: comprehensive treatment planning (concept mapping, computerized case studies); Competency 3: anesthesia, pain management (student portfolio); Competency 4: surgery skills (objective structured clinical examination, cased-based examination, "super dog" model); Competency 5: medicine skills (clinical reasoning and case management, skills checklist); Competency 6: emergency and intensive care case management (computerized case study or scenario); Competency 7: health promotion, disease prevention/biosecurity (360 degrees evaluation, case-based computer simulation); Competency 8: client communications and ethical conduct (Web-based evaluation forms, client survey, communicating with stakeholders, telephone conversation, written scenario-based cases). The report also describes faculty recognition for participating in clinical competency assessments.

  9. Criminal Justice. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  10. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  11. Dell Hymes's Construct of "Communicative Competence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazden, Courtney B.

    2011-01-01

    Cazden reflects on theoretical and sociopolitical origins of Hymes's construct of communicative competence in events occurring just before and after 1960 in the U.S. She comments on Hymes's emphasis on competence not as abstract systemic potential of a language, but as capability located in individual persons; and she explores competence as both…

  12. Examining Factors Predicting Students' Digital Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlevik, Ove Edvard; Guðmundsdóttir, Gréta Björk; Loi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students' digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what…

  13. Developing Communicative Competence in University Language Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šajgalíková, Helena; Breeze, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with university language teaching in the perspective of its shift from linguistic competence towards communicative competence, and presents some aspects of the underlying process. It analyses the findings from a survey conducted within the Leonardo project "Transparency in the Acquired Language Competences" (TALC;…

  14. Teacher Technology Competencies: Early Indicators and Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Julie; Knuth, Randy; Borse, Jennifer; Mitchell, Marlon

    Two recent trends in education--increased technology and accountability--are driving efforts to define technology competencies and standards for teachers. The first lists of competencies from these efforts are just now being completed. While some of these competencies are linked to teacher certification and re-certification, others are developed…

  15. Systematic approach in petroleum personnel competence assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, Vera; Nekhoda, Evgeniya; Dmitriev, Andrey; Khudyakov, Dmitriy; Pozdeeva, Galina

    2016-09-01

    The article is devoted to professional competence improvement of personnel in the petroleum industry. The technique for competence assessment optimization in oil and gas well drilling is developed. The specification for the oil and gas industry competence profiles has been provided.

  16. Competences for All: Recognizing and Developing Competences of Young People with Fewer Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usakli, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study clarifies opinion of 32 European volunteer youth leaders on concepts of competence, fewer opportunities and enlargement strategies on competence of fewer opportunities. Leaders underline main competencies as follows: tongue, languages, mathematical, digital, learning, social, entrepreneurship, cultural. Key competences are…

  17. Enhancing Safety through Generic Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mockel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides insights into proactive safety management and mitigation. An analysis of accident reports reveals categories of supervening causes of accidents which can be directly linked to the concept of generic competencies (information management, communication and coordination, problem solving, and effect control. These findings strongly suggest adding the human element as another safety-constituting pillar to the concept of ship safety next to technology and regulation. We argue that the human element has unique abilities in dealing with critical and highly dynamic situations which can contribute to the system's recovery from non-routine or critical situations. By educating seafarers in generic competencies we claim to enable the people onboard to successfully deal with critical situations.

  18. Phytochromes in photosynthetically competent plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, L.H.

    1990-07-01

    Plants utilize light as a source of information in photomorphogenesis and of free energy in photosynthesis, two processes that are interrelated in that the former serves to increase the efficiency with which plants can perform the latter. Only one pigment involved in photomorphogenesis has been identified unequivocally, namely phytochrome. The thrust of this proposal is to investigate this pigment and its mode(s) of action in photosynthetically competent plants. Our long term objective is to characterize phytochrome and its functions in photosynthetically competent plants from molecular, biochemical and cellular perspectives. It is anticipated that others will continue to contribute indirectly to these efforts at the physiological level. The ultimate goal will be to develop this information from a comparative perspective in order to learn whether the different phytochromes have significantly different physicochemical properties, whether they fulfill independent functions and if so what these different functions are, and how each of the different phytochromes acts at primary molecular and cellular levels.

  19. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  20. Identification of Company Command Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    45 Virtual role plays ( VRPs ) could be used to measure many of the company command competencies identified in this project. In a VRP , the user...could play the role of a Company Commander who must deal with myriad crises, challenges, and potential opportunities. In a web- enabled VRP , the user...to be concerned about. Future research should create VRPs or other engaging assessments to determine proficiency levels on the identified company

  1. Competencies Framework for Climate Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The World Climate Conference-3 (Geneva, 2009) established the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) to enable better management of the risks of climate variability and change and adaptation to climate change at all levels, through development and incorporation of science-based climate information and prediction into planning, policy and practice. The GFCS defines Climate Services as the result of transforming climate data into climate information in a way that responds to user needs and assists decision-making by individuals and organizations. Capacity Development is a cross-cutting pillar of the GFCS to ensure that services are provided by institutions with professionals whom achieved the adequate set of competencies recommended by WMO, which are yet to be fully defined. The WMO-Commission for Climatology Expert Team on Education and Training, ET-ETR, has been working to define a Competencies Framework for Climate Services to help the institutions to deliver high quality climate services in compliance with WMO standards and regulations, specifically those defined by WMO's Commission for Climatology and the GFCS. This framework is based in 5 areas or competence, closely associated to the areas of work of climate services providers: create and manage climate data sets; derive products from climate data; create and/or interpret climate forecasts and model output; ensure the quality of climate information and services; communicate climatological information with users. With this contribution, we intend to introduce to a wider audience the rationale behind these 5 top-level competency statements and the performance criteria associated with them, as well as the plans of the ET-ETR for further developing them into an instrument to support education and training within the WMO members, specially the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services.

  2. Competencies and (global) talent management

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the main issues on the study of competencies and talent management in modern and competitive organizations. The chapters show how organizations around the world are facing (global) talent management challenges and give the reader information on the latest research activity related to that. Innovative theories and strategies are reported in this book, which provides an interdisciplinary exchange of information, ideas and opinions about the workplace challenges.

  3. Potential for Extrinsic Incubation Temperature to Alter Interplay Between Transmission Potential and Mortality of Dengue-Infected Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Mores, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic incubation period is a critical component in the assessment of arboviral transmission potential. It defines the time it takes for a mosquito to become infectious following exposure to an arbovirus. Since this is a temporal process, the lifespan of a mosquito is intimately tied to the extrinsic incubation period and thus transmission potential of these viruses. Temperature is a known effector of both vector competence (the ability of a vector to transmit a pathogen) and mosquito mortality, but the interaction among temperature, vector competence, and mosquito mortality is not well characterized. Herein, we investigate this interaction for dengue virus, serotype 2, and its primary vector Aedes aegypti where we found that at 30 °C, infection and/or dissemination shortened the average lifespan of the mosquito and that when considering only mosquitoes with a disseminated infection, those incubated at 26 °C lived significantly longer. PMID:27478382

  4. Competence and competency-based nursing education: finding our way through the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl-Zieber, Em M; Barton, Sylvia; Konkin, Jill; Awosoga, Olu; Caine, Vera

    2014-05-01

    The language of competence is widely utilized in both the regulation of nursing practice and curricular design in nursing education. The notion of competence defines what it means to be a professional, although it is not the only way of describing nursing practice. Unfortunately, there is much confusion about the concepts of competence, competency, and competency-based education. As well, the notion of competence, despite its global popularity, has flaws. In this paper we will disentangle these terms and critique the use of competence frameworks in nursing education.

  5. Barcoding Turkish Culex mosquitoes to facilitate arbovirus vector incrimination studies reveals hidden diversity and new potential vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Filiz; Alten, Bulent; Simsek, Fatih; Aldemir, Adnan; Linton, Yvonne-Marie

    2015-03-01

    As a precursor to planned arboviral vector incrimination studies, an integrated systematics approach was adopted using morphology and DNA barcoding to examine the Culex fauna present in Turkey. The mitochondrial COI gene (658bp) were sequenced from 185 specimens collected across 11 Turkish provinces, as well as from colony material. Although by morphology only 9 species were recognised, DNA barcoding recovered 13 distinct species including: Cx. (Barraudius) modestus, Cx. (Culex) laticinctus, Cx. (Cux.) mimeticus, Cx. (Cux.) perexiguus, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens form molestus, Cx. (Cux.) quinquefasciatus, Cx. (Cux.) theileri, Cx. (Cux.) torrentium, Cx. (Cux.) tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. (Maillotia) hortensis. The taxon formerly identified as Cx. (Neoculex) territans was shown to comprise two distinct species, neither of which correspond to Cx. territans s.s. These include Cx. (Neo.) impudicus and another uncertain species, which may be Cx. (Neo.) europaeus or Cx. (Neo.) martinii (herein=Cx. (Neo.) sp. 1). Detailed examination of the Pipiens Group revealed Cx. pipiens, Cx. pipiens f. molestus and the widespread presence of the highly efficient West Nile virus vector Cx. quinquefasciatus for the first time. Four new country records are reported, increasing the Culex of Turkey to 15 recognised species and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. A new taxonomic checklist is provided, annotated with respective vector competencies for transmission of arboviruses.

  6. Professional Competence in Psychosociology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with labour activity through perspective of factors that condition it’s efficiency is a problem of great interest in psychosociology. The performances’ evaluation is a manner to appreciate the degree of adequation of the human operator to professional exigences of the labour he does. "The proffesional competence" is the intrinsic potentiality of person and the performance - the achieved potentiality showen in material or spiritual products or servicies and which is, often, influenced not only by factors depending on the person (the specific skills, the motivation, the degree of implication in decisional process, but olso by factors independent of person. Through the present study we have verified the interpretative-thoretical pattern suggessted for profesional competence (mental skills of cognitional kind and socio-emotional skills, the consciousness of profesional competence of a group of subjects that carried on in army. In this study the used method is secondary analysis, analysis and interpretation in a different manner of collected information with different reasons.

  7. Professional Competence in Psychosociology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with labour activity through perspective of factors that condition it's efficiency is a problem of great interest in psychosociology. The performances' evaluation is a manner to appreciate the degree of adequation of the human operator to professional exigences of the labour he does. "The proffesional competence" is the intrinsic potentiality of person and the performance - the achieved potentiality showen in material or spiritual products or servicies and which is, often, influenced not only by factors depending on the person (the specific skills, the motivation, the degree of implication in decisional process, but olso by factors independent of person. Through the present study we have verified the interpretative-thoretical pattern suggessted for profesional competence (mental skills of cognitional kind and socio-emotional skills, the consciousness of profesional competence of a group of subjects that carried on in army. In this study the used method is secondary analysis, analysis and interpretation in a different manner of collected information with different reasons.

  8. Scalar Calibration of Vector Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter; Primdahl, Fritz;

    2000-01-01

    The calibration parameters of a vector magnetometer are estimated only by the use of a scalar reference magnetometer. The method presented in this paper differs from those previously reported in its linearized parametrization. This allows the determination of three offsets or signals in the absence...

  9. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  10. SCALAR AND VECTOR IN COMPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery F. Ochkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two fundamental data types – scalar and vector (array, without the ability of working with them one cannot solve using computer school or university tasks in mathematics, physics, chemistry and other technical training courses. Some fundamentals of teaching computer science at school and university are covered as well. 

  11. Vector-valued fuzzy multifunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismat Beg

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the properties of vector-valued fuzzy multifunctions are studied. The notion of sum fuzzy multifunction, convex hull fuzzy multifunction, close convex hull fuzzy multifunction, and upper demicontinuous are given, and some of the properties of these fuzzy multifunctions are investigated.

  12. Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…

  13. Sparse Matrix Vector Processing Formats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stathis, P.T.

    2004-01-01

    In this dissertation we have identified vector processing shortcomings related to the efficient storing and processing of sparse matrices. To alleviate existent problems we propose two storage formats denoted as Block Based Compression Storage (BBCS) format and Hierarchical Sparse Matrix (HiSM) stor

  14. Bifurcations of optimal vector fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.; Wagener, F.

    2015-01-01

    We study the structure of the solution set of a class of infinite-horizon dynamic programming problems with one-dimensional state spaces, as well as their bifurcations, as problem parameters are varied. The solutions are represented as the integral curves of a multivalued optimal vector field on sta

  15. Phlebotomine Vectors of Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-30

    different. We refrain from naming this specimen until more material becomes available. 12. Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor Fairchild and Theodor 1971...Castillo (1958) and Arzube (1960). Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor is the suspected vector of Leishmania mexicana aristedesi among rodents and marsupials in

  16. Vector-meson dominance revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terschlüsen Carla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of mesons with electromagnetism is often well described by the concept of vector-meson dominance (VMD. However, there are also examples where VMD fails. A simple chiral Lagrangian for pions, rho and omega mesons is presented which can account for the respective agreement and disagreement between VMD and phenomenology in the sector of light mesons.

  17. Phase transitions in Vector Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witoelar, Aree; Ghosh, Anarta; Biehl, Michael; Verleysen, Michel

    2008-01-01

    We study Winner-Takes-All and rank based Vector Quantization along the lines of the statistical physics of off-line learning. Typical behavior of the system is obtained within a model where high-dimensional training data are drawn from a mixture of Gaussians. The analysis becomes exact in the simpli

  18. Parallel Sparse Matrix - Vector Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Dammann, Bernd

    This technical report contains a case study of a sparse matrix-vector product routine, implemented for parallel execution on a compute cluster with both pure MPI and hybrid MPI-OpenMP solutions. C++ classes for sparse data types were developed and the report shows how these class can be used...

  19. The consequences of poor vectorization

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This talk briefly discusses the vectorization problem and how it impacts scientific and engineering systems. A simple cost model of designing such system in context of different phases of software lifetime is considered. Finally a concept for scalable solution is presented.

  20. Vector Bundles over Elliptic Fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, R; Witten, Edward; Friedman, Robert; Morgan, John W.; Witten, Edward

    1997-01-01

    This paper gives various methods for constructing vector bundles over elliptic curves and more generally over families of elliptic curves. We construct universal families over generalized elliptic curves via spectral cover methods and also by extensions, and then give a relative version of the construction in families. We give various examples and make Chern class computations.

  1. Large N Expansion. Vector Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nissimov, E; Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary version of a contribution to the "Quantum Field Theory. Non-Perturbative QFT" topical area of "Modern Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics" (SELECTA), eds. Aref'eva I, and Sternheimer D, Springer (2007). Consists of two parts - "main article" (Large N Expansion. Vector Models) and a "brief article" (BPHZL Renormalization).

  2. Vector correlations in rotationally inelastic molecular collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2011-04-13

    The thesis presents an analytic model that describes scalar and vector properties of molecular collisions, both field-free and in fields. The model is based on the sudden approximation and treats molecular scattering as the Fraunhofer diffraction of matter waves from the hard-core part of the interaction potential. The theory has no fitting parameters and is inherently quantum, rendering fully state- and energy-resolved scattering amplitudes and all the quantities that unfold from them in analytic form. This allows to obtain complex polarization moments inherent to quantum stereodynamics, and to account for interference and other non-classical effects. The simplicity and analyticity of the model paves a way to understanding the origin of the features observed in experiment and exact computations, such as the angular oscillations in the state-to-state differential cross sections and the polarization moments, the rotational-state dependent variation of the integral cross sections, and change of these quantities as a function of the applied field. The theory was applied to study the k - k{sup '} vector correlation (differential cross section) for the following collision systems: Ar-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) and Ne-OCS(X{sup 1}{sigma}) in an electrostatic field, Na{sup +}-N{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{sigma}) in a laser field, and He-CaH({sup 2}{sigma}), He-O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}{sigma}), and He-OH(X{sup 2}{pi}) in a magnetic field. The model was able to reproduce the behavior of the differential cross sections and their variation with field strength. Combining the Fraunhofer model with the quantum theory of vector correlations made it possible to study three- and four-vector properties. The model results for the k-k{sup '}-j{sup '} vector correlation in Ar-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) and He-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) scattering were found to be in good agreement with experiment and exact computations. This allowed to demonstrate that the stereodynamics of such collisions is contained solely in the

  3. 75 FR 52596 - Financial Education Core Competencies; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Financial Education Core Competencies; Comment Request AGENCY: Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice... proposed set of financial education core competencies (``Core Competencies''). Comments are requested specifically on whether the list of Core Competencies referenced in the Supplementary Section is complete...

  4. Competency model and standards for media education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard TULODZIECKI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, educational standards for key school subjects have been developed as a consequence of the results of international comparative studies like PISA. Subsequently, supporters of interdisciplinary fields such as media education have also started calling for goals in the form of competency models and standards. In this context a competency standard model for media education will be developed with regard to the discussion about media competence and media education. In doing so the development of a competency model and the formulation of standards is described consequently as a decision making process. In this process decisions have to be made on competence areas and competence aspects to structure the model, on criteria to differentiate certain levels of competence, on the number of competence levels, on the abstraction level of standard formulations and on the tasks to test the standards. It is shown that the discussion on media education as well as on competencies and standards provides different possibilities of structuring, emphasizing and designing a competence standard model. Against this background we describe and give reasons for our decisions and our competency standards model. At the same time our contribution is meant to initiate further developments, testing and discussion.

  5. Components of competence in the community aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomae, H

    1992-12-01

    Following a discussion of different approaches to the definition of 'competence' and their theoretical background, the need for both situation-specific and global conceptualizations of this construct is stressed. Aside from competencies for physical and social survival, those related to psychological survival should be considered. A battery of indicators of competence, as used in the Bonn Longitudinal Study on Aging (BOLSA), was helpful in identifying six groups of elderly people with different levels of competence in the range of 'normal' aging. Cognitive and personality variables most significantly differentiated the competence groups. On the basis of these findings, the value of complex competence models and the need for situation-specific and person-specific assessments of competence is stressed.

  6. Vector-borne parasitic zoonoses: emerging scenarios and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Douglas D; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2011-11-24

    Changing climate is not the only driver for alterations in the dynamic interaction between arthropod vectors of zoonotic parasites and their hosts, including humans. A suite of other factors ranging from urbanization and deforestation to changing demographics in both developing and developed countries, the impact of the recent economic crisis, increased global movement of people and animals and follow-on effects of major catastrophes. This article reviews the most important vector-borne parasites of zoonotic concern that are changing/expanding their distribution patterns in both endemic and/or previously non-endemic areas. We include the discussion of the changing aspects of malaria, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, Chagas disease as well as of some spirurid and filarioid nematodes.

  7. Do vegetated rooftops attract more mosquitoes? Monitoring disease vector abundance on urban green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gwendolyn K L; Jim, C Y

    2016-12-15

    Green roof, an increasingly common constituent of urban green infrastructure, can provide multiple ecosystem services and mitigate climate-change and urban-heat-island challenges. Its adoption has been beset by a longstanding preconception of attracting urban pests like mosquitoes. As more cities may become vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, the knowledge gap needs to be filled. This study gauges the habitat preference of vector mosquitoes for extensive green roofs vis-à-vis positive and negative control sites in an urban setting. Seven sites in a university campus were selected to represent three experimental treatments: green roofs (GR), ground-level blue-green spaces as positive controls (PC), and bare roofs as negative controls (NC). Mosquito-trapping devices were deployed for a year from March 2015 to 2016. Human-biting mosquito species known to transmit infectious diseases in the region were identified and recorded as target species. Generalized linear models evaluated the effects of site type, season, and weather on vector-mosquito abundance. Our model revealed site type as a significant predictor of vector mosquito abundance, with considerably more vector mosquitoes captured in PC than in GR and NC. Vector abundance was higher in NC than in GR, attributed to the occasional presence of water pools in depressions of roofing membrane after rainfall. Our data also demonstrated seasonal differences in abundance. Weather variables were evaluated to assess human-vector contact risks under different weather conditions. Culex quinquefasciatus, a competent vector of diseases including lymphatic filariasis and West Nile fever, could be the most adaptable species. Our analysis demonstrates that green roofs are not particularly preferred by local vector mosquitoes compared to bare roofs and other urban spaces in a humid subtropical setting. The findings call for a better understanding of vector ecology in diverse urban landscapes

  8. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly

  9. Vector variational inequalities and their relations with vector optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Kaur Suneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, K- quasiconvex, K- pseudoconvex and other related functions have been introduced in terms of their Clarke subdifferentials, where is an arbitrary closed convex, pointed cone with nonempty interior. The (strict, weakly -pseudomonotonicity, (strict K- naturally quasimonotonicity and K- quasimonotonicity of Clarke subdifferential maps have also been defined. Further, we introduce Minty weak (MVVIP and Stampacchia weak (SVVIP vector variational inequalities over arbitrary cones. Under regularity assumption, we have proved that a weak minimum solution of vector optimization problem (VOP is a solution of (SVVIP and under the condition of K- pseudoconvexity we have obtained the converse for MVVIP (SVVIP. In the end we study the interrelations between these with the help of strict K-naturally quasimonotonicity of Clarke subdifferential map.

  10. Establishment of Evaluation Index System of Migrant Workers' Entrepreneurial Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bao

    2011-01-01

    Taking evaluation of migrant workers' entrepreneurial competence as the research content, this paper first defines the migrant workers' entrepreneurial characteristics and the connotation of migrant workers' entrepreneurial competence; on the basis of this, from entrepreneurial thinking competence, behaviour competence, and language competence of migrant workers, this paper establishes evaluation index system of migrant workers' entrepreneurial competence. We use Analytic Hierarchy Process, e...

  11. Exploring a categorization of main competencies for digital librarians

    OpenAIRE

    Machin-Mastromatteo, Juan-Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This brief essay is concerned with the main topic “Job Analysis in a Digital Library Context” and its purpose is to explore some of the competencies that digital librarians must have to successfully work in a digital library context. The competencies explored are categorized under the headings of information management competencies, technological competencies, information literacy related competencies, and interpersonal competencies.

  12. Vector-Boson Fusion and Vector-Boson Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Vector-boson fusion and vector-boson scattering are an important class of processes for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is characterized by two high-energetic jets in the forward regions of the detector and reduced jet activity in the central region. The higher center-of-mass energy during the current and subsequent runs strongly boosts the sensitivity in these processes and allows to test the predictions of the Standard Model to a high precision. In this review, we first present the main phenomenological features of vector-boson fusion and scattering processes. Then we discuss the effects of higher-order corrections, which are available at NLO QCD for all processes and up to N3LO QCD and NLO electro-weak for VBF-H production. An additional refinement is the addition of parton-shower effects, where recently a lot of progress has been made. The appearance of triple and quartic gauge vertices in the production processes enables us to probe anomalous gauge couplings. We introduce and compare the different ...

  13. Vector competence of Kenyan Culex zombaensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, M J; Lee, J S; Richardson, J H; Sang, R C; Kioko, E N; Agawo, M O; Pecor, J; O'Guinn, M L

    2007-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) continues to be a significant problem in Kenya as well as in Egypt, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. In order to determine the ability of Kenyan mosquitoes to transmit RVF virus (RVFV), we collected mosquitoes in the Lake Naivasha region of Kenya and evaluated them for their potential to transmit RVFV under laboratory conditions. After feeding on a hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) with a viremia of 10(9.7) plaque-forming units of virus/ml of blood, Culex zombaensis were highly susceptible to infection with RVFV, with 89% becoming infected. In contrast, Cx. quinquefasciatus that were fed on the same hamsters were marginally susceptible, with only 20% becoming infected. Differences in percentages of mosquitoes that developed a disseminated infection were equally disparate, with 55% and 8%, for Cx. zombaensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Forty-eight percent of the Cx. zombaensis with a disseminated infection that fed on a susceptible hamster transmitted virus by bite, indicating a moderate salivary gland barrier. However, the presence of a salivary gland barrier could not be determined for Cx. quinquefasciatus because none of the 18 mosquitoes that took a 2nd blood meal had a disseminated infection. These studies illustrate the need to identify the ability of individual mosquito species to transmit RVFV so that correct decisions can be made concerning the application of appropriate control measures during an outbreak.

  14. Transgene stability for three replication-competent murine leukemia virus vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch, Mogens R.; Carrasco, Maria L; Hansen, Bettina Dencker

    2004-01-01

    cassette consisting of an internal ribosome entry site followed by the enhanced green fluorescent protein coding sequence inserted in different configurations into murine leukemia virus genomes. In two of the constructs, the insert was located in the upstream part of the U3 region while in the third...

  15. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine vectors expressing filovirus glycoproteins lack neurovirulence in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad E Mire

    Full Text Available The filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Among the most promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV that expresses an individual filovirus glycoprotein (GP in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G. The main concern with all replication-competent vaccines, including the rVSV filovirus GP vectors, is their safety. To address this concern, we performed a neurovirulence study using 21 cynomolgus macaques where the vaccines were administered intrathalamically. Seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV GP; seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV GP; three animals received rVSV-wild type (wt vector, and four animals received vehicle control. Two of three animals given rVSV-wt showed severe neurological symptoms whereas animals receiving vehicle control, rVSV-ZEBOV-GP, or rVSV-MARV-GP did not develop these symptoms. Histological analysis revealed major lesions in neural tissues of all three rVSV-wt animals; however, no significant lesions were observed in any animals from the filovirus vaccine or vehicle control groups. These data strongly suggest that rVSV filovirus GP vaccine vectors lack the neurovirulence properties associated with the rVSV-wt parent vector and support their further development as a vaccine platform for human use.

  16. APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF FILARIAL PARASITES AND THEIR VECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Vickery

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over 200 species of filarial parasites have been described, although the life cycle and nature of their obligate intermediate arthropod vectors have been identified for only about a quarter of them. Traditional methods of studying phylogenetic relationships between closely related parasite species have utilized morphologic, biochemical and biologic characteristics, usually of the microfilarial stage. Identification of competent vectors from among complexes of sibling species, has employed similar techniques, despite the fact that differences between geographical isolates may reflect environmental rather than genetically controlled factors. Studies of the prevalence and transmission of animal, human and zoonotic filarids, so important for vector identification and control, has lead to the examination of filarial parasites at the genetic level. Genomic DNA libraries are being constructed and screened for clones which are species specific. From this work, DNA probes which can accurately enumerate larval stages in vector squash preparations, and monoclonal antibodies specific for defined filarial antigens, are being prepared. The nucleotide sequences of rRNA are also being defined. The application of these technologies to the study of filarial parasites and their vectors, promises to not only allow the construction of accurate phylogenetic trees, but also to provide the data necessary for the identification and control of the vectors of filarial pathogens of animals and man.

  17. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  18. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  19. On third order integrable vector Hamiltonian equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, A. G.; Sokolov, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    A complete list of third order vector Hamiltonian equations with the Hamiltonian operator Dx having an infinite series of higher conservation laws is presented. A new vector integrable equation on the sphere is found.

  20. SYSTEM OF GENERALIZED VECTOR VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yaping; Huang Nanjing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce and study system of generalized vector variational inequalities. Under suitable conditions, the existence of solutions for system of generalized vector variational inequalities is presented by Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.

  1. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1997-10-09

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  2. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-10-01

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  3. Examining Factors Predicting Students’ Digital Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ove Edvard Hatlevik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students’ digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what characterizes students’ digital competence. A sample of 852 ninth-grade Norwegian students from 38 schools participated in the study. The students answered a 26 item multiple-choice digital competence test and a self-report questionnaire about family background, motivation, and previous grades. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of the hypothesised relationship between family background, mastery orientation, previous achievements, and digital competence. The results indicate variation in digital competence among the ninth-graders. Further, analyses showed that students’ conditions at home, i.e., language integration and cultural capital, together with mastery orientation and academic achievements predict students digital competence. This study indicates that that there is evidence of digital diversity between lower secondary students. It does not seem like the development of digital competence among the students happens automatically. Students’ family background and school performance are the most important factors. Therefore, as this study shows, it is necessary to further investigate how schools can identify students’ level of competence and to develop plans and actions for how schools can help to try to equalize differences.

  4. Adopsi Model Competency Based Training dalam Kewirausahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Santra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is improving the teaching method in entrepreneurship subject. This research adopted the competency based training (CBT into the entrepreneurship. The major task in this research is formulated and designed the entrepreneurship competency. Entrepreneurship competency indicated by Personal, Strategic and Situational and Business competence. All of entrepreneurship competences are described into sub topic of competence. After designing and formulating the game and simulation the research continuing to implement the competency based training in the real class. The time consumed to implementing the CBT one semester, starting on September 2006 to early February 2007. The lesson learnt from the implementation period, the CBT could improve the student competence in Personal, Situational Strategic and Business. The three of the competencies are important for the success entrepreneur. It is a sign of application of “Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi”. There are many evidences to describe the achievement of the CBT in entrepreneurship subject. Firstly, physically achievement, that all of the student’s business plan could became the real business. The evidences are presented by picture of the student’s real business. Secondly theoretically achievement, that the Personal, Situational Strategic and Business competence statistically have significant relation with Business Plan even Real Business quality. The effect of the Personal, Situational Strategic and Business competence to Business Plan quality is 84.4%. and, to the Real Business quality 77.2%. The statistic’s evidence suggests that the redesign of the entrepreneurship subject is the right way. The content of the entrepreneur competence (Personal, Situational and Strategic and Business competence have impact to the student to conduct and running for own business.

  5. Teaching Competences and Inclusive Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Fernández Batanero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on teaching competencies that are conducive to good educational practices in relation to inclusion, from the perspective of teachers. The methodology employed in the study is descriptive/comprehensive, and of an exploratory nature. By means of four case studies, the perceptions of teachers from two secondary schools—characterized by the Spanish Educational Administration as having “good practices”— are examined. The techniques used for information collection in this study include documentary analysis, in-depth interviews and focus groups. The findings emphasize the importance of strategic skills, combined with innovation and creativity, among others.

  6. Vectors and translations in mathematics and physics

    OpenAIRE

    Dorier, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    In mathematics, students learn about vectors and translation, in physics they model forces, speed, acceleration, etc. with vectors and study movements of translation. Do they make the connection between these concepts introduced in different disciplines or do they put things in separate boxes? In this paper we will start with some partial considerations on the history of vectors and we will give some references. Then we will show some examples of naïve illustrations of vectors from physics in...

  7. NEVILLE-TYPE VECTOR VALUED RATIONAL INTERPOLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈之兵; 顾传青; 徐晨

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of vector valued rational interpolants is established by means of Samelson inverse, with scalar numerator and vector valued denominator. It is essen tially different from that of Graves-Morris(1983), where the interpolants are constructed by Thiele-type continued fractions with vector valued numerator and scalar denominator. The new approach is more suitable to calculate the value of a vector valued function for a given point. And an error formula is also given and proven.

  8. Gene targeting with retroviral vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.; Bernstein, A. (Toronto Univ., ON (Canada))

    1989-04-01

    The authors have designed and constructed integration-defective retroviral vectors to explore their potential for gene targeting in mammalian cells. Two nonoverlapping deletion mutants of the bacterial neomycin resistance (neo) gene were used to detect homologous recombination events between viral and chromosomal sequences. Stable neo gene correction events were selected at a frequency of approximately 1 G418/sup r/ cell per 3 x 10/sup 6/ infected cells. Analysis of the functional neo gene in independent targeted cell clones indicated that unintegrated retroviral linear DNA recombined with the target by gene conversion for variable distances into regions of nonhomology. In addition, transient neo gene correction events which were associated with the complete loss of the chromosomal target sequences were observed. These results demonstrated that retroviral vectors can recombine with homologous chromosomal sequences in rodent and human cells.

  9. Clinical applications of power vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph M

    2009-06-01

    The study of infant vision is closely coupled to the study of the refraction, change in refraction over time, and the effect of spectacle correction on visual development. Frequently, reports are limited to descriptions of spherical equivalent or cylinder power without regard to axis, as data are frequently collected in the clinical format of sphere, cylinder, and axis (S, C, A). Conversion from clinical notation to a power vector representation of refraction allows unambiguous description of how refractions change over time and differ between repeated measurements. This article presents a series of examples of Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas that make the conversion from clinical notation to power vector format, and provides examples of useful applications of these methods.

  10. ELVIS - ELectromagnetic Vector Information Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, J E S; Thidé, B; Ananthakrishnan, S; Wahlund, J E; Karlsson, R L; Puccio, W; Carozzi, T D; Kale, P

    2005-01-01

    The ELVIS instrument was recently proposed by the authors for the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon and is presently under consideration by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The scientific objective of ELVIS is to explore the electromagnetic environment of the moon. ELVIS samples the full three-dimensional (3D) electric field vector, E(x,t), up to 18 MHz, with selective Nyqvist frequency bandwidths down to 5 kHz, and one component of the magnetic field vector, B(x,t), from a few Hz up to 100 kHz.As a transient detector, ELVIS is capable of detecting pulses with a minimum pulse width of 5 ns. The instrument comprises three orthogonal electric dipole antennas, one magnetic search coil antenna and a four-channel digital sampling system, utilising flexible digital down conversion and filtering together with state-of-the-art onboard digital signal processing.

  11. Lentiviral vectors in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Robyn Aa; Berinstein, Elliot M; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Basic science advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in various treatments that have recently shown success in the clinic. Many of these therapies require the insertion of genes into cells to directly kill them or to redirect the host's cells to induce potent immune responses. Other analogous therapies work by modifying effector cells for improved targeting and enhanced killing of tumor cells. Initial studies done using γ-retroviruses were promising, but safety concerns centered on the potential for insertional mutagenesis have highlighted the desire to develop other options for gene delivery. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been identified as potentially more effective and safer alternative delivery vehicles. LVs are now in use in clinical trials for many different types of inherited and acquired disorders, including cancer. This review will discuss current knowledge of LVs and the applications of this viral vector-based delivery vehicle to cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Ultrasonic Dynamic Vector Stress Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Froggatt, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Stress inferred from measurements in specimens rather than in bonded gauges. Ultrasonic dynamic vector stress sensor (UDVSS) measures changes in dynamic directional stress occurring in material or structure at location touched by device when material or structure put under cyclic load. Includes phase-locked loop, synchronous amplifier, and contact probe. Useful among manufacturers of aerospace and automotive structures for stress testing and evaluation of designs.

  13. Biological rhythms and vector insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian David Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment of all species, animals and plants, to the Earth’s cyclic environments is ensured by their temporal organisation. The relationships between parasites, vectors and hosts rely greatly upon the synchronisation of their biological rhythms, especially circadian rhythms. In this short note, parasitic infections by Protozoa and by microfilariae have been chosen as examples of the dependence of successful transmission mechanisms on temporal components.

  14. Paratransgenic Control of Vector Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Hurwitz, Annabeth Fieck, Amber Read, Heidi Hillesland, Nichole Klein, Angray Kang, Ravi Durvasula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methodologies to control vector borne diseases with chemical pesticides are often associated with environmental toxicity, adverse effects on human health and the emergence of insect resistance. In the paratransgenic strategy, symbiotic or commensal microbes of host insects are transformed to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. These genetically altered microbes are re-introduced back to the insect where expression of the engineered molecules decreases the host's ability to transmit the pathogen. We have successfully utilized this strategy to reduce carriage rates of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, in the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and are currently developing this methodology to control the transmission of Leishmania donovani by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. Several effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides and highly specific single chain antibodies, are currently being explored for their anti-parasite activities in these two systems. In preparation for eventual field use, we are actively engaged in risk assessment studies addressing the issue of horizontal gene transfer from the modified bacteria to environmental microbes.

  15. Cicada (Tibicen linnei) steers by force vectoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samane Zeyghami; Nidhin Babu; Haibo Dong∗

    2016-01-01

    To change flight direction, flying animals modulate aerodynamic force either relative to their bodies to generate torque about the center of mass, or relative to the flight path to produce centripetal force that curves the trajectory. In employing the latter, the direction of aerodynamic force remains fixed in the body frame and rotations of the body redirect the force. While both aforementioned techniques are essential for flight, it is critical to investigate how an animal balances the two to achieve aerial locomotion. Here, we measured wing and body kinematics of cicada (Tibicen linnei) in free flight, including flight periods of both little and substantial body reorientations. It is found that cicadas employ a common force vectoring technique to execute all these flights. We show that the direction of the half-stroke averaged aerodynamic force relative to the body is independent of the body orientation, varying in a range of merely 20 deg. Despite directional limitation of the aerodynamic force, pitch and roll torque are generated by altering wing angle of attack and its mean position relative to the center of mass. This results in body rotations which redirect the wing force in the global frame and consequently change the flight trajectory.

  16. Cicada (Tibicen linnei steers by force vectoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane Zeyghami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To change flight direction, flying animals modulate aerodynamic force either relative to their bodies to generate torque about the center of mass, or relative to the flight path to produce centripetal force that curves the trajectory. In employing the latter, the direction of aerodynamic force remains fixed in the body frame and rotations of the body redirect the force. While both aforementioned techniques are essential for flight, it is critical to investigate how an animal balances the two to achieve aerial locomotion. Here, we measured wing and body kinematics of cicada (Tibicen linnei in free flight, including flight periods of both little and substantial body reorientations. It is found that cicadas employ a common force vectoring technique to execute all these flights. We show that the direction of the half-stroke averaged aerodynamic force relative to the body is independent of the body orientation, varying in a range of merely 20 deg. Despite directional limitation of the aerodynamic force, pitch and roll torque are generated by altering wing angle of attack and its mean position relative to the center of mass. This results in body rotations which redirect the wing force in the global frame and consequently change the flight trajectory.

  17. The Influence of Delivery Vectors on HIV Vaccine Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Omusiro Ondondo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine remains a big challenge, largely due to the enormous HIV diversity which propels immune escape. Thus novel vaccine strategies are targeting multiple variants of conserved antibody and T cell epitopic regions which would incur a huge fitness cost to the virus in the event of mutational escape. Besides immunogen design, the delivery modality is critical for vaccine potency and efficacy, and should be carefully selected in order to not only maximise transgene expression, but to also enhance the immuno-stimulatory potential to activate innate and adaptive immune systems. To date, five HIV vaccine candidates have been evaluated for efficacy and protection from acquisition was only achieved in a small proportion of vaccinees in the RV144 study which used a canarypox vector for delivery. Conversely, in the STEP study (HVTN 502 where human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 was used, strong immune responses were induced but vaccination was more associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition than protection in vaccinees with pre-existing Ad5 immunity. The possibility that pre-existing immunity to a highly promising delivery vector may alter the natural course of HIV to increase acquisition risk is quite worrisome and a huge setback for HIV vaccine development. Thus, HIV vaccine development efforts are now geared towards delivery platforms which attain superior immunogenicity while concurrently limiting potential catastrophic effects likely to arise from pre-existing immunity or vector-related immuno-modulation. However, it still remains unclear whether it is poor immunogenicity of HIV antigens or substandard immunological potency of the safer delivery vectors that has limited the success of HIV vaccines. This article discusses some of the promising delivery vectors to be harnessed for improved HIV vaccine efficacy.

  18. Vector and tensor analysis with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, A I; Silverman, Richard A

    1979-01-01

    Concise and readable, this text ranges from definition of vectors and discussion of algebraic operations on vectors to the concept of tensor and algebraic operations on tensors. It also includes a systematic study of the differential and integral calculus of vector and tensor functions of space and time. Worked-out problems and solutions. 1968 edition.

  19. Project Physics Programmed Instruction, Vectors 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    This is the third of a series of three programmed instruction booklets on vectors developed by Harvard Project Physics. Separating vectors into components and obtaining a vector from its components are the topics covered. For other booklets in this series, see SE 015 549 and SE 015 550. (DT)

  20. Some Remarks on a Generalized Vector Product

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta-Humánez, Primitivo B; Núñez, Reinaldo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use a generalized vector product to construct an exterior form $\\wedge :(\\mathbb{R}^{n}) ^{k}\\to \\mathbb{R}^{\\binom{n}{k}}$, where $\\binom{n}{k}=\\frac{n!}{(n-k)!k!}$, $k\\leq n$. Finally, for $n=k-1$ we introduce the reversing operation to study this generalized vector product over palindromic and antipalindromic vectors.

  1. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....

  2. [Inflammatory Bowel Disease Competence Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Stefan; Hartmann, Heinz; Kruis, Wolfgang; Kucharzik, Torsten; Mudter, Jonas; Siegmund, Britta; Stallmach, Andreas; Witte, Christine; Fitzke, Klaus; Bokemeyer, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    The Inflammatory Bowel Disease Competence Network is a network of more than 500 physicians and scientists from university clinics, hospitals and gastroenterology practices. The focus extends from the two major forms of inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, into other chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the intestine, including coeliac disease and microscopic colitis. The network translates basic science discoveries (in particular in the molecular epidemiology research) into innovative diagnostics and therapy. Through its strong networking structures it supports a continuous process to improve quality and standardisation in patient care that is implemented in close interaction with European networks addressing this disease group.Optimisation of patient care based on scientifically proven evidence is a main focus of the network. Therefore, it supports and coordinates translational research and infrastructure projects that investigate aetiology, improvement of diagnostic methods, and development of new or improved use of established therapies. Members participate in various training projects, thus ensuring the rapid transfer of research results into clinical practice.The competence network cooperates with the main patient organisations to engage patients in all levels of activities. The network and the patient organisations have interest in promoting public awareness about the disease entities, because their importance and burden is underestimated in non-specialised medical fields and among the general public.

  3. Mathematical Competence, Teaching, and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary, I focus on the notion of competence and issues related to the distinction between knowing how mathematical problems are solved versus knowing how to teach mathematics. Although definitions of competence may necessarily be affected by value judgements and thus less amenable to factual answers, providing a defensible definition is important because it affects eligibility for intervention and treatment. One way to tackle this issue is to focus on the identification of prerequisite skills and concepts needed for particular domains of mathematics. Recent work on fraction and algebra has shown that long held assumptions may need to be re-examined. On knowledge versus application, some cautionary notes are made on the importance of not losing sight of translating our knowledge of processes involved in mathematical problem solving into better pedagogical practices. [Commentary on: Alcock, L., Ansari, D., Batchelor, S., Bisson, M.-J., De Smedt, B., Gilmore, C., . . . Weber, K. (2016. Challenges in mathematical cognition: A collaboratively-derived research agenda. Journal of Numerical Cognition, 2, 20-41. doi:10.5964/jnc.v2i1.10

  4. Unnoticed Professional Competence in Day Care Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Schmidt, Camilla; Nielsen, Birger Steen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a double perspective on social educators’ professional competence: It discusses how everyday life in day care centres (preschools) is dependent on professional competences that can be conceived as “unnoticed.” These aspects of professional competence are embedded in routines......, experiences and embodied forms of knowledge. However, it may be discussed whether these competences are under pressure from increased demands for documentation, standardization and evaluation of children’s learning outcomes. The article will briefly outline this development in the day care sector, followed...... by a discussion of unnoticed professional competence and the related notion of gestural knowledge. The double perspective on social educators’ professional competences will be illuminated by empirical examples from a research project involving social educators from two day care centres in Denmark....

  5. Important computer competencies for the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wey-Wen; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yu-Chih

    2004-09-01

    Nursing requires computer competencies. This study aimed at identifying those competencies required for the nursing profession in Taiwan. The Delphi technique was deployed in this study. In the Delphi questionnaires, computer competencies were sorted into seven domains: concepts of hardware, software, and networks; principles of computer applications; skills of computer usage; program design; limitations of the computer; personal and social issues; attitudes toward the computer. In three Delphi questionnaires, nursing informatics experts gave us their opinions on the importance of each computer competency for the nursing profession. The experts also designated when the competency should be cultivated. This study provides a comprehensive list for nursing professionals to check on their computer competence. The results of this study should also serve as good references for teachers and schools in designing related curriculums.

  6. Building the Competences of the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    What competences will be needed in the future? What kind of skills should belong to the surveyor of the future? How can the curriculum be organized to meet these demands? These questions must constantly be on the agenda to be dealt with by the university as well the profession. Competence...... it is also an adaptation to international trends. Finally, the revision is based on a survey around the competences of the graduates, and whether these competences are in line with the demands of the employment areas.    The competences of the future are not established solely through the university program....... Even if university education is of course the foundation, professional competence cannot be achieved until the academic and professional skills are merged with experiences obtained through professional practice. Therefore, it is crucial to establish an ongoing dialogue between the university...

  7. On the Distribution of Norm of Vector Projection and Rejection of Two Complex Normal Random Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Maleki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vector projection and vector rejection are highly common and useful operations in mathematics, information theory, and signal processing. In this paper, we find the distribution of the norm of projection and rejection vectors when the original vectors are standard complex normally distributed.

  8. Toward a common taxonomy of competency domains for the health professions and competencies for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Robert; Cameron, Terri; Ballard, Adrian J; Dodge, Jessica; Bull, Janet; Aschenbrener, Carol A

    2013-08-01

    Although health professions worldwide are shifting to competency-based education, no common taxonomy for domains of competence and specific competencies currently exists. In this article, the authors describe their work to (1) identify domains of competence that could accommodate any health care profession and (2) extract a common set of competencies for physicians from existing health professions' competency frameworks that would be robust enough to provide a single, relevant infrastructure for curricular resources in the Association of American Medical Colleges' (AAMC's) MedEdPORTAL and Curriculum Inventory and Reports (CIR) sites. The authors used the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)/American Board of Medical Specialties six domains of competence and 36 competencies delineated by the ACGME as their foundational reference list. They added two domains described by other groups after the original six domains were introduced: Interprofessional Collaboration (4 competencies) and Personal and Professional Development (8 competencies). They compared the expanded reference list (48 competencies within eight domains) with 153 competency lists from across the medical education continuum, physician specialties and subspecialties, countries, and health care professions. Comparison analysis led them to add 13 "new" competencies and to conflate 6 competencies into 3 to eliminate redundancy. The AAMC will use the resulting "Reference List of General Physician Competencies" (58 competencies in eight domains) to categorize resources for MedEdPORTAL and CIR. The authors hope that researchers and educators within medicine and other health professions will consider using this reference list when applicable to move toward a common taxonomy of competencies.

  9. The European Solution For International Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Leandro Eloy; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo - UFES; Moschen, Valesca Raizer Borges; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo - UFES

    2011-01-01

    The main aspects of the European Union’s normative instrument to discipline international competence among its countries in a general and uniform manner are analyzed. Brief considerations on international competence are forwarded. An analysis of Rule 44/2001 on judiciary competence, acknowledgement and execution of decisions in civil and commercial matters edited by the EU Council are discussed. Finally the function of the EU Justice Tribunal with regard to the maintenance of the effectivenes...

  10. Notion in Motion: Teachers’ Digital Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Johannesen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to shed critical light on the prevailing understanding of digital competence in schools and teacher education. There seems to be an emphasis on how to practice teaching with ICT throughout the Norwegian educational system. This article discusses and elaborates on the current approach, and argues for understanding digital competence from a broader perspective, by suggesting a framework for the notion of digital competence for teachers. This approach stresses teaching of, about, and with ICT.

  11. Child overweight - mothers' competence to take action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Peitersen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated mothers' possession and display of action competence to counteract or prevent overweight and eventual obesity in their children. Action competence is defined as a personal resource where the most important aspect is the individual's wish to take action and to believe...... interview about action competence, lifestyle, and their 7- to 9-year-old children. Results: Compared to MNC, MOC considered it more important to change habits, both for themselves (p = 0.003) and their children (p

  12. Competence Set Analysis Under Risk and Uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The competence set analysis technology can be applied to solve the decision making problems successfully and satisfactorily. This paper mainly focuses on the expanding strategy research and development of the competence set under risk and uncertainty. A systematic expression of the competence set analysis is described, several expanding principles and strategies with regard to several different cases are presented, and their applications in the personnel training program are discussed, some conclusions and suggestions to be developed in a further work are included.

  13. Competencies for global heath graduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Judith G; Spencer, Harrison C; Buekens, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    Competency specification and competency-based education (CBE) are increasingly being viewed as essential for optimizing educational outcomes for the next generation of global health workers. An overview is provided of this movement in graduate health professions education in the United States, the Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) contributions to advancing and researching related CBE processes and best practices, and the evolving ASPH competency model for graduate global health education.

  14. Problems and worked solutions in vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Shorter, LR

    2014-01-01

    ""A handy book like this,"" noted The Mathematical Gazette, ""will fill a great want."" Devoted to fully worked out examples, this unique text constitutes a self-contained introductory course in vector analysis for undergraduate and graduate students of applied mathematics.Opening chapters define vector addition and subtraction, show how to resolve and determine the direction of two or more vectors, and explain systems of coordinates, vector equations of a plane and straight line, relative velocity and acceleration, and infinitely small vectors. The following chapters deal with scalar and vect

  15. Rater Wealth Predicts Perceptions of Outgroup Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wayne; McCrae, Robert R; Rogers, Darrin L; Weimer, Amy A; Greenberg, David M; Terracciano, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    National income has a pervasive influence on the perception of ingroup stereotypes, with high status and wealthy targets perceived as more competent. In two studies we investigated the degree to which economic wealth of raters related to perceptions of outgroup competence. Raters' economic wealth predicted trait ratings when 1) raters in 48 other cultures rated Americans' competence and 2) Mexican Americans rated Anglo Americans' competence. Rater wealth also predicted ratings of interpersonal warmth on the culture level. In conclusion, raters' economic wealth, either nationally or individually, is significantly associated with perception of outgroup members, supporting the notion that ingroup conditions or stereotypes function as frames of reference in evaluating outgroup traits.

  16. METHODS OF ASSESSING THE COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolaevich ZUBAREV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author describes various techniques of evaluating communicative competence. In the context of the study, taking into consideration the specificity of communicative competence and sphere of professional activities of gradu-ates from humanitarian higher educational institutions, the author makes the conclusions related to the methods of demonstrating the competence. The author also presents methods of evaluating the competence of graduates from humanitarian higher educational institutions in the form of detailed description of each method. Finally, the author makes conclusions on choosing the best method.

  17. [Competency-based assessment in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champin, Denisse

    2014-01-01

    At present, competency-based curriculum is considered to be the most appropriate model in medical education. Much has been written about this model; however, a crucial aspect of the model is the assessment of competency development which is a different point compared to the traditional model of cognitive assessment. Assessment in the context of the competencybased curriculum model must be aligned with the profile of the competencies that the institution offers. This publication reports the evaluation experience in a Medical School of Peru that applies a competency-based curriculum.

  18. Cultural competencies for graduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lauren; Calvillo, Evelyn; Dela Cruz, Felicitas; Fongwa, Marie; Kools, Susan; Lowe, John; Mastel-Smith, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Nursing is challenged to meet the health needs of ethnic and socioculturally diverse populations. To this end, American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) charged an expert nursing faculty advisory group to formulate competencies for graduate nursing education, expanding them to integrate leadership and scholarship. The Cultural Competency in Baccalaureate Nursing Education served as the springboard for the initiative. In formulating the graduate cultural competencies and the toolkit, the advisory group reviewed all AACN Essentials documents and the cultural competency literature, drew upon their collective experiences with cultural diversity, and used cultural humility as the supporting framework. Six core competencies were formulated and endorsed by the AACN board of directors and key professional nursing organizations. A companion toolkit was compiled to provide resources for the implementation of the competencies. A 1-day conference was held in California to launch the cultural competencies and toolkit. Dissemination to graduate nursing programs is in process, with emphasis on faculty readiness to undertake this graduate educational transformation. The AACN Cultural Competencies for Graduate Nursing Education set national standards to prepare culturally competent nurses at the graduate level who will contribute to the elimination of health disparities through education, clinical practice, research, scholarship, and policy.

  19. Competencies for the Contemporary Career: Development and Preliminary Validation of the Career Competencies Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Huibers, M.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2013-01-01

    A new and promising area of research has recently emerged in the field of career development: career competencies. The present article provides a framework of career competencies that integrates several perspectives from the literature. The framework distinguishes between reflective, communicative,

  20. The Wheel of Competency Assessment: Presenting Quality Criteria for Competency Assessment Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Bastiaens, Theo; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2009-01-01

    Baartman, L. K. J., Bastiaens, T. J., Kirschner, P. A., & Van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2006). The wheel of competency assessment: Presenting quality criteria for Competency Assessment Programmes. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 32, 153-170.

  1. Competence without a competence pheromone in a natural isolate of Streptococcus infantis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ween, O; Teigen, S; Gaustad, P

    2002-01-01

    Many streptococcal species belonging to the mitis and anginosus phylogenetic groups are known to be naturally competent for genetic transformation. Induction of the competent state in these bacteria is regulated by a quorum-sensing mechanism consisting of a secreted peptide pheromone encoded by com......C and a two-component regulatory system encoded by comDE. Here we report that a natural isolate of a mitis group streptococcus (Atu-4) is competent for genetic transformation even though it has lost the gene encoding the competence pheromone. In contrast to other strains, induction of competence in Atu-4...... is not regulated by cell density, since highly diluted cultures of this strain are still competent. Interestingly, competence in the Atu-4 strain is lost if the gene encoding the response regulator ComE is disrupted, demonstrating that this component of the quorum-sensing apparatus is still needed for competence...

  2. Evaluating Community Health Advisor (CHA) Core Competencies: The CHA Core Competency Retrospective Pretest/Posttest (CCCRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Lachel; To, Yen M

    2016-05-01

    Health care and academic systems are increasingly collaborating with community health advisors (CHAs) to provide culturally relevant health interventions that promote sustained community transformation. Little attention has been placed on CHA training evaluation, including core competency attainment. This study identified common CHA core competencies, generated a theoretically based measure of those competencies, and explored psychometric properties of that measure. A concept synthesis revealed five CHA core competencies (leadership, translation, guidance, advocacy, and caring). The CHA Core Competency Retrospective Pretest/Posttest (CCCRP) resulted from that synthesis, which was administered using multiple approaches to individuals who previously received CHA training (N= 142). Exploratory factor analyses revealed a two-factor structure underlying the posttraining data, and Cronbach's alpha indicated high internal consistency. This study suggested some CHA core competencies might be more interrelated than previously thought, and two major competencies exist rather than five and supported the CCCRP's use to evaluate core competency attainment resulting from training.

  3. DBSC-Based Grayscale Line Image Vectorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantin Melikhov; Feng Tian; Jie Qiu; Quan Chen; Hock Soon Seah

    2006-01-01

    Vector graphics plays an important role in computer animation and imaging technologies. However present techniques and tools cannot fully replace traditional pencil and paper. Additionally, vector representation of an image is not always available. There is not yet a good solution for vectorizing a picture drawn on a paper. This work attempts to solve the problem of vectorizing grayscale line drawings. The solution proposed uses Disk B-Spline curves to represent strokes of an image in vector form. The algorithm builds a vector representation from a grayscale raster image, which can be a scanned picture for instance. The proposed method uses a Gaussian sliding window to calculate skeleton and perceptive width of a stroke. As a result of vectorization, the given image is represented by a set of Disk B-Spline curves.

  4. The vector algebra war: A historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, James M; Hartnett, John G; Abbott, Derek

    2015-01-01

    There are a wide variety of different vector formalisms currently utilized in science. For example, Gibbs three-vectors, spacetime four-vectors, complex spinors for quantum mechanics, quaternions used for rigid body rotations and Clifford multivectors. With such a range of vector formalisms in use, it thus appears that there is as yet no general agreement on a vector formalism suitable for the whole of science. This surprising situation exists today, despite the fact that one of the main goals of nineteenth century science was to correctly describe vectors and the algebra of three-dimensional space. This situation has also had the unfortunate consequence of fragmenting knowledge across many disciplines and requiring a very significant amount of time and effort in learning the different formalisms. We thus review historically the development of our various vector systems and conclude that the Clifford algebra multivector fulfills the goal of correctly describing vectorial quantities in three dimensions.

  5. DoD Acquisition - To Compete or Not Compete: The Placebo of Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    of the results of multiple trials in a Monte Carlo analysis (Figure 2). DoD Acquisition — To Compete or Not Compete: The Placebo of Competition...random factor with a Gaussian distribution represented by its standard deviation (1- sigma ) value will signify this uncertainty in the model . The bids...1 : 416–440 Keywords: Defense Industry, Game Theory, Bidding Strategy, Statistical Modeling DoD Acquisition–To Compete or Not Compete: The Placebo

  6. Kinetic analysis of mouse brain proteome alterations following chikungunya virus infection before and after appearance of clinical symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fraisier (Christophe); P. Koraka (Penelope); M. Belghazi (Maya); M. Bakli (Mahfoud); S. Granjeaud (Samuel); M. Pophillat (Matthieu); S.M. Lim (Stephanie); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron); L. Camoin (Luc); L. Almeras (Lionel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecent outbreaks of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been characterized by an increasing number of severe cases with atypical manifestations including neurological complications. In parallel, the risk map of CHIKV outbreaks has expanded because of improved vector competence. Thes

  7. Some theoretical comparisons of refined Ritz vectors and Ritz vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhongxiao

    2004-01-01

    Refined projection methods proposed by the author have received attention internationally. We are concerned with a conventional projection method and its refined counterpart for computing approximations to a simple eigenpair (λ,x)of a large matrix A. Given a subspace w that contains anapproximation to x, these two methods compute approximations(μ(x~)) and (μ(x^)) to (λ,x),respectively. We establish three results. First, the refinedeigenvector approximation or simply the refined Ritz vector (x^) is unique as the deviation of x from w approaches zero if λ is simple. Second, interms of residual norm of the refined approximate eigenpair (μ,(x^)), we derive lower and upper bounds for the sine of the angle betweenthe Ritz vector (x~) and the refined eigenvector approximation (x^), and we prove that (x~)≠(x^) unless (x^)=x. Third, we establish relationships between theresidual norm ‖A(x~)-μ(x^)‖ of the conventionalmethods and the residual norm ‖A(x^)-μ(x^)‖ of therefined methods, and we show that the latter is always smallerthan the former if (μ,(x^)) is not an exact eigenpair ofA, indicating that the refined projection method is superiorto the corresponding conventional counterpart.

  8. Some theoretical comparisons of refined Ritz vectors and Ritz vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA; Zhongxiao

    2004-01-01

    Refined projection methods proposed by the author have received attention internationally. We are concerned with a conventional projection method and its refined counterpart for computing approximations to a simple eigenpair (λ,x)of a large matrix A. Given a subspace w that contains anapproximation to x, these two methods compute approximations(μ(x~)) and (μ(x)) to (λ,x),respectively. We establish three results. First, the refinedeigenvector approximation or simply the refined Ritz vector (x) is unique as the deviation of x from w approaches zero if λ is simple. Second, interms of residual norm of the refined approximate eigenpair (μ,(x)), we derive lower and upper bounds for the sine of the angle betweenthe Ritz vector (x~) and the refined eigenvector approximation (x), and we prove that (x~)≠(x) unless (x)=x. Third, we establish relationships between theresidual norm ‖A(x~)-μ(x)‖ of the conventionalmethods and the residual norm ‖A(x)-μ(x)‖ of therefined methods, and we show that the latter is always smallerthan the former if (μ,(x)) is not an exact eigenpair ofA, indicating that the refined projection method is superiorto the corresponding conventional counterpart.

  9. Ressourcenorientierte Diagnostik im Alter

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Trotz der im Alter zunehmenden körperlichen, kognitiven und sozialen Verlusten bleibt das subjektive Wohlbefinden relativ stabil. Dies weist auf die vielen Ressourcen älterer Menschen hin. Dieser Artikel stellt für die klinische Ressourcendiagnostik relevante Verfahren vor und erläutert die zugrunde liegenden Konzepte. Berücksichtigt werden Aktivitäten und Erlebnisse als Ressourcen, emotionale Ressourcen (positiver Affekt, Lebenszufriedenheit, Selbstwerterleben, Lebensqualität), motivationale...

  10. Adolescents, curriculum, and literary competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe López Bonilla

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we look at access to literary texts, and analyze literacy practices in a specific context and domain: high school literature classes. We start out from a sociocultural perspective for our study of literacy events and practices. In particular, we have begun our research supported by the work of Mary Hamilton and the New Literacy Studies to identify events and their components, in order to infer the practices that give meaning to the events observed. The study was conducted in a state high school (COBACH, and in a federal high school offering two different programs: the General Diploma (GD, similar to that of the COBACH, and the International Baccalaureate Diploma (IB. The results allow us to surmise what type of reader and level of literary competency is offered by each scholastic culture.

  11. Leadership Competencies for Managing Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Visagie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The new understanding of diversity involves more than increasing thenumber of different identity groups on the payroll. An important proposalis that the experience of diversity in an organisation results frompervasive styles of management. This article dealt with the specificparadigms of diversitymanagement and leadership style theory used toaddress the research problem in the empirical study, namely ‘Is diversitymanagement experience related to leadership styles or competencies?’ Themodels of diversity and inclusion indicators are used to examine the experienceof diversitymanagement. The population of this study into theexperience of diversity management is two thousand six hundred andsixty nine (2669 respondents. Leadership styles were obtained fromfour hundred and forty (440 leaders. The Cronbach alpha values weredetermined in order to indicate internal validity and reliability.

  12. Competing epidemics on complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karrer, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Human diseases spread over networks of contacts between individuals and a substantial body of recent research has focused on the dynamics of the spreading process. Here we examine a model of two competing diseases spreading over the same network at the same time, where infection with either disease gives an individual subsequent immunity to both. Using a combination of analytic and numerical methods, we derive the phase diagram of the system and estimates of the expected final numbers of individuals infected with each disease. The system shows an unusual dynamical transition between dominance of one disease and dominance of the other as a function of their relative rates of growth. Close to this transition the final outcomes show strong dependence on stochastic fluctuations in the early stages of growth, dependence that decreases with increasing network size, but does so sufficiently slowly as still to be easily visible in systems with millions or billions of individuals. In most regions of the phase diagram ...

  13. Vector meson electroproduction in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juan; Cai, Xian-Hao; Zhou, Li-Juan

    2012-08-01

    Based on the generalized QCD vector meson dominance model, we study the electroproduction of a vector meson off a proton in the QCD inspired eikonalized model. Numerical calculations for the total cross section σtot and differential cross section dσ/dt are performed for ρ, ω and varphi meson electroproduction in this paper. Since gluons interact among themselves (self-interaction), two gluons can form a glueball with quantum numbers IG, JPC = 0+,2++, decay width Γt ≈ 100 MeV, and mass of mG = 2.23 GeV. The three gluons can form a three-gluon colorless bound state with charge conjugation quantum number C = -1, called the Odderon. The mediators of interactions between projectiles (the quark and antiquark pair fluctuated from the virtual photon) and the proton target (a three-quark system) are the tensor glueball and the Odderon. Our calculated results in the tensor glueball and Odderon exchange model fit to the existing data successfully, which evidently shows that our present QCD mechanism is a good description of meson electroproduction off a proton. It should be emphasized that our mechanism is different from the theoretical framework of Block et al. We also believe that the present study and its success are important for the investigation of other vector meson electro- and photoproduction at high energies, as well as for searching for new particles such as tensor glueballs and Odderons, which have been predicted by QCD and the color glass condensate model (CGC). Therefore, in return, it can test the validity of QCD and the CGC model.

  14. Vector meson electroproduction in QCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Juan; CAI Xian-Hao; ZHOU Li-Juan

    2012-01-01

    Based on the generalized QCD vector meson dominance model,we study the electroproduction of a vector meson off a proton in the QCD inspired eikonalized model.Numerical calculations for the total cross section σtot and differential cross section dσ/dt are performed for p,ω and φ meson electroproduction in this paper.Since gluons interact among themselves (self-interaction),two gluons can form a glueball with quantum numbers IG,JPC =0+,2++,decay width Γt ≈ 100 MeV,and mass of mG=2.23 GeV.The three gluons can form a three-gluon colorless bound state with charge conjugation quantum number C =-1,called the Odderon.The mediators of interactions between projectiles (the quark and antiquark pair fluctuated from the virtual photon) and the proton target (a three-quark system) are the tensor glueball and the Odderon.Our calculated results in the tensor glueball and Odderon exchange model fit to the existing data successfully,which evidently shows that our present QCD mechanism is a good description of meson electroproduction off a proton.It should be emphasized that our mechanism is different from the theoretical framework of Block et al.We also believe that the present study and its success are important for the investigation of other vector meson electro- and photoproduction at high energies,as well as for searching for new particles such as tensor glueballs and Odderons,which have been predicted by QCD and the color glass condensate model (CGC).Therefore,in return,it can test the validity of QCD and the CGC model.

  15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Core Competencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, J.B.; Anderson, T.D.; Berven, B.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.; Hartman, F.C.; Honea, R.B.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Moon, R.M. Jr.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shelton, R.B. [and others

    1994-12-01

    A core competency is a distinguishing integration of capabilities which enables an organization to deliver mission results. Core competencies represent the collective learning of an organization and provide the capacity to perform present and future missions. Core competencies are distinguishing characteristics which offer comparative advantage and are difficult to reproduce. They exhibit customer focus, mission relevance, and vertical integration from research through applications. They are demonstrable by metrics such as level of investment, uniqueness of facilities and expertise, and national impact. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has identified four core competencies which satisfy the above criteria. Each core competency represents an annual investment of at least $100M and is characterized by an integration of Laboratory technical foundations in physical, chemical, and materials sciences; biological, environmental, and social sciences; engineering sciences; and computational sciences and informatics. The ability to integrate broad technical foundations to develop and sustain core competencies in support of national R&D goals is a distinguishing strength of the national laboratories. The ORNL core competencies are: 9 Energy Production and End-Use Technologies o Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technology o Advanced Materials Synthesis, Processing, and Characterization & Neutron-Based Science and Technology. The distinguishing characteristics of each ORNL core competency are described. In addition, written material is provided for two emerging competencies: Manufacturing Technologies and Computational Science and Advanced Computing. Distinguishing institutional competencies in the Development and Operation of National Research Facilities, R&D Integration and Partnerships, Technology Transfer, and Science Education are also described. Finally, financial data for the ORNL core competencies are summarized in the appendices.

  16. Intercultural Communication Ethics and Communication Competence%Intercultural Communication Ethics and Communication Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时婷洁

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates intercultural communication ethics is a vital element to promote intercultural communication competence. Firstly, it defines the concept of intercultural communication ethics; Secondly, it illustrates the relation between ethics and the key point of intercultural communication competence; and finally addresses how intercultural communication ethics can improve intercultural communication competence.

  17. COACHES' PERCEPTIONS OF COMPETENCE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF TRAINING NEEDS RELATED TO PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine coaches' perceptions of competence and acknowledgement of training needs related to professional competences according to the professional experience and academic education. The participants were 343 coaches from several sports, who answered to a questionnaire that includes a scale focused on perceptions of competence and another scale on acknowledgment of training needs. An exploratory factor analysis with Maximum Likelihood Factoring was used with Oblimin rotation for the identification of emergent factors. Comparison on coaches' perceptions in function of coaching experience and coaches' academic background were made applying One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc multiple comparisons. Factor analysis on coaches' perceptions of competence and acknowledgement of training needs made apparent three main areas of competences, i.e. competences related to annual and multi-annual planning; competences related to orientation towards practice and competition; and personal and coaching education competences. Coaches' perceptions were influenced by their experience, as low experienced coaches rated themselves at lower levels of competence and with more training needs; also coaches with high education, in Physical Education or others, perceived themselves as more competent than coaches with no higher education. Finally, the majority of the coaches perceived themselves to be competent but, nevertheless, they indicated to have training needs, which brings an important feedback to coach education. This suggests that coaches are interested in increasing their knowledge and competence in a broad range of areas which should be considered in future coach education programs

  18. An International Study in Competency Education: Postcards from Abroad. CompetencyWorks Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Sara Frank; Patrick, Susan

    2014-01-01

    "An International Study in Competency Education: Postcards from Abroad" seeks to highlight components of competency education in international practice, to inform US policymakers and decision makers seeking to implement high-quality competency pathways at the state or local level. Other countries are studying our innovations, and we are…

  19. Employees' Perceptions of the Opportunities to Utilize Their Competences: Exploring the Role of Perceived Competence Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Perceived competence mobilization is the degree to which employees perceive that they have adequate opportunities to utilize their competences in their current jobs. The findings of the research reported here suggest that employees' perceived competence mobilization is associated with a number of favourable employee attitudes, including intrinsic…

  20. [The Competence Network Parkinson (CNP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, Wolfgang H; Deuschl, Guenther; Eggert, Karla

    2016-04-01

    The Competence Network Parkinson (CNP) is a research infrastructure for disease-oriented translational and clinical research in the field of Parkinson syndromes (PS). It was initiated in 1999 and funded until 2008 by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). The CNP created a highly frequented website with information on PS for the general public and for experts. The CNP designed and established one of the first electronic internet-based data entry systems (secuTrial®) - fulfilling the legal standards of data safety and security - a material bank for genetic research on Parkinson's disease (PD), implemented and investigated new methods for early diagnosis of PD and related atypical PS including in vivo dopamine transporter imaging (DAT SPECT), established the German Parkinson Study Group (GPS-Pharma) with 40 certified trial centres for pharmacotherapeutical trials and the German interdisciplinary Parkinson Study Group (neurology and neurosurgery) for deep brain stimulation (GPS-DBS), and carried out several pharmacoeconomic and health care studies on PD in Germany. Sustainability of the infrastructure CNP has in part been achieved in form of the GPS-Pharma and the GPS-DBS, as well as in the German Study Group on REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD), a prodromal phase of PD. Part of the CNP activities, such as genetic research and research on cohorts of PD patients, have been incorporated into the German Center for Neurodegenerative Disorders (DZNE). Furthermore, topics such as health care research are funded within projects of the EU research program. The article describes problems in setting up a competence network from scratch and contains recommendations how to avoid them in the future.

  1. On Weighted Support Vector Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of weighted support vector regression (SVR), motivated by modeling local dependencies in time and space in prediction of house prices. The classic weights of the weighted SVR are added to the slack variables in the objective function (OF‐weights). This procedure directly...... the differences and similarities of the two types of weights by demonstrating the connection between the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and the SVR. We show that an SVR problem can be transformed to a LASSO problem plus a linear constraint and a box constraint. We demonstrate...

  2. Probability Ranking in Vector Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Melucci, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The Probability Ranking Principle states that the document set with the highest values of probability of relevance optimizes information retrieval effectiveness given the probabilities are estimated as accurately as possible. The key point of the principle is the separation of the document set into two subsets with a given level of fallout and with the highest recall. The paper introduces the separation between two vector subspaces and shows that the separation yields a more effective performance than the optimal separation into subsets with the same available evidence, the performance being measured with recall and fallout. The result is proved mathematically and exemplified experimentally.

  3. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was

  4. The Use of Viral Vectors in Gene Transfer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dziaková

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is strategy based on using genes as pharmaceuticals. Gene therapy is a treatment that involves altering the genes inside body's cells to stop disease. Genes contain DNA- the code controlling body form and function. Genes that do not work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new gene in an attempt to cure disease or improve the ability of the body to fight disease. Gene therapy holds promise for treating a wide range of diseases, including cancer, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia and AIDS. Various types of genetic material are used in gene therapy; double-stranded DNA (dsDNA, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA, plasmid DNA and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASON. The success of gene therapy depends on assuring the entrance of the therapeutic gene to targeted cells without any form of biodegradation. Commonly used vectors in gene therapy are: adenoviruses (400 clinical studies; 23.8%, retroviruses (344 clinical studies; 20.5%, unenveloped/plasmid DNA (304 clinical studies, 17.7%, adeno-associated viruses (75 clinical studies; 4.5% and others. In this paper, we have reviewed the major gene delivery vectors and recent improvements made in their design meant to overcome the issues that commonly arise with the use of gene therapy vectors.

  5. Vector-tensor and vector-vector decay amplitude analysis of B0-->phiK*0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Pegna, D Lopes; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Sanchez, P del Amo; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Vetere, M Lo; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Lee, C L; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Vazquez, W Panduro; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Diberder, F Le; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; Lodovico, F Di; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Nardo, G De; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Buono, L Del; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Marco, E Di; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Ricca, G Della; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2007-02-02

    We perform an amplitude analysis of the decays B(0)-->phiK*(2)(1430)(0), phiK*(892)(0), and phi(Kpi)(0)(S-wave) with a sample of about 384x10(6) BB[over ] pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. The fractions of longitudinal polarization f(L) of the vector-tensor and vector-vector decay modes are measured to be 0.853(-0.069+0.061)+/-0.036 and 0.506+/-0.040+/-0.015, respectively. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay and seven parameters for the vector-tensor decay, including the branching fractions and parameters sensitive to CP violation.

  6. Competency Index. [Business/Computer Technologies Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This index allows the user to scan the competencies under each title for the 28 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Titles of the 28 units are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; professional and ethical standards; economic and business…

  7. Developing the Intercultural Competence of Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Nanda; Dawson, Debra L.; Olsen, Karyn C.; Meadows, Ken N.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how teaching development programs may facilitate the development of intercultural competence in graduate students and prepare them for communicating effectively in the global workplace after graduation. First, we describe the concept of intercultural teaching competence and examine the skills that graduate students may need to…

  8. Linguistic Competence in English and Exposure Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Marisol

    2008-01-01

    This study examines Linguistic Competence in English Language (LCE) as a general indicator of Communicative Competence. A test and a questionnaire were administered to 1838 undergraduate freshmen from five major institutes of higher education in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The results of the test are analysed in their association with main features of…

  9. Competency-Based Education: Leadership Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodine, Thad; Johnstone, Sally M.

    2015-01-01

    Competency-based education (CBE) refers to online and hybrid courses and programs that offer credit or degrees based on evidence of student learning, or competencies, rather than on the amount of time spent in a course. Students work at their own pace, receive personalized academic support, and demonstrate mastery as they progress through their…

  10. Enterprising behaviour in an integrating competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandram, Sharda; Orhei, Loredana; Born, Marise

    2014-01-01

    We present insights from literature on enterprising behaviour and competence followed by an application of the competence perspective. Data collection is based on the critical incident technique among 205 entrepreneurs. The study shows how entrepreneurial behaviour benefits from an integrating compe

  11. Examining Intercultural Competency through Social Exchange Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Soma; James, Reynold

    2015-01-01

    Intercultural competency (ICC) has been an extensively researched area within the past decade, given the broad consensus that this trait constitutes one of the key competencies of the 21st century manager. However, somewhat under-explored are aspects including the implications and effects that pedagogies such as blended learning have on the…

  12. Assessing Romantic Competence among Older Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Davila, Joanne; Shachar-Shapira, Lital

    2011-01-01

    Davila and colleagues (Davila et al., 2009) developed the Romantic Competence Interview to capture the potential for romantic competence during early adolescence. Considering that at later stages of adolescence the majority are likely to be involved in some kind of romantic relationship, the current paper adapts, extends, and examines the concept…

  13. Competence Development in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the popular concept of Competence Development as constructed of at least three different discourses (Life Long Learning, New Public Management and professionalisation) and discusses the relations between the transformations of the public sectors in Scandinavian Welfare States......, Competence Development and Professionalisation/Deprofessionalisation among the public employees....

  14. Strategic Imperative of Human Resource Leadership Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajini, G.; Gomathi, S.

    2010-01-01

    Using multiple constituencies approach, variances in competencies in human resource leadership have been studied as this is becoming highly significant in India's globalisation efforts. Previous research in leadership orientation focused on localisation of human resource competencies rather than its globalisation. For this, human resource…

  15. Displaying Competence in Organizations Discourse Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pelsmaekers, Katja; Van Hout, Tom; Heynderickx, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    Competence encompasses or overlaps with notions of efficiency, success, accountability, excellence and self-justification. This collection explores ways in which individuals, teams or groups in organizations discursively present themselves as competent to perform tasks or functions, possibly at a superior level.

  16. The States' Role in Ensuring Assessment Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that because of research evidence linking competent assessment with academic achievement, all states should require assessment competence for teacher, administrator, and counselor licenses; reviews current status of state requirements; briefly describes assessment standards developed by several national organizations; describes several…

  17. Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michelle S.; Hillaker, Barbara D.; Haas, Bruce E.; Peters, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of public service programming is becoming increasingly important with current funding realities. The taxonomy of evaluation competencies compiled by Ghere et al. (2006) provided the starting place for Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension. The Michigan State University Extension case study described here presents a…

  18. The Competencies of the Modern Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessipbayeva, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The principal aim of this study is to consider the competencies of the modern teacher. To understand 21st-century instructional skills, we researched the following issues: students' skills; levels of teachers' professional growth; teachers' pedagogical culture; pedagogical innovations, and 21st-century teaching competencies. [For complete volume,…

  19. Clinical Competence: Starship Enterprise or Straitjacket?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Explores the origins of clinical competence assessment in nursing education and reviews two British research projects. Finds little evidence of systematic approaches to competence assessment and no evidence of instrument reliability and validity. Expresses concern that it poses a barrier to the education of nurses. (SK)

  20. Developing Ethical Competence in Healthcare Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenström, Erica; Ohlsson, Jon; Höglund, Anna T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to explore what kind of ethical competence healthcare managers need in handling conflicts of interest (COI). The aim is also to highlight essential learning processes to develop healthcare managers' ethical competence. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study was performed. Semi-structured interviews…