WorldWideScience

Sample records for altered testicular morphology

  1. Anchoring ethinylestradiol induced gene expression changes with testicular morphology and reproductive function in the medaka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D Miller

    Full Text Available Environmental estrogens are ubiquitous in the environment and can cause detrimental effects on male reproduction. In fish, a multitude of effects from environmental estrogens have been observed including altered courting behavior and fertility, sex reversal, and gonadal histopathology. However, few studies in fish assess the impacts of estrogenic exposure on a physiological endpoint, such as reproduction, as well as the associated morphologic response and underlying global gene expression changes. This study assessed the implications of a 14 day sub-chronic exposure of ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.0 or 10.0 µg/L EE2 on male medaka fertility, testicular histology and testicular gene expression. The findings demonstrate that a 14 day exposure to EE2 induced impaired male reproductive capacity and time- and dose-dependent alterations in testicular morphology and gene expression. The average fertilization rate/day following the exposure for control, 1.0 and 10.0 µg/L EE2 was 91.3% (±4.4, 62.8% (±8.3 and 28.8% (±5.8, respectively. The testicular morphologic alterations included increased germ cell apoptosis, decreased germinal epithelium and thickening of the interstitium. These changes were highly associated with testicular gene expression changes using a medaka-specific microarray. A pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes emphasized genes and pathways associated with apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation, collagen production/extracellular matrix organization, hormone signaling, male reproduction and protein ubiquitination among others. These findings highlight the importance of anchoring global gonadal gene expression changes with morphology and ultimately with tissue/organ function.

  2. Grape juice concentrate (G8000(®) ) intake mitigates testicular morphological and ultrastructural damage following cadmium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Celina A; Gollücke, Andrea P B; Dolder, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a well-known testicular toxicant, and parts of the world population are exposed chronically by inhalation or by food and water intake. Grape products have been highlighted as important sources of bioactive compounds, having anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and metal chelating properties. Since maintenance of tissue morphology is essential for testicular sperm development and hence male fertility, we analysed the protective effect of grape juice concentrate (GJC) (G8000(®) ) consumption on testicular morphology in rats exposed to cadmium. Thus, four groups of male Wistar rats (n = 6 per group), 50 days old, ingested either water or G8000(®) (2 g/kg/day) until they had completed one spermatogenic cycle in adult life (136 days old). Cadmium (1.2 mg / kg) was injected intraperitoneally when the animals were 80 days old into one of the water and one of the G8000 groups; intraperitoneal saline was used as a control in the other two groups. Animals anaesthetised and exsanguinated at 136 days and then perfused with Karnovsky's fixative and then the testes were collected for morphological analysis. We describe evident disruption of testicular morphology by cadmium, with alteration in tissue component proportions, reduced Leydig cells volume and initial signs of an inflammatory process. Ultrastructural analysis showed greater damage, suggesting spermatogenesis disruption. G8000(®) ingestion allowed tissue architecture to be re-established, as was corroborated by our stereological and morphometric findings. Animals from the group where G8000(®) had been administered together with cadmium revealed a significant reduction in macrophages and blood vessel volume, suggesting diminished inflammation, when compared to animals that received only cadmium. Moreover, smaller number of ultrastructural alterations was noted, revealing fewer areas of degeneration and disorganized interstitium. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GJC consumption prevented the

  3. Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, R.P.

    1986-12-01

    The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalacy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animals models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis.

  4. Diabetic rat testes: morphological and functional alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Esposito, R; Pisanti, F A; Vietri, M T; Galdieri, M

    2009-12-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a consequence of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the histological and molecular alterations in the testes of rats injected with streptozotocin at prepuperal (SPI rats) and adult age (SAI rats) to understand whether diabetes affects testicular tissue with different severity depending on the age in which this pathological condition starts. The testes of diabetic animals showed frequent abnormal histology, and seminiferous epithelium cytoarchitecture appeared altered as well as the occludin distribution pattern. The early occurrence of diabetes increased the percentage of animals with high number of damaged tubules. The interstitial compartment of the testes was clearly hypertrophic in several portions of the organs both in SPI and SAI rats. Interestingly, fully developed Leydig cells were present in all the treated animals although abnormally distributed. Besides the above-described damages, we found a similar decrease in plasma testosterone levels both in SPI and SAI rats. Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications, and in our experimental models we found that manganese superoxide dismutase was reduced in diabetic animals. We conclude that in STZ-induced diabetes, the altered spermatogenesis, more severe in SPI animals, is possibly due to the effect of OS on Leydig cell function which could cause the testosterone decrease responsible for the alterations found in the seminiferous epithelium of diabetic animals.

  5. Aqueous root extract ofLecaniodiscus cupanioides restores the alterations in testicular parameters of sexually impaired male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quadri O Nurudeen; Taofeek O Ajiboye

    2012-01-01

    Objective:This study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous root extract ofLecaniodiscus cupanioides (L.cupanioides)on the alterations in the testicular parameters of paroxetine-treated rats.Methods:Group A rats which is the control received distilled water orally for 5 d. Groups B, C, D, E and F consisted of paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction rats. In addition, Groups C, D, E and F rats were orally treated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract and 7.14 mg/kg body weight of PowMax once daily for 5 d respectively.Results:Paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction resulted into significant (P<0.05) reduction in the levels of testicular protein, sialic acid, glycogen and cholesterols. These decrease were dose dependently reversed by aqueous root extract ofL. cupanioides. The decrease in the specific activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase in the testes of paroxetine-treated rats were significantly (P<0.05) reversed. Testicular testosterone level decreased significantly (P<0.05) in sexually impaired rats. This decrease was significantly prevented by aqueous root extract ofL. cupanioides. All these alterations brought about by the administration of the extract (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) compared significantly (P<0.05) with the reference drug, while the 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract compared significantly (P<0.05) with the control.Conclusions:The results of this study showed that aqueous root extract ofL. cupanioidesrestored the alterations in the testicular function parameters of sexually impaired rats. Thus supporting the use of the plants in the management of sexual dysfunction in the folkloric medicine of Nigeria.

  6. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on morphology and TGF-β3 expression in mouse testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yaning; Wang, Xiaowu; Chen, Yongbin; Xu, Shenglong; Ding, Guirong; Shi, Changhong

    2013-08-09

    Exposure to electromagnetic pulses in certain doses may lead to increase in the permeability of the blood testes barrier (BTB) in mice, which in turn affects spermatogenesis, penetration and spermiation. TGF-β3 is a key molecule involved in BTB permeability via regulation of tight junction proteins, and it participates in regulating spermatogenesis, synthesis of steroids and production of the extracellular matrix in testicular tissue. Therefore, it is hypothesized that TGF-β3 plays important roles in electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced changes in BTB permeability. In the present study, we carried out whole-body irradiation on mice using EMP of different intensities. No obvious pathological changes or significant increase in apoptosis was detected in testicular tissues after exposure to 100 and 200 pulses of intensity 200kV/m; however, with 400 pulses we observed the degeneration and shrinkage of testicular tissues along with a significant increase in apoptotic rate. Moreover, in the 100- and 200-EMP groups, a non-significant increase in TGF-β3 mRNA and protein expression was observed, whereas in the 400-EMP group a significant increase was observed (P<0.05). These results indicate that increase in the apoptotic rate of testicular tissues and increase in TGF-β3 expression may be one of the mechanisms for EMP-induced increase in BTB permeability in mice.

  7. Sperm-agglutinating antibodies and testicular morphology in fifty-nine men with azoospermia or cryptozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, J; Kjessler, B

    1975-04-01

    The relationship between the state of the germinal epithelium and the type and titer of circulating sperm-agglutinating antibodies has been investigated in a series of 59 azoospermic or occasionally cryptozoospermic men. The patients were grouped according to the condition of the germinal epithelium as observed from testicular biopsy specimens, as well as to type and titer of circulating sperm-agglutinating antibodies investigated by a previously described microagglutination technique. Evidence is presented to suggest that the presence of mature spermatozoa in the testicular structures may be a prerequisite for the spontaneous production of circulating sperm-agglutinating antibodies, at least of the head-to-tail (H-T) agglutinating type. Furthermore, these circulating H-T sperm-agglutinating antibodies, once they are formed, do not seem to interfere adversely with the germinal epithelium of the carrier.

  8. Comparative studies on testicular and epididymal morphology, and serum hormone concentrations in foxes and the hybrids during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T A; Yang, Y H; Peng, Y H; Cong, B; Diao, Y F; Bao, K; Hu, P F; Song, X C; Liu, L L; Yang, Y F; Xing, X M; Yang, F H

    2016-05-01

    The silver fox and the blue fox belong to different genera, and the hybrid males are fully or partially sterile. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the causes of hybrid male sterility, and therefore analyze the differences in testicular, and epididymal morphology and serum hormone concentrations among silver foxes, blue foxes, and the hybrids during the breeding season. Samples were collected from 20 male silver foxes, 20 male blue foxes, 15 male HSBs (silver fox female × blue fox male hybrids) and 14 male HBSs (blue fox male × silver fox female hybrids), respectively. Seminal evaluation showed large numbers of sperm present in the semen of blue foxes and silver foxes, but no sperm present in the hybrids. Mean testicular volume and the diameter of seminiferous tubules in silver foxes and blue foxes were greater than in the hybrids; and there were many Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells, and sperm in silver foxes and blue foxes, while spermatogenic cells decreased with no sperm in the hybrids. Mean serum LH and prolactin concentrations in silver foxes and blue foxes were less and testosterone was greater than in the hybrids (P<0.05). The results indicate that germ cell meioses in the hybrids were arrested at the prophase stage of meiosis, and that lesser concentrations of testosterone and greater concentrations of LH and prolactin can inhibit the completion of spermatogenesis.

  9. Toxic effect of cyclophosphamide on sperm morphology, testicular histology and blood oxidant-antioxidant balance, and protective roles of lycopene and ellagic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceribaşi, Ali Osman; Türk, Gaffari; Sönmez, Mustafa; Sakin, Fatih; Ateşşahin, Ahmet

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the toxic effect of cyclophosphamide (CP) on sperm morphology, testicular histology and blood oxidant-antioxidant balance, and protective roles of lycopene (LC) and ellagic acid (EA) were investigated. For this purpose, 48 healthy, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups; eight animals in each group. The control group was treated with placebo. LC, EA and CP groups were given alone LC (10 mg/kg/every other day), EA (2 mg/kg/every other day) and CP (15 mg/kg/week) respectively. One of the last two groups received CP + LC, and the other treated with CP + EA. All treatments were maintained for 8 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, morphological abnormalities of sperm, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and glutathione (GSH) levels, and GSH-peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in erythrocytes, and testicular histopathological changes were examined. CP administration caused statistically significant increases in tail and total abnormality of sperm, plasma MDA level and erythrocyte SOD activity, and decreases in erythrocyte CAT activity, diameters of seminiferous tubules, germinal cell layer thickness and Johnsen's Testicular Score along with degeneration, necrosis, immature germ cells, congestion and atrophy in testicular tissue. However, LC or EA treatments to CP-treated rats markedly improved the CP-induced lipid peroxidation, and normalized sperm morphology and testicular histopathology. In conclusion, CP-induced lipid peroxidation leads to the structural damages in spermatozoa and testicular tissue of rats, and also LC or EA have a protective effect on these types of damage.

  10. Reproductive effects in hybrid sparrow from a polluted area in Tunisia: Oxidative damage and altered testicular histomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Nahed; Hammouda, Abdessalem; Rahmouni, Fatma; Chokri, Med Ali; Chaabane, Rim; Selmi, Slaheddine; Rebai, Tarek; Badraoui, Riadh

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is a threat for human health and wildlife. The aim of this study is to assess the pathophysiological changes and the oxidative-antioxidative status in testicular tissues of 40 Hybrid sparrows collected from four areas in Gabès city, one of the most polluted areas in Tunisia. The testis histopathological analysis revealed alterations in birds from Ghannouche, the polluted area. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were higher in testis of birds from the contaminated site compared to less polluted areas indicating oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were lower in testis sparrows from the polluted site compared with the reference site, suggesting deficiency of the antioxidant system to compensate for oxidative stress. Overall, our results suggest that the hybrid sparrow offers a suitable model for biomonitoring programs of atmosphere pollutants and the selected biomarkers could be useful tool to evaluate pollution impacts in living organisms.

  11. Morphological alterations in mouse testis by a single dose of malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, H R; Bustos-Obregón, E

    1999-08-01

    Malathion((R)) is a widely used organophosphorate agropesticide. In spite of its low toxicity for mammalian cells, it provokes cytogenetic and genotoxic damage both in vivo and in vitro. The effect of Malathion was analyzed in CF-1 young adult male mice. Commercial Malathion (96.6% purity) was injected intraperitoneally in a single dose (250 mg/kg body weight corresponding to 1/12 LD50). Four, 14, 18, and 26 days after injection animals were sacrificed to study epididymal sperm (count and morphology), testicular histology (percentage of depleted seminiferous tubules), and ultrastructural alterations in the germinal epithelium. The effect of Malathion on different germinal cell populations was studied. Teratozoospermia was induced by Malathion at all times studied. Spermatozoa midpiece and flagella were the most affected and at day 18 we observed less alterations of the head. The sperm count at different time intervals was significatively increased compared to controls and there was a parallel increase in depletion of the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion, all germinal cell populations studied were affected by Malathion. Malathion has a teratogenic effect on mice spermatid differentiation, which compromises mostly the flagella, perhaps due to an alkylating effect that disturbs the normal assembling of tail structural protein components. Apparently, the pachytene spermatocyte stage may be relatively more resistant to the pesticide. The Sertoli cells were affected by the insecticide and their damage at an ultrastructural level is highly significant. Cytoplasmatic vacuolization probably revealed metabolic alteration of these cells.

  12. Testicular biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with fluid and dead sperm cells (spermatocele) Orchitis Testicular cancer Your health care provider will explain ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 31. Read More Infertility Orchitis Semen analysis Testes Testicular cancer Testicular self-exam ...

  13. Testicular torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsion of the testis; Testicular ischemia; Testicular twisting ... Symptoms include: Sudden severe pain in one testicle. The pain may occur ... ). Nausea or vomiting. Lightheadedness . Additional symptoms ...

  14. Gastrointestinal morphological alterations in obese rats kept under hypercaloric diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento RC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Raphael Castiglioni Nascimento, Haryanne Mabel, Bruna Nunes Queiroz, Roberta ParesqueDepartamento de Ciências da Saúde, Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo, São Mateus, ES, BrazilAbstract: Hypercaloric diets have been successfully used as experimental models of obesity. This work compared morphological characteristics of inferior gastrointestinal organs. The experiment lasted 10 weeks, during which the rats' food consumption, body weight, distance between the mouth and neck, distance between mouth and neck, distance between neck and tail, and abdominal circumference were evaluated weekly. After the sacrifice of the rats, 20 variables referring to inferior gastrointestinal morphology were assessed. The results comprised descriptive statistics of the data, analysis of main components, linear correlation, and t-tests. Significant differences were found between the two groups for the variables of abdominal circumference, retroperitoneal fat, ratio between retroperitoneal fat/animal weight, stomach weight, ratio between animal weight/intestine weight and mesentery/animal weight, length of small intestine, length of large intestine, and lateral line of the cecum. The data allow us to state that a hypercaloric diet can be responsible an increase in fat in the abdominal cavity as well as gastrointestinal morphological alterations, principally in stomach development. Keywords: gastrointestinal morphology; hypercaloric diet; diet-induced obesity

  15. Surgery for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Surgery for Testicular Cancer Surgery is typically the first treatment for all ... Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  16. Insulin resistance alters islet morphology in nondiabetic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezza, Teresa; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Sorice, Gian Pio

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by poor glucose uptake in metabolic tissues and manifests when insulin secretion fails to cope with worsening insulin resistance. In addition to its effects on skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue metabolism, it is evident that insulin resistance also affects...... pancreatic β-cells. To directly examine the alterations that occur in islet morphology as part of an adaptive mechanism to insulin resistance, we evaluated pancreas samples obtained during pancreatoduodenectomy from nondiabetic subjects who were insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive. We also compared...... insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and incretin levels between the two groups. We report an increased islet size and an elevated number of β- and α-cells that resulted in an altered β-cell-to-α-cell area in the insulin- resistant group. Our data in this series of studies suggest that neogenesis from...

  17. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or testicles that aren't shaped normally.Have Klinefelter's syndrome (a genetic condition where male infants are born ... contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: cryptorehidism, Klinefelter's syndrome, malignancies, scrotal mass, scrotal masses, testicular cancer, testicular ...

  18. Testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testicular cancer is cancer that starts in the testicles, the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum. ... developing testicular cancer increases if he has: Abnormal testicle development Exposure to certain chemicals Family history of ...

  19. Does improved hearing result in altered inner ear morphology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Schulz-Mirbach

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of hearing plays an important role for fishes to obtain information about their (acoustic environment (e.g. Popper 2011, Fay 2011. In numerous taxa, ancillary auditory structures like swimbladder modifications evolved, leading to an improved audition (Braun and Grande 2008. Despite a profound knowledge of inner ear diversity and ancillary auditory structures (for an overview see Schulz-Mirbach and Ladich 2015, Ladich 2015, the relationship between the morphology of these structures and hearing abilities remains to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that swimbladder modifications coincide with differences in inner ear morphology, using cichlids as a model because they show considerable intrafamilial diversity in swimbladder morphology and hearing capabilities (Schulz-Mirbach et al. 2012, 2014. We compared Steatocranus tinanti (vestigial swimbladder, Hemichromis guttatus (large swimbladder without extensions, and Etroplus maculatus (intimate connection between swimbladder and inner ears by applying immunostaining together with confocal imaging for the investigation of sensory epithelia, and high-resolution, contrast enhanced microCT imaging for characterizing inner ears in 3D. Compared to S. tinanti and H. guttatus, inner ears of E. maculatus showed an enlargement of all three maculae, and a particularly large lacinia of the macula utriculi. While our analysis of orientation patterns of ciliary bundles on the three macula types using artificially flattened maculae uncovered rather similar orientation patterns of ciliary bundles, interspecific differences became apparent when illustrating the orientation patterns on the 3D models of the maculae: differences in the shape and curvature of the lacinia of the macula utriculi, and the anterior arm of the macula lagenae resulted in an altered arrangement of ciliary bundles. Our results imply that improved hearing in E. maculatus is associated not only with swimbladder modifications but

  20. Testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Møller, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To perform a systematic literature review to assess whether the occurrence of testicular microlithiasis (TML) in conjunction with other risk factors is associated with testicular cancer. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed of original articles in English published 1998......: In total, 282 abstracts in were identified. Based on title and abstract the eligibility was assessed and 31 studies were included. Five conditions in relation to TML and testicular cancer emerged: Down syndrome, McCune-Albright syndrome, cryptorchidism, infertility and familial disposition of testicular...... cancer. CONCLUSION: Data support the conclusion that TML is not an independent risk factor for testicular cancer but associated with testicular cancer through other conditions. In male infertility, TML appears to be related to an increased risk of testicular cancer possibly as part of a testicular...

  1. Apoptosis-mediated testicular alteration in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in response to temporal phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Somanshu; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2016-05-15

    Reproductive performance of many avian species, including Japanese quail, is reported to be modulated by specific temporal phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations. Accordingly, it has been shown that the serotonin precursor 5-HTP and the dopamine precursor l-DOPA given 8 h apart induce gonadal suppression and given 12 h apart lead to gonadal stimulation, while other temporal relationships were found to be ineffective. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 8- and 12-h phase relation of neural oscillations on testicular responses including expression of GnRH-I, GnIH, pro-apoptotic proteins (p53 and Bax), inactive and active executioner caspase-3, and the uncleaved DNA repair enzyme PARP-1. Testicular volume and mass decreased significantly in 8-h quail and increased in 12-h quail compared with controls. Expression of ir-GnIH, p53, Bax and active-caspase-3 increased and that of GnRH-I, pro-caspase-3 and uncleaved PARP-1 decreased in 8-h quail compared with controls. A TUNEL assay also confirmed testicular regression in these quail. Testes of 12-h quail exhibited significantly increased expression of GnRH-I, pro-caspase-3 and uncleaved PARP-1 compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that differential response of avian testes to 8- and 12-h phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic neural oscillations may be attributed to autocrine/paracrine action of GnIH expression, which is upregulated in regressed testes, leading to apoptotic changes, and downregulated in developed testes, causing apoptotic inhibition. It is concluded that specific phase relation of neural oscillations may modulate the local testicular GnRH-GnIH system and alter the apoptotic mechanism in quail testes. Moreover, these findings highlight the physiological effects of time-dependent drug delivery, including the specific time intervals between two drugs.

  2. Pneumoperitoneum induces morphological alterations in the rat testicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Teixeira Ribeiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:To investigate the seminiferous tubule histological morphology after an 8 mmHg pneumoperitoneum in the rat model. METHODS: Fourteen rats were divided into two groups: a Sham group submitted to anesthesia and a pneumoperitoneum (Pp group submitted to abdominal insufflation at 8 mmHg during three hours, followed by desuflation. All rats were killed after six weeks, testicles were collected and evaluated for the tubule diameter, germinative epithelium height and Johnsen´s score. Means were compared by using the Student's-t-test. RESULTS:The seminiferous tubule diameter was diminished by 11.3% in the group submitted to pneumoperitoneum (p<0.05. No significant difference was found among the groups when analyzing the epithelium height and Johnsen´s score. CONCLUSION:In the rat model, the seminiferous tubules present structural alterations when subjected to pneumoperitoneum of 8 mmHg during three hours.

  3. Inactivation of AMPKα1 induces asthenozoospermia and alters spermatozoa morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartarin, Pauline; Guibert, Edith; Touré, Aminata; Ouiste, Claire; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Sanz, Nieves; Brière, Sylvain; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Delaleu, Bernadette; McNeilly, Judith R; McNeilly, Alan S; Brillard, Jean-Pierre; Dupont, Joëlle; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Froment, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, is present in metabolic tissues (muscle and liver) and has been identified as a modulator of the female reproductive functions. However, its function in the testis has not yet been clearly defined. We have investigated the potential role of AMPK in male reproduction by using transgenic mice lacking the activity of AMPK catalytic subunit α1 gene [α1AMPK knockout (KO)]. In the testis, the α1AMPK subunit is expressed in germ cells and also in somatic cells (Sertoli and Leydig cells). α1AMPK KO male mice show a decrease in fertility, despite no clear alteration in the testis morphology or sperm production. However, in α1AMPK(-/-) mice, we demonstrate that spermatozoa have structural abnormalities and are less motile than in control mice. These spermatozoa alterations are associated with a 50% decrease in mitochondrial activity, a 60% decrease in basal oxygen consumption, and morphological defects. The α1AMPK KO male mice had high androgen levels associated with a 5- and 3-fold increase in intratesticular cholesterol and testosterone concentrations, respectively. High concentrations of proteins involved in steroid production (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, cytochrome steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lysate, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) were also detected in α1AMPK(-/-) testes. In the pituitary, the LH and FSH concentrations tended to be lower in α1AMPK(-/-) male mice, probably due to the negative feedback of the high testosterone levels. These results suggest that total α1AMPK deficiency in male mice affects androgen production and quality of spermatozoa, leading to a decrease in fertility.

  4. Oxidative stress alters physiological and morphological neuronal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Sonia M; Joe, Mary; Alshuaib, Waleed B

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the effects of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress on the delayed-rectifier current (IK(DR)), neuronal physiological and morphological properties. Measurements were obtained from hippocampal CA1 neurons in control solution and from the same neurons after exposure to oxidative stress (short- and long-term H(2)O(2) external applications at 0.1, 1, and 10 mM). With short-term (6 min) H(2)O(2) (1 mM) treatment, IK(DR) measured in the H(2)O(2)-containing solution (778 +/- 23 pA, n=20), was smaller than that measured in the control Ca(2+)-free Hepes solution (1,112 +/- 38 pA, n=20). Coenzyme Q(10) (0.1 mM) pretreatment prevented the H(2)O(2)-induced inhibition of IK(DR). With long-term (40, 80 min) H(2)O(2) (0.1, 10 mM) treatment, the neuron lost its distinctive shape (rounded up) and the neurite almost disappeared. These results suggest that oxidative stress, which inhibits IK(DR), can alter neural activity. The morphological changes caused by H(2)O(2) support the idea that oxidative stress causes intracellular damage and compromises neural function.

  5. Testicular Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Testicular Cancer Treatment Testicular Cancer Screening Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Testicular Cancer Key Points Testicular cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Altered hippocampal morphology in unmedicated patients with major depressive illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie E Bearden

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite converging evidence that major depressive illness is associated with both memory impairment and hippocampal pathology, findings vary widely across studies and it is not known whether these changes are regionally specific. In the present study we acquired brain MRIs (magnetic resonance images from 31 unmedicated patients with MDD (major depressive disorder; mean age 39.2±11.9 years; 77% female and 31 demographically comparable controls. Three-dimensional parametric mesh models were created to examine localized alterations of hippocampal morphology. Although global volumes did not differ between groups, statistical mapping results revealed that in MDD patients, more severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater left hippocampal atrophy, particularly in CA1 (cornu ammonis 1 subfields and the subiculum. However, previous treatment with atypical antipsychotics was associated with a trend towards larger left hippocampal volume. Our findings suggest effects of illness severity on hippocampal size, as well as a possible effect of past history of atypical antipsychotic treatment, which may reflect prolonged neuroprotective effects. This possibility awaits confirmation in longitudinal studies.

  7. Fourier and fractal analysis of cytoskeletal morphology altered by xenobiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Urani, Chiara; Fumarola, Laura

    2003-06-01

    The cytoskeletal microtubules (MTs) of rat hepatocytes treated by Benomyl (a fungicide) were imaged by means of immunofluorescent staining and optical microscopy. Images of untreated, or control (C), and of treated (T) cells were processed both by fractal and Fourier analysis. The C-MTs had contour fractal dimensions higher (>= 1.4) than those of T-MTs (enhancement," which corresponds to the application of a (pseudo)differential operator to the image. Enhanced spectra were interpolated by a polynomial, q, of degree 39, from which morphological descriptors were extracted. Descriptors from Fourier analysis made image classification possible. Principal components analysis was applied to the descriptors. In the plane of the first two components, {z1,z2}, the minimum spanning tree was drawn. Images of T-MTs formed a single cluster, whereas images of C-MTs formed two clusters, C1 and C2. The component z1 correlated positively with the local maxima and minima of q, which reflected differences between T and C in power spectral density in the 1 to 2000 cycles/mm spatial frequency band. The difference between C1 and C2 was ascribed to anisotropy of the MT bundles. The implemented image classifier is capable of telling differences in cytoskeletal organization. As a consequence the method can become a tool for testing cytotoxicity and for extracting quantitative information about intracellular alterations of various origin.

  8. Effects of polydeoxyribonucleotide on the histological damage and the altered spermatogenesis induced by testicular ischaemia and reperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, L; Antonuccio, P; Squadrito, F; Bitto, A; Nicotina, P A; Fazzari, C; Polito, F; Marini, H; Bonvissuto, G; Arena, S; Morgia, G; Romeo, C; Caputi, A P; Altavilla, D

    2012-04-01

    The effects of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), an agonist of the A2A adenosine receptors which when activated positively influences sperm activity, were tested in an experimental testicular ischaemia/reperfusion injury model. Anaesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to testicular torsion-induced ischaemia, followed by reperfusion (TI/R). Immediately after detorsion, randomized animals, including SHAM, received intraperitoneal injections of: (i) vehicle (1 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl solution); (ii) PDRN (8 mg/kg); (iii) DMPX (3,7-dimethyl-1-propargilxanthine, 0.1 mg/kg); or (iv) PDRN (8 mg/kg) + DMPX (0.1 mg/kg). Animals were euthanized at 1, 7 and 30 days following reperfusion. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is normally associated with adenosine A2A receptor stimulation. After treatment, VEGF mRNA/protein expression quantified by qPCR and Western blot, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA measured by qPCR, VEGF and VEGFR1 assessed using immunohistochemical methods, histological staining and spermatogenic activity were all analysed. Testis ischaemia-reperfusion (TI/R) injury caused increases in VEGF mRNA and protein, VEGFR1 and eNOS mRNA, histological damage and reduced spermatogenic activity. Immunostaining showed a lower expression of VEGF in germinal epithelial cells and a strong expression of VEGFR1 in Leydig cells after TI/R. PDRN administration increased significantly VEGF message/protein, VEGFR1 and eNOS message, decreased histological damage and ameliorated spermatogenic activity. PDRN might be useful in the management of testicular torsion.

  9. Consequences of a low litter birth weight phenotype for postnatal lean growth performance and neonatal testicular morphology in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, M N; Spencer, J D; Almeida, F R C L; Patterson, J L; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Dyck, M K; Foxcroft, G R

    2013-10-01

    The consequences of a low litter average birth weight phenotype for postnatal growth performance and carcass quality of all progeny, and testicular development in male offspring, were investigated. Using data from 25 sows with one, and 223 sows with two consecutive farrowing events, individual birth weight (BW) was measured and each litter between 9 and 16 total pigs born was classified as low (LBW), medium (MBW) or high (HBW) birth weight: low and high BW being defined as >1 standard deviation below or above, respectively, the population mean for each litter size. Litter average BW was repeatable within sows. At castration, testicular tissue was collected from 40 male pigs in LBW and HBW litters with individual BW close to their litter average BW and used for histomorphometric analysis. LBW piglets had a lower absolute number of germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells in their testes and a higher brain : testis weight ratio than HBW piglets. Overall, LBW litters had lower placental weight and higher brain : liver, brain : intestine and brain : Semitendinosus muscle weight ratios than MBW and HBW litters. In the nursery and grow-finish (GF) phase, pigs were kept in pens by BW classification (9 HBW, 17 MBW and 10 LBW pens) with 13 males and 13 females per pen. Average daily gain tended to be lower in LBW than HBW litters in lactation (P = 0.06) and throughout the nursery and GF phases (P weight between LBW, MBW and HBW litters (P weight was similar between BW classifications; however, LBW litters needed 9 more days to reach the same slaughter weight than HBW litters (P < 0.001). BW classification did not affect carcass composition traits. In conclusion, LBW litters showed benchmarks of intrauterine growth retardation, LBW had a negative impact on testicular development and germ and somatic cell populations, and was associated with decreased postnatal growth during all phases of production; however, no measurable effect on carcass composition traits was

  10. Alterations of erythrocyte morphology and lipid composition by hyperbilirubinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, M A; Silva, R M; Matos, D C; da Silva, A T; Brites, D T

    1996-05-30

    Morphology and membrane lipid composition of erythrocytes from neonates (jaundiced and healthy) and adults (before and after incubation with bilirubin) were studied. The morphological index, expressing the relative proportions of the different stages of cell distortion, and the membrane cholesterol, phospholipids and cholesterol/phospholipids molar ratio, were determined. In jaundiced neonates a significant increase in the morphological index (P jaundiced neonates compared with healthy babies (P lipid bilayer with loss of phospholipids from the membrane.

  11. Testicular Microlithiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland Vils; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth; Sørensen, F. B.

    2016-01-01

    factors (testicular atrophy (N=1) and previous testicular cancer (N=4)), but no cases of testicular malignancy were found in the follow-up period. Conclusion: The low patient compliance conflicts with the ESUR Scrotal Imaging Subcommittee guidelines that recommend scrotal US follow-up annually for TML......Introduction: We present a retrospective 2-year follow-up cohort of 103 men with testicular microlithiasis (TML) and discuss patient compliance and the value of surveillance. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients examined with scrotal ultrasonography (US) in the period from 2008 through...... until the age of 55 years. The fact that no cancers were found during follow-up using the pathology registry calls the value of follow-up into question....

  12. What Is Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment? Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What Is Testicular Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... respond well to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Secondary testicular cancers Cancers that start in another organ and then ...

  13. Testicular Microlithiasis: Is It Associated with Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a link between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer? Answers from Erik P. Castle, M.D. Testicular microlithiasis ( ... studies show a relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer. However, it remains unclear whether having testicular microlithiasis ...

  14. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy ... Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  15. Altered expression profile of glycolytic enzymes during testicular ischemia reperfusion injury is associated with the p53/TIGAR pathway: effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Al-Maghrebi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Testicular ischemia reperfusion injury (tIRI is considered the mechanism underlying the pathology of testicular torsion and detorsion. Left untreated, tIRI can induce testis dysfunction, damage to spermatogenesis and possible infertility. In this study, we aimed to assess the activities and expression of glycolytic enzymes (GEs in the testis and their possible modulation during tIRI. The effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP, a glycolytic intermediate, on tIRI was also investigated. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham, unilateral tIRI, and tIRI + FDP (2 mg/kg. tIRI was induced by occlusion of the testicular artery for 1 h followed by 4 h of reperfusion. FDP was injected peritoneally 30 min prior to reperfusion. Histological and biochemical analyses were used to assess damage to spermatogenesis, activities of major GEs, and energy and oxidative stress markers. The relative mRNA expression of GEs was evaluated by real-time PCR. ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of p53 and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR. Results. Histological analysis revealed tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage as represented by a significant decrease in the Johnsen biopsy score. In addition, tIRI reduced the activities of hexokinase 1, phosphofructokinase-1, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase C. However, mRNA expression downregulation was detected only for hexokinase 1, phosphoglycerate kinase 2, and lactate dehydrogenase C. ATP and NADPH depletion was also induced by tIRI and was accompanied by an increased Malondialdehyde concentration, reduced glutathione level, and reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities. The immunoexpression of p53 and TIGAR was markedly increased after tIRI. The above tIRI-induced alterations were attenuated by FDP treatment. Discussion. Our findings indicate that tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage is

  16. Altered expression profile of glycolytic enzymes during testicular ischemia reperfusion injury is associated with the p53/TIGAR pathway: effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maghrebi, May; Renno, Waleed M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Testicular ischemia reperfusion injury (tIRI) is considered the mechanism underlying the pathology of testicular torsion and detorsion. Left untreated, tIRI can induce testis dysfunction, damage to spermatogenesis and possible infertility. In this study, we aimed to assess the activities and expression of glycolytic enzymes (GEs) in the testis and their possible modulation during tIRI. The effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP), a glycolytic intermediate, on tIRI was also investigated. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham, unilateral tIRI, and tIRI + FDP (2 mg/kg). tIRI was induced by occlusion of the testicular artery for 1 h followed by 4 h of reperfusion. FDP was injected peritoneally 30 min prior to reperfusion. Histological and biochemical analyses were used to assess damage to spermatogenesis, activities of major GEs, and energy and oxidative stress markers. The relative mRNA expression of GEs was evaluated by real-time PCR. ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of p53 and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR). Results. Histological analysis revealed tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage as represented by a significant decrease in the Johnsen biopsy score. In addition, tIRI reduced the activities of hexokinase 1, phosphofructokinase-1, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase C. However, mRNA expression downregulation was detected only for hexokinase 1, phosphoglycerate kinase 2, and lactate dehydrogenase C. ATP and NADPH depletion was also induced by tIRI and was accompanied by an increased Malondialdehyde concentration, reduced glutathione level, and reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities. The immunoexpression of p53 and TIGAR was markedly increased after tIRI. The above tIRI-induced alterations were attenuated by FDP treatment. Discussion. Our findings indicate that tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage is associated with

  17. Alteration of Paramecium candatum germinal nucleus morphology after UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokin, S.I. (Leningradskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Biologicheskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst.)

    1982-09-01

    A study was made on morphologic changes of micronucleus (Mi) after whole-body ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of paramecia as well as after local irradiation of this nucleus or the area of macronucleus (Ma). The whole-body irradiation of its Ma part leads to generative nucleus growth in sizes and chromatin structure change, which is expressed in occurence of large chromatin bodies. Aftereffects of local action on Mi for viable descendants are expressed in nucleus size transformation (usually in reduction), gaining ''comet-shaped'' form and probably in reduction of dna amount. Irradiation of Ma and total effect on cell cause Mi changes of reversible character. All morphologic changes of Mi after local ultraviolet irradiation are conserved in descendants and are not photoreactivated. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are discussed. The results obtained make it possible to speak about different mechanisms of action on Mi in the case of local and whole-body UV irradiation of cell. The effect of irradiated Ma on generative nucleus, but not direct damage of this nucleus is the reason for Mi morphologic reconstruction after whole-body action on paramecium.

  18. Testicular torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Andersen, L; Kay, L;

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-five patients were examined 6-11 years after operation for torsion of the testis. Loss of testicular tissue was significantly associated with long preoperative duration of symptoms and with low postoperative sperm counts. The sex hormones were normal in the majority of patients but there w......Thirty-five patients were examined 6-11 years after operation for torsion of the testis. Loss of testicular tissue was significantly associated with long preoperative duration of symptoms and with low postoperative sperm counts. The sex hormones were normal in the majority of patients...

  19. TESTICULAR CAPILLARY HEMANGIOMA: DESCRIPTION OF A CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Markova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of testicular capillary hemangioma in a 24-year-old man undergone a partial resection of the testis with the intraoperative morphological examination. Testicular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of a vascular origin, which can be similar to malignant testicular tumors on the clinical presentation, as well as on the imaging methods, in particular to seminoma. The intraoperative histological study can assist in avoiding organ-removing surgical interventions in diagnostically ambiguous cases if a benign testicular tumor is diagnosed.

  20. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm--Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Montero, Angelica; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Begall, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression) we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography) of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect). There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations), however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female ("provoked or induced dispersal"). Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly increased testes

  1. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm--Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Garcia Montero

    Full Text Available Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect. There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations, however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female ("provoked or induced dispersal". Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly

  2. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm—Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Montero, Angelica; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Begall, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Ansell’s mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression) we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography) of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect). There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations), however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female (“provoked or induced dispersal”). Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly increased

  3. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  4. Asyndromic hypodontia associated with tooth morphology alteration: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinay Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians frequently encounter hypodontia in their practice. It can be associated with any syndrome or more commonly it is asyndromic. This asyndromic form is commonly familial and can be followed in heredity of the patient. The patient referred in this report presented with a rare anomaly of hypodontia with altered morphology where the patient had all the teeth single rooted and single canalled. Studies have indicated several genes that affect the tooth morphology and number. A genetic correlation of hypodontia with altered permanent teeth morphology may be explored further in studies.

  5. Actin-Dependent Alterations of Dendritic Spine Morphology in Shankopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarowar, Tasnuva

    2016-01-01

    Shank proteins (Shank1, Shank2, and Shank3) act as scaffolding molecules in the postsynaptic density of many excitatory neurons. Mutations in SHANK genes, in particular SHANK2 and SHANK3, lead to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in both human and mouse models. Shank3 proteins are made of several domains—the Shank/ProSAP N-terminal (SPN) domain, ankyrin repeats, SH3 domain, PDZ domain, a proline-rich region, and the sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain. Via various binding partners of these domains, Shank3 is able to bind and interact with a wide range of proteins including modulators of small GTPases such as RICH2, a RhoGAP protein, and βPIX, a RhoGEF protein for Rac1 and Cdc42, actin binding proteins and actin modulators. Dysregulation of all isoforms of Shank proteins, but especially Shank3, leads to alterations in spine morphogenesis, shape, and activity of the synapse via altering actin dynamics. Therefore, here, we highlight the role of Shank proteins as modulators of small GTPases and, ultimately, actin dynamics, as found in multiple in vitro and in vivo models. The failure to mediate this regulatory role might present a shared mechanism in the pathophysiology of autism-associated mutations, which leads to dysregulation of spine morphogenesis and synaptic signaling.

  6. Fechamento parcial do anel inguinal externo em eqüinos: avaliação pós-operatória e influência na morfologia testicular Partial closure of the equine external inguinal ring: post-operatory evaluation and influence on testicular morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.M. Rio Tinto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do fechamento parcial do anel inguinal externo (AIE na morfologia testicular e caracterizaram-se as alterações pós-operatórias decorrentes de sua utilização em seis eqüinos machos. Sob anestesia geral, criou-se um acesso à cavidade vaginal que foi seguido de síntese da túnica vaginal parietal e sutura do AIE ipsilateral em aproximadamente 75% de seu diâmetro (antímero suturado. No antímero contralateral foi realizado procedimento cirúrgico semelhante, mas a sutura do anel inguinal foi removida imediatamente após sua aplicação (antímero controle. No pós-operatório, os animais foram examinados diariamente por quatro semanas. O trauma cirúrgico acarretou degeneração testicular no período pós-operatório e o acesso à cavidade vaginal predispôs à formação de aderências testiculares. O grau de degeneração testicular foi equivalente nos dois antímeros, suturado e controle, e nenhum dos testículos apresentou degeneração. O procedimento mostrou ser uma alternativa viável para o tratamento de hérnias inguinais quando se deseja evitar a orquiectomia.In order to evaluate the influence of parcial closure of the external inguinal ring on testicular morphology and to characterize the local post-operatory changes, six adult horses were submitted to surgery under general anesthesia. The vaginal cavity was opened and approximately 75% of the external inguinal ring was sutured (sutured side. The same procedure was performed on the contralateral side, and the sutures of the external inguinal ring were immediately removed (sham side. The horses were examined daily for four weeks. The surgical procedure induced testicular degeneration and adhesion of the testis to the parietal vaginal tunic. Similar levels of testicular degeneration were detected in both sides (sutured and sham, and none of the testes evaluated had severe degeneration. This procedure can be used for the treatment of inguinal herniation

  7. Morphological and intracellular alterations induced by Serratia marcescens cytotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Gleize Villela; Falcón, Rosabel; Yamada, Aureo T; da Fonseca, Benedito Antonio Lopes; Yano, Tomomasa

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, in vitro assays were used to investigate the toxicity of Serratia marcescens cytotoxin in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The time necessary to detect cellular alterations such as the onset of apoptosis, the perturbation of mitochondrial function, and cytoskeletal changes was assessed. The internalization of the cytotoxin by CHO cells was also examined. Within 10-15 min of exposure to cytotoxin, CHO cells became round, the nucleus shrank, the chromatin became more compact, and cytoplasmic blebs appeared on the cell surface. TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) and propidium iodide staining identified some nuclei with fragmented DNA, and electrophoresis of CHO cell DNA obtained after 30-min exposure to S. marcescens toxin showed a pattern of DNA fragments typically associated with apoptosis. The cells also lost their characteristic actin organization within 10 min of exposure to cytotoxin. Lactate dehydrogenase leakage was detected after 20-min exposure to the cytotoxin and increased with time thereafter. Concomitantly, there was a time-dependent reduction in mitochondrial activity. Fluorescein-labeled S. marcescens cytotoxin was detected only on the surface of CHO cells, even after 30-min exposure to the toxin. These results show that there was no internalization of the toxin by CHO cells, and that, once bound to the cell surface, the toxin was able to induce changes in intracellular metabolism and to trigger cell death by apoptosis.

  8. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type and Stage Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs to treat ... that is only in the testicle. Doctors give chemotherapy in cycles, with each period of treatment followed ...

  9. Transforming growth factor-β2 induces morphological alteration of human corneal endothelial cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Wang; Ting-Jun; Fan; Xiu-Xia; Yang; Shi-Min; Chang

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the morphological altering effect of transforming growth factor-β2(TGF-β2) on untransfected human corneal endothelial cells(HCECs)in vitro.METHODS:After untransfected HCECs were treated with TGF-β2 at different concentrations, the morphology,cytoskeleton distribution, and type IV collagen expression of the cells were examined with inverted contrast light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy,immunofluorescence or Western Blot.RESULTS:TGF-β2 at the concentration of 3-15 μg/L had obviously alterative effects on HCECs morphology in dose and time-dependent manner, and 9 μg/L was the peak concentration. TGF-β2(9 μg/L) altered HCE cell morphology after treatment for 36 h, increased the mean optical density(P <0.01) and the length of F-actin,reduced the mean optical density(P <0.01) of the collagen type IV in extracellular matrix(ECM) and induced the rearrangement of F-actin, microtubule in cytoplasm and collagen type IV in ECM after treatment for 72 h.·CONCLUTION: TGF-β2 has obviously alterative effect on the morphology of HCECs from polygonal phenotype to enlarged spindle-shaped phenotype, in dose and time-dependence manner by inducing more, elongation and alignment of F-actin, rearrangement of microtubule and larger spread area of collagen type IV.

  10. Testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, M

    1988-01-01

    Testicular cancer, which predominantly occurs in young men, has become increasingly common; it is presently the most common malignancy in men aged 20-34. Despite a lack of knowledge of aetiology, empirical advances, particularly in the management of patients with advanced disease, have been dramatic. Prior to the development of effective chemotherapy in the 1970s, less than 10% of men with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours were cured; nowadays approximately 90% of patients are potentially curable. The introduction of effective chemotherapy has led to a reappraisal of surgery and radiotherapy in the management of early stage disease and the introduction of a policy of surveillance in patients without evidence of metastases at the time of removal of the primary tumour. Following chemotherapy, surgery is required in approximately 25% of patients with advanced disease to excise residual masses, which in one-fifth of cases will show evidence of residual malignancy. In a proportion of patients, testicular cancer develops on a background of long-standing infertility, whereas in many men there is temporary oligospermia, despite a previous history of fertility. The majority of patients with prior evidence of spermatogenesis recover this function following chemotherapy and there is no evidence that children fathered by such patients have an increased risk of malformation. Despite physician optimism and excellent prospects for cure, significant psycho-social morbidity is associated with the diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer. Factors contributing to this are being identified and will lead, hopefully, to the minimisation of such problems by appropriate intervention.

  11. Testicular lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; d'Amore, F; Christensen, Bjarne Egelund

    1994-01-01

    In a Danish population-based non-Hodgkin's lymphoma registry, 2687 newly diagnosed patients were registered from 1983 to 1992. 39 had testicular involvement (TL) (incidence 0.26/10(5)/year). Median age was 71 years. 24 cases had localised and 15 had disseminated disease. Histologically, all cases...... were diffuse (65% diffuse centroblastic type). Of the 27 tested, 11% were of T- and 89% of B-immunophenotype. In localised cases, where surgery was supplemented by combination chemotherapy (CCT), the relapse rate was 15.4%. The relapse rate for cases with localised disease treated with other regimens...

  12. [Segmental testicular infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa Saldías, L; Guarch Troyas, R; Hualde Alfaro, A; de Pablo Cárdenas, A; Ruiz Ramo, M; Pinós Paul, M

    2006-02-01

    We report the case of a 47 years old man previously diagnosed of left hidrocele. After having a recent mild left testicular pain, an ultrasonografic study revealed a solid hipoecoic testicular lesion rounded by a big hidrocele, suggesting a testicular neoplasm. Radical inguinal orchiectomy was made and pathologic study showed segmental testicular infarction. No malignancy was found. We review the literature of the topic.

  13. Alterations in expression levels of deafness dystonia protein 1 affect mitochondrial morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engl, Gertraud; Florian, Stefan; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    -C66W was overexpressed. Live cell microscopy of primary fibroblasts derived from DDON patients and of DDP1 downregulated HeLa cells displayed alterations of mitochondrial morphology with notable extensions in the length of mitochondrial tubules, whereas overexpression of DDP1 induced the formation...

  14. Effects of Cryopreservation on the Ultrastructure of Human Testicular Sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of cryopreservation on changes of the ultrastructure of human testicular sperm and evaluate the efficacy of cryopreserving testicular tissue as a source of sperm for assisted reproduction.Methods Testicular biopsy tissues were obtained from infertile patients (n=12) with obstructive azoospermia and cryopreserved. Testicular sperm motility was observed after in vitro culture procedure. The ultrastructure of testicular sperm (n=6) was examined by transmission electron microscope.Results After cryopreservation, 10 biopsy tissues frozen revealed motile sperm, and 2samples showed non-motile sperm. Some testicular sperm in frozen-thawed group had normal morphology in fine structures. Sperm head in frozen-thawed tissue showed a proportion of nuclei with more electron-dense granules of chromatin. In a few frozen-thawed sperm heads, formation of vesicles and degeneration were observed.The frozen-thawed testicular sperm frequently showed swollen or/and ruptured of the plasma membrane and acrosome membranes.Conclusion Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is simple and efficacious for testicular sperm extraction. And the freezing-thawing procedure of testicular tissue causes damage to ultrastructural morphology of human testicular sperm.

  15. The role of GRASPs in morphological alterations of Golgi apparatus: mechanisms and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guang; Ji, Hui; Mo, Xiaoye; Li, Ting; Yu, Yaduo; Hu, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus (GA) is a pivotal organelle in cell metabolism, functioning not only in the processing and transportation of cargoes but also in ion homeostasis, cell apoptosis, and stress sensing. We are interested in the intricate role of GA and the recently present novel concept of 'GA stress'. GA shows various morphological alterations in many neurodegenerative diseases and cell apoptosis induced by biochemical reagents, mechanisms in which oxidative stress is strongly involved. In turn, the structural changes and morphological alterations of the GA could also transduce stress signals. Therefore, besides the biochemical changes, more attention should be paid to the morphological alterations of the GA itself during pathological processes and diseases. The Golgi reassembly and stacking proteins (GRASPs) have been identified as important components acting in the transformation of Golgi structure, and they may thus affect the Golgi functions and cell behavior. In this review, we will discuss the intricate role of the GRASPs in remodeling the GA morphology and focus on their mechanisms and effects in the processes of Golgi stacking, mitosis, cell apoptosis, and cargo secretion. We would also like to provide a further prospective of their potential biological values in neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS IMPLICATED IN TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate-induced Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome describes reproductive alterations in human males such as: hypospadias, cryptorchism, low sperm counts, and testicular cancer. This work is the first comprehensive evaluation of the rat fetal testis proteome following phthalate exp...

  17. Altered islet morphology but normal islet secretory function in vitro in a mouse model with microvascular alterations in the pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kostromina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling is important for the development of pancreatic microvasculature via its regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. Pancreas-specific STAT3-KO mice exhibit glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion in vivo, along with microvascular alterations in the pancreas. However, the specific role of STAT3 signaling in the regulation of pancreatic islet development and function is not entirely understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the role of STAT3 signaling in the formation and maintenance of pancreatic islets, we studied pancreas-specific STAT3-KO mice. Histological analysis showed that STAT3 deficiency affected pancreatic islet morphology. We found an increased proportion of small-sized islets and a reduced fraction of medium-sized islets, indicating abnormal islet development in STAT3-KO mice. Interestingly, the islet area relative to the whole pancreas area in transgenic and control mice was not significantly different. Immunohistochemical analysis on pancreatic cryosections revealed abnormalities in islet architecture in STAT3-KO mice: the pattern of peripheral distribution of glucagon-positive α-cells was altered. At the same time, islets belonging to different size categories isolated from STAT3-KO mice exhibited normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in perifusion experiments in vitro when compared to control mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that STAT3 signaling in the pancreas is required for normal islet formation and/or maintenance. Altered islet size distribution in the KO mice does not result in an impaired islet secretory function in vitro. Therefore, our current study supports that the glucose intolerance and in vivo insulin secretion defect in pancreas-specific STAT3-KO mice is due to altered microvasculature in the pancreas, and not intrinsic beta-cell function.

  18. Morphological alterations of the parotid gland of rats maintained on a liquid diet

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Soraya Coelho; de TOLEDO, Orlando Ayrton; Ana Cristina Barreto BEZERRA

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the morphological alterations that occurred in the parotid glands of rats maintained on a liquid diet compared to a solid diet. Thirty-six animals were randomly divided into two groups. The control group received a solid diet, and the experimental group received a liquid diet. The animals were killed after 8, 15 and 30 days. The glands were prepared for inclusion in paraffin and analyzed with a light microscope. The results showed a statistica...

  19. Testicular epidermoid cyst; Quiste epidermoide testicular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabaza, M. J.; Medina, A.; Lopez, G.; Pardo, P. [Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves. Granada (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The testicular epidermoid cyst is an uncommon benign tumor that represents 1% to 2% of resected testicular masses. The observation of the characteristic ultrasonographic features of these lesions facilitates their diagnosis and may make it possible to perform enucleation, obviating the need for orchidectomy. We present two cases in which the testicular epidermoid cysts were diagnosed preoperatively and their presence confirmed after conservative surgery. We review the literature concerning imaging studies and the management of these lesions. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Alterations in renal morphology and function after ESWL therapy: evaluation with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestin, G.P. [Dept. of Medical Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Fischbach, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Cologne (Germany); Vorreuther, R. [Dept. of Urology, Univ. of Cologne (Germany); Schulthess, G.K. von [Dept. of Medical Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    1993-06-01

    Contrast-enhanced gradient-echo MRI was used to evaluate morphological and functional alterations in the kidneys after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Dynamic MRI with a temporal resolution of 10 s per image was performed by repeated imaging in the coronal plane after administration of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg) before and after ESWL for renal calculi in 25 patients. Before ESWL 22 patients had normally functioning kidneys, characterised by a marked decrease in signal intensity in the renal medulla 30-40 s after the onset of cortical perfusion. After ESWL 8 patients had functional abnormalities: in 2 cases the medullary signal decrease was disturbed throughout the whole organ, while 6 kidneys demonstrated regional loss of concentrating ability in the medulla. Morphological alterations (oedema with blurred contours and loss of corticomedullary differentiation; parenchymal haemorrhage and haemorrhage in a cortical cyst; subcapsular, perirenal and pararenal haematoma) were detected in 9 cases. Haemorrhage was encountered more often after administration of more than 2500 shock waves; however, no such correlation was seen in the kidneys with functional disturbances following ESWL therapy. MRI proved to be a sensitive method for the assessment of morphological and functional alterations after ESWL, but longer follow-up studies are required to identify the clinical impact of these early changes. (orig.)

  1. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early? Most testicular cancers can be ... Ask Your Doctor About Testicular Cancer? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  2. Mitochondrial morphology is altered in atrophied skeletal muscle of aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc-Gaudet, Jean-Philippe; Picard, Martin; St-Jean Pelletier, Félix; Sgarioto, Nicolas; Auger, Marie-Joëlle; Vallée, Joanne; Robitaille, Richard; St-Pierre, David H; Gouspillou, Gilles

    2015-07-20

    Skeletal muscle aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle mass and strength, a process termed sarcopenia. Evidence suggests that accumulation of mitochondrial dysfunction plays a causal role in sarcopenia, which could be triggered by impaired mitophagy. Mitochondrial function, mitophagy and mitochondrial morphology are interconnected aspects of mitochondrial biology, and may coordinately be altered with aging. However, mitochondrial morphology has remained challenging to characterize in muscle, and whether sarcopenia is associated with abnormal mitochondrial morphology remains unknown. Therefore, we assessed the morphology of SubSarcolemmal (SS) and InterMyoFibrillar (IMF) mitochondria in skeletal muscle of young (8-12wk-old) and old (88-96wk-old) mice using a quantitative 2-dimensional transmission electron microscopy approach. We show that sarcopenia is associated with larger and less circular SS mitochondria. Likewise, aged IMF mitochondria were longer and more branched, suggesting increased fusion and/or decreased fission. Accordingly, although no difference in the content of proteins regulating mitochondrial dynamics (Mfn1, Mfn2, Opa1 and Drp1) was observed, a mitochondrial fusion index (Mfn2-to-Drp1 ratio) was significantly increased in aged muscles. Our results reveal that sarcopenia is associated with complex changes in mitochondrial morphology that could interfere with mitochondrial function and mitophagy, and thus contribute to aging-related accumulation of mitochondrial dysfunction and sarcopenia.

  3. Cranial irradiation alters dendritic spine density and morphology in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanabha Chakraborti

    Full Text Available Therapeutic irradiation of the brain is a common treatment modality for brain tumors, but can lead to impairment of cognitive function. Dendritic spines are sites of excitatory synaptic transmission and changes in spine structure and number are thought to represent a morphological correlate of altered brain functions associated with hippocampal dependent learning and memory. To gain some insight into the temporal and sub region specific cellular changes in the hippocampus following brain irradiation, we investigated the effects of 10 Gy cranial irradiation on dendritic spines in young adult mice. One week or 1 month post irradiation, changes in spine density and morphology in dentate gyrus (DG granule and CA1 pyramidal neurons were quantified using Golgi staining. Our results showed that in the DG, there were significant reductions in spine density at both 1 week (11.9% and 1 month (26.9% after irradiation. In contrast, in the basal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, irradiation resulted in a significant reduction (18.7% in spine density only at 1 week post irradiation. Analysis of spine morphology showed that irradiation led to significant decreases in the proportion of mushroom spines at both time points in the DG as well as CA1 basal dendrites. The proportions of stubby spines were significantly increased in both the areas at 1 month post irradiation. Irradiation did not alter spine density in the CA1 apical dendrites, but there were significant changes in the proportion of thin and mushroom spines at both time points post irradiation. Although the mechanisms involved are not clear, these findings are the first to show that brain irradiation of young adult animals leads to alterations in dendritic spine density and morphology in the hippocampus in a time dependent and region specific manner.

  4. Unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism and its effect on the testicular morphology, histology, accessory sex organs, and sperm count in laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumita Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experimental unilateral cryptorchidism (ULC and bilateral cryptorchidism (BLC are excellent methods to study undescended testis in relation to spermatogenesis against a temperature gradient. Objectives: In case of ULC, it is possible to compare the testicular functions between normal condition and cryptorchidism in the same animal, whereas BLC shows the necessity of testicular androgens for proper maintenance of reproductive structures and functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study, experimental ULC and BLC was done on same-aged adult mature male mice and kept for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, to observe the changes due to the induced cryptorchidism on the different reproductive organs, viz., the testis and accessory sex organs along with epididymal sperm count. Reproductive tissues were collected from individual animals and histopathological studies of testis were done to investigate different cytological changes. Results: The size of the testes and accessory sex organs were found to be significantly reduced in BLC mice, whereas only testicular weight reduction was observed in ULC mice. Histopathological studies showed degenerative changes throughout the seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: Thus, the present investigation showed compensatory androgen production in ULC mice, whereas absence of androgen mediated reproductive functions in BLC animals.

  5. Morphological alterations in small intestine of rats with myenteric plexus denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, M; Kilinç, M; Hatipoğlu, E S

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of myenteric denervation by benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on small intestine morphology in the rat, and whether segmental myenteric denervation alters morphology elsewhere in the small intestine. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into 4 groups: control (0.9% NaCl); denervation (0.062% BAC); chemical inflammation (5% acetic acid), and intraluminal stasis produced by partial obstruction. 28 days after operation tissue samples were taken from the treated segment, 10 cm distal to the treated segment, and 20 cm proximal to the treated segment. Morphological changes and the number of ganglion cells were examined under the light microscope. BAC application reduced the number of myenteric neurons by 85% in the treated segment. Denervation increased villus height and crypt depth in the treated and proximal segments. But changes in muscle thickness were seen throughout the intestine. As a result, although myenteric plexus denervation caused mucosa morphology in the treated and proximal segments, it caused smooth muscle changes throughout the small intestine.

  6. Quercetin and vitamin E attenuate Bonny Light crude oil-induced alterations in testicular apoptosis, stress proteins and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebokaiwe, Azubuike P; Mathur, Premendu P; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown the reproductive effects of Bonny Light crude oil (BLCO) via the mechanism of oxidative stress and testicular apoptosis. We investigated the protective role of quercetin and vitamin E on BLCO-induced testicular apoptosis. Experimental rats were divided into four groups of four each. Animals were orally administered 2 ml/kg corn oil (control: group 1), BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight + 10 mg/kg quercetin (group 2), BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight + 50 mg/kg vitamin E (group 3) and BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight only (group 4) for 7 d. Protein levels of caspase 3, FasL, NF-kB, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and stress response proteins were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunofluorescence staining was used to quantify the expression of caspase 3, FasL and NF-kB. Apoptosis was quantified by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Administration of BLCO resulted in a significant increase in the levels of stress response proteins and apoptosis-related proteins by 50% and above after 7 d following BLCO exposure and a concomitant increase in expression of caspase 3, FasL and NF-kB expression by immunofluorescence staining. Apoptosis showed a significant increase in TUNEL positive cells. Co-administration with quercetin or vitamin E reversed BLCO-induced apoptosis and levels of stress protein, relative to control. These findings suggest that quercetin and vitamin E may confer protection against BLCO-induced testicular oxidative stress-related apoptosis.

  7. Influence of Combined Therapeutic Potential of Meso 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic Acid and Calcium Disodium Edetate on Lead-induced Testicular Alterations in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOVINDER J.S. FLORA; USHA ARORA; ARD PRAHLAD K. SETH

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of a combination of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and calcium disodium EDTA in protecting testicular disorders in chronic lead intoxication was investigated. The results indicate that two five-days courses of the combined therapy produced a more effective recovery in the lead induced biochemical and histopathological disorders compared to conventional single 5 days therapy. No adverse effect of the chelators, when administered individually or in combination, was noticed in the testes of control (without lead exposure) animals.

  8. Morphological and Metabolic Alteration of Cerebellum in Patients with Post-Stroke Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study morphological and metabolic changes of cerebellum with multimodality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS, respective, to explore correlation between cerebellum alteration and severity of depression in patients with post-stroke depression. Methods: 60 subjects, including 40 stroke patients and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Depression of stroke patients was tested by Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD, based on which stroke-patients were grouped into post-stroke depression (PSD group and without post-stroke depression (CONT group. Results: Volume of cerebellum decreased in PSD group and CONT group compared with healthy volunteer (NORM group. White matter of cerebellum in PSD group and CONT group was disrupted; such disruption was significantly in PSD group. In addition, there was correlation between cerebellum volume and FA and HDRS scores (PConclusion: Morphologic and metabolic alterations are evident in patients with post-stroke depression, indicating possible involvement of cerebellum in post-stroke-depression occurrence.

  9. Morphological alteration of the Dráva as the result of human impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Kiss

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian-Hungarian border section of the Dráva River has been undisturbed for almost a century, and it is characterised by unique fluvial morphology (braided pattern and islands supporting rich habitats and wildlife. However, during the last decades human impact became more and moreintensive. Between 1975 and 1989 three water reservoirs were built on the Croatian section of the river, just 16 km from the beginning of the border-section, altering the hydrology and the sediment characteristics of the river. On a local scale cut-offs, revetments and groynes were built. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of these human interventions. As the result of the alteration of the hydrology the channel pattern of the Dráva has been changing from braided to meandering, though on the upstream meandering part the territory and number of islands increased due to the drop of water stages. A cut-off and a groyne influenced only the morphology of a short section. As the result of the cut-off braided pattern became more pronounced, and the groyne caused intensive channel aggradation and gave way to lateral island development.

  10. Morphological alterations of exogenous surfactant inhibited by meconium can be prevented by dextran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stichtenoth Guido

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant dysfunction due to inhibition is involved in the pathophysiology of meconium aspiration syndrome. Dextran addition has been shown to reverse exogenous surfactant inactivation by meconium, but the precise mechanisms and the morphological correlate of this effect are yet unknown. Morphological surfactant analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and stereology allows the differentiation of active (large aggregates = LA and inactive (small aggregates = SA subtypes. Methods To determine the in vitro effects of meconium and dextran addition on the morphology of a modified porcine natural surfactant (Curosurf, Curosurf samples were either incubated alone or together with meconium or with meconium and dextran, fixed and processed for TEM. Volume fractions of surfactant subtypes [lamellar body-like forms (LBL, multilamellar vesicles (MV, unilamellar vesicles (UV] were determined stereologically. Results All preparations contained LBL and MV (corresponding to LA as well as UV (corresponding to SA. The volume fraction of UV increased with addition of meconium and decreased with further addition of dextran. Correspondingly, the UV/(LBL+MV ratio (resembling the SA/LA ratio increased when meconium was added and decreased when dextran was added to the surfactant-meconium mixture. Conclusion Meconium causes alterations in the ultrastructural composition of Curosurf that can be visualized and analyzed by TEM and stereology. These alterations resemble an increase in the SA/LA ratio and are paralleled by an increase in minimum surface tension. Dextran prevents these effects and may therefore be a useful additive to exogenous surfactant preparations to preserve their structural and functional integrity, thereby improving their resistance to inactivation.

  11. Phosphatidylethanolamine deficiency in Mammalian mitochondria impairs oxidative phosphorylation and alters mitochondrial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasseva, Guergana; Bai, Helin Daniel; Davidescu, Magdalena; Haromy, Alois; Michelakis, Evangelos; Vance, Jean E

    2013-02-08

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders, but the role of phospholipids, particularly the nonbilayer-forming lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), in mitochondrial function is poorly understood. Elimination of mitochondrial PE (mtPE) synthesis via phosphatidylserine decarboxylase in mice profoundly alters mitochondrial morphology and is embryonic lethal (Steenbergen, R., Nanowski, T. S., Beigneux, A., Kulinski, A., Young, S. G., and Vance, J. E. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 40032-40040). We now report that moderate mitochondrial morphology and function and impairs cell growth. Acute reduction of mtPE by RNAi silencing of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase and chronic reduction of mtPE in PSB-2 cells that have only 5% of normal phosphatidylserine synthesis decreased respiratory capacity, ATP production, and activities of electron transport chain complexes (C) I and CIV but not CV. Blue native-PAGE analysis revealed defects in the organization of CI and CIV into supercomplexes in PE-deficient mitochondria, correlated with reduced amounts of CI and CIV proteins. Thus, mtPE deficiency impairs formation and/or membrane integration of respiratory supercomplexes. Despite normal or increased levels of mitochondrial fusion proteins in mtPE-deficient cells, and no reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondria were extensively fragmented, and mitochondrial ultrastructure was grossly aberrant. In general, chronic reduction of mtPE caused more pronounced mitochondrial defects than did acute mtPE depletion. The functional and morphological changes in PSB-2 cells were largely reversed by normalization of mtPE content by supplementation with lyso-PE, a mtPE precursor. These studies demonstrate that even a modest reduction of mtPE in mammalian cells profoundly alters mitochondrial functions.

  12. Correlation of frequency of spermatozoa morphological alterations with sperm concentration in ejaculates of Polish Landrace boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondracki S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were performed on 448 ejaculates obtained from 41 Polish Landrace boars. Ejaculates collected from each boar at one-month intervals for approximately 10 months were analysed. Sperm morphometric measurements were taken from each boar and assessment of semen morphology was done on the basis of examination under a microscope of preparations made from fresh ejaculates. The ejaculates were classified based on the criterion of sperm concentration and divided into three groups. An attempt was made in the present study to assess the correlation of ejaculate parameters, morphological sperm alteration incidence and morphometric sperm parameters with the sperm concentration in ejaculates of Polish Landrace boars. It should be stated that morphometric traits of spermatozoa are related to sperm concentration. The spermatozoa in concentrated ejaculates had smaller heads than the spermatozoa in the ejaculates with lower sperm concentrations. This can mean that the high fertility of males that produce highly concentrated semen does not only result from a high sperm concentration, but also from the fact that the spermatozoa in such ejaculates have smaller heads. The highest frequency of morphologically well-formed spermatozoa was identified in ejaculates with the sperm concentration ranging from 400 to 500 thousand/mm3.

  13. What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer? For most people with testicular cancer, treatment removes ... Treatment for Testicular Cancer Stops Working More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  14. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors, and Prevention Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer? The exact cause of most testicular cancers is ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  15. How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed? Testicular cancer is usually found as a ... the tumor might have returned. Surgery to diagnose testicular cancer Most types of cancer are diagnosed by removing ...

  16. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Venâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and 21-day sleep restriction (SR on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR.

  17. Morphological Alterations in Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles in Male and Female Mice in a Fibromyalgia Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alejandro Bonaterra

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder, characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances, however often with unknown etiology. According to recent reports, physical and psychological stress trigger FM. To develop new treatments for FM, experimental animal models for FM are needed to be development and characterized. Using a mouse model for FM including intermittent cold stress (ICS, we hypothesized that ICS leads to morphological alterations in skeletal muscles in mice.Male and female ICS mice were kept under alternating temperature (4 °C/room temperature [22 °C]; mice constantly kept at room temperature served as control. After scarification, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were removed and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen-cooled isopentane or fixed for electron microscopy.In gastrocnemius/soleus muscles of male ICS mice, we found a 21.6% and 33.2% decrease of fiber cross sectional area (FCSA, which in soleus muscle concerns the loss of type IIa and IIx FCSA. This phenomenon was not seen in muscles of female ICS mice. However, this loss in male ICS mice was associated with an increase in gastrocnemius of the density of MIF+ (8.6%-, MuRF+ (14.7%-, Fbxo32+ (17.8%-cells, a 12.1% loss of capillary contacts/muscle fiber as well as a 30.7% increase of damaged mitochondria in comparison with male control mice. Moreover, significant positive correlations exist among densities (n/mm(2 of MIF+, MuRF+, Fbxo32+-cells in gastrocnemius/ soleus muscles of male ICS mice; these cell densities inversely correlate with FCSA especially in gastrocnemius muscle of male ICS mice.The ICS-induced decrease of FCSA mainly concerns gastrocnemius muscle of male mice due to an increase of inflammatory and atrogenic cells. In soleus muscle of male ICS and soleus/gastrocnemius muscles of female ICS mice morphological alterations seem to occur not at all or delayed. The sex-specificity of

  18. Morphological Alterations in Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles in Male and Female Mice in a Fibromyalgia Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oezel, Lisa; Schwarzbach, Hans; Ocker, Matthias; Thieme, Kati; Di Fazio, Pietro; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder, characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances, however often with unknown etiology. According to recent reports, physical and psychological stress trigger FM. To develop new treatments for FM, experimental animal models for FM are needed to be development and characterized. Using a mouse model for FM including intermittent cold stress (ICS), we hypothesized that ICS leads to morphological alterations in skeletal muscles in mice. Methods Male and female ICS mice were kept under alternating temperature (4°C/room temperature [22°C]); mice constantly kept at room temperature served as control. After scarification, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were removed and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen–cooled isopentane or fixed for electron microscopy. Results In gastrocnemius/soleus muscles of male ICS mice, we found a 21.6% and 33.2% decrease of fiber cross sectional area (FCSA), which in soleus muscle concerns the loss of type IIa and IIx FCSA. This phenomenon was not seen in muscles of female ICS mice. However, this loss in male ICS mice was associated with an increase in gastrocnemius of the density of MIF+ (8.6%)-, MuRF+ (14.7%)-, Fbxo32+ (17.8%)-cells, a 12.1% loss of capillary contacts/muscle fiber as well as a 30.7% increase of damaged mitochondria in comparison with male control mice. Moreover, significant positive correlations exist among densities (n/mm2) of MIF+, MuRF+, Fbxo32+-cells in gastrocnemius/ soleus muscles of male ICS mice; these cell densities inversely correlate with FCSA especially in gastrocnemius muscle of male ICS mice. Conclusion The ICS-induced decrease of FCSA mainly concerns gastrocnemius muscle of male mice due to an increase of inflammatory and atrogenic cells. In soleus muscle of male ICS and soleus/gastrocnemius muscles of female ICS mice morphological alterations seem to occur not at all or

  19. Morphological and functional alterations in adult boar epididymis: Effects of prenatal and postnatal administration of flutamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chojnacka Katarzyna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic cross-talk between epididymal cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. To date, no information is available regarding possible impact of anti-androgens on the proteins involved in the gap junctional communication within the boar epididymis. Thus, a question arised whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to an anti-androgen flutamide alters the expression of gap junction protein - connexin43 (Cx43 and androgen receptor (AR expression in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis and leads to delayed effects on morphology and function of adult pig epididymis. Methods First two experimental groups received flutamide prenatally on gestational days 20-28 and 80-88 (GD20 and GD80 and further two groups were exposed to flutamide postanatally on days 2-10 and 90-98 after birth (PD2 and PD90. Epididymides were collected from adult boars. Routine histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of Cx43 and AR were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both analyses were supported by quantitative approaches to demonstrate the variations of the expression levels following the treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified using TUNEL assay. Results Histological examination revealed differences in epididymal morphology of flutamide-exposed boars when compared to controls. Scarce spermatic content were seen within the corpus and cauda lumina of GD20, PD2 and PD90 groups. Concomitantly, frequency of epididymal cell apoptosis was significantly higher (p p p p Conclusions The region-specific alterations in the epididymis morphology and scarce spermatic content within the lumina of the corpus and cauda indicate that flutamide can induce delayed effects on the epididymal function of the adult boar by decrease in AR protein levels that results in altered androgen signaling. This may cause disturbances in androgen-dependent processes including Cx43

  20. Hematotesticular barrier is altered from early stages of liver cirrhosis:Effect of insulin-like growth factor 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inma Castilla-Cortázar; Isabel Varela-Nieto; Jesús Prieto; Salvador González-Barón; Nieves Diez; María García-Fernández; Juan Enrique Puche; Fernando Diez-Caballero; Jorge Quiroga; Matías Díaz-Sánchez; Alberto Castilla; Amelia Díaz Casares

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The pathogenesis of hypogonadism in liver cirrhosis is not well understood. Previous results from our laboratory showed that IGF-1 deficiency might play a pathogenetic role in hypogonadism of cirrhosis. The administration of IGF-1 for a short period of time reverted the testicular atrophy associated with advanced experimental cirrhosis.The aim of this study was to establish the historical progression of the described alterations in the testes,explore testicular morphology, histopathology, cellular proliferation, integrity of testicular barrier and hypophysogonadal axis in rats with no ascitic cirrhosis.METHODS: Male Wistar rats with histologically-proven cirrhosis induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 11 wk,were allocated into two groups (n = 12, each) to receive vehicle. Healthy rats receiving vehicle were used as control group (n = 12).RESULTS: Compared to controls, rats with compensated cirrhosis showed a normal testicular size and weight and very few histopathological testicular abnormalities.However, these animals showed a significant diminution of cellular proliferation and a reduction of testicular transferrin expression. In addition, pituitary-gonadal axis was altered, with significant higher levels of FSH (P<0.001vs controls) and increased levels of LH in untreated cirrhotic animals. Interestingly, IGF-1 treatment normalized testicular transferrin expression and cellular proliferation and reduced serum levels of LH (P = ns vs controls, and P<0.01 vs untreated cirrhotic group).CONCLUSION: The testicular barrier is altered from an early stage of cirrhosis, shown by a reduction of transferrin expression in Sertoli cells, a diminished cellular proliferation and an altered gonadal axis. The treatment with IGF-1 could be also useful in this initial stage of testicular disorder associated with compensated cirrhosis.

  1. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, M.; Shandhi, M. M. H.; Hogan, A.; Solzbacher, F.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2016-03-01

    In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several methods such as laser ablation, focused ion beam, sputter etching, reactive ion etching (RIE) and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The surface modification processes were optimized for the high aspect ratio silicon structures of the UEA. The increase in real surface area while maintaining the geometrical surface area was verified using scanning electron

  2. Red blood cells in Rett syndrome: oxidative stress, morphological changes and altered membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Signorini, Cinzia; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

    2015-11-01

    In this review, we summarize the current evidence on the erythrocyte as a previously unrecognized target cell in Rett syndrome, a rare (1:10 000 females) and devastating neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in a single gene (i.e. MeCP2, CDKL5, or rarely FOXG1). In particular, we focus on morphological changes, membrane oxidative damage, altered membrane fatty acid profile, and aberrant skeletal organization in erythrocytes from patients with typical Rett syndrome and MeCP2 gene mutations. The beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are also summarized for this condition to be considered as a 'model' condition for autism spectrum disorders.

  3. Functional and morphological alterations associated with working memory dysfunction in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-03-01

    Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been related to functional brain activities and structural brain abnormalities. Purpose To investigate the neural mechanism on working memory dysfunction in patients with GAD in terms of the combined functional and morphological brain abnormalities. Material and Methods Patients with GAD and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level underwent high-resolution T1-weighted (T1W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI). In this study, fMRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used for assessing the differential brain activation patterns, as well as for comparing the morphological alterations between the two groups. Results In response to the neutral distractors, the patients showed significantly lower activities in the regions of the fusiform gyrus (FuG), superior parietal gyrus (SPG), precuneus (PCu), superior occipital gyrus (SOG), lingual gyrus (LiG), cuneus (Cun), calcarine cortex (CaC), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and cerebellar cortex (Cb) compared to the controls. In response to the anxiety-inducing distractors, the patients showed significantly higher activity in the hippocampus and lower activities in the regions of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), FuG, SPG, PCu, SOG, and Cb. Also, the patients showed a significant reduction of the white matter volumes in the DLPFC, anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) and midbrain. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence for the association between the morphometric alterations and functional deficit in the working memory processing with the neutral and anxiety-inducing distractors in GAD patients. These findings would be helpful to understand the neural mechanisms on working memory impairment in connection with GAD symptoms.

  4. Light-induced morphological alteration in anthocyanin-accumulating vacuoles of maize cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grotewold Erich

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant pigmentation is affected by a variety of factors. Light, an important plant developmental signal, influences the accumulation of anthocyanins primarily through the activation of the transcription factors that regulate the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we utilized maize Black Mexican Sweet (BMS cells expressing the R and C1 regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis from a light-insensitive promoter as a means to investigate the existence of additional levels of control of pigmentation by light. Results BMS cells expressing the R and C1 regulators from the CaMV 35S constitutive promoter accumulate anthocyanins when grown in complete darkness, suggesting that the transcription factors R and C1 are sufficient for the transcription of the genes corresponding to the structural enzymes of the pathway, with no requirement for additional light-induced regulators. Interestingly, light induces a "darkening" in the color of the purple anthocyanin pigmentation of transgenic BMS cells expressing R and C1. This change in the pigment hue is not associated with a variation in the levels or types of anthocyanins present, or with an alteration of the transcript levels of several flavonoid biosynthetic genes. However, cytological observations show that light drives unexpected changes in the morphology and distribution of the anthocyanins-containing vacuolar compartments. Conclusion By uncoupling the effect of light on anthocyanin accumulation, we have found light to induce the fusion of anthocyanin-containing vacuoles, the coalescence of anthocyanic vacuolar inclusion (AVI-like structures contained, and the spread of anthocyanins from the inclusions into the vacuolar sap. Similar light-induced alterations in vacuolar morphology are also evident in the epidermal cells of maize floral whorls accumulating anthocyanins. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism for the action of light on the vacuolar storage of anthocyanin.

  5. Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eŚlusarczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that the dysregulation of the immune system is an important factor in the development of depression. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and a key player in innate immunity of the brain. We hypothesized that prenatal stress (an animal model of depression as a priming factor could affect microglial cells and might lead to depressive-like disturbances in adult male rat offspring. We investigated the behavioral changes (sucrose preference test, Porsolt test, the expression of C1q and CD40 mRNA and the level of microglia (Iba1 positive in 3 month old control and prenatally stressed male offspring rats. In addition, we characterized the morphological and biochemical parameters of potentially harmful (NO, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL12, CCR2, CXCR4 and beneficial (IGF-1, BDNF phenotypes in cultures of microglia obtained from the cortices of 1-2 days old control and prenatally stressed pups. The adult prenatally stressed rats showed behavioral (anhedonic- and depression-like disturbances, enhanced expression of microglial activation markers and an increased number of Iba1-immunopositive cells in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The morphology of glia was altered in cultures from prenatally stressed rats, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Moreover, in these cultures, we observed enhanced expression of CD40 and MHC II and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6. Prenatal stress significantly up-regulated levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL12 and altered expression of their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4 while IGF-1 production was suppressed in cultures of microglia from prenatally stressed rats.Our results suggest that prenatal stress may lead to excessive microglia activation and contribute to the behavioral changes observed in depression in adulthood.

  6. Transcorneal electrical stimulation alters morphology and survival of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich-Noack, Petra; Voigt, Nadine; Prilloff, Sylvia; Fedorov, Anton; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2013-05-24

    Traumatic optic nerve injury leads to retrograde death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), but transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) can increase the cell survival rate. To understand the mechanisms and to further define the TES-induced effects we monitored in living animals RGC morphology and survival after optic nerve crush (ONC) in real time by using in vivo confocal neuroimaging (ICON) of the retina. ONC was performed in rats and ICON was performed before crush and on post-lesion days 3, 7 and 15 which allowed us to repeatedly record RGC number and size. TES or sham-stimulation were performed immediately after the crush and on post-injury day 11. Three days after ONC we detected a higher percentage of surviving RGCs in the TES group as compared to sham-treated controls. However, the difference was below significance level on day 7 and disappeared completely by day 15. The death rate was more variable amongst the TES-treated rats than in the control group. Morphological analysis revealed that average cell size changed significantly in the control group but not in stimulated animals and the morphological alterations of surviving neurons were smaller in TES-treated compared to control cells. In conclusion, TES delays post-traumatic cell death significantly. Moreover, we found "responder animals" which also benefited in the long-term from the treatment. Our in vivo cellular imaging results provide evidence that TES reduces ONC-associated neuronal swelling and shrinkage especially in RGCs which survived long-term. Further studies are now needed to determine the differences of responders vs. non-responders.

  7. Oestradiol and progesterone differentially alter cytoskeletal protein expression and flame cell morphology in Taenia crassiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Javier R; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Sánchez-Orellana, Pedro L; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Martínez-Velázquez, Nancy; Escobedo, Galileo; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    We examined the effects of oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) on cytoskeletal protein expression in the helminth Taenia crassiceps - specifically actin, tubulin and myosin. These proteins assemble into flame cells, which constitute the parasite excretory system. Total protein extracts were obtained from E2- and P4-treated T. crassiceps cysticerci and untreated controls, and analysed by one- and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and videomicroscopy. Exposure of T. crassiceps cysticerci to E2 and P4 induced differential protein expression patterns compared with untreated controls. Changes in actin, tubulin and myosin expression were confirmed by flow cytometry of parasite cells and immunofluorescence. In addition, parasite morphology was altered in response to E2 and P4 versus controls. Flame cells were primarily affected at the level of the ciliary tuft, in association with the changes in actin, tubulin and myosin. We conclude that oestradiol and progesterone act directly on T. crassiceps cysticerci, altering actin, tubulin and myosin expression and thus affecting the assembly and function of flame cells. Our results increase our understanding of several aspects of the molecular crosstalk between host and parasite, which might be useful in designing anthelmintic drugs that exclusively impair parasitic proteins which mediate cell signaling and pathogenic reproduction and establishment.

  8. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What’s New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research into testicular cancer ... in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  9. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed.

  10. A case of testicular rupture

    OpenAIRE

    野俣, 浩一郎; 林, 幹男

    1987-01-01

    A case of testicular rupture is reported. A 26-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of testicular trauma. Ultrasound of the testis was performed preoperatively. Ultrasonography revealed a disruption of the tunica albuginea and dense clusters of echoes in the tunica vaginalis. In the case of acute testicular trauma, this echo pattern suggests testicular rupture.

  11. Melatonin prevents gentamicin-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-H; Lee, I-C; Baek, H-S; Shin, I-S; Moon, C; Kim, S-H; Yun, W-K; Nam, K-H; Kim, H-C; Kim, J-C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin (MT) against gentamicin (GM)-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative damage in rats. GM (100 mg kg(-1) ) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats for 6 days. MT (15 mg kg(-1) ) was administered i.p. to rats for 6 days at 1 hr after the GM treatment. GM caused a decrease in prostate and seminal vesicle weights, sperm count and sperm motility. Histopathological examination showed various morphological alterations in the testis, characterised by degeneration of spermatogonia/spermatocytes, decrease in the number of early spermatogenic cells and vacuolisation. In addition, an increased malondialdehyde concentration and decreased glutathione content and glutathione reductase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were found in the testis. In contrast, MT treatment significantly attenuated the testicular toxicity of GM, including decreased reproductive organ weights, sperm count, and sperm motility and increased histopathological alterations. MT also had an antioxidant benefit by decreasing the lipid peroxidative product malondialdehyde and increasing the level of the antioxidant glutathione and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the testis. These results indicate that MT prevents testicular toxicity induced by GM in rats, presumably due to its potent antioxidant activity, and its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation, and restore antioxidant enzyme activity.

  12. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alteration of Fusarium sporotrichioides by Mentha piperita Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachitha, P.; Krupashree, K.; Jayashree, G. V.; Gopalan, Natarajan; Khanum, Farhath

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the phytochemical composition, antifungal activity of Mentha piperita essential oil (MPE) against Fusarium sporotrichioides. Methods: The phytochemical composition was conducted by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC MS) analysis and mycelia growth inhibition was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), the morphological characterization was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Finally, the membrane permeability was determined by the release of extracellular constituents, pH, and total lipid content. Result: In GC MS analysis, 22 metabolites were identified such as menthol, l menthone, pulegone, piperitone, caryophyllene, menthol acetate, etc. The antifungal activity against targeted pathogen, with MIC and MFC 500 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL, respectively. The MPE altered the morphology of F. sporotrichoides hyphae with the loss of cytoplasm content and contorted the mycelia. The increasing concentration of MPE showed increase in membrane permeability of F. sporotrichoides as evidenced by the release of extracellular constituents and pH with the disruption of cell membrane indicating decrease in lipid content of F. sporotrichoides. Conclusion: The observed results showed that MPE exhibited promising new antifungal agent against Fusarium sporotrichioides. SUMMARY F. sporotrichioides, filamentous fungi contaminate to corn and corn--based productsF. sporotrichioides mainly responsible for the production of T-2 toxinPhytochemical composition was conducted by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry analysisMentha piperita essential oil (MPE) is commonly known as peppermintThe F. sporotrichioides growth was inhibited by MPE (minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration)Morphological observation by scanning electron microscope. Abbreviations Used: Cfu: Colony forming unit; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, °C: Degree celsius; F. Sporotrichoides

  13. Chemical, experimental, and morphological evidence for diagenetically altered melanin in exceptionally preserved fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleary, Caitlin; Dolocan, Andrei; Gardner, James; Singh, Suresh; Wuttke, Michael; Rabenstein, Renate; Habersetzer, Jörg; Schaal, Stephan; Feseha, Mulugeta; Clemens, Matthew; Jacobs, Bonnie F; Currano, Ellen D; Jacobs, Louis L; Sylvestersen, Rene Lyng; Gabbott, Sarah E; Vinther, Jakob

    2015-10-13

    In living organisms, color patterns, behavior, and ecology are closely linked. Thus, detection of fossil pigments may permit inferences about important aspects of ancient animal ecology and evolution. Melanin-bearing melanosomes were suggested to preserve as organic residues in exceptionally preserved fossils, retaining distinct morphology that is associated with aspects of original color patterns. Nevertheless, these oblong and spherical structures have also been identified as fossilized bacteria. To date, chemical studies have not directly considered the effects of diagenesis on melanin preservation, and how this may influence its identification. Here we use time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to identify and chemically characterize melanin in a diverse sample of previously unstudied extant and fossil taxa, including fossils with notably different diagenetic histories and geologic ages. We document signatures consistent with melanin preservation in fossils ranging from feathers, to mammals, to amphibians. Using principal component analyses, we characterize putative mixtures of eumelanin and phaeomelanin in both fossil and extant samples. Surprisingly, both extant and fossil amphibians generally exhibit melanosomes with a mixed eumelanin/phaeomelanin composition rather than pure eumelanin, as assumed previously. We argue that experimental maturation of modern melanin samples replicates diagenetic chemical alteration of melanin observed in fossils. This refutes the hypothesis that such fossil microbodies could be bacteria, and demonstrates that melanin is widely responsible for the organic soft tissue outlines in vertebrates found at exceptional fossil localities, thus allowing for the reconstruction of certain aspects of original pigment patterns.

  14. MRI morphologic alterations after liver SBRT. Direct dose correlation with intermodal matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Jahnke, Anika; Jahnke, Lennart; Vogel, Lena; Simeonova-Chergou, Anna O.; Herskind, Carsten; Wenz, Frederik; Lohr, Frank [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Attenberger, Ulrike; Budjan, Johannes [University of Heidelberg, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    CT morphologic and histopathologic alterations have been reported after SBRT. We analyzed the correlation of MRI morphologic alterations with radiation doses to assess the potential for MRI-based dose-effect correlation in healthy liver tissue. MRI data of 24 patients with liver metastases 7±3 weeks after image-guided SBRT in deep-inspiration breath-hold were retrospectively analyzed. MRI images were intermodally matched to the planning CT and corresponding dose distribution. Absolute doses were converted to EQD{sub 2,α/β=x} with α/β values of 2, 3 for healthy liver tissue, 8 Gy for modelled predamaged liver tissue and 10 Gy for tumor tissue. A central nonenhancing area was observed within the isodose lines of nominally 48.2 ± 15.2 Gy, EQD{sub 2Gy/α/β=10} 92.5 ± 27.7 Gy. Contrast-enhancement around the central nonenhancing area was observed within the isodose lines of nominally 46.9 ± 15.3 Gy, EQD{sub 2Gy/α/β=10} 90.5 ± 28.3 Gy. Outside the high-dose volume, in the beam path, characteristic sharply defined, nonblurred MRI morphologic alterations were observed that corresponded with the following isodose lines: T1-intensity changes occurred at isodose lines of nominally 21.9 ± 6.7 Gy (EQD{sub 2,α/β=2} 42.5 ± 8.7 Gy, EQD{sub 2,α/β=3} 38.5 ± 7.6 Gy, EQD{sub 2,α/β=8} 30.2 ±6.3 Gy). T2-hyper/hypointensity was observed within isodose lines of nominally 22.4 ± 6.6 Gy (EQD{sub 2,α/β=2} 42.7 ± 8.1 Gy, EQD{sub 2,α/β=3} 38.7 ± 7 Gy; EQD{sub 2,α/β=8} 30.5 ± 5.9 Gy). Using deformable matching, direct spatial/dosimetric correlation of SBRT-induced changes in liver tissue was possible. In the PTV high-dose region, a central nonenhancing area and peripheral contrast medium accumulation was observed. Beam path doses of 38-42 Gy (EQD{sub 2,α/β=2-3}) induce characteristic MRI morphologic alterations. (orig.) [German] CT-morphologische Veraenderungen nach SBRT sind beschrieben und korrelieren mit histopathologischen Veraenderungen. Ziel war es, MRT

  15. A deficiency of uPAR alters endothelial angiogenic function and cell morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsara Rashna D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The angiogenic potential of a cell requires dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeletal architecture that involves the interaction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR with the extracellular matrix. This study focuses on the effect of uPAR deficiency (uPAR-/- on angiogenic function and associated cytoskeletal organization. Utilizing murine endothelial cells, it was observed that adhesion, migration, proliferation, and capillary tube formation were altered in uPAR-/- cells compared to wild-type (WT cells. On a vitronectin (Vn matrix, uPAR-/- cells acquired a "fried egg" morphology characterized by circular actin organization and lack of lamellipodia formation. The up-regulation of β1 integrin, FAK(P-Tyr925, and paxillin (P-Tyr118, and decreased Rac1 activation, suggested increased focal adhesions, but delayed focal adhesion turnover in uPAR-/- cells. This accounted for the enhanced adhesion, but attenuated migration, on Vn. VEGF-enriched Matrigel implants from uPAR-/- mice demonstrated a lack of mature vessel formation compared to WT mice. Collectively, these results indicate that a uPAR deficiency leads to decreased angiogenic functions of endothelial cells.

  16. Chemical, experimental, and morphological evidence for diagenetically altered melanin in exceptionally preserved fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleary, Caitlin; Dolocan, Andrei; Gardner, James; Singh, Suresh; Wuttke, Michael; Rabenstein, Renate; Habersetzer, Jörg; Schaal, Stephan; Feseha, Mulugeta; Clemens, Matthew; Jacobs, Bonnie F.; Currano, Ellen D.; Jacobs, Louis L.; Lyng Sylvestersen, Rene; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Vinther, Jakob

    2015-10-01

    In living organisms, color patterns, behavior, and ecology are closely linked. Thus, detection of fossil pigments may permit inferences about important aspects of ancient animal ecology and evolution. Melanin-bearing melanosomes were suggested to preserve as organic residues in exceptionally preserved fossils, retaining distinct morphology that is associated with aspects of original color patterns. Nevertheless, these oblong and spherical structures have also been identified as fossilized bacteria. To date, chemical studies have not directly considered the effects of diagenesis on melanin preservation, and how this may influence its identification. Here we use time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to identify and chemically characterize melanin in a diverse sample of previously unstudied extant and fossil taxa, including fossils with notably different diagenetic histories and geologic ages. We document signatures consistent with melanin preservation in fossils ranging from feathers, to mammals, to amphibians. Using principal component analyses, we characterize putative mixtures of eumelanin and phaeomelanin in both fossil and extant samples. Surprisingly, both extant and fossil amphibians generally exhibit melanosomes with a mixed eumelanin/phaeomelanin composition rather than pure eumelanin, as assumed previously. We argue that experimental maturation of modern melanin samples replicates diagenetic chemical alteration of melanin observed in fossils. This refutes the hypothesis that such fossil microbodies could be bacteria, and demonstrates that melanin is widely responsible for the organic soft tissue outlines in vertebrates found at exceptional fossil localities, thus allowing for the reconstruction of certain aspects of original pigment patterns.

  17. Repeated dose oral toxicity of inorganic mercury in wistar rats: biochemical and morphological alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Jegoda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to find out the possible toxic effect of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 at the histological, biochemical, and haematological levels in the wistar rats for 28 days. Materials and Methods: The biochemical and hematological alteration were estimated in four groups of rat (each group contain ten animals, which were treated with 0 (control, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg body weight of HgCl2 through oral gavage. At the end of study all rats were sacrificed and subjected for histopathology. Result: A significantly (P < 0.05 higher level of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT, gamma Glutamyle Transferase, and creatinine were recorded in treatment groups, while the level of alkaline phosphtase (ALP was significantly decreased as compared to the control group. The toxic effect on hematoclogical parameter was characterized by significant decrease in hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocytes count, and total leukocyte count. Gross morphological changes include congestion, severe haemorrhage, necrosis, degenerative changes in kidneys, depletion of lymphocyte in spleen, decrease in concentration of mature spermatocyte, and edema in testis. It was notable that kidney was the most affected organ. Conclusion: Mercuric chloride (HgCl caused dose-dependent toxic effects on blood parameters and kidney. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 563-567

  18. Lost region in amyloid precursor protein (APP) through TALEN-mediated genome editing alters mitochondrial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajie; Wu, Fengyi; Pan, Haining; Zheng, Wenzhong; Feng, Chi; Wang, Yunfu; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Lianrong; Luo, Jie; Chen, Shi

    2016-02-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain. Aβ plaques are produced through sequential β/γ cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP), of which there are three main APP isoforms: APP695, APP751 and APP770. KPI-APPs (APP751 and APP770) are known to be elevated in AD, but the reason remains unclear. Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) induce mutations with high efficiency at specific genomic loci, and it is thus possible to knock out specific regions using TALENs. In this study, we designed and expressed TALENs specific for the C-terminus of APP in HeLa cells, in which KPI-APPs are predominantly expressed. The KPI-APP mutants lack a 12-aa region that encompasses a 5-aa trans-membrane (TM) region and 7-aa juxta-membrane (JM) region. The mutated KPI-APPs exhibited decreased mitochondrial localization. In addition, mitochondrial morphology was altered, resulting in an increase in spherical mitochondria in the mutant cells through the disruption of the balance between fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including decreased ATP levels, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generation and impaired mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, was also found. These results suggest that specific regions of KPI-APPs are important for mitochondrial localization and function.

  19. Testicular self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testicular self-exam is an examination of the testicles that you do on yourself. ... The testicles (also called the testes) are the male reproductive organs that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone. They ...

  20. Testicular scintigraphy; Hodenszintigrafie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiling, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    In the clinical situation of an acute scrotum, differentiation between different reasons for scrotal pain may be crucial in certain cases. Beside clinical examination and laboratory tests, Color Doppler sonography is routinely applied. Testicular scintigraphy can only be suggested as a complementary tool if it is available as an emergency procedure. Acute testicular torsion that has already been reliably diagnosed by clinical examination is not an indication for testicular perfusion scintigraphy. This diagnostic procedure is, however, valuable if the clinical findings are equivocal and, especially, if a conservative treatment is planned. The method of and the results obtained with testicular scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of acute scrotal pain are briefly described in this article. (orig.)

  1. Histological evidence of testicular dysgenesis in contralateral biopsies from 218 patients with testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    patients, areas with immature and morphologically distorted tubules were also noted. Spermatogenesis was qualitatively normal in 51.4%, whereas 11.5% had very poor or absent spermatogenesis. It is concluded that microscopic testicular dysgenesis is a frequent feature in contralateral biopsies from patients...

  2. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie eVega

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters (EDs exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Futhermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer. The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past decades. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte. During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including testicular cancer.Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of testicular cancer; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures.

  3. Tuning the Morphology of All-Polymer OPVs through Altering Polymer–Solvent Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Pavlopoulou, Eleni

    2014-09-09

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. In this work, we investigated the effects of solvent(s)-polymer(s) interactions on the morphology of all-polymer bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) active layers cast from cosolutions. We demonstrate that altering the interactions between the solvent and both the donor and acceptor polymers in the cosolution prior to film-casting induces different solid-state morphological characteristics that subsequently leads to differences in the device performance of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, was codissolved poly[[N,N\\'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-napthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5 ′-(2,2 ′-bithiophene)], P(NDI2OD-T2), or otherwise known as ActivInk N2200, in dichlorobenzene, chlorobenzene, and xylene. According to the qualitative interaction map we propose, all three solvents exhibit favorable interactions with P3HT. The extent of incompatibility these solvents exhibit with P(NDI2OD-T2), however, varies, with xylene as the worst solvent for P(NDI2OD-T2) among those examined. Polymer-polymer interactions in xylene are, thus, more favorable compared to P(NDI2OD-T2)-xylene interactions. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements on the cast films suggest that this preferential affinity between the two polymers disrupts crystallization in the blends; P(NDI2OD-T2) crystallinity decreases and, concurrently, results in shorter P3HT coherence lengths. Significant mixing of the two polymers is also evidenced. OPVs comprising P3HT and P(NDI2OD-T2) active layers cast from xylene exhibit the best device characteristics compared to OPVs whose active layers are cast from di- or mono-chlorobenzene. We attribute the improved OPV performance for the xylene-cast active layer to the presence of a more intermixed network of nanocrystalline domains of the two polymers, which originates from the affinity of P3HT and P(NDI2OD-T2) in the parent cosolution.

  4. Morphological alterations in newly born dentate gyrus granule cells that emerge after status epilepticus contribute to make them less excitable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Tejada

    Full Text Available Computer simulations of external current stimulations of dentate gyrus granule cells of rats with Status Epilepticus induced by pilocarpine and control rats were used to evaluate whether morphological differences alone between these cells have an impact on their electrophysiological behavior. The cell models were constructed using morphological information from tridimensional reconstructions with Neurolucida software. To evaluate the effect of morphology differences alone, ion channel conductances, densities and distributions over the dendritic trees of dentate gyrus granule cells were the same for all models. External simulated currents were injected in randomly chosen dendrites belonging to one of three different areas of dentate gyrus granule cell molecular layer: inner molecular layer, medial molecular layer and outer molecular layer. Somatic membrane potentials were recorded to determine firing frequencies and inter-spike intervals. The results show that morphologically altered granule cells from pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats are less excitable than control cells, especially when they are stimulated in the inner molecular layer, which is the target area for mossy fibers that sprout after pilocarpine-induced cell degeneration. This suggests that morphological alterations may act as a protective mechanism to allow dentate gyrus granule cells to cope with the increase of stimulation caused by mossy fiber sprouting.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of testicular germ cell tumors

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Quraishi, Sabah M.; Graubard, Barry I.; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Rubertone, Mark V; Erickson, Ralph L.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), may alter hormonal balance and thereby, increase risk of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). To study the relationship of PCBs to TGCT, pre-diagnostic serum samples from 736 cases and 913 controls in the Servicemen’s Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants study were analyzed. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. PCB levels...

  6. What Are the Key Statistics about Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Testicular Cancer? The American Cancer Society’s estimates for testicular cancer ... in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  7. Apoptosis and morphological alterations after UVA irradiation in red blood cells of p53 deficient Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alla El-Din Hamid; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Morphological alterations in red blood cells were described as hematological bioindicators of UVA exposure to investigate the sensitivity to UVA in wild type Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and a p53 deficient mutant. The fewer abnormal red blood cells were observed in the p53 mutant fish under the control conditions. After exposure to different doses of UVA radiation (15min, 30min and 60min/day for 3days), cellular and nuclear alterations in red blood cells were analyzed in the UVA exposed fish compared with non-exposed controls and those alterations included acanthocytes, cell membrane lysis, swollen cells, teardrop-like cell, hemolyzed cells and sickle cells. Those alterations were increased after the UVA exposure both in wild type and the p53 deficient fish. Moreover, apoptosis analyzed by acridine orange assay showed increased number of apoptosis in red blood cells at the higher UVA exposure dose. No micronuclei but nuclear abnormalities as eccentric nucleus, nuclear budding, deformed nucleus, and bilobed nucleus were observed in each group. These results suggested that UVA exposure induced both p53 dependent and independent apoptosis and morphological alterations in red blood cells but less sensitive to UVA than Wild type in medaka fish.

  8. Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Because testicular cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in young men, it is important that they become informed about it. This paper reviews the pathology and epidemiology of testicular cancer, the technique of testicular self-examination, and some suggestions for teaching about this subject. (Authors/JMK)

  9. Inguinal metastases from testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Karas, Vladimir; Sommer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of inguinal metastases in patients with testicular cancer and relapse after initial stage I disease.......To evaluate the incidence of inguinal metastases in patients with testicular cancer and relapse after initial stage I disease....

  10. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S., E-mail: marisofigime44@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+} did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta.

  11. Using Pressure and Alteration Indicators to Assess River Morphological Quality: Case Study of the Prahova River (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ioana-Toroimac

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available River morphological quality assessment, derived from quantification of human pressures as well as river channel alteration, is a demand of the Water Framework Directive (WFD in terms of integrating hydromorphological elements in defining ecological status. Our study’s aim is to contribute to the hydromorphological evaluation by proposing indicators and separating classes, based on a revisited Morphological Quality Index (rMQI protocol. The rMQI is based on 12 indicators of human pressures, 10 indicators of channel form adjustments, and 11 indicators of functionality. The rMQI scoring system allows for the quantification of changes when compared to reference conditions, be they undisturbed or nearly undisturbed by human interventions, with absent channel adjustments and a functioning natural river style. We used the lower, meandering sector of the Prahova River to demonstrate our assessment methodology. The Lower Prahova River suffers from a minor local intervention and a diminishing intensity of fluvial processes specific to a meandering style. Meanders geometry was affected by significant changes that included a decrease in the radius of curvature, width and width–to–mean–depth ratio. We concluded that the Lower Prahova River has a good morphological quality, which is rated as second class on a scale of five levels, from natural to severely modified. We recommend an improvement in the hydromorphological evaluation protocol in Romania by additional indicators for morphological alterations specific to each channel pattern.

  12. Altered Contralateral Auditory Cortical Morphology in Unilateral Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wenliang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Jing; Zhao, Xueyan; Mella, Grace; Lei, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haha; Cheng, Huamao; Shi, Hong; Xu, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cerebral gray matter volume alterations in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients within the acute period by the voxel-based morphometry method, and to determine if hearing impairment is associated with regional gray matter alterations in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients. Study Design: Prospective case study. Setting: Tertiary class A teaching hospital. Patients: Thirty-nine patients with left-side unilateral sudden sensorineur...

  13. A comparison of ejaculated and testicular spermatozoa aneuploidy rates in patients with high sperm DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Alladin, Naazish; Lo, Kirk C; Jarvi, Keith; Mullen, J Brendan M; Librach, Clifford L

    2012-06-01

    Testicular spermatozoa are utilized to achieve pregnancy in couples with severe male factor infertility. Several studies suggest that aneuploidy rates in spermatozoa are elevated at the testicular level in infertile patients compared to ejaculates of normal controls. However, essential data regarding aneuploidy rates between ejaculated and testicular spermatozoa in the same individuals is lacking. The purpose of our study was to compare aneuploidy rates at the testicular and post-testicular level from the same patients with persistently high sperm DNA damage. Ejaculates and testicular biopsies were obtained from eight patients with persistently high DNA damage (>30%). Both ejaculated and testicular samples were analyzed for sperm DNA damage and sperm aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y. In addition, semen samples from ten normozoospermic men presenting for fertility evaluation served as a control group. A strong correlation between the alteration of spermatogenesis and chromatin deterioration was observed in our study. In the same individuals, testicular samples showed a significantly lower DNA damage compared to ejaculated spermatozoa (14.9% ± 5.0 vs. 40.6% ± 14.8, P<0.05), but significantly higher aneuploidy rates for the five analyzed chromosomes (12.41% ± 3.7 vs. 5.77% ± 1.2, P<0.05). While testicular spermatozoa appear favourable for ICSI in terms of lower DNA damage, this potential advantage could be offset by the higher aneuploidy rates in testicular spermatozoa.

  14. Photoinduced cell morphology alterations quantified within adipose tissues by spectral optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, Irina Yu; Trunina, Natalia A; Tuchin, Valery V

    2013-11-01

    Morphological changes of the adipose tissue at phototreatment are studied in vitro using optical coherence tomography. The 200 to 600 μm fat tissue slices are used in the experiments. The observed change in the tissue structure was associated with fat cell lipolysis and destruction caused by the photodynamic effect. It is found that overall heating of a sample from room to physiological temperature leads to deeper and faster morphology tissue changes if other processing conditions are kept constant. These data support the hypothesis that photodynamic/photothermal treatment induces fat cell lipolysis during some period after treatment.

  15. Testicular trauma resulting in spermatic vessel thrombosis and testicular loss: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Robert; Kandzari, Stanley J; Zaslau, Stanley

    2012-02-01

    Testicular ischemia is typically seen with cases of testicular torsion. Twisting of the spermatic cord and compromise of testicular blood supply can induce testicular loss if not promptly discovered and treated. Non-torsion causes of testicular ischemia are uncommon with rare citations in the literature. Herein, we present a case of testicular ischemia induced by traumatic thrombosis of the spermatic vessels.

  16. Chronic treatment with glucocorticoids alters rat hippocampal and prefrontal cortical morphology in parallel with endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Jingjing; Regunathan, Soundar

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, we examined the possible effect of chronic treatment with glucocorticoids on the morphology of the rat brain and levels of endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase (ADC) protein, the enzyme essential for agmatine synthesis. Seven-day treatment with dexamethasone, at a dose (10 and 50 mug/kg/day) associated to stress effects contributed by glucocorticoids, did not result in obvious morphologic changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as measured by immunocytochemical staining with beta-tubulin III. However, 21-day treatment (50 mug/kg/day) produced noticeable structural changes such as the diminution and disarrangement of dendrites and neurons in these areas. Simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day) prevented these morphological changes. Further measurement with HPLC showed that endogenous agmatine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were significantly increased after 7-day treatments with dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. On the contrary, 21-day treatment with glucocorticoids robustly reduced agmatine levels in these regions. The treatment-caused biphasic alterations of endogenous agmatine levels were also seen in the striatum and hypothalamus. Interestingly, treatment with glucocorticoids resulted in a similar change of ADC protein levels in most brain areas to endogenous agmatine levels: an increase after 7-day treatment versus a reduction after 21-day treatment. These results demonstrated that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against structural alterations caused by glucocorticoids in vivo. The parallel alterations in the endogenous agmatine levels and ADC expression in the brain after treatment with glucocorticoids indicate the possible regulatory effect of these stress hormones on the synthesis and metabolism of agmatine in vivo.

  17. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure alters radial arm maze performance and hippocampal morphology in female AhR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, B E; Lin, T-M; Vanka, A; Peterson, R E; Juraska, J M; Schantz, S L

    2005-02-01

    Perinatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been reported to alter spatial learning in rats tested on a radial arm maze (RAM). TCDD is believed to exert most of its effects through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). To determine whether the AhR mediates TCDD-induced alterations in spatial learning, we tested male and female AhR-knockout (AhR-/-), heterozygous (AhR+/-) and wild-type (AhR+/+) mice on the RAM. AhR+/- male and female mice were time mated, and treated dams were dosed with 5 microg TCDD/kg body weight on day 13 of gestation. When offspring reached adulthood, male and female AhR+/+, AhR+/- and AhR-/- mice from TCDD-exposed and unexposed litters were tested on the eight-arm RAM. After testing, we examined hippocampal morphology as visualized by the Timm's silver sulfide stain. TCDD-exposed female AhR+/- mice made more errors than their respective controls on the RAM and exhibited a decrease in the size of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIP-MF) field of the hippocampus. None of the other TCDD-exposed groups differed from their respective control groups with regard to maze performance or hippocampal morphology. The reduction of IIP-MF field indicates a possible morphological basis for the learning deficit that was observed in the female AhR+/- mice. It is hypothesized that the effect of TCDD exposure is AhR dependent and that TCDD may alter GABAergic activity in the hippocampus of female mice during development.

  18. Morphological divergence and flow-induced phenotypic plasticity in a native fish from anthropogenically altered stream habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Nathan R; Stewart, Laura K; Schaefer, Jacob F

    2013-11-01

    Understanding population-level responses to human-induced changes to habitats can elucidate the evolutionary consequences of rapid habitat alteration. Reservoirs constructed on streams expose stream fishes to novel selective pressures in these habitats. Assessing the drivers of trait divergence facilitated by these habitats will help identify evolutionary and ecological consequences of reservoir habitats. We tested for morphological divergence in a stream fish that occupies both stream and reservoir habitats. To assess contributions of genetic-level differences and phenotypic plasticity induced by flow variation, we spawned and reared individuals from both habitats types in flow and no flow conditions. Body shape significantly and consistently diverged in reservoir habitats compared with streams; individuals from reservoirs were shallower bodied with smaller heads compared with individuals from streams. Significant population-level differences in morphology persisted in offspring but morphological variation compared with field-collected individuals was limited to the head region. Populations demonstrated dissimilar flow-induced phenotypic plasticity when reared under flow, but phenotypic plasticity in response to flow variation was an unlikely explanation for observed phenotypic divergence in the field. Our results, together with previous investigations, suggest the environmental conditions currently thought to drive morphological change in reservoirs (i.e., predation and flow regimes) may not be the sole drivers of phenotypic change.

  19. Morphological alterations on Citrobacter freundii bacteria induced by erythrosine dye and laser light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Josmary R; Cardoso, Gleidson; Maciel, Rafael R G; de Souza, Nara C

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the laser irradiation (532 nm) on films prepared from Citrobacter freundii mixed with erythrosine dye was investigated by using atomic force microscopy. It was observed that morphological changes of bacterial surfaces after irradiations, which were attributed to cellular damage of the outer membranes, are a result of a photodynamic effect. The results suggested that the combination of erythrosine and laser light at 532 nm could be a candidate to a photodynamic therapy against C. freundii.

  20. Altered morphologies and functions of the olfactory bulb and hippocampus induced by miR-30c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting eSun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is considered to contribute to a certain degree of plasticity for the brain. However, the effects of adult-born neurons on the brain are still largely unknown. Here, we specifically altered the expression of miR-30c in the subventricular zone (SVZ and dentate gyrus (DG by stereotaxic injection with their respective up-and down-regulated lentiviruses. Results showed an increased level of miR-30c enhanced adult neurogenesis by prompting cell-cycles of stem cells, whereas down-regulated miR-30c led to the opposite results. When these effects of miR-30c lasted for three months, we detected significant morphological changes in the olfactory bulb (OB and lineage alteration in the hippocampus. Tests of olfactory sensitivity and associative and spatial memory showed that a certain amount of adult-born neurons are essential for the normal functions of the OB and hippocampus, but there also exist redundant newborn neurons that do not further improve the functioning of these areas. Our study revealed the interactions between miRNA, adult neurogenesis, brain morphology and function, and this provides a novel insight into understanding the role of newborn neurons in the adult brain.

  1. Redefining lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) classification: integrating the full spectrum of morphological alterations in a biomechanical continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Niladri Kumar

    2013-07-01

    In light of advancements in imaging techniques and basic science studies, this study proposes modifications in the existing Castellvi's classification for better clinical and biomechanical correlation of LSTV subtypes. LSTVs are commonly occurring variations of the lower spine. The current system does not include functionally important structural variations of the neural arch components and sacral auricular surfaces induced by LSTV afflictions within the classification. This study is an attempt to integrate vital biomechanical correlates into the proposed modification. Emerging diagnostic and clinical evidence also point out the need of understating subdivisions within LSTV anomalies as distinctly stratified entities to get a better correlation with the biomechanical continuum involved with LSTV associated low back pain. Important neural arch element and sacral auricular surface alterations associated with each LSTV subtypes were studied from a large number of osseous samples and data available from published LSTV related clinical and morphological studies. Sacralisation and lumbarisation were designated separate stratifications in the proposed revision, with arrangement of the LSTV subtypes as members of a LSTV anatomical 'array' extending cranio-caudally at the lumbo-sacral junction. The proposed modification is capable of identifying LSTV associated structural defects (in anterior and posterior elements), their exact level of occurrence and status of facet and auricular surface morphologies. Coding for the inclusion of biomechanically important alterations associated with LSTV types within the proposed new classification would probably be helpful in better clinical correlation of LSTV.

  2. Acute melatonin treatment alters dendritic morphology and circadian clock gene expression in the hippocampus of Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Tomoko; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-02-01

    In the hippocampus of Siberian hamsters, dendritic length and dendritic complexity increase in the CA1 region whereas dendritic spine density decreases in the dentate gyrus region at night. However, the underlying mechanism of the diurnal rhythmicity in hippocampal neuronal remodeling is unknown. In mammals, most daily rhythms in physiology and behaviors are regulated by a network of circadian clocks. The central clock, located in the hypothalamus, controls melatonin secretion at night and melatonin modifies peripheral clocks by altering expression of circadian clock genes. In this study, we examined the effects of acute melatonin treatment on the circadian clock system as well as on morphological changes of hippocampal neurons. Male Siberian hamsters were injected with melatonin in the afternoon; 4 h later, mRNA levels of hypothalamic and hippocampal circadian clock genes and hippocampal neuron dendritic morphology were assessed. In the hypothalamus, melatonin treatment did not alter Period1 and Bmal1 expression. However, melatonin treatment increased both Period1 and Bmal1 expression in the hippocampus, suggesting that melatonin affected molecular oscillations in the hippocampus. Melatonin treatment also induced rapid remodeling of hippocampal neurons; melatonin increased apical dendritic length and dendritic complexity in the CA1 region and reduced the dendritic spine density in the dentate gyrus region. These data suggest that structural changes in hippocampal neurons are regulated by a circadian clock and that melatonin functions as a nighttime signal to coordinate the diurnal rhythm in neuronal remodeling.

  3. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breikaa, Randa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Mosli, Hisham A. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nagy, Ayman A. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim.pharma@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  4. Testicular torsion: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memik Ö et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Testicular torsion represents a real emergency among genitourinary disorders. A delay in diagnosis may lead to orchiectomy. A six-year old male patient had abdominal pain with scrotal tenderness and swelling lasting two days. The patient attended the emergency service as his symptoms worsened. Physical examination revealed mild abdominal tenderness, left scrotal hyperemia and edema. Left testicle was also edematous and tender. Doppler ultrasonograpy demonstrated no vascular supply for the left testicle. Surgical exploration revealed a dark necrotic left testicle and no tissue vascularisation on a parenchymal incision. Therefore a left orchiectomy was performed upon the consideration of longer than two days of history. A probability of testicular torsion should be considered in the evaluation of acute abdomen for children of any age.

  5. Testicular cancer in cryptorchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batata, M A; Chu, F C; Hilaris, B S; Whitmore, W F; Golbey, R B

    1982-03-01

    One-hundred thirty-seven patients with a history or clinical evidence of cryptorchidism and testicular germinal tumor were treated at our hospital from 1934 to 1976. Cryptorchidism was corrected ipsilaterally or contralaterally in 93 patients with intrascrotal testis cancer when they were from 2 to 42 years old, either spontaneously (24 patients), by orchiopexy (58 patients), or by hormonal therapy (11 patients). Forty-four cryptorchid patients (uncorrected cases) had either ipsilateral inguinal (24 patients), or abdominal (14 patients), or contralateral intrascrotal tumors (six patients). Tumor histologic types on orchiectomy were pure seminoma in 56 patients, embryonal carcinoma in 41, teratocarcinoma in 37, and pure choriocarcinoma in 3. The five-year survival rates were similar in the corrected (61%) and uncorrected (63%) cases, and they were higher in patients with pure seminoma (79%) than in patients with germinal carcinomas (50%). The majority (64 of 80) of five-year survivors received regional lymphatic irradiation in 41 patients with pure seminoma and/or systemic chemotherapy in 23 patients with other germinomas. Since the testicular tumors that developed despite correction of the cryptorchid state were predominantly (72%) germinal carcinomas, unilateral cryptorchidism, which usually is associated with testicular atrophy, should be treated by orchiectomy instead of orchiopexy to prevent ipsilateral carcinogenesis. Cryptorchid patients with testicles that descended late should be observed periodically, especially after the 20-year latent period, for early detection of cancer.

  6. Morphological alterations in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to neem seed oil with known azadirachtin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2016-04-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides.

  7. Amygdala Kindling Alters Estrus Cycle and Ovarian Morphology in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Juan; Zhang, Lingwu; Wang, Feng; Liu, Dan; Li, P Andy; Sun, Tao

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of amygdala kindling on estrus cycle and ovarian morphology. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 8 weeks were randomly designated to electrode kindled, sham-kindled, and normal controls. Kindled rats were implanted with kindling electrodes in the left basolateral amygdala and kindled by brief suprathreshold stimulations with a bipolar electrode. Estrous cycles were daily monitored through vaginal smears. Electrographic and behavioral seizures were recorded and ovarian morphology was evaluated by light and electron microscopies. Our results showed that the kindled rats lost their ovarian periodicity displayed significant ovarian enlargement. H&E staining revealed increased number of growing follicles and total follicles, as well as polycysts in the ovaries of the kindled animals compared to sham and control animals. Ultrastructural study detected numerous apoptotic granulosa cells in growing follicles and thecal cell hyperplasia with secretary granules in the thecal cells in the kindled rats. The results suggest that amygdala kindling is a risk factor for the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  8. Stress during development alters dendritic morphology in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A; Carroll, C; Kolb, B

    2012-08-02

    The long-term effects of stress during development have been well characterized. However, the effects of developmental stress on the underlying neurological mechanisms related to the reward system are not well understood. The present report studied the long term effects of stress during development on the structural plasticity in the cortical and subcortical regions. Rats exposed to stress during embryonic development (prenatal stress; PS) or soon after birth (maternal separation; MS) were studied for structural alteration at the neuronal level in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The findings show that stress during development increased dendritic branching, length, and spine density in the NAc, and subregions of the PFC. PS experience increased dendritic branching and length in the mPFC apical and basilar dendrites. In contrast, a PS-associated decrease in dendritic branching and length was observed in the basilar branches of the OFC. MS resulted in an increase in dendritic growth and spine density in the subregions of the PFC. The effect of PS on neuroanatomy was more robust than MS despite the shorter duration and intensity. The altered dendritic growth and spine density associated with stress during development could have potential impact on NAc and PFC related behaviors.

  9. Decreased Reelin Expression and Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure Alters Mouse Behaviour and Brain Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Mullen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASDs (autism spectrum disorders. In this study, we examined the combinatorial effect of two factors thought to be involved in autism – reduction in the expression of the extracellular matrix protein reelin and prenatal exposure to an organophosphate pesticide, CPO (chlorpyrifos oxon. Mice with reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to CPO exhibited subtle changes in ultrasound vocalization, open field behaviour, social interaction and repetitive behaviour. Paradoxically, mice exposed to both variables often exhibited a mitigation of abnormal behaviours, rather than increased behavioural abnormalities as expected. We identified specific differences in males and females in response to both of these variables. In addition to behavioural abnormalities, we identified anatomical alterations in the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. As with our behavioural studies, anatomical alterations appeared to be ameliorated in the presence of both variables. While these observations support an interaction between loss of reelin expression and CPO exposure, our results suggest a complexity to this interaction beyond an additive effect of individual phenotypes.

  10. Altered river morphology in south africa related to the permian-triassic extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward; Montgomery; Smith

    2000-09-08

    The Permian-Triassic transition in the Karoo Basin of South Africa was characterized by a rapid and apparently basin-wide change from meandering to braided river systems, as evidenced by preserved sedimentary facies. This radical changeover in river morphology is consistent with geomorphic consequences stemming from a rapid and major die-off of rooted plant life in the basin. Evidence from correlative nonmarine strata elsewhere in the world containing fluvial Permian-Triassic boundary sections suggests that a catastrophic terrestrial die-off of vegetation was a global event, producing a marked increase in sediment yield as well as contributing to the global delta(13)C excursion across the Permian-Triassic boundary.

  11. Retinol induces morphological alterations and proliferative focus formation through free radicalmediated activation of multiple signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Pens GELAIN; Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt PASQUALI; Fernanda Freitas CAREGNATO; Mauro Antonio Alves CASTRO; José Claudio Fonseca MOREIRA

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Toxicity of retinol (vitamin A)has been previously associated with apoptosis and/or cell malignant transformation.Thus,we investigated the pathways involved in the induction of proliferation,deformation and proliferative focus formation by retinol in cultured Sertoli cells of rats.Methods:Sertoli cells were isolated from immature rats and cultured.The cells were subjected to a 24-h treatment with different concentrations of retinol.Parameters of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity were analyzed.The effects of the p38 inhibitor SB203580(10 μmol/L),the JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μmol/L),the Akt inhibitor LY294002 (10 μmol/L),the ERK inhibitor U0126 (10 μmol/L)the pan-PKC inhibitor G(O)6983 (10 μmol/L)and the PKA inhibitor H89 (1 μmol/L)on morphological and proliferative/transformationassociated modifications were studied.Results:Retinol (7 and 14 μmol/L)significantly increases the reactive species production in Sertoli cells,inhibition of p38,JNK,ERK1/2,Akt,and PKA suppressed retinol-induced[3H]dT incorporation into the cells,while PKC inhibition had no effect.ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition also blocked retinol-induced proliferative focus formation in the cells,while Akt and JNK inhibition partially decreased focus formation.ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition hindered transformation-associated deformation in retinol-treated cells,while other treatments had no effect.Conclusion:Our results suggest that activation of multiple kinases is responsible for morphological and proliferative changes associated to malignancy development in Sertoli cells by retinol at the concentrations higher than physiological level.

  12. Experimental Diabetes Alters the Morphology and Nano-Structure of the Achilles Tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Medina de Mattos, Rômulo; Magalhães Rebelo, Luciana; Guimarães Meireles Ferreira, Fernanda; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Eurico Nasciutti, Luiz; de Castro Brito, Gerly Anne

    2017-01-01

    Although of several studies that associate chronic hyperglycemia with tendinopathy, the connection between morphometric changes as witnessed by magnetic resonance (MR) images, nanostructural changes, and inflammatory markers have not yet been fully established. Therefore, the present study has as a hypothesis that the Achilles tendons of rats with diabetes mellitus (DM) exhibit structural changes. The animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups: Control Group (n = 06) injected with a vehicle (sodium citrate buffer solution) and Diabetic Group (n = 06) consisting of rats submitted to intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. MR was performed 24 days after the induction of diabetes and images were used for morphometry using ImageJ software. Morphology of the collagen fibers within tendons was examined using Atomic Force microscopy (AFM). An increase in the dimension of the coronal plane area was observed in the diabetic group (8.583 ± 0.646 mm2/100g) when compared to the control group (4.823 ± 0.267 mm2/100g) resulting in a significant difference (p = 0.003) upon evaluating the Achilles tendons. Similarly, our analysis found an increase in the size of the transverse section area in the diabetic group (1.328 ± 0.103 mm2/100g) in comparison to the control group (0.940 ± 0.01 mm2/100g) p = 0.021. The tendons of the diabetic group showed great irregularity in fiber bundles, including modified grain direction and jagged junctions and deformities in the form of collagen fibrils bulges. Despite the morphological changes observed in the Achilles tendon of diabetic animals, IL1 and TNF-α did not change. Our results suggest that DM promotes changes to the Achilles tendon with important structural modifications as seen by MR and AFM, excluding major inflammatory changes. PMID:28095484

  13. Sublethal concentrations of carbapenems alter cell morphology and genomic expression of Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laar, Tricia A; Chen, Tsute; You, Tao; Leung, Kai P

    2015-03-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is normally associated with pneumonia in patients with weakened immune systems. However, it is also a prevalent nosocomial infectious agent that can be found in infected surgical sites and combat wounds. Many of these clinical strains display multidrug resistance. We have worked with a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae that was initially isolated from a wound of an injured soldier. This strain demonstrated resistance to many commonly used antibiotics but sensitivity to carbapenems. This isolate was capable of forming biofilms in vitro, contributing to its increased antibiotic resistance and impaired clearance. We were interested in determining how sublethal concentrations of carbapenem treatment specifically affect K. pneumoniae biofilms both in morphology and in genomic expression. Scanning electron microscopy showed striking morphological differences between untreated and treated biofilms, including rounding, blebbing, and dimpling of treated cells. Comparative transcriptome analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology identified a large number of open reading frames (ORFs) differentially regulated in response to carbapenem treatment at 2 and 24 h. ORFs upregulated with carbapenem treatment included genes involved in resistance, as well as those coding for antiporters and autoinducers. ORFs downregulated included those coding for metal transporters, membrane biosynthesis proteins, and motility proteins. Quantitative real-time PCR validated the general trend of some of these differentially regulated ORFs. Treatment of K. pneumoniae biofilms with sublethal concentrations of carbapenems induced a wide range of phenotypic and gene expression changes. This study reveals some of the mechanisms underlying how sublethal amounts of carbapenems could affect the overall fitness and pathogenic potential of K. pneumoniae biofilm cells.

  14. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Takashige, E-mail: tkawakami@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp; Yoshimi, Masaki; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to excessive ER stress induced preterm birth and IUGR. • Prolonged excessive ER stress altered the formation of the placental labyrinth. • ER stress decreased GLUT1 mRNA expression in the placenta, but increased GLUT3. • ER stress-induced IUGR causes decreased glycogen and altered glucose transport.

  15. Human cytomegalovirus alters localization of MHC class II and dendrite morphology in mature Langerhans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew W; Hertel, Laura; Louie, Ryan K; Burster, Timo; Lacaille, Vashti; Pashine, Achal; Abate, Davide A; Mocarski, Edward S; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2006-09-15

    Hemopoietic stem cell-derived mature Langerhans-type dendritic cells (LC) are susceptible to productive infection by human CMV (HCMV). To investigate the impact of infection on this cell type, we examined HLA-DR biosynthesis and trafficking in mature LC cultures exposed to HCMV. We found decreased surface HLA-DR levels in viral Ag-positive as well as in Ag-negative mature LC. Inhibition of HLA-DR was independent of expression of unique short US2-US11 region gene products by HCMV. Indeed, exposure to UV-inactivated virus, but not to conditioned medium from infected cells, was sufficient to reduce HLA-DR on mature LC, implicating particle binding/penetration in this effect. Reduced surface levels reflected an altered distribution of HLA-DR because total cellular HLA-DR was not diminished. Accumulation of HLA-DR was not explained by altered cathepsin S activity. Mature, peptide-loaded HLA-DR molecules were retained within cells, as assessed by the proportion of SDS-stable HLA-DR dimers. A block in egress was implicated, as endocytosis of surface HLA-DR was not increased. Immunofluorescence microscopy corroborated the intracellular retention of HLA-DR and revealed markedly fewer HLA-DR-positive dendritic projections in infected mature LC. Unexpectedly, light microscopic analyses showed a dramatic loss of the dendrites themselves and immunofluorescence revealed that cytoskeletal elements crucial for the formation and maintenance of dendrites are disrupted in viral Ag-positive cells. Consistent with these dendrite effects, HCMV-infected mature LC exhibit markedly reduced chemotaxis in response to lymphoid chemokines. Thus, HCMV impedes MHC class II molecule trafficking, dendritic projections, and migration of mature LC. These changes likely contribute to the reduced activation of CD4+ T cells by HCMV-infected mature LC.

  16. Low-Intensity physical activity beneficially alters the ultrastructural renal morphology of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Beatriz Garcia-Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Kidney disorders can cause essential hypertension, which can subsequently cause renal disease. High blood pressure is also common among those with chronic kidney disease; moreover, it is a well-known risk factor for a more rapid progression to kidney failure. Because hypertension and kidney function are closely linked, the present study aimed to observe the beneficial effects of low-intensity physical activity on structural and ultrastructural renal morphology and blood pressure in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHOD: Male Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly allocated into four groups: sedentary or exercised Wistar-Kyoto and sedentary or exercised spontaneously hypertensive rats. The exercise lasted 20 weeks and consisted of treadmill training for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week. RESULTS: The exercised, spontaneously hypertensive rats showed a significant blood pressure reduction of 26%. The body masses of the Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive strains were significantly different. There were improvements in some of the renal structures of the animals treated with physical activity: (i the interdigitations of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules; (ii the basal membrane of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules; and (iii in the basal membrane, slit diaphragm and pedicels of the glomerular filtration barrier. The spontaneously hypertensive rats also showed a decreased expression of connexin-43. CONCLUSION: Physical exercise could be a therapeutic tool for improving kidney ultrastructure and, consequently, renal function in hypertensive individuals.

  17. Suppression of gliadins results in altered protein body morphology in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Shewry, Peter R; Tosi, Paola; Barro, Francisco

    2011-08-01

    Wheat gluten proteins, gliadins and glutenins, are of great importance in determining the unique biomechanical properties of wheat. Studies have therefore been carried out to determine their pathways and mechanisms of synthesis, folding, and deposition in protein bodies. In the present work, a set of transgenic wheat lines has been studied with strongly suppressed levels of γ-gliadins and/or all groups of gliadins, using light and fluorescence microscopy combined with immunodetection using specific antibodies for γ-gliadins and HMW glutenin subunits. These lines represent a unique material to study the formation and fusion of protein bodies in developing seeds of wheat. Higher amounts of HMW subunits were present in most of the transgenic lines but only the lines with suppression of all gliadins showed differences in the formation and fusion of the protein bodies. Large rounded protein bodies were found in the wild-type lines and the transgenic lines with reduced levels of γ-gliadins, while the lines with all gliadins down-regulated had protein bodies of irregular shape and irregular formation. The size and number of inclusions, which have been reported to contain triticins, were also higher in the protein bodies in the lines with all the gliadins down-regulated. Changes in the protein composition and PB morphology reported in the transgenic lines with all gliadins down-regulated did not result in marked changes in the total protein content or instability of the different fractions.

  18. Metabolic engineering of the morphology of Aspergillus oryzae by altering chitin synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, C.; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Hansen, Kim;

    2002-01-01

    Morphology and alpha-amylase production during submerged cultivation were examined in a wild-type strain (A1560) and in strains of Aspergillus oryzae in which chitin synthase B (chsB) and chitin synthesis myosin A (csmA) have been disrupted (ChsB/G and CM101). In a flowthrough cell, the growth...... than that in the wild type., whereas that in the ChsB/G strain was 188% higher. During batch cultivation, inseparable clumps were formed in the wild-type strain., while no or fewer large inseparable clumps existed in the cultivations of the ChsB/G and CM101 strains. The alpha-amylase productivity...... an important role for chsB in branching. However, the pattern of branching responded very slowly to the change in transcription, and increased branching did not affect alpha-amylase productivity. alpha-Amylase residing in the cell wall was stained by immunofluorescence, and the relationship between tip number...

  19. Heteroresistance to Itraconazole Alters the Morphology and Increases the Virulence of Cryptococcus gattii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriella Freitas; Santos, Julliana Ribeiro Alves; Costa, Marliete Carvalho da; Holanda, Rodrigo Assunção de; Denadai, Ângelo Márcio Leite; Freitas, Gustavo José Cota de; Santos, Áquila Rodrigues Costa; Tavares, Priscila Batista; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Daniel Assis

    2015-08-01

    Cryptococcus gattii is the main etiological agent of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent individuals. The triazole drug itraconazole is one of the antifungals used to treat patients with cryptococcosis. Heteroresistance is an adaptive mechanism to counteract the stress of increasing drug concentrations, and it can enhance the ability of a microorganism to survive under antifungal pressure. In this study, we evaluated the ability of 11 C. gattii strains to develop itraconazole heteroresistance. Heteroresistant clones were analyzed for drug susceptibility, alterations in cell diameter, capsule properties, and virulence in a murine model. Heteroresistance to itraconazole was intrinsic in all of the strains analyzed, reduced both the capsule size and the cell diameter, induced molecular heterogeneity at the chromosomal level, changed the negatively charged cells, reduced ergosterol content, and improved the antioxidant system. A positive correlation between surface/volume ratio of original cells and the level of heteroresistance to itraconazole (LHI) was observed in addition to a negative correlation between capsule size of heteroresistant clones and LHI. Moreover, heteroresistance to itraconazole increased the engulfment of C. gattii by macrophages and augmented fungal proliferation inside these cells, which probably accounted for the reduced survival of the mice infected with the heteroresistant clones and the higher fungal burden in lungs and brain. Our results indicate that heteroresistance to itraconazole is intrinsic and increases the virulence of C. gattii. This phenomenon may represent an additional mechanism that contributes to relapses of cryptococcosis in patients during itraconazole therapy.

  20. Depolarization of the tegument precedes morphological alterations in Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces incubated with ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Serrano, J; Grosman, C; Urrea-París, M A; Denegri, G; Casado, N; Rodríguez-Caabeiro, F

    2001-10-01

    The nematocidal activity of ivermectin (IVM) largely arises from its activity as a potent agonist of muscular and neuronal glutamate-gated chloride channels. A cestocidal effect has also been suggested following in vitro treatments, but the molecular basis of this activity is not clear. We studied the effect of IVM on the metacestode stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus by assessing the viability, ultrastructure, and tegumental membrane potential as a function of drug concentration and incubation time. Concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 microg/ml of IVM had no effect on any of these three parameters for up to 6 days of treatment. A concentration of 10 microg/ml, however, elicited a sequence of alterations that started with a approximately 20-mV depolarization of the tegumental membrane, and was followed by rostellar disorganization, rigid paralysis and, eventually, loss of viability. It is likely that the IVM-induced depolarization of the tegument acts as the signal that initiates the cascade of degenerative processes that leads to the parasite's death. This would place the tegument as the primary target of action of IVM on cestodes. As an appropriate chemotherapy for the hydatid disease is still lacking, the cestocidal effect of IVM reported here is worth considering.

  1. Is there a correlation between structural alterations and retinal sensitivity in morphological patterns of diabetic macular edema?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek R Kothari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT enables enhanced visualization of retinal layers and delineation of structural alterations in diabetic macular edema (DME. Microperimetry (MP is a new technique that allows fundus-related testing of local retinal sensitivity. Combination of these two techniques would enable a structure-function correlation with insights into pathomechanism of vision loss in DME. To correlate retinal structural derangement with retinal sensitivity alterations in cases with diabetic macular edema, using SDOCT and MP. Prospective study of 34 eyes of 30 patients with DME. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination, fluorescein angiography, microperimetry and SDOCT. Four distinct morphological patterns of DME were identified- diffuse retinal thickening (DRT, cystoid macular edema (CME, schitic retinal thickening (SRT and neourosensory detachment (NSD of fovea. Some retinal loci presented with a mixture of above patterns There was significant difference in retinal thickness between groups (P<0.001. Focal retinal sensitivity measurement revealed relatively preserved retinal sensitivity in areas with DRT (13.8 dB, moderately reduced sensitivity (7.9 dB in areas with CME, and gross retinal sensitivity loss in areas with SRT (1.2 dB and NSD (4.7 dB (P<0.001. Analysis of regional scotoma depth demonstrated similar pattern. Retinal sensitivity showed better correlation to OCT pattern (r=-0.68, P<0.001 than retinal thickness (r=-0.44, P<0.001. Structure-function correlation allows better understanding of the pathophysiology of visual loss in different morphological types of DME. Classification of macular edema into these categories has implications on the prognosis and predictive value of treatment.

  2. Acute physiological stress promotes clustering of synaptic markers and alters spine morphology in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sebastian

    Full Text Available GluA2-containing AMPA receptors and their association with protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ and post-synaptic density-95 (PSD-95 are important for learning, memory and synaptic plasticity processes. Here we investigated these synaptic markers in the context of an acute 1h platform stress, which can disrupt spatial memory retrieval for a short-term memory on the object placement task and long-term memory retrieval on a well-learned radial arm maze task. Acute stress increased serum corticosterone and elevated the expression of synaptic PKMζ while decreasing synaptic GluA2. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we found that this stressor promotes the clustering of GluA2, PKMζ and PSD-95, which is consistent with effects reported from overexpression of PKMζ in cell culture. Because PKMζ overexpression has also been shown to induce spine maturation in culture, we examined how stress impacts synaptic markers within changing spines across various hippocampal subfields. To achieve this, we employed a new technique combining Golgi staining and immmunohistochemistry to perform 3D reconstruction of tertiary dendrites, which can be analyzed for differences in spine types and the colocalization of synaptic markers within these spines. In CA1, stress increased the densities of long-thin and mushroom spines and the colocalization of GluA2/PSD-95 within these spines. Conversely, in CA3, stress decreased the densities of filopodia and stubby spines, with a concomitant reduction in the colocalization of GluA2/PSD-95 within these spines. In the outer molecular layer (OML of the dentate gyrus (DG, stress increased both stubby and long-thin spines, together with greater GluA2/PSD-95 colocalization. These data reflect the rapid effects of stress on inducing morphological changes within specific hippocampal subfields, highlighting a potential mechanism by which stress can modulate memory consolidation and retrieval.

  3. Progressive Resistance Training and Cancer Testis (PROTRACT) - Efficacy of resistance training on muscle function, morphology and inflammatory profile in testicular cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: design of a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Andersen, Jesper L; Adamsen, Lis

    2011-01-01

    of developing considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, and pulmonary toxicity. One neglected side effect is the significant muscular fatigue mentioned by many patients with testicular cancer both during and after treatment. Very limited information exists...... concerning the patho-physiological effects of antineoplastic agents on skeletal muscle. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the effects of BEP-treatment on the skeletal musculature in testicular cancer patients, and to examine whether the expected treatment-induced muscular deterioration can....... Primary outcome: mean fiber area and fiber type composition measured by histochemical analyses, satellite cells and levels of protein and mRNA expression of intracellular mediators of protein turnover. Secondary outcomes: maximum muscle strength and muscle power measured by maximum voluntary contraction...

  4. Morphological alteration, lysosomal membrane fragility and apoptosis of the cells of Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Dutta, Manab Kumar; Acharya, Avanti; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Sajal

    2015-12-01

    Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is a component of laundry detergent. Domestic effluent, drain water and various anthropogenic activities have been identified as major routes of sodium carbonate contamination of the freshwater ecosystem. The freshwater sponge, Eunapius carteri, bears ecological and evolutionary significance and is considered as a bioresource in aquatic ecosystems. The present study involves estimation of morphological damage, lysosomal membrane integrity, activity of phosphatases and apoptosis in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Exposure to washing soda resulted in severe morphological alterations and damages in cells of E. carteri. Fragility and destabilization of lysosomal membranes of E. carteri under the sublethal exposure was indicative to toxin induced physiological stress in sponge. Prolonged exposure to sodium carbonate resulted a reduction in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in the cells of E. carteri. Experimental concentration of 8 mg/l of washing soda for 192 h yielded an increase in the physiological level of cellular apoptosis among the semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, which was suggestive to possible shift in apoptosis mediated immunoprotection. The results were indicative of an undesirable shift in the immune status of sponge. Contamination of the freshwater aquifers by washing soda thus poses an alarming ecotoxicological threat to sponges.

  5. Stomatal malfunctioning under low VPD conditions: induced by alterations in stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy or in the ABA signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; Malcolm Matamoros, Priscila; van Meeteren, Uulke

    2014-12-01

    Exposing plants to low VPD reduces leaf capacity to maintain adequate water status thereafter. To find the impact of VPD on functioning of stomata, stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy, fava bean plants were grown at low (L, 0.23 kPa) or moderate (M, 1.17 kPa) VPDs and some plants that developed their leaves at moderate VPD were then transferred for 4 days to low VPD (M→L). Part of the M→L-plants were sprayed with ABA (abscisic acid) during exposure to L. L-plants showed bigger stomata, larger pore area, thinner leaves and less spongy cells compared with M-plants. Stomatal morphology (except aperture) and leaf anatomy of the M→L-plants were almost similar to the M-plants, while their transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were identical to that of L-plants. The stomatal response to ABA was lost in L-plants, but also after 1-day exposure of M-plants to low VPD. The level of foliar ABA sharply decreased within 1-day exposure to L, while the level of ABA-GE (ABA-glucose ester) was not affected. Spraying ABA during the exposure to L prevented loss of stomatal closing response thereafter. The effect of low VPD was largely depending on exposure time: the stomatal responsiveness to ABA was lost after 1-day exposure to low VPD, while the responsiveness to desiccation was gradually lost during 4-day exposure to low VPD. Leaf anatomical and stomatal morphological alterations due to low VPD were not the main cause of loss of stomatal closure response to closing stimuli.

  6. Preserved sensory-motor function despite large-scale morphological alterations in a series of patients with holocord syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awai, Lea; Curt, Armin

    2015-03-15

    Although the central nervous system has a limited capacity for regeneration after acute brain and spinal cord injuries, it can reveal extensive morphological changes. Occasionally, the formation of an extensive syrinx in the spinal cord can be observed that causes no or only limited signs of functional impairment. This condition creates a unique opportunity to evaluate the mismatch between substantial morphological changes and functional outcomes. We identified seven patients with holocord syringomyelia affecting the cervical cord following chronic traumatic thoracic/lumbar spinal cord injury (19-34 years after injury) or holocord syringomyelia of non-traumatic origin, and anatomical syrinx dimensions (length, cross-sectional area) were determined using sagittal and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans. Motor- and sensory-pathway integrity were evaluated using electrophysiological assessments (i.e., motor, dermatomal sensory, and dermatomal contact-heat [dCHEP] evoked potentials, as well as nerve conduction studies). These were specifically compared to clinical measures of upper-limb strength and grasping performance, including three-dimensional motion analysis. Despite extensive anatomical changes of the cervical cord (on average 26% reduction of residual spinal cord area and intrusion of almost the entire cervical spinal cord), a clinically relevant impairment of upper-limb motor function was absent while only subtle sensory deficits could be detected. dCHEPs revealed the highest sensitivity by disclosing impairments of spinothalamic pathways. Comparable to that of the brain, extensive anatomical changes of the spinal cord can occur with only subtle functional impairment. The time scale of slowly-emerging morphological alterations is essential to permit an enormous capacity for plasticity of the spinal cord.

  7. Prenatal stress alters the behavior and dendritic morphology of the medial orbitofrontal cortex in mouse offspring during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rojas, Cristian; Pascual, Rodrigo; Bustamante, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Several preclinical and clinical studies have shown that prenatal stress alters neuronal dendritic development in the prefrontal cortex, together with behavioral disturbances (anxiety). Nevertheless, neither whether these alterations are present during the lactation period, nor whether such findings may reflect the onset of anxiety disorders observed in childhood and adulthood has been studied. The central aim of the present study was to determine the effects of prenatal stress on the neuronal development and behavior of mice offspring during lactation (postnatal days 14 and 21). We studied 24 CF-1 male mice, grouped as follows: (i) control P14 (n=6), (ii) stressed P14 (n=6), (iii) control P21 (n=6) and (iv) stressed P21 (n=6). On the corresponding days, animals were evaluated with the open field test and sacrificed. Their brains were then stained in Golgi-Cox solution for 30 days. The morphological analysis dealt with the study of 96 pyramidal neurons. The results showed, first, that prenatal stress resulted in a significant (i) decrease in the apical dendritic length of pyramidal neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex at postnatal day 14, (ii) increase in the apical dendritic length of pyramidal neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex at postnatal day 21, and (iii) reduction in exploratory behavior at postnatal day 14 and 21.

  8. High-Content Analysis Provides Mechanistic Insights into the Testicular Toxicity of Bisphenol A and Selected Analogues in Mouse Spermatogonial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shenxuan; Yin, Lei; Shengyang Yu, Kevin; Hofmann, Marie-Claude; Yu, Xiaozhong

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting compound, was found to be a testicular toxicant in animal models. Bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol AF (BPAF), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were recently introduced to the market as alternatives to BPA. However, toxicological data of these compounds in the male reproductive system are still limited so far. This study developed and validated an automated multi-parametric high-content analysis (HCA) using the C18-4 spermatogonial cell line as a model. We applied these validated HCA, including nuclear morphology, DNA content, cell cycle progression, DNA synthesis, cytoskeleton integrity, and DNA damage responses, to characterize and compare the testicular toxicities of BPA and 3 selected commercial available BPA analogues, BPS, BPAF, and TBBPA. HCA revealed BPAF and TBBPA exhibited higher spermatogonial toxicities as compared with BPA and BPS, including dose- and time-dependent alterations in nuclear morphology, cell cycle, DNA damage responses, and perturbation of the cytoskeleton. Our results demonstrated that this specific culture model together with HCA can be utilized for quantitative screening and discriminating of chemical-specific testicular toxicity in spermatogonial cells. It also provides a fast and cost-effective approach for the identification of environmental chemicals that could have detrimental effects on reproduction.

  9. TESTICULAR FEMINISING SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Testicular feminization syndrome is a form of pseudohermaphroditism where phenotypic female has male gonads and is genotypically male. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS, also known as testicular feminization, encompasses a wide range of phenotypes that are caused by numerous different mutations in the androgen receptor gene. AIS is an X-linked recessive disorder that is classified as complete, partial based on the phenotypic presentation. The clinical findings include a female type of external genitalia, 46-XY karyotype, absence of Mullerian structures, presence of Wolffian structures to various degrees, and normal to high testosterone and gonadotropin levels. The syndrome is illustrated by a 24-year-old phenotypic female who presented with a primary amenorrhea, female-type external genitalia, an absent uterus and ovaries, and bilateral testes at the level of the internal inguinal ring. Management includes counseling, gonadectomy to prevent primary malignancy in undescended gonad, and hormone replacement. The karyotyping of family members is advocated because of known familial tendencies.

  10. Potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Mansour, Ahmed M; Abo-Salem, Osama M; Abd-Ellah, Hala F; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2010-02-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant in groundwater aquifers. Current study aimed at evaluating the potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in rats. Sodium nitrate was given orally to rats at doses of 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 60 consecutive days. Sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight were significantly decreased specially at high doses. Testicular activity of lactate dehydrogenase-X, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase were inhibited in a dose-related manner. Lipid peroxides and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly increased in all treated animals. This was accompanied by inhibition of testicular activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Fifty mg/kg of sodium nitrate did not significantly alter catalase or glutathione reductase activity. Glutathione was significantly decreased by sodium nitrate in a dose-related manner. The decrease in sperm count and motility and daily sperm production was confirmed by histopathological studies which indicated chromatolysis, pyknosis and necrosis in spermatocytes. In conclusion, subchronic exposure of rats to sodium nitrate results in testicular toxicity as evidenced by decreased sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight, inhibited activity of enzyme markers of spermatogenesis and induction of histopathological changes. These effects are attributed, at least partly, to testicular oxidative stress.

  11. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis.

  12. Semi-automatic classification of skeletal morphology in genetically altered mice using flat-panel volume computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dullin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid progress in exploring the human and mouse genome has resulted in the generation of a multitude of mouse models to study gene functions in their biological context. However, effective screening methods that allow rapid noninvasive phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice are still lacking. To identify murine models with bone alterations in vivo, we used flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT for high-resolution 3-D imaging and developed an algorithm with a computational intelligence system. First, we tested the accuracy and reliability of this approach by imaging discoidin domain receptor 2- (DDR2- deficient mice, which display distinct skull abnormalities as shown by comparative landmark-based analysis. High-contrast fpVCT data of the skull with 200 microm isotropic resolution and 8-s scan time allowed segmentation and computation of significant shape features as well as visualization of morphological differences. The application of a trained artificial neuronal network to these datasets permitted a semi-automatic and highly accurate phenotype classification of DDR2-deficient compared to C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Even heterozygous DDR2 mice with only subtle phenotypic alterations were correctly determined by fpVCT imaging and identified as a new class. In addition, we successfully applied the algorithm to classify knockout mice lacking the DDR1 gene with no apparent skull deformities. Thus, this new method seems to be a potential tool to identify novel mouse phenotypes with skull changes from transgenic and knockout mice on the basis of random mutagenesis as well as from genetic models. However for this purpose, new neuronal networks have to be created and trained. In summary, the combination of fpVCT images with artificial neuronal networks provides a reliable, novel method for rapid, cost-effective, and noninvasive primary screening tool to detect skeletal phenotypes in mice.

  13. Na+ Influx Induced by New Antimalarials Causes Rapid Alterations in the Cholesterol Content and Morphology of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Das

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the several new antimalarials discovered over the past decade are at least three clinical candidate drugs, each with a distinct chemical structure, that disrupt Na+ homeostasis resulting in a rapid increase in intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i within the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. At present, events triggered by Na+ influx that result in parasite demise are not well-understood. Here we report effects of two such drugs, a pyrazoleamide and a spiroindolone, on intraerythrocytic P. falciparum. Within minutes following the exposure to these drugs, the trophozoite stage parasite, which normally contains little cholesterol, was made permeant by cholesterol-dependent detergents, suggesting it acquired a substantial amount of the lipid. Consistently, the merozoite surface protein 1 and 2 (MSP1 and MSP2, glycosylphosphotidylinositol (GPI-anchored proteins normally uniformly distributed in the parasite plasma membrane, coalesced into clusters. These alterations were not observed following drug treatment of P. falciparum parasites adapted to grow in a low [Na+] growth medium. Both cholesterol acquisition and MSP1 coalescence were reversible upon the removal of the drugs, implicating an active process of cholesterol exclusion from trophozoites that we hypothesize is inhibited by high [Na+]i. Electron microscopy of drug-treated trophozoites revealed substantial morphological changes normally seen at the later schizont stage including the appearance of partial inner membrane complexes, dense organelles that resemble "rhoptries" and apparent nuclear division. Together these results suggest that [Na+]i disruptor drugs by altering levels of cholesterol in the parasite, dysregulate trophozoite to schizont development and cause parasite demise.

  14. Crossed testicular ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Esteves

    Full Text Available Crossed testicular ectopia (CTE is a rare anomaly, characterized by migration of one testis towards the opposite inguinal canal. Presented here is a case of crossed ectopia of the right testis, treated by extraperitoneal transposition of the gonad and right orchiopexy. Embriology and surgical findings suggest that CTE is a common consequence of many unclear ethiologic factors, specially mechanical ones, and can be associated with Muller duct persistence. Review of literature suggests a classification of CTE into 3 types: I - associated with inguinal hernia alone; II - associated with persistent mullerian remnants; III - associated with other anomalies without mullerian remnants. Treatment includes transeptal orchiopexy or extraperitoneal transposition of the testis, research for mullerian remnants and other anomalies, and long term postoperative follow-up, due to the risk of becoming malignant.

  15. Crossed testicular ectopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, E; Pinus, J; Maranhão, R F; Abib, S de C; Pinus, J

    1995-01-01

    Crossed testicular ectopia (CTE) is a rare anomaly, characterized by migration of one testis towards the opposite inguinal canal. Presented here is a case of crossed ectopia of the right testis, treated by extraperitoneal transposition of the gonad and right orchiopexy. Embriology and surgical findings suggest that CTE is a common consequence of many unclear ethiologic factors, specially mechanical ones, and can be associated with Muller duct persistence. Review of literature suggests a classification of CTE into 3 types: I--associated with inguinal hernia alone; II--associated with persistent mullerian remnants; III--associated with other anomalies without mullerian remnants. Treatment includes transeptal orchiopexy or extraperitoneal transposition of the testis, research for mullerian remnants and other anomalies, and long term postoperative follow-up, due to the risk of becoming malignant.

  16. [Treatment of testicular cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droz, Jean-Pierre; Boyle, Helen; Culine, Stéphane; Fizazi, Karim; Fléchon, Aude; Massard, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young men. Since the late 1970s, disseminated GCT have been a paradigm for curable metastatic cancer and metastatic GCTs are highly curable with cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of residual masses. Patients' prognosis is currently assessed using the International Germ-Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) and used to adapt the burden of chemotherapy. Approximately 20% of patients still do not achieve cure after first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and need salvage chemotherapy (high dose or standard dose chemotherapy). Clinical stage I testicular cancer is the most common presentation and different strategies are proposed: adjuvant therapies, surgery or surveillance. During the last three decades, clinical trials and strong international collaborations lead to the development of a consensus in the management of GCTs.

  17. General Information about Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to detect testicular cancer: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Tumor marker ... places in the body, and blood levels of AFP, β-hCG, and LDH). Type of cancer. Size ...

  18. Testicular torsion repair - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The testicles are suspended in the scrotal sac. ... Testicular torsion occurs when the testicle, normally attached to the scrotum by a small ligament at its base, becomes loose. The testicle can then twist on itself, ...

  19. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    in undervirilized patients with 46,XY disorders of sexual development. Testicular histology is also of considerable value in the prediction of both fertility potential and risk of cancer in individuals with undescended testes, particularly those with intraabdominal undescended testes. New possibilities......No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  20. Progressive Resistance Training and Cancer Testis (PROTRACT - Efficacy of resistance training on muscle function, morphology and inflammatory profile in testicular cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackey Abigail L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard treatment for patients with disseminated germ cell tumors is combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP. This treatment is highly effective, but the majority of patients experience severe adverse effects during treatment and are at risk of developing considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, and pulmonary toxicity. One neglected side effect is the significant muscular fatigue mentioned by many patients with testicular cancer both during and after treatment. Very limited information exists concerning the patho-physiological effects of antineoplastic agents on skeletal muscle. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the effects of BEP-treatment on the skeletal musculature in testicular cancer patients, and to examine whether the expected treatment-induced muscular deterioration can be attenuated or even reversed by high intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT. Design/Methods The PROTRACT study is a randomized controlled trial in 30 testicular cancer patients undergoing three cycles of BEP chemotherapy. Participants will be randomized to either a 9-week HIPRT program (STR initiated at the onset of treatment, or to standard care (UNT. 15 healthy matched control subjects (CON will complete the same HIPRT program. All participants will take part in 3 assessment rounds (baseline, 9 wks, 21 wks including muscle biopsies, maximum muscle strength tests, whole body DXA scan and blood samples. Primary outcome: mean fiber area and fiber type composition measured by histochemical analyses, satellite cells and levels of protein and mRNA expression of intracellular mediators of protein turnover. Secondary outcomes: maximum muscle strength and muscle power measured by maximum voluntary contraction and leg-extensor-power tests, body composition assessed by DXA scan, and systemic inflammation analyzed by circulating inflammatory markers

  1. What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  2. Pseudouridine synthase 1 deficient mice, a model for Mitochondrial Myopathy with Sideroblastic Anemia, exhibit muscle morphology and physiology alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Joshua E.; Hardee, Justin P.; Fix, Dennis K.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Elkes, Johnathon; Altomare, Diego; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Campagna, Dean R.; Schmidt, Paul J.; Sendamarai, Anoop K.; Lidov, Hart G. W.; Barlow, Shayne C.; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Fleming, Mark D.; Carson, James A.; Patton, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is an oxidative phosphorylation disorder, with primary clinical manifestations of myopathic exercise intolerance and a macrocytic sideroblastic anemia. One cause of MLASA is recessive mutations in PUS1, which encodes pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase 1 (Pus1p). Here we describe a mouse model of MLASA due to mutations in PUS1. As expected, certain Ψ modifications were missing in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs from Pus1−/− animals. Pus1−/− mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequency and were non-dysmorphic. At 14 weeks the mutants displayed reduced exercise capacity. Examination of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle morphology and histochemistry demonstrated an increase in the cross sectional area and proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIB and low succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) expressing myofibers, without a change in the size of MHC IIA positive or high SDH myofibers. Cytochrome c oxidase activity was significantly reduced in extracts from red gastrocnemius muscle from Pus1−/− mice. Transmission electron microscopy on red gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated that Pus1−/− mice also had lower intermyofibrillar mitochondrial density and smaller mitochondria. Collectively, these results suggest that alterations in muscle metabolism related to mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity may account for the reduced exercise capacity in Pus1−/− mice. PMID:27197761

  3. Elevated Carbon Dioxide Altered Morphological and Anatomical Characteristics, Ascorbic Acid Accumulation, and Related Gene Expression during Taproot Development in Carrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Sun, Sheng; Xing, Guo-Ming; Wang, Guang-Long; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Hou, Xi-Lin; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has increased significantly in recent decades and is projected to rise in the future. The effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on morphological and anatomical characteristics, and nutrient accumulation have been determined in several plant species. Carrot is an important vegetable and the effects of elevated CO2 on carrots remain unclear. To investigate the effects of elevated CO2 on the growth of carrots, two carrot cultivars (‘Kurodagosun’ and ‘Deep purple’) were treated with ambient CO2 (a[CO2], 400 μmol⋅mol-1) and elevated CO2 (e[CO2], 3000 μmol⋅mol-1) concentrations. Under e[CO2] conditions, taproot and shoot fresh weights and the root/shoot ratio of carrot significantly decreased as compared with the control group. Elevated CO2 resulted in obvious changes in anatomy and ascorbic acid accumulation in carrot roots. Moreover, the transcript profiles of 12 genes related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling were altered in response to e[CO2]. The ‘Kurodagosun’ and ‘Deep purple’ carrots differed in sensitivity to e[CO2]. The inhibited carrot taproot and shoot growth treated with e[CO2] could partly lead to changes in xylem development. This study provided novel insights into the effects of e[CO2] on the growth and development of carrots. PMID:28119712

  4. Altered mitochondrial morphology and defective protein import reveal novel roles for Bax and/or Bak in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Iqbal, Sobia; O'Leary, Michael F N; Menzies, Keir J; Saleem, Ayesha; Ding, Shuzhe; Hood, David A

    2013-09-01

    The function Bax and/or Bak in constituting a gateway for mitochondrial apoptosis in response to apoptotic stimuli has been unequivocally demonstrated. However, recent work has suggested that Bax/Bak may have unrecognized nonapoptotic functions related to mitochondrial function in nonstressful environments. Wild-type (WT) and Bax/Bak double knockout (DKO) mice were used to determine alternative roles for Bax and Bak in mitochondrial morphology and protein import in skeletal muscle. The absence of Bax and/or Bak altered mitochondrial dynamics by regulating protein components of the organelle fission and fusion machinery. Moreover, DKO mice exhibited defective mitochondrial protein import, both into the matrix and outer membrane compartments, which was consistent with our observations of impaired membrane potential and attenuated expression of protein import machinery (PIM) components in intermyofibrillar mitochondria. Furthermore, the cytosolic chaperones heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) were markedly increased with the deletion of Bax/Bak, indicating that the cytosolic environment related to protein folding may be changed in DKO mice. Interestingly, endurance training fully restored the deficiency of protein import in DKO mice, likely via the upregulation of PIM components and through improved cytosolic chaperone protein expression. Thus our results emphasize novel roles for Bax and/or Bak in mitochondrial function and provide evidence, for the first time, of a curative function of exercise training in ameliorating a condition of defective mitochondrial protein import.

  5. Naringenin ameliorates kainic acid-induced morphological alterations in the dentate gyrus in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungha; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Shin, Won-Ho; Bae, Young-Seuk; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2016-10-19

    Granule cell dispersion (GCD) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is a morphological alteration characteristic of temporal lobe epilepsy. Recently, we reported that treatment with naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and citrus fruits, reduced spontaneous recurrent seizures by inhibiting kainic acid (KA)-induced GCD and neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampus, suggesting that naringin might have beneficial effects for preventing epileptic events in the adult brain. However, it is still unclear whether the beneficial effects of naringin treatment are mediated by the metabolism of naringin into naringenin in the KA-treated hippocampus. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated whether intraperitoneal injections of naringenin could mimic naringin-induced effects against GCD caused by intrahippocampal KA injections in mice. Our results showed that treatment with naringenin delayed the onset of KA-induced seizures and attenuated KA-induced GCD by inhibiting activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in both neurons and reactive astrocytes in the DG. In addition, its administration attenuated the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from microglial activation in the DG following KA treatment. These results suggest that naringenin may be an active metabolite of naringin and help prevent the progression of epileptic insults in the hippocampus in vivo; therefore, naringenin may be a beneficial metabolite of naringin for the treatment of epilepsy.

  6. Androgen action via testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells is important for Leydig cell function, vasomotion and testicular fluid dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Welsh

    Full Text Available Regulation of blood flow through the testicular microvasculature by vasomotion is thought to be important for normal testis function as it regulates interstitial fluid (IF dynamics which is an important intra-testicular transport medium. Androgens control vasomotion, but how they exert these effects remains unclear. One possibility is by signalling via androgen receptors (AR expressed in testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells. To investigate this and determine the overall importance of this mechanism in testis function, we generated a blood vessel smooth muscle cell-specific AR knockout mouse (SMARKO. Gross reproductive development was normal in SMARKO mice but testis weight was reduced in adulthood compared to control littermates; this reduction was not due to any changes in germ cell volume or to deficits in testosterone, LH or FSH concentrations and did not cause infertility. However, seminiferous tubule lumen volume was reduced in adult SMARKO males while interstitial volume was increased, perhaps indicating altered fluid dynamics; this was associated with compensated Leydig cell failure. Vasomotion was impaired in adult SMARKO males, though overall testis blood flow was normal and there was an increase in the overall blood vessel volume per testis in adult SMARKOs. In conclusion, these results indicate that ablating arteriole smooth muscle AR does not grossly alter spermatogenesis or affect male fertility but does subtly impair Leydig cell function and testicular fluid exchange, possibly by locally regulating microvascular blood flow within the testis.

  7. Desenvolvimento testicular, espermatogênese e concentrações hormonais em touros Angus Testicular development, spermatogenesis and hormonal concentrations in Angus bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyselle Viana Aguiar

    2006-08-01

    and in seminiferous epithelium of Angus bulls between 10 and 38 weeks of age. Samples of testicular parenchyma and blood were collected from 25 animals castrated in 4 week intervals. Traits associated to testicular development and quantitative aspects of spermatogenesis and hormonal concentrations were transformed by logarithm before analyses of variance. Changes in testis and seminiferous tubule diameter and testis weight were more pronounced after 26 weeks of age. The percentage of testicular parenchyma occupied by seminiferous tubules increased from 49.3 to 75.2% from 10 to 38 weeks. Most tubules (>90% had only Sertoli cells at 10 and 14 weeks, but the number of tubules with gonocytes and A spermatogonia increased at 18 (13.8±1.7% and 22 weeks (19±1%. Tubules with B and intermediate spermatogonia became predominant at 26 weeks (24.5±8.2% and those with spermatocytes as the most advanced germ cell type were more evident at 30 weeks (42.3±9.9%. Round spermatids were detected at 26 weeks and at 38 weeks of age, 62.3±1.5% of all tubules had either elongate or mature spermatids. Variations in testis growth (specially testis weight after 26 weeks were coincident with the establishment of meiosis in the seminiferous tubules, morphological alterations in nucleus and nucleolus of the Sertoli cells (indicators of Sertoli cell differentiation, lower levels of androstenedione and significant increases in testosterone and estradiol 17beta. Associations between testis development and concentrations of FSH and LH were less evident.

  8. Polyorchidism with presumed contralateral intrauterine testicular torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Leodoro

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: We describe a unique case of a 2-year-old boy with right-sided polyorchidism and an absent left testis associated with a blind ending vas deferens and testicular vessels, presumed secondary to intrauterine testicular torsion.

  9. Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Testicular Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Altered morphology of hippocampal dentate granule cell presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals following conditional deletion of TrkB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Steve C; Kotloski, Robert J; Walter, Cynthia; Hughes, Maya; McNamara, James O

    2008-01-01

    Dentate granule cells play a critical role in the function of the entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry in health and disease. Dentate granule cells are situated to regulate the flow of information into the hippocampus, a structure required for normal learning and memory. Correspondingly, impaired granule cell function leads to memory deficits, and, interestingly, altered granule cell connectivity may contribute to the hyperexcitability of limbic epilepsy. It is important, therefore, to understand the molecular determinants of synaptic connectivity of these neurons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor TrkB are expressed at high levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and are implicated in regulating neuronal development, neuronal plasticity, learning, and the development of epilepsy. Whether and how TrkB regulates granule cell structure, however, is incompletely understood. To begin to elucidate the role of TrkB in regulating granule cell morphology, here we examine conditional TrkB knockout mice crossed to mice expressing green fluorescent protein in subsets of dentate granule cells. In stratum lucidum, where granule cell mossy fiber axons project, the density of giant mossy fiber boutons was unchanged, suggesting similar output to CA3 pyramidal cell targets. However, filopodial extensions of giant boutons, which contact inhibitory interneurons, were increased in number in TrkB knockout mice relative to wildtype controls, predicting enhanced feedforward inhibition of CA3 pyramidal cells. In knockout animals, dentate granule cells possessed fewer primary dendrites and enlarged dendritic spines, indicative of disrupted excitatory synaptic input to the granule cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that TrkB is required for development and/or maintenance of normal synaptic connectivity of the granule cells, thereby implying an important role for TrkB in the function of the granule cells and hippocampal circuitry.

  11. Cryptorchidism and testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batata, M A; Whitmore, W F; Chu, F C; Hilaris, B S; Loh, J; Grabstald, H; Golbey, R

    1980-09-01

    An analysis of 125 patients with a history or clinical evidence of cryptorchidism and testicular germinal tumor treated at our hospital from 1934 to 1975 is presented. Cryptorchidism was corrected ipsilaterally or contralaterally in 83 patients with intrascrotal testis cancer when they were from 4 to 42 years old, either spontaneously (21 patients), by orchiopexy (51 patients) or by hormonal therapy (11 patients). Forty-two cryptorchid patients (uncorrected cases) presented with either ipsilateral inguinal (24 patients), abdominal (14 patients) or contralateral intrascrotal tumors (4 patients). Tumor histologic types on orchiectomy were pure seminoma in 54 patients, embryonal carcinoma in 35, teratocarcinoma in 33 and pure choriocarcinoma in 3. The 5-year survival rates were 60 per cent for the corrected cases and 63 per cent for the uncorrected cases according to cryptorchid state, and they were 78 per cent in patients with pure seminoma and 48 per cent in patients with other germinomas according to histologic type. The majority (58 of 73) of 5-year survivors received regional lymphatic irradiation, in 39 patients with pure seminoma, and/or systemic chemotherapy, in 19 patients with germinal carcinomas, with or without regional lymphadenectomy.

  12. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled...

  13. Primary Testicular B-cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Buğra Şentürk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary testicular lymphoma constitutes only 1-7% of all testicular neoplasms and less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with a painful right testicular mass. Treatment modalities consist of surgical excision, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, however there are no standardized treatment options.

  14. Polygenic susceptibility to testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litchfield, Kevin; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Shipley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) combined with its strong heritable basis suggests that stratified screening for the early detection of TGCT may be clinically useful. We modelled the efficiency of such a personalised screening approach, based on genetic...... known TGCT susceptibility variants. The diagnostic performance of testicular biopsy and non-invasive semen analysis was also assessed, within a simulated combined screening programme. RESULTS: The area under the curve for the TGCT PRS model was 0.72 with individuals in the top 1% of the PRS having...

  15. Blood parameter analysis and morphological alterations as biomarkers on the health of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Romão

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the influence of the environment on fish health. Samples of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis, were collected from three different environments: area I was urban and areas II and III were rural. Analyses of red blood cell count, microhematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count and differential white cell count in blood smear were carried out. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated. To analyze morphological alterations, gills, liver, kidney and gonads were submitted to routine histological processing. Individuals collected from area III had slightly lower blood indices than collected from area I . Severe kidney changes, degeneration of and crystallization within kidney tubules were observed. In area I, crystallization was observed in 92% of the specimens of G. brasiliensis. These results suggested that such alterations were related with poor water circulation in the place.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do ambiente sobre a higidez dos peixes. Animais, das espécies Hoplias malabaricus e Geophagus brasiliensis foram coletados em três ambientes distintos, sendo ambiente I região urbana e ambientes II e III em região rural. Foram realizadas análises do número total de eritrócitos por microlitro de sangue, microhematócrito, taxa de hemoglobina, porcentagem de leucócito e contagem diferencial de leucócitos em extensão sanguínea. Calcularam-se os índices hematimétricos absolutos: volume corpuscular médio e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média. Para análises das alterações morfológicas, brânquias, fígado, gônadas e rim seguiram processamento histológico de rotina. Foram observados índices hematológicos ligeiramente menores em indivíduos coletados no ambiente III em relação aos animais coletados no ambiente I. As análises histológicas de brânquias, fígado e gônadas das espécies G

  16. Histological evidence of testicular dysgenesis in contralateral biopsies from 218 patients with testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    This study was prompted by a hypothesis that testicular germ cell cancer may be aetiologically linked to other male reproductive abnormalities as a part of the so-called 'testicular dysgenesis syndrome' (TDS). To corroborate the hypothesis of a common association of germ cell cancer with testicular...... dysgenesis, microscopic dysgenetic features were quantified in contralateral testicular biopsies in patients with a testicular germ cell tumour. Two hundred and eighty consecutive contralateral testicular biopsies from Danish patients with testicular cancer diagnosed in 1998-2001 were evaluated...... presenting with testicular germ cell neoplasms of the adolescent and young type. The findings therefore support the hypothesis that this cancer is part of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome. The presence of contralateral carcinoma in situ was higher in the present study than previously reported....

  17. Testicular biopsy: clinical practice and interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gert R Dohle; Saad Elzanaty; Niels J van Casteren

    2012-01-01

    Testicular biopsy was considered the cornerstone of male infertility diagnosis for many years in men with unexplained infertility and azoospermia.Recent guidelines for male infertility have limited the indications for a diagnostic testicular biopsy to the confirmation ofobstructive azoospermia in men with normal size testes and normal reproductive hormones.Nowadays,testicular biopsies are mainly performed for sperm harvesting in men with non-obstructive azoospermia,to be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.Testicular biopsy is also performed in men with risk factors for testicular malignancy.In a subgroup of infertile men,there is an increased risk for carcinoma in situ of the testis,especially in men with a history of cryptorchidism and testicular malignancy and in men with testicular atrophy.Ultrasonographic abnormalities,such as testicular microlithiasis,inhomogeneous parenchyma and lesions of the testes,further increase the risk of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in these men.For an accurate histological classification,proper tissue handling,fixation,preparation of the specimen and evaluation are needed.A standardized approach to testicular biopsy is recommended.In addition,approaches to the detection of CIS of the testis testicular immunohistochemistry are mandatory.In this mini-review,we describe the current indications for testicular biopsies in the diagnosis and management of male infertility.

  18. Surviving testicular cancer : relationship aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, Marrit Annika

    2008-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in young men and a highly curable disease. However, the illness and treatment can negatively affect physical, psychological and social functioning of patients. The same is true for their family, especially their spouses. Being in an intimate relationsh

  19. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Alterations in male rats following in utero exposure to betamethasone suggests changes in reproductive programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Cibele S; Dias, Ana Flávia M G; Rosa, Josiane Lima; Silva, Patricia V; Silva, Raquel F; Barros, Aline L; Sanabria, Marciana; Guerra, Marina T; Gregory, Mary; Cyr, Daniel G; De G Kempinas, Wilma

    2016-08-01

    Antenatal betamethasone is used for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth. Altered sperm parameters were reported in adult rats after intrauterine exposure to betamethasone. In this study, male rat offspring were assessed for reproductive development after dam exposure to betamethasone (0.1mg/kg) or vehicle on Days 12, 13, 18 and 19 of pregnancy. The treatment resulted in reduction in the offspring body weight, delay in preputial separation, decreased seminal vesicle weight, testosterone levels and fertility, and increased testicular weight. In the testis, morphologically abnormal seminiferous tubules were observed, characterized by an irregular cell distribution with Sertoli cell that were displaced towards the tubular lumen. These cells expressed both Connexin 43 (Cx43) and Proliferative Nuclear Cell Antigen (PCNA). In conclusion, intrauterine betamethasone treatment appears to promote reproductive programming and impairment of rat sexual development and fertility due to, at least in part, unusual testicular disorders.

  1. Effect of testicular capsulotomy on fertility of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Nian QIN; Mary A. Lung

    2001-01-01

    To demonstrate the effect of capsulotomy on the fertility of male rats. Methods: Testicular capsulotomy was carried out in immature (21 days) and adult (60 days) male rats. The fertility of them was assessed by cohabitation with proestrus females overnight and 20 days later, the females were examined for impregnation. Morphological changes at the site of the capsulotomy were observed under light microscope. Results: In rats capsulotomized at Day 60, the fertility was gradually depressed and all the rats completely lost their fertility 2 months post - operation. At that time, a partial regeneration of the capsule at the site of capsulotomy was observed. Immature rats capsulotomized at Day 21 were found to possess normal fertility at maturity. The capsulotomy site was almost completely recovered 60days post-operation. Conclusion: In male rats, testicular capsulotomy at the age of Day 60 will damage fertility.However, when capsulotomy is performed at Day 21, fertility is preserve.

  2. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  3. Morphological alterations in the synganglion and integument of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks exposed to aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2014-12-01

    Currently, the necessity of controlling infestation by ticks, especially by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has led researchers and public health managers around the world to search for new and more efficient control methods. This way, we can highlight neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf, bark, and seed extracts, which have been very effective on tick control, and moreover causing less damage to the environment and to the host. This study showed the potential of neem as a control method for R. sanguineus through morphological and morphometric evaluation of the integument and synganglion of females, in semiengorged stage. To attain this, routine techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and morphometry of the cuticle and subcuticle of the integument were applied. Expressive morphological alterations were observed in both organs, presenting a dose-dependent effect. Integument epithelial cells and nerve cells of the synganglion showed signs of cell vacuolation, dilated intercellular boundaries, and cellular disorganization, alterations not previously reported in studies with neem. In addition, variations in subcuticle thickness were also observed. In general, the effects of neem are multiple, and affect the morphology and physiology of target animals in various ways. The results presented in this work are the first evidence of its effects in the coating and nervous system of ticks, thus allowing an indication of neem aqueous extracts as a potential control method of the brown dog tick and opening new perspectives on acaricide use.

  4. Testicular development and reproductivity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, Wang; Masahiro, Murakami; Kiyomi, Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie, Nojima; Yi, Shang; Kaoru, Tanaka; Kazuko, Fujita [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba (Japan); Coffigny, H. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 92 (France)

    2006-07-01

    Effects on gonads in prenatal male fetuses, and on the postnatal testicular development and reproductivity of male offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to either accelerated carbon-ion beans with a Let value of about 13 keV/L]m or neon-ion beams with a Let value of about 30 keV/I Im at a dose range from 0.1 Gy to 2.0 Gy on gestation day 15. Induction of apoptosis in fetal gonocytes was evaluated pathologically in male gonads. Mean number of pups, pre-weaning mortality, and the age for testis descent in offspring were examined. Testis weight and the ratio of it to body weight were measured on postnatal days 30, 60 and 90, respectively. Development of testicular tubules was analyzed histologically. In addition, in the male offspring, the successful mating rates with non-irradiated female rats, the mean number of pups descended, and, the weaning rates of the pups were investigated. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp estimated for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For heavy ions, a dose of 2.0 Gy caused 100% pre-weaning mortality. For some endpoints, such as pre-weaning mortality, testis weight, and ratio of testis weight to body weight, significant alteration was observed in offspring prenatally received only 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions; while for the most endpoints regarding the effects from carbon ions or X rays, a significant alteration could be observed only when a dose was at 0.5 Gy or more. In this dose range, apoptosis in gonocytes of fetal gonads was significantly induced in a dose-dependent manner with a peak at around 12 to 18 hr after irradiation; in the prenatally irradiated pups, statistical significances for increased prenatal death, delayed accomplishment in testis descent, low testis weight, changed ratios of testis weight to body weight, and increased malformed testicular tubules were recorded. When the dose was at 1.0 Gy or 1.5 Gy, marked decrease in successful mating rates was also observed

  5. Efficacy of hCG and hMG on testicular morphology and function in male patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency%促性腺激素治疗对多种垂体激素缺乏症男性患者睾丸形态和功能影响的时效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐琳; 李桂梅; 王倩

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究人绒毛膜促性腺激素(hCG)和人绝经期促性腺激素(hMG)起始治疗年龄对多种垂体激素缺乏症男性患者的睾丸形态和功能改善情况的影响。方法以多种垂体激素缺乏症男性患者为研究对象,给予hCG和hMG治疗,同时维持其他激素正常,观察睾丸、阴茎形态,促性激素水平,身高,骨龄等变化值与开始治疗年龄的相关性。结果入组的54例患者经hCG和hMG治疗6个月后,阴茎长度由治疗前的(2.58±0.69)cm增长至(4.19±0.77)cm,阴茎周长由治疗前的(3.71±1.36)cm增长至(5.95±1.26)cm,睾丸容积从治疗前的(1.76±1.49)ml增加至(5.20±2.30)ml,身高从治疗前的(147.01±12.29)cm增加至(151.98±11.52)cm,骨龄从治疗前的(11.22±2.71)岁增长至(11.64±2.72)岁,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01)。睾丸容积及睾酮水平在治疗前、后的增长值随年龄增长均呈降低趋势,在各年龄组间的差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。用药前后睾丸容积增长值、血清促卵泡激素(FSH)和黄体生成素(LH)水平增加值以及用药前后身高增长值均与开始治疗年龄呈负相关(r=-0.517~-0.334,P<0.05)。结论在正常青春期时期适当早期给予多种垂体激素缺乏症男性患者hCG和hMG治疗可更好改善其第二性征和睾丸功能。%Objectives To study the impact of initial age of treatment on testicular morphology and function in male pa-tients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human menopausal gonadotro-pin (hMG). Methods Patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency were treated with hCG and hMG while keeping other hormone levels normal. Correlations among their testicular volume, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and height, bone age were analyzed. Results After 6-month hCG and hMG treatment, the penis

  6. Testicular manifestation of a transformed mycosis fungoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Borgmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Testicular neoplasms occur in more than 90% of cases, due to primary testicular germ cell tumors. Other entities are non germ cell tumors of the testis, testicular manifestation of lymphomas or metastases. International and interdisciplinary co-operation has led to the development of urological guidelines and to good therapeutic success for testicular neoplasms. The gold standard for treatment of a testicular neoplasm is the radical orchiectomy. However, for individual cases with suspected lymphoma, a treatment decision differing from the guidelines may be reasonable. We present the case of a 38-year-old man with testicular manifestation of a transformed mycosis fungoides, which is the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

  7. Impalpable Testicular Seminoma Identified on Sonoelastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Ghiraldi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of sonoelastography in diagnosing cancerous masses has increased since the advent of elastography as an ultrasound modality. Its ability to display differences in the mechanical properties of cancerous masses compared to normal surrounding tissue has shown benefit in increasing the accuracy of diagnosing malignant breast and thyroid masses and has shown early potential in accomplishing better targeted prostate biopsies. To date, the literature is limited in the number of studies describing the use of sonoelastography for testicular masses. We describe a 34-year-old man who presented with an incidental finding of an impalpable hypoechoic testicular mass on grayscale ultrasound during an infertility work-up. Sonoelastography was performed displaying intermediate testicular elastic properties. Upon frozen section of the mass during surgical exploration, classic testicular seminoma was diagnosed and subsequent radical orchiectomy was performed. We would like to use this atypical presentation of testicular seminoma to review the potential role of elastography for diagnosing testicular cancer.

  8. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha J.G. Bauer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Testicular trauma is classified aetiologically as blunt, penetrating or degloving. Blunt testicular trauma, caused by interpersonal violence, sporting injuries and RTAs account for the majority of cases, typically affecting males aged 15–40 [1]. Approximately 98.5% of blunt trauma resulted in unilateral testicular injury; about 12–15% involving cyclists or motorcyclists (Cass and Luxenberg, 1988) [2]. Presentation of case A 48-year-old male motorcyclist presented to the accident ...

  9. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha J.G. Bauer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Testicular trauma is classified aetiologically as blunt, penetrating or degloving. Blunt testicular trauma, caused by interpersonal violence, sporting injuries and RTAs account for the majority of cases, typically affecting males aged 15–40 [1]. Approximately 98.5% of blunt trauma resulted in unilateral testicular injury; about 12–15% involving cyclists or motorcyclists (Cass and Luxenberg, 1988) [2]. Presentation of case: A 48-year-old male motorcyclist presented to the acci...

  10. Late hormonal levels, semen parameters, and presence of antisperm antibodies in patients treated for testicular torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arap, Marco A; Vicentini, Fabio C; Cocuzza, Marcello; Hallak, Jorge; Athayde, Kelly; Lucon, Antonio M; Arap, Sami; Srougi, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    In spite of prompt diagnosis and either orchiectomy or preservation of the affected testis, infertility remains a significant sequel to testicular torsion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the late endocrine profile, seminal parameters, and antisperm antibody levels after testicular torsion. We also analyzed the impact of orchiectomy or detorsion on the organ fate. Of 24 patients evaluated after testicular torsion, 15 were treated with orchiectomy (group 1) and 9 were treated with orchiopexy (group 2). All subjects were assessed by semen analysis, endocrine profile (levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone), and seminal antisperm antibody levels. A group of 20 proven fertile men was used as the control. Median ischemia time in group 1 (48 hours) was significantly higher than in group 2 (7 hours). Both groups demonstrated decreases in sperm count and morphology compared with controls. Group 1 showed a significantly higher motility than group 2 (P = .02). Group 1 also showed a significantly better morphology by World Health Organization and Kruger criteria than group 2 (P = .01). All patients presented endocrine profiles within the normal range, and no significant differences in antisperm antibody levels were detected between the groups. However, a trend for higher levels was found in patients treated for testicular torsion, regardless of the fate of the testis. Moreover, no significant correlation was found between antisperm antibody levels and age at torsion, ischemia time, seminal parameters, or treatment applied. In conclusion, we found that after torsion patients maintain late hormonal levels within the normal range. Testicular fate did not have any correlation with the formation of antisperm antibodies. Although sperm quality was preserved in most of the patients with the exception of sperm morphology, patients treated with orchiectomy presented better motility and morphology compared with the detorsion group

  11. Early postnatal respiratory viral infection alters hippocampal neurogenesis, cell fate, and neuron morphology in the neonatal piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Matthew S; Harasim, Samantha; Rhodes, Justin S; Van Alstine, William G; Johnson, Rodney W

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory viral infections are common during the neonatal period in humans, but little is known about how early-life infection impacts brain development. The current study used a neonatal piglet model as piglets have a gyrencephalic brain with growth and development similar to human infants. Piglets were inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to evaluate how chronic neuroinflammation affects hippocampal neurogenesis and neuron morphology. Piglets in the neurogenesis study received one bromodeoxyuridine injection on postnatal day (PD) 7 and then were inoculated with PRRSV. Piglets were sacrificed at PD 28 and the number of BrdU+ cells and cell fate were quantified in the dentate gyrus. PRRSV piglets showed a 24% reduction in the number of newly divided cells forming neurons. Approximately 15% of newly divided cells formed microglia, but this was not affected by sex or PRRSV. Additionally, there was a sexual dimorphism of new cell survival in the dentate gyrus where males had more cells than females, and PRRSV infection caused a decreased survival in males only. Golgi impregnation was used to characterize dentate granule cell morphology. Sholl analysis revealed that PRRSV caused a change in inner granule cell morphology where the first branch point was extended further from the cell body. Males had more complex dendritic arbors than females in the outer granule cell layer, but this was not affected by PRRSV. There were no changes to dendritic spine density or morphology distribution. These findings suggest that early-life viral infection can impact brain development.

  12. Stomatal malfunctioning under low VPD conditions: induced by alterations in stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy or in the ABA signaling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Niaei Fard, S.; Malcolm Matamoros, P.; Meeteren, van U.

    2014-01-01

    Exposing plants to low VPD reduces leaf capacity to maintain adequate water status thereafter. To find the impact of VPD on functioning of stomata, stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy, fava bean plants were grown at low (L, 0.23 kPa) or moderate (M, 1.17 kPa) VPDs and some plants that developed the

  13. Little effects of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I on testicular atrophy induced by hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casares Amelia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I supplementation restores testicular atrophy associated with advanced liver cirrhosis that is a condition of IGF-I deficiency. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of IGF-I in rats with ischemia-induced testicular atrophy (AT without liver disease and consequently with normal serum level of IGF-I. Methods Testicular atrophy was induced by epinephrine (1, 2 mg/Kg intra-scrotal injection five times per week during 11 weeks. Then, rats with testicular atrophy (AT were divided into two groups (n = 10 each: untreated rats (AT receiving saline sc, and AT+IGF, which were treated with IGF-I (2 μg.100 g b.w.-1.day-1, sc. for 28d. Healthy controls (CO, n = 10 were studied in parallel. Animals were sacrificed on day 29th. Hypophyso-gonadal axis, IGF-I and IGFBPs levels, testicular morphometry and histopathology, immuno-histochemical studies and antioxidant enzyme activity phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx were assessed. Results Compared to controls, AT rats displayed a reduction in testicular size and weight, with histological testicular atrophy, decreased cellular proliferation and transferrin expression, and all of these alterations were slightly improved by IGF-I at low doses. IGF-I therapy increased signifincantly steroidogenesis and PHGPx activity (p Conclusion In testicular atrophy by hypoxia, condition without IGF-I deficiency, IGF-treatment induces only partial effects. These findings suggest that IGF-I therapy appears as an appropriate treatment in hypogonadism only when this is associated to conditions of IGF-I deficiency (such as Laron Syndrom or liver cirrhosis.

  14. The Danish Testicular Cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC......) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data...... survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions. Collection of questionnaires is still ongoing. A biobank including blood/sputum samples for future genetic analyses has been established. Both samples related to DaTeCa and DMCG DaTeCa database...

  15. From gonocytes to testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-de Meyts, Ewa; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E

    2007-01-01

    in highly developed industrialized countries. A hypothesis was put forward that CIS originates from arrested fetal germ cells, thus testicular cancer is a developmental disease of germ-cell differentiation. This notion was supported by comparative studies of the gene expression at the protein and RNA level......, which demonstrated a close similarity of CIS to primordial germ cells and gonocytes with many features of embryonic stem cells. The arrest of germ-cell differentiation is thus the key first event, which may be followed by malignant transformation and overt germ-cell cancer in young adult age, usually......Testicular germ-cell tumors occur primarily in young individuals, and the tumors in this age group (seminomas or nonseminomas) are derived from a preinvasive precursor cell called carcinoma in situ (CIS) or intratubular germ-cell neoplasia. These tumors have been a growing problem, especially...

  16. Phthalate excretion pattern and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg;

    2012-01-01

    In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function....

  17. THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MUSCLE SPINDLES AND ALTERATIONS IN CELL ACTIVITY OF THE RATS RED NUCLEUS AFTER 2 WEEKS SIMULATED WEIGHTLESSNESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The extensive negative effects induced by zerogravity or microgravity where offer special environ-ment are har mful for cos monauts[1-3].The real spaceenvironment has many characteristics,including mi-crogravity,electromagnetic fields,and radiation,which may have an effect on the function and mor-phology of the CNS[4],but the changes in CNSin-duced by si mulated weightlessness on the groundcaused the corresponding adaptive changes of cere-bral circulation,which made alterations in sensoryperception,and the ...

  18. Alterations of digestive enzyme activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, fed dietary probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Ma, Mingyang; Ji, Hong; Ren, Tongjun; Mims, Steven D

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of probiotics on digestive enzymes activities, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) were studied. A total of 400 fish were reared in two cages and fed with a basal diet (control group, CG) or diet supplemented with commercial probiotics (treatment group, TG) for 80 days. Enzymes activities analysis indicated that protease and α-amylase activities increased (P intestinal microbial species increased in TG. The similarity between the commercial bacteria product and intestinal microbiota of TG were higher than the microbiota from CG. The quantities of bacterium, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, present an increasing trend from foregut to hindgut both in two groups. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study to reveal the effect of dietary probiotics on intestinal digestive enzymes activities, morphology and microbiota in paddlefish.

  19. Altering the expression of two chitin synthase genes differentially affects the growth and morphology of Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christian; Hjort, C.M.; Hansen, K.;

    2002-01-01

    abnormalities, such as ballooning cells, intrahyphal hyphae and conidial scars. The growth was severely inhibited in the presence of 10 mg CFW l(-1). In none of the constructed strains did the cell-wall composition differ from the wild-type. Northern analysis indicated no change in the transcription......, analysis of the cell-wall composition and growth in the presence of Calcofluor white (CFW). The chsB disrupted strain and the uninduced P-niiA,-ChsB strain exhibited hyperbranching, they had a lower level of conidiation than the wild-type and were sensitive to CFW at 50 mg l(-1). When chsB transcription...... was induced in the strain containing the p(niiA)-chsB construct, the strain displayed wild-type morphology on solid medium and at sub-maximum growth rates but the wild-type morphology was not fully restored during rapid growth in batch cultivation. The csmA disruption strain displayed morphological...

  20. White tea consumption restores sperm quality in prediabetic rats preventing testicular oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pedro F; Tomás, Gonçalo D; Dias, Tânia R; Martins, Ana D; Rato, Luís; Alves, Marco G; Silva, Branca M

    2015-10-01

    Prediabetes represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It encompasses some, but not all, T2DM diagnostic criteria. Prediabetes has been recently associated with altered testicular function and increased testicular oxidative stress (OS). Tea is widely consumed and its anti-hyperglycaemic/antioxidant properties are known. This study aimed to evaluate whether white tea (WTEA) consumption by prediabetic rats could prevent testicular OS, preserving sperm quality. For that purpose, WTEA (presenting a high catechin content) was given to 30-day-old streptozotocin-induced prediabetic rats for 2 months. Testicular antioxidant potential and OS were evaluated, as well as sperm parameters, by standard techniques. WTEA consumption improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in prediabetic rats. Testicular antioxidant potential was increased by WTEA consumption, restoring protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, although glutathione content and redox state were not altered. WTEA consumption improved sperm concentration and sperm quality (motility, viability and abnormality) was restored. Overall, WTEA consumption improved reproductive health of male prediabetic rats. Based on the study results, WTEA consumption appears to be a natural, economical and effective strategy to counteract the deleterious effects of prediabetes on male reproductive health, but further studies will be needed before a definitive recommendation is made.

  1. Alterations to dendritic spine morphology, but not dendrite patterning, of cortical projection neurons in Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mouse models of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda A Haas

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS is a highly prevalent developmental disorder, affecting 1/700 births. Intellectual disability, which affects learning and memory, is present in all cases and is reflected by below average IQ. We sought to determine whether defective morphology and connectivity in neurons of the cerebral cortex may underlie the cognitive deficits that have been described in two mouse models of DS, the Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mouse lines. We utilised in utero electroporation to label a cohort of future upper layer projection neurons in the cerebral cortex of developing mouse embryos with GFP, and then examined neuronal positioning and morphology in early adulthood, which revealed no alterations in cortical layer position or morphology in either Tc1 or Ts1Rhr mouse cortex. The number of dendrites, as well as dendrite length and branching was normal in both DS models, compared with wildtype controls. The sites of projection neuron synaptic inputs, dendritic spines, were analysed in Tc1 and Ts1Rhr cortex at three weeks and three months after birth, and significant changes in spine morphology were observed in both mouse lines. Ts1Rhr mice had significantly fewer thin spines at three weeks of age. At three months of age Tc1 mice had significantly fewer mushroom spines--the morphology associated with established synaptic inputs and learning and memory. The decrease in mushroom spines was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of stubby spines. This data suggests that dendritic spine abnormalities may be a more important contributor to cognitive deficits in DS models, rather than overall neuronal architecture defects.

  2. Altered Morphology of Hippocampal Dentate Granule Cell Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Terminals Following Conditional Deletion of TrkB

    OpenAIRE

    Danzer, Steve C.; Kotloski, Robert J.; Walter, Cynthia; Hughes, Maya; McNamara, James O.

    2008-01-01

    Dentate granule cells play a critical role in the function of the entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry in health and disease. Dentate granule cells are situated to regulate the flow of information into the hippocampus, a structure required for normal learning and memory. Correspondingly, impaired granule cell function leads to memory deficits, and, interestingly, altered granule cell connectivity may contribute to the hyperexcitability of limbic epilepsy. It is important, therefore, to understand...

  3. Early exposure of 17α-ethynylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol induces morphological changes and alters ovarian steroidogenic pathway enzyme gene expression in catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridevi, P; Chaitanya, R K; Prathibha, Y; Balakrishna, S L; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2015-04-01

    Environmental estrogens are major cause of endocrine disruption in vertebrates, including aquatic organisms. Teleosts are valuable and popular models for studying the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment. In the present study, we investigated the changes caused by exposure to the synthetic estrogens 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2 ) and diethylstilbesterol (DES) during early stages of growth and sex differentiation of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus, at the morphological, histological, and molecular levels. Catfish hatchlings, 0 day post hatch (dph) were exposed continuously to sublethal doses of EE2 (50 ng/L) and DES (10 ng/L) until 50 dph and subsequently monitored for ovarian structural changes and alteration in the gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes till adulthood. Treated fish exhibited morphological deformities such as spinal curvature, stunted growth, and yolk-sac fluid retention. In addition to ovarian atrophy, DES-treated fish showed either rudimentary or malformed ovaries. Detailed histological studies revealed precocious oocyte development as well as follicular atresia. Further, transcript levels of various steroidogenic enzyme and transcription factor genes were altered in response to EE2 and DES. Activity of the rate-limiting enzyme of estrogen biosynthesis, aromatase, in the ovary as well as the brain of treated fish was in accordance with transcript level changes. These developmental and molecular effects imparted by EE2 and DES during early life stages of catfish could demonstrate the deleterious effects of estrogen exposure and provide reliable markers for estrogenic EDCs exposure in the environment.

  4. THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MUSCLE SPINDLES AND ALTERATIONS IN CELL ACTIVITY OF THE RATS' RED NUCLEUS AFTER 2 WEEKS' SIMULATED WEIGHTLESSNESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongjin; Fan Xiaoli; Wu Sudi; Li Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the morphological changes of soleus muscle spindle and electrical activity of neurons in Red Nucleus(RN) of the rat after 2 weeks' simulated weightlessness, and to reveal the interaction between proprioceptive inputs of muscle spindles and reciprocal alterations in RN under simulated weightlessness. Methods Twenty female rats were exposed to weightlessness simulated by tail-suspension for 14 days (SW-14d). Body weight(200-220g) matched female rats were control group(Con). The morphological changes in isolated muscle spindle of soleus muscle, the discharges of red nucleus neurons were observed after 14d tail-suspensions by silver staining and extracellular recording respectively. Results Compared with control group ,the nerve ending of muscle spindle in SW-14d was distorted, degenerated and dissolved; the diameters of intrafusal fibers and capsule in equatorial region of soleus muscle spindles were diminished(P<0.05). The spontaneous cell activity and discharge of RN neurons (spikes/s) induced by afferent firing from muscle spindles after injection of succinylcholine were reduced after 2 weeks' simulated weightlessness respectively (18.44±5.96 vs. 10.19±6.88, 32.50±8.08 vs. 16.86±5.97, P<0.01). Conclusion The degeneration of muscle spindle induced by simulated weightlessness may be one of the causes that led to alterations in discharges of RN.

  5. Deletion of glucose-inhibited division (gidA) gene alters the morphological and replication characteristics of Salmonella enterica Serovar typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippy, Daniel C; Heintz, Joseph A; Albrecht, Ralph M; Eakley, Nicholas M; Chopra, Ashok K; Fadl, Amin A

    2012-06-01

    Salmonella is an important food-borne pathogen that continues to plague the United States food industry. Characterization of bacterial factors involved in food-borne illnesses could help develop new ways to control salmonellosis. We have previously shown that deletion of glucose-inhibited division gene (gidA) significantly altered the virulence potential of Salmonella in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. Most importantly, the gidA mutant cells displayed a filamentous morphology compared to the wild-type Salmonella cells. In our current study, we investigated the role of GidA in Salmonella cell division using fluorescence and electron microscopy, transcriptional, and proteomic assays. Scanning electron microscopy data indicated a filamentous morphology with few constrictions in the gidA mutant cells. The filamentation of the gidA mutant cells is most likely due to the defect in chromosome segregation, with little to no sign of septa formation observed using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, deletion of gidA altered the expression of many genes and proteins responsible for cell division and chromosome segregation as indicated by global transcriptional profiling and semi-quantitative western blot analysis. Taken together, our data indicate GidA as a potential regulator of Salmonella cell division genes.

  6. Intra-Abdominal Testicular Seminoma in a Woman with Testicular Feminization Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana D. Rasalkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intra-abdominal testicular tumor in a 36-year-old married lady presenting with chief complaints of primary amenorrhea. The patient was later diagnosed with testicular feminization syndrome, a form of male pseudohermaphroditism. This testicular tumor was histologically proven as seminoma. Due to rarity, imaging findings in patients with testicular feminization syndrome and intraabdominal testicular tumor have been poorly documented. So far, only one case report had described the combined role of CT and MR imaging in intraabdominal testicular sex-cord stromal tumor. To our knowledge, this case is first to document USG and MR imaging in addition to MR spectroscopy features in intraabdominal testicular seminoma.

  7. Alterations in archaeological bones thermally treated: structure and morphology; Alteraciones en huesos arqueologicos termicamente tratados: estructura y morfologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijoan, C.M.; Mansilla, J.; Leboreiro, I. [Direccion de Antropologia Fisica, INAH, Gandhi s/n, Polanco, 11560 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lara, V.H. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-lztapalapa, Michoacan esquina La Purisima, Apdo.Postal 55-534, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Bosch, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Archaeological bones found close to Mexico city (Tlatelcomila) have been characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Small Angle X-ray Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. These techniques, which are not conventionally used in archaeological research, provided useful information. The boiled bones were clearly distinguished from grilled bones. The degree of deterioration of the bone structure was quantified through parameters such as gyration radius or fractal dimension. The morphology followed the structural modifications and changes resulting from thermic exposure. (Author) 23 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. H-ras-transformed NRK-52E renal epithelial cells have altered growth, morphology, and cytoskeletal structure that correlates with renal cell carcinoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, C J; Tanzer, L R; Phelps, P C; Merriman, R L; Boder, G G; Trump, B F; Elliget, K A

    1999-04-01

    We studied the effect of the ras oncogene on the growth kinetics, morphology, cytoskeletal structure, and tumorigenicity of the widely used NRK-52E rat kidney epithelial cell line and two H-ras oncogene-transformed cell lines, H/1.2-NRK-52E (H/1.2) and H/6.1-NRK-52E (H/6.1). Population doubling times of NRK-52E, H/1.2, and H/6.1 cells were 28, 26, and 24 h, respectively, with the transformed cells reaching higher saturation densities than the parent cells. NRK-52E cells had typical epithelial morphology with growth in colonies. H/1.2 and H/6.1 cell colonies were more closely packed, highly condensed, and had increased plasma membrane ruffling compared to parent cell colonies. NRK-52E cells showed microfilament, microtubule, and intermediate filament networks typical of epithelial cells, while H/1.2 and H/6.1 cells showed altered cytoskeleton architecture, with decreased stress fibers and increased microtubule and intermediate filament staining at the microtubule organizing center. H/1.2 and H/6.1 cells proliferated in an in vitro soft agar transformation assay, indicating anchorage-independence, and rapidly formed tumors in vivo with characteristics of renal cell carcinoma, including mixed populations of sarcomatoid, granular, and clear cells. H/6.1 cells consistently showed more extensive alterations of growth kinetics, morphology, and cytoskeleton than H/1.2 cells, and formed tumors of a more aggressive phenotype. These data suggest that analysis of renal cell characteristics in vitro may have potential in predicting tumor behavior in vivo, and significantly contribute to the utility of these cell lines as in vitro models for examining renal epithelial cell biology and the role of the ras proto-oncogene in signal transduction involving the cytoskeleton.

  9. Diagnosis and management of testicular ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jill C; McAninch, Jack W

    2006-02-01

    Testicular ruptures are a common occurrence in scrotal trauma that can go undetected ifa thorough examination or scrotal ultrasonography is not performed. Timely operative exploration and reconstruction is the standard of care and leads to high testicular salvage rates with hormonal, reproductive, and cosmetic benefits for the patient.

  10. Primary testicular lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Demir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary testicular lymphomas are rare malignancy. We discussed the patient who had referred with mass into left testis at 73 years old diagnosis as diffuse large B-cell testicular lymphoma. Systemic chemotherapy (R-CHOP was given to the patient. Prophylactic radiotherapy was performed for the contralateral testis and central nervous system. Complete remission was achieved in the patient.

  11. Testicular Cancer Education in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Royal E.

    1998-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) education is not widespread, though TC is the most common cancer in men ages 15-34 years. Teachers can positively influence young men by providing TC and testicular self-examination (TSE) education in school. The paper describes TC and TSE, discussing strategies for and barriers to implementation of TC/TSE instruction in the…

  12. Surviving testicular cancer : sexuality & other existential issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Grietje

    2003-01-01

    The thesis deals with the psychological aspects of ‘sexuality after testicular cancer’, where my collegue, the physician dr. Van Basten formerly predominantly described the physical-biological aspects of this subject. Testicular cancer is a type of male genital cancer, usually diagnosed between abou

  13. [A patient with bilateral testicular cancer].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.; Witjes, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In men aged 15-34 testicular cancer is the most commonly occurring malignancy. After treatment, the average 5-year survival rate is 85%. Recurring symptoms or raised tumour markers may indicate the presence of a second primary contralateral testicular tumour. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 34-year-

  14. Altered age-related changes in bioenergetic properties and mitochondrial morphology in fibroblasts from sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott P; Duffy, Lynn M; Shaw, Pamela J; Grierson, Andrew J

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in aging, which is a well-established risk factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have previously modeled metabolic dysregulation in ALS using fibroblasts isolated from sporadic ALS (SALS) and familial ALS patients. In the present study, we show that fibroblasts from SALS patients have an altered metabolic response to aging. Control fibroblasts demonstrated increased mitochondrial network complexity and spare respiratory capacity with age which was not seen in the SALS cases. SALS cases displayed an increase in uncoupled mitochondrial respiration, which was not evident in control cases. Unlike SALS cases, controls showed a decrease in glycolysis and an increase in the oxygen consumption rate/extracellular acidification rate ratio, indicating an increased reliance on mitochondrial function. Switching to a more oxidative state by removing glucose with in the culture media resulted in a loss of the mitochondrial interconnectivity and spare respiratory capacity increases observed in controls grown in glucose. Glucose removal also led to an age-independent increase in glycolysis in the SALS cases. This study is, to the best our knowledge, the first to assess the effect of aging on both mitochondrial and glycolytic function simultaneously in intact human fibroblasts and demonstrates that the SALS disease state shifts the cellular metabolic response to aging to a more glycolytic state compared with age-matched control fibroblasts. This work highlights that ALS alters the metabolic equilibrium even in peripheral tissues outside the central nervous system. Elucidating at a molecular level how this occurs and at what stage in the disease process is crucial to understanding why ALS affects cellular energy metabolism and how the disease alters the natural cellular response to aging.

  15. Bioleaching of incineration fly ash by Aspergillus niger – precipitation of metallic salt crystals and morphological alteration of the fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Jiang Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the bioleaching of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by Aspergillus niger, and its effect on the fungal morphology, the fate of the ash particles, and the precipitation of metallic salt crystals during bioleaching. The fungal morphology was significantly affected during one-step and two-step bioleaching; scanning electron microscopy revealed that bioleaching caused distortion of the fungal hyphae (with up to 10 μm hyphae diameter and a swollen pellet structure. In the absence of the fly ash, the fungi showed a linear structure (with 2–4 μm hyphae diameter. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the precipitation of calcium oxalate hydrate crystals at the surface of hyphae in both one-step and two-step bioleaching. Calcium oxalate precipitation affects bioleaching via the weakening of the fly ash, thus facilitating the release of other tightly bound metals in the matrix.

  16. Ectopic expression of soybean GmKNT1 in Arabidopsis results in altered leaf morphology and flower identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Da Ha; Zongming Xie; Chunmei Wang; Huiwen Wang; Wanke Zhang; Jinsong Zhang; Shouyi Chen

    2008-01-01

    Plant morphology is specified by leaves and flowers, and the shoot apical meristem (SAM) defines the architecture of plant leaves and flowers. Here, we reported the characterization of a soybean KNOX gene GmKNT1, which was highly homologous to Arabidopsis STM. The GmKNT1 was strongly expressed in roots, flowers and developing seeds. Its expression could be induced by IAA, ABA and JA, but inhibited by GA or cytokinin. Staining of the transgenic plants overexpressing GmKNT1-GUS fusion protein revealed that the GmKNT1 was mainly expressed at lobe region, SAM of young leaves, sepal and carpel, not in seed and mature leaves. Scanning electron micros- copy (SEM) disclosed multiple changes in morphology of the epidermal cells and stigma. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpress- ing the GmKNT1 showed small and lobed leaves, shortened internodes and small clustered inflorescence. The lobed leaves might result from the function of the meristems located at the boundary of the leaf. Compared with wild type plants, transgenic plants had higher ex- pression of the SAM-related genes including the CUP, WUS, CUC1, KNAT2 and KNAT6. These results indicated that the GmKNT1 could affect multiple aspects of plant growth and development by regulation of downstream genes expression.

  17. Targeted disruption of TgPhIL1 in Toxoplasma gondii results in altered parasite morphology and fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whittney Dotzler Barkhuff

    Full Text Available The inner membrane complex (IMC, a series of flattened vesicles at the periphery of apicomplexan parasites, is thought to be important for parasite shape, motility and replication, but few of the IMC proteins that function in these processes have been identified. TgPhIL1, a Toxoplasma gondii protein that was previously identified through photosensitized labeling with 5-[(125I] iodonapthaline-1-azide, associates with the IMC and/or underlying cytoskeleton and is concentrated at the apical end of the parasite. Orthologs of TgPhIL1 are found in other apicomplexans, but the function of this conserved protein family is unknown. As a first step towards determining the function of TgPhIL1 and its orthologs, we generated a T. gondii parasite line in which the single copy of TgPhIL1 was disrupted by homologous recombination. The TgPhIL1 knockout parasites have a distinctly different morphology than wild-type parasites, and normal shape is restored in the knockout background after complementation with the wild-type allele. The knockout parasites are outcompeted in culture by parasites expressing functional TgPhIL1, and they generate a reduced parasite load in the spleen and liver of infected mice. These findings demonstrate a role for TgPhIL1 in the morphology, growth and fitness of T. gondii tachyzoites.

  18. Targeted disruption of TgPhIL1 in Toxoplasma gondii results in altered parasite morphology and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhuff, Whittney Dotzler; Gilk, Stacey D; Whitmarsh, Ryan; Tilley, Lucas D; Hunter, Chris; Ward, Gary E

    2011-01-01

    The inner membrane complex (IMC), a series of flattened vesicles at the periphery of apicomplexan parasites, is thought to be important for parasite shape, motility and replication, but few of the IMC proteins that function in these processes have been identified. TgPhIL1, a Toxoplasma gondii protein that was previously identified through photosensitized labeling with 5-[(125)I] iodonapthaline-1-azide, associates with the IMC and/or underlying cytoskeleton and is concentrated at the apical end of the parasite. Orthologs of TgPhIL1 are found in other apicomplexans, but the function of this conserved protein family is unknown. As a first step towards determining the function of TgPhIL1 and its orthologs, we generated a T. gondii parasite line in which the single copy of TgPhIL1 was disrupted by homologous recombination. The TgPhIL1 knockout parasites have a distinctly different morphology than wild-type parasites, and normal shape is restored in the knockout background after complementation with the wild-type allele. The knockout parasites are outcompeted in culture by parasites expressing functional TgPhIL1, and they generate a reduced parasite load in the spleen and liver of infected mice. These findings demonstrate a role for TgPhIL1 in the morphology, growth and fitness of T. gondii tachyzoites.

  19. Ligation of the left renal vein in epm1-wistar rats: functional and morphologic alterations in the kidneys, testes and suprarenal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Costa Baptista-Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The ligation of the left renal vein (LLVR in man is a contraversial procedure in view of the risks of lesion to the renal parenchyma. With the objective of studying the morphologic and functional alterations caused by these lesions, we conducted experimental research with rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 64 male adult EPM1-WISTAR rats were used, divided into 8 groups - 4 for LLRV and four for control. Each LLRV group and corresponding control group were sacrificed progressively on the 7th, 15th, 30th and 60th day after the initial surgery. RESULTS: We found morphofunctional alterations only in animals that underwent LLRV in the four periods of sacrifice.The proteinuria creatinine in serum, testosterone in serum and serum corticosterone in serum showed practically no alteration in relation to the normal values for rats. Statistically significant severe histological lesions were found in the kidneys and testes of the LLRV groups. Lesions in the suprarenal glands were also present in these groups, but no sufficient to demonstrate statistical significance CONCLUSION: Based on these results we can conclude that the ligation of the left renal vein is a procedure of high risk in these animals.

  20. Effect of Tricyclazole on morphology, virulence and enzymatic alterations in pathogenic fungi Bipolaris sorokiniana for management of spot blotch disease in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Chand, Ramesh; Dubey, R S; Shah, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    Bipolaris sorokiniana synthesizes the 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin via pentaketide pathway and promotes the development of aerial mycelia and conidia. A melanin biosynthesis inhibitor Tricyclazole (TCZ), brought changes when applied at 5-100 μg ml(-1) concentration in the colony morphology, radial growth, mycelia weight, melanin content, antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes (cellulase, pectinase, amylase and protease) in black, mixed and white isolates of B. sorokiniana. A significant alteration was recorded in antioxidant enzymes in black and mixed isolates; however, non-significant alteration was recorded in white isolate. Isolates of B. sorokiniana exposed to 100 µg ml(-1) TCZ showed significantly increased formation of superoxide radical (O 2 (·-) ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)·H2O2 was detected significantly high in hyphae and conidia while, O 2 (·-) was found primarily in the conidia. Microscopic results suggest that TCZ damages not only the cell wall but also the cell membrane. The foliar application of TCZ (25, 50 and 100 µg ml(-1)) decreases the area under disease progress curve, lesion development and spore formation on barley leaves thereby reducing potential for the disease development. In conclusion TCZ influences the pathogenic ability by damaging the cell structure of hyphae and conidia and also alters the antioxidant enzyme levels in B. sorokiniana. TCZ may therefore, works against to pathogen for better management of spot blotch disease in barley infected with B. sorokiniana.

  1. [Isolated testicular tuberculosis: report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Rabii, R; Guessous, H; Benjelloun, M; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2000-06-01

    In this study, a case has been reported involving a 66-year old male who was admitted for scrotal pain on the right side with possible testicular involvement, but with no associated urinary disorder. At physical examination, the right testicle was found to have increased in volume: this was further confirmed by ultrasonography, but the findings were insufficient to exclude the hypothesis of testicular cancer. An exploratory orchidectomy by upper inguinal route was therefore carried out, and histopathological examination showed the destruction of testicular tissue by several granulomas, and caseous necrosis with giant cells. Antibacterial chemotherapy was administered after an i.v. urography found no evidence of abnormality or urinary disorder, thereby eliminating an active site of genitourinary tuberculosis. This case shows the importance of considering testicular tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of testicular enlargement in a region where this disease is endemic, despite the absence of systemic pulmonary and urinary signs of tuberculosis.

  2. Bisphenol A and its analogs induce morphological and biochemical alterations in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowicz, Jaromir; Mokra, Katarzyna; Bąk, Agata

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have addressed the cellular effects of bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on cells, and no study has been conducted to analyze the mechanism of action of bisphenols in blood cells. In this study, the effect of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), BPS and BPAF on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed. It was shown that BPA, BPF and BPAF in particular, decreased cell viability, which was associated with depletion of intracellular ATP level and alterations in PBMCs size and granulation. Bisphenols enhanced ROS (including OH˙) formation, which led to damage to lipids and proteins in PBMCs. The most significant alterations in ROS level were induced by BPF, and particularly BPAF. Moreover, it was shown that BPAF most strongly provoked lipid peroxidation, while BPA and BPS caused the greatest damage to proteins. It may be concluded that BPA and its analogs were capable of inducing oxidative stress and damage in PBMCs in the concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 0.5 μM (0.02-0.1 μg/ml), which may be present in human blood as a result of environmental exposure. Although, most of bisphenols studied decreased cell viability, size and ATP level at higher concentrations, BPAF exhibited its cytotoxic potential at low concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 3 μM (0.1-1.0 μg/ml) that may correspond to concentrations in humans following occupational exposure.

  3. Alteration of Kupffer cell function and morphology by low melt point paraffin wax in female Fischer-344 but not Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglen, N C; Regan, S P; Hensel, J L; Younis, H S; Sauer, J M; Steup, D R; Miller, M J; Waterman, S J; Twerdok, L E; Sipes, I G

    1998-11-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of 60-day dietary exposure (2%) to low melt point paraffin wax (LMPW) on both general liver morphology and Kupffer cell (KC) function and morphology in female F-344 and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Livers from only F-344 rats fed LMPW had granuloma formation/lymphoid cell aggregates with small areas of necrosis. Significant increases in serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase as well as gamma-glutamyltransferase activities were detected only in treated F-344 rats. Additionally, detectable amounts of LMPW were present only in livers of treated F-344 rats. Because KC can be involved in granuloma formation, their morphology and function were examined. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of large, irregularly shaped, membrane-associated vacuoles in cells isolated from F-344 rats exposed to LMPW. These vacuoles were not seen in KC from control rats and rarely detected in KC isolated from LMPW-exposed SD rats. Moreover, indices of KC function including phagocytic activity and nitric oxide and superoxide anion production were significantly increased by KC isolated from F-344 rats exposed to LMPW (1.6-, 36-, and 2.2-fold increases, respectively) over untreated controls. In contrast, LPS-stimulated production of TNF and LTB4 was significantly decreased only in KC of LMPW-fed F-344 rats. No significant changes in these functions were observed in KC isolated from SD rats exposed to LMPW or from KC isolated from control F-344 or SD rats. These data provide evidence that dietary LMPW alters the morphology and functional capacity of KC of F-344 but not SD rats and these changes may ultimately lead to granuloma formation.

  4. Homer2 deletion alters dendritic spine morphology but not alcohol-associated adaptations in GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie S McGuier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to ethanol followed by withdrawal leads to the alterations in glutamatergic signaling and impaired synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc in both clinical and preclinical models of ethanol exposure. Homer2 is a member of a family of postsynaptic density (PSD scaffolding proteins that functions in part to cluster NMDA signaling complexes in the PSD, and has been shown to be critically important for plasticity in multiple models of drug and alcohol abuse. Here we used Homer2 KO mice and a chronic intermittent intraperitoneal (IP ethanol injection model to investigate a potential role for the protein in ethanol-induced adaptations in dendritic spine morphology and PSD protein expression. While deletion of Homer2 was associated with increased density of long spines on medium spiny neurons of the NAc core of saline treated mice, ethanol exposure had no effect on dendritic spine morphology in either wild-type (WT or Homer2 KO mice. Western blot analysis of tissue samples from the NAc enriched for PSD proteins revealed a main effect of ethanol treatment on the expression of GluN2B, but there was no effect of genotype or treatment on the expression other glutamate receptor subunits or PSD95. These data indicate that the global deletion of Homer2 leads to aberrant regulation of dendritic spine morphology in the NAc core that is associated with an increased density of long, thin spines. Unexpectedly, intermittent IP ethanol did not affect spine morphology in either WT or KO mice. Together these data implicate Homer2 in the formation of long, thin spines and further supports its role in neuronal structure.

  5. New insights into the thermal behaviour of organic ionic plastic crystals: magnetic resonance imaging of polycrystalline morphology alterations induced by solid-solid phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Konstantin; Pringle, Jennifer M; O'Dell, Luke A; Forsyth, Maria

    2015-07-15

    Organic ionic plastic crystals (OIPCs) show strong potential as solid-state electrolytes for lithium battery applications, demonstrating promising electrochemical performance and eliminating the need for a volatile and flammable liquid electrolyte. The ionic conductivity (σ) in these systems has recently been shown to depend strongly on polycrystalline morphology, which is largely determined by the sample's thermal history. [K. Romanenko et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 15638]. Tailoring this morphology could lead to conductivities sufficiently high for battery applications, so a more complete understanding of how phenomena such as solid-solid phase transitions can affect the sample morphology is of significant interest. Anisotropic relaxation of nuclear spin magnetisation provides a new MRI based approach for studies of polycrystalline materials at both a macroscopic and molecular level. In this contribution, morphology alterations induced by solid-solid phase transitions in triisobutyl(methyl)phosphonium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (P1444FSI) and diethyl(methyl)(isobutyl)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (P1224PF6) are examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), alongside nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, diffusion measurements and conductivity data. These observations are linked to molecular dynamics and structural behaviour crucial for the conductive properties of OIPCs. A distinct correlation is established between the conductivity at a given temperature, σ(T), and the intensity of the narrow NMR signal that is attributed to a mobile fraction, fm(T), of ions in the OIPC. To explain these findings we propose an analogy with the well-studied relationship between permeability (k) and void fraction (θ) in porous media, with k(θ) commonly quantified by a power-law dependence that can also be employed to describe σ(fm).

  6. Alteration of media composition and light conditions change morphology, metabolic profile, and beauvericin biosynthesis in Cordyceps bassiana mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seok-Young; Park, Shin Jung; Kim, Da Yeon; Chun, Young-Jin; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Seong Hwan; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic alterations of Cordyceps bassiana mycelium were investigated under the following culture medium and light conditions: dextrose agar supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract (SDAY) medium with light (SL), SDAY medium without light (SD), nut medium without light (ND), and iron-supplemented SDAY medium without light (FD). The levels of asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, histidine, lysine, ornithine, and proline were significantly higher under SD and SL conditions. The levels of most of the alcohols, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid esters, sterols, and terpenes were higher under the ND condition than in the other conditions, but beauvericin was not detectable under the ND condition. The FD condition was favorable for the enhanced production of aminomalonic acid, malic acid, mannonic acid, and erythritol. Thus, the metabolic characteristics of C. bassiana can be manipulated by varying the cultivation conditions, rendering this fungus potentially favorable as a nutraceutical and medicinal resource.

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram M El-Kashlan

    Full Text Available Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1, group III (hyperthyroid group received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1; i.p., group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1; i.p. and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and testosterone (T, testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD. Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2 serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones.

  8. Chrysin alleviates testicular dysfunction in adjuvant arthritic rats via suppression of inflammation and apoptosis: Comparison with celecoxib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Hebatallah A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt); Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany.arab@pharma.cu.edu.eg [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt); Abdelsalam, Rania M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt)

    2014-09-01

    Long standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with testicular dysfunction and subfertility. Few studies have addressed the pathogenesis of testicular injury in RA and its modulation by effective agents. Thus, the current study aimed at evaluating the effects of two testosterone boosting agents; chrysin, a natural flavone and celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, in testicular impairment in rats with adjuvant arthritis, an experimental model of RA. Chrysin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and celecoxib (5 mg/kg) were orally administered to Wistar rats once daily for 21 days starting 1 h before arthritis induction. Chrysin suppressed paw edema with comparable efficacy to celecoxib. More important, chrysin, dose-dependently and celecoxib attenuated the testicular injury via reversing lowered gonadosomatic index and histopathologic alterations with preservation of spermatogenesis. Both agents upregulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) mRNA expression and serum testosterone with concomitant restoration of LH and FSH. Furthermore, they suppressed inflammation via abrogation of myeloperoxidase, TNF-α and protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS besides elevation of IL-10. Alleviation of the testicular impairment was accompanied with suppression of oxidative stress via lowering testicular lipid peroxides and nitric oxide. With respect to apoptosis, both agents downregulated FasL mRNA expression and caspase-3 activity in favor of cell survival. For the first time, these findings highlight the protective effects of chrysin and celecoxib against testicular dysfunction in experimental RA which were mediated via boosting testosterone in addition to attenuation of testicular inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Generally, the 50 mg/kg dose of chrysin exerted comparable protective actions to celecoxib. - Highlights: • Chrysin and celecoxib alleviated testicular suppression in adjuvant arthritis. • They attenuated histopathological damage and preserved spermatogenesis

  9. Morphological alterations and acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase inhibition in liver of zebrafish exposed to Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, De Lu, E-mail: deluzh@163.com [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Jing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu, Chun Xiang, E-mail: cxhu@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, Gao Hong; Li, Dun Hai; Liu, Yong Ding [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Aphantoxins induced zebrafish hepatic physiological and morphological changes. • AChE and MAO inhibition reflected abnormality of neurotransmitter inactivation. • ROS advance and T-AOC reduction suggested oxidative stress. • ALT, AST, histological and ultrastructural alterations indicated hepatic damage. - Abstract: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is a cyanobacterium that produces neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) called aphantoxins, which present threats to environmental safety and human health via eutrophication of water bodies worldwide. Although the molecular mechanisms of this neurotoxin have been studied, many questions remain unsolved, including those relating to in vivo hepatic neurotransmitter inactivation, physiological detoxification and histological and ultrastructural alterations. Aphantoxins extracted from the natural strain of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The main components were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 (GTX1, GTX5) and neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), which comprised 34.04%, 21.28%, and 12.77% respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed intraperitoneally to 5.3 or 7.61 μg STX equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) of A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins. Morphological alterations and changes in neurotransmitter conduction functions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in zebrafish liver were detected at different time points 1–24 h post-exposure. Aphantoxin significantly enhanced hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and histological and ultrastructural damage in zebrafish liver at 3–12 h post-exposure. Toxin exposure increased the reactive oxygen species content and reduced total antioxidative capacity in zebrafish liver, suggesting oxidative stress. AChE and MAO activities were significantly inhibited, suggesting neurotransmitter inactivation/conduction function abnormalities in zebrafish

  10. Testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy male dromedary camels during rutting and non-rutting periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Simenew Keskes; Regassa, Fekadu; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Kassa, Tesfu; Vencato, Juri; Owiny, David Okello; Stelletta, Calogero

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy dromedary bulls during rutting and non-rutting periods. Pairs of testes from 26 (18 non-rutting and 8 rutting seasons) dromedary bulls 6-12 years old that were slaughtered at Akaki, Addis Ababa abattoir were sampled. A 21 gauge needle attached to 20mL syringe was used to collect Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration (TFNA) samples and five aspiration smears were prepared from each testis. A total of 312 slides (260 Testicular fine Needle Aspiration and 52 imprints) were examined. The mod ified May-Grunwald Giemsa (mMGG) technique and a light microscope were used to assess cellularity, morphology and quantification of the testicular. Sertoli and spermatogenic cells were identified and counted. The spermatic index (SI), Sertoli cell index (SEI) and the relationship between SI and SEI indexes (SSEI) were used to assess the ratio between mature spermatozoa and nursing cells. There were differences (P0.05) between TFNA and imprint smear slides of the testicular cells except for Sertoli cell count and SEI. Filarial worm larvae were present on the TFNA smear slides of four animals. Imprint and TFNA smear slides had comparable cytological profiles in dromedary bulls and significant differences were observed between rutting and non-rutting periods.

  11. Morphological evolution and electronic alteration of ZnO nanomaterials induced by Ni/Fe co-doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Cameron; Jiang, Yijiao; Sun, Chenghua; Amal, Rose

    2014-07-07

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals mono- and co-doped with nickel/iron were prepared using a facile solvothermal procedure. A significant change in the surface morphology from nanorods to plate-like nanoparticles was observed with an increase in the dopant concentration. The variations of their optical and electronic properties induced by metal dopants were investigated using a combination of characterization techniques and ab initio calculations. It is found that both nickel and iron atoms have been successfully incorporated into the crystal lattice rather than forming a secondary phase, suggesting good dispersion of dopants within the ZnO matrix. Doping with iron has red-shifted the absorption edges of ZnO towards the visible portion resulting in lower band gap energies with increasing dopant concentration. Evidenced by Raman and EPR spectroscopy, the addition of iron has been shown to promote the formation of more oxygen vacancy and crystal defects within the host lattice as well as increasing the free-electron density of the nanomaterial. The DFT plus Hubbard model calculations confirm that low concentration Ni-doping does not induce band gap narrowing but results in localized states. The calculations show that Fe-doping has the potential to greatly improve the optical absorption characteristics and lead to structural deformation, corroborating the UV-Vis, Raman, and EPR spectra.

  12. Evolution of vertebrate mechanosensory hair cells and inner ears: toward identifying stimuli that select mutation driven altered morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Straka, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Among the major distance senses of vertebrates, the ear is unique in its complex morphological changes during evolution. Conceivably, these changes enable the ear to adapt toward sensing various physically well-characterized stimuli. This review develops a scenario that integrates sensory cell with organ evolution. We propose that molecular and cellular evolution of the vertebrate hair cells occurred prior to the formation of the vertebrate ear. We previously proposed that the genes driving hair cell differentiation were aggregated in the otic region through developmental re-patterning that generated a unique vertebrate embryonic structure, the otic placode. In agreement with the presence of graviceptive receptors in many vertebrate outgroups, it is likely that the vertebrate ear originally functioned as a simple gravity-sensing organ. Based on the rare occurrence of angular acceleration receptors in vertebrate outgroups, we further propose that the canal system evolved with a more sophisticated ear morphogenesis. This evolving morphogenesis obviously turned the initial otocyst into a complex set of canals and recesses, harboring multiple sensory epithelia each adapted to the acquisition of a specific aspect of a given physical stimulus. As support for this evolutionary progression, we provide several details of the molecular basis of ear development.

  13. Winter fine particulate matter from Milan induces morphological and functional alterations in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Maurizio; Mantecca, Paride; Corvaja, Viviana; Longhin, Eleonora; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Camatini, Marina

    2009-07-10

    Samples of PM(2.5) were gravimetrically collected during the winter 2005/2006 in the urban area of Milan (North Italy). Samples were chemically characterized and the particles were detached from filters to determine their cytotoxic effects on the A549 cell line. Based on the potential toxicological relevance of its components, Milan winter PM(2.5) contained high concentrations of pro-oxidant transition metals and PAHs, while re-suspended particles showed a relatively high frequency of dimensional classes ranging from 40 nm to 300 nm. A549 cells exposed to particle suspensions showed a concentration-dependent decrease in viability, starting from 10 microg/cm(2). Phagocytosis of particles by A549 cells and particle aggregates were morphologically characterized and seemed to depend on both particle concentration and exposure time, with the majority of particles being engulfed in membrane-bound vacuoles after 24h of exposure. The ability of ultrafine particles to penetrate and spread throughout the cells was also verified. Cell membrane lysis and mitochondrial ultrastructural disruption appeared to be the main modifications induced by PM(2.5) on A549 cells. Concomitantly to the adverse effects observed in terms of cell mortality and ultrastructural lesions, a significant intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed, suggesting that the cytotoxicity, exerted by the winter PM(2.5) in Milan, derived also from its oxidative potential, probably associated with particle-adsorbed metals and PAHs.

  14. Stiffness of hyaluronic acid gels containing liver extracellular matrix supports human hepatocyte function and alters cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Daniel B; Zimmerman, Cynthia; Skardal, Aleksander; Atala, Anthony; Shupe, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    Tissue engineering and cell based liver therapies have utilized primary hepatocytes with limited success due to the failure of hepatocytes to maintain their phenotype in vitro. In order to overcome this challenge, hyaluronic acid (HA) cell culture substrates were formulated to closely mimic the composition and stiffness of the normal liver cellular microenvironment. The stiffness of the substrate was modulated by adjusting HA hydrogel crosslinking. Additionally, the repertoire of bioactive molecules within the HA substrate was bolstered by supplementation with normal liver extracellular matrix (ECM). Primary human hepatocyte viability and phenotype were determined over a narrow physiologically relevant range of substrate stiffnesses from 600 to 4600Pa in both the presence and absence of liver ECM. Cell attachment, viability, and organization of the actin cytoskeleton improved with increased stiffness up to 4600Pa. These differences were not evident in earlier time points or substrates containing only HA. However, gene expression for the hepatocyte markers hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and albumin significantly decreased on the 4600Pa stiffness at day 7 indicating that cells may not have maintained their phenotype long-term at this stiffness. Function, as measured by albumin secretion, varied with both stiffness and time in culture and peaked at day 7 at the 1200Pa stiffness, slightly below the stiffness of normal liver ECM at 3000Pa. Overall, gel stiffness affected primary human hepatocyte cell adhesion, functional marker expression, and morphological characteristics dependent on both the presence of liver ECM in gel substrates and time in culture.

  15. Increased sensitivity to testicular toxicity of transplacental benzo[a]pyrene exposure in male glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit knockout (Gclm-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Brooke N; Mohar, Isaac; Lawson, Gregory W; Cortés, Mabel M; Hoang, Yvonne D; Ortiz, Laura; Patel, Reshma; Rau, Bogdan A; McConnachie, Lisa A; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Luderer, Ulrike

    2012-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), like benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are ubiquitous environmental pollutants formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials. The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is a major antioxidant and is important in detoxification of PAH metabolites. Mice null for the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm), the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis, have decreased GSH concentrations. We investigated the effects of Gclm deletion alone on male fertility and spermatogenesis and its effect on the sensitivity of male embryos to the transplacental testicular toxicity of BaP. Gclm-/- males had dramatically decreased testicular and epididymal GCL enzymatic activity and total GSH concentrations compared with Gclm+/+ littermates. Ratios of reduced to oxidized GSH were significantly increased in Gclm-/- testes. GSH reductase enzymatic activity was increased in Gclm-/- epididymides. We observed no changes in fertility, testicular weights, testicular sperm head counts, or testicular histology and subtle changes in cauda epididymal sperm counts, motility, and morphology in Gclm-/- compared with Gclm+/+ males. Prenatal exposure to BaP from gestational day 7 to 16 was dose dependently associated with significantly decreased testicular and epididymal weights, testicular and epididymal sperm counts, and with vacuolated seminiferous tubules at 10 weeks of age. Gclm-/- males exposed prenatally to BaP had greater decreases in testicular weights, testicular sperm head counts, epididymal sperm counts, and epididymal sperm motility than Gclm+/+ littermates. These results show no effects of Gclm deletion alone on male fertility and testicular spermatogenesis and subtle epididymal effects but support increased sensitivity of Gclm-/- males to the transplacental testicular toxicity of BaP.

  16. The effects of taurine, hypotaurine, and taurine homologs on erythrocyte morphology, membrane fluidity and cytoskeletal spectrin alterations due to diabetes, alcoholism and diabetes-alcoholism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossai, Davekanand; Lau-Cam, Cesar A

    2009-01-01

    Taurine (TAU) and compounds representing a TAU analog (hypotaurine = HYTAU) or homolog (aminomethanesulfonic acid = AMSA, homotaurine = HMTAU) were tested for their counteracting effects against alterations in erythrocyte (RBC) morphology, membrane fluidity and cytoskeletal spectrin distribution due to diabetes, alcoholism and diabetes-alcoholism in male Goto-Kakizaki rats (made diabetic with a high fat diet and alcoholic upon feeding on a flavored alcohol solution) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (serving as controls). Both diabetes and alcoholism changed the RBC discoidal biconcave shape to a spiculated one, lowered membrane fluidity, and caused spectrin to become marginalized. While AMSA and HYTAU returned the RBC shape to normal, HMTAU made it only discoidal, and TAU was without effect. All test compounds, but TAU, maintained the membrane fluidity normal; and HYTAU and AMSA, but not TAU or HMTAU, kept spectrin uniformly distributed. The noted effects were correlated with compound structure and RBC values for malondialdehyde and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio.

  17. Nonclassical transpeptidases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis alter cell size, morphology, the cytosolic matrix, protein localization, virulence, and resistance to β-lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonmaker, Maia K; Bishai, William R; Lamichhane, Gyanu

    2014-04-01

    Virtually all bacteria possess a peptidoglycan layer that is essential for their growth and survival. The β-lactams, the most widely used class of antibiotics in human history, inhibit D,D-transpeptidases, which catalyze the final step in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The existence of a second class of transpeptidases, the L,D-transpeptidases, was recently reported. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an infectious pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB), is known to possess as many as five proteins with L,D-transpeptidase activity. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that loss of L,D-transpeptidases 1 and 2 of M. tuberculosis (LdtMt1 and LdtMt2) alters cell surface morphology, shape, size, organization of the intracellular matrix, sorting of some low-molecular-weight proteins that are targeted to the membrane or secreted, cellular physiology, growth, virulence, and resistance of M. tuberculosis to amoxicillin-clavulanate and vancomycin.

  18. Overexpression of SepJ alters septal morphology and heterocyst pattern regulated by diffusible signals in Anabaena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, Vicente; Nürnberg, Dennis J; Herrero, Antonia; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Flores, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous, N2 -fixing, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as chains of cells that are connected by septal junctions. In the model organism Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the septal protein SepJ is required for filament integrity, normal intercellular molecular exchange, heterocyst differentiation, and diazotrophic growth. An Anabaena strain overexpressing SepJ made wider septa between vegetative cells than the wild type, which correlated with a more spread location of SepJ in the septa as observed with a SepJ-GFP fusion, and contained an increased number of nanopores, the septal peptidoglycan perforations that likely accommodate septal junctions. The septa between heterocysts and vegetative cells, which are narrow in wild-type Anabaena, were notably enlarged in the SepJ-overexpressing mutant. Intercellular molecular exchange tested with fluorescent tracers was increased for the SepJ-overexpressing strain specifically in the case of calcein transfer between vegetative cells and heterocysts. These results support an association between calcein transfer, SepJ-related septal junctions, and septal peptidoglycan nanopores. Under nitrogen deprivation, the SepJ-overexpressing strain produced an increased number of contiguous heterocysts but a decreased percentage of total heterocysts. These effects were lost or altered in patS and hetN mutant backgrounds, supporting a role of SepJ in the intercellular transfer of regulatory signals for heterocyst differentiation.

  19. Linked alterations in gray and white matter morphology in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: A multimodal brain imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Itahashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that a broad range of behavioral anomalies in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD can be linked with morphological and functional alterations in the brain. However, the neuroanatomical underpinnings of ASD have been investigated using either structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, and the relationships between abnormalities revealed by these two modalities remain unclear. This study applied a multimodal data-fusion method, known as linked independent component analysis (ICA, to a set of structural MRI and DTI data acquired from 46 adult males with ASD and 46 matched controls in order to elucidate associations between different aspects of atypical neuroanatomy of ASD. Linked ICA identified two composite components that showed significant between-group differences, one of which was significantly correlated with age. In the other component, participants with ASD showed decreased gray matter (GM volumes in multiple regions, including the bilateral fusiform gyri, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, and bilateral pre- and post-central gyri. These GM changes were linked with a pattern of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA in several white matter tracts, such as the bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculi, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, and bilateral corticospinal tracts. Furthermore, unimodal analysis for DTI data revealed significant reductions of FA along with increased mean diffusivity in those tracts for ASD, providing further evidence of disrupted anatomical connectivity. Taken together, our findings suggest that, in ASD, alterations in different aspects of brain morphology may co-occur in specific brain networks, providing a comprehensive view for understanding the neuroanatomy of this disorder.

  20. Chronic stress alters the dendritic morphology of callosal neurons and the acute glutamate stress response in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Pauline; Moquin, Luc; Gratton, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that interhemispheric regulation of medial prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated stress responses is subserved by glutamate (GLU)- containing callosal neurons. Evidence of chronic stress-induced dendritic and spine atrophy among PFC pyramidal neurons led us to examine how chronic restraint stress (CRS) might alter the apical dendritic morphology of callosal neurons and the acute GLU stress responses in the left versus right PFC. Morphometric analyses of retrogradely labeled, dye-filled PFC callosal neurons revealed hemisphere-specific CRS-induced dendritic retraction; whereas significant dendritic atrophy occurred primarily within the distal arbor of left PFC neurons, it was observed within both the proximal and distal arbor of right PFC neurons. Overall, CRS also significantly reduced spine densities in both hemispheres with the greatest loss occurring among left PFC neurons, mostly at the distal extent of the arbor. While much of the overall decrease in dendritic spine density was accounted by the loss of thin spines, the density of mushroom-shaped spines, despite being fewer in number, was halved. Using microdialysis we found that, compared to controls, basal PFC GLU levels were significantly reduced in both hemispheres of CRS animals and that their GLU response to 30 min of tail-pinch stress was significantly prolonged in the left, but not the right PFC. Together, these findings show that a history of chronic stress alters the dendritic morphology and spine density of PFC callosal neurons and suggest a mechanism by which this might disrupt the interhemispheric regulation of PFC-mediated responses to subsequent stressors.

  1. Altered Competitive Fitness, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Cellular Morphology in a Triclosan-Induced Small-Colony Variant of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sarah; Latimer, Joe; Bazaid, Abdulrahman; McBain, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can produce small-colony variants (SCVs) that express various phenotypes. While their significance is unclear, SCV propagation may be influenced by relative fitness, antimicrobial susceptibility, and the underlying mechanism. We have investigated triclosan-induced generation of SCVs in six S. aureus strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Parent strains (P0) were repeatedly passaged on concentration gradients of triclosan using a solid-state exposure system to generate P10. P10 was subsequently passaged without triclosan to generate X10. Susceptibility to triclosan and 7 antibiotics was assessed at all stages. For S. aureus ATCC 6538, SCVs were further characterized by determining microbicide susceptibility and competitive fitness. Cellular morphology was examined using electron microscopy, and protein expression was evaluated through proteomics. Triclosan susceptibility in all SCVs (which could be generated from 4/6 strains) was markedly decreased, while antibiotic susceptibility was significantly increased in the majority of cases. An SCV of S. aureus ATCC 6538 exhibited significantly increased susceptibility to all tested microbicides. Cross-wall formation was impaired in this bacterium, while expression of FabI, a target of triclosan, and IsaA, a lytic transglycosylase involved in cell division, was increased. The P10 SCV was 49% less fit than P0. In summary, triclosan exposure of S. aureus produced SCVs in 4/6 test bacteria, with decreased triclosan susceptibility but with generally increased antibiotic susceptibility. An SCV derived from S. aureus ATCC 6538 showed reduced competitive fitness, potentially due to impaired cell division. In this SCV, increased FabI expression could account for reduced triclosan susceptibility, while IsaA may be upregulated in response to cell division defects.

  2. Oxidative and antioxidative defense system in testicular torsion/detorsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F A Elshaari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the early effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury on the oxidants and anti-oxidant defense status in rat testicular tissue by measuring MDA, glucose-6-phosphte dehydrogenase activity and reduced glutathione levels in a designated time frame sequel to reperfusion. Animals were divided randomly into six groups (12 animals per group in the following order: Group I: Sham-operated control group (Cso without the application of the torsion. Group 2: Torsion-induced ischemia group (T30 m: Ischemia was induced through the torsion of spermatic cord for a period of 30 min. Group 3: One hour reperfusion group after detorsion (T30 mR1 h. Group 4: Twenty-four hour reperfusion group after detorsion (T30 mR24 h. Group 5: Forty-eight hours reperfusion group after detorsion (T30mR48h. Group 6: One week reperfusion group after detorsion (T30mR1wk. Results and Discussion: The oxidant-antioxidant system of the testicular tissue is altered during torsion as well as detorsion which results in the altered activities involved in the key enzyme of hexose monophosphate shunt pathway, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with a reduction of glutathione (G.SH content. The increase in G6PDH activity during torsion and followed by an increase in detorsion indicates the tissue′s response to counter the oxidant stress caused by reduced blood supply. Continued exposure to such oxidant stressed physiological state of a tissue may lead to decreased capacity of the tissue to perform its physiological function such as testicular steroidogenesis and spermiogenesis shown in the present study.

  3. Interacting effects of discharge and channel morphology on transport of semibuoyant fish eggs in large, altered river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Worthington

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation and flow regulation are significant factors related to the decline and extinction of freshwater biota. Pelagic-broadcast spawning cyprinids require moving water and some length of unfragmented stream to complete their life cycle. However, it is unknown how discharge and habitat features interact at multiple spatial scales to alter the transport of semi-buoyant fish eggs. Our objective was to assess the relationship between downstream drift of semi-buoyant egg surrogates (gellan beads and discharge and habitat complexity. We quantified transport time of a known quantity of beads using 2-3 sampling devices at each of seven locations on the North Canadian and Canadian rivers. Transport time was assessed based on median capture time (time at which 50% of beads were captured and sampling period (time period when 2.5% and 97.5% of beads were captured. Habitat complexity was assessed by calculating width∶depth ratios at each site, and several habitat metrics determined using analyses of aerial photographs. Median time of egg capture was negatively correlated to site discharge. The temporal extent of the sampling period at each site was negatively correlated to both site discharge and habitat-patch dispersion. Our results highlight the role of discharge in driving transport times, but also indicate that higher dispersion of habitat patches relates to increased retention of beads within the river. These results could be used to target restoration activities or prioritize water use to create and maintain habitat complexity within large, fragmented river systems.

  4. Public awareness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination in academic environments: a lost opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Ugboma,Henry A. A.; Aburoma, H L S

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although testicular cancer is the most common cancer among 18- to 50-year-old males, healthcare providers seldom teach testicular self-examination techniques to clients, thus potentially missing opportunities for early detection. This form of cancer is easily diagnosable by testicular self-examination and is 96% curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Knowledge deficits and sociocultural norms contribute to low levels of health-r...

  5. [Segmental testicular infarction in sickle cell anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, F E

    2014-05-01

    Vascular occlusions are the clinical indicators of sickle cell disease and in urology they can lead to papillary necrosis, renal infarction or priapism. Segmental testicular infarction in patients with sickle cell disease is a rare event and only a few cases have been reported. We present a 25-year-old man with right testicular pain increasing over 3 days and sickle cell disease. Ultrasound of the right scrotum presented an inhomogeneous, mainly hypoechegenic mass with a hyperechogenic margin and no sign of blood flow. A partial orchiectomy was performed with total enucleation of the lesion, which was histologically diagnosed as benign hemorrhagic necrotic testicular tissue.

  6. Testicular torsion in children: Scintigraphic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.B.; Taylor, G.A.; Cheng, T.H.; Retik, A.; Bauer, S.; Treves, S.

    1985-02-01

    Seventy-five patients with suspected testicular torsion who had scintiscans and adequate clinical follow-up were analyzed retrospectively. The scintiscans diagnosed 12/13 cases of surgically proven missed torsion and 3/3 cases of surgically proven acute complete torsion. The scintiscans successfully distinguished all 35 cases of epididymo-orchitis, 14 cases of torsion of the appendix testes and 8 other miscellaneous conditions from testicular torsion. The incidence of testicular torsion in our patients undergoing scrotal scintigraphy was approximately 24%.

  7. Lipid peroxidation in adrenal and testicular microsomes.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the actions of and interactions between ascorbate, NADPH, Fe2+, and Fe3+ on lipid peroxidation in adrenal and testicular microsomes. Ascorbate-induced malonaldehyde production was maximal in adrenal and testicular microsomes at an ascorbate concentration of 1 X 10(-4)M. Fe2+, at levels between 10(-6) and 10(-3)M, produced concentration-dependent increases in lipid peroxidation in adrenal and testicular microsomes; Fe2+ had a far greater effect than Fe3+ i...

  8. Testicular cancer: addressing the psychosexual issues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Annamarie

    2012-01-31

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men aged 15-35 years and predominantly occurs at a time in a man\\'s life when important decisions about marriage, starting a family and a professional career are being made. While treatments for testicular cancer are very successful, they can have a major impact on the person\\'s sexuality and sense of self. The focus of this article is on exploring the impact of cancer treatments for testicular cancer on men\\'s sexuality and how nurses can respond to their concerns in a sensitive and informed manner.

  9. Altered Polarization, Morphology, and Impaired Innate Immunity Germane to Resident Peritoneal Macrophages in Mice with Long-Term Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Fang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is associated with perturbed innate immunity. Macrophages, bridging innate immunity and metabolic disturbances, play important roles in controlling immune homeostasis. However, the effect of long-term diabetic milieu (DM on the functions and phenotypes of macrophages is still not clear. In this study, we used resident peritoneal macrophages (RPMs from 5-month-old db/db mice to investigate the changes of macrophages. It was found that RPMs in db/db mice significantly reduced phagocytosis and adhesion capacity. After standardization with body weight, the number of F4/80+ RPMs markedly reduced in db/db mice, and, furthermore, the macrophages skewed to M2-polarizated macrophages. The results of morphology found that the RPMs shape of db/db mice was nearly round, but the RPMs shape of control mice was spindle-shaped and irregular. In this study, we found the cell numbers, morphology, and innate immunity functions of RPMs in 5-month-old type 2 diabetic mice (db/db mice obtained by abdominal cavity lavage were significantly altered. Importantly, we also found the remarkably increased M2-RPMs in diabetic mice for the first time.

  10. Metabolic and morphological alterations induced by proteolysis-inducing factor from Walker tumour-bearing rats in C2C12 myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisdale Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with advanced cancer suffer from cachexia, which is characterised by a marked weight loss, and is invariably associated with the presence of tumoral and humoral factors which are mainly responsible for the depletion of fat stores and muscular tissue. Methods In this work, we used cytotoxicity and enzymatic assays and morphological analysis to examine the effects of a proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF-like molecule purified from ascitic fluid of Walker tumour-bearing rats (WF, which has been suggested to be responsible for muscle atrophy, on cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Results WF decreased the viability of C2C12 myotubes, especially at concentrations of 20–25 μg.mL-1. There was an increase in the content of the pro-oxidant malondialdehyde, and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Myotubes protein synthesis decreased and protein degradation increased together with an enhanced in the chymotrypsin-like enzyme activity, a measure of functional proteasome activity, after treatment with WF. Morphological alterations such as cell retraction and the presence of numerous cells in suspension were observed, particularly at high WF concentrations. Conclusion These results indicate that WF has similar effects to those of proteolysis-inducing factor, but is less potent than the latter. Further studies are required to determine the precise role of WF in this experimental model.

  11. Social play in juvenile hamsters alters dendritic morphology in the medial prefrontal cortex and attenuates effects of social stress in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Cody A; Pedersen, Robert W; Seddighi, Sahba; DeBusk, Lauren E; Burghardt, Gordon M; Cooper, Matthew A

    2016-08-01

    Social play is a fundamental aspect of behavioral development in many species. Social play deprivation in rats alters dendritic morphology in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and we have shown that this brain region regulates responses to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters. In this study, we tested whether play deprivation during the juvenile period disrupts dendritic morphology in the prefrontal cortex and potentiates the effects of social defeat stress. At weaning, male hamsters were either group-housed with peers or pair-housed with their mother, with whom they do not play. In adulthood, animals received acute social defeat stress or no-defeat control treatment. The hamsters were then tested for a conditioned defeat response in a social interaction test with a novel intruder, and were also tested for social avoidance of a familiar opponent. Brains were collected for Golgi-Cox staining and analysis of dendritic morphology in the infralimbic (IL), prelimbic (PL), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Play-deprived animals showed an increased conditioned defeat response and elevated avoidance of a familiar opponent compared with play-exposed animals. Furthermore, play-deprived animals showed increased total length and branch points in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the IL and PL cortices, but not in the OFC. These findings suggest that social play deprivation in juvenile hamsters disrupts neuronal development in the vmPFC and increases vulnerability to the effects of social stress in adulthood. Overall, these results suggest that social play is necessary for the natural dendritic pruning process during adolescence and promotes coping with stress in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus acts as a proliferation and migration repressing factor that alters the cell morphology of keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbeis, Janina; Peisker, Henrik; Backes, Christian S; Bur, Stephanie; Hölters, Sebastian; Thewes, Nicolas; Greiner, Markus; Junker, Christian; Schwarz, Eva C; Hoth, Markus; Junker, Kerstin; Preissner, Klaus T; Jacobs, Karin; Herrmann, Mathias; Bischoff, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Staphyloccocus aureus is a major human pathogen and a common cause for superficial and deep seated wound infections. The pathogen is equipped with a large arsenal of virulence factors, which facilitate attachment to various eukaryotic cell structures and modulate the host immune response. One of these factors is the extracellular adherence protein Eap, a member of the "secretable expanded repertoire adhesive molecules" (SERAM) protein family that possesses adhesive and immune modulatory properties. The secreted protein was previously shown to impair wound healing by interfering with host defense and neovascularization. However, its impact on keratinocyte proliferation and migration, two major steps in the re-epithelialization process of wounds, is not known. Here, we report that Eap affects the proliferation and migration capacities of keratinocytes by altering their morphology and adhesive properties. In particular, treatment of non-confluent HaCaT cell cultures with Eap resulted in cell morphology changes as well as a significant reduction in cell proliferation and migration. Eap-treated HaCaT cells changed their appearance from an oblong via a trapezoid to an astral-like shape, accompanied by decreases in cell volume and cell stiffness, and exhibited significantly increased cell adhesion. Eap had a similar influence on endothelial and cancer cells, indicative for a general effect of Eap on eukaryotic cell morphology and functions. Specifically, Eap was found to interfere with growth factor-stimulated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that is known to be responsible for cell shape modulation, induction of proliferation and migration of epithelial cells. Western blot analyses revealed that Eap blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) in keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)-stimulated HaCaT cells. Together, these data add another antagonistic mechanism of Eap in wound healing, whereby the

  13. Low dose prenatal ethanol exposure induces anxiety-like behaviour and alters dendritic morphology in the basolateral amygdala of rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol is strongly associated with poor cognitive outcomes particularly in relation to learning and memory. It is also becoming more evident that anxiety disorders and anxiety-like behaviour can be associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to a relatively small amount of alcohol would result in anxiety-like behaviour and to determine if this was associated with morphological changes in the basolateral amygdala. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing either no alcohol (Control or 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 months (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Rats were perfusion fixed and brains were collected at the end of behavioural testing for morphological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the basolateral amygdala. EtOH exposed offspring displayed anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus maze, holeboard and emergence tests. Although sexually dimorphic behaviour was apparent, sex did not impact anxiety-like behaviour induced by prenatal alcohol exposure. This increase in anxiety - like behaviour could not be attributed to a change in pyramidal cell number within the BLA but rather was associated with an increase in dendritic spines along the apical dendrite which is indicative of an increase in synaptic connectivity and activity within these neurons. This study is the first to link increases in anxiety like behaviour to structural changes within the basolateral amygdala in a model of prenatal ethanol exposure. In addition, this study has shown that exposure to even a relatively small amount of alcohol during development leads to long term alterations in anxiety-like behaviour.

  14. Mitochondrial Morphology and Fundamental Parameters of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Are Altered in Caenorhabditis elegans Strains Deficient in Mitochondrial Dynamics and Homeostasis Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Anthony L; Rooney, John P; Kubik, Laura L; Gonzalez, Claudia P; Song, Dong Hoon; Meyer, Joel N

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to myriad human diseases and toxicant exposures, highlighting the need for assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial health in vivo. Here, using the Seahorse XFe24 Analyzer and the pharmacological inhibitors dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin (ATP-synthase inhibitors), carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (mitochondrial uncoupler) and sodium azide (cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor), we measured the fundamental parameters of mitochondrial respiratory chain function: basal oxygen consumption, ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak in the model organism Caenhorhabditis elegans. Since mutations in mitochondrial homeostasis genes cause mitochondrial dysfunction and have been linked to human disease, we measured mitochondrial respiratory function in mitochondrial fission (drp-1)-, fusion (fzo-1)-, mitophagy (pdr-1, pink-1)-, and electron transport chain complex III (isp-1)-deficient C. elegans. All showed altered function, but the nature of the alterations varied between the tested strains. We report increased basal oxygen consumption in drp-1; reduced maximal respiration in drp-1, fzo-1, and isp-1; reduced spare respiratory capacity in drp-1 and fzo-1; reduced proton leak in fzo-1 and isp-1; and increased proton leak in pink-1 nematodes. As mitochondrial morphology can play a role in mitochondrial energetics, we also quantified the mitochondrial aspect ratio for each mutant strain using a novel method, and for the first time report increased aspect ratios in pdr-1- and pink-1-deficient nematodes.

  15. Brain morphological alterations and cellular metabolic changes in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: A combined DARTEL-based VBM and (1)H-MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2016-05-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by emotional dysregulation and cognitive deficit in conjunction with brain morphometric and metabolic alterations. This study assessed the combined neural morphological deficits and metabolic abnormality in patients with GAD. Thirteen patients with GAD and 13 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 3Tesla. In this study, the combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and (1)H-MRS was used to assess the brain morphometric and metabolic alterations in GAD. The patients showed significantly reduced white matter (WM) volumes in the midbrain (MB), precentral gyrus (PrG), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) compared to the controls. In MRS study, the choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) and choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) ratios in the DLPFC were significantly lower in the patients. Particularly, the WM volume variation of the DLPFC was positively correlated with both of the Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratios in patients with GAD. This study provides an evidence for the association between the morphometric deficit and metabolic changes in GAD. This finding would be helpful to understand the neural dysfunction and pathogenesis in connection with cognitive impairments in GAD.

  16. FGF-2 deficiency causes dysregulation of Arhgef6 and downstream targets in the cerebral cortex accompanied by altered neurite outgrowth and dendritic spine morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Philip; Vogt, Miriam A; Gass, Peter; Unsicker, Klaus; von Bohlen und Halbach, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is an abundant growth factor in the brain and exerts multiple functions on neural cells ranging from cell division, cell fate determination to differentiation. However, many details of the molecular mechanisms underlying the diverse functions of FGF-2 are poorly understood. In a comparative microarray analysis of motor sensory cortex (MSC) tissue of adult knockout (FGF-2(-/-)) and control (FGF-2(+/+)) mice, we found a substantial number of regulated genes, which are implicated in cytoskeletal machinery dynamics. Specifically, we found a prominent downregulation of Arhgef6. Arhgef6 mRNA was significantly reduced in the FGF-2(-/-) cortex, and Arhgef6 protein virtually absent, while RhoA protein levels were massively increased and Cdc42 protein levels were reduced. Since Arhgef6 is localized to dendritic spines, we next analyzed dendritic spines of adult FGF2(-/-) and control mouse cortices. Spine densities were significantly increased, whereas mean length of spines on dendrites of layer V of MSC neurons in adult FGF-2(-/-) mice was significantly decreased as compared to respective controls. Furthermore, neurite length in dissociated cortical cultures from E18 FGF-2(-/-) mice was significantly reduced at DIV7 as compared to wildtype neurons. Despite the fact that altered neuronal morphology and alterations in dendritic spines were observed, FGF-2(-/-) mice behave relatively unsuspicious in several behavioral tasks. However, FGF-2(-/-) mice exhibited decreased thermal pain sensitivity in the hotplate-test.

  17. Educating young men about testicular cancer: support for a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Foster, S Catherine; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of testicular cancer among men 15-39 years of age, little has been done to increase awareness of this disease or educate males about its prevention. To fill this gap, the Standard Model of Health Communication was incorporated to design and implement a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign among male college students. To test the effectiveness of these messages, college students (N = 220) completed measures before and after the campaign. In addition, the authors obtained a control group of male college students (N = 52) who were not exposed to the messages. Survey items assessed awareness of testicular cancer and behaviors related to testicular cancer. Participants' knowledge of testicular cancer and likelihood of conducting a testicular self-exam increased significantly after being exposed to the campaign information. Men who were exposed to testicular cancer messages were more knowledgeable about testicular cancer and were more likely to conduct testicular self-examinations than were men in the control group.

  18. Alterations in testicular histology and the mRNAs of enzymes responsible for sex steroid synthesis in the zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to nonyphenol%壬基酚对斑马鱼精巢组织及性激素合成酶基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 汪奇; 贾林芝; 周忠良

    2011-01-01

    壬基酚(NP)是广泛存在于水体中的环境内分泌干扰物,会影响鱼类的生殖和发育.为了解NP影响鱼类精巢发育的分子机制,将成年雄性斑马鱼(Danio rerio)暴露于不同浓度(0、125、250、500μg·L-1)NP下21d,用常规组织学方法研究试验鱼精巢组织结构的变化,并用荧光定量PCR(QRT-PCR)方法检测试验鱼精巢性激素合成酶及雌、雄激素受体(ERα、AR)基因的表达.结果表明,暴露于250μg·L-1NP的斑马鱼精巢内精子及精小囊的数目减少,非细胞区域增加;500μg·L-1NP组斑马鱼生精小管内精子凝集于管腔中央.250μg·L-1NP可导致精巢CYP17mRNA的表达量显著下调,125μg·L-1NP可导致CYP11B mRNA的表达量显著下调,并呈现出明显的负剂量-效应关系.但是,NP对精巢AR mRNA的表达无明显影响,精巢中CYP19A mRNA及ERαmRNA的表达与NP暴露浓度之间呈正剂量-效应关系,125μg·L-1NP即可显著上调CYP19A mRNA及ERαmRNA的表达.NP可通过抑制精巢中雄激素合成相关酶基因的表达影响精巢发育,同时可诱导精巢内源雌激素合成和雌激素受体的表达,提高雌激素效应.%Nonylphenol (NP),an aquatic endocrine disruptor,is known to be capable of adversely affecting fish development and reproduction.In order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for the harmful effects of NP on testicular development in fish,the male zebrafish Danio rerio were exposed to 0,125,250 and 500 μg·L-1 NP for 21 days.Histological alterations in the testis and the mRNAs of enzymes responsible for sex steroid synthesis,estrogen receptor α (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) were subsequently investigated.Histologically,the fish treated with 250 μg·L-1 NP exhibited reduced numbers of both spermatocyst and spermatozoan and an enlargement of acellular zone.In the fish exposed to 500 μg·L-1 NP,sperms were found to be congregated in the lumen of seminiferous tubules.Downregulation of

  19. Testicular lesions of streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, A

    1975-01-01

    Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (75 mg/kg body weight). The diabetes was allowed to stabilize for at least 15 days, whereafter the testicular and seminal vesicle histology was studied at various time intervals. Reduction in testis weights and tubule diameters was significant after 2 weeks of diabetes. The changes in seminiferous tubules ranged from premature sloughing of epithelium to total cessation of spermatogenesis. The testicular histology of diabetic animals frequently greatly simulated the situation described following hypophysectomy. By subjective visual assessment the number of Leydig cells was found to be normal or reduced in all of the diabetic animals. Diabetes was also demonstrated to induce seminal vesicle atrophy, which did not show any correlation with the degree of testicular lesions. The possible etiology of testicular damage in diabetic animals is discussed.

  20. Testicular Involvement of Tuberculous Epididymitis : Sonographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Myeong Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joong Hwa [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeon Hee [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To report the sonographic findings of testicular involvement of tuberculous epididymitis. The sonographic findings of testicular involvement in twelve patients with histologically proven tuberculous epididymitis were retrospectively reviewed. The sonographic findings of testicular lesions are 1) an ill defined hypoechoic lesion (3 cases, 25.0%), 2) a well-demarcated hypoechoic lesion (3 cases, 25.0%),3) multiple and small hypoechoic nodules in the enlarged testis (2 cases, 16.7%), 4) indistinct margin between the testis and epididymis (2 cases, 16.7%) and 5) a diffusely enlarged testis with hypoechogenicity (2 cases, 16.7%).Nine patients had ipsilateral epididymitis, and 3 patients had bilateral epididymitis. Pus discharge through the draining sinus tract was noted in 4 cases (33.3%), and hydrocele in 8 cases (66.7%). No parenchymal calcification was seen in the involved testis. Sonographic findings of testicular involvement in tuberculous epididymitis were various

  1. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...... of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification...... number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR. The study design was case-cohort and the period of follow-up between 2 April 1968 and 31 December 2003. RESULTS: Cryptorchidism was significantly associated with testicular cancer...

  2. Transverse testicular ectopia - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Dragoljub

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse testicular ectopia is an extremely rare anomaly, characterized by migration of one testis towards the opposite inguinal canal, usually associated with inguinal hernia. Spermatic cord of the ectopic testis originates from the appropriate side. In most reported cases, the accurate diagnosis has not been made before surgery. This is a case report of transverse testicular ectopia in eleven-year-old boy who had undergone an operation for the left inguinal hernia in age often months. At the time of herniorrhaphy, the right testis was absent. Ten years later, during re-operation of the left inguinal hernia, both testis were found in left inguinal canal and easily brought down sequentially through the left groin into the scrotum. The right testis was fixed in the left hemiscrotum, due to shorter funicular elements, and the left was trans-septally moved to the right hemiscrotum (a modified Ombrédanne operation. Ultrasonography and voiding cystoureterography showed no associated genitourinary anomalies and no Mülerian duct remnants. The rupture of gubernaculum and dysfunction of the genito-femoral nerve could explain the etiology of crossed testis ectopia. Although ectopic testis could be localized preoperatively by ultrasonography, CT, MRI, arteriography and venography, correct diagnosis was made intraoperatively in the majority of cases. Treatment modalities include laparoscopic and surgical procedures. Atrophie testis should be removed. If testes are fused, they have to be brought into one hemiscrotum. In cases where testes are completely separated with individual funicular elements and vas deferens, an ipsilateral or contralateral orchiopexy should be performed depending on the length of funicular elements.

  3. Lifetime growth and risk of testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Vizzini, Loredana; Pastore, Guido; Segnan, Nereo; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Fiano, Valentina; Grasso, Chiara; Ciuffreda, Libero; Lista, Patrizia; Pearce, Neil; Merletti, Franco

    2014-08-01

    Adult height is associated with testicular cancer risk. We studied to what extent this association is explained by parental height, childhood height and age at puberty. We conducted a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer patients diagnosed in 1997-2008 and resident in the Province of Turin. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires in 2008-2011. Specifically, we asked for adult height (in cm), height at age 9 and 13 (compared to peers) and age at puberty (compared to peers). We also asked for paternal and maternal height (in cm) as indicators of genetic components of adult height. The analysis included 255 cases and 459 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of testicular cancer were estimated for the different anthropometric variables. Adult height was associated with testicular cancer risk [OR: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.31 per 5-cm increase]. The risk of testicular cancer was only slightly increased for being taller vs. shorter than peers at age 9 (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.64) or age 13 (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.78-2.01), and parental height was not associated with testicular cancer risk. The OR for adult height was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12-1.56) after adjustment for parental height. Among participants with small average parental height (testicular cancer for tall (>180 cm) vs. short (testicular cancer is likely to be explained by environmental factors affecting growth in early life, childhood and adolescence.

  4. Impact of the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence in the prostatic complex of the bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-07-01

    Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression during the annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of total testicular regression on the prostatic morphophisyology and its regulation. The prostatic complex (PC) of animals from the four periods of the reproductive cycle (active, regressing, regressed, and recrudescence) was analyzed by different histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical procedures to characterize its variations, analyze its hormonal regulation and evaluate whether the prostate is affected by the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence. The results indicated a decrease in the prostatic parameters from the active to regressed periods, which are related to decreases in the testicular production of testosterone and in the prostatic expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and aromatase. However, in regressed-recrudescence periods, the prostatic expression of AR, ERα and aromatase increased, indicating the reactivation of the PC. Despite this, the PC appears to have a slower reactivation and seems not to follow the testicular recrudescence in morphological and morphometric terms. With these data, we demonstrate that the prostatic physiology is directly affected by total testicular regression and conclude that it is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, via the production of testosterone by the testes, its conversion to dihydrotestosterone by 5α-redutase and to estrogen by aromatase, and the activation/deactivation of AR and ERα in epithelial cells, which regulate cell expression and proliferation.

  5. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment.

  6. Dexrazoxane exacerbates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Mattan; Tzabari, Moran; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Infertility induced by anti-cancer treatments pose a major concern for cancer survivors. Doxorubicin (DXR) has been previously shown to exert toxic effects on the testicular germinal epithelium. Based upon the cardioprotective traits of dexrazoxane (DEX), we studied its potential effect in reducing DXR-induced testicular toxicity. Male mice were injected with 5  mg/kg DXR, 100  mg/kg DEX, combination of both or saline (control) and sacrificed either 1, 3 or 6 months later. Testes were excised and further processed. Glutathione and apoptosis assays were performed to determine oxidative stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to study the effects of the drugs on testicular histology and on spermatogonial reserve. DXR and the combined treatment induced a striking decline in testicular weight. DEX prevented DXR-induced oxidative stress, but enhanced DXR-induced apoptosis within the testes. Furthermore, the combined treatment depleted the spermatogonial reserve after 1 month, with impaired recovery at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. This resulted in compromised sperm parameters, testicular and epididymal weights as well as significantly reduced sperm motility, all of which were more severe than those observed in DXR-treated mice. The activity of DEX in the testis may differ from its activity in cardiomyocytes. Adding DEX to DXR exacerbates DXR-induced testicular toxicity.

  7. Prepubertal testicular tumors: Our 10 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testicular tumors in the pediatric population are distinct from those of the adults. In contrast to the prevalence data reported in tumor registries, several studies have shown that a majority of the prepubertal testis tumors are benign. We retrospectively analyzed a series of prepubertal testicular tumors. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all testicular tumors at our institution was done from Jan 1999 to Dec 2008. Data relating to presentation, evaluation, and management were collected. Results: A total of 22 children with prepubertal testicular tumors were identified. The mean age at presentation was 4.6 years. Mature teratoma, epidermoid cysts, immature teratoma, and yolk sac tumor accounted for 49.94%, 13.62%, 9.08%, and 18.16%, respectively. All surgeries were successful with respect to cancer control and testicular preservation. Conclusions: Benign tumors formed the majority (72.64% of the tumors that were encountered, with yolk sac tumors (18.16% being a minority. Testicular preserving surgery appears to be a feasible option for benign tumors and is safe and efficacious in long-term follow-up.

  8. Acute effects of TCDD administration:special emphasis on testicular and sperm mitochondrial function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paula C Mota; Renata S Tavares; Marlia Cordeiro; Susana P Pereira; Stephen J Publicover; Paulo J Oliveira; Joo Ramalho-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to verify if 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) could have any effect on male germ cells mitochondria and in this way add new insights in how male reproductive alterations observed in other studies occur. Methods:In vivo and in vitro approaches using rat testis and human sperm as models were employed to evaluate TCDD effects on testicular and sperm mitochondria after 24 h of exposure. Results:Testicular mitochondria from TCDD-treated rats presented no differences in the bioenergetic parameters monitored except for a significantly higher electric membrane potential in the presence of ADP, corroborated when TCDD was directly added to testicular mitochondria from untreated rats. Nevertheless, sperm mitochondrial membrane potential, motility, viability, capacitation and acrosomal integrity did not change after TCDD treatment. Moreover, only few sperm cells exposed to TCDD increased their intracellular Ca2+concentration. Conlusions:TCDD can interact directly with rat testicular mitochondria inducing small changes. This effect, however, does not seem to occur in human sperm or it may be insufficient to induce significant alterations as observed by the maintenance of sperm function.

  9. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was

  10. Does Anticoagulant Medication Alter Fracture-Healing? A Morphological and Biomechanical Evaluation of the Possible Effects of Rivaroxaban and Enoxaparin Using a Rat Closed Fracture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Peter Michael; Burgkart, Rainer; Kreutzer, Kilian; Liska, Franz; Pilge, Hakan; Schmitt, Andreas; Knödler, Martina; Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Tischer, Thomas; Bissinger, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is routinely used to prevent thromboembolism in orthopaedic surgery, especially in the treatment of fractures or after joint-replacement. Impairment of fracture-healing due to increased bone-desorption, delayed remodelling and lower calcification caused by direct osteoclast stimulation is a well-known side effect of unfractioned heparin. However, the effect of LMWH is unclear and controversial. Recent studies strongly suggest impairment of bone-healing in-vitro and in animal models, characterized by a significant decrease in volume and quality of new-formed callus. Since October 2008, Rivaroxaban (Xarelto) is available for prophylactic use in elective knee- and hip-arthroplasty. Recently, some evidence has been found indicating an in vitro dose independent reduction of osteoblast function after Rivaroxaban treatment. In this study, the possible influence of Rivaroxaban and Enoxaparin on bone-healing in vivo was studied using a standardized, closed rodent fracture-model. 70 male Wistar-rats were randomized to Rivaroxaban, Enoxaparin or control groups. After pinning the right femur, a closed, transverse fracture was produced. 21 days later, the animals were sacrificed and both femora harvested. Analysis was done by biomechanical testing (three-point bending) and micro CT. Both investigated substances showed histomorphometric alterations of the newly formed callus assessed by micro CT analysis. In detail the bone (callus) volume was enhanced (sign. for Rivaroxaban) and the density reduced. The bone mineral content was enhanced accordingly (sign. for Rivaroxaban). Trabecular thickness was reduced (sign. for Rivaroxaban). Furthermore, both drugs showed significant enlarged bone (callus) surface and degree of anisotropy. In contrast, the biomechanical properties of the treated bones were equal to controls. To summarize, the morphological alterations of the fracture-callus did not result in functionally relevant deficits. PMID:27455072

  11. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N

    2007-01-01

    Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic...... countries, which shows strong associations between testicular cancer, undescended testis, hypospadias, poor testicular development and function, and male infertility. These studies have led us to suggest the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of which TGCC, undescended testis, hypospadias...... in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive health...

  12. Beneficial role of celery oil in lowering the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced testicular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Naglaa K

    2014-10-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most abundant phthalate in the environment, is known to be a reproductive toxicant. Considering the therapeutic significance of medicinal plants, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of administration of celery oil on DEHP-induced testicular toxicity. The experiment was carried out for 8 weeks on 36 male rats that were divided equally into six groups. Group 1 was kept as normal control (given vehicle), while rats of group 2 were administered orally 200 mg/kg/day of celery oil. Groups 3 and 5 were orally given 500 and 1000 mg DEHP/kg/day, respectively. Groups 4 and 6 were treated with similar doses of DEHP as in groups 3 and 5 plus celery oil (200 mg/kg/day). Body and testicular weights, sperm parameters, serum hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT)) and expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) messenger RNA (mRNA) were investigated at the end of 8th week. Treatment with DEHP alone resulted in a significant decrease in body and testicular weights, sperm parameters and serum hormone levels when compared with control. On the other hand, testicular antioxidant enzymes showed a significant dose-dependent increase. The expression of CYP19 mRNA was significantly reduced by increasing the doses of DEHP. Administration of celery oil along with DEHP partially prevented the decrease in body and testicular weights and enhanced epididymal sperm count, serum hormone levels and the expression of CYP19 mRNA along with diminution in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT enzymes. The obtained results showed that the celery improved the testicular alterations induced by DEHP in albino rats.

  13. Public awareness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination in academic environments: a lost opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry A. A. Ugboma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although testicular cancer is the most common cancer among 18- to 50-year-old males, healthcare providers seldom teach testicular self-examination techniques to clients, thus potentially missing opportunities for early detection. This form of cancer is easily diagnosable by testicular self-examination and is 96% curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Knowledge deficits and sociocultural norms contribute to low levels of health-related knowledge in most patients, resulting in undue delays before seeking medical advice. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to assess the level of awareness of testicular cancer and the prevalence of the practice of testicular self-examination in academic environments to enable appropriate interventions. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 750 consecutive males aged 18-50 years in three tertiary institutions in Port Harcourt from October 2008 to April 2009. RESULT: Knowledge or awareness of testicular cancer was poor. Almost all of the respondents were unaware that testicular lumps may be signs of cancer. A lump was typically construed as a benign carbuncle or something that could resolve spontaneously. The main factor contributing to respondents' lack of knowledge of testicular cancer was that few reported that they were "ever taught about testicular self-examination." CONCLUSION: Young adult men are unaware of their risk for testicular cancer, which is the most common neoplasm in this age group. Healthcare providers are not informing them of this risk, nor are they teaching them the simple early detection technique of self-examination of the testes.

  14. Combined role of seizure-induced dendritic morphology alterations and spine loss in newborn granule cells with mossy fiber sprouting on the hyperexcitability of a computer model of the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Julian; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Roque, Antonio C

    2014-05-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy strongly affects hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells morphology. These cells exhibit seizure-induced anatomical alterations including mossy fiber sprouting, changes in the apical and basal dendritic tree and suffer substantial dendritic spine loss. The effect of some of these changes on the hyperexcitability of the dentate gyrus has been widely studied. For example, mossy fiber sprouting increases the excitability of the circuit while dendritic spine loss may have the opposite effect. However, the effect of the interplay of these different morphological alterations on the hyperexcitability of the dentate gyrus is still unknown. Here we adapted an existing computational model of the dentate gyrus by replacing the reduced granule cell models with morphologically detailed models coming from three-dimensional reconstructions of mature cells. The model simulates a network with 10% of the mossy fiber sprouting observed in the pilocarpine (PILO) model of epilepsy. Different fractions of the mature granule cell models were replaced by morphologically reconstructed models of newborn dentate granule cells from animals with PILO-induced Status Epilepticus, which have apical dendritic alterations and spine loss, and control animals, which do not have these alterations. This complex arrangement of cells and processes allowed us to study the combined effect of mossy fiber sprouting, altered apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells on the excitability of the dentate gyrus model. Our simulations suggest that alterations in the apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells have opposing effects on the excitability of the dentate gyrus after Status Epilepticus. Apical dendritic alterations potentiate the increase of excitability provoked by mossy fiber sprouting while spine loss curtails this increase.

  15. Combined role of seizure-induced dendritic morphology alterations and spine loss in newborn granule cells with mossy fiber sprouting on the hyperexcitability of a computer model of the dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Tejada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy strongly affects hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells morphology. These cells exhibit seizure-induced anatomical alterations including mossy fiber sprouting, changes in the apical and basal dendritic tree and suffer substantial dendritic spine loss. The effect of some of these changes on the hyperexcitability of the dentate gyrus has been widely studied. For example, mossy fiber sprouting increases the excitability of the circuit while dendritic spine loss may have the opposite effect. However, the effect of the interplay of these different morphological alterations on the hyperexcitability of the dentate gyrus is still unknown. Here we adapted an existing computational model of the dentate gyrus by replacing the reduced granule cell models with morphologically detailed models coming from three-dimensional reconstructions of mature cells. The model simulates a network with 10% of the mossy fiber sprouting observed in the pilocarpine (PILO model of epilepsy. Different fractions of the mature granule cell models were replaced by morphologically reconstructed models of newborn dentate granule cells from animals with PILO-induced Status Epilepticus, which have apical dendritic alterations and spine loss, and control animals, which do not have these alterations. This complex arrangement of cells and processes allowed us to study the combined effect of mossy fiber sprouting, altered apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells on the excitability of the dentate gyrus model. Our simulations suggest that alterations in the apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells have opposing effects on the excitability of the dentate gyrus after Status Epilepticus. Apical dendritic alterations potentiate the increase of excitability provoked by mossy fiber sprouting while spine loss curtails this increase.

  16. Small changes in environmental parameters lead to alterations in antibiotic resistance, cell morphology and membrane fatty acid composition in Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J Crompton

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus lugdunensis has emerged as a major cause of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. This bacterium can rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions to survive and capitalize on opportunities to colonize and infect through wound surfaces. It was proposed that S. lugdunensis would have underlying alterations in metabolic homeostasis to provide the necessary levels of adaptive protection. The aims of this project were to examine the impacts of subtle variations in environmental conditions on growth characteristics, cell size and membrane fatty acid composition in S. lugdunensis. Liquid broth cultures of S. lugdunensis were grown under varying combinations of pH (6-8, temperature (35-39°C and osmotic pressure (0-5% sodium chloride w/w to reflect potential ranges of conditions encountered during transition from skin surfaces to invasion of wound sites. The cells were harvested at the mid-exponential phase of growth and assessed for antibiotic minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, generation time, formation of small colony variants, cell size (by scanning electron microscopy and membrane fatty acid composition. Stress regimes with elevated NaCl concentrations resulted in significantly higher antibiotic resistance (MIC and three of the combinations with 5% NaCl had increased generation times (P<0.05. It was found that all ten experimental growth regimes, including the control and centroid cultures, yielded significantly different profiles of plasma membrane fatty acid composition (P<0.0001. Alterations in cell size (P<0.01 were also observed under the range of conditions with the most substantial reduction occurring when cells were grown at 39°C, pH 8 (514±52 nm, mean ± Standard Deviation compared with cells grown under control conditions at 37°C with pH 7 (702±76 nm, P<0.01. It was concluded that S. lugdunensis responded to slight changes in environmental conditions by altering plasma membrane fatty acid composition

  17. The Danish Testicular Cancer database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daugaard G

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gedske Daugaard,1 Maria Gry Gundgaard Kier,1 Mikkel Bandak,1 Mette Saksø Mortensen,1 Heidi Larsson,2 Mette Søgaard,2 Birgitte Groenkaer Toft,3 Birte Engvad,4 Mads Agerbæk,5 Niels Vilstrup Holm,6 Jakob Lauritsen1 1Department of Oncology 5073, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 3Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 4Department of Pathology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 6Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Aim: The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database. The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. Study population: All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. Main variables and descriptive data: The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions

  18. Viable and morphologically normal boar spermatozoa alter the expression of heat-shock protein genes in oviductal epithelial cells during co-culture in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Holt, William V; Bonet, Sergi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Lloyd, Rhiannon E

    2014-09-01

    The principal aim of this study was to determine if boar spermatozoa influence the expression of four selected chaperone and heat-shock protein (HSP) genes-namely clusterin (CLU), HSP90AA1, HSPA5, and HSPA8-in oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) during in vitro co-culture. All corresponding proteins of these genes were previously identified in a sperm-interacting, 70-kDa soluble fraction derived from apical plasma membranes of OECs. The present study also sought to determine whether or not: (i) spermatozoa must directly bind to OEC for an effect on gene expression to be elicited and (ii) reproductive and nonreproductive epithelial cell types (LLC-PK1, pig kidney) respond equivalently, in terms of alterations in chaperone and HSP gene expression, during co-culture with sperm. Spermatozoa induced a significant upregulation (P sperm-binding index and on the viability and morphological quality of the bound sperm population. In conclusion, the upregulation of HSP genes caused by direct contact between spermatozoa and OECs, rather than nonreproductive epithelial cells, suggests HSPs could play an integral role in the modulation of sperm function in the oviductal reservoir.

  19. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Ca; Pereira, Maria Cs; Santana, Luana N da Silva; Fernandes, Rafael M; Teixeira, Francisco B; Oliveira, Gedeão B; Fernandes, Luanna Mp; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas A; Prediger, Rui D; Crespo-López, Maria E; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael R; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that heavy ethanol exposure in early life may produce long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences, since brain structural maturation continues until adolescence. It is well established that females are more susceptible to alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and that ethanol consumption is increasing among women, especially during adolescence. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats may induce hippocampal histological damage and neurobehavioral impairments. Female rats were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) by gavage from the 35(th)-90(th) day of life. Ethanol-exposed animals displayed reduced exploration of the central area and increased number of fecal boluses in the open field test indicative of anxiogenic responses. Moreover, chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence induced marked impairments on short-term memory of female rats addressed on social recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. These neurobehavioral deficits induced by ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood were accompanied by the reduction of hippocampal formation volume as well as the loss of neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces long-lasting emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in the hippocampus.

  20. Antisense expression of a gene encoding a calcium-binding protein in transgenic tobacco leads to altered morphology and enhanced chlorophyll

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Girdhar K Pandey; Amita Pandey; Vanga Siva Reddy; Renu Deswal; Alok Bhattacharya; Kailash C Upadhyaya; Sudhir K Sopory

    2007-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica contains a novel calcium-binding protein like calmodulin, which was discovered earlier, and we have reported the presence of its homologue(s) and a dependent protein kinase in plants. To understand the functions of these in plants, a cDNA encoding a calcium-binding protein isolated from Entamoeba histolytica (EhCaBP) was cloned into vector pBI121 in antisense orientation and transgenic tobacco plants were raised. These plants showed variation in several phenotypic characters, of which two distinct features, more greenness and leaf thickness, were inherited in subsequent generations. The increase in the level of total chlorophyll in different plants ranged from 60% to 70%. There was no major change in chloroplast structure and in the protein level of D1, D2, LHCP and RuBP carboxylase. These morphological changes were not seen in antisense calmodulin transgenic tobacco plants, nor was the calmodulin level altered in EhCaBP antisense plants.

  1. Effect of zearalenone on reproductive parameters and expression of selected testicular genes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatecka, E; Ded, L; Elzeinova, F; Kubatova, A; Dorosh, A; Margaryan, H; Dostalova, P; Korenkova, V; Hoskova, K; Peknicova, J

    2014-06-01

    We tested the effect of two different concentrations (150μg/l and 0.15μg/l) of mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) on the reproductive parameters and expression of testicular genes in male mice. In adult males, no reduction of body or reproductive organ weight was observed, and the seminiferous tubules were morphologically normal with ongoing spermatogenesis. However, we found decreased sperm concentration, increase of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa and increased binding of apoptotic marker annexin V. This study was also focused on the evaluation of gene expression profiles of 28 genes playing important roles during the processes occurring in the testicular tissue. We detected changes in the expression of genes important for proper spermatogenesis. Surprisingly, we observed a stronger effect after exposure to the lower dose of ZEA.

  2. Relationship between testicular volume and testicular function: comparison of the Prader orchidometric and ultrasonographic measurements in patients with infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideo Sakamoto; Yoshio Ogawa; Hideki Yoshida

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between testicular function and testicular volume measured by using Prader orchidometry and ultrasonography (US) to determine the critical testicular volume indicating normal testicular func-tion by each method. Methods: Total testicular volume (right plus left testicular volume) was measured in 794 testes in 397 men with infertility (mean age, 35.6 years) using a Prader orchidometer and also by ultrasonography.Ultrasonographic testicular volumes were calculated as length×width×height×0.71. To evaluate volume-function relationships, patients were divided into 10 groups representing 5-mL increments of total testicular volume by each method from below 10 mL to 50 mL or more. Results: Mean total testicular volume based on Prader orchidometry and US were 36.8 mL and 26.3 mL, respectively. Semen volume, sperm density, total sperm count, total motile sperm count, and serum FSH, LH, and testosterone all correlated significantly with total testicular volume measured by either method. Mean sperm density was in the oligozoospermic range in patients with total testicular volume below 35 mL by orchidometry or below 20 mL by ultrasonography. Mean total sperm count was subnormal in patients with total testicular volume below 30 mL by orchidometry or under 20 mL by ultrasonography. Conclusion: Testicular volume measured by either ultrasonography or Prader orchidometry correlated significantly with testicular function.However, critical total testicular volume indicating normal or nearly normal testicular function was 30 mL to 35 mL using Prader orchidometer and 20 mL using ultrasonography. Prader orchidometry morphometrically and function-ally overestimated the testicular volume in comparison to US.

  3. Testicular Sperm Sampling by Subcapsular Orchiectomy in Klinefelter Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Gravholt, Claus H; Kristensen, Stine Gry;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate subcapsular orchiectomy as a method to retrieve spermatozoa from minute testicular foci in men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). METHODS: Fourteen men with KS were consecutively recruited to unilateral subcapsular orchiectomy. Testicular tissue was dissected mechanically and ...

  4. Testicular Sperm Sampling by Subcapsular Orchiectomy in Klinefelter Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Gravholt, Claus H.; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate subcapsular orchiectomy as a method to retrieve spermatozoa from minute testicular foci in men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). METHODS: Fourteen men with KS were consecutively recruited to unilateral subcapsular orchiectomy. Testicular tissue was dissected mechanically...

  5. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: foetal origin of adult reproductive problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik

    2009-01-01

    The evidence for the existence of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) is presented in this review. Several epidemiological studies have shown that conditions like cryptorchidism, impaired spermatogenesis, hypospadias and testicular cancer can be associated as risk factors for each other. Thus...

  6. Testicular seminoma metastasis to duodenum. Misdiagnosed as primary duodenal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hashim Al Ani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: High index of suspicion for testicular seminoma must be raised when treating young males with GIT complications like hemorrhage. Testicular seminoma is the most common solid tumor at this age. Sometimes it is the cause behind this complication.

  7. Zika virus causes testicular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Householder, Sarah; Yockey, Laura J.; Hastings, Andrew K.; Homer, Robert J.; Iwasaki, Akiko; Fikrig, Erol

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been found to cause fetal infection and neonatal abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological dysfunction. ZIKV persists in the semen months after the acute viremic phase in humans. To further understand the consequences of ZIKV persistence in males, we infected Ifnar1−/− mice via subcutaneous injection of a pathogenic but nonlethal ZIKV strain. ZIKV replication persists within the testes even after clearance from the blood, with interstitial, testosterone-producing Leydig cells supporting virus replication. We found high levels of viral RNA and antigen within the epididymal lumen, where sperm is stored, and within surrounding epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, at 21 days post-infection, the testes of the ZIKV-infected mice were significantly smaller compared to those of mock-infected mice, indicating progressive testicular atrophy. ZIKV infection caused a reduction in serum testosterone, suggesting that male fertility can be affected. Our findings have important implications for nonvector-borne vertical transmission, as well as long-term potential reproductive deficiencies, in ZIKV-infected males. PMID:28261663

  8. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: possible role of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Asklund, Camilla; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2006-01-01

    The testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis proposes that the four conditions cryptorchidism, hypospadias, impaired spermatogenesis and testis cancer may all be manifestations of disturbed prenatal testicular development. The TDS hypothesis is based on epidemiological, clinical and molecu......The testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis proposes that the four conditions cryptorchidism, hypospadias, impaired spermatogenesis and testis cancer may all be manifestations of disturbed prenatal testicular development. The TDS hypothesis is based on epidemiological, clinical...

  9. P450-aromatase activity and expression in human testicular tissues with severe spermatogenic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardone, M C; Castillo, P; Valdevenito, R; Ebensperger, M; Ronco, A M; Pommer, R; Piottante, A; Castro, A

    2010-08-01

    There is evidence that impaired spermatogenesis is associated with an imbalance in the oestradiol/testosterone ratio and with Leydig cell (LC) dysfunction. In testis, P450-aromatase, encoded by CYP19, is responsible for the conversion of testosterone to oestradiol. The aims of this study were to quantify CYP19 mRNA expression, aromatase activity and protein localization, and to measure the oestradiol to testosterone ratio in testicular tissues of men with spermatogenic impairment. Twenty-four men with complete Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS), 14 with focal SCOS, 14 with maturation arrest (MA), 8 with mixed atrophy and 30 controls with normal spermatogenesis were subjected to testicular biopsy. All subjects underwent a physical examination, cytogenetic and serum hormonal studies. Testicular CYP19 mRNA was quantified using real time RT-PCR. Testicular aromatase activity was measured using the (3)H(2)0 assay and protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. In cases, serum testosterone and oestradiol were normal, but the testosterone/LH ratio was lower compared with controls (p < 0.05). Aromatase was localized in the Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells of all tissues, although stronger intensity was observed in LC. Aromatase mRNA and activity were not altered in cases and correlated positively with LC number (r = 0.516 and r = 0.369; p < 0.008). The intratesticular oestradiol/testosterone ratio was elevated (p = 0.005) in complete SCOS patients compared with controls. In conclusion, testicular aromatase seems to be normal in most subjects with impaired spermatogenesis. However, an altered intratesticular oestradiol/testosterone ratio in some patients with complete SCOS suggests that aromatase is increased, which might contribute to Leydig cell dysfunction.

  10. Effect of testicular capsulotomy on lipid droplets in the seminiferous tubules of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Nian QIN; Mary A. Lung

    2001-01-01

    Aim: In order to reveal the histochemical alteration that might occur during the processes of the spermatogenic dis mption induced by testicular capsulotomy, the location and alteration of lipid droplets in the seminiferous tubules were observed in the present study. Methods: Osmium tetroxide was used to demonstrate the lipid droplets in the semi niferous tubules of capsulotomized and sham-operated control testes. Results: In the seminiferous tubules of the sham-operated rat testes, many small lipid droplets were located close to the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules. But for the capsulotomized testes, the lipid droplets in the seminiferous tubules had increased in size and num ber, with many lipid droplets migrated towards the lumen of the tubules. Conclusion: The results indicated that a progressive fatty degeneration occurred in the seminiferous tubules after testicular capsulotomy.

  11. Tissue Engineered Testicular Prostheses With Prolonged Testosterone Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    and Hospital Infantil de Mexico “Federico Gomez”, Mexico City, Mexico* ABSTRACT Young soldiers with testicular tissue injury may require...Rustin, 2001: Testicular implants and patient satisfaction: a questionnaire-based study of men after orchidectomy for testicular cancer .[see comment

  12. Testicular plasmacytoma: a case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi-min; LI Fang-yin; LUO Jin-dan; LI Jun; XIE Li-ping; YANG Guo-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Testicular plasmacytoma is rarely reported. The diagnosis is mainly based on pathological examination. Orchiectomy, combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, is currently the main treatment strategy for testicular plasmacytoma. The prognosis of extramedullary plasmacytoma involving the testis is much better than multiple myeloma involving the testis.Herein we present a case of a 62-year-old man who was diagnosed with testicular plasmacytoma.

  13. Familial testicular cancer in a single-centre population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, DJA; Sleijfer, DT; Sijmons, RH; van der Graaf, WTA; Sluiter, WJ; Hoekstra, HJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1999-01-01

    Familial occurrence of testicular cancer suggests a genetic predisposition to the disease. A genetic susceptibility may also be reflected by the occurrence of bilateral testicular neoplasms and the high rates of urogenital developmental anomalies in families prone to testicular cancer. In this study

  14. Effect of bilateral testicular resection on thymocyte and its microenvironment in aged mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Yun WEI; Jin-Kun ZHANG; Jun LI; Su-Biao CHEN

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To observe the changes in thymocyte and its microenvironment in aged mice after bilateral testicular resection.Methods: In male old mice, at the 25th day after testicular resection, the peripheral blood and thymus were collected. Blood and thymus suspension smears were prepared for quantitative histochemistry and immunohistochemistry study under light and electron microscopes. Results: In testes resected mice the size and the weight of thymus were markedly increased. The demarcation between cortex and medulla was clear. The cortex was thickened and the cell density was increased. The ratio of cortex/medulla stereometry was increased. The total cell count, thymocyte count,the percentage of acid α-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) positive thymocytes, nonlymphocytes and the rosette formation of macrophages and thymocytes were all increased. The thymocytes surrounded closely to the light thymic epithelial cells, dendritic cells or macrophages. The lymphocytes, particularly the ANAE positive lymphocytes of peripheral blood were increased. Conclusion: After bilateral testicular resection, the thymus of aged male mice showed morphological regeneration and the thymocytes and its microenvironment appeared to be definitely improved. It is suggested that testicular resection may improve immune function.

  15. Segmental testicular infarction following cysto-prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam I Alleemudder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmental (partial testicular infarction is a very rare condition of unknown cause in more than 70% of cases. Several predisposing conditions have been described, but to our knowledge, this is the first documented case and often overlooked complication occurring as a result of cysto-prostatectomy. It usually presents in an acute manner resembling testicular torsion or epididymo-orchitis and is confirmed using ultrasonography. In some cases, it may present insidiously with no pain and may be confused with a testicular tumor due to the hypo-echoic features on imaging. In unclear situations, Doppler sonography shows vascularity and a magnetic resonance scan can be useful to distinguish between the two conditions.

  16. Rutin- and selenium-attenuated cadmium-induced testicular pathophysiology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarikwu, S O; Iserhienrhien, B O; Badejo, T A

    2013-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to cause oxidative damage in the testes of rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of rutin (RUT, 30 mg/kg) and selenium (Se, 0.15 ppm) alone or in combination against Cd (200 ppm)-induced lipid peroxidation, steroidogenesis and changes in antioxidant defence system in the rat testes. The obtained results showed that Cd increased lipid peroxidation and abnormal sperm count and decreased plasma testosterone, lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and testicular steroidogenic enzymes: 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 17β-HSD activities as well as epididymal sperm counts and motility, while RUT and Se treatment reversed this change to control values. Acute intoxication with Cd was also followed by significantly decreased activity of the antioxidant defence system (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)). Treatment with RUT and Se reversed Cd-induced alterations of antioxidant defence system and significantly prevented Cd-induced testes damage and depletion of plasma and testicular Se levels. RUT and Se appear not to have more profound effects than their separate effects against Cd-induced testicular toxicity, although Se was more potent than RUT in the recovery of testosterone levels. These results suggest that both RUT and Se do not have synergistic role against Cd-induced testicular injury.

  17. Investigation of retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a mouse model of retinal branch and central retinal vein occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ebneter

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion is a leading cause of visual impairment. Experimental models of this condition based on laser photocoagulation of retinal veins have been described and extensively exploited in mammals and larger rodents such as the rat. However, few reports exist on the use of this paradigm in the mouse. The objective of this study was to investigate a model of branch and central retinal vein occlusion in the mouse and characterize in vivo longitudinal retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal veins were experimentally occluded using laser photocoagulation after intravenous application of Rose Bengal, a photo-activator dye enhancing thrombus formation. Depending on the number of veins occluded, variable amounts of capillary dropout were seen on fluorescein angiography. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels were markedly elevated early and peaked at day one. Retinal thickness measurements with spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed significant swelling (p<0.001 compared to baseline, followed by gradual thinning plateauing two weeks after the experimental intervention (p<0.001. Histological findings at day seven correlated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging. The inner layers were predominantly affected by degeneration with the outer nuclear layer and the photoreceptor outer segments largely preserved. The application of this retinal vein occlusion model in the mouse carries several advantages over its use in other larger species, such as access to a vast range of genetically modified animals. Retinal changes after experimental retinal vein occlusion in this mouse model can be non-invasively quantified by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and may be used to monitor effects of potential therapeutic interventions.

  18. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdelruhman Sakr; Mohamed El-said Zoil; Samraa Samy El-shafey

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results: Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions:The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

  19. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and Leydig cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, U.N.; Jorgensen, N.; Rajpert-De, Meyts E.

    2008-01-01

    originating in early foetal life. TDS comprises various aspects of impaired gonadal development and function, including testicular cancer. A growing body of evidence, including animal models and research in human beings, points to lifestyle factors and endocrine disrupters as risk factors for TDS. We present......Fertility among human beings appear to be on the decline in many Western countries, and part of the explanation may be decreasing male fecundity. A hypothesis has been put forward that decreasing semen quality may be associated with a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), a spectrum of disorders...

  20. Tuberculous orchitis mimicking a testicular tumor:A diagnostic dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SeemaDayal; AlokKumar; SP Singh; ArchanaVerma

    2014-01-01

    A37-year old man presented with5 months history of left scrotal mass and had underwent left orchidectomy following a presumptive diagnosis of testicular tumour.Histopathological diagnosis of testicular tuberculosis was subsequently made, which revealed a case of isolatedTB orchitis. It signifies that the careful evaluation of patients with testicular mass is extremely significant for diagnostic accuracy, optimal treatment and avoiding unnecessary surgery in case of testicular tuberculosis.Simultaneously it will also help in early detection of testicular malignancies and vital for the clinicians to avoid negligence charges.

  1. Tuberculous orchitis mimicking a testicular tumor: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Dayal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year old man presented with 5 months history of left scrotal mass and had underwent left orchidectomy following a presumptive diagnosis of testicular tumour. Histopathological diagnosis of testicular tuberculosis was subsequently made, which revealed a case of isolated TB orchitis. It signifies that the careful evaluation of patients with testicular mass is extremely significant for diagnostic accuracy, optimal treatment and avoiding unnecessary surgery in case of testicular tuberculosis. Simultaneously it will also help in early detection of testicular malignancies and vital for the clinicians to avoid negligence charges.

  2. Probability to retrieve testicular spermatozoa in azoospermic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.-J.Glander; L.-C.Horn; W.Dorschner; U.Paasch; J.Kratzsch

    2000-01-01

    Aim: The degree of probability to retrieve spermatozoa from testicular tissue for intracytoplasmic sperm injection into oocytes is of interest for counselling of infertility patients. We investigated the relation of sperm retrieval to clinical data and histological pattern in testicular biopsies from azoospermic patients. Methods: In 264 testicular biopsies from 142 azoospermic patients, the testicular tissue was shredded to separate the spermatozoa, histological semi - thin sections of which were then evaluated using Johnsen score. Results: The retrieval of spermatozoa correlated significantly ( P 18 U/L, testicular volume < 5 mL, mean Johnsen score<5, and maximum Johnsen score < 7.

  3. Variant origin of right testicular artery – a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salve VM

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Testicular arterial anatomy is important for testicular and renal surgeries. It may vary at the origin and arise from renal artery, suprarenal artery or lumbar artery. During routine dissection of 52-year-old male cadaver; the right testicular artery arising from right aberrant renal artery was found. Anatomical variation of testicular arteries is reported to be 4.7%. Presence of aberrant renal artery is seen in 13–16% of cases only. The origin of right testicular artery from right aberrant renal artery is very rare. Thus knowledge of this type of variation is very important in avoiding complications during operative surgeries.

  4. MicroRNAs in Testicular Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hui; Krassnig, Lisa; Bullock, Marc D; Pichler, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Testicular cancer processes a unique and clear miRNA expression signature. This differentiates testicular cancer from most other cancer types, which are usually more ambiguous when assigning miRNA patterns. As such, testicular cancer may represent a unique cancer type in which miRNAs find their use as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, with a potential to surpass the current available markers usually with low sensitivity. In this review, we present literature findings on miRNAs associated with testicular cancer, and discuss their potential diagnostic and prognostic values, as well as their potential as indicators of drug response in patients with testicular cancer.

  5. Testicular microlithiasis in paediatric age; Microlitiasis testiculares en la edad pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanguesa, C.; Muro, D.; Dominguez, C. [Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the eco graphic patters of testicular microlithiasis (TM) in paediatric age, its associations, clinical implications and how to manage them. We study four children between 11 and 13 years old with testicular microlithiasis. The echographic study is realized with a 7.5 Mhz linear probe. Two of the cases present bilateral microlithiasis. In five of the testicles, the presentation fits the pattern of classic testicular microlithiasis (CTM) ({>=} 5 echogenic foci per transducer field) and one testicle presents limited testicular microlithiasis (< 5 echogenic foci per transducer field). Distribution in the case of CTM is diffuse in two testes, peripheral in another two testicles and central in one of them. In one of the bilateral presentations, a biopsy of both testes is performed, observing intra tubular calcification in both. None of them has developed a tumor during the follow-up period, which ranges from nine months to four years. (Author) 21 refs.

  6. Serial Ultrasonography Assessments of a Testicular Infarction Mimicking Testicular Tumor in a Behcet Disease Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeid Al-Ani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Behcet disease (BD, a vasculitic disease, may present with a broad range of systemic manifestations. Urologic complications are rarely described in the literature, but when they occur, they present as epididymo-orchitis. We describe a rare case of testicular infarction in a patient with BD followed up with serial ultrasound imaging. We highlight the diagnostic challenges when presented with testicular pain in a patient with BD and the potential consequences in the management.

  7. Effects of Elevated β-Estradiol Levels on the Functional Morphology of the Testis - New Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Myles; Trottmann, Matthias; Liedl, Bernhard; Reese, Sven; Stief, Christian; Freitag, Benjamin; Baugh, John; Spagnoli, Giulio; Kölle, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Elevated estradiol levels are correlated with male infertility. Causes of hyperestrogenism include diseases of the adrenal cortex, testis or medications affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effects of estradiol treatment on testicular cellular morphology and function, with reference to the treatment regimen received. Testes samples (n = 9) were obtained post-orchiectomy from male-to-female transsexuals within the age range of 26–52 years. Each patient had a minimum of 1–6 years estradiol treatment. For comparison, additional samples were obtained from microscopically unaltered testicular tissue surrounding tumors (n = 7). The tissues obtained were investigated by stereomicroscopy, histochemistry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry. Our studies revealed that estradiol treatment significantly decreased the diameter of the seminiferous tubules (p estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Both Sertoli and Leydig cells showed morphological alterations and glycoprotein accumulations. These results demonstrate that increased estradiol levels drastically impact the human testis. PMID:28045098

  8. Primary Testicular NK/T-Cell Lymphoma: A Study of Two Cases and Review of Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lin; Dan Li; Peng Xie; Can Mi; Qing Lin

    2010-01-01

    Primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma is an extremely rare entity progressed rapidly.The aim of this study was to examine clinical and pathological features of primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma and to investigate the effective diagnosis and prognosis.In this paper,the two cases of primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma were observed by light microscopy,immunohistochemistry and examined by in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr Virus(EBV)DNA and the literatures were reviewed.The two patients respectively present with bilateral and right-side painless testicular enlargement.The morphology of neoplastic cells of case 1 were small to medium,tumor cells of case 2 were small,medium and large mixed.The tumor cells grew diffusely with irregular and distort nuclear,destructed the organizational structure of the normal testis,and damaged blood vessels,meanwhile,coagulation necrosis was exist.Immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic cells showed positive for CD45,CD2,CD56,CD3ε(cytoplasm staining pattern),CD45RO and Granzyme B,and negative for CD57,CD20,CD79α,CD30,CK,MPO,TdT,Bcl-2 and PLAP were negative.In addition,the EBV DNA was detected in the lymphoma by In situ hybridization.In conclusion,the expression of CD56,CD3ε,and Granzyme B associated proteins and EBV examination by in situ hybridization play a vital role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma.

  9. Primary Testicular NK/T-Cell Lymphoma: A Study of Two Cases and Review of Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lin; Dan Li; Peng Xie; Can Mi; Qing Lin

    2011-01-01

    Primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma is an extremely rare entity progressed rapidly.The aim of this study was to examine clinical and pathological features of primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma and to investigate the effective diagnosis and prognosis.In this paper,the two cases of primary testicular NK/T-cell lymphoma were observed by light microscopy,immunohistochemistry and examined by in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA and the literatures were reviewed.The two patients respectively present with bilateral and right-side painless testicular enlargement.The morphology of neoplastic cells of case 1 were small to medium,tumor cells of case 2 were small,medium and large mixed.The tumor cells grew diffusely with irregular and distort nuclear,destructed the organizational structure of the normal testis,and damaged blood vessels,meanwhile,coagulation necrosis was exist.Immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic cells showed positive for CD45,CD2,CD56,CD3s (cytoplasm staining pattern),CD45RO and Granzyme B,and negative for CD57,CD20,CD79a,CD30,CK,MPO,TdT,Bcl-2 and PLAP were negative.In addition,the EBV DNA was detected in the lymphoma by In situ hybridization.In conclusion,the expression of CD56,CD3e,and Granzyme B associated proteins and EBV examination by in situ hybridization play a vital role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of primary testicularNK/T-cell lymphoma.

  10. Testicular self-examination and testicular cancer: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberger, Michael; Wilson, Bradley; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Griebling, Tomas L; Nangia, Ajay K

    2014-12-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended against testicular self-examinations (TSE) or clinical examination for testicular cancer screening. However, in this recommendation there was no consideration of the significant fiscal cost of treating advanced disease versus evaluation of benign disease. In this study, a cost-utility validation for TSE was performed. The cost of treatment for an advanced-stage testicular tumor (both seminomatous and nonseminomatous) was compared to the cost of six other scenarios involving the clinical assessment of a testicular mass felt during self-examination (four benign and two early-stage malignant). Medicare reimbursements were used as an estimate for a national cost standard. The total treatment cost for an advanced-stage seminoma ($48,877) or nonseminoma ($51,592) equaled the cost of 313-330 benign office visits ($156); 180-190 office visits with scrotal ultrasound ($272); 79-83 office visits with serial scrotal ultrasounds and labs ($621); 6-7 office visits resulting in radical inguinal orchiectomy for benign pathology ($7,686) or 2-3 office visits resulting in treatment and surveillance of an early-stage testicular cancer ($17,283: seminoma, $26,190: nonseminoma). A large number of clinical evaluations based on the TSE for benign disease can be made compared to the cost of one missed advanced-stage tumor. An average of 2.4 to 1 cost benefit ratio was demonstrated for early detected testicular cancer versus advanced-stage disease.

  11. Mechanism of diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) induced testicular damage and of grape seed extract-induced protection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kawi, Samraa H; Hashem, Khalid S; Abd-Allah, Saber

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) on testicular mitochondrial viability and lipid peroxidation as a possible novel mechanism of PEHP testicular toxicity and whether grape seed extract (GSE) beneficially influences the mitochondrial function in testes of rats exposed to diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP). Sixty male albino rats were divided into three groups (n = 20): group I: was used as a control, group II: received diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) (500 mg/kg/day orally) alone for 30 days, and group III: received the same DEHP dose in combination with GSE (proanthocyanidins) (100 mg/kg body weight). DEHP administration significantly decreases the testicular mitochondrial viability, mRNA expression of androgen receptors (AR), testosterone hormone concentration, increases mRNA expression of INOS and as compared to control group. It also decreases reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, glutathione reductase (GR), super oxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase activities and increases lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA fragmentation%. In synchronization, a substantial decrease of testicular & epididymal weight and volume which accompanied by considerable alteration of semen character. Grape seed extract (GSE) alleviates the toxic effects of DEHP by increasing the mitochondrial viability, decreases the lipid peroxidation, and increases the testicular antioxidant activity. Our results were confirmed by histopathological and immunhistochemical studies.

  12. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha J.G. Bauer

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Emergency assessment and diagnosis as well as scrotal exploration are important components of the management of acute testicular rupture. Analysis of the literature proves that timely surgical intervention is crucial; early intervention results in higher rates of preservation and avoids the need for an orchidectomy.

  13. Simultaneous acute appendicitis with right testicular torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a child with both acute appendicitis and torsion of the right testis presenting at the same time. Testicular torsion possibly occurring due to vomiting in acute appendicitis so far has not been reported in the literature.

  14. Quality of Life of Testicular Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, Joke

    2006-01-01

    Men who are diagnosed with testicular cancer are generally young. As a consequence of the treatment they receive nowadays, they are likely to cure from the disease, even when they have metastases. This means that they have to live with possible short- and long-term sequel of diagnosis and treatment

  15. Primary testicular failure in Klinefelter's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of androgen deficiency is based on clinical features and confirmatory low serum testosterone levels. In early primary testicular failure, a rise in serum LH levels suggests inadequate androgen action for the individual's physiological requirements despite a serum testosterone level ...

  16. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and Leydig cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Jørgensen, Niels; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    originating in early foetal life. TDS comprises various aspects of impaired gonadal development and function, including testicular cancer. A growing body of evidence, including animal models and research in human beings, points to lifestyle factors and endocrine disrupters as risk factors for TDS. We present...

  17. Testicular Cancer Survivorship : Research Strategies and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, Lois B.; Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of

  18. Surveillance in stage I testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Rørth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Treatment results on 695 stage I testicular cancer patients followed with surveillance are described. Seminoma (SGCT) was present in 394 patients and nonseminoma (NSGCT) in 301 patients. Relapses were detected in 155 patients (22%), in 69 patients with SGCT (17%) and 86 with NSGCT (29...

  19. TREATMENT FOR STAGE I TESTICULAR SEMINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Burova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall survival is about 100% in patients with stage I germinogenic testicular tumors after orchifuniculectomy, which is achieved, by applying alternative adjuvant approaches. The use of approaches, such as a follow-up, chemo- and radiotherapy, may be recommended in seminoma. The paper shows the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  20. TREATMENT FOR STAGE I TESTICULAR SEMINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Burova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall survival is about 100% in patients with stage I germinogenic testicular tumors after orchifuniculectomy, which is achieved, by applying alternative adjuvant approaches. The use of approaches, such as a follow-up, chemo- and radiotherapy, may be recommended in seminoma. The paper shows the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  1. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction: an update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali A Dabaja; Peter N Schlegel

    2013-01-01

    Patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) were once considered to be infertile with few treatment options due to the absence of sperm in the ejaculate.In the last two decades,the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI),and the application of various testicular sperm retrieval techniques,including fine needle aspiration (FNA),conventional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) have revolutionized treatment in this group of men.Because most men with NOA will have isolated regions of spermatogenesis within the testis,studies have illustrated that sperm can be retrieved in most men with NOA,including Klinefelter's syndrome (KS),prior history of chemotherapy and cryptorchidism.Micro-TESE,when compared with conventional TESE has a higher sperm retrieval rate (SRR) with fewer postoperative complications and negative effects on testicular function.In this article,we will compare the efficacy of the different procedures of sperm extraction,discuss the medical treatment and the role of testosterone optimization in men with NOA and describe the micro-TESE surgical technique.Furthermore,we will update our overall experience to allow counseling on the prognosis of sperm retrieval for the specific subsets of NOA.

  2. Resveratrol and curcumin ameliorate di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induced testicular injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Fattah, Amal Ahmed; Fahim, Atef Tadros; Sadik, Nermin Abdel Hamid; Ali, Bassam Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the protective role of resveratrol and curcumin on oxidative testicular damage induced by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups; three groups received oral daily doses of DEHP (2g/kgBW) for 45days to induce testicular injury. Two of these groups received either resveratrol (80mg/kgBW) or curcumin (200mg/kgBW) orally for 30days before and 45days after DEHP administration. A vehicle-treated control group was also included. Another two groups of rats received either resveratrol or curcumin alone. Oxidative damage was observed by decreased levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the testes of DEHP-administered rats. Serum testosterone level as well as testicular marker enzymes activities; acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) showed severe declines. DEHP administration caused significant increases in the testicular gene expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 as well as a significant decrease in c-Kit protein when compared with the control group. Histopathological observations provided evidence for the biochemical and molecular analysis. These DEHP-induced pathological alterations were attenuated by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. We conclude that DEHP-induced injuries in biochemical, molecular and histological structure of testis were recovered by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. The chemoprotective effects of these compounds may be due to their intrinsic antioxidant properties along with boosting Nrf2, HSP 60, HSP 70 and HSP 90 gene expression levels and as such may be useful potential tools in combating DEHP-induced testicular dysfunction.

  3. Testicular function in boys after chemotherapy and/or testicular irradiation for acute leukemia and malignant lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinami, Akira; Nakanishi, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Kimiko; Takubo, Yoshiyuki; Sako, Masahiro; Konishi, Shouzaburo (Osaka City General Hospital (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    Testicular function was investigated by testicular biopsy, testicular volume, testosterone and LH-RH test in 16 prepubertal boys with 15 cases of acute leukemia and one case of malignant lymphoma after chemotherapy and/or testicular irradiation. One of 2 cases who had infiltrated in testes received irradiation at onset. With another 2 cases, testis was resected at testicular relapse and irradiated on opposite side. All continued complete remission for 1-9 years after cessation of chemotherapy. Basal levels of serum testosterone, FSH and LH were normal in 13 cases of unirradiated group recently but spermatogonia in testicular biopsy specimen decreased on cessation of chemotherapy in 8 cases. Primary gonadal dysfunction was detected in 3 cases of irradiated group. And so testicular irradiation induced damage of tubular system and Leydig cell function. It is necessary to follow up about sexual maturation. (author).

  4. Morphological alterations in cryopreserved spermatozoa of scallop Argopecten purpuratus Alteraciones morfológicas en espermatozoides criopreservados de concha de abanico Argopecten purpuratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work identifies and quantifies the morphological alterations of scallop Argopecten purpuratus spermatozoa caused by long-term cryopreservation. Percentages of motility, fertilization and injured spermatozoa were quantified by optic microscopy and scanned electron microscopy. These parameters were evaluated in sperm without treatment (CTR, spermatozoa incubated in cryoprotective solution but not freezed (ICS and freezed-thawed spermatozoa (FTS. Spermatozoa of ICS treatment remained motile longer than those of CTR, whereas those of FTS treatment were lowest. Morphology of the spermatozoa was affected in several ways by the freeze-thawing treatment; some had their head deformed or swollen, others had their cell membrane folded or broken; acrosome reaction; anomalous positions or absence of mitochondria as well as broken, stiff or loss of lineal structure of tail. CTR and ICS treatments had higher percentages of undamaged sperm (87.7% and 79.0% respectively, while FTS samples had 14.2% of undamaged sperm. The tail was the spermatic structure most commonly injured in FTS (77.0%, the percentage of sperm with head injury was 55.1% and with acrosome reaction was 28.7%, whereas middle piece was affected in 23.9% of sperm. Percentages of fertilization were 68.3%, 67.9% and 58.2% for CTR, ICS and FTS respectively, which were not significantly different. There was a higher correlation between injuries and motility than between injuries and fertilization success. Correlation between motility and fertilization was low (0.605 and 0.668 with motility at 5 and 30 min, respectively.El presente trabajo identifica y cuantifica las alteraciones morfológicas en espermatozoides de concha de abanico A. purpuratus causadas por la criopreservación en nitrógeno líquido. Porcentajes de motilidad, fecundación de ovocitos frescos y espermatozoides lesionados (en cabeza, acrosoma, pieza media y flagelo fueron determinados bajo microscopía óptica y electr

  5. The Correlation between Ultrasound Testicular Volume and Conventional Semen Parameters in Albanian Subfertile Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Kristo

    2014-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Testicular volume has a direct correlation with semen parameters and the critical total testicular volume indicating normal testicular function is approximately 26.6 ml (the mean testicular volume 13.3 ml. The measurement of testicular volume can be helpful for assessing fertility at the initial physical examination.

  6. Evaluation of the morphological alteration of the root surface radiated with a diode laser; Avaliacao da alteracao morfologica da superficie cimentaria irradiada com laser de diodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, Mauricio

    2003-07-01

    The diode laser has been studied for periodontal therapy, as much for removal of calculus as for microbial reduction of periodontal pockets, as well as the visible analgesic effects and biomodulation capacity. For this reason the purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological alteration of the root surface after radiation with the diode laser, 808 nm through analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides this, to verify the temperature variations caused during the radiation, a thermometer put into the dentinal wall of the root canal was used. In all, 18 teeth were used, 15 of which for the SEM study, and the other 3 were used to temperature variation analysis. The 25 samples were scraped on the root surface and planed with manual instruments. The other 5 were not subjected to any type of treatment. This, 6 groups of 5 samples each were formed. Control Group C whose samples had not received any treatment; Control Group C 1 was only scraped and polished conventionally with Hu-Friedy Gracey curettes 5 and 6; the other samples groups L1, L2, L3, L4 were radiated by diode laser using parameters of power 1,0 W; 1,2 W; 1,4 W; and 1,6 W respectively, 2 times for 10 seconds with 20 seconds intervals between each radiation in continuous mode. The results with relation to the increase of temperature in the interior of the root canal demonstrated that there was an increase of more than 5 degree Celsius. The results of the scanning electron microscope analysis of Control Group C demonstrated great irregularity and ridges on the root surface, with the presence of a dentine layer. Control Group C1 presented a similar aspect to Group L 1's, smoother and more homogeneous surface. Groups L2, L3, and L4 presented scratches alternating with smoother areas showing that fiber contacted the surface of the sample. The results reconfirmed the necessity of further studies using diode laser, with a beam of light emitted in an interrupted mode to improve the control of

  7. AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF PUNICA GRANATUM ETHANOLIC EXTRACT IN CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED TESTICULAR TOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Bhargavan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To explore the potential role of Punica granatum ethanolic extract (PGEE in Cyclophosphamide (CP induced testicular toxicity. Methods: Healthy male Wistar rats were allotted to 4 groups (N=6, each Group I: Control, Group II: CP 15mg/kg twice a week, Group III: PGEE 100mg/kg, Group IV: CP and PGEE for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, organ weight, body weight, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, SOD, catalase, GSH, ACP & testosterone level in the testis were evaluated. Results: The CP treated rats showed toxicity evidenced by decreased organ and body weight, decreased sperm quality and testosterone level also increase in MDA and decrease in antioxidants SOD, GSH indicating oxidative stress. In contrast PGEE co-treatment with CP resulted in significant restoration of the above mentioned parameters. Conclusion: These results indicate that PGEE attenuates CP induced testicular toxicity through its ROS scavenging activity.

  8. Candidate Genes for Testicular Cancer Evaluated by In Situ Protein Expression Analyses on Tissue Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf I. Skotheim

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available By the use of high-throughput molecular technologies, the number of genes and proteins potentially relevant to testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT and other diseases will increase rapidly. In a recent transcriptional profiling, we demonstrated the overexpression of GRB7 and JUP in TGCTs, confirmed the reported overexpression of CCND2. We also have recent evidences for frequent genetic alterations of FHIT and epigenetic alterations of MGMT. To evaluate whether the expression of these genes is related to any clinicopathological variables, we constructed a tissue microarray with 510 testicular tissue cores from 279 patients diagnosed with TGCT, covering various histological subgroups and clinical stages. By immunohistochemistry, we found that JUP, GRB7, CCND2 proteins were rarely present in normal testis, but frequently expressed at high levels in TGCT. Additionally, all premalignant intratubular germ cell neoplasias were JUP-immunopositive. MGMT and FHIT were expressed by normal testicular tissues, but at significantly lower frequencies in TGCT. Except for CCND2, the expressions of all markers were significantly associated with various TGCT subtypes. In summary, we have developed a high-throughput tool for the evaluation of TGCT markers, utilized this to validate five candidate genes whose protein expressions were indeed deregulated in TGCT.

  9. Unilateral spontaneous rupture of a testicular implant thirteen years after bilateral insertion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Sanjay K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We describe a case of spontaneous, non traumatic rupture of a single artificial testis in a patient who had undergone bilateral, staged radical orchidectomy followed by prosthesis insertion. The consequences and radiological appearances of implant rupture are discussed. We believe it is the longest time interval recorded between prosthesis insertion and rupture. Case presentation A 50 year old Caucasian man presented to our outpatient department with an altered consistency in his right testicular prosthesis without any systemic symptoms or local inflammation. His left testicular prosthesis had retained its consistency since insertion. Conclusion The majority of cases reported to date have required exploration due to symptoms but we describe a case that was managed conservatively.

  10. Influence of gel morphology on the corrosion kinetics of borosilicate glass: calcium and zirconium effect; Influence de la morphologie du gel sur la cinetique d'alteration des verres borosilicates: role du calcium et du zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cailleteau, C

    2008-12-15

    This study is related to the question of the long-term behaviour of the nuclear waste confinement glass. A glass alteration layer (known as the 'gel'), formed at the glass surface in contact with water, can limit the exchanges between the glass and the solution. We studied five oxide based glasses SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO-ZrO{sub 2}. Two series of glasses were synthesized by substituting CaO for Na{sub 2}O and ZrO{sub 2} for SiO{sub 2}. The leaching showed that the presence of Ca improves the reticulation of the vitreous network, inducing a decrease in the final degree of corrosion and the presence of Zr prevents the hydrolysis of silicon, which leads to a decrease of the initial dissolution rate. However, the introduction of Zr delays the drop of the alteration rate and leads to an increase in the alteration degree. In order to explain this unexpected behaviour, the gel morphology was investigated by small angle X-ray scattering. These experiments showed that the restructuring of porous network during the glass alteration process is limited by the increase of the Zr-content. Then, the restructuring of gel is at the origin of the major drop in the alteration rate observed for the low Zr-content glasses. Besides, both time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) that provides an evaluation of extraneous element penetration into the gel pores and neutron scattering with index matching showed that the porosity closed during the corrosion in the glass without zirconia, but remained open in the high Zr-content glasses. These experiments, associated to simulations by a Monte Carlo method, establish a relationship between the morphologic transformations of gel and the alteration kinetics. (author)

  11. Ameliorative Effect of Green Tea Catechin Against Cadmium Chloride-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of green tea catechin (7500 µg/kg/animal/day) against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunctions and oxidative stress in the testes of mice. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were divided into six groups: group I, negative control; group II, catechin-treated control; group III, cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-treated control; group IV, experimental group I; group V, experimental group II; and group VI, experimental group III. Animals from all of these groups were necropsied at various post-treatment intervals between 12 hours and 30 days for various biochemical alterations in the testes. CdCl2 intoxication resulted in a significant decline in testicular total proteins, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase, whereas acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation exhibited a noticeable augmentation as compared to negative control. Catechin treatment effectively protected CdCl2-induced alterations in all such parameters throughout the experiment. Catechin was effective in reducing the CdCl2-induced augmentation of phase I (P450 and CYPB5) as well as phase II (DT-diaphorase and glutathione-S-transferase) enzymes in testes. Furthermore, CdCl2 intoxication was found to attenuate the antioxidant potential of testes, which was however augmented when supplemented with green tea extract. Compared to CdCl2-treated control mice, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and catalase levels were significantly decreased in testes. Indeed, green tea catechin significantly increased testicular antioxidant enzymatic activities compared to those given CdCl2 alone. In conclusion, the use of green tea extract appeared to be beneficial to a great extent in inhibiting and restoring the testicular injuries induced by CdCl2 intoxication in mammals.

  12. Neonatal outcome and congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Loft, A; Parner, Erik Thorlund;

    2013-01-01

    Does neonatal outcome including congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with epididymal and testicular sperm [testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) (TPT)] differ from neonatal outcome in children born after...

  13. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Main, K M; Leffers, H; Andersson, A-M; Juul, A; Jensen, T K; Toppari, J

    2007-08-01

    Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic countries, which shows strong associations between testicular cancer, undescended testis, hypospadias, poor testicular development and function, and male infertility. These studies have led us to suggest the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of which TGCC, undescended testis, hypospadias/disorders of sex differentiation and male fertility problems may be symptoms with varying penetration. In spite of their fetal origin, most of the TDS symptoms, including TGCC and poor semen quality, can only be diagnosed in adulthood. Data from a Danish-Finnish research collaboration strongly suggest that trends in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive health problems may also be rising.

  14. Fluazifop-p-butyl, an aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicide, diminishes renal and hepatic functions and triggers testicular oxidative stress in orally exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ore, Ayokanmi; Olayinka, Ebenezer Tunde

    2016-07-04

    Fluazifop-p-butyl (FPB) is a selective aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicide. Its phytotoxicity mechanism involves inhibition of lipid biosynthesis, free-radical generation, and oxidative stress in vulnerable plants. This study evaluates the impact of orally administered FPB on selected tissues in non-target animal model. Twenty-four male wistar rats (160-180g) were randomized into groups (I-IV). Group-I served as control, while animals in groups II, III, and IV received FPB at 18.75, 37.5, and 75 mg/kg body weight/day p.o., respectively, for 21 days. FPB caused significant (p testicular ascorbic acid, glutathione, and activities of glutathione-S transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were observed in FPB-treated animals when compared to control, in a dose-dependent manner. This was accompanied by increased testicular lipid peroxidation in the treated groups. Furthermore, a significant decrease in testicular acid phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase activities was also observed in the FPB-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner compared to control. However, testicular lactate dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased in the FPB-treated rats when compared to control. Additionally, histopathological studies revealed severe interstitial oedema and congestion of testicular blood vessels in the FPB-treated groups. Overall, data from this study suggest that FPB induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and oxidative stress-mediated alteration of testicular functions in rat.

  15. Ultrasonographic findings of testicular tumors: Correlation with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Joo; Koh, Byung Hee; Oh, Jae Cheon; Kim, Bong Soo; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Hyen Chul; Cho, On Koo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Park, Hae Young; Lee, Jung Dal [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    Scrotal sonography is a valuable tool for assessing the testis and surrounding structures, and has become the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of the scrotum. Scrotal sonography is also helpful for differentiating cystic from slid mass and testicular from extratesticular mass, but is sometimes difficult in differentiating malignant tumor from various benign conditions such as epidermoid cyst, focal orchitis, testicular hematoma, and abscess. We demonstrate the sonographic findings of the various testicular mass, and correlation with pathologic findings.

  16. Fertility, gonadal and sexual function in survivors of testicular cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Huddart, R A; Norman, A.; Moynihan, C; Horwich, A; Parker, C; Nicholls, E; Dearnaley, D. P.

    2005-01-01

    Modern treatments cure most testicular cancer patients, so an important goal is to minimise toxicity. Fertility and sexual functioning are key issues for patients. We have evaluated these outcomes in a cross-sectional study of long-term survivors of testicular cancer. In total, 680 patients treated between 1982 and 1992 completed the EORTC Qly-C-30(qc30) questionnaire, the associated testicular cancer specific module and a general health and fertility questionnaire. Patients have been subdivi...

  17. The death of sertoli cells and the capacity to phagocytize elongated spermatids during testicular regression due to short photoperiod in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Rovira, Vicente; Beltrán-Frutos, Esther; Ferrer, Concepción; Sáez, Francisco José; Madrid, Juan Francisco; Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), an animal that displays testicular regression due to short photoperiod, germ cells are removed by apoptosis during this process and the apoptotic remains are phagocytized by Sertoli cells. The aim of this work was to investigate morphologically whether the testicular regression process due to short photoperiod leads to the apoptosis of Sertoli cells, and whether, during testicular regression, the elongated spermatids are eliminated through phagocytosis by Sertoli cells. To this end, we studied testis sections during testicular regression in Syrian hamster subjected to short photoperiod by means of several morphological techniques using conventional light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], semi-thin section vimentin, immunohistochemistry, SBA lectin, and TUNEL staining), fluorescence microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). H&E and semi-thin sections identified Sertoli cells with a degenerated morphology. Greater portion of Sertoli cells that were positive for TUNEL staining were observed especially during the mild regression (MR) and strong regression (SR) phases. In addition, TEM identified the characteristic apoptotic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Sertoli cells. Moreover, during testicular regression and using light microscopy, some elongated spermatids were seen in basal position next to the Sertoli cell nucleus. This Sertoli phagocytic activity was higher in MR and SR phases. TEM confirmed this to be the result of the phagocytic activity of Sertoli cells. In conclusion, during testicular regression in Syrian hamster due to short photoperiod, when germ cells are known to be lost through apoptosis, there is morphological evidences that Sertoli cells are also lost through apoptosis, while some elongated spermatids are phagocytized and eliminated by the Sertoli cells.

  18. A Rare Complication of Brucellosis: Testicular Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella species. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This case was a male patient who developed Brucella epidiymo-orchitis and testicular abscess. He had fever, arthralgia and his right epididymis and right testicle were enlarged and tender. Ultrasound evaluation showed hypertrophy of the right epididymis and testis and moreover hypoechoic area within the testis. Brucella serology was positive and the patient did not respond completely to treatment with streptomycin, doxycycline, and rifampicina. Unilateral orchidectomy was decided. In areas where brucella infection is endemic brucella epididymo-orchitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Effective and rapid treatment is important. It should be noted that these patients may develop testicular abscess.

  19. Testicular chloroma in a nonleukemic infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael B; Nafiu, Olubukola O; Valdez, Riccardo; Park, John M; Williams, James A; Wechsler, Daniel S

    2005-07-01

    Extramedullary myeloid cell tumors (EMCT) are localized collections of immature myeloid cells that occur outside of the bone marrow. Usually observed concurrently with bone marrow disease, EMCT also may occur in the absence of overt marrow leukemia. In this report, we describe an infant with a testicular mass that was identified as an EMCT after orchiectomy. Unlike the only previously reported case of infantile testicular chloroma, this patient did not exhibit bone marrow disease at diagnosis. Because systemic chemotherapy is considered to be superior to local control (surgery, radiation therapy), the patient was treated with intensively timed induction chemotherapy followed by 3 cycles of maintenance treatment (according to CCG protocol #2891) but no radiation therapy. The patient remains disease-free 18 months after diagnosis.

  20. A Rare Cause of Testicular Metastasis: Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Nesip Manav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic testicular cancers are rare. Primary tumor sources are prostate, lung, and gastrointestinal tract for metastatic testicular cancers. Metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC to the testis is extremely rare. Two-thirds of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC is of invasive stage at diagnosis and metastatic sites are the pelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. We report a rare case of metastatic UTUC to the testis which has not been reported before, except one case in the literature. Testicular metastasis of UC should be considered in patients with hematuria and testicular swelling.

  1. Downregulation of Clusterin Expression in Human Testicular Seminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianjiang Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clusterin, a heterodimeric glycoprotein of approximately 80 kDa, exists extensively in human body fluids. The abnormal expression of clusterin is closely related to the occurrence, progression, and prognosis of tumors. Up to now, few studies have focused on clusterin in human testicular cancer. This study describes an extensive exploration of the presence and expression of clusterin in testicular seminoma. Methods: Tumor tissues and normal testis tissues were collected from 13 patients with testicular seminoma and 16 patients undergoing surgical castration for prostate cancer. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed to detect the expression difference of clusterin mRNA between testicular seminoma and normal testis. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis were performed to detect the presence and expression difference of clusterin protein between two groups. Results: Real-time PCR showed the expression of clusterin mRNA in testicular seminoma to be significantly lower than in normal testis (only 13% relative quantification. Western blot analysis indicated marked reductions in the expression of clusterin protein in testicular seminoma. Similar results were observed upon immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion: In testicular seminoma and normal testis, clusterin exists in its heterodimeric secretory isoform. Clusterin expression is significantly lower in testicular seminoma than in normal testis. This is the first comprehensive study of the presence and expression of clusterin in human testicular cancer.

  2. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  3. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kumar Sharma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heritable mutations may result in a variety of adverse outcomes including genetic disease in the offspring. In recent years the focus on germ cell mutagenicity has increased and the “Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS” has published classification criteria for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009. The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cells of mice were investigated. Different classes of chemicals were tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the comet assay in testicular cells. The chemicals included environmentally relevant substances such as Bisphenol A, PFOS and Tetrabrombisphenol A. Statistical power calculations will be presented to aid in the design of future Comet assay studies on testicular cells. Power curves were provided with different fold changes in % tail DNA, different number of cells scored and different number of gels (Hansen et al., 2014. An example is shown in Figure 1. A high throughput version of the Comet assay was used. Samples were scored with a fully automatic comet assay scoring system that provided faster scoring of randomly selected cells.

  4. Genetic alterations in uncommon low-grade neuroepithelial tumors: BRAF, FGFR1, and MYB mutations occur at high frequency and align with morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Orisme, Wilda; Wen, Ji; Santiago, Teresa; Gupta, Kirti; Dalton, James D; Tang, Bo; Haupfear, Kelly; Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Easton, John; Mulder, Heather; Boggs, Kristy; Shao, Ying; Rusch, Michael; Becksfort, Jared; Gupta, Pankaj; Wang, Shuoguo; Lee, Ryan P; Brat, Daniel; Peter Collins, V; Dahiya, Sonika; George, David; Konomos, William; Kurian, Kathreena M; McFadden, Kathryn; Serafini, Luciano Neder; Nickols, Hilary; Perry, Arie; Shurtleff, Sheila; Gajjar, Amar; Boop, Fredrick A; Klimo, Paul D; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Baker, Suzanne J; Zhang, Jinghui; Wu, Gang; Downing, James R; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Ellison, David W

    2016-06-01

    Low-grade neuroepithelial tumors (LGNTs) are diverse CNS tumors presenting in children and young adults, often with a history of epilepsy. While the genetic profiles of common LGNTs, such as the pilocytic astrocytoma and 'adult-type' diffuse gliomas, are largely established, those of uncommon LGNTs remain to be defined. In this study, we have used massively parallel sequencing and various targeted molecular genetic approaches to study alterations in 91 LGNTs, mostly from children but including young adult patients. These tumors comprise dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs; n = 22), diffuse oligodendroglial tumors (d-OTs; n = 20), diffuse astrocytomas (DAs; n = 17), angiocentric gliomas (n = 15), and gangliogliomas (n = 17). Most LGNTs (84 %) analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) were characterized by a single driver genetic alteration. Alterations of FGFR1 occurred frequently in LGNTs composed of oligodendrocyte-like cells, being present in 82 % of DNETs and 40 % of d-OTs. In contrast, a MYB-QKI fusion characterized almost all angiocentric gliomas (87 %), and MYB fusion genes were the most common genetic alteration in DAs (41 %). A BRAF:p.V600E mutation was present in 35 % of gangliogliomas and 18 % of DAs. Pathogenic alterations in FGFR1/2/3, BRAF, or MYB/MYBL1 occurred in 78 % of the series. Adult-type d-OTs with an IDH1/2 mutation occurred in four adolescents, the youngest aged 15 years at biopsy. Despite a detailed analysis, novel genetic alterations were limited to two fusion genes, EWSR1-PATZ1 and SLMAP-NTRK2, both in gangliogliomas. Alterations in BRAF, FGFR1, or MYB account for most pathogenic alterations in LGNTs, including pilocytic astrocytomas, and alignment of these genetic alterations and cytologic features across LGNTs has diagnostic implications. Additionally, therapeutic options based upon targeting the effects of these alterations are already in clinical trials.

  5. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis, spermatozoon and processes of testicular regression and recrudescence in Eptesicus furinalis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Larissa M; Beguelini, Mateus R; Comelis, Manuela T; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana

    2014-08-01

    Studies have shown that the annual reproductive cycle of Eptesicus furinalis includes at least one period of total testicular regression. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate their reproductive cycle ultrastructurally. The annual reproductive cycle was divided into four periods: active, regressing, regressed and recrudescence. The active period was similar to that of other bats, including the completion of spermatogenesis with three main types of spermatogonia (Ad, Ap and B) and 12 steps in the process of spermatid differentiation. However, its spermatozoa differed in that outer dense fibers 1, 5, 6 and 9 are larger than the others and due to the presence of what is likely a probably genera-specific bulging in the anterior portion. In the regressing period, Sertoli cell nuclei migrate to the basal compartment with the nuclei close to the basal lamina. The basal compartment had a more compact appearance than the adluminal compartment, with relaxed cellular connections. In the regressed period, spermatogenesis ceased; the seminiferous epithelium was composed only of Sertoli cells and three types of spermatogonia: types Ad, 1 and 2. In the recrudescence period, spermatogenesis restarted, with the process of reactivation divided into three phases: early, medial and late recrudescence. In conclusion, our study described the process of spermatogenesis and the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa and confirmed the presence of a process of total testicular regression in the annual cycle of E. furinalis. We characterize distinct morphologic variations in the ultrastructure of the testicular cells during the four different periods of the annual reproductive cycle.

  6. Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, Oluwatosin O; Jegede, Ayoola I; Onanuga, Ismail O; Offor, Ugochukwu; Naidu, Edwin Cs; Peter, Aniekan I; Azu, Onyemaechi O

    2016-10-01

    Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made the management of drug toxicities an increasingly crucial component of HIV. This study investigated the effects of adjuvant use of coconut oil and HAART on testicular morphology and seminal parameters in Sprague- Dawley rats. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153~169 g were distributed into four groups (A-D) and treated as follows: A served as control (distilled water); B (HAART cocktail- Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine); C (HAART + Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg). After 56 days of treatment, animals were killed and laparotomy to exercise the epididymis for seminal fluid analyses done whilst testicular tissues were processed for histomorphometric studies. Result showed a significant decline in sperm motility (P coconut oil + HAART resulted in significant decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter (P coconut oil alone (which showed normal histoarchitecture levels). While derangements in testicular and seminal fluid parameters occurred following HAART, adjuvant treatment with Virgin coconut oil restored the distortions emanating thereof.

  7. Age-related changes in rat testicular oxidative stress parameters by hexachlorocyclohexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, L.; Sahoo, A.; Chainy, G.B.N. [Biochemistry Unit, Department of Zoology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar (India)

    1999-03-01

    Effect of repeated oral administration of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH; 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight per day for 7, 15 and 30 days) on antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation (LPX) in the testis was compared between immature (15-day-old) and mature (90-day-old) rats. In both age-groups of rats, the pesticide elicited a significant decrease in the activities of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD; total and CN{sup -}-resistant) and catalase, and ascorbic acid content together with an increase in the levels of LPX (both in crude homogenate and subcellular fractions) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Testicular glutathione peroxidase (GPx; total and non-selenium-dependent) activity was enhanced in both the age-groups of rats while the testicular glutathione content as well as glutathione reductase activity remained unaltered. HCH treatment resulted in a decrease of total epididymal sperm number with a higher incidence of dead and damaged spermatozoa, and sperms having anomalous head. Statistical analyses suggest that the alterations in the testicular antioxidant defence profile in the rat are not only dependent on the duration of pesticide treatment, but also influenced by age. (orig.) With 6 figs., 3 tabs., 45 refs.

  8. Altered microglia morphology and higher resilience to stress-induced depression-like behavior in CX3CR1-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellwig, Sabine; Brioschi, Simone; Dieni, Sandra; Frings, Lars; Masuch, Annette; Blank, Thomas; Biber, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are suggested to be involved in several neuropsychiatric diseases. Indeed changes in microglia morphology have been reported in different mouse models of depression. A crucial regulatory system for microglia function is the well-defined CX3C axis. Thus, we aimed to clarify the role of micr

  9. Analysis of the testicular dose in patients undergoing radiotherapy for carcinoma of the prostate; Analisis de las dosis testiculares en pacientes sometidos a tratamiento radioterapico de carcinoma de prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejar Navarro, M. J.; Ordonez Marquez, J.; Hervas Moron, A.; Alvarez Rodriguez, S.; Garcia-Galloway, E.; Sanchez Casanueva, R.; Polo Rubio, A.; Rodriguez-Patron, R.; Yanowsky, K.; Gomez Dos Santos, V.

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this work are: -Studying comparatively the doses received in testes in patients undergoing radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma with external beam radiation and brachytherapy of low rate using I-125 seeds. -Compare doses due to images of verification using Cone Beam CT (CBCT), with doses of radiotherapy treatment itself. -Determine the seminal alterations and cytogenetic after treatment with ionizing radiation (RTE or BQT) in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and its relation with testicular dose. (Author)

  10. Microscopic Study of Testicular Tissue Structure and Spermatogenesis Following Long Term Dose Dependent Administration of Monosodium Glutamate in Adult Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianifard Davoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Diabetic hyperglycemia leads to structural and functional alterations in body organs including testis. Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a food additive which has toxic effects on human and animal’s tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MSG on diabetic complications of testicular tissue.

  11. Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination; Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Final Year Medical Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwumba, Fred O; Ekwueme, Osa Eloka C; Okoh, Agharighom D

    2016-11-01

    The testicular cancer (TCa) incidence is increasing in many countries, with age-standardized incidence rates up to 7.8/100,000 men in the Western world, although reductions in mortality and increasingly high cure rates are being witnessed at the same time. In Africa, where rates are lower, presentation is often late and morbidity and mortality high. Given this scenario, awareness of testicular cancer and practice of testicular self-examination among future first response doctors is very important. This study was conducted to determine knowledge and attitude to testicular cancer, and practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) among final (6th) year medical students. In addition, the effect of an intervention in the form of a single PowerPoint® lecture, lasting 40 minutes with image content on testicular cancer and testicular self examination was assessed. Pre and post intervention administration of a self-administered structured pre tested questionnaire was performed on 151 medical students, 101 of whom returned answers (response rate of 66.8%). In the TC domain, there was a high level of awareness of testicular cancer, but poor knowledge of the age group most affected, with significant improvement post intervention (ptesticular self-examination pre-intervention was found considering the nature of the study group..Respondents had surprisingly weak/poor responses to the question “How important to men’s health is regular testicular self-examination?” Answers to the questions “Do you think it is worthwhile to examine your testis regularly?” and “Would you be interested in more information on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination?” were also suboptimal, but improved post intervention ptesticular cancer in the curricula of medical schools and other training institutions for health care personnel.

  12. Unravelling mechanisms of cisplatin sensitivity and resistance in testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, R.; van Vugt, M. A. T. M.; Timmer-Bosscha, H.; Gietema, J. A.; de Jong, S.

    2013-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most frequent solid malignant tumour type in men 20-40 years of age. At the time of diagnosis up to 50% of the patients suffer from metastatic disease. In contrast to most other metastatic solid tumours, the majority of metastatic testicular cancer patients can be cured with

  13. Sexual dysfunctions in men treated for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Susanne; Kristensen, Ellids; Giraldi, Annamaria G E

    2008-01-01

    Patients treated for testicular cancer have increased risk of ejaculatory, orgasmic and erectile dysfunction compared with healthy men. The underlying relations are unclear. This review describes sexual dysfunctions that are associated with various treatment modalities. One meta-analysis and 11...... for understanding sexual dysfunctions in patients with testicular cancer....

  14. Teachers' Beliefs Concerning Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Royal E.; Kane, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This study compared secondary health teachers' beliefs concerning teaching about testicular cancer (TC) and self-examination (TSE) to actual instruction. TC and TSE education levels were low. Perceived barriers to teaching about TSE was the main predictor of TSE instruction. Teachers with previous preparation in TC and TSE provided the most…

  15. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the origin of carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Novotny, Guy W

    2008-01-01

    components of TDS and that the geographical location of the mother during pregnancy can be a risk factor. This suggests that the dysgenesis has its origin in utero and that TDS is initiated by environmental factors, including possibly hormone-disrupting compounds that act on the mother and the developing...... foetus, but the genetic background may also play a role. The morphological similarity of carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells (the precursor of the majority of invasive testicular cancers) with primordial germ cells and gonocytes, and overlap in expression of protein markers suggests an origin of CIS from...

  16. Testicular microlithiasis in a unilateral undescended testis: a rare phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Manchanda, V; Gupta, R

    2013-12-01

    Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a rare benign condition with presence of multiple small microcalcifications in the seminiferous tubules. Though the aetiology is unknown, TM has been described in association with a variety of urological conditions. We report the clinico-pathological features of a 12-year-old male child who underwent orchidectomy for undescended testis. Histopathological examination of the excised testis showed multiple small intratubular calcifications without any evidence of testicular neoplasia. TM is an unusual phenomenon that should be kept in mind while evaluating testicular biopsies. Though it behaves in a benign manner in most of the cases, patients with positive family history of testicular cancer should be followed-up for testicular tumour.

  17. Development and clinical application of a new testicular prosthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Ning; Zhikang Cai; Huixing Chen; Ping Ping; Peng Li; Zhong Wang; Zheng Li

    2011-01-01

    A new type of testicular prosthesis made of silastic with an elliptical shape to mimic a normal testis was developed by our team and submitted for patenting in China.The prosthesis was produced in different sizes to imitate the normal testis of the patient.To investigate the effects and safety of the testicular prosthesis,20 patients receiving testicular prosthesis implantation were recruited for this study.Follow-up after 6 months revealed no complications in the patients.All the patients answered that they were satisfied with their body image and the position of the implants,19 patients were satisfied with the size and 16 patients were satisfied with the weight.These results show that the testicular prosthesis used in this study can meet patient's expectations.Patients undergoing orchiectomy should be offered the option to receive a testicular prosthesis implantation.The dimensions and weight of the available prosthetic implants should be further addressed to improve patient satisfaction.

  18. [Traumatic Testicular Rupture Complicated with Hydrocele: A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamichi, Gaku; Tsutahara, Koichi; Okusa, Takuya; Taniguchi, Ayumu; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Tanigawa, Go; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    A 17-year-old man presented with right hydrocele because of an athletic injury. His scrotum was hit with a ball 2 months ago while playing baseball. He was diagnosed with post-traumatic hydrocele and underwent needle puncture at another hospital 1 month after the trauma. However, the hydrocele did not improve. Therefore, he was referred to our hospital for surgical treatment. For diagnosis of the traumatic hydrocele testis, a hydrocelectomy was scheduled. When we opened the tunica vaginalis, we realized that the tunica albuginea had been ruptured and the testicular parenchyma had gushed out. We tried to replace all the escaped testicular parenchyma into the tunica albuginea, but it was impossible. Therefore were moved some of the redundant testicular parenchyma, and replaced the remnants into the tunica albuginea. After the operation, right hydrocele and testicular atrophy did not occur. Traumatic testicular rupture complicated with hydrocele is rare.

  19. Role of US in testicular and scrotal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S

    2008-10-01

    High-frequency ultrasonography (US) with a linear-array transducer is the modality of choice for the initial evaluation of patients with acute scrotal pain after trauma. Testicular trauma is the third most common cause of acute scrotal pain. US is useful in the triage of patients for medical or surgical management because it reliably depicts tunica albuginea rupture, intra- and extratesticular hematomas, and testicular contusions. Color Doppler US allows direct evaluation of testicular perfusion and detection of uncommon conditions, such as testicular torsion, that may be associated with scrotal trauma. In addition, 10% of testicular tumors are found incidentally at US performed for the evaluation of trauma. If a conservative approach is adopted for the management of an intratesticular abnormality after trauma, follow-up US should be performed until the images show a complete resolution of the abnormality, so that a tumor will not be missed.

  20. Testicular cancer knowledge among deaf and hearing men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Loren; Nakaji, Melanie; Harry, Kadie M; Oen, Marcia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-09-01

    Testicular cancer typically affects young and middle-aged men. An educational video about prostate and testicular cancer was created in American Sign Language, with English open captioning and voice overlay, so that it could be viewed by audiences of diverse ages and hearing characteristics. This study recruited young Deaf (n = 85) and hearing (n = 90) adult males to help evaluate the educational value of the testicular cancer portion of this video. Participants completed surveys about their general, testicular, and total cancer knowledge before and after viewing the video. Although hearing men had higher pre-test scores than Deaf men, both Deaf and hearing men demonstrated significant increases in General, Testicular, and Total Cancer Knowledge scores after viewing the intervention video. Overall, results demonstrate the value of the video to Deaf and hearing men.

  1. Impairments in testicular function indices in male wistar rats: a possible mechanism for infertility induction by Xylopia aethiopica fruit extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ologhaguo Macstephen Adienbo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accumulating evidence about alterations in male fertility necessitates the need to screen more medicinal plants for their effect on male reproductive functions. This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of fruit extract of Xylopia aethiopica on testicular functions in males using wistar rats as models. Methods: Forty eight adult male rats, randomly divided into four groups of 12 each, were used for the study. Group 1 (control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 (test groups. Daily oral doses of 0.5, 2.0 and 10.0 mg/kg b.w. of hydro-methanol extract were given to the test groups for 30 days followed by 30 days withdrawal. From each group, 6 animals were sacrificed on days 31 and 61 of the study and samples collected: Testes and epididymis were each weighed; blood was assayed for serum testosterone; testes processed for tissue biochemical studies. Results: Results show significant (P <0.05 reductions in the weight of reproductive organs, serum testosterone; testicular glycogen, cholesterol, protein and malondialdehyde; while testicular superoxide dismutaase increased. Conclusions: It was concluded that Xylopia aethiopica impairs testicular functions in rats and therefore fertility in males. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 71-75

  2. Experiment K-6-02. Biomedical, biochemical and morphological alterations of muscle and dense, fibrous connective tissues during 14 days of spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailas, A.; Zernicke, R.; Grindeland, R.; Kaplanski, A.

    1990-01-01

    Findings on the connective tissue response to short-term space flight (12 days) are discussed. Specifically, data regarding the biochemical, biomechanical and morphological characteristics of selected connective tissues (humerus, vertebral body, tendon and skeletal muscle) of growing rats is given. Results are given concerning the humerus cortical bone, the vertebral bone, nutritional effects on bone biomechanical properties, and soft tense fiber connective tissue response.

  3. The protective role of erdosteine on testicular tissue after testicular torsion and detorsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Ahmet; Narci, Adnan; Duru, Mehmet; Gergerlioglu, H Serdar; Akaydin, Yesim; Sogut, Sadik

    2005-12-01

    Testicular torsion and detorsion are important clinical problems for infertile man and oxidative stress may have a role in this clinical situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of erdosteine, an antioxidant, on unilateral testicular reperfusion injury in rats. The rats were divided into four groups including seven rats in each group: control, torsion, torsion/detorsion and torsion/detorsion+erdosteine. Rats, except the sham operation group, were subjected to left unilateral torsion (720( composite function) rotation in the clockwise direction) without including the epididymis. The experiments were finished after sham operation time for control, 120 min torsion for torsion group and 120 min torsion and 240 min detorsion for torsion/detorsion groups. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed for all groups of rats. The ipsilateral and controlateral testis were divided into two pieces to analyse biochemical parameters and to investigate the light microscopic view. Malondialdehyde level of ipsilateral testis was increased in torsion and torsion/detorsion groups in comparison with the other groups (p Erdosteine treatment ameliorated lipid peroxidation after torsion/detorsion in ipsilateral testis (p Erdosteine treatment caused increased glutathione peroxidase activity in comparison with torsion and torsion/detorsion groups and catalase activity in comparison with the other groups in ipsilateral testis (p erdosteine groups than control and torsion groups (p erdosteine groups showed ipsilateral testicular damage in the histological examination, but the specimens from torsion/detorsion had a significantly greater histological injury than those from the other groups (p erdosteine group, the testicular tissues were affected with slight-to-moderate degenerative changes of the seminiferous epithelium. Administration of erdosteine resulted in a significantly reduced histological damage associated with torsion of the spermatic cord compared with torsion

  4. Differences between effects of psychological versus pharmacological treatments on functional and morphological brain alterations in anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quidé, Yann; Witteveen, Anke B; El-Hage, Wissam; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    The most prevalent mental disorders, anxiety and mood disorders, are associated with both functional and morphological brain changes that commonly involve the 'fear network' including the (medial) prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. Patients suffering from anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder often show excessive amygdala and reduced prefrontal cortex functioning. It is, however, still unclear whether these brain abnormalities disappear or diminish following effective treatment. This review aims to compare the effects of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy on functional and morphological brain measures in these disorders. Sixty-three studies were included, 30 investigating psychotherapy effects and 33 investigating pharmacotherapy effects. Despite methodological differences, results suggest a functional normalization of the 'fear network'. Pharmacotherapy particularly decreases over-activity of limbic structures (bottom-up effect) while psychotherapy tends to increase activity and recruitment of frontal areas (top-down effect), especially the anterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, pharmacotherapy, but not psychotherapy, has been associated with morphological changes, depending on the disorder. These findings suggest that both types of treatments normalize (functional) brain abnormalities each in specific ways.

  5. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Beard, Clair J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  6. Barriers Identified by Swedish School Nurses in Giving Information about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination to Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudberg, Lennart; Nilsson, Sten; Wikblad, Karin; Carlsson, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent school nurses in Sweden inform adolescent men about testicular cancer (TC) and testicular self-examination (TSE). A questionnaire was completed by 129 school nurses from 29 randomly selected municipalities. All respondents were women, with a mean age of 42 years. The results showed that…

  7. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination Training for Patient Care Personnel: Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…

  8. Effect of Phosalone on Testicular Tissue and In Vitro Fertilizing Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Amniattalab; Mazdak Razi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of phosalone (PLN) as an organophosphate (OP) compound on testicular tissue, hormonal alterations and embryo development in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we divided 18 mature Wistar rats into three groups-control, control-sham and test (n=6 per group). Animals in the test group received one-fourth the lethal dose (LD50) of PLN (150 mg/kg), orally, once per day for 45 days. DNA laddering an...

  9. Small Changes in Environmental Parameters Lead to Alterations in Antibiotic Resistance, Cell Morphology and Membrane Fatty Acid Composition in Staphylococcus lugdunensis

    OpenAIRE

    Crompton, Marcus J; R Hugh Dunstan; Macdonald, Margaret M.; Johan Gottfries; Christof von Eiff; Timothy K Roberts

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis has emerged as a major cause of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. This bacterium can rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions to survive and capitalize on opportunities to colonize and infect through wound surfaces. It was proposed that S. lugdunensis would have underlying alterations in metabolic homeostasis to provide the necessary levels of adaptive protection. The aims of this project were to examine the impacts of subtle variations in envi...

  10. A 55-Year-Old Man with Right Testicular Pain: Too Old for Torsion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu Ho; Yeung, Victor Hip Wo; Chu, Peggy Sau Kwan; Man, Chi Wai

    2017-02-01

    Testicular torsion is predominantly a disease of adolescence, but age itself should not be an exclusion criterion for the diagnosis. A lack of suspicion for testicular torsion in older patients may result in a missed or delayed diagnosis which jeopardizes the chance of testicular salvage. In this article, we report a case of testicular torsion in a 55-year-old Chinese man.

  11. Rac1 participates in thermally induced alterations of the cytoskeleton, cell morphology and lipid rafts, and regulates the expression of heat shock proteins in B16F10 melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcin Gungor

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells exhibit a characteristic response to hyperthermic treatment, involving morphological and cytoskeletal alterations and the induction of heat shock protein synthesis. Small GTPases of the Ras superfamily are known to serve as molecular switches which mediate responses to extracellular stimuli. We addressed here how small GTPase Rac1 integrates signals from heat stress and simultaneously induces various cellular changes in mammalian cells. As evidence that Rac1 is implicated in the heat shock response, we first demonstrated that both mild (41.5°C and severe (43°C heat shock induced membrane translocation of Rac1. Following inhibition of the activation or palmitoylation of Rac1, the size of its plasma membrane-bound pool was significantly decreased while the heat shock-induced alterations in the cytoskeleton and cell morphology were prevented. We earlier documented that the size distribution pattern of cholesterol-rich rafts is temperature dependent and hypothesized that this is coupled to the triggering mechanism of stress sensing and signaling. Interestingly, when plasma membrane localization of Rac1 was inhibited, a different and temperature independent average domain size was detected. In addition, inhibition of the activation or palmitoylation of Rac1 resulted in a strongly decreased expression of the genes of major heat shock proteins hsp25 and hsp70 under both mild and severe heat stress conditions.

  12. Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum prevents lead-induced testicular toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O Salawu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead, an example of heavy metals, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems such that their functions are compromised. Aim: In the present study, the ability of lead to adversely affect the male reproductive system was investigated and tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum : Source of antioxidants paste (TP was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. Materials and Methods: Fifteen Sprague Dawley rats, randomised into three groups (n = 5, were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1% Pb (II acetate (LA. Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml of TP/day. All treatments were for 8 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: A Mann-Whitney U -test was used to analyse the results obtained. Results: The obtained results showed that Pb caused a significant reduction in the testicular weight, sperm count, life-death ratio, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology, and plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration. But, Pb did not cause any significant change in the serum testosterone level. TP, however, significantly reduced these adverse effects of Pb. Conclusion: These findings lead to the conclusion that TP significantly lowered the adverse effects of Pb exposure on the kidney as well as Pb-induced oxidative stress.

  13. Induction of testicular damage by daily methamphetamine administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ji-Fan; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Chia; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Chen, Hung-En; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2014-02-28

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced brain damage and apoptosis within the central nervous system are well documented. This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of daily METH administration on the testes in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks old, ~100 g, n = 64) were divided into two groups and treated with vehicle (saline, control) or METH (10 mg/kg) for 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. The results showed that daily administration of METH decreased the body, testicular and epididymis weights as well as the serum levels of total testosterone. The increased apoptotic index (Bad/Bcl2 expression ratio) and levels of cleaved caspase-3 indicated that apoptosis had occurred in the testes of the METH-treated rats. The oxidative stress levels increased as the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio decreased. The overall sperm counts decreased at 15 and 90 days, where- as morphologically abnormal sperm counts increased at 30, 60 and 90 days in the METH-treated rats. This study demonstrates that daily exposure to METH significantly reduced the number and quality of sperm in rats. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms likely include the reduction of serum testosterone levels and the increase of oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat testes.

  14. Cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity in rats: the protective effect of arjunolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Iman O; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Sarhan, Osama M

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of arjunolic acid on testicular damage induced by intraperitoneal injection of rats with 7 mg/kg cisplatin was studied. Cisplatin induced a significant reduction in testicular weights, plasma testosterone, and testicular reduced glutathione levels in addition to a significant elevation of testicular malondialdehyde levels and testicular gene expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) when compared with the control group (p testicular injury by attenuating oxidative stress parameters along with downregulation of iNOS, TNF-α, and p38-MAPK testicular expressions.

  15. Next-century ocean acidification and warming both reduce calcification rate, but only acidification alters skeletal morphology of reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Kimmaree M; Castillo, Karl D; Armstrong, Pualani; Westfield, Isaac T; Courtney, Travis; Ries, Justin B

    2016-07-29

    Atmospheric pCO2 is predicted to rise from 400 to 900 ppm by year 2100, causing seawater temperature to increase by 1-4 °C and pH to decrease by 0.1-0.3. Sixty-day experiments were conducted to investigate the independent and combined impacts of acidification (pCO2 = 424-426, 888-940 ppm-v) and warming (T = 28, 32 °C) on calcification rate and skeletal morphology of the abundant and widespread Caribbean reef-building scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea. Hierarchical linear mixed-effects modelling reveals that coral calcification rate was negatively impacted by both warming and acidification, with their combined effects yielding the most deleterious impact. Negative effects of warming (32 °C/424 ppm-v) and high-temperature acidification (32 °C/940 ppm-v) on calcification rate were apparent across both 30-day intervals of the experiment, while effects of low-temperature acidification (28 °C/888 ppm-v) were not apparent until the second 30-day interval-indicating delayed onset of acidification effects at lower temperatures. Notably, two measures of coral skeletal morphology-corallite height and corallite infilling-were negatively impacted by next-century acidification, but not by next-century warming. Therefore, while next-century ocean acidification and warming will reduce the rate at which corals build their skeletons, next-century acidification will also modify the morphology and, potentially, function of coral skeletons.

  16. Developmental alterations of the C. elegans male anal depressor morphology and function require sex-specific cell autonomous and cell non-autonomous interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; René García, L

    2015-02-01

    We studied the Caenorhabditis elegans anal depressor development in larval males and hermaphrodites to address how a differentiated cell sex-specifically changes its morphology prior to adulthood. In both sexes, the larval anal depressor muscle is used for defecation behavior. However in the adult males, the muscle's sarcomere is reorganized to facilitate copulation. To address when the changes occur in the anal depressor, we used YFP:actin to monitor, and mutant analysis, laser-ablation and transgenic feminization to perturb the cell's morphological dynamics. In L1 and L2 stage larva, the muscle of both sexes has similar sarcomere morphology, but the hermaphrodite sex-determination system promotes more growth. The male anal depressor begins to change in the L3 stage, first by retracting its muscle arm from the neurons of the defecation circuit. Then the muscle's ventral region develops a slit that demarcates an anterior and posterior domain. This demarcation is not dependent on the anal depressor's intrinsic genetic sex, but is influenced by extrinsic interactions with the developing male sex muscles. However, subsequent changes are dependent on the cell's sex. In the L4 stage, the anterior domain first disassembles the dorsal-ventral sarcomere region and develops filopodia that elongates anteriorly towards the spicule muscles. Later, the posterior domain dissembles the remnants of its sarcomere, but still retains a vestigial attachment to the ventral body wall. Finally, the anterior domain attaches to the sex muscles, and then reassembles an anterior-posteriorly oriented sarcomere. Our work identifies key steps in the dimorphic re-sculpting of the anal depressor that are regulated by genetic sex and by cell-cell signaling.

  17. Prevalência de alteração morfológica do processo estilóide em pacientes com desordem temporomandibular Prevalence of morphological alterations of the styloid process in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria Ragone Guimarães

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar, radiograficamente, a prevalência de alterações morfológicas do processo estilóide em pacientes com desordens temporomandibulares. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 1.500 radiografias panorâmicas da articulação temporomandibular de pacientes de ambos os sexos e sem limitação de idade, que foram atendidos pelo Serviço de Desordem Temporomandibular da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG, no período de 1997 a 2003. RESULTADOS: Oitenta e três (5,53% dos pacientes da amostra apresentaram pelo menos um dos lados da articulação com alteração morfológica do processo estilóide, sendo 74 do sexo feminino e 9 do sexo masculino, concentrados na faixa dos 41 a 50 anos de idade (32,5%. Com relação ao tipo morfológico do processo estilóide, verificaram-se 113 alongados, 21 pseudo-articulados e 19 segmentados. Constatou-se, também, que as alterações morfológicas do processo estilóide desenvolvem-se de forma simétrica. CONCLUSÃO: Em pacientes com desordem temporomandibular as alterações do processo estilóide ocorrem de forma diferenciada e de maneira simétrica em cada paciente, independentemente do sexo e da idade.OBJECTIVE: To assess radiographically the prevalence of morphological alterations of the styloid process in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have analyzed 1,500 panoramic x-ray films of temporomandibular joint from both male and female patients with no age limit, who were attended in the Service of Temporomandibular Joint Disorder of Faculty of Odontology at Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, in the period between 1997 and 2003. RESULTS: Eighty-three (5.53% of the analyzed patients (74 female and 9 male, predominantly in the age range between 41 and 50 years (32.5%, presented with, at least, one of the joint sides with morphological alteration of the styloid process. As far as the type of styloid process in

  18. Thyroid status alters gill ionic metabolism and chloride cell morphology as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy in a teleost Anabas testudineus (Bloch): short and long term in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, P; Beyo, R S; Prasad, G; Sunny, F; Oommen, O V

    2007-12-01

    Gill is the main organ of osmotic regulation in teleosts and chloride cells are the sites of ion transport across gill epithelium. Thyroid hormones are implicated in the regulation of osmotic balance in teleosts also. Treatment with 6-propyl thiouracil (6-PTU) inhibited the membrane bound enzyme Na+K+ ATPase in the gill while triiodothyronine (T3) injection stimulated it in a short-term in vivo study in the teleost Anabas testudineus. Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ions were also decreased in the 6-PTU treated fish and the T3 treatment increased their concentrations in the gill lamellae. The gill morphology also changed according to the thyroid status in the long term study. 6-PTU treatment altered the typical serrated morphology of the gill lamellae, while the T3 treatment reversed it. T3 injection increased the density of pavement and chloride cells as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that physiological status of the thyroid influences gill Na+ pump activity and chloride cell morphological changes. Further, the study suggests a regulatory role of T3 on gill ions (Na+, K+ and Ca2+), Na+K+ and Ca2+ ATPase activity and the different gill cell types in A. testudineus.

  19. Prolonged Consumption of Sucrose in a Binge-Like Manner, Alters the Morphology of Medium Spiny Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Klenowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern diet has become highly sweetened, resulting in unprecedented levels of sugar consumption, particularly among adolescents. While chronic long-term sugar intake is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes, little is known regarding the direct consequences of long-term, binge-like sugar consumption on the brain. Because sugar can cause the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc similarly to drugs of abuse, we investigated changes in the morphology of neurons in this brain region following short- (4 weeks and long-term (12 weeks binge-like sucrose consumption using an intermittent two-bottle choice paradigm. We used Golgi-Cox staining to impregnate medium spiny neurons (MSNs from the NAc core and shell of short- and long-term sucrose consuming rats and compared these to age matched water controls. We show that prolonged binge-like sucrose consumption significantly decreased the total dendritic length of NAc shell MSNs compared to age-matched control rats. We also found that the restructuring of these neurons resulted primarily from reduced distal dendritic complexity. Conversely, we observed increased spine densities at the distal branch orders of NAc shell MSNs from long-term sucrose consuming rats. Combined, these results highlight the neuronal effects of prolonged binge-like intake of sucrose on NAc shell MSN morphology.

  20. Using volatile additives to alter the morphology and performance of active layers in thin-film molecular photovoltaic devices incorporating bulk heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Minh Trung; Wuest, James D

    2013-12-07

    Thin-film photovoltaic devices composed of polymers or small molecules have an exciting future as sources of renewable energy because they can be made in large sizes on flexible surfaces by inexpensive techniques of fabrication. Significant progress in developing new molecular photovoltaic materials and device architectures has been achieved in the last decade. The identity of molecular components in active layers and their individual optoelectronic properties obviously help determine the properties of devices; in addition, however, the behavior of devices depends critically on the nature of the local organization of the components. Recent studies have shown that the morphology of active layers can be tuned by adjusting various parameters, including the solvent used to cast the layer, thermal annealing, and special processing additives. In this review, we summarize the effect of volatile additives on the nanoscale morphology of molecular blends, and we show how these effects can improve the performance of devices. Although we focus on the behavior of mixtures of the type used in current molecular thin-film photovoltaic devices, the subject of our review will interest researchers in all areas of science and technology requiring materials in which separate phases must form intimate long-lived intermixtures with defined structures.

  1. Tuning the morphology, luminescence and magnetic properties of hexagonal-phase NaGdF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals via altering the addition sequence of the precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuwen; Xia, Donglin; Zhao, Ruimin; Zhu, Hao; Zhu, Yiru; Xiong, Yuda; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Hexagonal-phase NaGdF4: Yb, Er upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs) with tunable morphology and properties were successfully prepared via a thermal decomposition method. The influences of the adding sequence of the precursors on the morphology, chemical composition, luminescence and magnetic properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), upconversion (UC) spectroscopy, and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It was found that the resulting nanocrystals, with different sizes ranging from 24 to 224 nm, are in the shape of spheres, hexagonal plates and flakes; moreover, the composition percentage of Yb3+-Er3+ and Gd3+ ions was found to vary in a regular pattern with the adding sequence. Furthermore, the intensity ratios of emission colors (f g/r, f g/p), and the magnetic mass susceptibility of hexagonal-phase NaGdF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals change along with the composition of the nanocrystals. A positive correlation between the susceptibility and f g/r of NaGdF4: Yb, Er was proposed. The decomposition processes of the precursors were investigated by a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The result indicated that the decomposition of the resolved lanthanide trifluoroacetate is greatly different from lanthanide trifluoroacetate powder. It is of tremendous help to recognize the decomposition process of the precursors and to understand the related reaction mechanism.

  2. Evaluation of SF-1 expression in testicular germ cell tumors: a tissue microarray study of 127 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangoi, Ankur R; McKenney, Jesse K; Brooks, James D; Higgins, John P

    2013-07-01

    Differentiating testicular germ cell tumors from sex-cord stromal tumors can be difficult in certain cases because of overlapping morphologic features and/or an absence of clinically apparent hormonal symptoms. Immunohistochemistry may be needed as an ancillary diagnostic tool in this differential diagnostic setting. Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) is a nuclear transcription factor controlling steroidogenesis and is expressed in developing Sertoli and Leydig cells. Although 1 recent study has reported SF-1 nuclear immunoreactivity in testicular sex-cord stromal tumors, the specificity for this marker in germ cell tumors has not been evaluated. After encountering several problematic cases (including some on testicular biopsy), we sought to determine the diagnostic specificity of SF-1 in a large series of germ cell tumors. Nuclear immunohistochemical expression of SF-1 was evaluated in 127 germ cell tumors using tissue microarray technology with 23 non-germ cell tumor tissues as positive internal controls. No nuclear SF-1 expression was identified in any of the 127 germ cell tumors [including choriocarcinoma (3), embryonal carcinoma (25), epidermal inclusion cyst (1), intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (4), seminoma (72), spermatocytic seminoma (2), teratoma (8), and yolk sac tumor (12)]. All 23 non-germ cell tumor tissues showed strong nuclear SF-1 expression in Sertoli and/or Leydig cells [including testicular atrophy (10), cryptorchidism (2), normal testis (4), hypospermatogenesis (1), immature testis (1), intratubular large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor (1), Leydig cell tumor (3), and Sertoli only (1)]. This study documents the absence of SF-1 expression in testicular germ cell tumors and supports its specificity for sex-cord stromal lesions in this diagnostic context.

  3. Regulation of spermatogenesis by paracrine/autocrine testicular factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MahmoudHuleihel; EitanLunenfeld

    2004-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex process regulated by endocrine and testicular paracrine/autocrine factors.Gonadotropins are involved in the regulation of several testicular paracrine factors, mainly of the IL-1 family and testicular hormones. Testicular cytokines and growth factors (such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF, IFN-T, LIF and SCF) were shown to affect both the germ cell proliferation and the Leydig and Sertoli cells functions and secretion. Cytokines and growth factors are produced by immune cells and in the interstitial and seminiferous tubular compartments by various testicular cells, including Sertoli, Leydig, peritubular cells, spermatogonia, differentiated spermatogonia and even spermatozoa. Corresponding cytokine and growth factor receptors were demonstrated on some of the testicular cells. These cytokines also control the secretion of the gonadotropins and testosterone in the testis. Under pathological conditions the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased and negatively affected spermatogenesis. Thus,the expression levels and the mechanisms involved in the regulation of testicular paracrine/autocrine factors should be considered in future therapeutic strategies for male infertility. (Asian J Androl 2004 Sep; 6: 259-268)

  4. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk.

  5. Hesperidin attenuates benzo[alpha] pyrene-induced testicular toxicity in rats via regulation of oxidant/antioxidant balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, H M M; Aly, H A A; Abd-Ellah, M F; El-Refaey, H M

    2009-07-01

    Benzo[alpha]pyrene (BaP) is one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which has shown carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic potentials. The reproductive toxicity of BaP in male was not well investigated. Thereby, we have addressed in the current study the testicular toxicity of BaP and the postulate whether or not the citrus flavonoid, hesperidin (HDN), could ameliorate such toxicity in male Swiss albino rats. In this sense, animals were challenged with BaP (50 mg/kg/day, orally) for 10 consecutive days. HDN (200 mg/kg/day, orally) was administered ahead of BaP challenge for 10 consecutive days. BaP induced testicular toxicity that was well characterized histologically and biochemically. It decreased the relative testis weight and induced pyknosis and necrobiotic changes as well as chromatolysis in the nuclei of the spermatocytes in the seminiferous tubules. It also markedly deteriorated epididymal function as shown by decreased sperm count, motility, and daily sperm production. The polyaromatic hydrocarbon also reduced the testicular activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-X), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Besides, it decreased the testicular reduced glutathione (GSH) but increased malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Prior administration of HDN ahead of BaP challenge ameliorated all the histological and biochemical alterations induced by BaP. It improved the epididymal function and mitigated the injurious effects of BaP on the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion, HDN has proven protective effects in BaP-induced testicular toxicity paradigm, and this protection resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant properties.

  6. Next-century ocean acidification and warming both reduce calcification rate, but only acidification alters skeletal morphology of reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Kimmaree M.; Castillo, Karl D.; Armstrong, Pualani; Westfield, Isaac T.; Courtney, Travis; Ries, Justin B.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pCO2 is predicted to rise from 400 to 900 ppm by year 2100, causing seawater temperature to increase by 1–4 °C and pH to decrease by 0.1–0.3. Sixty-day experiments were conducted to investigate the independent and combined impacts of acidification (pCO2 = 424–426, 888–940 ppm-v) and warming (T = 28, 32 °C) on calcification rate and skeletal morphology of the abundant and widespread Caribbean reef-building scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea. Hierarchical linear mixed-effects modelling reveals that coral calcification rate was negatively impacted by both warming and acidification, with their combined effects yielding the most deleterious impact. Negative effects of warming (32 °C/424 ppm-v) and high-temperature acidification (32 °C/940 ppm-v) on calcification rate were apparent across both 30-day intervals of the experiment, while effects of low-temperature acidification (28 °C/888 ppm-v) were not apparent until the second 30-day interval—indicating delayed onset of acidification effects at lower temperatures. Notably, two measures of coral skeletal morphology–corallite height and corallite infilling–were negatively impacted by next-century acidification, but not by next-century warming. Therefore, while next-century ocean acidification and warming will reduce the rate at which corals build their skeletons, next-century acidification will also modify the morphology and, potentially, function of coral skeletons. PMID:27470426

  7. Anti-estrogen prevents xenoestrogen-induced testicular pathology of eelpout (Zoarces viviparus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Tina H; Teh, Swee J; Bjerregaard, Poul; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2005-04-30

    Estrogenic alkylphenols have been shown to affect the reproductive system of male fish causing induction of vitellogenin synthesis and altered testis structure. However, it is still unknown whether the histopathological effects on the testes is mediated by the estrogen receptor or if it represent general toxicopathological effects. In the present study, the effects of different concentrations of the estrogenic chemical 4-tert-octylphenol on vitellogenin (Vtg) synthesis and testicular structure were investigated in the eelpout Zoarces viviparus during spermatogenesis. Adult male eelpout were exposed to 4-tOP (nominal concentrations: 10, 50 or 100 microg l(-1)) or 17beta-estradiol (E2; 0.5 microg l(-1)) in a continuous flow-through system for 3 weeks. A group of fish were exposed to 4-tOP (50 microg l(-1)) concomitantly with the anti-estrogen ZM 189,154 (20 microg g(-1) week(-1), i.p.). The Vtg concentration in plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The testicular structure was examined by light microscopy and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP) activity was measured in the testes. The testicular localization of gamma-GTP was analysed by enzyme histochemistry. A marked increase in the plasma Vtg concentration was observed after exposure to the actual concentration of 35 microg l(-1) 4-tOP (nominal concentration, 50 microg l(-1)), 63 microg l(-1) 4-tOP (nominal concentration, 100 microg l(-1)) or E2. Co-treatment with ZM 189,154 totally abolished the 4-tOP-dependent induction of Vtg synthesis. Exposure to 4-tOP or E2 caused a marked reduction in the testis mass and severely affected the testicular development and structure including the Sertoli cells (based on histology and gamma-GTP activity), resulting in impairment of spermatogenesis and degeneration of lobular structures. Other cellular abnormalities such as accumulations of yellowish-brown pigmented cells and increased interstitial fibrosis in the testes was also observed in the exposed

  8. Isolated tuberculous orchitis: A mimicker of testicular malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated tuberculous orchitis is a rare entity. The coexistence of tuberculosis of the testis with filarial worm infestation is even more rare. In this report, we present a case of tuberculous involvement of the testis, associated with filarial worm infestation in the spermatic cord that presented as a testicular tumor. A 55-year-old male presented with unilateral testicular swelling of four months duration. As the clinical evaluation was suggestive of testicular malignancy, he underwent a right high orchidectomy. The histopathology report revealed isolated tuberculous orchitis without epididymal involvement along with filarial infestation of the spermatic cord.

  9. Undetectable inhibin B serum levels in men after testicular irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Andersson, A M; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    A group of men treated with testicular irradiation for carcinoma in situ in the remaining testis after orchidectomy for unilateral testicular germ cell cancer was used as a model to study of the effect of selective eradication of germ cells on the levels of serum inhibin B in the human male....... Thirteen men with verified spermatogenesis and detectable preirradiation levels of serum inhibin B (median, 55; range, 23-193 pg/mL) were investigated before and after testicular irradiation (14-20 Gy). All patients had undetectable levels of inhibin B 2-12 months (median, 5 months) after radiotherapy (...

  10. Long-term Morbidity of Testicular Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Chunkit; Fossa, Sophie D; Williams, Annalynn; Travis, Lois B

    2015-08-01

    Second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, hypogonadism, and nephrotoxicity are potentially life-threatening long-term complications of testicular cancer and its therapy. This article describes the pathogenesis, risks, and management of these late effects experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors, who are defined as individuals who are disease free 5 years or more after primary treatment. Testicular cancer survivors should follow applicable national guidelines for cancer screening and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. In addition, health care providers should capitalize on the time of cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to introduce and promote lifestyle changes.

  11. Burned-Out Testicular Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Balalaa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors constitute the majority of all testicular tumors, which are relatively rare overall and are mainly encountered in young adults and teenagers. The term ‘burned-out’ germ cell tumor refers to the presence of a metastatic germ cell tumor with histological regression of the primary testicular lesion. Clinical examination of the testes and scrotal sonography is pivotal in the initial diagnosis of such neoplasms. We present a case of a 31-year-old male with a retroperitoneal mass and no palpable lesion on testicular examination.

  12. Expression and effects of human telomerase RNA in testicular tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶哲伟; 陈晓春; 杨述华; 杨秀萍; 曾汉青; 谷龙杰; 鲁功成

    2004-01-01

    @@ Human telomerase RNA (hTR) plays an important role in determining repeated telomere sequence and the expression of an antisense telomerase RNA that leads to telomere shortening and cell death.1 Using highly sensitive in situ nucleic acid hybridisation, we investigated the expression of hTR in human testicular tumours and located its cellular expression. Our study may help in elucidating the role of hTR in human testicular tumours, finding a highly sensitive diagnostic method and a target for gene therapy of testicular tumours.

  13. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Jørgensen, N;

    2007-01-01

    in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive health......Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic....../disorders of sex differentiation and male fertility problems may be symptoms with varying penetration. In spite of their fetal origin, most of the TDS symptoms, including TGCC and poor semen quality, can only be diagnosed in adulthood. Data from a Danish-Finnish research collaboration strongly suggest that trends...

  14. TESTICULAR AND EPIDIDYMAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN MONGREL ADULT DOGS FROM SÃO JOÃO DA BOA VISTA (SP REGION AVALIAÇÃO HISTOPATOLÓGICA TESTICULAR E EPIDIDIMÁRIA EM CÃES ADULTOS SEM RAÇA DEFINIDA (SRD DA REGIÃO DE SÃO JOÃO DA BOA VISTA, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Laufer Amorim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Little has been explored about testicular and epidi-dymal changes in dogs in different Brazilian regions and their influence on canine fertility, mainly in mongrel dogs. This study was performed to verify the prevalence of testicular and epididymal histopathological changes in mongrel adult dogs from São João da Boa Vista (SP region, as well as the frequency according to animal size and occurrence of simultaneous testicular and epididymal lesions. The use of mongrel dogs was based on the fact that it is the most common breed in the Brazilian canine popula-tion. Testicles and epipidymis were obtained from 60 adult dogs, between 3 and 6 years old, in castration campaign and sorted to in small breed (28 animals, medium breed (28 animals and large breed (14 animals. Histopathological evaluation of the 120 testicles showed 107 cases of degeneration, 89 of tubular atrophy, 16 of hipoplasia, 6 of orchitis, 3 leydig cell tumor, 2 normal tissue, one sertolli cell tumor and one case of edema. In the epididymal evaluation, 55 were considered normal, 36 inflammatory, 22 papillary hyperplasia, 14 degenerations, 12 cribriform hyperplasia, 3 cases of fibrosis, one edema, one adeno-miosis and one spermatic granuloma. Testicular and epididymal lesions were more frequents in medium and large breeds. Cribriform epididymal hyperplasia was observed and papillary epididymal hyperplasia for papillary epithe-lial projections with normal morphology in the lumen was proposed.

    Key-words: Dog, epididym, testicle. histopathological alterations.

    A ocorrência de alterações testiculares e epididi-márias em cães nas diferentes regiões do país, assim como a influência delas sobre a fertilidade da espécie são ainda pouco exploradas, especialmente de cães sem raça definida (SRD. Neste estudo buscou-se determinar a prevalência das alterações histopatológicas testiculares e epididimárias nos

  15. Testicular germ cell tumours in dogs are predominantly of spermatocytic seminoma type and are frequently associated with somatic cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bush, J M; Gardiner, D W; Palmer, J S

    2011-01-01

    Unlike seminomas in humans, seminomas in animals are not typically sub-classified as classical or spermatocytic types. To compare testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) in dogs with those of men, archived tissues from 347 cases of canine testicular tumours were morphologically evaluated...... and characterized using human classification criteria. Histopathological and immunohistological analysis of PLAP, KIT, DAZ and DMRT1 expression revealed that canine seminomas closely resemble human spermatocytic seminomas. In addition, a relatively frequent concomitant presence of somatic cell tumours was noted...... in canine TGCT. None of the canine TGCT evaluated demonstrated the presence of carcinoma in situ cells, a standard feature of human classical seminomas, suggesting that classical seminomas either do not occur in dogs or are rare in occurrence. Canine spermatocytic seminomas may provide a useful model...

  16. Combined effects of electromagnetic field and low-level laser increase proliferation and alter the morphology of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurković, Jasmin; Zaletel, Ivan; Nurković, Selmina; Hajrović, Šefćet; Mustafić, Fahrudin; Isma, Jovan; Škevin, Aleksandra Jurišić; Grbović, Vesna; Filipović, Milica Kovačević; Dolićanin, Zana

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, electromagnetic field (EMF) and low-level laser (LLL) have been found to affect various biological processes, the growth and proliferation of cells, and especially that of stem cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EMF and LLL on proliferation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs) and thus to examine the impact of these therapeutic physical modalities on stem cell engraftment. hAT-MSCs were isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue of six persons ranging in age from 21 to 56 years. EMF was applied for a period of 7 days, once a day for 30 min, via a magnetic cushion surface at a frequency of 50 Hz and an intensity of 3 mT. LLL was applied also for 7 days, once a day for 5 min, at radiation energies of 3 J/cm(2), with a wavelength of 808 nm, power output of 200 mW, and power density of 0.2 W/cm(2). Nonexposed cells (control) were cultivated under the same culture conditions. Seven days after treatment, the cells were examined for cell viability, proliferation, and morphology. We found that after 7 days, the number of EMF-treated hAT-MSCs was significantly higher than the number of the untreated cells, LLL-treated hAT-MSCs were more numerous than EMF-treated cells, and hAT-MSCs that were treated with the combination of EMF and LLL were the most numerous. EMF and/or LLL treatment did not significantly affect hAT-MSC viability by itself. Changes in cell morphology were also observed, in terms of an increase in cell surface area and fractal dimension in hAT-MSCs treated with EMF and the combination of EMF and LLL. In conclusion, EMF and/or LLL treatment accelerated the proliferation of hAT-MSCs without compromising their viability, and therefore, they may be used in stem cell tissue engineering.

  17. Testicular tumors: correlation between radiological findings and pathology results; Neoplasias testiculares: aspectos ultra-sonograficos com correlacao anatomopatologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marques Ferreira de; Szejnfeld, Denis; Abud, Thiago G.; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: luisronan@gmail.com; Takano, Daniela Mayumi [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia Patologica; Goldman, Suzan Menasce [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Setor de Geniturinario

    2005-10-15

    The aim of this study is to review the main imaging findings and the pathological and clinical features seen on patients with testicular tumors in order to define characteristics that may help in the differential diagnosis of the most frequent lesions. We performed a retrospective study of 51 patients with diagnosis of testicular tumors submitted to ultrasound and computed tomography between July 2003 to March 2004 that were referred to the Diagnostic Department of Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo Hospital, Brazil. We concluded that a basic knowledge of the key imaging findings and pathological and clinical features of testicular tumor sis very helpful for an accurate diagnosis of this condition.(author)

  18. Maternal use of flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation prevents morphological alterations in pancreas of female offspring from rat dams with experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Vicente, Gabriela C; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Aline D; dos Anjos, Juliana S; Lenzi-Almeida, Kátia C; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional recommendations have promoted the increased need to consume n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of n-3 fatty acids among plant sources and is widely used for its edible oil. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal use of flaxseed oil has effects on pancreas morphology in the female offspring of diabetic mothers. Female Wistar rats (n = 12) were induced into diabetes by a high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin. After confirmation of the diabetes, rats were mated, and once pregnancy was confirmed, they were allocated into three groups (n = 6): high-fat group (HG); flaxseed oil group (FOG); and control group (CG) (non-diabetic rats). At weaning, female offspring (n = 6/group) received standard chow diet. The animals were euthanized at 180 days. Pancreas was collected for histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. HG showed hypertrophy of pancreatic islets (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG offspring had islets with smaller diameters compared to HG (P < 0.0001). HG offspring showed higher percentage of larger (P = 0.0061) and lower percentage of smaller islets (P = 0.0036). HG showed lower islet insulin immunodensity at 180 days (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG was similar to CG (P < 0.0001). Flaxseed oil reduced the damage caused by maternal hyperglycaemia, promoting normal pancreas histomorphometry and β-cell mass in female offspring.

  19. Comparative study of the effect of BPA and its selected analogues on hemoglobin oxidation, morphological alterations and hemolytic changes in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćczak, Aneta; Bukowska, Bożena; Michałowicz, Jaromir

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to provoke many deleterious impacts on human health, and thus it is now successively substituted by BPA analogues, whose effects have been poorly investigated. Up to now, only one study has been realized to assess the effect of BPA on human erythrocytes, which showed its significant hemolytic and oxidative potential. Moreover, no study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of BPA analogues on red blood cells. The purpose of the present study was to compare the impact of BPA and its selected analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on hemolytic and morphological changes and hemoglobin oxidation (methemoglobin formation) of human erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were incubated with different bisphenols concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 500μg/ml for 1, 4 and 24h. The compounds examined caused hemolysis in human erythrocytes with BPAF exhibiting the strongest effect. All bisphenols examined caused methemoglobin formation with BPA inducing the strongest oxidative potential. Flow cytometry analysis showed that all bisphenols (excluding BPS) induced significant changes in erythrocytes size. Changes in red blood cells shape were conducted using phase contrast microscopy. It was noticed that BPA and BPAF induced echinocytosis, BPF caused stomatocytosis, while BPS did not provoke significant changes in shape of red blood cells. Generally, the results showed that BPS, which is the main substituent of bisphenol A in polymers and thermal paper production, exhibited significantly lower disturbance of erythrocyte functions than BPA.

  20. Social defeat stress induces depression-like behavior and alters spine morphology in the hippocampus of adolescent male C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio D. Iñiguez

    2016-12-01

    Hippocampi were then dissected and Western blots were conducted to quantify protein levels for various markers important for synaptic plasticity including protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ, protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ, the dopamine-1 (D1 receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, and the dopamine transporter (DAT. Furthermore, we examined the presence of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA-receptor subunit GluA2 as well as colocalization with the post-synaptic density 95 (PSD95 protein, within different spine subtypes (filopodia, stubby, long-thin, mushroom using an immunohistochemistry and Golgi-Cox staining technique. The results revealed that social defeat induced a depression-like behavioral profile, as inferred from decreased social interaction levels, increased immobility on the tail suspension test, and decreases in body weight. Whole hippocampal immunoblots revealed decreases in GluA2, with a concomitant increase in DAT and TH levels in the stressed group. Spine morphology analyses further showed that defeated mice displayed a significant decrease in stubby spines, and an increase in long-thin spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Further evaluation of GluA2/PSD95 containing-spines demonstrated a decrease of these markers within long-thin and mushroom spine types. Together, these results indicate that juvenile social stress induces GluA2- and dopamine-associated dysregulation in the hippocampus – a neurobiological mechanism potentially underlying the development of mood-related syndromes as a consequence of adolescent bullying.

  1. 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine induces visible morphological alteration in the DNA puffs of the anterior salivary gland region of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. de Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd has long been known to interfere with cell differentiation. We found that treatment ofBradysia hygida larvae with BrdUrd during DNA puff anlage formation in the polytene chromosomes of the salivary gland S1 region noticeably affects anlage morphology. However, it does not affect subsequent metamorphosis to the adult stage. The chromatin of the chromosomal sites that would normally form DNA puffs remains very compact and DNA puff expansion does not occur with administration of 4 to 8 mM BrdUrd. Injection of BrdUrd at different ages provoked a gradient of compaction of the DNA puff chromatin, leading to the formation of very small to almost normal puffs. By immunodetection, we show that the analogue is preferentially incorporated into the DNA puff anlages. When BrdUrd is injected in a mixture with thymidine, it is not incorporated into the DNA, and normal DNA puffs form. Therefore, incorporation of this analogue into the amplified DNA seems to be the cause of this extreme compaction. Autoradiographic experiments and silver grains counting showed that this treatment decreases the efficiency of RNA synthesis at DNA puff anlages.

  2. A case of testicular tumor with uncommon clinical course: testicular lesion that was initially not palpable led to a wrong diagnosis of huge retroperitoneal hematoma due to trauma

    OpenAIRE

    沖, 守; 由井, 康雄; 吉田, 和弘; 秋元, 成太

    1984-01-01

    A case of testicular tumor with uncommon clinical course is presented. Although the patient underwent abdominal trauma and was diagnosed as having retroperitoneal hematoma, a retroperitoneal bulky tumor was revealed at surgery. After that left orchiectomy was performed because the testicular swelling gradually developed. The retroperitoneal tumor was confirmed to be a secondary lesion metastasized from left testicular carcinoma.

  3. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies.

  4. Ontogenesis of testicular function in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GaĂŤlle Angenard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two major functions of the testis, steroidogenesis and gametogenesis, take place during fetal life. These two functions have been extensively studied in rodents and adult humans. However, their onset during fetal life is poorly documented in humans. In the first part of this work we presented both our experimental data and some data of literature concerning the development of the human fetal testis. In the second part of this article, using the organ culture system we previously developed, we have investigated the regulations or perturbations of fetal testis development both in rodent and human models. Our findings provide important insight into the potential role of exposure to environmental pollutants (physical factors, in particular ionizing radiation, cadmium and endocrine disruptors such as phthalates during fetal testicular development and their potential deleterious effects on male fertility in adulthood. Our results highlight the specificity of the human model compared with rodent models.

  5. ABSCESSO TESTICULAR EM HAMSTER: RELATO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hamster, rodent originating from the Middle East, is a species studied along with other laboratory animals as experimental models in scientific papers and currently is also created as a pet, by virtue of being docile, easy to handle and require little space for survival. The suppurative processes in domestic animals are relatively frequent. Due to infectious diseases or purulent course of aggressiveness of the environment in which they live. The habit of storing food in the cheeks with sharp edges can injure the skin and often cause abscesses in this species. However, other lesions may lead to suppuration, diseases such as testicular tumor or no tumor or not produced by damage in the skin, leading to tumescence (VITAL et al., 2007. This article reports a case of a hamster treated at the Veterinary Hospital of FAFRAM with clinical history of discomfort, anorexia and frequent licking of the scrotum. On clinical examination it was found by aspiration of purulent secretions and the presence of large numbers of polymorphonuclear cells on cytology, diagnosed with testicular abscess. The animal was taken to the operating room where was performed conventional bilateral orchiectomy and total excision of the abscess by opening the tunica vaginalis and ligation of the spermatic cord. Postoperative care included antibiotic therapy with enrofloxacin and use of an anti-inflammatory meloxicam. After ten days the stitches were removed, the wound was healing satisfactorily and the animal was in good health.O Hamster, roedor originário do Oriente Médio, é uma espécie estudada juntamente com outros animais de laboratório como modelo experimental em trabalhos científicos e, atualmente, também é criado como animal de companhia, em virtude de ser dócil, de fácil manuseio e necessitar de pequeno espaço para sobrevivência. Os processos supurativos nos animais domésticos são relativamente frequentes. Em decorrência de doenças infectocontagiosas de

  6. Surveillance for Stage I Nonseminoma Testicular Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Gundgaard, Maria Gry; Mortensen, Mette Saksø

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe treatment results in a large cohort with stage I nonseminoma germ cell cancer (NSGCC) treated in a surveillance program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2007, 1,226 patients with stage I NSGCC, including high-risk patients with vascular invasion......, were observed in a surveillance program. RESULTS: The relapse rate after orchiectomy alone was 30.6% at 5 years. Presence of vascular invasion together with embryonal carcinoma and rete testis invasion in the testicular primary identified a group with a relapse risk of 50%. Without risk factors....... Relapses after 5 years were seen in 0.5% of the whole cohort or in 1.6% of relapsing patients. The majority of relapses (94.4%) belonged to the good prognostic group according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification. The disease-specific survival at 15 years was 99...

  7. A survey of DICER1 hotspot mutations in ovarian and testicular sex cord-stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Niamh; Schultheis, Anne M; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Silva, Annacarolina; Guerra, Esther; Tornos, Carmen; Reuter, Victor E; Soslow, Robert A; Young, Robert H; Oliva, Esther; Weigelt, Britta

    2015-12-01

    Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are characterized by the presence of somatic DICER1 hotspot mutations. In this study, we sought to define the association between DICER1 hotspot mutations and different morphologic subtypes of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. Furthermore, we aimed to assess whether DICER1 hotspot mutations occur in other ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, testicular sex cord-stromal tumors, or other female genital tract tumors with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. We subjected a series of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (n=32), Sertoli cell tumors (n=5) and gynandroblastomas (n=5), testicular sex cord-stromal tumors (n=15) and a diverse group of female genital tract tumors with rhabdomyosarcomatous morphology (n=10) to DICER1 hotspot mutation analysis using Sanger sequencing. We also tested two gynandroblastomas for the presence of FOXL2 hotspot mutations (p.C134W; c.402C>G). Twenty of 32 (63%) Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors harbored a DICER1 hotspot mutation, of which 80% had the p.E1705K mutation. No association was found between DICER1 mutation status and the presence of heterologous or retiform differentiation in Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. DICER1 mutations were found at similar frequencies in gynandroblastoma (2/5; 40%) and ovarian Sertoli cell tumors (5/8; 63%; P>0.1), and all mutated tumors harbored a p.E1705K mutation. DICER1 hotspot mutations were also identified in a single cervical rhabdomyosarcoma and in the rhabdomyosarcomatous component of a uterine carcinosarcoma. No DICER1 mutations were detected in testicular sex cord-stromal tumors. Two DICER1 wild-type gynandroblastomas harbored a p.C134W FOXL2 hotspot mutation in both tumor components. In this study we confirmed that DICER1 hotspot mutations occur in over half of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and are unrelated to tumor differentiation. We also widened the spectrum of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors with sertoliform differentiation, in which DICER1 mutations are known to

  8. Two periods of total testicular regression are peculiar events of the annual reproductive cycle of the black Myotis bat, Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Myotis nigricans presents few and controversial reproductive data, which indicate geographical variation in reproduction. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the seasonal modifications in testicular and epididymal morphologies in a tropical environment, submitting these organs to morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis. The observations revealed that this species presents two peaks of spermatogenic activity followed by two periods of total testicular regression (a quiescent pre-pubertal-like morphology, where only Sertoli cells and spermatogonia could be observed), in the same annual reproductive cycle, which seem to be only indirectly influenced by abiotic factors. This testicular behaviour seems to be synchronised with the caput and corpus epididymidis, but not with the cauda epididymidis, which presents aspects of sperm storage in May-June. The control of this variation seems to be directly linked to the expression of the androgen receptor, since, throughout the year, it is high in periods of testicular recrudescence and low in periods of deactivation. It is not thought to be directly linked to apoptosis, which is more pronounced in periods of recrudescence than in periods of regression.

  9. Multiple vascular anomalies involving testicular, suprarenal arteries and lumbar veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Jyothsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular arteries arise from the abdominal aorta and the inferior suprarenal artery from the renal artery. There are reports about variant origin and course of these arteries. Accessory testicular artery is also a common finding but its providing origin to inferior suprarenal artery is an important observation. During a routine dissection of abdomen of approximately 55-year-old male cadaver, unique vascular abnormality was observed. On the left side, a common arterial trunk originating from abdominal aorta immediately branched to give rise to superior testicular and inferior suprarenal arteries, the former after a short course hooked by the left suprarenal vein. In addition, the left suprarenal vein, second left lumbar vein, and left testicular vein joined to form a common trunk which drained into the left renal vein. A sound knowledge of vascular variations in relation to the kidney and suprarenal gland is important to surgeons dissecting the abdominal cavity.

  10. Segmental testicular infarction: sonographic findings and pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Michael; Nghiem, Hanh; Jafri, Syed Zafar; Schwartz, John; Malhotra, Rajwant; Amin, Mitual

    2013-02-01

    Segmental testicular infarction can mimic testicular carcinoma on sonography and can lead to unnecessary orchiectomy. This case series describes and correlates sonographic and histologic findings of 7 pathologically proven segmental testicular infarction cases. Segmental testicular infarction should be suspected on sonography when a geographic lesion with low or mixed echogenicity has absent or near-absent flow in a patient with scrotal pain. A hyperechoic rim and peripheral hyperemia correspond to interstitial hemorrhage and inflammatory changes. As an infarct evolves, it becomes more discrete and hypoechoic as ghost outlines replace seminiferous tubules. Follow-up or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging or sonography can increase diagnostic confidence in suspected cases and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy.

  11. Left testicular artery arching over the ipsilateral renal vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munekazu Naito; Hayato Terayama; Yoichi Nakamura; Shogo Hayashi; Takayoshi Miyaki; Masahiro Itoh

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To report two cases of the left testicular artery arching over the left renal vein (LRV) before running downward to the testis. Methods: The subjects were obtained from two Japanese cadavers. During the student course of gross-anatomical dissection, the anatomical relationship between the testicular vessels and the renal vein was specifically observed. Results: The arching left testicular artery arose from the aorta below the LRV and made a loop around the LRV, which appeared to be mildly compressed between the arching artery and the psoas major muscle.Conclusion: Clinically, compression of the LRV between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery occasionally induces LRV hypertension, resulting in varicocele, orthostatic protenuria and hematuria. Considering that the incidence of a left arching testicular artery is higher than that of a right one, an arching left artery could be an additional cause of LRV hypertension.

  12. Metachronous bilateral testicular germ cell tumors: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Francis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metachronous bilateral testicular germ cell tumors is a rare known problem. However, no report of metachronus bilateralism was identified in the PubMed database published from India so far, where testicular cancer is relatively rare. We report the cases of two gentlemen. One had stage 1 nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT at the age of 32 in 1990 and developed marker relapse on surveillance and had chemotherapy using cisplatin and etoposide for four cycles. He developed contralateral seminoma in the testis 13 years later. Another patient had left orchidectomy in 2003 for NSGCT, had adjuvant BEP for two cycles, and developed a contralateral testicular tumor 5 years later, which was also seminoma. As more patients with germ cell tumors are cured with chemotherapy, long-term problems become important. Contralateral testicular tumor is one of them. As it can be very late, many years of continued follow-up examination and patients′ awareness are necessary.

  13. Expression of ZmGA20ox cDNA alters plant morphology and increases biomass production of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Phat T; De Tar, Joann R; Lee, Hyeyoung; Folta, Michelle K; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2016-07-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is considered a model herbaceous energy crop for the USA, for its adaptation to marginal land, low rainfall and nutrient-deficient soils; however, its low biomass yield is one of several constraints, and this might be rectified by modulating plant growth regulator levels. In this study, we have determined whether the expression of the Zea mays gibberellin 20-oxidase (ZmGA20ox) cDNA in switchgrass will improve biomass production. The ZmGA20ox gene was placed under the control of constitutive CaMV35S promoter with a strong TMV omega enhancer, and introduced into switchgrass via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgene integration and expression levels of ZmGA20ox in T0 plants were analysed using Southern blot and qRT-PCR. Under glasshouse conditions, selected transgenic plants exhibited longer leaves, internodes and tillers, which resulted in twofold increased biomass. These phenotypic alterations correlated with the levels of transgene expression and the particular gibberellin content. Expression of ZmGA20ox also affected the expression of genes coding for key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis. Our results suggest that the employment of ectopic ZmGA20ox and selection for natural variants with high level expression of endogenous GA20ox are appropriate approaches to increase biomass production of switchgrass and other monocot biofuel crops.

  14. Seminoma presented as testicular rupture: Case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Lunawat, Rahul; Craciun, Marius; Omorphos, Savvas; Weston, Philip M.T.; Biyani, Shekhar C.

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of the testis as a result of blunt trauma is rarely seen in daily urological practice. We report an unusual case of incidental seminoma diagnosed after surgical exploration and subsequent orchidectomy of a severed testis following testicular injury as a result of trivial blunt trauma. This case highlights the inability of investigative tools, such as a scrotal ultrasound, in distinguishing an underlying tumour in the presence of testicular parenchymal damage. We therefore advocate a h...

  15. Testicular trauma secondary to less-lethal kinetic energy munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, Parviz K; Hermans, Michael R

    2006-06-01

    Many cases of testicular trauma secondary to munitions have been reported. We report a case of a 37-year-old man who suffered testicular trauma as a result of a less-lethal munition projectile. With the advent, and increased use, of less-lethal munitions by the military and law enforcement agencies, more of these new subsets of genitourinary trauma patients who will require care are sure to result.

  16. Altered sciatic nerve fiber morphology and endoneural microvessels in mouse models relevant for obesity, peripheral diabetic polyneuropathy, and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Marcin; Kosacka, Joanna; Serke, Heike; Blüher, Matthias; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of sciatic nerves from leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, both models for obesity, peripheral diabetic neuropathy, and the metabolic syndrome, has yet to be examined for changes in nerve fibers and in endoneural microvessels. Sciatic nerves from three groups of 4-month-old mice (WT C57BL6, ob/ob, and db/db) were investigated. In ultrathin sections, the thickness of myelin sheaths was significantly reduced in small, medium-sized, and large axons of db/db mice compared with WT mice. In ob/ob mice, only large fibers showed a decrease in myelin sheath thickness. The number of nonmyelinated nerve fibers was lower in ob/ob mice than in the db/db group. A thickened basal lamina of Schwann cells occurred in the ob/ob group only. In contrast, the basement membrane of endoneural microvessels was thickened in both obese groups. For this reason, laminin expression in Western blot analysis was lower in the db/db group than in the ob/ob one. Endoneural microvessels, which had been injected with fluorescein isothiocyanate, depicted signs of vasodilatation in the ob/ob and vasoconstriction in db/db mice. Endoneural vessels displayed two receptors of oxLDL. LOX-1 was strongly expressed in db/db mice, whereas TLR4 was at its maximum in the ob/ob group. We conclude that changes in nerve fibers and in endoneural microvessels are present in sciatic nerve of both mouse models of type 2 diabetes. Upregulation of oxLDL-dependent receptors in endoneural microvessels might be connected to different degrees of oxidative stress in severe diabetic db/db mice and in the mild diabetic ob/ob group.

  17. Prognostic features and markers for testicular cancer management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy S Leman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular neoplasm accounts for about 1% of all cancers in men. Over the last 40 years, the incidence of testicular cancer has increased in northern European male populations for unknown reasons. When diagnosed at early stage, testicular cancer is usually curable with a high survival rate. In the past three decades, successful multidisciplinary approaches for the management of testicular cancer have significantly increased patient survival rates. Utilization of tumor markers and accurate prognostic classification has also contributed to successful therapy. In this article, we highlight the most commonly used tumor markers and several potential "novel" markers for testicular cancer as part of the ongoing effort in biomarker research and discovery. In addition, this article also identifies several key prognostic features that have been demonstrated to play a role in predicting relapse. These features include tumor size, rete testis invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and tumor histology. Together with tumor markers, these prognostic factors should be taken into account for risk-adapted management of testicular cancer.

  18. Testicular Metastasis of Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumu Kusaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of secondary neoplasms of the testis during autopsies is approximately 2.5%. Although most secondary testicular metastases are due to prostate cancer, only a few patients with prostate cancer have clinically manifested testicular metastasis. We report the case of a prostate cancer patient with testicular metastasis who was diagnosed after the presence of a palpable mass in the right testis. A 56-year-old Japanese male presented to our hospital with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level of 137 ng/ml. He was diagnosed with stage IV (T3N1M1b prostate cancer and received androgen deprivation therapy, followed by various hormonal manipulations. His serum PSA level was undetectable for 1 year. No distant metastases were detected during imaging examinations. He received radiation therapy; however, his serum PSA level increased gradually. Four months later, he presented with right testicular swelling. Computed tomography revealed a heterogenous mass in the right testis and a right high inguinal orchiectomy was performed. Histopathological analysis showed that the right testis was infiltrated with metastatic adenocarcinoma with a Gleason score of 8. This is a rare case of right testicular metastasis in a patient with prostate cancer. Testicular metastasis of prostate cancer can be aggressive and metastasize.

  19. Epigenetics: a way to understand the origin and biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Keisei

    2012-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors are neoplasms carrying two unique features. First, testicular germ cell tumors have a pluripotential nature and show protean histology ranging from that of germ cells to embryonal and differentiated somatic cells. Therefore, testicular germ cell tumors are interesting resources positioned at a crossroad in developmental and neoplastic processes. The second unique feature of testicular germ cell tumors is their exquisite sensitivity to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This review summarizes recent research progress in the epigenetics of testicular germ cell tumors in an attempt to explain the abovementioned biological and clinical characteristics of testicular germ cell tumors.

  20. Testicular atrophy secondary to a large long standing incarcerated inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S Salemis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Testicular atrophy is a rare but distressing complication of inguinal hernia repair. Apart from the postsurgical etiology, ischemic orchitis and subsequent testicular atrophy may occur secondary to compression of the testicular vessels by chronically incarcerated hernias. We present a rare case of testicular atrophy secondary to a large long standing incarcerated inguinal hernia of 2-decade duration in a 79-year-old man. Testicular atrophy should be always considered in long standing incarcerated inguinal hernias and patients should be adequately informed of this possibility during the preoperative work-up. Preoperative scrotal ultrasonography can be used to determine testicular status in this specific group of patients.

  1. Moringa oleifera Lamarck (drumstick Leaf Extract Modulates the Evidences of Hydroxyurea -Induced Testicular Derangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Saalu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Hydroxyurea (HDU is an antineoplastic agent that is commonly used in the treatment of Sickle cell disease (SCD.However, the therapeutic value of HDU is limited by its organotoxicity including testicular toxity. It has been shown that free radicals are involved in HDU-induced toxicity. The Application of natural phenolic compounds in the prevention of many pathologic diseases has been reported. Herein, the ability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract (MOLE to protect rat testis against HDU-induced histomorphometric, spermatogenic, and oxidative status impairments were investigated. Three experimental groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were used; MOLE- alone group that received orally MOLE 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w daily for 90 consecutive days.  HDU-alone group that had 25 mg HDU/kg b.w/day/orally for 90 consecutive days. MOLE plus HDU-group that were Moringa oleifera  world’s most useful trees is also widely grown in the tropical regions.treated orally for 90 consecutive days with both  25 mg HDU/kg b.w/day and MOLE 50 mg/kg b.w/day.   There was also a corresponding control group which had distilled water 2.5 ml/kg b.w/day/orally for 90 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that co-treatment with MOLE protected the testis against the morphologic, spermatogenic and oxidative status changes induced by HDU. Industrial relevance: Hydroxyurea is commonly used in management of sickle cell disease. The use of this drug is however limited by its organotoxicity including testicular damage.  The present study therefore explores the ability of extract of Moringa oleifera. Leaves to prevent testicular damage during HDU therapy with a view of providing base line information on its possible use as an adjunct in future treatment regimes.

  2. Histological and histochemical effects of Gly-phosate on testicular tissue and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to the Gly-phosate (GP on rat’s testicular tissue and sperm parameters.Objective: Testicular tissue, morphology of sperms and testosterone level in serum of mature male rats were analyzed.Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into two test and control-sham groups. The test group was subdivided into 4 groups (10, 20, 30 and 40 days GP administrated. Each test group (n=8 received the compound at dose of 125 mg/kg, once a day, orally for 40 days while control-sham group (n=16 received the corn oil (0.2 ml/day.Results: Microscopic analyses revealed increased thickness of tunica albuginea, obvious edema in sub-capsular and interstitial connective tissue, atrophied seminiferous tubules, arrested spermatogenesis, negative tubular differentiation and repopulation indexes, decreased Leydig cells/mm2 of interstitial tissue, hypertrophy and cytoplasmic granulation of Leydig cells, elevated death, immature sperm and increased immotile and abnormal sperm percentage. The carbohydrate ratio was reduced in first three layers of the germinal epithelium (GE cytoplasm. The upper layers of the GE series were manifested with low rate of lipid accumulation in cytoplasm, while the cells which were located in first layers were revealed with higher amount of lipid foci. Hematological investigations showed significant (p<0.05 decreasing of testosterone level in serum.Conclusion: The current data provide inclusive histological feature of chronic exposure against GP with emphasizing on reproductive disorders including histological adverse effect on the testicular tissue, spermatogenesis, sperm viability and abnormality which potentially can cause infertility

  3. Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, Oluwatosin O; Jegede, Ayoola I; Onanuga, Ismail O; Offor, Ugochukwu; Naidu, Edwin CS; Peter, Aniekan I; Azu, Onyemaechi O

    2016-01-01

    Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made the management of drug toxicities an increasingly crucial component of HIV. This study investigated the effects of adjuvant use of coconut oil and HAART on testicular morphology and seminal parameters in Sprague- Dawley rats. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153~169 g were distributed into four groups (A–D) and treated as follows: A served as control (distilled water); B (HAART cocktail- Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine); C (HAART + Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg). After 56 days of treatment, animals were killed and laparotomy to exercise the epididymis for seminal fluid analyses done whilst testicular tissues were processed for histomorphometric studies. Result showed a significant decline in sperm motility (P < 0.05) and count (P < 0.0001) in HAART-treated animals while there was insignificant changes in other parameters in groups C and D except count that was reduced (P < 0.0001) when compared with controls. Histomorphological studies showed HAART caused disorders in seminiferous tubular architecture with significant (P < 0.01) decline in epithelial height closely mirrored by extensive reticulin framework and positive PAS cells. Adjuvant Virgin coconut oil + HAART resulted in significant decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter (P < 0.05), but other morphometric and histological parameters were similar to control or Virgin coconut oil alone (which showed normal histoarchitecture levels). While derangements in testicular and seminal fluid parameters occurred following HAART, adjuvant treatment with Virgin coconut oil restored the distortions emanating thereof. PMID:27818734

  4. Development of rat oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of sperm heads isolated from testicular and epididymal spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, S; Han, M-S; Niwa, K

    2003-07-01

    The possibility of obtaining normal development of rat oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of rat sperm heads, obtained by sonicating spermatozoa from testes and epididymides, was evaluated. Irrespective of the source of spermatozoa, sperm heads were successfully injected into approximately 45% of oocytes used; after 9-12h of culture, approximately 55% of injected oocytes still had normal morphology. Of the oocytes injected with testicular sperm heads 45% were activated, with a female pronucleus and a second polar body, but significantly more oocytes (approximately 68%) injected with caput and cauda epididymal sperm heads were activated. Male pronuclear formation was observed in 67-84% of the activated oocytes, with no difference in the proportions among the different sources of sperm heads. When zygotes showing two pronuclei and a second polar body at 10h after injection were cultured in conditions that support development of 1-cell embryos produced in vivo, no embryos derived from testicular sperm heads developed to blastocysts after 120 h of culture. Development of embryos derived from cauda sperm heads was significantly higher at all points of assessment, while embryos from caput sperm showed an intermediate degree of development, compared with embryos from testicular spermatozoa. However, similar proportions (2-4%) of 1-cell embryos derived from all three groups of sperm heads developed into normal offspring after transfer to foster mothers; of the limited number of offspring tested, all were fertile. These results demonstrate that sperm heads from all sources tested are similar in their ability to contribute to full development of normal, fertile offspring.

  5. Onco-testicular sperm extraction: birth of a healthy baby after fertility preservation in synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, M; Sampaio, M; Salles, P G de Oliveira; Geber, S

    2015-05-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) represent 1%-1.5% of all male neoplasms, and they have the highest prevalence among men between 15 and 35 years old. Synchronous bilateral disease is a rare presentation, and the ratio of metachronous to synchronous bilateral disease is about 4 : 1. Several studies have suggested a correlation between male infertility and testicular cancer, with a 20-fold increase in the incidence of testicular cancer in infertile patients compared with the general population. At the time of diagnosis, 50%-75% of patients with unilateral TGCT present with subfertility; almost 13% of the patients are azoospermic before treatment, and up to two-thirds of patients become azoospermic following adjuvant cancer therapies. Therefore, fertility preservation should be considered in all oncological treatments. The only available option to preserve the reproductive potential in azoospermic patients with testicular cancer is to perform an onco-testicular sperm extraction (onco-TESE) before cancer treatment. In this paper, we describe a rare case of a patient with synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia who was submitted to onco-TESE, sperm cryopreservation, and which was followed by the delivery of a healthy baby after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), emphasising the importance of fertility preservation in oncology patients.

  6. Study of morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the neoplastic cachexia Estudo das alterações morfológicas da glândula adrenal na caquexia neoplásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Longo Mazzuco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced cancer occurs with nutritional and metabolic alterations that characterize neoplastic cachexia. When homeostasis is compromised, the adrenal glands have a fundamental role in the neuroendocrine response. Our purpose in this research was to study morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the development of cancer associated to cachexia. Cachexia experimental model induced by Walker 256 tumor in Wistar rats, was used. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after tumor cells inoculation and adrenal glands removal for histopathologic analysis by means of hematoxylin and eosin stain. Nutritional parameters, cachexia index and adrenal glands weight, were evaluated. Animals with tumor presented cachexia index of 16,6 ± 4%. Adrenal glands average weight was significantly higher in the tumor group (40 mg ± 10 than in the control group (25 mg ± 3. Adrenal cortex of animals with cachexia showed hypertrophy of the zona fasciculata and reticular layer, with voluminous spongiocytes; vascular congestion and stasis were observed in the medullar region. Results were similar in the pair and ad libitum-fed groups. Animals with cancer cachexia showed compromised morphology of the adrenal glands which showed alterations related to stress response, suggesting increased cathecolamine secretion and activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis.   Advanced cancer occurs with nutritional and metabolic alterations that characterize neoplastic cachexia. When homeostasis is compromised, the adrenal glands have a fundamental role in the neuroendocrine response. Our purpose in this research was to study morphological alterations of the adrenal glands in the development of cancer associated to cachexia. Cachexia experimental model induced by Walker 256 tumor in Wistar rats, was used. Animals were sacrificed 12 days after tumor cells inoculation and adrenal glands removal for histopathologic analysis by means of hematoxylin and eosin stain. Nutritional

  7. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Jegede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL and lead acetate (i.p. 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS significantly (p<0.05 as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  8. Cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction and its amelioration by Launaea taraxacifolia leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuwon, S A; Femi-Akinlosotu, O M; Omirinde, J O

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the ameliorative potential of Launea taraxacifolia (LT) aqueous leaf extract on cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction in Wistar rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into six groups (A-F) of 5 rats each: Group A which served as control received water; Group B was intraperitoneally (ip) injected 10 mg kg(-1) body wt cisplatin on day 21; Groups C and D were given 100 and 400 mg of LT via oral administration, respectively, for 21 days while Groups E and F received similar treatment as Groups C and D, respectively, and then exposed to ip administration of 10 mg kg(-1) body weight cisplatin on the 21st day. Exclusively, Cisplatin-exposed Group B rats showed reduced sperm characteristics and increased sperm morphological abnormalities; distorted histological architecture of seminiferous tubules; significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH)levels in the testes. These parameters in LT alone treated Groups C and D were not markedly different compared with the control group. The rats with the combined treatment in Groups E and F showed significantly improved sperm parameters, testicular histo-architecture and antioxidant enzymatic activities. Conclusively, aqueous extract of L. taraxacifolia has protective potential against cisplatin damage.

  9. [Study on producing rats with experimental testicular dysfunction and effects of mecobalamin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, S; Ohkawa, I; Katoh, Y; Tajima, T; Kimura, M; Orikasa, S

    1988-04-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of mecobalamin (CH3-B12) on disorders of testicular function. Male rats received subcutaneously an injection of doxorubicin (ADR) three times a week for 3, 5 and 7 weeks. Thereafter, they were periodically sacrificed for the examination of cauda epididymal sperm profiles and the morphology of the testis. ADR treatment caused a decrease in sperm counts, sperm motility and the diameter of the seminiferous tubules, and an increase in the percentage of abnormal sperms. These damaging effects depended on the dosage and period of treatment with ADR. Based on these findings, rats with testicular dysfunction induced by the treatment with ADR at a daily dose of 0.25 mg/kg, three times a week for 5 weeks were prepared to investigate the effects of CH3-B12 on oligozoospermia. CH3-B12 was given intraperitoneally to the oligozoospermic rats six times a week for 5 and 10 weeks. The results obtained indicated that 1,000 micrograms/kg of CH3-B12 caused a significant increase in both the sperm counts and the diameter of the seminiferous tubules. These results suggest that CH3-B12 is a candidate drug for oligozoospermia.

  10. Kisspeptin-mediated regulation of testicular activity of rats under the effect of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Kalynovskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of biomedical applications of nanoparticles. They can be used as drug carriers, anti-tumor agents, biosensors and modulators of immune response. But full-scale real clinical application of nanomaterials requires a great deal of information on their safety and biotoxicity. Even traditionally harmless materials, like gold, can obtain toxic features when scaled to the nanosize. In vitro studies showed that nanoparticles can be geno- and cytotoxic, but their effects on the body as a whole remain largely a mystery. To shed some light on this, our study focused on the reproductive toxicity of nanomaterials. We synthesized 10–15 nm gold nanoparticles through the reduction of sodium tetrachloroaurate (III in an alkaline medium with the addition of sodium polyphosphate as a stabilizing agent. Next, these particles were administered intraperitoneally to young and old rats for 10 days. To test functional capabilities of the testes, we injected kisspeptin-10 or its antagonist peptide-234 intracerebroventricularly. These substances are known to stimulate or inhibit the central component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis respectively. After the routine histological procedures, we measured the diameter of seminiferous tubules and the nuclear cross-sectional area of Sertoli cells as markers of testicular spermatogenic activity and a cross-sectional area of the Leydig cells’ nuclei as a marker of testicular steroidogenesis. We found that injections of nanogold caused no significant changes in the young animals. At the same time, morphometric parameters of adult animals were significantly lower compared to control, although we observed no pathological changes in the tissue. Combined administration of gold nanoparticles and kisspeptin showed that the stimulatory effect of the latter was not observed at all. This is a specific feature of toxicants called “endocrine disruptors”. Moreover, we found morphological signs of

  11. Morphology, fine structure, biochemistry, and function of the spermatic ducts in marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnsteiner, Franz

    2003-10-01

    The spermatic ducts and the testicular efferent ducts were investigated in different marine teleost fish species (Diplodus sargus, Mullus barbatus, Thalassoma pavo, Trachinus draco, Uranuscopus scaber, Sparisoma cretense, Synodon saurus). From the morphological, histological, fine structural and biochemical investigations it appeared that the testicular main ducts and spermatic ducts of the investigated marine fish have the following functions: storage of spermatozoa, monosacharide synthesis for nutrition of spermatozoa, synthesis of steroid glucuronides, synthesis of seminal plasma proteins, formation of a ionic gradient in the seminal fluid and phagocytotic activity. Species-specific differences were only found in the morphology of the gonads and in the histology of the spermatic duct epithelium.

  12. Discovery – Cisplatin and The Treatment of Testicular and Other Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the discovery of cisplatin in 1965, men with testicular cancer had few medical options. Now, thanks to NCI research, cisplatin and similar chemotherapy drugs are known for curing testicular and other forms of cancer.

  13. Parents' choices in banking boys' testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2010-12-01

    Researchers are working to derive sperm from banked testicular tissue taken from pre-pubertal boys who face therapies or injuries that destroy sperm production. Success in deriving sperm from this tissue will help to preserve the option for these boys to have genetically related children later in life. For the twin moral reasons of preserving access and equity in regard to having such children, clinicians and researchers are justified in offering the option to the parents of all affected boys. However, some parents may wish to decline the option to bank tissue from their boys because the technique may seem too unfamiliar or unusual, but over time people may become more comfortable with the technique as they have done with other novel assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs). Other parents may wish to decline the option because of moral or religious reasons. A prominent natural law theory holds, for example, that the ARTs that would be involved in using sperm derived from banked tissue to produce a child are morally objectionable. Some parents might not want to bank tissue in order to shield their son from using ARTs they see as objectionable. Clinicians and researchers should respect parents who wish to decline banking tissue, but parents should ordinarily embrace choices that protect the possible interests their sons may have as adult men, including the wish to have genetically related children.

  14. Chemoprotective role of quercetin in manganese-induced toxicity along the brain-pituitary-testicular axis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Subair, Temitayo I; Ego, Valerie C; Oyediran, Oluwasetemi; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Reproductive dysfunction in response to manganese exposure has been reported in humans and animals. Quercetin, a bioflavonoid widely distributed in fruits, vegetables and beverages has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities in different experimental model systems. However, there is dearth of scientific information on the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced reproductive toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced functional alterations along the brain-pituitary- testicular axis in rats. Manganese was administered alone at 15 mg/kg body weight or orally co-treated with quercetin at 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days. Results indicated that quercetin co-treatment significantly (p quercetin mediated suppression of inflammatory indices and caspase-3 activity was accompanied by preservation of histo-architectures of the brain, testes and epididymis in manganese-treated rats. The significant reversal of manganese-induced decreases in reproductive hormones (i.e. luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone) and testicular activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase by quercetin was complemented by an increase in sperm quality and quantity in the treated rats. Collectively, quercetin modulated manganese-induced toxicity along the brain-pituitary-testicular axis in rats via its intrinsic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities, and may thus represent a potential pharmacological agent against manganese-induced male reproductive deficits in humans.

  15. Protective role of caffeic acid on lambda cyhalothrin-induced changes in sperm characteristics and testicular oxidative damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Fatma Ben; Fetoui, Hamadi; Zribi, Nassira; Fakhfakh, Feiza; Keskes, Leila

    2012-08-01

    The synthetic pyrethroids are expected to cause deleterious effects on most of the organs and especially on the male reproductive system. The current study was performed to assess the adverse effect of lambda cyhalothrin (LC) on reproductive organs and fertility in male rats and to evaluate the protective role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in alleviating the detrimental effect of LC on male fertility. A total of 48 male rats were divided into 4 groups (12 rats each): control group received distilled water ad libitum and 1 ml of vehicle solution given intraperitoneally (i.p.); CAPE-treated group received a single i.p. dose of CAPE (10 μmol kg⁻¹ day⁻¹); LC-treated group received 668 ppm of LC through drinking water; and CAPE + LC-treated group received an i.p. injection of CAPE (10 μmol kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) 12 h before the LC administration. The experiment was conducted for 10 consecutive weeks. LC caused a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase activities, and sperm abnormalities and a significant reduction in testicular glutathione concentration, sperm count, sperm motility, and a live sperm percentage. Conversely, treatment with CAPE improved the reduction in the sperm characteristics, LC-induced oxidative damage of testes and the testicular histopathological alterations. Results indicate that LC exerts significant harmful effects on the male reproductive system and that CAPE reduced the deleterious effects of LC on male fertility.

  16. Effects of 3-aminobenzamide on unilateral testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury: what is the role of PARP inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekimoglu, Askin; Kurcer, Zehra; Aral, Faruk; Baba, Fusun; Atessahin, Ahmet; Sakin, Fatih

    2010-12-01

    The therapeutic effects of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibition by 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) were investigated in testicular ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, using sperm analysis and histopathological and biochemical examinations, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Male rats were divided into 3 groups: sham (n = 12), I/R (n = 12), and I/R with 3-AB (I/R-3-AB) (n = 12). The left testicular artery was occluded for 1 h, followed by 24 h (for biochemical and histopathological examinations) and 30 days (for sperm analysis) of reperfusion. 3-AB treatment intraperitoneally 10 min prior to and 1 h after reperfusion increased the I/R-induced decrease in sperm motility in both testes and reduced the increased abnormal sperm rates in the ipsilateral testis. However, 3-AB treatment failed to prevent the I/R-induced decrease in sperm concentration in both testes. SOD and CAT activities did not change in any group. GSH-Px activity and GSH levels were increased by I/R. 3-AB treatment reversed the I/R-induced increase in GSH-Px activity, similar to the level in sham rats, but did not alter GSH levels. 3-AB treatment significantly increased the I/R-induced decrease in histopathologic score. In conclusion, 3-AB treatment has potential biochemical and histopathological benefits beyond improving sperm quality and may have the potential to decrease damage from testicular torsion.

  17. Melatonin prevents dexamethasone-induced testicular oxidative stress and germ cell apoptosis in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Vishwas, Dipanshu Kumar

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of melatonin on dexamethasone (Dex), an extensively used anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive synthetic glucocorticoid, induced testicular oxidative stress and germ cell apoptosis in golden hamster. Hamsters were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7): group I - control; group II - melatonin treated (10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) ); group III - Dex treated (7 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) ) and group IV - combination of Dex and melatonin. All the injections were administered intraperitoneally for seven consecutive days. The histopathological changes, specific biochemical markers, including antioxidative enzymes, plasma melatonin level and the markers for germ cell apoptosis were evaluated. Dex administration decreased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-PX ), plasma melatonin level and melatonin receptor (MT1) expression with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and altered testicular histopathology which might culminate into increased germ cell apoptosis as evident from increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 expression. However, melatonin pre-treatment enhanced enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX with a simultaneous decrease in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 expression. Our findings clearly suggest that melatonin improved defence against Dex-induced testicular oxidative stress and prevented germ cell apoptosis, suggesting a novel combination therapeutic approach for management of male reproductive health.

  18. Toxic effects of methoxychlor administered subcutaneously on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, A; Cabaleiro, T; Caride, A; Esquifino, A I

    2008-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of methoxychlor MTX at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult male rats. This global objective comprises three major aims: (1) to analyze the possible differential MTX effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence; (2) to evaluate effects induced by MTX exposure on gonadotropins and testosterone; 93 to elucidate whether the regulatory interactions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis are modified by this pesticide. Animals were administered subcutaneously 25mg/kg/day of MTX for 1 month. MTX increased norepinephrine and serotonin content in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05), but decreased serotonin concentration in posterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05). MTX diminished serotonin turnover in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.01) and decreased plasma LH (P < or = 0.001) and testosterone (P < or = 0.05) levels but those of FSH remained unmodified. We can conclude that MTX exposure: (1) could exert differential effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence, being the anterior hypothalamus the most sensitive region to the pesticide; (2) could inhibit LH and testosterone secretion without changing FSH; (3) four potential pathways might be involved in MTX effects on testosterone secretion (changing LH secretion; modifying serotonin and norepinephrine at the hypothalamic level; alterating the direct neural pathway between brain and testes; and/or by a direct effect in testes).

  19. Rat testicular mitochondrial antioxidant defence system and its modulation by aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, D K; Roy, Anita; Chainy, G B N

    2008-12-01

    Accumulation of oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) underlies fundamental changes found during aging. In the present study, age related effect on testicular mitochondrial oxidant generation and antioxidant defence profile was investigated in Wistar rats at 3 months (young adults), 12 months (old adults) and 24 months (senescent animals) of age. Mitochondrial oxidative stress parameters viz., lipid peroxidation (LPx), protein carbonylation, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), levels of total, oxidized (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were studied to find out their roles in maintenance of mitochondrial glutathione redox pool as a function of age. Increased levels of LPx, H2O2 and decreased GSH content accompanied by a decline in activities of SOD, GPx and GR with advancing age suggest that antioxidant defense profile of testicular mitochondria exhibit age related alterations which might play a critical role in regulating physiological functions of the testis such as steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis.

  20. Critical Function of PRDM2 in the Neoplastic Growth of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Di Zazzo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs derive from primordial germ cells. Their maturation is blocked at different stages, reflecting histological tumor subtypes. A common genetic alteration in TGCT is a deletion of the chromosome 1 short arm, where the PRDM2 gene, belonging to the Positive Regulatory domain gene (PRDM family, is located. Expression of PRDM2 gene is shifted in different human tumors, where the expression of the two principal protein forms coded by PRDM2 gene, RIZ1 and RIZ2, is frequently unbalanced. Therefore, PRDM2 is actually considered a candidate tumor suppressor gene in different types of cancer. Although recent studies have demonstrated that PRDM gene family members have a pivotal role during the early stages of testicular development, no information are actually available on the involvement of these genes in TGCTs. In this article we show by qRT-PCR analysis that PRDM2 expression level is modulated by proliferation and differentiation agents such as estradiol, whose exposure during fetal life is probably an important risk factor for TGCTs development in adulthood. Furthermore in normal and cancer germ cell lines, PRDM2 binds estradiol receptor α (ERα and influences proliferation, survival and apoptosis, as previously reported using MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, suggesting a potential tumor-suppressor role in TGCT formation.

  1. Case series on testicular torsion: an educational emergency for sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Baruga, Evarist; Guyton Munabi, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Testicular torsion remains a common surgical emergency of adolescent males presenting with sudden onset of intense scrotal pain in Africa. While the magnitude of testicular torsion is not known it has been identified as a cause of male infertility. Testicular loss in Africa is directly related to delay in surgery and the referral patterns at the point of first contact with health workers. This paper sets out to demonstrate the importance of the patient's age in the diagnosis of testicular tor...

  2. McCune-Albright syndrome presenting with unilateral macroorchidism and bilateral testicular masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Geetika; Kantawala, Kartikeya; Shinawi, Marwan; Sarwate, Sandhya; Dehner, Louis P

    2010-12-01

    Bilateral synchronous intratesticular masses are rare but can be caused by metastatic disease to the testicle, primary testicular masses or benign etiologies such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and granulomatous orchitis. We present an unusual case of McCune-Albright syndrome presenting with unilateral testicular enlargement and bilateral testicular masses secondary to Sertoli cell hyperplasia. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of testicular masses secondary to McCune-Albright syndrome.

  3. Pattern of testicular biopies as seen in a tertiary institution in Nnewi, Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi-Kingsley Oranusi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testicular biopsy is an acknowledged method of examination of the testes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We describe the pattern of testicular histologies in our environment. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of testicular histology results from the Pathology Department of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH, Nnewi, over a 5-year period, January 2008 to December 2012. Results: During the period, 285 testicular histologies were reported. Eighty-one (28.4% specimens were pathological specimens, while 204 (71.6% were nonpathological specimens. Thirty-seven (13.0% of the histology reports were for diagnostic purpose while 248 (87.0% were for therapeutic purpose. Based on the results, indications could also be categorized into three, benign testicular pathology, malignant testicular pathology, and testicular biopsy for male factor infertility. Thirty-seven cases (13.0% were due to male factor infertility with complete spermatogenic arrest as the most common histological finding in 21 (56.8% of the cases. Malignant testicular diseases accounted for 16 (5.6% of the indications for testicular biopsies. Benign testicular diseases accounted for 28 (9.8% of the indications for testicular biopsies. Hemorrhagic infarction from testicular torsion represented the commonest histology in 12 (42.9% cases, followed by inflammations of the testes. Conclusion: Indications for testicular biopsy can be diagnostic and therapeutic. They can also be categorized into benign testicular diseases, malignant testicular diseases, and male infertility. Investigation for male factor infertility was the only diagnostic indication for testicular biopsy. The high incidence of locally and metastatic prostate cancer in males explains why therapeutic removal of the testis is common.

  4. Chronic effect of endosulfan on the testicular functions of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C.Chitra; C.Latchoumycandane; P,P.Mathur

    1999-01-01

    Aim: To find out the toxic effect of endosulfan on the tesficular function of pubertal rats, Methods: Male rats of pu-bertal age were orally administered endosulfan at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. Twenty-four hours af-ter the last tmagnent, the rats were sacrificed and the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate were re-moved and weighed. A 10 % testicular homogenate was prepared for biochemical estimations. Results: In endosul-fan-treated rats, there were a reduction in the body weight and the weights of testis and accessory sex organs, a de-crease in the testicular lactate and pyruvate activities, and in the testicular DNA and RNA concentrations, whereas thetesticular protein concentration was slightly increased; the specific activity of testicular steroidogenic enzyme, 33OH-steroid dehydrogenase and the ascorbic acid level were decreased, which were correlated with a decrease in steroidoge-nesis. The lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase and brush-border enzyme alkaline phosphatase activities were also de-creased in the testis of treated rats. Conclusion: In puhertal rats, endosulfan treaanent inhibits the testicular functions.(Asian J Androl 1999 Dec; 1 : 203 - 206)

  5. Assessment of testicular volume: A comparison of fertile and sub-fertile West African men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Tijani

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Testicular volume on scrotal ultrasound correlates well with severity of oligospermia in men with sub-fertility. While the critical mean testicular volume necessary for adequate spermatogenesis has not been determined, it appears there is an optimal testicular volume of 18–20 ml at which spermatogenesis is at its peak in sub-fertile Nigerian men.

  6. Study on the incidence of testicular and epididymal appendages in patients with cryptorchidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favorito Luciano A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence of testicular and epididymal appendages in patients with cryptorchidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 65 patients with cryptorchidism, totalizing 83 testes and 40 patients who had prostate adenocarcinoma and hydrocele (control group, totalizing 55 testes. The following situations were analyzed: I absence of testicular and epididymal appendages, II presence of testicular appendage only, III presence of epididymal appendage, IV presence of testicular and epididymal appendage, V presence of 2 epididymal appendages and 1 testicular appendage and VI presence of paradidymis or vas aberrans of Haller. RESULTS: In patients with cryptorchidism we found testicular appendages in 23 cases (41.8%, epididymal appendages in 9 (16.3%, testicular and epididymal appendage in 8 (14.5%, 2 epididymal appendages and 1 testicular in 1 (1.8% and absence of appendages in 14 (25.4%. In the control group, we found testicular appendages in 29 (34.9%, epididymal appendages in 19 (22.8%, testicular and epididymal appendage in 7 (8.4%, and absence of appendages in 28 (33.7%, we did not find 2 epididymal appendages in this group, and none of the patients in the 2 groups presented paradidymis or vas aberrans of Haller. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of testicular and epididymal appendages is quite variable. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence and distribution of the testicular and epididymal appendages between patients with cryptorchidism and those from the control group.

  7. [Evaluation of testicular biopsy as an aspect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (introductory report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Z; Swierczyński, W; Dziecielski, H; Semmler, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was demonstration of the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in biopsy testicular specimens. The indication to testicular biopsy was azoospermia or cryptozoospermia. The studied group comprised 12 patients in whose semen C. trachomatis was found. For the identification of the organism culture in chick embryo was used. In 2 preparations C. trachomatis was demonstrated in testicular biopsy.

  8. File list: DNS.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular germ cells ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular germ cells ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 Unclassified Gonad Testicular germ cells... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular somatic ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 All antigens Gonad Testicular somatic... cells SRX591728,SRX591729,SRX591717,SRX591716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Unclassified Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 All antigens Gonad Testicular somatic... cells SRX591728,SRX591729,SRX591717,SRX591716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Unclassified Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular somatic ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Unclassified Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Histone Gonad Testicular somatic cell...s SRX591729,SRX591717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 All antigens Gonad Testicular somatic... cells SRX591729,SRX591728,SRX591717,SRX591716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Histone Gonad Testicular somatic cell...s SRX591729,SRX591717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: Unc.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Unclassified Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular somatic ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Histone Gonad Testicular somatic cell...s SRX591729,SRX591717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Histone Gonad Testicular somatic cell...s SRX591729,SRX591717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular somatic ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular germ cells ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Unc.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 Unclassified Gonad Testicular germ cells... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  4. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy changes the incidence of bilateral testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanBasten, JPA; Hoekstra, HJ; vanDriel, MF; Sleijfer, DT; Droste, JHJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1997-01-01

    Background: The introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy has remarkably increased the survival of testicular cancer patients. With this success, the concern for a contraIateral testicular tumor has increased. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the risk for contralateral testicular

  5. File list: Unc.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 Unclassified Gonad Testicular germ cells... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  6. Leydig cell damage after testicular irradiation for lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalet, S.M.; Horner, A.; Ahmed, S.R.; Morris-Jones, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of testicular irradiation on Leydig cell function has been studied in a group of boys irradiated between 1 and 5 years earlier for a testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Six of the seven boys irradiated during prepubertal life had an absent testosterone response to HCG stimulation. Two of the four boys irradiated during puberty had an appropriate basal testosterone level, but the testosterone response to HCG stimulation was subnormal in three of the four. Abnormalities in gonadotropin secretion consistent with testicular damage were noted in nine of the 11 boys. Evidence of severe Leydig cell damage was present irrespective of whether the boys were studied within 1 year or between 3 and 5 years after irradiation, suggesting that recovery is unlikely. Androgen replacement therapy has been started in four boys and will be required by the majority of the remainder to undergo normal pubertal development.

  7. Testicular histology in cryptorchid boys - aspects of fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, jørgen; Petersen, BL

    2007-01-01

    a testicular biopsy simultaneously with surgery for cryptorchidism. The histological findings may be helpful when deciding whether a cryptorchid boy older than 15 months may be offered supplementary hormonal treatment in order to stimulate germ cell proliferation after surgery. Key words: cryptorchidism...... is recommended in order to preserve testicular germ cell maturation (1). At orchiopexy testicular biopsies may be indicated to evaluate the fertility potential (1-4). In cryptorchidism the mean number of spermatogonia and gonocytes per tubular cross section (mean-S/T) in percent of the age-specific value...... correlates positively with the sperm count in adulthood (2-4). When the S/T-values bilaterally are normal in biopsies taken at orchiopexy for bilateral cryptorchidism at 10- 16 years of age, a normal sperm count is found in adulthood. If decreased mean S/T-values are found, the risk of later infertility...

  8. Late Relapses in Stage I Testicular Cancer Patients on Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Lauritsen, Jakob; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Comprehensive data on late relapse (LR) and very LR (VLR) in patients with clinical stage I (CS-1) testicular cancer followed on surveillance are missing. These data are essential for planning optimal follow-up. OBJECTIVE: Assess incidence and outcome of LR (>2 yr) and VLR (>5 yr...... patients with LR(VLR) do not differ significantly from patients with ER. PATIENT SUMMARY: We compared stage I testicular cancer surveillance patients with early relapse (ER) versus late relapse (LR; >2 yr). LR patients as a group did no worse than ER patients, although increased time to relapse......) in a large cohort of CS-1 surveillance patients, and examine differences in the clinical characteristics of patients with early relapse (ER), LR, and VLR. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: CS-1 surveillance patients diagnosed between 1984 and 2007 were identified from the retrospective Danish Testicular...

  9. Alterações morfológicas e funcionais dos rins de cães com insuficiência renal crônica Morphologic and functional alterations of the kidneys of dogs with chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Bueno de Camargo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Alterações morfológicas de 11 casos de cães com insuficiência renal foram caracterizadas e classificadas de acordo com os padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial de Saúde para seres humanos. Glomerulonefrite esclerosante difusa foi diagnosticada em 82,0% dos animais e nefrite intersticial crônica nos 18,0% restantes. Os tipos e freqüência das lesões identificadas foram similares às encontradas na literatura para a insuficiência renal crônica.Morphologic alterations of 11 cases of dogs with renal failure were characterized and classified according to the patterns established by the World Health Organization for human beings. Diffuse sclerosing glomerulonephritis was diagnosed in 82.0% of the animals and chronic interstitial nephritis in the remaining 18.0%. The types and frequencies of lesions were similar to the those noticed in the literature for chronic renal failure.

  10. Lunar synchronization of testicular development and steroidogenesis in rabbitfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M S; Takemura, A; Takano, K

    2001-06-01

    Lunar synchronization of testicular development in the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, was assessed by measuring changes in sperm motility and conditions in the seminal plasma, and by in vitro production of steroid hormones in testicular fragments and sperm preparations. The duration and percentage of sperm motility was low 1 week before spawning (the new moon), but increased significantly on the day of spawning (the first lunar quarter). During the first lunar quarter, the osmolality decreased, but Ca(2+) concentration increased in the seminal plasma. These results suggest that spermiation occurs rapidly towards the specific lunar phase. Testicular fragments and sperm preparations were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and two precursor steroid hormones, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP) and testosterone (T), during the two lunar phases. The production of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) increased significantly when the testicular fragments were incubated with hCG at the first lunar quarter, while incubation of sperm preparations with 17alpha-OHP during the same moon phase resulted in a significant increase in 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) production in the medium. These results suggest that 11-KT is produced in the somatic cells of the testis under the influence of gonadotropin, and that sperm can convert 17alpha-OHP to DHP. Additionally, steroidogenic activity was considered to increase toward the specific lunar phase. The synchronous increase in testicular activity supports the hypothesis that lunar periodicity is a major factor for the testicular development of S. guttatus.

  11. Viral-type orchitis: a potential mimic of testicular neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Kristina M; Young, Robert H; Ferry, Judith A

    2009-10-01

    Orchitis of viral or presumed viral etiology is an uncommon cause of testicular pain or enlargement. Rarely orchitis is clinically or radiographically suggestive of neoplasia, resulting in a testicular biopsy or orchiectomy being performed. Between 1978 and 2004, 10 cases submitted in consultation were diagnosed as orchitis at the Massachusetts General Hospital. The patients were from 18 to 37 years of age and presented with testicular enlargement or a mass, pain, or both. Radiographic studies were suspicious for a neoplasm in all 5 cases in which results were available. The patients underwent testicular biopsy (2 cases), orchiectomy (6 cases), biopsy immediately followed by orchiectomy (1 case), or biopsy followed by orchiectomy 3 weeks later (1 case). The cases were submitted with diagnoses that included intratubular seminoma, intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unspecified, Sertoli cell hyperplasia, myeloid sarcoma, and lymphoma. Microscopic examination revealed preservation of the architecture of the testicular parenchyma, typically with hemorrhage and edema, with patchy inflammation in the form of a lymphohistiocytic infiltrate within seminiferous tubules and also between tubules. The intratubular infiltrate usually predominated. Immunohistochemical studies, performed in 7 cases showed a mixture of CD68+ histiocytes and CD3+ T cells, with few B cells (CD20+) and few granulocytes. Follow-up was available in 5 cases; all 5 patients were alive and well 11 months to 10 years after diagnosis. In the rare instance in which a testicular specimen with orchitis is submitted for pathologic evaluation, diagnosis may be difficult. Familiarity with the pathologic changes characteristic of orchitis will help avoid misdiagnosis.

  12. Histology and testicular and epididimal ultraestructure in Anolis sagrei (Sauria: Polychrotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Sanz Ochotorena

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the testis and epididymis of the lizard Anolis sagrei using light microscopy and transmission electron is described. The architecture of testicular germ epithelium is similar to the other reptiles. Inside the seminiferous tubules spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids in varying degrees and numerous sperm in a gradual progression from the basement membrane to the lumen were found. This appears to be prelude of radial organization of amniotes. Particularities are described as intense pigmentation of the testicles and epididymis and its presence is attributed to protection strategies. All animals had a strong spermatogenic activity. The sperm has the nucleus with chromatin filament, an acrosome with double membranes, absence of dense bodies and 10 mitoncodrias in the middle piece. The epididymis is remarkable it´s columnar cell height and secretory activity.

  13. Testicular Mass in Late Adolescence: Not Always Malignant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delto, Joan C; Mittal, Angela G; Castellan, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    We present a rare case of cystic dysplasia of the testes in an adolescent boy who presented with testicular pain and found to have a palpable intratesticular mass. Ultrasound revealed an avascular cystic dilation of the testicle. Usually, a palpable intratesticular mass is malignant unless proven otherwise. However, on computed tomography scan, he was found to have agenesis of the ipsilateral kidney and dilation of the ipsilateral seminal vesicle. These findings were consistent with a congenital abnormality, suggesting that the testicular finding was likely cystic dysplasia of the testes, with low malignant potential. Thus, the patient did not undergo radical orchiectomy.

  14. Primary Testicular Carcinoid Tumor presenting as Carcinoid Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath L Chikkaraddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis are very rare, and they seldom present with carcinoid syndrome. We report a hereto unreported instance, where a patient with a long-standing testicular mass presented with carcinoid heart disease, an uncommon form of carcinoid syndrome. He presented with symptoms of right heart failure, episodic facial flushing and was found to have severe right-sided valvular heart disease. His urinary 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid level was elevated. He underwent orchidectomy and the histopathology confirmed a testicular carcinoid tumor.

  15. Gynecomastia Following Cytotoxic Therapy in a Patient with Testicular Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Akıncı

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia is the development of abnormal breast tissue in men. Relatively increased estrogen action on tissue level is believed to play a main role in the pathogenesis of the entity. Here, we describe a patient with painless gynecomastia presenting after cytotoxic chemotherapy for testicular cancer. Further investigations showed no evidence of disease progression, recurrence, or metastasis. We suggest that the clinicians should be aware that gynecomastia may follow cytotoxic chemotherapy for testicular cancer and does not reflect the return of malignancy. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 86-7

  16. Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Progressive, Refractory, or Recurrent Stage II or Stage III Testicular or Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Seminoma

  17. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of torsion of testicular appendages; Diagnostico por ecografia de la torsion de los apendices testiculares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Cordero, J. L. [Hospital Virgen del Camino. Pamplona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To determine the efficacy of ultrasound in boys presenting torsion of a testicular appendage. A series of 30 boys with acute scrotal pain due to torsion of a testicular appendage was studied. Nine patients underwent surgery. The clinical findings and course in the remaining 21 suggested the presence of this abnormality. All of them underwent conventional and color Doppler ultrasound using a 7.5 MHz transducer. In 15 boys, ultrasound images depicted the affected appendage as a mass between the epididymal head and the testicle. In 13 cases, only signs of a inflammatory reaction, with enlargement of the epididymal head and tunicas presenting hyperflow and hydrocele, mimicking acute epididymities. In two cases, the images were normal. There is no definitive, distinguishing ultrasound image corresponding to testicular appendage torsion. Therefore, this diagnostic technique should be accompanied by clinical assessment. (Author) 14 refs.

  18. Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia of the Testis, Bilateral Testicular Cancer, and Aberrant Histologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pranav; Dhillon, Jasreman; Sexton, Wade J

    2015-08-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors, most of which are early stage. ITGCN is also associated with testicular cancer or ITGCN in the contralateral testis, leading to a risk of bilateral testicular malignancy. Testicular biopsy detects most cases, and orchiectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with unilateral ITGCN. Low-dose radiation therapy is recommended in patients with bilateral ITGCN or ITGCN in the solitary testis, but the long-term risks of infertility and hypogonadism need to be discussed with the patient. Rare histologies of primary testicular cancer are also discussed.

  19. Testicular cell adhesion molecule 1 (TCAM1) is not essential for fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalam, Roopa L.; Lin, Yi-Nan; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    Testicular cell adhesion molecule 1 (Tcam1) is a testis-expressed gene that is evolutionarily conserved in most mammalian species. The putative location of TCAM1 on the cell surface makes it an attractive contraceptive target to study. We found that Tcam1 transcription is enriched in the adult testis, and in situ hybridization revealed that Tcam1 is expressed in pachytene to secondary spermatocytes. Immunofluorescence for TCAM1 protein showed strong expression along cell membranes of spermatocytes and weak localization to round spermatids. In light of this evidence, we hypothesized that TCAM1 interacts with an unknown receptor on the surface of Sertoli cells and that this interaction is important for germ cell-Sertoli cell interactions. However, Tcam1 knockout mice that we generated are fertile, and testis weights and sperm counts were not significantly altered. Therefore, we conclude that TCAM1 is not essential for male fertility or germ cell function in Mus musculus. PMID:19766163

  20. From embryonic stem cells to testicular germ cell cancer-- should we be concerned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Sonne, Si Brask; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E

    2006-01-01

    that initial hypothesis but also indicating that CIS cells have a striking phenotypic similarity to embryonic stem cells (ESC). Many cancers have been proposed to originate from tissue-specific stem cells [so-called 'cancer stem cells' (CSC)] and we argue that CIS may be a very good example of a CSC......, but with exceptional features due to the retention of embryonic pluripotency. In addition, considering the fact that pre-invasive CIS cells are transformed from early fetal cells, possibly due to environmentally induced alterations of the niche, we discuss potential risks linked to the uncontrolled therapeutic use......Since the discovery of testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) -- the precursor cell for the vast majority of germ cell tumours -- it has been proposed that CIS cells could be derived from transformed primordial germ cells or gonocytes. Here, we review recent discoveries not only substantiating...