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Sample records for altered puberty timing

  1. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, Mari S; Collman, Gwen W; Foster, Paul M D

    2008-01-01

    . Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated with a greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment...... for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty......-related assessments and to the validation of pubertal male and female rat assays for endocrine screening....

  2. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty...... sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated...

  3. The physiology and timing of male puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet; Sørensen, Kaspar;

    2012-01-01

    To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing.......To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing....

  4. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Secular trends in timing of puberty appear to continue although under-nutrition has not been any longer a limiting factor for pubertal development. Now obesity and other environmental reasons have been suspected to cause this trend, and endocrine disrupting chemicals have become into focus...... as possible contributors. Epidemiological studies on endocrine disrupters are still scarce and show only weak associations between exposures and timing of puberty. Since genetic background explains 50-80% of variability in the timing of puberty, it is not surprising that the observed environmental effects...... are rather modest when individual exposures are assessed. Despite that, some exposures have been reported to be associated to early (e.g., polybrominated biphenyls) or delayed (e.g., lead) puberty. Here we shortly review the available data on recent trends in timing of puberty and the possible role...

  5. Role of environmental factors in the timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, S.Y.; Selevan, S.G.; Pescovitz, O.H.

    2008-01-01

    Protection Agency, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and Serono Symposia International was convened to examine the evidence of a secular trend, identify potential environmental factors of concern, and identify research needs regarding environmental factors and puberty timing at "The......Puberty-timing measures have historically been used as indicators of adequate nutrition and growth. More recently, these measures have been examined in relation to exposure to estrogenic or antiandrogenic agents, as well as other environmental factors. The scientific community has debated whether...... puberty timing is occurring earlier today than in the mid-1900s in the United States and, if so, whether environmental factors play a role; however, no one has asked a multidisciplinary panel to resolve this question. Thus, a multidisciplinary expert panel jointly sponsored by the US Environmental...

  6. Early metabolic programming of puberty onset: impact of changes in postnatal feeding and rearing conditions on the timing of puberty and development of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Romero, Magdalena; Garcia-Galiano, David; Aguilar, Enrique; Pinilla, Leonor; Diéguez, Carlos; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2011-09-01

    Kiss1 neurons have recently emerged as a putative conduit for the metabolic gating of reproduction, with leptin being a regulator of hypothalamic Kiss1 expression. Early perturbations of the nutritional status are known to predispose to different metabolic disorders later in life and to alter the timing of puberty; however, the potential underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report how changes in the pattern of postnatal feeding affect the onset of puberty and evaluate key hormonal and neuropeptide [Kiss1/kisspeptin (Kp)] alterations linked to these early nutritional manipulations. Female rats were raised in litters of different sizes: small (four pups per dam: overfeeding), normal (12 pups per dam), and large litters (20 pups per litter: underfeeding). Postnatal overfeeding resulted in persistently increased body weight and earlier age of vaginal opening, as an external sign of puberty, together with higher levels of leptin and hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA. Conversely, postnatal underfeeding caused a persistent reduction in body weight, lower ovarian and uterus weights, and delayed vaginal opening, changes that were paralleled by a decrease in leptin and Kiss1 mRNA levels. Kisspeptin-52 immunoreactivity (Kp-IR) in the hypothalamus displayed similar patterns, with lower numbers of Kp-IR neurons in the arcuate nucleus of postnatally underfed animals, and a trend for increased Kp-positive fibers in the periventricular area of early overfed rats. Yet, gonadotropin responses to Kp at puberty were similar in all groups, except for enhanced responsiveness to low doses of Kp-10 in postnatally underfed rats. In conclusion, our data document that the timing of puberty is sensitive to both overfeeding and subnutrition during early (postnatal) periods and suggest that alterations in hypothalamic expression of Kiss1/kisspeptin may underlie at least part of such programming phenomenon.

  7. Timing of puberty and synchronization of seasonal rhythms by simulated natural photoperiods in female Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matthew P; Trumbull, Justin J; Turner, Kevin W; Zucker, Irving

    2007-07-01

    The timing of puberty is a critical life history trait of short-lived species; spring-born individuals mature rapidly and breed in the season of birth, whereas young born in mid- to late summer delay puberty until the next spring. The cues that govern the transition from rapid to delayed maturation in natural populations remain unknown. To identify ecologically relevant photoperiod cues that control timing of puberty, we monitored nine cohorts of female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) born every 2 wk from 4 wk before to 12 wk after the summer solstice in a simulated natural photoperiod (SNP). Hamsters born by the summer solstice underwent rapid somatic growth and achieved puberty that summer; among females born 2-4 wk after the solstice, some delayed puberty by many weeks, whereas others manifested early puberty. Hamsters born 6 or more weeks after the solstice generally delayed puberty until the following spring. The transition from accelerated to delayed pubertal development in the SNP occurred at day lengths that induce early puberty when presented as static photoperiods. Despite differences in timing of birth and timing of puberty, fall and subsequent spring seasonal events occurred at similar calendar dates in all cohorts. We found no evidence that prenatal photoperiod history influenced postnatal development of female hamsters. Considered together with a parallel study on males, the present findings point to sex differences in responsiveness to natural photoperiod variations. In both sexes, incrementally changing photoperiods exert a strong organizing effect on seasonal rhythms.

  8. Agricultural pesticides and precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Samim; Goksen, Damla; Darcan, Sukran

    2014-01-01

    The onset and course of puberty is under the control of the neuroendocrine system. Factors affecting the regulation of timing and order of this system's functions may alter the onset and course of puberty. Several environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) with significant influences on the normal course of puberty have been identified. Despite the numerous animal and human studies on EDs that may extensively affect human health, there are still several issues that need to be clarified. This chapter discusses the effects of pesticides, which constitute a significant portion of disruptors and have been increasingly used in agriculture, on precocious puberty.

  9. Fatness rather than leptin sensitivity determines the timing of puberty in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Tabata M; Silveira, Marina A; Zampieri, Thais T; Frazão, Renata; Donato, Jose

    2016-03-05

    Leptin is a permissive factor for the onset of puberty. However, changes in adiposity frequently influence leptin sensitivity. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate how changes in body weight, fatness, leptin levels and leptin sensitivity interact to control the timing of puberty in female mice. Pre-pubertal obesity, induced by raising C57BL/6 mice in small litters, led to an early puberty onset. Inactivation of Socs3 gene in the brain or exclusively in leptin receptor-expressing cells reduced the body weight and leptin levels at pubertal onset, and increased leptin sensitivity. Notably, these female mice exhibited significant delays in vaginal opening, first estrus and onset of estrus cyclicity. In conclusion, our findings suggest that increased leptin sensitivity did not play an important role in favoring pubertal onset in female mice. Rather, changes in pubertal body weight, fatness and/or leptin levels were more important in influencing the timing of puberty.

  10. The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade, possible advancement in timing of puberty has been reported in the United States. In addition, early pubertal development and an increased incidence of sexual precocity have been noticed in children, primarily girls, migrating for foreign adoption in several Western Europe...

  11. Examination of US puberty-timing data from 1940 to 1994 for secular trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, Susan Y; Herman-Giddens, Marcia E; Lee, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Whether children, especially girls, are entering and progressing through puberty earlier today than in the mid-1900s has been debated. Secular trend analysis, based on available data, is limited by data comparability among studies in different populations, in different periods of time, and using ...

  12. Examination of US puberty-timing data from 1940 to 1994 for secular trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, Susan Y; Herman-Giddens, Marcia E; Lee, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Whether children, especially girls, are entering and progressing through puberty earlier today than in the mid-1900s has been debated. Secular trend analysis, based on available data, is limited by data comparability among studies in different populations, in different periods of time, and using...

  13. Hypothesis: exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may interfere with timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Aksglaede, L; Sørensen, K;

    2010-01-01

    A recent decline in onset of puberty - especially among girls - has been observed, first in the US in the mid-1990s and now also in Europe. The development of breast tissue in girls occurs at a much younger age and the incidence of precocious puberty (PP) is increasing. Genetic factors...... of normal puberty are poorly understood. This hampers investigation of the possible role of environmental influences. There are many types of EDCs. One chemical may have more than one mode of action and the effects may depend on dose and duration of the exposure, as well as the developmental stage...... in life. Most known EDCs have oestrogenic and/or anti-androgenic actions and only few have androgenic or anti-oestrogenic effects. Thus, it appears plausible that they interfere with normal onset of puberty. The age at menarche has only declined by a few months whereas the age at breast development has...

  14. Genetic variation in LIN28B is associated with the timing of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ken K; Elks, Cathy E; Li, Shengxu; Zhao, Jing Hua; Luan, Jian'an; Andersen, Lars B; Bingham, Sheila A; Brage, Soren; Smith, George Davey; Ekelund, Ulf; Gillson, Christopher J; Glaser, Beate; Golding, Jean; Hardy, Rebecca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuh, Diana; Luben, Robert; Marcus, Michele; McGeehin, Michael A; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; Ring, Susan M; Rubin, Carol; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Strachan, David P; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Waterworth, Dawn M; Wong, Andrew; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Barroso, Inês; Mooser, Vincent; Loos, Ruth J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-06-01

    The timing of puberty is highly variable. We carried out a genome-wide association study for age at menarche in 4,714 women and report an association in LIN28B on chromosome 6 (rs314276, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.33, P = 1.5 × 10(-8)). In independent replication studies in 16,373 women, each major allele was associated with 0.12 years earlier menarche (95% CI = 0.08-0.16; P = 2.8 × 10(-10); combined P = 3.6 × 10(-16)). This allele was also associated with earlier breast development in girls (P = 0.001; N = 4,271); earlier voice breaking (P = 0.006, N = 1,026) and more advanced pubic hair development in boys (P = 0.01; N = 4,588); a faster tempo of height growth in girls (P = 0.00008; N = 4,271) and boys (P = 0.03; N = 4,588); and shorter adult height in women (P = 3.6 × 10(-7); N = 17,274) and men (P = 0.006; N = 9,840) in keeping with earlier growth cessation. These studies identify variation in LIN28B, a potent and specific regulator of microRNA processing, as the first genetic determinant regulating the timing of human pubertal growth and development.

  15. [Precocious puberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław; Herman, Zbigniew Stanisław

    2006-04-01

    Precocious puberty is usually defined as the appearance of secondary sexual development before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys. Precocious puberty is a heterogenous condition generally divided into central and peripheral forms driven respectively by hypothalamic-pituitary axis or by excessive production of sex steroids. Taking into account the risk associated with the underlying disorder as well as the impact of precocious puberty on stature growth and development of reproductive and mental functions, this condition has important consequences for affected children and their families. In this paper, the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiological features, and treatment of the disorders leading to precocious puberty are reviewed. Particular attention is devoted to the results of the recently published studies.

  16. Epigenetic Control of Female Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Loche, Alberto; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Ronnekleiv, Oline K.; Bosch, Martha; Kaidar, Gabi; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Wright, Hollis; Pfeifer, Gerd. P.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2013-01-01

    The timing of puberty is controlled by many genes. The elements coordinating this process have not, however, been identified. Here we show that an epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional repression times the initiation of female puberty in rats. We identify silencers of the Polycomb group (PcG) as major contributors to this mechanism, and show that PcG proteins repress Kiss1, a puberty-activating gene. Hypothalamic expression of two key PcG genes, Eed and Cbx7, decreases and methylation of their promoters increases preceding puberty. Inhibiting DNA methylation blocks both events and results in pubertal failure. The pubertal increase in Kiss1 is accompanied by EED loss from the Kiss1 promoter and enrichment of histone H3 modifications associated with gene activation. Preventing the eviction of EED from the Kiss1 promoter disrupts pulsatile GnRH release, delays puberty, and compromises fecundity. Our results identify epigenetic silencing as a novel mechanism underlying the neuroendocrine control of female puberty. PMID:23354331

  17. The timing of the onset of puberty, extension of the breeding season, and length of postpartum anestrus in the female mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Lopez-Sebastian, A; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Gomez-Brunet, A; Tortonese, D

    2001-06-01

    The timing of the onset of puberty, duration of seasonal ovulatory activity, and length of postpartum anestrus were studied by means of blood plasma progesterone concentrations in a flock of European female mouflons (Ovis gmelini musimon) maintained in captivity under natural photoperiod (40 degrees 25'N). Concentrations of progesterone in the peripheral blood were determined by radioimmunoassay in samples collected from the jugular vein twice a week. First ovulations in the breeding season were highly synchronized and occurred in mid-October. In contrast, the cessation of ovulatory cycles showed significant variation among females and extended from February to May, depending on age, with 2-yr-old animals exhibiting the longest anovulatory period (P mouflon lambs that reached a minimum threshold body weight (23.8 +/- 0.6 kg) in their first breeding season reached puberty at 8 mo of age. In those with slower growth rates, however, the prepubertal period was extended throughout the first breeding and nonbreeding seasons, reaching puberty during the breeding season of the following year at 19 mo of age and 27 +/- 0.3 kg body weight. Further, attainment of puberty in ewe lambs born in June/July was also delayed until the breeding season of the following year, when animals had reached a threshold body weight at 17 mo of age.

  18. Early metabolic programming of puberty onset: impact of changes in postnatal feeding and rearing conditions on the timing of puberty and development of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A;

    2011-01-01

    Kiss1 neurons have recently emerged as a putative conduit for the metabolic gating of reproduction, with leptin being a regulator of hypothalamic Kiss1 expression. Early perturbations of the nutritional status are known to predispose to different metabolic disorders later in life and to alter the...

  19. Risky, early, controversial. Puberty in medical discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Donatella; Vinel, Virginie

    2015-10-01

    This article comes within the compass of a research program (entitled CorAge. Bodily Experiences and AgePassages among 9-13 year-olds (ANR-09-ENFT-017) conducted between 2009 and 2013 about the emergence of a "new" age in life--"preadolescence"--as instanced in France (Alsace, Lorraine) and Italy (Venetia). The impressive amount of references to "early puberty" and "precocious puberty", in a context of feeling of a premature end of childhood, led us to make an in-depth study of this issue: first, through an analysis of international and French and Italian medical journals; second, through interviews with health professionals. Following the thesis of Foucault, we assume that the discourses on puberty timing participate of classifications of the child body drenched with moral representations of childhood, especially on gender and age issue. Our results: the question of whether a secular trend in puberty timing even exists continues to be debated between American and European scientists. Second, the terms "puberty", "precocious puberty", "early puberty" have been used to indicate a variety of puberty markers, increasing confusion. A controversy has focused on early breast development in girls, because this attribute is questioning the order of ages and gender. Moreover, psychosocial factors presented as accelerating early puberty, do not demonstrate the relation between earliness and risk behavior. The literature, as it is moved by the female precocity, creates a medical category to objectify the complex and flexible process of puberty and invent female child precocity. These differences between American and European scholars and the interviews with French and Italian health professional show a gap between the international literature and practitioners, clinicians and nurses who regularly work with children: they neither find pubertal advancement, nor increase of "true precocious puberty", although they share concerns about premature feminization of girls (France) or

  20. Time course and role of LH and FSH in the expansion of the Leydig cell population at the time of puberty in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, I.; Ramaswamy, S.; Teerds, K.J.; Keijer, J.; Plant, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    In higher primates development of the adult population of Leydig cells has received little attention. Here, the emergence of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) positive cells in the testis of the rhesus monkey was examined during spontaneous puberty, and correlated with S-phase labeling in the interstitium at this critical stage of development. In addition, the relative role of LH and FSH in initiating the pubertal expansion of Leydig cells was studied by precociously stimulating the juvenile testis in vivo with pulsatile 11-day infusions of recombinant LH and FSH, either alone or in combination. At the time of castration, testes were immersion fixed in Bouin’s, embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 5 μm. Leydig cells/testis were enumerated using HSD3B as a Leydig cell marker. Leydig cell number per testis increased progressively during puberty to reach values in the adult approximately 10 fold greater than in early pubertal animals. The rise in cell number was associated with an increase in nuclear diameter. That the pubertal expansion of Leydig cell number was driven primarily by the increase in LH secretion at this stage of development was suggested by the finding that precocious stimulation of mid juvenile monkeys with LH, either alone or in combination with that of FSH, resulted in a 20 to 30 fold increase in the number of HSD3B positive cells. Interestingly, precocious FSH stimulation, alone, also resulted in appearance of Leydig cells as indicated by the occasional HSD3B positive cell in the interstitium. The nuclear diameter of these Leydig cells, however was less than that of those generated in response to LH. PMID:25269763

  1. Delayed Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Puberty en español El retraso puberal Jeff hates gym class. It's not that he minds playing soccer ... more muscular. These changes are caused by the sex hormones (testosterone in guys and estrogen in girls) ...

  2. [Attempts at biotechnical induction of puberty in young female pigs. 2. Effects of various time intervals between one puberty induction with PMS and HCG to the following estrus synchronization on estrus and ovulation in animals about 190 days old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, J

    1977-01-01

    A biological engineering approach to induce puberty in 125 young female fattening pigs aged 190 days was undertaken on the basis of a mixture of 500 IU PMS (Prolosanserum, Dessau) with 250 IU HCG (Gonabion, Dresden). The injections were made subcutaneously. Pronounced oestrus symptoms were recorded from the external genital organs of 80% of the probands up to ten days after injection, associated with toleration in 52.8% of them. Toleration usually started on the fourth to sixth days after injection. Cycles began to develop in 57.1% up to the next oestrus period. Animals with -/x weight increase per die of 400 g exhibited lower responses. Results in terms of heat and ovulation were lower along with shorter intervals, when oestric synchronisation was undertaken 53, 32, and 17 days after the induction of puberty (20 days Suisynchron, Bernburg; 750 IU PMS).

  3. Glaucoma alters the circadian timing system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Drouyer

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a widespread ocular disease and major cause of blindness characterized by progressive, irreversible damage of the optic nerve. Although the degenerative loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC and visual deficits associated with glaucoma have been extensively studied, we hypothesize that glaucoma will also lead to alteration of the circadian timing system. Circadian and non-visual responses to light are mediated by a specialized subset of melanopsin expressing RGCs that provide photic input to mammalian endogenous clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. In order to explore the molecular, anatomical and functional consequences of glaucoma we used a rodent model of chronic ocular hypertension, a primary causal factor of the pathology. Quantitative analysis of retinal projections using sensitive anterograde tracing demonstrates a significant reduction (approximately 50-70% of RGC axon terminals in all visual and non-visual structures and notably in the SCN. The capacity of glaucomatous rats to entrain to light was challenged by exposure to successive shifts of the light dark (LD cycle associated with step-wise decreases in light intensity. Although glaucomatous rats are able to entrain their locomotor activity to the LD cycle at all light levels, they require more time to re-adjust to a shifted LD cycle and show significantly greater variability in activity onsets in comparison with normal rats. Quantitative PCR reveals the novel finding that melanopsin as well as rod and cone opsin mRNAs are significantly reduced in glaucomatous retinas. Our findings demonstrate that glaucoma impacts on all these aspects of the circadian timing system. In light of these results, the classical view of glaucoma as pathology unique to the visual system should be extended to include anatomical and functional alterations of the circadian timing system.

  4. Increase in urinary growth hormone excretion in puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, D A; Addison, G. M.; Herbert, E D

    1990-01-01

    During the pubertal years the overnight urinary excretion rate of growth hormone (hGHu) increases to three to four times the prepubertal rate, reaching a peak in girls at 13 years and in boys at 15 years. After puberty the mean rate of overnight hGHu is twice that before puberty.

  5. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also occur. Many boys become concerned about their penis size. A boy may need reassurance, particularly if he tends to be a later developer and he compares himself with boys who are further along in ... penis. For a Girl Puberty generally starts earlier for ...

  6. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  7. Puberty in male atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, F.F.L.

    2009-01-01

    Puberty is the process by which a juvenile acquires for the first time the capacity to reproduce sexually, a critical basis for the conservation of a species. In general, the biological processes constituting the first gonadal maturation and the mechanisms involved in this process are similar among

  8. In utero and lactational exposure to bisphenol A, in contrast to ethinyl estradiol, does not alter sexually dimorphic behavior, puberty, fertility, and anatomy of female LE rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many chemicals released into the environment display estrogenic activity including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA). EE2 is present in some aquatic systems at concentrations sufficient to alter reproductive function of fishe...

  9. Puberty and type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various data on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM have showed that the incidence of T1DM peaks at puberty. However, diabetes control and complications could be adversely affected by the physiological changes of puberty. In early years of insulin therapy, severe growth retardation with pubertal delay, like in Mauriac syndrome, have been reported. Insulin and leptin are metabolic factors, circulating in the periphery, which participate in the hypothalamic control of metabolism and reproduction. Insulin may be an important regulator of leptin in humans. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products suppress activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH pulse generator, resulting in pubertal delay. Glycemic control deteriorates during puberty as the lean body mass doubles mainly over a period of 25 years, which increases insulin requirement. There is also an increase in insulin resistance over the period of puberty. In normal individuals, fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations reach a peak in both sexes in mid to late puberty. Puberty, at all stages, has the worst insulin resistance. It has been observed that an excessive GH secretion in T1DM during puberty has significant effects on ketogenesis. Adolescent T1DM tends to decompensate very rapidly and develop ketoacidosis when the late night insulin dose is omitted. Adolescence is a critical developmental phase that presents unique challenges and opportunities to individuals with diabetes, their families and their healthcare providers.

  10. Influence of Timing of Puberty on Adolescent Boys'Depression,Anxiety and Behavioral Problems%青春期发动时相对男生抑郁、焦虑及问题行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟丹; 凌辉; 孙中平

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of timing of puberty on adolescent boys'depression,anxiety and be-havioral problems.Methods:431 Randomly collected objectives in Hunan province from 11 to 17 years old boys,com-pleted Pubertal Development Scale,Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children,State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Chinese Secondary School Students Depression Scale.Results:①There was significant differences during puberty time,small part of boys belong to precocious puberty13.92% and late-maturing 22.74%,most boys belong to mod-erate puberty63.33%;②The scores of depression were not significant different in adolescence start time(F=1.61,P>0.05);③ Anxiety scores(F=8.02,P0.05)无显著性差异;③焦虑总得分(F=8.02,P<0.001)及其状态(F=5.95,P<0.01)和特质(F=9.27,P<0.001)两维度上存在显著性差异,提前组的焦虑得分显著高于适时组和延迟组,适时组和延迟组的得分差异不显著;④学习适应不良(F=5.31,P<0.01)、攻击行为(F=3.58,P<0.05)、违纪行为(F=9.29,P<0.001)等在青春期开始时间上差异显著,提前组的学习适应不良和攻击行为显著高于适时组和延迟组,适时组和延迟组的得分差异不显著.提前组的违纪行为显著高于适时组和延迟组,适时组显著高于延迟组.结论:青春期发动时相能够影响男生的焦虑、学习适应不良、攻击行为和违纪行为,而对抑郁、退缩、神经质和考试焦虑的影响不明显.

  11. Treatment of Peripheral Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelwer, Melissa; Eugster, Erica A.

    2017-01-01

    There are many etiologies of peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) with diverse manifestations resulting from exposure to androgens, estrogens, or both. The clinical presentation depends on the underlying process and may be acute or gradual. The primary goals of therapy are to halt pubertal development and restore sex steroids to prepubertal values. Attenuation of linear growth velocity and rate of skeletal maturation in order to maximize height potential are additional considerations for many patients. McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) and familial male-limited precocious puberty (FMPP) represent rare causes of PPP that arise from activating mutations in GNAS1 and the LH receptor gene, respectively. Several different therapeutic approaches have been investigated for both conditions with variable success. Experience to date suggests that the ideal therapy for precocious puberty secondary to MAS in girls remains elusive. In contrast, while the number of treated patients remains small, several successful therapeutic options for FMPP are available. PMID:26680582

  12. Normal female puberty in a developmental perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    are suggested by the still evolving pattern of the pubertal process both clinically and mechanistically. For instance, secular trends towards earlier breast development have been observed during the two past decades in some countries, resulting in possible skewing of the age distribution of that pubertal sign...... with less obvious changes in menarcheal age. Conceptually, puberty and subsequent reproduction appear now to be influenced by conditions not only at the time when they occur, but also during fetal and perinatal life. In addition, these influences can be apparently opposing since early maturation follows...

  13. Etiology of precocious puberty, 10 years study in Endocrine Reserch Centre (Firouzgar, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Safari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precocious puberty, as early physical development and low final height might lead to psychosocial problems.Objective: To evaluate etiology and clinical feature of precocious puberty in a cohort of Iranian children.Materials and Methods: In this case-series study, 44 girls and 8 boys with precocious puberty referred to Endocrine Reserch Centre (Firouzgar, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism (Hemmat Campus, were examined in a 10 years period of time. Results: Mean age of girls and boys was 7.43±1.4 years and 5.8±2.1 years respectively. Most of the patients fell within the age category of 7-7.9 years old (40.9% for girls and 50% for boys. Patients, concerning etiology of precocious puberty were classified in three categories: 42.6% of patients had central precocious puberty (CPP, including idiopathic CPP (87.5% and neurogenic CPP (12.5%. 23.3% of patients had peripheral precocious puberty (PPP, including congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH (42.8%, ovarian cysts (28.4%, McCune-Albright syndrome (14.2% and adrenal carcinoma (14.2%. 34.1% of girls and 25% of boys had normal variant puberty including premature thelarche (57%, premature adrenarche (38% as well as premature menarche (4.7%l. Conclusion: The most common etiology of precocious puberty in girls was idiopathic central precocious puberty and premature thelarche, while in boys they were neurogenic central precocious puberty and CAH. Therefore precocious puberty in girls is usually benign. In boys, CNS anomalies should first be considered in the differential diagnosis of CPP. Therefore brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is mandatory in all cases.

  14. Targeted resequencing of the pericentromere of chromosome 2 linked to constitutional delay of growth and puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L Cousminer

    Full Text Available Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP is the most common cause of pubertal delay. CDGP is defined as the proportion of the normal population who experience pubertal onset at least 2 SD later than the population mean, representing 2.3% of all adolescents. While adolescents with CDGP spontaneously enter puberty, they are at risk for short stature, decreased bone mineral density, and psychosocial problems. Genetic factors contribute heavily to the timing of puberty, but the vast majority of CDGP cases remain biologically unexplained, and there is no definitive test to distinguish CDGP from pathological absence of puberty during adolescence. Recently, we published a study identifying significant linkage between a locus at the pericentromeric region of chromosome 2 (chr 2 and CDGP in Finnish families. To investigate this region for causal variation, we sequenced chr 2 between the genomic coordinates of 79-124 Mb (genome build GRCh37 in the proband and affected parent of the 13 families contributing most to this linkage signal. One gene, DNAH6, harbored 6 protein-altering low-frequency variants (< 6% in the Finnish population in 10 of the CDGP probands. We sequenced an additional 135 unrelated Finnish CDGP subjects and utilized the unique Sequencing Initiative Suomi (SISu population reference exome set to show that while 5 of these variants were present in the CDGP set, they were also present in the Finnish population at similar frequencies. Additional variants in the targeted region could not be prioritized for follow-up, possibly due to gaps in sequencing coverage or lack of functional knowledge of non-genic genomic regions. Thus, despite having a well-characterized sample collection from a genetically homogeneous population with a large population-based reference sequence dataset, we were unable to pinpoint variation in the linked region predisposing delayed puberty. This study highlights the difficulties of detecting genetic variants

  15. Myopic decisions under negative emotions correlate with altered time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shuchen; Cheng, Lu; Fan, Ying; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have obtained inconsistent findings about emotional influence on inter-temporal choice (IC). In the present study, we first examined the effect of temporary emotional priming induced by affective pictures in a trial-to-trial paradigm on IC. The results showed that negative priming resulted in much higher percentages of trials during which smaller-but-sooner reward (SS%) were chosen compared with positive and neutral priming. Next, we attempted to explore the possible mechanisms underlying such emotional effects. When participants performed a time reproduction task, mean reaction times in negative priming condition were significantly shorter than those in the other two emotional contexts, which indicated that negative emotional priming led to overestimation of time. Moreover, such overestimation was negatively correlated with performance in the IC task. In contrast, temporary changes of emotional contexts did not alter performances in a Go/NoGo task (including commission errors and omission errors). In sum, our present findings suggested that myopic decisions under negative emotions were associated with altered time perception but not response inhibition.

  16. Myopic decisions under negative emotions correlate with altered time perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchen eGuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have obtained inconsistent findings about emotional influence on inter-temporal choice. In the present study, we first examined the effect of temporary emotional priming induced by affective pictures in a trial-to-trial paradigm on inter-temporal choice. The results showed that negative priming resulted in much higher percentages of trials during which smaller-but-sooner rewards (SS% were chosen compared with positive and neutral priming. Next, we attempted to explore the possible mechanisms underlying such emotional effects. When participants performed a time reproduction task, mean reaction times in negative priming conditions were significantly shorter than those in the other two emotional contexts, which indicated that negative emotional priming led to overestimation of time. Moreover, such overestimation was negatively correlated with performance in the inter-temporal choice task. In contrast, temporary changes of emotional contexts did not alter performances in a Go/NoGo task (including commission errors and omission errors. In sum, our present findings suggested that myopic decisions under negative emotions were associated with altered time perception but not response inhibition.

  17. Association of ghrelin and leptin with reproductive hormones in constitutional delay of growth and puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El hawary Amany K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP is a variation of the onset and timing of pubertal development without a defined endocrine abnormality. Recently published studies indicate that leptin and ghrelin play a role in puberty initiation and progress. They have been implicated in regulation of GnRH secretion, with ghrelin having inhibitory and leptin, facilitatory effects. We hypothesized that elevated ghrelin and reduced leptin concentrations could be implicated in altering the tempo of puberty in adolescents with CDGP. So in the current study we evaluate variations in leptin and ghrelin levels in adolescent boys with CDGP, the relationships between both hormones and reproductive hormones including LH, FSH and testosterone were also evaluated. Methods The study enrolled 23 adolescent boys with CDGP and 20 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Weight, height, BMI, testicular volume, bone age, bone age delay, serum FSH, LH, testosterone, leptin and ghrelin were assessed. Results Adolescent boys with CDGP had significantly lower leptin and higher ghrelin than normal controls. Leptin was positively correlated with BMI, bone age, testicular volume, FSH, LH and testosterone and negatively correlated with delayed bone age and ghrelin. Ghrelin was negatively correlated with BMI, bone age, testicular volume, FSH, LH and testosterone. With multiple regression analysis BMI, FSH, LH, testosterone and ghrelin remained independently correlated with leptin while BMI, LH and testosterone remained independently correlated with ghrelin. Conclusion Elevated serum ghrelin and decreased leptin concentrations and their associations with reproductive hormones may explain the sexual immaturity in adolescent boys with CDGP.

  18. The importance of puberty for adolescent development: conceptualization and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M; Corley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    How and why are teenagers different from children and adults? A key question concerns the ways in which pubertal development shapes psychological changes in adolescence directly through changes to the brain and indirectly through the social environment. Empirical work linking pubertal development to adolescent psychological function draws from several different perspectives, often with varying approaches and a focus on different outcomes and mechanisms. The main themes concern effects of atypical pubertal timing on behavior problems during adolescence, effects of pubertal status (and associated hormones) on normative changes in behaviors that can facilitate or hinder development (especially risk-taking, social reorientation, and stress responsivity), and the role of puberty in triggering psychopathology in vulnerable individuals. There is also interest in understanding the ways in which changes in the brain reflect pubertal processes and underlie psychological development in adolescence. In this chapter, we consider the ways that puberty might affect adolescent psychological development, and why this is of importance to developmentalists. We describe the processes of pubertal development; summarize what is known about pubertal influences on adolescent development; consider the assumptions that underlie most work and the methodological issues that affect the interpretation of results; and propose research directions to help understand paths from puberty to behavior. Throughout, we emphasize the importance of pubertal change in all aspects of psychological development, and the ways in which puberty represents an opportunity to study the interplay of biological and social influences.

  19. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles in girls with central precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Mouritsen, Annette; Mogensen, Signe Sloth;

    2010-01-01

    Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis....

  20. NEUROBEHAVIORAL RELATIONSHIPS AND PUBERTY - ANOTHER TRANSFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ

    1993-01-01

    In a follow-up study of the Groningen Perinatal Project (GPP) on minor neurological dysfunction (MND) at 12 and 14 years the onset of puberty appeared to play a role. The children were selected on the presence (n = 185) and absence (n = 185) of MND at 9 years. Puberty was defined by the presence of

  1. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles in girls with central precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Mouritsen, Annette; Mogensen, Signe Sloth;

    2010-01-01

    Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis.......Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis....

  2. [Rapidly progressive puberty in a patient with mosaic Turner syndrome: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Wei, H; Yu, X; Huang, W; Luo, X P

    2017-02-02

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of diagnosis and treatment in patients with Turner syndrome and rapidly progressive puberty. Method: A rare case of rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome with a mosaic karyotype of 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21)(80%/20%)was diagnosed at Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in January. 2015. Clinical characteristics and the related literature were reviewed. Original papers on precocious puberty or rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome, published until Apr. 2016 were retrieved at PubMed and CNKI databases by the use of the key words "Turner syndrome" , "precocious puberty" and "rapidly progressive puberty" . Result: The patient was born at term with birth weight of 2 450 g and was diagnosed with SGA at 3 years of age for the first evaluating of growth and development. Then recombined human growth hormone (rhGH )was given at 4 years of age due to short stature (heightcases have been reported in the literature. Six of them showing mosaic TS, three karyotypes with structural abnormality of short arm of X chromosome, one with the karyotype 45, X. Conclusion: It is the first time that rapidly progressive puberty in a 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21) mosaic Turner syndrome is reported. Although short stature and ovarian dysgenesis are common in TS, precocious puberty may occur in TS, which is liable to cause delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Careful examination is recommended for patients with unusual growth pattern, even though girls have normal height in accord with standard growth curve or spontaneous puberty. Evaluation for TS and subsequent investigation should be prompted.

  3. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns.

  4. Television Watching May Hasten Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaia; Vince; 王锦云

    2005-01-01

    儿童长时间看电视会使青春期(puberty)提前!一项新的研究认为,如果儿童长时间看电视,就会减少体内的褪黑激素,而这种被称为"睡眠激素"的激素与儿童的青春期到来的具体时间有关,那些不看电视、不玩电脑和游戏机的年轻人体内的褪黑激素比平均值高出30%。

  5. Increased risk of precocious puberty in internationally adopted children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, G.; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Skakkebæk, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    in the timing of puberty, and large variations in age at menarche are observed worldwide. Age at menarche is reported to be in the same age range in South Korea as in well-off populations in other parts of the world, indicating that the different risk of precocious puberty observed between Korean and other...... immigrating with their family, and descendants of immigrants living in Denmark. METHODS: Patients who were registered with the diagnosis of precocious puberty during the period 1993-2001 were identified through the national patient registry. The background population of children born from 1983 to 2001 were...... of origin. The incidence rate ratio was significantly higher in children adopted after the age of 2. In children immigrating with their family, we found no effect of age at migration. DISCUSSION: In this large, nationwide, register-based study including 655 cases of precocious puberty, we found...

  6. [Mutations in the personality nucleus at puberty and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, U

    1989-01-01

    The author considers that analysing the personality by means of concrete research, the axis "self-perceptual Ego and the prospective, ideal Ego" make up an operational axis included in personality nucleus. The selected interference of the alter image about the Ego permanently readjusts this axis. In this purpose an adjective checklist and the projective test TST in two alternative have been used. The author concludes that during puberty and adolescence several changes take place as far as the number of adjective used, descriptors prevailing characteristics, and affective finality are concerned.

  7. 青春期开始时间早晚对男生自我概念和同伴关系的影响%Influence of Timing of Puberty on Boys' Self-concept and Peer Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新利; 凌辉; 张建人; 司欣芳; 马欣仪

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the influence of timing of puberty on boys' self-concept and peer relationship.Methods:According to simple randomly sampling,411 six to nine grade adolescent students were investigated with Pubertal Development Scale(PDS),Tennessee Self-Concept Scale(TSCS),and Peer Relationship Scale.Results:①Most students aged between 12-14 years were in Early pubertal,Midpubertal and Late pubertal; Few students were in Prepubertal and Postpubertal; ②The partial correlation analysis controlled by age suggested that boys' total pubertal developmental scores had significant negative correlation with family self-concept,but had significant positive correlation with peer acceptance,social preference and social impact; ③The results of the double factors variance analysis showed that:for boys,the scores of physical self,moral self,self action and peer acceptance of the early-maturing boys were significantly higher than that of the late-maturing boys,but the scores of family self were significantly lower than that of the late-maturing boys.Conclusion:The timing of puberty does some meaningful implications and its impact differs somewhat for boys.%目的:探讨青春期开始时间早晚对男生自我概念和同伴关系的影响.方法:采用简单随机抽样,抽取长沙市6-9年级男生为被试,采用青春期发育量表、田纳西自我概念量表、同伴关系提名法进行集体施测,并选取12、13、14岁年龄段男生共411人进行统计分析.结果:①大多数12至14岁男生青春期发育状态处于青春期开始、青春期中和青春期晚期三个发育水平,仅少量被试处于前青春期和青春期后期两个发育水平;②控制年龄变量,偏相关分析结果显示:男生青春期发育总分与家庭自我呈显著负相关,与同伴接受、社会偏爱、社会影响成显著正相关.③青春期开始时间早的男生生理自我、道德自我、自我行动、同伴接受得分显著高于青春期开始

  8. Hypomelanosis of Ito associated with precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Beth M; Edgar, Mark A; Horenstein, Marcelo G

    2006-01-01

    Hypomelanosis of Ito has been associated with precocious puberty in two cases. This study reports a third case involving a female with hypomelanosis of Ito including severe mental retardation and seizure disorder with autonomic symptoms (gastroesophageal reflux and asthma). At age 5 she developed vaginal discharge, thelarche, and adrenarche. Soon after, she died of pneumonia stemming from her neurologic deficits. A postmortem examination revealed normal gonads and endocrine organs. The breasts and vulva were prematurely developed. Central nervous system findings included megalencephaly, neuronal eosinophilic inclusions, leptomeningeal neuroglial heterotopias, and cortical dysplasia. Both previously reported cases of hypomelanosis of Ito associated with precocious puberty had abnormal gonads and responded to cyproterone acetate therapy, indicating a peripheral mechanism of precocious puberty (gonadotrophin-independent). The current case, which was autopsied, lacks significant gonadal pathology, and has extensive neurologic involvement that suggests that a central mechanism of precocious puberty (gonadotrophin-dependent) can also be associated with hypomelanosis of Ito.

  9. Turner syndrome masquerading as normal early puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong Hee

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with Turner syndrome (TS) have complete loss of one X chromosome, whereas the rest of the patients with TS display mosaicism or structural abnormalities of the X chromosome. Most well-known common features are short stature and gonadal failure. Approximately one third of girls with TS may enter spontaneous puberty, but only half those completed with menarche. However, some atypical features of TS have been described. Many studies have been conducted to verify and delineate proposed loci for genes pertaining to the TS phenotype, and correlations between karyotype and phenotype. A few rare cases of precocious puberty with TS have been described. Here we describe a case of TS with the Xp22.1 deletion presenting with short final stature, early normal onset of spontaneous puberty, and Graves' disease, without short stature during puberty. PMID:25654070

  10. Association of Body Mass Index to Onset of Puberty in Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevithaambigai Subramaniam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Puberty is the period where the developmental process takes place, marks the transition from childhood to adulthood with physical and physiological changes. This study was conducted to discover association between body mass index (BMI and onset of puberty in male. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to November 2013 using simple random sampling which was part of bigger research study by Nutrition and Metabolism Working Group on Jatinangor Cohort, especially Puberty Survey in Jatinangor, by Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. Respondents were 286 males, 9–15 years old from Elementary School (Sekolah Dasar/SD and Junior High School (Sekolah Menengah Pertama/SMP. Inclusion criteria were students who are healthy at the time and do did not have obvious disease, attained puberty within 1 year or did not yet attained it, and voluntarily followed the study procedure. The questionnaire was provided after getting informed consent from the respondents. The data analysis was done conducted using Pearson Correlation. Results: The magnitude of association of BMI to the onset of puberty in male among school students in Jatinangor was 0.243 which showed there was positive correlation coefficient between BMI to onset of puberty in male. Test results with the t-test showed t-value of 2.683 with p-value of 0.008. Conclusions: There is association of BMI to the onset of puberty in male among school students in Jatinangor. Positive correlation indicates that the higher the BMI, the faster the onset of puberty in male.

  11. LIN28B polymorphisms are associated with central precocious puberty and early puberty in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers within &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt; have been reported to be related to the timing of pubertal growth. However, no study has investigated the frequency of genetic markers in girls with precocious puberty (PP or early puberty (EP. This study aimed to determine the frequency of putative genetic markers in girls with PP or EP. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; Genomic DNAs were obtained from 77 and 109 girls that fulfilled the criteria for PP and EP, respectively. The controls in this study were 144 healthy volunteers between 20 and 30 years of age. The haplotypes were reconstructed using 11 SNPs of &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt;, and haplotype association analysis was performed. The haplotype frequencies were compared. Differences in the clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed according to the haplotype dosage. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Eleven SNPs in &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt; were all located in a block that was in linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype could be reconstructed using 2 representative SNPs, rs4946651 and rs369065. The AC haplotype was less frequently observed in the PP group than in the controls (0.069 vs. 0.144, &lt;I&gt;P&lt;/I&gt;=0.010. The trend that girls with non-AC haplotypes tended to have earlier puberty onset (&lt;I&gt;P&lt;/I&gt;=0.037 was illustrated even in the EP+PP patient group by Kaplan-Meier analysis. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The results of the present study showed that non-AC haplotypes of &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt;had a significant association with PP in girls.

  12. 童年期不良经历与青春发动时相提前的关联及其性别差异的研究%Associations between adverse childhood experiences with early puberty timing and possible gender difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 孙莹; 陶芳标; 童世庐

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of adverse childhood events with early puberty timing and possible gender differences.Methods Data was gathered through questionnaires,physical and secondary sexual characteristics,examination with breast stage in girls and testicular volume in boys measured under informed consent among children in grade 3 to grade 5 from a largescale primary school.Information regarding adverse childhood experiences (ACEs),time of screening and physical activity was included in the questionnaire.Age limits on secondary sexual characteristics for defining early puberty established under the "China Puberty Research Collaboration Project" were used to classify early puberty timing.Body mass index was calculated and used to classify both overweight and obesity,in each gender.Results Among the 1 744 children aged 8.2-12.2 years old (957 boys),the prevalence rates of early puberty timing among boys and girls were 7.5% and 14.6%,respectively,with gender differences (x2= 11.671,P< 0.001).Boys who reported having experienced serious adverse family events and girls with physical abuse were more likely to develop early puberty.Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that family life events were associated with a higher risk of early puberty timing in boys (odds ratio:2.531,95% CI:1.276-5.020) while experience related to physical abuse appeared a risk factor of early puberty timing in girls (odds ratio:2.453,95%CI:1.588-3.788).Conclusion Physical abuse and adverse family life events seemed to be associated with early puberty timing,suggesting further longitudinal study should be carried out to understand the nature of these findings and gender differences.%目的 探讨童年期不良经历与青春发动时相提前的关联及其可能的性别差异.方法 以安徽省某九年一贯制小学3~5年级自愿参加的男女生为研究对象,进行问卷调查、体格和第二性征发育(男生睾丸容积和女生

  13. Puberty and fertility in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, B.J.; Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a disorder of adrenal steroid synthesis. The symptoms and signs of CAH depend on the degree of enzyme deficiency; severe salt-wasting (SW) form, less severe simple virilizing (SV) form and mild nonclassic (NC) form. In this paper, puberty and fertility in CAH

  14. NEUROBEHAVIORAL RELATIONSHIPS AFTER THE ONSET OF PUBERTY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    1994-01-01

    The behavioural and cognitive development were studied of 68 children with and 259 without minor neurological function (MND) at 14 years, when the majority of children showed three or more physical signs of puberty. MND was differentiated into fine manipulative disability, co-ordination problems, ch

  15. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  16. Precocious puberty: A blessing in disguise!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors may lead to incomplete isosexual male precocity and are commonly located in the pineal gland. Germinomas of the basal ganglia are almost always unilateral and precocious puberty is a rare manifestation in them. We report a 9.5-year-old boy who presented with incomplete isosexual precocity due to bilateral basal ganglia germinoma.

  17. The role of puberty in the making and breaking of young ballet dancers: Perspectives of dance teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Siobhan B; Haase, Anne M; Malina, Robert M; Cumming, Sean P

    2016-02-01

    Physical changes associated with puberty may conflict with functional and aesthetic ideals for a career in ballet. The dance teacher is in a position to guide young dancers through the pubertal transition, although dancers rather than teachers are often the focus of research. This study explores the social stimulus value of the female body in ballet as perceived by the dance teacher and how value may change during puberty. Ten UK dance teachers were interviewed; interpretative phenomenological analysis was used. Four main themes perceived by dance teachers emerged as central to the social stimulus value of the body among adolescent dancers: the ideal body; teacher approaches to managing puberty in the dance environment; puberty as a 'make or break' stage in ballet; and teacher awareness of pubertal onset and the implications of timing. Dance teachers can play an important role in moderating external and individual expectations during the pubertal transition.

  18. Hormonal regulation of puberty onset in female rats: is leptin a missing link?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous factors in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) are involved in the timing of puberty onset.Leptin signals the nutritional status and the presence of an adequate amount of loaded adipose tissue, as a long-term resour

  19. The impact of puberty on adolescent brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Goddings, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that the human brain undergoes significant change in both structure and function during adolescence, but little is known about the role of puberty in this developmental process. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the relationship between puberty and brain development during adolescence. The first two chapters of this thesis summarise the current understanding of the behavioural and brain changes associated with both adolescence and puberty, and review the metho...

  20. THALASSAEMIA AND ABERRATIONS OF GROWTH AND PUBERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kyriakou

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine dysfunction in Thalassaemia major (TM is a common and disturbing complication, which requires prompt recognition and treatment. The contribution of the underlying molecular defect in TM to the development of endocrinopathies is significant because the patients with the more severe genetic defects have a greater rate of iron loading through higher red cell consumption. TM patients frequently present delay of growth and puberty with reduction of final height. The pathogenesis of growth failure is multifactorial and is mainly due to chronic anemia and hypoxia, chronic liver disease, zinc and folic acid deficiency, iron overload, intensive use of chelating agents, emotional factors, and endocrinopathies (hypogonadism, delayed puberty, hypothyroidism and GH-IGF-1 axis dysregulation. Although appropriate iron chelation therapy can improve growth and development, TM children and adolescents treated intensively with desferrioxamine remain short as well, showing body disproportion between the upper and lower body segment. Body disproportion is independent of prepubertal or pubertal period of greater height gain. Treatment with recombinant GH (rhGH is recommended when GH deficiency is established, and even so, the therapeutic response is often non satisfactory. Growth acceleration is mostly promoted with sex steroids in children with associated pubertal delay. Sexual complications in TM, which include Delayed Puberty, Arrested Puberty and Hypogonadism, present the commonest endocrine complication. Iron deposition on gonadotroph cells of the pituitary leads to disruption of gonadotrophin production which is proven by the poor response of FSH and LH to GnRH stimulation. In the majority of patients gonadal function is normal as most women with Amenorrhea are capable of achieving pregnancy with hormonal treatment and similarly men with azoospermia become fathers. Secondary Hypogonadism appears later in life,    and is manifested in women as

  1. Suprasellar epidermoid presenting with precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Peter Symss

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoids are inclusion tumors of the central nervous system and are rare, benign slow-growing tumors. They are estimated to constitute 0.5-1.8% of the brain tumors and have an affinity for the subarachnoid cisterns at the base of the brain, the suprasellar cistern being one of the most favoured sites. We report a case of suprasellar epidermoid in a 2-year-old male child with an unusual CT and MRI appearance, who presented to us in February 1995 with features of precocious puberty. In October 2004, at the age of 11 years, he presented with symptoms and signs of raised ICP.

  2. Neuroendocrine pathways mediating nutritional acceleration of puberty: insights from ruminant models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eAmstalden

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pubertal process is characterized by an activation of physiological events within the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal-gonadal axis which culminate in reproductive competence. Excessive weight gain and adiposity during the juvenile period is associated with accelerated onset of puberty in females. The mechanisms and pathways by which excess energy balance advances puberty are unclear, but appear to involve an early escape from estradiol negative feedback and early initiation of high frequency episodic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH secretion. Hypothalamic neurons, particularly neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin neurons are likely important components of the pathway sensing and transmitting metabolic information to the control of GnRH secretion. Kisspeptin neurons may also have a role as effector neurons integrating metabolic and gonadal steroid feedback effects on GnRH secretion at the time of puberty. Recent studies indicate that leptin-responsive neurons within the ventral premammillary nucleus play a critical role in pubertal progression and challenge the relevance of kisspeptin neurons in this process. Nevertheless, the nutritional control of puberty is likely to involve an integration of major sensor and effector pathways that interact with modulatory circuitries for a fine control of GnRH neuron function. In this review, observations made in ruminant species are emphasized for a comparative perspective.

  3. The mystery of puberty initiation: genetics and epigenetics of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leka-Emiri, Sofia; Chrousos, George P; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina

    2017-03-01

    Puberty is a major developmental stage. Damaging mutations, considered as "mistakes of nature", have contributed to the unraveling of the networks implicated in the normal initiation of puberty. Genes involved in the abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis development, in the normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH), in the X-linked or autosomal forms of Kallmann syndrome and in precocious puberty have been identified (GNRH1, GNRHR, KISS1, GPR54, FGFR1, FGF8, PROK2, PROKR2, TAC3, TACR3, KAL1, PROK2, PROKR2, CHD7, LEP, LEPR, PC1, DAX1, SF-1, HESX-1, LHX3, PROP-1). Most of them were found to play critical roles in HPG axis development and regulation, the embryonic GnRH neuronal migration and secretion, the regulation and action of the hypothalamic GnRH. However, the specific neural and molecular mechanisms triggering GnRH secretion remain one of the scientific enigmas. Although GnRH neurons are probably capable of autonomously generating oscillations, many gonadal steroid-dependent and -independent mechanisms have also been proposed. It is now well proven that the secretion of GnRH is regulated by kisspeptin as well as by permissive or opposing signals mediated by neurokinin B and dynorphin. These three supra-GnRH regulators compose the kisspeptin-neurokinin B-dynorphin neuronal (KNDy) system, a key player in pubertal onset and progression. Moreover, an ongoing increasing number of inhibitory, stimulatory and permissive networks acting upstream on GnRH neurons, such as GABA, NPY, LIN28B, MKRN3 and others integrate diverse hormonal and peripheral signals and have been proposed as the "gate-keepers" of puberty, while epigenetic modifications play also an important role in puberty initiation.

  4. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

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    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  5. Studying the altered timing of physiological events during development: it's about time…or is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, John I; Rundle, Simon D; Tills, Oliver

    2011-08-31

    The investigation of the altered timing of developmental events is key to understanding evolution. Most empirical investigations of event timing are biased towards studying morphological variation. Recent reviews, however, have attempted to marshal the evidence for the importance of altered timing of physiological events, focusing on such timing shifts between species (physiological heterochrony) and within species (physiological heterokairy). Here we update these reviews. We firstly take a comparative developmental physiology approach to explore how recent studies have furthered our understanding of the links between physiological event timing shifts at different levels of biological organisation (i.e. individual, population and species). The alternative strategy of concentrating effort on one model system is then considered, in particular focussing on substantial recent advances in our understanding of fetal haemoglobin expression in humans. We conclude that, while the fetal haemoglobin model may be appropriate as a model for some questions, it can never be the model study system. We also discuss the different quantitative analyses available for investigating event timing alterations. We consider the efficacy of the terms heterochrony and heterokairy.

  6. Delayed puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Differential diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoep, Marinus Cornelis

    1978-01-01

    This thesis describes a method enabling a prospecrive differential diagnosis to be made berween delayed puberty (DP) and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). The influence of androgen administration on the gonadal feedback sysrem of patients with delayed puberty was also studied. ... Zie: Summary

  7. Central precocious puberty and gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Oostdijk (Wilma)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn order to understand the processes occurring during precocious puberty, one needs to specify what is currently known about normal pubertal development. Puberty can be defined as a maturational process of the hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal axis, which results in the development of the go

  8. Evaluation of 451 Danish Boys With Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; P. Hagen, Casper; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet;

    2015-01-01

    Context: Few data exist on the diagnostic criteria, and on the effects of puberty induction, in boyswith constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP). Objective: To develop puberty nomograms based on Danish boys with normal pubertal development.To evaluate the different diagnostic criteria...... and the effect of oral testosterone undecanoate(TU) in boys with CDGP. Design: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of Danish boys with normal pubertal development(COPENHAGEN puberty study). A retrospective observational study of 451 boys evaluated fordelayed puberty between 1990 and 2013. Setting: Tertiary...... referral center for pediatric endocrinology. Participants: One hundred and sixty-four (36%) boys evaluated for CDGP were excluded due tomissing data, reclassification, or associated comorbidities, yielding 287 (64%) eligible for analysis. Main Outcome Measures: The number of patients with CDGP classified...

  9. Expression and significance of netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C in precocious puberty female rat hypothalamus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Chao Shang; Jie Zhang; Yan-Qiu Shang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study expressions of netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C in female precocious puberty rat hypothalamus, and explore its effect on precocious puberty process.Methods:Forty female one-week-old SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: experimental group A (precocious puberty early youth), experimental group B (precocious puberty medium youth), group A (normal pre-puberty), group B (normal early youth) with 10 rats in each group. Precocious puberty experimental rats were induced with Danazol and rats in control group were injected with saline. Uterus and ovaries were removed, specimens were weighed, uterus index and ovarian index were calculated, and amount of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were detected from the blood by ELISA. Real-time PCR was used to detect netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C, as well as hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression in hypothalamus tissues; and then, a co-immunoprecipitation study of interactions between netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5C was carried out.Results: Relative target gene expression levels of control group A, control group B, experimental group A, and experimental group B (withβ-actin as an internal control for normalization) were as follows: Netrin-1: 3.5±0.9, 5.4±0.7, 4.9±1.0, 5.3±0.3; UNC5C: 0.8±0.04, 1.7±0.2, 1.82±0.23, 1.58±0.4; GnRH: 1.2±0.3, 2.7±0.3, 2.4±0.7, 3.2±0.4.Conclusions:LH and FSH concentrations, netrin-1 and its receptor expression are increased in precocious puberty animal models.

  10. An approach to constitutional delay of growth and puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional delay of growth and puberty is a transient state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with prolongation of childhood phase of growth, delayed skeletal maturation, delayed and attenuated pubertal growth spurt, and relatively low insulin-like growth factor-1 secretion. In a considerable number of cases, the final adult height (Ht does not reach the mid-parental or the predicted adult Ht for the individual, with some degree of disproportionately short trunk. In the pre-pubertal male, testosterone (T replacement therapy can be used to induce pubertal development, accelerate growth and relieve the psychosocial complaints of the adolescents. However, some issues in the management are still unresolved. These include type, optimal timing, dose and duration of sex steroid treatment and the possible use of adjunctive or alternate therapy including: oxandrolone, aromatase inhibitors and human growth hormone.

  11. The Role of Mother in Informing Girls About Puberty: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooki

    2016-02-01

    health train mothers about the time, trends, and factors affecting the start of puberty using a multi-dimensional approach that involves religious organizations, community groups, and peer groups.

  12. HYPERANDROGENISM OF PUBERTY AGE AS A FACTOR REDUCING FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bogatyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Hyperandrogenism is a common cause of infertility in women. The onset of symptoms of hyperandrogenism takes place during puberty in the majority of women. Hyperandrogenism reduces reproductive potential,so early detection and development of its prognostic factors, allows us to solve serious problems of puberty and prevent infertility.Materials and methods. 113 adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism from 14 to 19 years were included. The control group consists of 25 healthy girls of a similar age. To confirm the prediction of decreased reproductive capacity were examined 35 women with hyperandrogenism from 19 to 36 years. In addition to routine methods of examination (anamnesis, physical examination, anthropometry, assessment of the hairline using Ferriman – Gallwey scale, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, the definition of the hormonal status (LH, FSH, prolactin, 17-OHP, estradiol, TSH, DHEAS-s, GHPG, testosterone, glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance test and dexamethasone suppression test when necessary.Results. We have proved the reduction of reproductive potential of adolescent girls with high free androgen index (FAI. When the FAI has increased from 36 to 100 conventional units it caused reduction of the reproductive capacity in 9.7 times in comparison with control group (χ2=56,24; p < 0.001; overall prediction accuracy of 92.8%.Conclusion. Free androgen index more than 36 conventional units is a high risk factor of reduced fertility.

  13. Awe expands people's perception of time, alters decision making, and enhances well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Melanie; Vohs, Kathleen D; Aaker, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    When do people feel as if they are rich in time? Not often, research and daily experience suggest. However, three experiments showed that participants who felt awe, relative to other emotions, felt they had more time available (Experiments 1 and 3) and were less impatient (Experiment 2). Participants who experienced awe also were more willing to volunteer their time to help other people (Experiment 2), more strongly preferred experiences over material products (Experiment 3), and experienced greater life satisfaction (Experiment 3). Mediation analyses revealed that these changes in decision making and well-being were due to awe's ability to alter the subjective experience of time. Experiences of awe bring people into the present moment, and being in the present moment underlies awe's capacity to adjust time perception, influence decisions, and make life feel more satisfying than it would otherwise.

  14. Cognitive efficiency on a match to sample task decreases at the onset of puberty in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Robert F; Andersen, Julie; Byrd, Desiree; Mutter, Kandis L; Reilly, Judy

    2002-10-01

    Electrocortical evidence indicates that a wave of synaptic proliferation occurs in the frontal lobes around the age of puberty onset. To study its potential influence on cognition, we examined 246 children (10-17 years) and 49 young adults (18-22 years) using a match-to-sample type of task to measure reaction times to assess emotionally related information. Based upon the instruction set, subjects made a yes/no decision about the emotion expressed in a face, a word, or a face/word combination presented tachistoscopically for 100 ms. The faces were images of a single individual with a happy, angry, sad or neutral expression. The words were 'happy,' 'angry,' 'sad,' or 'neutral,' In the combined stimulus condition, subjects were asked to decide if the face and word matched for the same emotion. Results showed that compared to the previous year, reaction times were significantly slower for making a correct decision at 11 and 12 years of age in girls and boys, the approximate ages of puberty onset. The peripubertal rise in reaction time declined slowly over the following 2-3 years and stabilized by 15 years of age. Analyses of the performance of 15-17 year olds revealed significantly longer reaction times in females to process both faces and words compared to males. However, this sex difference in late puberty appeared to be transient since it was not present in 18-22 year olds. Given the match-to-sample nature of the task employed, the puberty related increases in reaction time may reflect a relative inefficiency in frontal circuitry prior to the pruning of excess synaptic contacts.

  15. Early puberty is associated with mental health problems in middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri; Rantanen, Päivi; Rimpelä, Matti

    2003-09-01

    This study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems (the School Health Promotion Study). Secondary schools in four regions and 13 towns in Finland participated in the study in 1998. The respondents were 36,549 adolescents aged 14-16. The study included questions on depression, bulimia nervosa, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, drinking, substance use, smoking, bullying and truancy. Among girls, both internalising and externalising symptoms were more common the earlier puberty occurred. Among boys, externalising symptoms only were associated with early puberty. It is concluded that early pubertal timing is associated with increased mental health problems. Professionals working with adolescents should consider the mental health needs of early maturing adolescents.

  16. [Assessment of the effects of age at start of puberty on mental health in pre-adolescence: results of a longitudinal study (1989-1991)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, M; Plancherel, B; Nuñez, R; Bettschart, W

    1993-01-01

    The transition from childhood to adolescence is widely believed to be a stressful period in which the child faces multiple changes: physical changes, school choices, development of new social roles, and changes in the relation with his or her parents and friends. We investigated the effects of the timing of puberty on mental health, studied in a population of 219 young adolescents who were followed during three years (mean age at the beginning of the study was 12.5 years). The changes in the perception of the individual's body associated with puberty depended on the child's gender. Significant events during puberty had a negative effect on mental health. Although puberty remains a critical period of temporary unstable and fragile transition, most of the young adolescents coped relatively well with the physiological, psychological and social changes they faced.

  17. Precocious puberty in a patient with Oculo-Auriculo-Verebral spectrum (OAVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on the first case of OAVS (Oculo-Auriculo- Vertebral-Spectrum, with hemifacial microsomy, hydrocephalus, pubertas precox, thelarche at 4 years of age, vaginal bleeding at 5 years, and left ovary of adult type on echography (right ovary initially not visualized. FISH and CGH-ARRAYS methods were negative. By GnRH therapy the delay of onset puberty was obtained. The authors ascribe facial and ovary asymmetry to a derangement of blastogenesis, during which axial right-left structures begin the develop with consequent migration or interation with surrounding tissues of neural crest cells and alteration of diencephalic pituitary systems.

  18. Final adult height of girls with central precocious puberty or early and fast puberty could be improved by treatment of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and impact factors of treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs(GnRHa) in central precocious puberty(CPP)or early and fast puberty(EFP)girls in a retrospective unicenter study

  19. It's only a matter of time: the altered role of subsidies in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eoin J

    2016-09-01

    Clockwise from left: an experimental stream reach from the study, highlighting the fences used to contain fish as the apex predator; a cutthroat trout from the experiment, the only fish species in the study streams; stomach contents from a fish, highlighting the major role of the terrestrial subsidy (mealworms) in the diet. In Focus: Sato, T., El-Sabaawi, R.W., Campbell, K., Ohta, T. & Richardson, J.S. (2016) A test of the effects of timing of a pulsed resource subsidy on stream ecosystems. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 1136-1146. Cross-ecosystem subsidies play a critical role in maintaining the structure and functioning of natural communities, especially if they are asynchronous with resource production in the recipient ecosystem. Sato et al. () use a large-scale field experiment to show that changes in the timing of a pulsed terrestrial subsidy can alter stream dynamics from the individual to the ecosystem level. With increasing evidence that global warming will alter the timing, magnitude and frequency of allochthonous inputs, these findings make an important contribution to our understanding of how such changes will reverberate throughout ecosystems that depend on subsidies.

  20. Age at puberty and the emerging obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Olsen, Lina W;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that puberty starts at younger ages than previously. It has been hypothesized that the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is contributing to this trend. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between prepubertal body mass index (BMI....... Irrespective of level of BMI at age seven, there was a downward trend in the age at attaining puberty in both boys and girls, which suggests that the obesity epidemic is not solely responsible for the trend....

  1. Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Ae; Han, Dong-Hee; Noh, Jong-Yun; Kim, Mi-Hee; Son, Gi Hoon; Kim, Kyungjin; Kim, Chang-Ju; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Cho, Sehyung

    2012-01-01

    In modern society, growing numbers of people are engaged in various forms of shift works or trans-meridian travels. Such circadian misalignment is known to disturb endogenous diurnal rhythms, which may lead to harmful physiological consequences including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and gastric disorders as well as other physical and mental disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s) underlying these changes are yet unclear. The present work, therefore examined the effects of 6 h advance or delay of usual meal time on diurnal rhythmicities in home cage activity (HCA), body temperature (BT), blood metabolic markers, glucose homeostasis, and expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol homeostasis by feeding young adult male mice in a time-restrictive manner. Delay of meal time caused locomotive hyperactivity in a significant portion (42%) of subjects, while 6 h advance caused a torpor-like symptom during the late scotophase. Accordingly, daily rhythms of blood glucose and triglyceride were differentially affected by time-restrictive feeding regimen with concurrent metabolic alterations. Along with these physiological changes, time-restrictive feeding also influenced the circadian expression patterns of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) as well as most LDLR regulatory factors. Strikingly, chronic advance of meal time induced insulin resistance, while chronic delay significantly elevated blood glucose levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that persistent shifts in usual meal time impact the diurnal rhythms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in addition to HCA and BT, thereby posing critical implications for the health and diseases of shift workers.

  2. Puberty as a vulnerable period to the effects of immune challenges: Focus on sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Leanne; Ismail, Nafissa

    2017-03-01

    Puberty is a critical period of development during which sexual maturity is attained. It is also a critical period for brain reorganization and it is vulnerable to exposure to certain environmental factors. Exposure to stress during this period can cause enduring neural and behavioral alterations. More specifically, exposure to an immune challenge during this period can alter reproductive as well as a number of non-reproductive behaviors and can permanently alter the brain's response to gonadal hormones. The present review examines the enduring effect of exposure to LPS and poly(I:C) during the pubertal period. Age and sex differences in acute response to LPS are discussed as possible mechanisms of vulnerability to adverse effects. Moreover, this review suggests new research directions to improve our understanding of the vulnerability of the pubertal period to immunological stressors.

  3. Alteration of time-resolved autofluorescence properties of rat aorta, induced by diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uherek, M.; Uličná, O.; Vančová, O.; Muchová, J.; Ďuračková, Z.; Šikurová, L.; Chorvát, D.

    2016-10-01

    Changes in autofluorescence properties of isolated rat aorta, induced by diabetes mellitus, were detected using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with pulsed ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation. We demonstrated that time-resolved spectroscopy was able to detect changes in aorta tissues related to diabetes and unambiguously discriminate diabetic (τ 1 0.63  ±  0.05 ns, τ 2 3.66  ±  0.10 ns) samples from the control (τ 1 0.76  ±  0.03 ns, τ 2 4.48  ±  0.15 ns) group. We also report changes in the ratio of relative amplitudes of the two lifetime component in aorta tissue during diabetes, most likely related to the pseudohypoxic state with altered NADH homeostasis.

  4. Challenges and controversies in diagnosis and management of gonadotropin dependent precocious puberty: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing precocious puberty (PP has been a challenge due to lack of standardized definition, gonadotrophins assay, gonadotrophin stimulation, timings for blood sampling, and parameters for assessing outcomes. This review evaluated available literature to simplify the algorithm for managing gonadotrophin dependent/central PP (CPP, with an Indian perspective. CPP is one of the commonest forms of PP and mimics the normal course of puberty, at an age 3.5 cm and uterine volume of >1.8 ml are two most specific indicators for true CPP. Therapy is indicated in children with CPP with accelerated bone age, height advancement, or psychosocial stress. Treatment goal is to halt puberty progression to a socially acceptable age, allowing the child to attain optimal height potential. GnRHa is the treatment of choice, with best height outcomes when initiated <6 years age. Treatment is recommended till 11 years age. LH suppression to <3 U/L may be a reasonable target in patients on GnRHa therapy. Medroxyprogesterone acetate holds an important place in managing PP in India, cause of high costs associated with GnRHa therapy. There is an urgent need for clinical trials from India, for establishing Indian cut-off for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of children with PP.

  5. Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Yoon

    Full Text Available In modern society, growing numbers of people are engaged in various forms of shift works or trans-meridian travels. Such circadian misalignment is known to disturb endogenous diurnal rhythms, which may lead to harmful physiological consequences including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and gastric disorders as well as other physical and mental disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s underlying these changes are yet unclear. The present work, therefore examined the effects of 6 h advance or delay of usual meal time on diurnal rhythmicities in home cage activity (HCA, body temperature (BT, blood metabolic markers, glucose homeostasis, and expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol homeostasis by feeding young adult male mice in a time-restrictive manner. Delay of meal time caused locomotive hyperactivity in a significant portion (42% of subjects, while 6 h advance caused a torpor-like symptom during the late scotophase. Accordingly, daily rhythms of blood glucose and triglyceride were differentially affected by time-restrictive feeding regimen with concurrent metabolic alterations. Along with these physiological changes, time-restrictive feeding also influenced the circadian expression patterns of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR as well as most LDLR regulatory factors. Strikingly, chronic advance of meal time induced insulin resistance, while chronic delay significantly elevated blood glucose levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that persistent shifts in usual meal time impact the diurnal rhythms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in addition to HCA and BT, thereby posing critical implications for the health and diseases of shift workers.

  6. The timing of embryonic exposure to elevated temperature alters stress endocrinology in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Mast, Andrew D; Luu, Thuyvan H; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-02-01

    Patterns of glucocorticoid (GC) release in response to stimuli vary both among individuals and within individuals across their lifetime. While much work has focused on how the prenatal steroid environment can affect GC release, relatively little is known about how environmental parameters, such as incubation temperature affect GCs. We tested the hypothesis that variation and timing of elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone can alter the pattern of GC release. We incubated domestic chicken eggs (Gallus domesticus) at the optimal incubation temperature (37.5 °C) or at a slightly higher temperature (+1.1 °C) either early, late, or throughout incubation. At three weeks post-hatch, all birds were (i) exposed to a capture-restraint stress to measure stress-induced GC release (naïve). Three days following the naïve stressor, birds were (ii) exposed to a heat challenge, which was followed the next day by a second capture-restraint stress (post-heat challenge). Regardless of treatment, birds had similar patterns of GC release following the naïve stress series. However, during the post-heat challenge stress series, birds incubated at optimal temperatures increased their peak GC release. In contrast, birds exposed to slightly elevated temperatures for any period of development failed to increase peak GC release, and their specific response varied with timing of exposure to the elevated incubation temperature. Our results demonstrate that subtle variation in the embryonic environment, such as elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone, can impact the pattern of GC release of offspring. Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these changes and the relationship between fitness and environmentally-altered phenotypes.

  7. Neural code alterations and abnormal time patterns in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The neural code used by the basal ganglia is a current question in neuroscience, relevant for the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While a rate code is known to participate in the communication between the basal ganglia and the motor thalamus/cortex, different lines of evidence have also favored the presence of complex time patterns in the discharge of the basal ganglia. To gain insight into the way the basal ganglia code information, we studied the activity of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), an output node of the circuit. Approach. We implemented the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinsonism in Sprague-Dawley rats, and recorded the spontaneous discharge of single GPi neurons, in head-restrained conditions at full alertness. Analyzing the temporal structure function, we looked for characteristic scales in the neuronal discharge of the GPi. Main results. At a low-scale, we observed the presence of dynamic processes, which allow the transmission of time patterns. Conversely, at a middle-scale, stochastic processes force the use of a rate code. Regarding the time patterns transmitted, we measured the word length and found that it is increased in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, it showed a positive correlation with the frequency of discharge, indicating that an exacerbation of this abnormal time pattern length can be expected, as the dopamine depletion progresses. Significance. We conclude that a rate code and a time pattern code can co-exist in the basal ganglia at different temporal scales. However, their normal balance is progressively altered and replaced by pathological time patterns in Parkinson’s disease.

  8. Ectopic expression of a WRKY homolog from Glycine soja alters flowering time in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Luo

    Full Text Available Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG. Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time.

  9. Altered network timing in the CA3-CA1 circuit of hippocampal slices from aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kanak

    Full Text Available Network patterns are believed to provide unique temporal contexts for coordinating neuronal activity within and across different regions of the brain. Some of the characteristics of network patterns modeled in vitro are altered in the CA3 or CA1 subregions of hippocampal slices from aged mice. CA3-CA1 network interactions have not been examined previously. We used slices from aged and adult mice to model spontaneous sharp wave ripples and carbachol-induced gamma oscillations, and compared measures of CA3-CA1 network timing between age groups. Coherent sharp wave ripples and gamma oscillations were evident in the CA3-CA1 circuit in both age groups, but the relative timing of activity in CA1 stratum pyramidale was delayed in the aged. In another sample of aged slices, evoked Schaffer collateral responses were attenuated in CA3 (antidromic spike amplitude and CA1 (orthodromic field EPSP slope. However, the amplitude and timing of spontaneous sharp waves recorded in CA1 stratum radiatum were similar to adults. In both age groups unit activity recorded juxtacellularly from unidentified neurons in CA1 stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens was temporally modulated by CA3 ripples. However, aged neurons exhibited reduced spike probability during the early cycles of the CA3 ripple oscillation. These findings suggest that aging disrupts the coordination of patterned activity in the CA3-CA1 circuit.

  10. Ectopic expression of a WRKY homolog from Glycine soja alters flowering time in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Cao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Mingchao; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-01-01

    Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO) and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG). Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time.

  11. Self-reported onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality and reproductive hormones in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2016-01-01

    their fitness for military service from 2008 to 2012. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS: A total of 1068 healthy, young Danish men (mean age 19 years) participated. They were asked to assess whether onset of penile and testicular growth, development of pubic hair and voice break occurred earlier......STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between pubertal onset and subsequent reproductive health in young men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Self-reported later onset of puberty was associated with reduced semen quality and altered serum levels of reproductive hormones among 1068 healthy, young Danish men. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: The long-term effects of variations in the onset of male puberty on subsequent reproduction remain largely unstudied. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In a cross-sectional study, young healthy Danish men were approached when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine...

  12. Sub-seafloor epidosite alteration: Timing, depth and stratigraphic distribution in the Semail ophiolite, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgen, Samuel A.; Diamond, Larryn W.; Mercolli, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Pervasive epidotization of igneous rocks is a common feature in the ophiolite record of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust. Current genetic models view epidosites as markers of focussed upflow of hydrothermal fluid beneath oceanic spreading ridges. The epidosites are envisaged to form at the base of the sheeted dike complex (SDC) during active plate spreading. Our mapping of the Semail ophiolite in Oman has revealed abundant epidosites in the volcanic sequence, some exceeding 1 km2 in extent. They are more frequent and far larger than the mineralogically identical epidosites in the SDC. We have also found epidosites that traverse the entire SDC from bottom to top. Thus, rather than being restricted to the base of the SDC, as implied by current models, epidosites in fact occur throughout the SDC and dominantly within the overlying volcanic pile. We report the occurrence of 19 epidosite bodies and their crosscutting relations with respect to host lava units, dikes, intrusive stocks and also seafloor umbers. The volcanostratigraphic affiliation of the dikes is identified by their whole-rock and clinopyroxene compositions. The relations set constraints on the timing of epidotization with respect to igneous activity in the ophiolite. At least one of the epidosites in the SDC formed during Lasail off-axis volcanism. Another epidosite in the SDC and many in the volcanic units formed later during post-spreading, Alley and Boninitic Alley supra-subduction zone volcanism. Only permissive, not compelling, evidence allows just two of the epidosites to have formed within the main-stage SDC during or shortly after its emplacement. We conclude that epidotization of the oceanic crust is not necessarily coupled to spreading ridges and that it can occur during fore-arc volcanism. This finding is consistent with evidence from the modern seafloor and it requires a different hydrothermal environment to that traditionally associated with alteration beneath spreading axes. The timing

  13. Serum levels of growth hormone binding protein in children with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Fisker, Sidse; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2000-01-01

    To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty.......To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty....

  14. Forty years trends in timing of pubertal growth spurt in 157,000 Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Entering puberty is an important milestone in reproductive life and secular changes in the timing of puberty may be an important indicator of the general reproductive health in a population. Too early puberty is associated with several psychosocial and health problems. The aim of our...... a secular trend towards earlier sexual maturation of Danish children born between 1930 and 1969. Only minor changes were observed in duration of puberty assessed by the difference in ages at OGS and PHV Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  15. Serum inhibin B levels during male childhood and puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2001-01-01

    Inhibin B is a testicular peptide hormone that regulates FSH secretion in a negative feedback loop. In males serum levels of inhibin B are detectable throughout life with prominent changes in the first year of life and during puberty. Serum inhibin B is normally detectable throughout childhood...... normal or near-normal levels are seen in cryptorchidism and disorders with preserved Sertoli cell function in spite of absence of germ cells or impaired androgen biosynthesis or action. During puberty a developmental change in the regulation of serum inhibin B occurs. In contrast to childhood inhibin B...

  16. Circulating MKRN3 levels decline during puberty in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Almstrup, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    role of the protein on GnRH secretion. OBJECTIVE: To investigate peripubertal circulating MKRN3 levels in healthy boys Design: Population-based longitudinal study in healthy Danish boys Setting: General community Patients or Other Participants: Healthy boys (n = 60) aged [median (range)] 9.3 (5.8 - 11...... to pubertal onset support MKRN3 as an inhibitor of GnRH secretion during mid-childhood.......CONTEXT: Initiation and progression of puberty requires concerted action of hypothalamic activating and inhibiting factors. Recently, cases of familial central precocious puberty have been linked to loss-of-function mutations of makorin RING-finger protein 3 (MKRN3) indicating a pivotal inhibitory...

  17. Alterations of cortical excitability and central motor conduction time in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhunjhunwala, Ketan; Prashanth, D K; Netravathi, M; Nagaraju, B C; Pal, Pramod Kr

    2013-10-11

    Wilson's disease (WD) leads to widespread structural alterations of central nervous system and our objectives were to determine the cortical excitability changes in WD by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Thirteen patients with WD, diagnosed by the presence of Kayser-Fleischer ring and biochemical tests, were studied. TMS was performed using a figure-of-eight coil attached to Magstim 200 stimulator. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were recorded from right first dorsal interosseous at rest. Resting motor threshold (RMT) was determined using standard techniques and central motor conduction time (CMCT) by 'F' wave method. Comparison was made with control data of our laboratory. Dysarthria was the presenting symptom in 5 patients (38.5%) and chorea, tremors, dystonia and abnormal gait in 2 patients each (15.4%). RMT was recordable in 10 patients and not recordable in 3. Compared to controls, patients in whom RMT was recordable, had significantly higher mean RMT (80.9 ± 14.8 vs. 41.1 ± 7, pRMT, MEP could be obtained with active contraction. CMCT in these 2 patients was also prolonged. Patients with WD have reduced cortical excitability and prolonged CMCT which may be due to the intracortical presynaptic motor dysfunction.

  18. Asynchronous inputs alter excitability, spike timing, and topography in primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Pritesh K; Moucha, Raluca; Engineer, Navzer D; Rathbun, Daniel L; Vazquez, Jessica; Kilgard, Michael P

    2005-05-01

    Correlation-based synaptic plasticity provides a potential cellular mechanism for learning and memory. Studies in the visual and somatosensory systems have shown that behavioral and surgical manipulation of sensory inputs leads to changes in cortical organization that are consistent with the operation of these learning rules. In this study, we examine how the organization of primary auditory cortex (A1) is altered by tones designed to decrease the average input correlation across the frequency map. After one month of separately pairing nucleus basalis stimulation with 2 and 14 kHz tones, a greater proportion of A1 neurons responded to frequencies below 2 kHz and above 14 kHz. Despite the expanded representation of these tones, cortical excitability was specifically reduced in the high and low frequency regions of A1, as evidenced by increased neural thresholds and decreased response strength. In contrast, in the frequency region between the two paired tones, driven rates were unaffected and spontaneous firing rate was increased. Neural response latencies were increased across the frequency map when nucleus basalis stimulation was associated with asynchronous activation of the high and low frequency regions of A1. This set of changes did not occur when pulsed noise bursts were paired with nucleus basalis stimulation. These results are consistent with earlier observations that sensory input statistics can shape cortical map organization and spike timing.

  19. Altered time structure of neuro-endocrine-immune system function in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carughi Stefano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The onset and the development of neoplastic disease may be influenced by many physiological, biological and immunological factors. The nervous, endocrine and immune system might act as an integrated unit to mantain body defense against this pathological process and reciprocal influences have been evidenced among hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pineal gland and immune system. In this study we evaluated differences among healthy subjects and subjects suffering from lung cancer in the 24-hour secretory profile of melatonin, cortisol, TRH, TSH, FT4, GH, IGF-1 and IL-2 and circadian variations of lymphocyte subpopulations. Methods In ten healthy male volunteers (age range 45-66 and ten male patients with untreated non small cell lung cancer (age range 46-65 we measured melatonin, cortisol, TRH, TSH, FT4, GH, IGF-1 and IL-2 serum levels and percentages of lymphocyte subpopulations on blood samples collected every four hours for 24 hours. One-way ANOVA between the timepoints for each variable and each group was performed to look for a time-effect, the presence of circadian rhythmicity was evaluated, MESOR, amplitude and acrophase values, mean diurnal levels and mean nocturnal levels were compared. Results A clear circadian rhythm was validated in the control group for hormone serum level and for lymphocyte subsets variation. Melatonin, TRH, TSH, GH, CD3, CD4, HLA-DR, CD20 and CD25 expressing cells presented circadian rhythmicity with acrophase during the night. Cortisol, CD8, CD8bright, CD8dim, CD16, TcRδ1 and δTcS1 presented circadian rhythmicity with acrophase in the morning/at noon. FT4, IGF-1 and IL-2 variation did not show circadian rhythmicity. In lung cancer patients cortisol, TRH, TSH and GH serum level and all the lymphocyte subsubsets variation (except for CD4 showed loss of circadian rhythmicity. MESOR of cortisol, TRH, GH, IL-2 and CD16 was increased, whereas MESOR of TSH, IGF-1, CD8, CD8bright, TcRδ1 and

  20. White matter development in adolescence: the influence of puberty and implications for affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A; Dahl, Ronald E

    2012-01-01

    There have been rapid advances in understanding a broad range of changes in brain structure and function during adolescence, and a growing interest in identifying which of these neurodevelopmental changes are directly linked with pubertal maturation—at least in part because of their potential to provide insights into the numerous emotional and behavioral health problems that emerge during this developmental period. This review focuses on what is known about the influence of puberty on white matter development in adolescence.We focus on white matter because of its role in providing the structural architectural organization of the brain and as a structural correlate of communication within complex neural systems. We begin with a review of studies that report sex differences or sex by age interactions in white matter development as these findings can provide, although indirectly,information relevant to puberty-related changes. Studies are also critically reviewed based on methodological procedures used to assess pubertal maturation and relations with white matter changes. Findings are discussed in light of their implications for the development of neural systems underlying the regulation of emotion and behavior and how alterations in the development of these systems may mediate risk for affective disorders in vulnerable adolescents.

  1. The influence of stress at puberty on mood and learning: role of the α4βδ GABAA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S S

    2013-09-26

    It is well-known that the onset of puberty is associated with changes in mood as well as cognition. Stress can have an impact on these outcomes, which in many cases, can be more influential in females, suggesting that gender differences exist. The adolescent period is a vulnerable time for the onset of certain psychopathologies, including anxiety disorders, depression and eating disorders, which are also more prevalent in females. One factor which may contribute to stress-triggered anxiety at puberty is the GABAA receptor (GABAR), which is known to play a pivotal role in anxiety. Expression of α4βδ GABARs increases on the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells at the onset of puberty in the hippocampus, part of the limbic circuitry which governs emotion. This receptor is a sensitive target for the stress steroid 3α-OH-5[α]β-pregnan-20-one or [allo]pregnanolone, which paradoxically reduces inhibition and increases anxiety during the pubertal period (post-natal day ∼35-44) of female mice in contrast to its usual effect to enhance inhibition and reduce anxiety. Spatial learning and synaptic plasticity are also adversely impacted at puberty, likely a result of increased expression of α4βδ GABARs on the dendritic spines of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, which are essential for consolidation of memory. This review will focus on the role of these receptors in mediating behavioral changes at puberty. Stress-mediated changes in mood and cognition in early adolescence may have relevance for the expression of psychopathologies in adulthood.

  2. Early puberty in internationally adopted girls: hormonal and clinical markers of puberty in 276 girls examined biannually over two years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen H; Teilmann, Grete; Petersen, Jørgen Holm;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Retrospective studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Hypothetically, this could be due to selection bias. The aim of this study was to determine age at reaching pubertal milestones in healthy internationally......-sectionally. RESULTS: Mean age at B2+ was 9.5 years (95% prediction interval 7.1-12.0 years) and mean age at menarche was 12.1 (10.2-14.0) years in adopted girls, which was significantly lower compared to the reference group (p puberty...

  3. Hyperandrogenism during puberty in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Shahla

    2013-07-01

    The hormonal events of puberty, from adrenarche to menarche and beyond, include the secretion of androgens as well as estrogen and P. This normal pubertal process is briefly reviewed and a physiologic role for pubertal androgens proposed. It is further suggested that the hyperandrogenic state we call polycystic ovary syndrome is a maladaptation of the advantageous role of normal pubertal androgens.

  4. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  5. PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY DUE TO OVARIAN CYST – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    Discussion/Conclusion: Most autonomous ovarian cysts regress spontaneously with regression of pubertal signs, as in the present case. Therapy with a GnRH agonist may become necessary in the case of transformation from precocious pseudopuberty to central precocious puberty after recurrences of the ovarian cysts or when there is significant loss of height potential.

  6. Baseflow mean transit times in natural and human-altered catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, J.; Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Elliot, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    Baseflow is one of the most important components of the ecosystem since it provides continuous habitat to aquatic biota; regulates water chemistry, temperature, and dissolved oxygen during summer; and functions as an essential supply for drinking water and food production worldwide. This study will evaluate baseflow mean transit times (MTTs) in five natural (i.e. pristine forest) and human-altered (i.e. agricultural, urban, and mining) catchments in eastern Washington and northern Idaho during 2011-2013. Drainage area ranges from small (6.35 km2) to meso scale (342 km2) and mean annual precipitation varies from 670 mm to 1,313 mm. MTTs were evaluated by applying d18O input precipitation and output stream waters to a lumped parameter model (FlowPC 3.2) using four main theoretical distribution models: piston flow, exponential, dispersion, and piston-exponential. Precipitation samples (N=307) were collected on weekly to biweekly basis and stream samples (N=690) were collected weekly using automated samplers. Precipitation showed a strong seasonal periodicity with a sine-wave modeled amplitude of 3.03‰ and a mean annual average of d18O= -15.13‰. Mean annual stream d18O ranged from -14.87‰ to -15.80‰ across the study catchments. Our modeling results will show information for examining solute transport and water availability under current and future land use practices and climate variability within a variety of watersheds in the inland Pacific Northwest that share similar underlying geology and climate attributes.

  7. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT, during a bed rest period (HDT0, and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7. One-way analysis of variance of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (P<0.05, corrected. Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment.

  8. PDGF supplementation alters oxidative events in wound healing process: a time course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltalioglu, Kaan; Coskun-Cevher, Sule; Tugcu-Demiroz, Fatmanur; Celebi, Nevin

    2013-07-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), an important stimulant, plays a role in almost all stages of wound healing process. In various studies, it has been shown that PDGF has healing effects in this process. In the present study, we especially focused on investigating the effects of exogenous PDGF administration on oxidative events during cutaneous wound healing process. Experiments were performed on 42 female Wistar-albino rats. Animals were divided into four groups: control, untreated, chitosan-treated and chitosan + PDGF-treated. Two uniform full-thickness excisional skin wounds were made under anesthesia in all animals except control group. In the chitosan + PDGF-treated groups, the wounds were treated topically with a single daily dose PDGF-BB (7 ng/ml) after wounding. In the chitosan-treated groups, the wounds were treated topically with equal amount of blank chitosan gel. After that, on the 3rd and 7th days of wound healing, the animals were killed. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide (NOx), ascorbic acid (AA), glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured spectrophotometrically in the wound tissues. PDGF significantly increased TBARS levels in early phase of wound healing. In contrast, it significantly decreased TBARS levels in later phase of healing. In the chitosan + PDGF-treated group, NOx levels decreased on days 3 and 7 when compared with the chitosan-treated groups. Non-enzymatic antioxidant levels were increased by PDGF administration and this may have contributed to increase in wound tissue antioxidant capacity. In the light of these findings, PDGF supplementation may have altering effects on oxidative events depending on the time in wound healing process.

  9. Natural soil microbes alter flowering phenology and the intensity of selection on flowering time in a wild Arabidopsis relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Maggie R; Lundberg, Derek S; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Tringe, Susannah G; Dangl, Jeffery L; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Plant phenology is known to depend on many different environmental variables, but soil microbial communities have rarely been acknowledged as possible drivers of flowering time. Here, we tested separately the effects of four naturally occurring soil microbiomes and their constituent soil chemistries on flowering phenology and reproductive fitness of Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis. Flowering time was sensitive to both microbes and the abiotic properties of different soils; varying soil microbiota also altered patterns of selection on flowering time. Thus, soil microbes potentially contribute to phenotypic plasticity of flowering time and to differential selection observed between habitats. We also describe a method to dissect the microbiome into single axes of variation that can help identify candidate organisms whose abundance in soil correlates with flowering time. This approach is broadly applicable to search for microbial community members that alter biological characteristics of interest.

  10. Environmental factors and puberty timing: expert panel research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.

    2008-01-01

    the continuum of exposures at critical windows while assessing a spectrum of pubertal markers as outcomes. Coupled with comparative species studies, such research may provide insight regarding the causal ordering of events that underlie pubertal onset and progression and their role in the pathway of adult...

  11. TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD. V M Richardson', J T Hamm2, and L S Birnbaum1. 'USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 'Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, ...

  12. Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: Does timing of digital alteration information matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2016-08-30

    The study aimed to investigate whether a message informing readers about digital alteration read before exposure to thin ideal advertisements would enhance the effectiveness of disclaimer labels. Participants were 280 female undergraduate students who viewed eleven thin ideal fashion magazine advertisements. Half viewed the advertisements in their original format, and half viewed the same advertisements with a digital alteration disclaimer label. Prior to viewing the advertisements, participants read either a brief message informing them that advertisements are commonly digitally altered, or a control message. Irrespective of experimental condition, exposure to the thin ideal advertisements led to increased body dissatisfaction, with social comparison predicting this increase. Neither the disclaimer label nor the pre-exposure message, nor their combination, led to reductions in perceived realism, social comparison, or body dissatisfaction. However, trait appearance comparison moderated the effect of pre-exposure message on perceived realism, such that women high on trait appearance comparison in the digital alteration pre-exposure message condition rated the models as relatively more realistic than did women low on this trait. It was concluded that more research is needed to identify brief and easy-to-implement universal prevention strategies that can reduce the negative effects of thin ideal media imagery on women's body image.

  13. Alteration of PHYA expression change circadian rhythms and timing of bud set in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarewa, Iwanka; Ibáñez, Cristian; Johansson, Mikael; Ogren, Erling; Mozley, David; Nylander, Eva; Chono, Makiko; Moritz, Thomas; Eriksson, Maria E

    2010-05-01

    In many temperate woody species, dormancy is induced by short photoperiods. Earlier studies have shown that the photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) promotes growth. Specifically, Populus plants that over-express the oat PHYA gene (oatPHYAox) show daylength-independent growth and do not become dormant. However, we show that oatPHYAox plants could be induced to set bud and become cold hardy by exposure to a shorter, non-24 h diurnal cycle that significantly alters the relative position between endogenous rhythms and perceived light/dark cycles. Furthermore, we describe studies in which the expression of endogenous Populus tremula x P. tremuloides PHYTOCHROME A (PttPHYA) was reduced in Populus trees by antisense inhibition. The antisense plants showed altered photoperiodic requirements, resulting in earlier growth cessation and bud formation in response to daylength shortening, an effect that was explained by an altered innate period that leads to phase changes of clock-associated genes such as PttCO2. Moreover, gene expression studies following far-red light pulses show a phyA-mediated repression of PttLHY1 and an induction of PttFKF1 and PttFT. We conclude that the level of PttPHYA expression strongly influences seasonally regulated growth in Populus and is central to co-ordination between internal clock-regulated rhythms and external light/dark cycles through its dual effect on the pace of clock rhythms and in light signaling.

  14. The value of comparative approaches to our understanding of puberty as illustrated by investigations in birds and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F; Wade, Juli

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Studies of birds and reptiles have provided many basic insights into the neuroendocrine control of reproductive processes. This research has elucidated mechanisms regulating both early development, including sexual differentiation, and adult neuroendocrine function and behavior. However, phenomena associated with the transition into sexual maturation (puberty) have not been a focus of investigators working on species in these taxonomic classes. Research is complicated in birds and reptiles by a variety of factors, including what can be extended times to maturation, the need to reach particular body size regardless of age, and environmental conditions that can support or inhibit endocrine responses. However, careful selection of model systems, particularly those with available genetic tools, will lead to important comparative studies that can elucidate both generalizability and diversity of mechanisms regulating the onset of reproductive maturity.

  15. Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma advancing to central precocious puberty after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Yang, Eu Jeen; Cho, Dong Hyu; Hwang, Pyung Han; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2015-05-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in pediatric and adolescent patients is rare, and it is associated with various clinical symptoms. We introduce the case of an 8-year-old boy with ACC who presented with peripheral precocious puberty at his first visit. He displayed penis enlargement with pubic hair and facial acne. His serum adrenal androgen levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a right suprarenal mass. After complete surgical resection, the histological diagnosis was ACC. Two months after surgical removal of the mass, he subsequently developed central precocious puberty. He was treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to delay further pubertal progression. In patients with functioning ACC and surgical removal, clinical follow-up and hormonal marker examination for the secondary effects of excessive hormone secretion may be a useful option at least every 2 or 3 months after surgery.

  16. Virilizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma Advancing to Central Precocious Puberty after Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Sun; Yang, Eu Jeen; Cho, Dong Hyu; Hwang, Pyung Han; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in pediatric and adolescent patients is rare, and it is associated with various clinical symptoms. We introduce the case of an 8-year-old boy with ACC who presented with peripheral precocious puberty at his first visit. He displayed penis enlargement with pubic hair and facial acne. His serum adrenal androgen levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a right suprarenal mass. After complete surgical resection, the histological diagnosis was...

  17. Maternal Preeclampsia and Androgens in the Offspring around Puberty: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janszky, Imre; Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Økland, Inger; Forman, Michele R.; Vatten, Lars J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Children born after preeclampsia may have a dominant androgen profile in puberty compared with other children. Circulating androgen concentrations at 11–12 years of age were compared between offspring born after preeclampsia, and children whose mothers did not have preeclampsia. Methods A total of 611 mother-offspring pairs were followed up 11 (daughters) or 12 (sons) years after birth: 218 pairs in the preeclampsia group, and 383 pairs without preeclampsia. Circulating total testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were measured in the children. In boys, testicular volume was also measured. Results Among girls born after preeclampsia, DHEAS concentrations were higher than in unexposed girls (ppreeclampsia with severe features had the lowest DHEAS levels. In contrast, testosterone concentrations were highest in girls born after preeclampsia with severe features, both compared to other girls in the preeclampsia group, and compared to unexposed girls (ppreeclampsia group compared with unexposed boys (ppreeclampsia with severe features had the lowest concentrations of DHEAS. Compared with unexposed boys, testicular volume (p = 0.015) and IGF-I (p = 0.004) were higher for boys in the preeclampsia group, except for boys in the clinically severe preeclampsia group. Conclusions In utero exposure to preeclampsia is associated with androgen hormonal patterns in early puberty that depend on clinical severity of preeclampsia and sex of the offspring. The hormonal differences may reflect different timing of pubertal development, and may have consequences for future health of the offspring. PMID:27992610

  18. Tonic control of kisspeptin release in prepubertal monkeys: implications to the mechanism of puberty onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Joseph R; Keen, Kim L; Guerriero, Kathryn A; Terasawa, Ei

    2012-07-01

    Previously we have shown that a reduction in γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibition is critical for the mechanism initiating puberty onset because chronic infusion of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline, significantly increased GnRH release and accelerated the timing of menarche and first ovulation in female rhesus monkeys. Because previous studies in our laboratory indicate that in prepubertal female monkeys, kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus is low, whereas kisspeptin-10 can stimulate GnRH release, we hypothesized that a low level of kisspeptin release prior to puberty onset is due to tonic GABA inhibition. To test this hypothesis we examined the effects of bicuculline infusion on kisspeptin release using a microdialysis method. We found that bicuculline at 1 μM dramatically stimulates kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus of prepubertal monkeys but had little effect on kisspeptin release in midpubertal monkeys. We further examined whether bicuculline-induced GnRH release is blocked by the presence of the kisspeptin antagonist, peptide 234. We found that inhibition of kisspeptin signaling blocked the bicuculline-induced stimulation of GnRH release, suggesting that kisspeptin neurons may relay inhibitory GABA signals to GnRH neurons. This implies that a reduction in tonic GABA inhibition of GnRH release is, at least in part, mediated through kisspeptin neurons.

  19. Feminizing adrenocortical adenoma presenting as heterosexual precocious puberty: report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hui-Pin; Chao, Mei-Chyn; Lin, Chao-Yu; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Chen, Shiu-Lin; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2005-01-01

    We report on a case of a 2 2/12-year-old boy with heterosexual precocious puberty secondary to a feminizing adrenocortical adenoma. The boy, with no previous history of disease or treatment, presented with bilateral gynecomastia and pubic hair development (Tanner III breasts and Tanner II pubic hair). Plasma estradiol and testosterone were 410.9 pg/ml and 126.2 ng/dl respectively. Basal plasma LH and FSH levels were within the normal range. Bolus i.v. injection of GnRH showed unresponsiveness of LH and FSH. Abdominal echography and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-defined mass at the left suprarenal region (measuring 4.0 x 2.7 x 3.6 cm in size). After removal of the adrenal tumor, the estradiol and testosterone levels fell to normal in 2 weeks. The gynecomastia and pubic hair regressed with time. The pathology of the tumor showed compact pattern with polygonal cells containing moderate eosinophilic cytoplasm without mitotic figure. These findings were consistent with an adrenocortical adenoma secreting estradiol and testosterone as the cause of the patient's heterosexual precocious puberty.

  20. The impact of altered task mechanics on timing and duration of eccentric bi-articular muscle contractions during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connick, Mark J; Li, François-Xavier

    2013-02-01

    In order to understand muscle adaptations to altered task mechanics during cycling, this study investigated the impact of altered seat height and cadence on timing and duration of gastrocnemius (GAST), biceps femoris (BF) and vastus lateralis (VL) eccentric contractions and muscle activation patterns, and cycling economy. Ten male cyclists completed 9 × 5 min of cycling at 3 seat heights and 3 cadences. Three-dimensional leg kinematics and muscle activation patterns were recorded to estimate timing of eccentric muscle contractions. Onset, offset and duration of eccentric contractions and, onset, offset and duration of muscle activation were calculated, along with cycling economy. Duration of GAST and VL eccentric contractions decreased with increasing seat height due to earlier offset of eccentric muscle contractions. Duration of BF eccentric contractions significantly increased with seat height due to a later eccentric contraction offset. Offset of GAST and BF muscle activation occurred earlier with increasing cadence. Cycling economy was significantly affected by cadence but not seat height. The results suggest that as a consequence of altered seat height, proprioceptive feedback is used to fine-tune the timing of bi-articular eccentric muscle contractions. These results may have implications for seat height self-selection.

  1. Pilot study on the dietary habits and lifestyles of girls with idiopathic precocious puberty from the city of Rome: potential impact of exposure to flame retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, Roberta; Mancini, Francesca R; Mantovani, Alberto; Busani, Luca; Maranghi, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    Puberty is regulated by the endocrine system, which when disrupted can affect reproductive health. Endocrine disrupters (ED) are involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are lipophilic, persistent ED used as flame retardants in several products; thus, human population is exposed through food and domestic dust. PBDE exposure during the peripubertal period is suspected to interfere with reproductive development. The study aimed to investigate PBDE serum concentration in 31 girls with ICPP as well as describe their dietary habits and lifestyles. The PBDE median level was 59 ng/g of lipids, higher than in healthy girls in comparable studies. Interestingly, elder girls and girls with higher body mass index (BMI) showed higher PBDE serum levels. Considering the relevance of altered puberty onset as a risk factor for reproductive health, studies on food contribution to PBDE exposure in Italian children, and efforts to ameliorate risk assessment for emerging chemicals are suggested.

  2. Talking to Your Child about Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With boys, the focus can be on the penis. Since not all boys develop at the same time or rate, your son may feel like he is too big or too small. His size will change as he continues to develop. Penises ...

  3. Precocious puberty in two girls with Chiari I malformation: a contribution to a larger use of brain MRI in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucarelli, I; Accardo, F; Tarani, L; Demiraj, V; Segni, M; Pasquino, A M

    2010-06-01

    Up to now Chiari malformation has been reported only in four subjects with precocious puberty, with a prevalence among boys. This article describes the case of two female children affected by progressive precocious puberty detected through brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain imaging, even without neurological signs, can identify patients at risk of developing subsequently severe neurological symptoms. Our observation supports the usefulness of brain MRI both in males and females, even when no symptoms are present, to identify and detect high risk cases. However, there is no consensus in Literature in performing MRI in all the patients of both sexes with central precocious puberty, due to its high costs.

  4. Elevated temperature alters the lunar timing of Planulation in the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camerron M Crowder

    Full Text Available Reproductive timing in corals is associated with environmental variables including temperature, lunar periodicity, and seasonality. Although it is clear that these variables are interrelated, it remains unknown if one variable in particular acts as the proximate signaler for gamete and or larval release. Furthermore, in an era of global warming, the degree to which increases in ocean temperatures will disrupt normal reproductive patterns in corals remains unknown. Pocillopora damicornis, a brooding coral widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific, has been the subject of multiple reproductive ecology studies that show correlations between temperature, lunar periodicity, and reproductive timing. However, to date, no study has empirically measured changes in reproductive timing associated with increased seawater temperature. In this study, the effect of increased seawater temperature on the timing of planula release was examined during the lunar cycles of March and June 2012. Twelve brooding corals were removed from Hobihu reef in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan and placed in 23 and 28°C controlled temperature treatment tanks. For both seasons, the timing of planulation was found to be plastic, with the high temperature treatment resulting in significantly earlier peaks of planula release compared to the low temperature treatment. This suggests that temperature alone can influence the timing of larval release in Pocillopora damicornis in Nanwan Bay. Therefore, it is expected that continued increases in ocean temperature will result in earlier timing of reproductive events in corals, which may lead to either variations in reproductive success or phenotypic acclimatization.

  5. Transient anhedonia phenotype and altered circadian timing of behaviour during night-time dim light exposure in Per3−/− mice, but not wildtype mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynhak, Bruno Jacson; Hogben, Alexandra L.; Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Andreatini, Roberto; Kitchen, Ian; Archer, Simon N.; von Schantz, Malcolm; Bailey, Alexis; van der Veen, Daan R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are ‘direct’ effects of light on affect, an ‘indirect’ pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3−/− mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3−/−) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2–3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not. Per3−/− mice also exhibited a significantly smaller delay in behavioural timing than WT mice during weeks 1, 2 and 4 of dim light at night exposure. When treated with imipramine, neither Per3−/− nor WT mice exhibited an anhedonia-like phenotype, and neither genotypes exhibited a delay in behavioural timing in responses to dLAN. While the association between both Per3−/− phenotypes remains unclear, both are alleviated by imipramine treatment during dim night-time light. PMID:28071711

  6. Time delays prior to movement alter the drawing kinematics of elderly adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, D.H.; Gemmert, A.W.A. van; Adler, C.H.; Bekkering, H.; Stelmach, G.E.

    2003-01-01

    Position sense has been found to decay as a function of the time delay the limb remains in a static position prior to movement onset. Position sense has also been found to deteriorate as a function of aging, with increased reliance on vision by the elderly. This study investigated whether the pointi

  7. Metformin suppressed the proliferation of LoVo cells and induced a time-dependent metabolic and transcriptional alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiaojiao; Wang, Ke; Zheng, Ningning; Qiu, Yunping; Xie, Guoxiang; Su, Mingming; Jia, Wei; Li, Houkai

    2015-11-30

    Metformin is a widely used anti-diabetic drug with potential anti-tumor activity. However, little is known about its global metabolic and transcriptional impacts on tumor cells. In current study, we performed a metabolic profiling on human-derived colon cancer LoVo cells treated by 10 mM metformin for 8, 24 and 48 h. An obvious time-dependent metabolic alteration was observed from 8 to 48 h, prior to the reduction of cell viability. A total of 47, 45 and 66 differential metabolites were identified between control and metformin-treated cells at three time points. Most of the metabolites were up-regulated at 8 h, but down-regulated at 24 and 48 h by metformin. These metabolites were mainly involved in carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, vitamins and nucleotides metabolism pathways. Meanwhile, the transcirptomic profile revealed 134 and 3061 differentially expressed genes at 8 and 24 h by metformin. In addition to the cancer signaling pathways, expression of genes involved in cell energy metabolism pathways was significantly altered, which were further validated with genes in glucose metabolism pathway. Altogether, our current data indicate that metformin suppressed the proliferation of LoVo cells, which may be due to the modulation on cell energy metabolism at both metabolic and transcriptional levels in a time-dependent way.

  8. Serum IGF1 and insulin levels in girls with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm;

    2012-01-01

    IGF1 plays an important role in growth and metabolism during puberty. IGF1 levels are increased in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). However, the relationship with insulin before and during gonadal suppression is unknown. In addition, the influence of the exon 3-deleted GH receptor gene...

  9. Age at puberty in beef heifers: Criollo cattle versus british crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age at puberty is an important factor in estimating the potential productivity of the bovine female. A study was conducted at the ARS-USDA Jornada Experimental Range in 2006 and 2007 to compare onset of puberty, BW, and serum insulin in Criollo and Angus-Hereford crossbred heifers. In 2006, 7 Crioll...

  10. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor;

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor of ...

  11. The changes in running economy during puberty in overweight and normal weight boys

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejczyk Marcin; Gradek Joanna; Szymura Jadwiga; Cempla Jerzy; Więcek Magdalena; Tota Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Study aim: running economy (RE) is important indicator of endurance performance. During puberty dynamic changes in body composition and function are observed, as such RE is also expected to change. The aim of the study was to compare the running economy (RE) in overweight and normoweight boys during a running exercise performed with constant velocity, and the assessment of changes in RE during puberty.

  12. A Signaling Role for Leptin in Puberty Onset in Female Rats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The brain might initiate puberty in response to adequate leptin signaling from the periphery. We studied the link between whole body fat, plasma leptin levels, and puberty onset, in both controls and food-restricted female Wistar rats from age 22 to 42 days. Body fat correlated positively with the p

  13. What Educational Contexts Should Teachers Consider for Their Puberty Education Programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses some contemporary educational contexts that teachers should consider for their puberty education programmes and/or curricula, for primary and secondary school students. The educational contexts addressed here include significant international puberty education framework documents, socio-biological factors including earlier…

  14. Is puberty a risk factor for back pain in the young? a systematic critical literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lardon, A.; Leboeuf-Yde, C.; Le Scanff, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back pain is a common condition that starts early in life and seems to increase markedly during puberty. A systematic review was performed in order to investigate the link between puberty and back pain, using some Bradford Hill criteria for causality. OBJECTIVES: We sought to obtain...

  15. Metabolic impacts of altering meal frequency and timing - Does when we eat matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy T; Heilbronn, Leonie K

    2016-05-01

    Obesity prevalence continues to rise throughout the developed world, as a result of positive energy balance and reduced physical activity. At present, there is still a perception within the general community, and amongst some nutritionists, that eating multiple small meals spaced throughout the day is beneficial for weight control and metabolic health. However, intervention trials do not generally support the epidemiological evidence, and data is emerging to suggest that increasing the fasting period between meals may beneficially impact body weight and metabolic health. To date, this evidence is of short term duration, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that meal timing must also be considered if we are to ensure optimal health benefits in response to this dietary pattern. The purpose of this review is to summate the existing human literature on modifying meal frequency and timing on body weight control, appetite regulation, energy expenditure, and metabolic health under conditions of energy balance, restriction and surplus.

  16. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemamalini Ketha

    Full Text Available Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH2D concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined.In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25(OH2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH2D, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls.Serum Ca and 1,25(OH2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001. Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH2D/25(OHD ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008. Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82. In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OHD and 24,25(OH2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05.Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk.

  17. Timing of ice retreat alters seabird abundances and distributions in the southeast Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Martin; Salo, Sigrid; Eisner, Lisa B; Ressler, Patrick H; Ladd, Carol; Kuletz, Kathy J; Santora, Jarrod A; Piatt, John F; Drew, Gary S; Hunt, George L

    2016-09-01

    Timing of spring sea-ice retreat shapes the southeast Bering Sea food web. We compared summer seabird densities and average bathymetry depth distributions between years with early (typically warm) and late (typically cold) ice retreat. Averaged over all seabird species, densities in early-ice-retreat-years were 10.1% (95% CI: 1.1-47.9%) of that in late-ice-retreat-years. In early-ice-retreat-years, surface-foraging species had increased numbers over the middle shelf (50-150 m) and reduced numbers over the shelf slope (200-500 m). Pursuit-diving seabirds showed a less clear trend. Euphausiids and the copepod Calanus marshallae/glacialis were 2.4 and 18.1 times less abundant in early-ice-retreat-years, respectively, whereas age-0 walleye pollock Gadus chalcogrammus near-surface densities were 51× higher in early-ice-retreat-years. Our results suggest a mechanistic understanding of how present and future changes in sea-ice-retreat timing may affect top predators like seabirds in the southeastern Bering Sea.

  18. Alterations in the properties of neonatal thalamocortical synapses with time in in vitro slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Liliana L; Currie, Stephen P; Daw, Michael I

    2017-01-01

    New synapses are constantly being generated and lost in the living brain with only a subset of these being stabilized to form an enduring component of neuronal circuitry. The properties of synaptic transmission have primarily been established in a variety of in vitro neuronal preparations. It is not clear, however, if newly-formed and persistent synapses contribute to the results of these studies consistently throughout the lifespan of these preparations. In neonatal somatosensory, barrel, cortex we have previously hypothesized that a population of thalamocortical synapses displaying unusually slow kinetics represent newly-formed, default-transient synapses. This clear phenotype would provide an ideal tool to investigate if such newly formed synapses consistently contribute to synaptic transmission throughout a normal experimental protocol. We show that the proportion of synapses recorded in vitro displaying slow kinetics decreases with time after brain slice preparation. However, slow synapses persist in vitro in the presence of either minocycline, an inhibitor of microglia-mediated synapse elimination, or the TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone a promoter of synapse formation. These findings show that the observed properties of synaptic transmission may systematically change with time in vitro in a standard brain slice preparation.

  19. Chronic leptin infusion advances, and immunoneutralization of leptin postpones puberty onset in normally fed and feed restricted female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Does leptin play a vital role in initiating puberty in female rats and can it overrule a nutrionally imposed (i.e. a 30% feed restriction, FR) delay in puberty onset? Prepubertal female rats were chronically infused for 14 days with leptin (icv or sc) or leptin-antiserum (icv) while puberty onset wa

  20. Precocious puberty in a girl with floating-harbor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Galluzzi, Fiorella; Bindi, Giuseppe; Lapi, Elisabetta; Cecchi, Cecilia; Salti, Roberto; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2007-12-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by short stature, delayed bone age, mild to moderate mental retardation, speech problems, and peculiar craniofacial features. In these patients pubertal development has been reported to be normal. In this paper, we describe a girl with FHS who developed precocious puberty. FHS diagnosis was made at 2 years 5 months on the basis of peculiar clinical features. At 7 years 7 months, the girl began pubertal development; her height was 112.5 cm (-2.42 SDS) and pubertal staging was B2 PH2 AH1. LHRH test underlined LH and FSH peak values of 11.7 mIU/ml and 6.2 mIU/ml, respectively. Plasma levels of 17beta-estradiol were normal (8.5 pg/ml). Ophthalmological and neurological examinations, including nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, were normal. Treatment with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue was begun. At 10 years 1 month, because of reduced height velocity, her growth hormone secretion was evaluated with diagnosis of neurosecretory dysfunction; hGH therapy was begun. The patient showed a good response to hGH treatment, reaching a normal adult height (156.1 cm; -1.20 SDS). This report suggests that, in patients with FHS, precocious puberty should be taken into consideration; in these patients, a careful endocrinological followup for the possible presence of growth and pubertal disorders is needed.

  1. [Precocious puberty due to HCG secreting pinealoma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D

    The present report concerns a six years nine months old boy in whom a HCG secreting pineal tumor (pinealocytoma type I) was responsible for precocious puberty. Features : polydipsia, deepened voice, pubic hair, penile enlargement without corresponding testicular growth. Serum basal concentrations of LH (150 mU/ml), testosterone (85.80 nanomole/l), HCG (115 ng/ml) and its beta subunit (15 ng/ml) were markedly elevated, FSH was low (3.9 mU/ml) ] dissociated hypopituitarism was also present. A surgical removal of the tumor was performed (RIA of the neoplastic tissue revealed high HCG and beta HCG activity) and after the operation the child had radiation therapy. Recovery for the foregoing procedure was rapid, but after some months, in spite chemotherapy his condition deteriorated progressively. The apparent limitation of pinealoma and precocious puberty to the male sex is discussed and supposed to be partly the result of the ectopic gonadotropin secretion. These tumors are compared to other HCG secreting carcinomas located elsewhere in the body and causing sexual precocity in boys only.

  2. Pineal attrition, loss of cognitive plasticity, and onset of puberty during the teen years: is it a modern maladaptation exposed by evolutionary displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, A Joon; Bazar, Kimberly A; Lee, Patrick Y

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive plasticity, a developmental trait that promotes acquisition of complex skills such as language or playing musical instruments, diminishes substantially during puberty. The loss of plasticity has been attributed to surge of sex steroids during adolescence, but the phenomenon remains poorly understood. We hypothesize that pineal involution during puberty may contribute to plasticity decay. The pineal gland produces melatonin, the level of which declines dramatically during onset of puberty. Emerging evidence suggest that melatonin may modulate cognitive plasticity, independent of the effects of sex steroids, and low sex steroids and high melatonin may be simultaneously required to maintain cognitive plasticity. Potential mechanisms by which melatonin may modulate plasticity are examined within the sleep and hippocampal long-term potentiation frameworks. Implications for psychiatric conditions that involve sleep disorders and learning dysfunctions such as schizophrenia and autism are discussed, and the potential adaptive roles of postprandial and postcoital sleep are explored. From the Darwinian perspective, development and reproductive maturity may represent distinct phases that require tailored cognitive strategies to maximize fitness. While cognitive flexibility and susceptibility to new skills may be paramount during development, reduced cognitive flexibility and increased cognitive determinism may enable more efficient responses to stimuli during adulthood. Thus, cognitive plasticity and cognitive determinism may represent trade-off adaptations and different dimensions of intelligence. The decline of plasticity and emergence of puberty during the second decade may be relics of prehistoric times when the human lifespan was short and the environment was relatively simple and static. Today, when the environment is more complex and dynamic, and humans are living far longer, the early obsolescence of plasticity during puberty may represent a Darwinian

  3. Time course of central and peripheral alterations after isometric neuromuscular electrical stimulation-induced muscle damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fouré

    Full Text Available Isometric contractions induced by neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES have been shown to result in a prolonged force decrease but the time course of the potential central and peripheral factors have never been investigated. This study examined the specific time course of central and peripheral factors after isometric NMES-induced muscle damage. Twenty-five young healthy men were subjected to an NMES exercise consisting of 40 contractions for both legs. Changes in maximal voluntary contraction force of the knee extensors (MVC, peak evoked force during double stimulations at 10 Hz (Db(10 and 100 Hz (Db(100, its ratio (10:100, voluntary activation, muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed before, immediately after and throughout four days after NMES session. Changes in knee extensors volume and T2 relaxation time were also assessed at two (D2 and four (D4 days post-exercise. MVC decreased by 29% immediately after NMES session and was still 19% lower than the baseline value at D4. The decrease in Db(10 was higher than in Db(100 immediately and one day post-exercise resulting in a decrease (-12% in the 10:100 ratio. On the contrary, voluntary activation significantly decreased at D2 (-5% and was still depressed at D4 (-5%. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity increased after NMES and peaked at D2 and D4, respectively. T2 was also increased at D2 (6% and D4 (9%. Additionally, changes in MVC and peripheral factors (e.g., Db(100 were correlated on the full recovery period, while a significant correlation was found between changes in MVC and VA only from D2 to D4. The decrease in MVC recorded immediately after the NMES session was mainly due to peripheral changes while both central and peripheral contributions were involved in the prolonged force reduction. Interestingly, the chronological events differ from what has been reported so far for voluntary exercise-induced muscle damage.

  4. Back pain reporting in young girls appears to be puberty-related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froberg Karsten

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a large increase in back pain reporting in the early teens. In no previous study has the prevalence of low back pain been investigated in relation to the onset of puberty. The objective of this study was to establish whether the onset of puberty is associated with back pain reporting in young girls. Methods A subsample of 254 girls aged 8–10 years and 165 girls aged 14–16 years from a cross-sectional survey of 481 children aged 8–10 years and 325 adolescents aged 14–16 years of both sexes. Main outcome measures were back pain defined as low back pain, mid back pain, and/or neck pain in the past month. Other variables of interest were Puberty (five different stages, age, body mass index, and smoking. Independent information on onset of puberty was obtained through a physical examination and on back pain through an individual structured interview. The association was studied between onset of puberty and the outcome variable (the one month period prevalence of back pain, controlling for overweight, and smoking. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to describe bivariate associations, logistic regression with robust standard errors was used for multivariate analyses. Results There is a highly significant trend for increased back pain reporting with increasing level of puberty until maturity is reached. The biggest leap appears between the second level (beginning of puberty and the third level (mid puberty and the findings remain after controlling for the covariates. These results emanate from the low back, whereas pain in the mid back and neck do not seem to be linked with pubertal stage. Conclusion In girls, the reporting of low back pain increases in frequency during puberty until maturity, regardless of age. Why some girls are susceptible to back pain in the early stage of puberty is unknown.

  5. Pathological and incidental findings on brain MRI in a single-center study of 229 consecutive girls with early or precocious puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Sloth Mogensen

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Central precocious puberty may result from organic brain lesions, but is most frequently of idiopathic origin. Clinical or biochemical factors which could predict a pathological brain MRI in girls with CPP have been searched for. With the recent decline in age at pubertal onset among US and European girls, it has been suggested that only girls with CPP below 6 years of age should have brain MRI performed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of brain MRI in girls referred with early signs of puberty in relation to age at presentation as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. METHOD: A single-center study of 229 consecutive girls with early or precocious puberty who had brain imaging performed. We evaluated medical history, clinical and biochemical factors, and four groups were defined based on the outcome of their MRI. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 208 (6.3% girls with precocious puberty, but no other sign of CNS symptoms, had a pathological brain MRI. Importantly, all 13 girls were above 6 years of age, and 6 girls were even 8-9 years old. Twenty girls (9.6% had incidental findings on brain MRI. Furthermore, 21 girls had known CNS pathology at time of evaluation. Basal LH was significantly higher in girls with newly diagnosed CNS pathology compared to girls with a non-pathological MRI (p = 0.025; no cut of value was found as values overlapped. CONCLUSION: A high frequency of 6-8 year old girls with precocious puberty in our study had a pathological brain MRI, which could not be predicted from any clinical nor biochemical parameters. Thus, we believe that girls with precocious pubertal development of central origin before 8 years of age should continue to be examined by a brain MRI.

  6. Exercise-induced dehydration does not alter time trial or neuromuscular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C J; Whyte, D G; Cannon, J; Wickham, J; Marino, F E

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effect of exercise-induced dehydration by ~4% body mass loss on 5-km cycling time trial (TT) performance and neuromuscular drive, independent of hyperthermia. 7 active males were dehydrated on 2 occasions, separated by 7 d. Participants remained dehydrated (DEH, -3.8±0.5%) or were rehydrated (REH, 0.2±0.6%) over 2 h before completing the TT at 18-25 °C, 20-30% relative humidity. Neuromuscular function was determined before dehydration and immediately prior the TT. The TT started at the same core temperature (DEH, 37.3±0.3°C; REH, 37.0±0.2 °C (P>0.05). Neither TT performance (DEH, 7.31±1.5 min; REH, 7.10±1.3 min (P>0.05)) or % voluntary activation were affected by dehydration (DEH, 88.7±6.4%; REH, 90.6±6.1% (P>0.05)). Quadriceps peak torque was significantly elevated in both trials prior to the TT (Pperformance and neuromuscular function are not reduced by dehydration, independent of hyperthermia.

  7. Exogenous estradiol alters gonadal growth and timing of temperature sex determination in gonads of sea turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; Marmolejo-Valencia, Alejandro; Merchant-Larios, Horacio

    2015-12-01

    Temperature sex determining species offer a model for investigating how environmental cues become integrated to the regulation of patterning genes and growth, among bipotential gonads. Manipulation of steroid hormones has revealed the important role of aromatase in the regulation of the estrogen levels involved in temperature-dependent sex determination. Estradiol treatment counteracts the effect of male-promoting temperature, but the resulting ovarian developmental pattern differs from that manifested with the female-promoting temperature. Hypoplastic gonads have been reported among estradiol-treated turtles; however the estradiol effect on gonadal size has not been examined. Here we focused on the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea, which develops hypoplastic gonads with estradiol treatment. We studied the effect of estradiol on cell proliferation and on candidate genes involved in ovarian pattern. We found this effect is organ specific, causing a dramatic reduction in gonadal cell proliferation during the temperature-sensitive period. Although the incipient gonads resembled tiny ovaries, remodeling of the medullary cords and down-regulation of testicular factor Sox9 were considerably delayed. Contrastingly, with ovarian promoting temperature as a cue, exogenous estradiol induced the up-regulation of the ovary factor FoxL2, prior to the expression of aromatase. The strong expression of estrogen receptor alpha at the time of treatment suggests that it mediates estradiol effects. Overall results indicate that estradiol levels required for gonadal growth and to establish the female genetic network are delicately regulated by temperature.

  8. Does the Timing of Measurement Alter Session-RPE in Boxers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Marco C; Teixeira, Luis F M; Godoi, Vladmir J; Marchetti, Paulo H; Conte, Marcelo; Coutts, Aaron J; Bacurau, Reury F P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of measuring the overall session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) at 10 vs. 30 minutes following exercise. Eight boxers completed three different standardized training sessions of different intensities (easy, moderate and hard) in a matchedpairs, randomized research design. Exercise intensity was assessed during each bout by measuring heart rate, blood lactate concentration and session-RPE. To assess the effect of measurement timing on session-RPE, RPE data were collected either 10 or 30 minutes post-exercise. There was no significant effect of measurement time on session-RPE values following easy (10 minutes: session-RPE = 1.3 ± 1.0 Arbitrary Unit (AU), %Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) = 49.5 ± 11.1, and ∆Blood lactate = -2.3 ± 16.3%; 30 minutes: session-RPE = 1.7 ± 1.0 AU, %HRR = 51.3 ± 10.8, and ∆Blood lactate = 0.7 ± 25.2%), moderate (10 minutes: session-RPE = 2.7 ± 1.6 AU, %HRR = 67.2 ± 10.8, and ∆Blood lactate = 2.2 ± 19%; 30 minutes: session-RPE = 2.5 ± 0.9 AU, %HRR = 67.2 ± 5.9, and ∆Blood lactate = 24.5 ± 17.1%) and hard (10 minutes: session-RPE = 5.7 ± 1.0 AU, %HRR = 88.1 ± 6.3, and ∆Blood lactate = 146.3 ± 87.9%; 30 minutes: session-RPE = 5.8 ± 1.9 AU, %HRR> = 83.3 ± 8.0, and ∆Blood lactate = 91.6 ± 39%) sessions. In conclusion, our findings suggest that session-RPE can be used in boxing training routines across a range of intensities and accurate measurements can be determined as early as 10 minutes after exercise. Key PointsIt is difficult to quantify and monitoring the external training load in martial arts (e.g. Aikido, Kung Fu, Judo) and physical combat sports (e.g. Boxing, Muay Thai), session RPE method appears to be a reliable method to quantifying training load in those sports.For many athletes it is impractical to wait 30 minutes after training session to provide a session-RPE. The present findings show that collecting ses-sion-RPE measures at 10 min

  9. Shortening Infusion Time for High-Dose Methotrexate Alters Antileukemic Effects: A Randomized Prospective Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Torben S.; Sparreboom, Alex; Cheng, Cheng; Zhou, Yinmei; Boyett, James M.; Raimondi, Susana C.; Panetta, John C.; Bowman, W. Paul; Sandlund, John T.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Relling, Mary V.; Evans, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether shortening the infusion duration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX; 1 g/m2) affects the in vivo accumulation of active methotrexate polyglutamates (MTXPG1-7) in leukemia cells and whether this differs among major acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) subtypes. Methods From June 2000 through October 2007, 356 children with ALL were randomly assigned to receive initial single-agent treatment with HDMTX (1 g/m2) as either a 24-hour infusion or a 4-hour infusion at two pediatric hospitals in the United States. The primary outcome measures were the accumulation of MTXPG1-7 in leukemia cells and the antileukemic effects (eg, inhibition of de novo purine synthesis in bone marrow ALL cells, and decrease in circulating ALL cells). Results The 24-hour infusion resulted in significantly higher amounts of MTXPG1-7 in bone marrow leukemia cells (median: 1,695 v 1,150 pmol/109 cells, P = .0059), and better antileukemic effects. The 24-hour infusion had the greatest effect on MTXPG1-7 accumulation in hyperdiploid ALL (median: 3,919 v 2,417 pmol/109 cells, P = .0038); T-cell ALL exhibited smaller differences in MTXPG1-7 but greater antileukemic effects with the longer infusion (median decrease in leukemia cells: 88.4% v 51.8%, P = .0075). In contrast, infusion duration had no significant impact on MTXPG1-7 accumulation or antileukemic effects in ALL with the t(12;21)/(ETV6-RUNX1) chromosomal translocation. Conclusion Shortening the infusion time of HDMTX reduces accumulation of active methotrexate in leukemia cells and decreases antileukemic effects, with differing consequences among major ALL subtypes. PMID:21444869

  10. Endocrine alterations around the time of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and compare the concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), progesterone and estrone sulphate during normal and failed pregnancies of mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen, relating their individual endocrine profiles to the time of pregnancy loss, and to the histopathologic findings in the aborted fetuses and placenta. Mares (n=54) were used, 32 of them impregnated with donkey semen and 22 impregnated with horse semen. Blood samples were taken twice a week from Day 35 to 120 of pregnancy. Ultrasonographic observations of the fetus were carried out twice a week. The incidence of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey semen (30%) was greater (Phorse semen. From Week 8 to the end of the sampling period, the mean progesterone concentrations of mares with normal mule pregnancies were less (Phorse fetus occurred in mares with lesser progesterone and very low eCG concentrations, and were classified as caused by luteal impairment secondary to eCG deficiency; estrone sulphate concentrations were less than normal or absent before these abortions. Two mares aborted after several weeks of low progesterone concentrations in the presence of eCG concentrations that were normal for mule pregnancies, suggesting primary luteal deficiency. In three mares carrying a mule fetus, the concentrations of progesterone and estrone sulphate decreased abruptly immediately before fetal death, suggesting luteolysis due to active prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2alpha) secretion. It is concluded that the greater incidence of abortion in mares impregnated by donkeys is associated with different kinds of luteal malfunction. Deficiency of eCG may be a primary cause of many of these cases, either by failing to stimulate enough luteal progesterone secretion and/or by failing to protect the corpora lutea (CL) of pregnancy from endogenous PGF2alpha secretion.

  11. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla P.; Minow, Mark A. A.; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

  12. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  13. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla P. Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  14. Distillation time alters essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of male Juniperus scopulorum trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Schlegel, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 15 distillation times (DT), ranging from 1.25 to 960 min, on oil yield, essential oil profiles, and antioxidant capacity of male J. scopulorum trees. Essential oil yields were 0.07% at 1.25 min DT and reached a maximum of 1.48% at 840 min DT. The concentrations of alpha-thujene (1.76-2.75%), alpha-pinene (2.9-8.7%), sabinene (45-74.7%), myrcene (2.4-3.4%), and para-cymene (0.8-3.1%) were highest at the shortest DT (1.5 to 5 min) and decreased with increasing DT. Cis-sabinene hydrate (0.5-0.97%) and linalool plus trans-sabinene (0.56-1.6%) reached maximum levels at 40 min DT. Maximum concentrations of limonene (2.3-2.8%) and pregeijerene-B (0.06-1.4%) were obtained at 360-480 min DT, and 4-terpinenol (0.7-5.7%) at 480 min DT. Alpha-terpinene (0.16-2.9%), gamma-terpinene (0.3-4.9%) and terpinolene (0.3-1.4%) reached maximum at 720 min DT. The concentrations of delta-cadinene (0.06-1.65%), elemol (0-6.0%), and 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol (0-4.4%) reached maximum at 840 min DT. The yield of the essential oil constituents increased with increasing DT. Only linalool/transsabinene hydrate reached a maximum yield at 360 min DT. Maximum yields of the following constituents were obtained at 720 min DT: alpha-thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, alpha-terpinene, para-cimene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, and 4-terpinenol. At 840 min DT, cis-sabinene hydrate, prejeijerene-B, gamma muurolene, delta-cadinene, reached maximum. At 960 min DT, maximum yields of beta-pinene, elemol, alphaeudesmol/betaeudesmol, 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol were reached. These changes were adequately modeled by either the Michaelis-Menten or the Power (Convex) nonlinear regression models. Oils from the 480 min DT showed higher antioxidant activity compared to samples collected at 40, 160, or 960 min DT. These results show the potential for obtaining essential oils with various compositions and antioxidant capacity from male J

  15. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmeet K S Singh

    Full Text Available The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T, estradiol (E2 and luteinizing hormone (LH in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development.A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and LH by immunoassay.A high proportion (92% of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage.We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth.

  16. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K. S.; Balzer, Ben W. R.; Kelly, Patrick J.; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine I.; Handelsman, David J.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development. Methods A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female) was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LH by immunoassay. Results A high proportion (92%) of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage. Conclusion We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth. PMID:26599397

  17. Alterations in the sense of time, space, and body in the mindfulness-trained brain: a neurophenomenologically-guided MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Dor-Ziderman, Yair; Glicksohn, Joseph; Goldstein, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Meditation practice can lead to what have been referred to as "altered states of consciousness."One of the phenomenological characteristics of these states is a joint alteration in the sense of time, space, and body. Here, we set out to study the unique experiences of alteration in the sense of time and space by collaborating with a select group of 12 long-term mindfulness meditation (MM) practitioners in a neurophenomenological setup, utilizing first-person data to guide the neural analyses. We hypothesized that the underlying neural activity accompanying alterations in the sense of time and space would be related to alterations in bodily processing. The participants were asked to volitionally bring about distinct states of "Timelessness" (outside time) and "Spacelessness" (outside space) while their brain activity was recorded by MEG. In order to rule out the involvement of attention, memory, or imagination, we used control states of "Then" (past) and "There" (another place). MEG sensors evidencing alterations in power values were identified, and the brain regions underlying these changes were estimated via spatial filtering (beamforming). Particularly, we searched for similar neural activity hypothesized to underlie both the state of "Timelessness" and "Spacelessness." The results were mostly confined to the theta band, and showed that: (1) the "Then"/"There" overlap yielded activity in regions related to autobiographic memory and imagery (right posterior parietal lobule (PPL), right precentral/middle frontal gyrus (MFG), bilateral precuneus); (2) "Timelessness"/"Spacelessness" conditions overlapped in a different network, related to alterations in the sense of the body (posterior cingulate, right temporoparietal junction (TPJ), cerebellum); and (3) phenomenologically-guided neural analyses enabled us to dissociate different levels of alterations in the sense of the body. This study illustrates the utility of employing experienced contemplative practitioners

  18. 青春发育提前的相关基因研究进展%The progress on genes associated with early puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡春艳

    2014-01-01

    人类青春期的启动是由再度出现的下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴促性腺激素释放激素的释放幅度和频率明显增加所触发.一系列研究发现许多基因调控青春期启动,包括KISS1和GPR54基因、雌激素受体基因、能量平衡相关基因、LIN28B基因以及MKRN3基因等,这些基因的突变和单核苷酸多态性与青春发育提前相关.该文就这些基因的遗传改变与青春发育提前的关系作一综述.%Puberty onset is triggered by re-emergence of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA),which is characterized by the significantly increasing amplitude and frequency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in human being.A series of studies found that many genes control puberty onset,including KISS1 and GPR54 gene,estrogen receptor (ESR) gene,energy balance-related genes,LIN28B gene,MKRN3 gene and so on.Studies have been confirmed that the mutation and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the genes above are associated with early puberty.In this paper,the relationship between genetic alterations of these genes and early puberty are summarized as follows.-

  19. True precocious puberty following treatment of a Leydig cell tumour: two case reports and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eVerrotti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Leydig cell testicular tumours are a rare cause of precocious pseudopuberty in boys. Surgery is the main therapy and shows good overall prognosis. The physical signs of precocious puberty are expected to disappear shortly after surgical removal of the mass. We report two children, 7.5 and 7.7 year-old boys, who underwent testis-sparing surgery for a Leydig cell testicular tumour causing precocious pseudopuberty. During follow-up, after an immediate clinical and laboratory regression, both boys presented signs of precocious puberty and ultimately developed central precocious puberty. They were successfully treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues. Only 6 other cases have been described regarding the development of central precocious puberty after successful treatment of a Leydig cell tumour causing precocious pseudo puberty. Gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty should be considered in children treated for a Leydig cell tumour presenting persistent or recurrent physical signs of puberty activation. In such cases, therapy with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues appears to be the most effective medical treatment.

  20. Alteration in scaling behavior of short-term heartbeat time series for professional shooting athletes from rest to exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jian Jun; Ning, Xin Bao; He, Ai Jun; Zou, Ming; Sun, Biao; Wu, Xu Hui

    2008-11-01

    Scaling analysis of heartbeat time series has emerged as a useful tool for assessing the autonomic cardiac control under various physiologic and pathologic conditions. We study the heartbeat activity and scaling behavior of heartbeat fluctuations regulated by autonomic nervous system for professional shooting athletes under two states: rest and exercise, by applying the detrended fluctuation analysis method. We focus on alteration in correlation properties of heartbeat intervals for the shooters from rest to exercise, which may have a potential value in monitoring the quality of training and evaluating the sports capacity of the athletes. The result shows that scaling exponents of short-term heart rate variability signals from the shooters get significantly larger during exercise compared with those obtained at rest. It demonstrates that during exercise stronger correlations appear in the heartbeat series of shooting athletes in order to satisfy the specific requirements for high concentration and better control on their heart beats.

  1. Diffusion in Altered Tonalite Sample Using Time Domain Diffusion Simulations in Tomographic Images Combined with Lab-scale Diffusion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, M.; Sardini, P.; Togneri, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Timonen, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this work an effect of rock heterogeneity on diffusion was investigated. Time domain diffusion simulations were used to compare behavior of diffusion in homogeneous and heterogeneous 3D media. Tomographic images were used as heterogeneous rock media. One altered tonalite sample from Sievi, Finland, was chosen as test case for introduced analysis procedure. Effective diffusion coefficient of tonalite sample was determined with lab-scale experiments and the same coefficient was used also for homogeneous media. Somewhat technically complicated mathematical solution for analysis of through diffusion experiment is shortly described. Computed tomography (CT) is already quite widely used in many geological, petrological, and paleontological applications when the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the material is of interest, and is an excellent method for gaining information especially about its heterogeneity, grain size, or porosity. In addition to offering means for quantitative characterization, CT provides a lot of qualitative information [1]. A through -diffusion laboratory experiment using radioactive tracer was fitted using the Time Domain Diffusion (TDD) method. This rapid particle tracking method allows simulation of the heterogeneous diffusion based on pore-scale images and local values of diffusivities [2]. As a result we found out that heterogeneity has only a small effect to diffusion coefficient and in-diffusion profile for used geometry. Also direction dependency was tested and was found to be negligible. Whereas significant difference between generally accepted value and value obtained from simulations for constant m in Archie’s law was found. [1] Voutilainen, M., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Sardini, P., and Timonen, J., (2010). On pore-space characterization of an altered tonalite by X-ray µCT and the 14C-PMMA method (in progress). [2] Sardini, P., Robinet, J., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Delay, F., and Hellmuth, K-H, (2007). On direct simulation of heterogeneous

  2. Precocious puberty due to human chorionic gonadotropin secreting germinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane J Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to report a rare case of precocious puberty (PP due to a human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-producing germinoma located in the suprasellar region. A 10-year-old male patient presented with sexual precocity, headache, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and papilledema. Significant acceleration of bone age in relation to chronological age, high serum total testosterone levels, and hypopituitarism (unresponsiveness to stimulation test were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain showed a large suprasellar tumor and triventricular dilatation. High hCG levels were found in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Hormone replacement therapy and transcranial surgery associated with radiotherapy were performed, with complete regression of sexual characteristics and normal laboratory tests post-operatively. Clinical and laboratory findings, in addition to MRI scans, led to the diagnosis of an hCG-producing tumor and PP, which represents a rare report in the literature.

  3. Declining age of puberty of school girls in southern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somchit Jaruratanasirikul; Atchariya Chanpong; Nuttaporn Tassanakijpanich; Hutcha Sriplung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Declines in the onset age of secondary sexual development have been reported in a number of recent studies in western and Asian countries. A study of Hat-Yai school girls in 1994 in Thailand showed that the ages at thelarche and menarche were 9.9 and 12.4 years, respectively. This study was to determine whether there was a decline in the average age of puberty in Hat-Yai school girls from 1994 to 2012. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2140 healthy Hat-Yai school girls, aged 6-18 years, from June 2011 to March 2012. Breast and pubic hair development was assessed by the Tanner staging method. Probit analysis was used to calculate the median ages of different stages of breast and pubic hair development, and the age of menarche. Results: The median ages of girls having thelarche and menarche were 9.6 (95% CI, 9.4-9.8) and 12.2 (95% CI, 11.9-12.4) years, which declined from 9.9 (95% CI, 9.7-10.1) and 12.4 years (95% CI, 12.2-12.6) in the 1994 study respectively, however, without statistical significance. The youngest ages of girls who had breast stage 2 and menarche were 7.2 and 9.2 years, respectively. The fi nal height at age 14 years in this cohort (157.3 cm) was 2.3 cm greater than that of girls in 1994 (155.0 cm). Conclusions: From 1994 to 2012, the age at onset of thelarche and menarche of girls in Hat-Yai municipality declined by 0.2 and 0.3 years, respectively. The earlier age at onset of puberty had no effect on fi nal adult height.

  4. TESTICULAR GROWTH DURING PUBERTY IN BOYS WITH AND WITHOUT A HISTORY OF CONGENITAL CRYPTORCHIDISM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadov, Sergey; Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The pattern of testicular growth during puberty may provide important information about early testicular damage and reproductive potential in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pubertal testicular growth in boys with congenital cryptorchidism and controls. DESIGN: Longitudinal case...... mL by orchidometer and 25 mm by ruler as cut-offs in definition of the onset of puberty. An orchidometer size of 3 mL and ruler length of 25 mm corresponded to 1.6 and 1.7 mL by ultrasound (with Lambert's formula), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Testicular growth in puberty was impaired in congenitally...

  5. Stage-specific heat effects: timing and duration of heat waves alter demographic rates of a global insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rudolf, Volker H W; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-12-01

    The frequency and duration of periods with high temperatures are expected to increase under global warming. Thus, even short-lived organisms are increasingly likely to experience periods of hot temperatures at some point of their life-cycle. Despite recent progress, it remains unclear how various temperature experiences during the life-cycle of organisms affect demographic traits. We simulated hot days (daily mean temperature of 30 °C) increasingly experienced under field conditions and investigated how the timing and duration of such hot days during the life cycle of Plutella xylostella affects adult traits. We show that hot days experienced during some life stages (but not all) altered adult lifespan, fecundity, and oviposition patterns. Importantly, the effects of hot days were contingent on which stage was affected, and these stage-specific effects were not always additive. Thus, adults that experience different temporal patterns of hot periods (i.e., changes in timing and duration) during their life-cycle often had different demographic rates and reproductive patterns. These results indicate that we cannot predict the effects of current and future climate on natural populations by simply focusing on changes in the mean temperature. Instead, we need to incorporate the temporal patterns of heat events relative to the life-cycle of organisms to describe population dynamics and how they will respond to future climate change.

  6. Physico-chemical and harvest time alterations in pineapple fruits ‘Smooth Cayenne’ caused by paclobutrazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Antunes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the effect of an inhibitor acting in the floral differentiation on the physico-chemical characteristics of pineapple fruits and on the effect in the harvest time. Paclobutrazol was used at concentrations of 100, 150, and 200 mg L-1, applied 2, 3 or 4 times in ‘Smooth Cayenne’ pineapple plants. The treatment did not influence the chemical characteristics of the fruits, and even having some physical alterations, they were within the quality standard for the commercialization. The harvest time was amplified in all the treatments comparing to the control. However, 150 mg L-1 applied twice promoted the best result when analyzing together the harvest time and the fruit fresh matter.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de um inibidor da diferenciação floral nas características físico-químicas dos frutos do abacaxizeiro, bem como, no período de colheita. Utilizou-se paclobutrazol a 100, 150 e 200 mg L-1 aplicados 2, 3 ou 4 vezes, em plantas de abacaxi cv. Smooth Cayenne. Os tratamentos não influenciaram nas características químicas dos frutos, e mesmo alterando algumas características físicas, os frutos permaneceram dentro dos padrões de qualidade para comercialização. O período de colheita foi ampliado em todos os tratamentos comparando-se com o controle, porém, 150 mg L-1 aplicados 2 vezes promoveu melhor resultado analisando-se em conjunto a época de colheita com a massa fresca do fruto.

  7. Influence of growth hormone on growth and onset of puberty of Rahmani ewe lamb

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    K.H. El-Shahat

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Somatotropin administration enhanced puberty in Rahmani ewe lambs. This is due to increased provision of trophic signals (represented by increased Serum IGF-1 secretions and/or blood-borne metabolites (glucose, cholesterol and lipid.

  8. 动物性成熟启动的调控机理%Regulation Mechanism of Puberty Onset in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩威; 李慧芳; 朱云芬; 宋迟; 陶志云

    2012-01-01

    Precocious puberty was pathologic for humans, but was an important trait for animals. Onset of puberty was a complex biological process, and was under the control of HPG axis. Permissive signals and development clock provided the information on somatic growth, energy balance and environment changes, time the awakening of GnRH neurons that were quiescent during the prepubertal stage. The decrease in inhibition input and increase in excitation input led to high frequency GnRH pulse release, promoted the gametogenesis and gonadal steroid secretion. In turn, steroid hormones affected the GnRH release by negative feedback, and also promoted sexual behavior. In addition to GnRH neurons, the glial cells were also involved in puberty onset, mainly included growth factor families, the neural cell adhesion molecule and contactin. The epigenetic modulation of GnRH gene may play an important role in puberty onset.%人类的性早熟表现为病理状态,而在动物上,性早熟则是一个在生产上具有重要价值的经济性状.动物性成熟启动是一个复杂的生物学过程,受下丘脑—垂体—性腺轴调控.“允许信号”和“发育时钟”传达了机体生长发育、能量平衡和环境变化信息,决定了性成熟启动前期处于休眠状态的GnRH神经元激活;GnRH神经元抑制性输入减少和兴奋性输入增加引发了高频GnRH脉冲分泌,促进配子形成和性类固醇激素分泌;类固醇激素又通过负反馈通路影响GnRH分泌并促进性行为.神经胶质细胞也参与了性成熟的启动,主要涉及生长因子家族、神经细胞粘合分子和神经接触蛋白.GnRH基因的表观遗传修饰变化可能在动物性成熟启动过程中发挥了重要作用.

  9. Matching plant and animal processes to alter nutrient supply in strip-grazed cattle: timing of herbage and fasting allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

    2008-04-01

    This work aimed to assess the impact of timing of herbage allocation and fasting on patterns of ingestive behavior, herbage intake, ruminal fermentation, nutrient flow to the duodenum, and site and extent of digestion. Treatments were daily herbage allocation in the afternoon (1500 h, AHA), morning (0800 h, MHA), AHA after 20 h of fasting (AHAF), and MHA after 20 h of fasting (MHAF). Four ruminally and duodenally fistulated heifers (279 +/- 99 kg of BW) individually strip-grazed wheat pastures in a Latin-square design. Eating, rumination, and idling behavior were recorded every 2 min, and bite and eating step rates were measured hourly while the heifers were grazing (11 h MHA and AHA; 4 h MHAF and AHAF). Ruminal DM pools were measured 4 times daily (0800, 1200, 1500, and 1900 h) to estimate daily herbage DMI and its pattern. Ruminal fluid was sampled at these same times and also at 2300 h. Duodenal digesta was sampled over 2 d to determine the site of herbage digestibility. Treatments did not affect daily herbage DMI (16.5 g/ kg of BW, SE = 0.0025; P > 0.05). However, they altered the eating pattern; the evening grazing bout of AHA and AHAF was greater (P 0.05) among MHA, MHAF, and AHAF; however, it averaged 970, 40, 300, and 540 g/d, respectively, greater (P 0.05) for MHA, AHA, and AHAF, but was lower for MHAF (P 0.05) within fasted and nonfasted treatments; however, it was greater (P 0.05) among MHA, MHAF, and AHAF, but was greater (P nutrient supply. At the same amount of resource allocation, nutrient supply to grazing cattle can be modified through strategic grazing management.

  10. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Precocious Puberty and Delayed Puberty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a health care provider to monitor organs and blood flow in real time An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan of the brain and pituitary gland using an instrument that produces detailed images of organs ... 3 : Blood tests to measure hormone levels Blood tests to ...

  11. Alterations in the sense of time, space and body in the Mindfulness-trained brain: A neurophenomenologically-guided MEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva eBerkovich-Ohana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Meditation practice can lead to what have been referred to as 'altered states of consciousness'. One of the phenomenological characteristics of these states is a joint alteration in the sense of time, space and body. Here, we set out to study the unique experiences of alteration in the sense of time and space by collaborating with a select group of 12 long-term Mindfulness meditation practitioners in a neurophenomenological setup, utilizing first-person data to guide the neural analyses. We hypothesized that the underlying neural activity accompanying alterations in the sense of time and space would be related to alterations in bodily processing.The participants were asked to volitionally bring about distinct states of 'Timelessness' (outside time and 'Spacelessness' (outside space while their brain activity was recorded by MEG. In order to rule out the involvement of attention, memory or imagination, we used control states of 'Then' (past and 'There' (another place. MEG sensors evidencing alterations in power values were identified, and the brain regions underlying these changes were estimated via spatial filtering (beamforming. Particularly, we searched for similar neural activity hypothesized to underlie both the state of 'Timelessness' and 'Spacelessness'. The results were mostly confined to the theta band, and showed that: 1 the 'Then' / 'There' overlap yielded activity in regions related to autobiographic memory and imagery (right posterior parietal lobule, right precentral / middle frontal gyrus, bilateral precuneus; 2 'Timelessness' / 'Spacelessness' conditions overlapped in a different network, related to alterations in the sense of the body (posterior cingulate, right temporoparietal junction, cerebellum; and 3 phenomenologically-guided neural analyses enabled us to dissociate different levels of alterations in the sense of the body. This study illustrates the utility of employing experienced contemplative practitioners within a

  12. Diagnosis and constitutional and laboratory features of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doosoo Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Precocious puberty is defined as breast development before the age of 8 years in girls. The present study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty and to compare the constitutional and endocrinological features among diagnosis groups. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; The present study used a retrospective chart review of 988 Korean girls who had visited a pediatric endocrinology clinic from 2006 to 2010 for the evaluation of precocious puberty. Study groups comprised fast puberty, true precocious puberty (PP, pseudo PP, premature thelarche, and control. We determined the height standard deviation score (HSDS, weight standard deviation score (WSDS, and body mass index standard deviation score (BMISDS of each group using the published 2007 Korean growth charts. Hormone tests were performed at our outpatient clinic. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The PP groups comprised fast puberty (67%, premature thelarche (17%, true PP (15%, and pseudo PP (1%. Advanced bone age and levels of estradiol, basal luteinizing hormone (LH, and peak LH after gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation testing were significantly high in the fast puberty and true PP groups compared with the control group. HSDS, WSDS, and BMISDS were significantly higher in the true PP group than in the control group (P&lt;0.05. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The frequent causes of PP were found to be fast puberty, true PP, and premature thelarche. Furthermore, BMISDS were significantly elevated in the true PP group. Therefore, we emphasize the need for regular follow-up of girls who are heavier or taller than others in the same age group.

  13. Gonadothropin-releasing hormone agonist as a treatment of choice for central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R.L. Batubara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Precocious puberty is defi ned as pubertal development which occurs too early. The age limit in this term is based on the onset of puberty in normal population. Some points have to be taken into account, such as ethnicity, gender, nutritional conditions, and secular trends. In girls, precocious puberty is defi ned by breast development occured before 8 years old. In boys, precocious puberty is defi ned as gonadarche or pubarche before 9 years of age. The clinical course of precocious puberty varies widely, ranging from alternating, slowly progressive, and rapidly progressive    form. The rapidly progressive forms of idiopathic central precocious puberty need to be treated because it may result in early epiphyseal closure and short fi nal height, and also pyschosocial problems in the affected children and the family. The aims of treatment are to arrest physical maturation, prevent early menarche, and also improve adult height combined with normal body proportions. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue is the treatment of choice for central precocious puberty. Gonadotropin releasing horomone analogue has suppressive effect on the pituitarygonadal axis, therefore it suppresses LH secretion. This leads to the return of estradiol and testosterone to prepubertal levels. Treatment using gonadotropin releasing horomone analogue is shown to reduce breast size, pubic hair, ovarian and uterine size in girls, and decrease testicular size in boys. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue is effective in halting progression of secondary sexual characteristics development, presenting menstrual cycle, slowing bone-age advancement, and also improving fi nal height. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:287-92Keywords: gonadache, GRH analogue, pubarche , precocious puberty

  14. The changes in running economy during puberty in overweight and normal weight boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: running economy (RE is important indicator of endurance performance. During puberty dynamic changes in body composition and function are observed, as such RE is also expected to change. The aim of the study was to compare the running economy (RE in overweight and normoweight boys during a running exercise performed with constant velocity, and the assessment of changes in RE during puberty.

  15. The endocrinologist's office-puberty suppression: saving children from a natural disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Sahar

    2013-06-01

    In the past few years, the introduction and rapid acceptance of puberty suppression has transformed the clinical treatment of children diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder. This essay analyzes the narratives used by some advocates of this treatment, particularly the elements of saving children from the looming disaster of puberty and from future abject lives of violence and suicide as transgender adults. It briefly addresses the potential implications of this account for the well being of the children brought under clinical purview.

  16. The influence of perinatal and current dioxin and PCB exposure on puberty: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Leijs M.M.; van der Linden L.M.; Koppe J.G.; de Voogt P; Olie K; van Aalderen W.M.C.; ten Tusscher G.W.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades much has been written about the consequences of perinatal dioxin and PCB exposure in humans. In this paper we strive to elucidate the data on puberty in relation to these endocrine disruptive compounds in human populations. Effects in PCB/dioxin-exposed human populations on puberty are seen, not only in highly exposed cohorts, but also in average populations with background exposures. Study showed effects like increased weight, a delay in pubic hair growth and male g...

  17. The experience of puberty in Iranian adolescent girls: a qualitative content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchin Nayereh Azam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is an important stage in human life span. Physiologic changes associated with puberty manifest themselves in often complex and bizarre ways to which girls show different reactions. This study aims to explore to puberty experiences in adolescent girls who live in the city of Sari in Iran. Methods The present study is a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the city of Sari, Iran and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. Participants were 38 girls of 12–20 years old who had at least experienced 3 menstrual cycles. Data was collected by means of focus group and in-depth interviews. Results As follows, Seven main themes were extracted from the interviews are follows: Menarche as the most unpleasant event in puberty, getting nervous about and ashamed of bodily changes, psychological changes, discordance with parents, sexual orientation and the need for education on this issue, scholastic dysfunction and religious considerations. Conclusion The results showed that for the majority of the participants puberty was an unpleasant experience. Most of them were in need of education on how to go about the issues surrounding puberty. The society, families and of course the adolescents themselves are responsible to work together in order to create an atmosphere in which correct information on puberty and the associated issues are readily accessible.

  18. Daily grazing time as a risk factor for alterations at the hock joint integument in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Rousing, Tine

    2013-01-01

    environment for cows. We hypothesized that a higher number of daily grazing hours reduce the probability of hock joint alterations in dairy cows from large herds. In total, 3148 lactating cows from 36 grazing and 20 zero-grazing dairy herds, with an average herd size of 173 cows, were assessed individually...... hours and other potential cow and herd-level risk factors were evaluated for their impact on hock integument alterations using a logistic analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for hock integument alterations such as hair loss, lesions or swellings decreased with increasing amount...

  19. The Patient with Turner Syndrome: Puberty and Medical Management Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Luisa; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2013-01-01

    Turner Syndrome (TS) affects approximately 1 in 2500 liveborn females and is characterized by loss or structural anomalies of an X chromosome. Clinical features vary among patients; multiple organ systems can be affected. Endocrinologists are involved in the management of short stature, delayed puberty, and infertility. Endocrine therapies can include growth hormone, estrogen, and progestagen to promote linear growth and pubertal development. The duration of estrogen and progestagen treatment (HRT) is generally more than 40 years. There is not one standard HRT protocol that is suitable for all women. Thus, general guidelines are provided for HRT to induce pubertal development. Additional considerations regarding choice of HRT include thrombotic risk and disorders associated with thrombophila. Involvement of cardiologists is important because approximately 50% of patients with TS have congenital structural cardiac anomalies linked to an increased risk for aortic dissection and rupture. Although oocyte donation offers the chance to carry a pregnancy, accumulating information has highlighted the potential dangers associated with pregnancy. Advances in the care of infants, girls, and women with TS have been achieved. Management of infants, girls, and women with TS involves coordinated care from a multi-disciplinary team including endocrinologists, cardiologists, geneticists, otolaryngologists, behavioral health experts, nurse educators, and social workers. PMID:22884020

  20. Willingness to wait and altered encoding of time-discounted reward in the orbitofrontal cortex with normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Matthew R; Bryden, Daniel W; Cerri, Domenic H; Haney, Zachary R; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2012-04-18

    Normal aging has been associated with cognitive changes, including shifts in responding for time-discounted rewards. The orbitofrontal cortex, an area previously associated with aging-related cognitive changes, is critical for normal discounting. Previously we have shown in a choice task that rats prefer immediate over delayed reward and that neural representations of delayed reward in orbitofrontal cortex were attenuated, whereas immediate reward elicited strong responses. Changes in choice performance were correlated with changes in firing rate in orbitofrontal neurons, suggesting that these reward representations were critical to the rats' ability to wait for reward. Here we asked whether age-dependent changes in discounting behavior were related to changes in the representation of delayed reward in the orbitofrontal cortex. Young (3-6 months) and aged (22-26 months) rats were trained on the same discounting paradigm used previously. We found that aged rats showed less sensitivity to increasing delay preceding reward delivery, shifting behavior away from the delayed reward more slowly than younger rats. This sensitivity was specific to delay, since choice performance did not differ between the two groups when delay was held constant and reward size varied. Aged rats exhibited a corresponding increase in the prevalence of neurons that fired more strongly for delayed reward. Again this change was specific to delay; there was no change in encoding of different-sized rewards. These results suggest that natural aging results in altered representations of reward in orbitofrontal cortex. These changes may relate to the increased ability to delay gratification and reduced impulsivity associated with aging.

  1. Cardiovascular alterations at different stages of hypertension development during ethanol consumption: Time-course of vascular and autonomic changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestani, Carlos C. [Department of Natural Active Principles and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Univ. Estadual Paulista—UNESP (Brazil); Lopes da Silva, Andréia [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Scopinho, América A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ruginsk, Silvia G.; Uchoa, Ernane T. [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Correa, Fernando M.A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Resstel, Leonardo B.M., E-mail: leoresstel@yahoo.com.br [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present work was to establish a time-course correlation between vascular and autonomic changes that contribute to the development of hypertension during ethanol ingestion in rats. For this, male Wistar rats were subjected to the intake of increasing ethanol concentrations in their drinking water during four weeks. Ethanol effects were investigated at the end of each week. Mild hypertension was already observed at the first week of treatment, and a progressive blood pressure increase was observed along the evaluation period. Increased pressor response to phenylephrine was observed from first to fourth week. α{sub 1}-adrenoceptor protein in the mesenteric bed was enhanced at the first week, whereas β{sub 2}-adrenoceptor protein in the aorta was reduced after the second week. In the third week, ethanol intake facilitated the depressor response to sodium nitroprusside, whereas in the fourth week it reduced nitrate content in aorta and increased it plasma. The bradycardic component of the baroreflex was impaired, whereas baroreflex tachycardia was enhanced at the third and fourth weeks. AT{sub 1A} receptor and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNAs in the nucleus tractus solitarius were increased at the fourth week. These findings suggest that increased vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents is possibly a link factor in the development and maintenance of the progressive hypertension induced by ethanol consumption. Additionally, baroreflex changes are possibly mediated by alterations in angiotensinergic mechanisms and CNP content within the brainstem, which contribute to maintaining the hypertensive state in later phases of ethanol ingestion. Facilitated vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide seems to counteract ethanol-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Mild hypertension was observed during the entire period of ethanol ingestion. • Ethanol facilitated vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents. • Changes in baroreflex activity

  2. Treatment of early puberty in adopted and non-adopted children: when, why and how : Auxological, psychological and ethical aspects of growth promoting treatment around puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Mul (Dick)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractNormal puberty is the result of the maturation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Primary and secondary sexual characteristics develop by the increase in the serum levels of gonadal steroids: oestradiol in girls and testosterone in boys. The main players in the process of n

  3. A missense mutation in MKRN3 in a Danish girl with central precocious puberty and her brother with early puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Känsäkoski, Johanna; Raivio, Taneli; Juul, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) results from the premature reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis leading to development of secondary sexual characteristics prior to 8 y in girls or 9 y in boys. Since the initial discovery of mutations in the maternally...

  4. The progression of small-follicle reserves in the ovaries of wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from puberty to reproductive senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, F J; Nöthling, J O; Allen, W R

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the follicle reserve in the ovary of the African elephant declines progressively after puberty and whether its depletion constrains the fertility of older females. Elephant ovaries were fixed in 4% neutral buffered formalin and small-follicle counts made using stereological protocols. Excepting a slight rise in small-follicle numbers between 16 and 25 years of age, there was a trend for follicle numbers to fall from puberty to 70 years. Reproductive status did not impact significantly on small-follicle numbers (P=0.31). The number of early primary follicles, initially higher in number than true primary follicles, fell from post-puberty to nil at 45 years of age. Six of the seven oldest animals in the study showed signs of recent ovarian activity in the form of antral follicles, corpora lutea or large corpora nigra. The four oldest elephants (mean age 69 years) had a median small-follicle count of 11,113. In summary, it appears that the elephant ovary is capable of supplying oocytes for ovulation right up to the time of death at the age of maximum life expectancy, although the follicle reserve becomes depleted in some older elephants.

  5. Factors influencing final/near-final height in 12 boys with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists. Italian Study Group of Physiopathology of Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, V; De Sanctis, V; Corrias, A; Fortini, M; Galluzzi, F; Bertelloni, S; Guarneri, M P; Pozzan, G; Cisternino, M; Pasquino, A M

    2000-07-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) have been demonstrated as the therapy of choice for central precocious puberty (CPP). Few studies have provided male patients' adult height data. In our multicenter study we evaluated long-term effects of different GnRHa preparations and final/near-final height (FH) in 12 boys with CPP and analyzed the factors influencing FH. Patients' mean chronological age at the time of diagnosis was 7.6 +/- 0.9 yr. Three patients were treated only with triptorelin at a mean dose of 90 microg/kg i.m. every 28 days. Nine patients initially received buserelin (at a mean initial dose of 53.4 microg/kg/day i.n. divided into 3-6 equal doses) or buserelin (at a mean dose of 36.7 microg/kg/day s.c.) and were subsequently switched to triptorelin. The GnRHa therapy was continued for 4.1 +/- 0.6 yr (range 2.9-5.4). The mean predicted adult height increased from 169.9 +/- 4.2 cm at diagnosis to 180.7 +/- 6.0 cm at the end of treatment. Mean FH was 176.1 +/- 6.1 cm (170.1-190.7), corresponding to mean SDS(CA) 0.4 +/- 0.8 (-0.6/2.5), mean SDSBA 0.2 +/- 0.9 (-0.6/2.4) and mean corrected SDS for target height of 0.4 +/- 0.6 (-0.8/1.2). Multiple regression analysis revealed that FH was mainly influenced by target height and height at discontinuation of GnRHa therapy. The present data indicate that GnRHa therapy significantly improves growth prognosis in boys with CPP and fully restores genetic height potential.

  6. [Puberty-delaying hormone therapy in adolescents with gender identity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2013-01-01

    The guideline for the treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology was revised in January 2012. The guideline eased restrictions for the endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents. A medical specialist can start treating transsexual adolescents at the age of 15 after the diagnosis of GID. It recommends that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2 [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until the age of 15 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. Female-to-male transsexuals do not necessarily want to start androgen therapy before presenting female secondary sexual characteristics because androgen can easily stop menstruation, cause beard growth, and lower the voice. On the contrary, male-to-female transsexuals want to start estrogen therapy before presenting male secondary sexual characteristics because estrogen cannot alter the beard and low voice. It is important to identify children with gender dysphoria in school and help them receive medical advice. However, approximately half of school teachers think that children with gender dysphoria are very rare and they do not know of the notification from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN, which aims to help children with gender dysphoria. The revision of the guideline for the treatment of transsexual people and endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents by medical specialists may prevent them from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Furthermore, the treatment may help avoid mental disorders, aid being employed with the desired sexuality, and, subsequently, getting married and having children.

  7. Serum leptin concentration during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandão C.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained during the past five years have indicated that there are important age- and gender-based differences in the regulation and action of leptin in humans. To study the physiological changes of leptin during puberty in both sexes, and its relationship with body composition and sexual maturation, we measured leptin concentrations in 175 healthy adolescents (80 girls, 95 boys, 10-18 years of age, representing all pubertal stages. We excluded individuals with a body mass index (BMI below the 5thor above the 95th percentile relative to age. Serum concentrations of leptin were determined by a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorimetric assay, developed in our laboratory. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pubertal stage was assigned by physical examination, according to Tanner criteria for breast development in females and genital development in males. Leptin concentration in girls (N = 80 presented a positive linear correlation with age (r = 0.35, P = 0.0012, BMI (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001. In boys (N = 95 there was a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001, but a significant negative linear correlation with Tanner stage (r = -0.45, P < 0.0001 and age (r = -0.40, P < 0.0001. The regression equation revealed that %fat mass and BMI are the best parameters to be used to estimate leptin levels in both sexes. Thus, the normal reference ranges for circulating leptin during adolescence should be constructed according to BMI or %fat mass to assure a correct evaluation.

  8. Catch up in bone acquisition in young adult men with late normal puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darelid, Anna; Ohlsson, Claes; Nilsson, Martin; Kindblom, Jenny M; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in relation to peak height velocity (PHV), and to investigate whether late normal puberty was associated with remaining low BMD and BMC in early adulthood in men. In total, 501 men (mean ± SD, 18.9 ± 0.5 years of age at baseline) were included in this 5-year longitudinal study. Areal BMD (aBMD) and BMC, volumetric BMD (vBMD) and cortical bone size were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and pQCT. Detailed growth and weight charts were used to calculate age at PHV, an objective assessment of pubertal timing. Age at PHV was a strong positive predictor of the increase in aBMD and BMC of the total body (R(2) aBMD 11.7%; BMC 4.3%), radius (R(2) aBMD 23.5%; BMC 22.3%), and lumbar spine (R(2) aBMD 11.9%; BMC 10.5%) between 19 and 24 years (p bone size, whereas cortical and trabecular vBMD were 0.7% (p males was associated with a substantial catch up in aBMD and BMC in young adulthood, leaving no deficits of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total body at age 24 years.

  9. Hypothalamic glial-to-neuronal signaling during puberty: influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vinod K; Hiney, Jill K; Dees, W Les

    2011-07-01

    Mammalian puberty requires complex interactions between glial and neuronal regulatory systems within the hypothalamus that results in the timely increase in the secretion of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH). Assessing the molecules required for the development of coordinated communication networks between glia and LHRH neuron terminals in the basal hypothalamus, as well as identifying substances capable of affecting cell-cell communication are important. One such pathway involves growth factors of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family that bind to specific erbB receptors. Activation of this receptor results in the release of prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) from adjacent glial cells, which then acts on the nearby LHRH nerve terminals to elicit release of the peptide. Another pathway involves novel genes which synthesize adhesion/signaling proteins responsible for the structural integrity of bi-directional glial-neuronal communication. In this review, we will discuss the influence of these glial-neuronal communication pathways on the prepubertal LHRH secretory system, and furthermore, discuss the actions and interactions of alcohol on these two signaling processes.

  10. 18 SrRNA Degradation is Not Accompanied by Altered rRNA Transport at Early Times Following Irradiation of HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Altered rRNA Transport at Early Times following Irradiation of HeLa Cells PINHAS Ft CHS.* JOHN M. KROLAKt DAVID MCCLAINt AND KENNETH W. MINTONt "I...ratio of 2:1 that is ob- high as 1.6:1 during the interval 5 to 20 h following irradiation of HeLa cells at _7.5 Gy. Alterations in 28 S:18 S ratio were...m 2 5 15 20 GY findings that the movement of the newly formed 40 S ribo- 10 somal subunits from the nuclei in HeLa cells proceeds more 2swiftly

  11. Treatment of precocious puberty in a female with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusz, Erin Rose; Rotenstein, Deborah

    2008-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, hyperphagia, childhood obesity at an early age, short stature, varying degrees of mental deficiency, and hypogonadism. In PWS, puberty is usually delayed and fails to complete, with most females never having regular menstrual cycles. We report a female patient with uniparental disomy, who experienced precocious puberty with menarche at age 8 years. The patient was treated with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analog, which suppressed pubertal development. From our search of the literature this is the first application of LHRH analog to a female PWS patient for precocious puberty. Use of LHRH analog along with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) permitted stature closer to target height. The clinical course of this patient with PWS underscores the need for individualized treatment.

  12. Induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl--practices and attitudes of pediatric endocrinologists in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Conway, G; Ritzen, M;

    2002-01-01

    The management of children and adolescents with hypogonadism and in particular the induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl is subject to controversy. Therefore, under the auspices and through organization of the Drugs and Therapeutics Committee of the European Society of Paediatric Endocrino......The management of children and adolescents with hypogonadism and in particular the induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl is subject to controversy. Therefore, under the auspices and through organization of the Drugs and Therapeutics Committee of the European Society of Paediatric...... of the results of the questionnaires and discussions of that session to further the discussion on and knowledge of current concepts of induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl in Europe. It became clear from the data accumulated here that the start of treatment, the aims of therapy and the modalities of how...

  13. Increase in first morning voided urinary luteinizing hormone levels precedes the physical onset of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demir, Ahmet; Voutilainen, R; Juul, A;

    1996-01-01

    Determinations of serum gonadotropin concentrations by ultra-sensitive methods have improved the diagnosis of pubertal disorders. The onset of puberty can be estimated by measuring serum gonadotropin pulsation, but as this requires serial nocturnal blood sampling, it is not a routine investigation...... before clinical signs of puberty can be detected. The correlation between FMV urine and S-LH values was good (r = 0.64; P ... for S-LH. A significant increase in FMV U-LH concentration occurs before the first clinical signs of puberty in a sex-independent fashion. Our data indicate that FMV U-LH measurement is a clinically relevant, noninvasive method for the evaluation of pubertal development, and it may be helpful...

  14. The Relationship between Puberty and Risk Taking in the Real World and in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Rodriguez, A; MacPherson, L; Kurdziel, G; Rosenberg, L A; Lejuez, C W

    2014-10-01

    Adolescence is marked by the emergence and escalation of risk taking. Puberty has been long-implicated as constituting vulnerability for risk behavior during this developmental period. Sole reliance on self-reports of risk taking however poses limitations to understanding this complex relationship. There exist potential advantages of complementing self-reports by using the BART-Y laboratory task, a well-validated measure of adolescent risk taking. Toward this end, we examined the association between self-reported puberty and both self-reported and BART-Y risk taking in 231 adolescents. Results showed that pubertal status predicted risk taking using both methodologies above and beyond relevant demographic characteristics. Advantages of a multimodal assessment toward understanding the effects of puberty in adolescent risk taking are discussed and future research directions offered.

  15. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in central precocious puberty before and during treatment with GnRH agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Andersson, A M; Müller, J;

    2000-01-01

    Serum levels of the gonadal hormones inhibin A and inhibin B are undetectable or low in prepubertal girls, and rise during puberty. In girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is prematurely activated, if the girl is thereafter treated with GnRH agonists...

  16. Final height in central precocious puberty after long term treatment with a slow release GnRH agonist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, W; Rikken, B; Schreuder, S; Otten, B; Odink, R; Rouwe, C; Jansen, M; Gerver, WJ; Waelkens, J; Drop, S

    1996-01-01

    Objective-To study the resumption of puberty and the final height achieved in children with central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with the GnRH agonist triptorelin. Patients-31 girls and five boys with CPP who were treated with triptorelin 3.75 mg intramuscularly every four weeks. Girls were trea

  17. Primary School Puberty/Sexuality Education: Student-Teachers' Past Learning, Present Professional Education, and Intention to Teach These Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Coleman, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary school teachers are often tasked with puberty/sexuality education for students who are undergoing sexual maturation at ever-earlier ages. This study explores the changing trajectories of the pre-service learning and teaching of primary school puberty/sexuality education at an urban university, including student-teachers' childhood…

  18. Spermaturia and serum hormone concentrations at the age of puberty in boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Nanette M; Sørensen, Nicolina; Weihe, Pal;

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty.......To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty....

  19. Kallmann综合征1例%Ultrasonography in differential diagnosis of precocious puberty in girls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓大同; 朱晖; 孙莉; 章秋; 杨明功

    2011-01-01

    @@ Kallmann综合征是先天性遗传性疾病,又称为"男性特发性低促性腺激素性腺功能减退症(idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism,IHH)",发病率男性为1/l万,女性为1/5万,笔者于2010年7月27日发现1例,报道如下. 1 临床资料 患者男性,20岁.因"睾丸、阴茎小,男性第二性征不发育"入住我院.患者自幼出现嗅觉障碍,无法辨识出水与酒精的气味,无法辨识香、臭味,但可辨别水与食醋气味差别.父母非近亲结婚,两个妹妹生长发育正常.%Aim To investigate the differential diagnostic value of ulrasound with precocious puberty. Methods The uterine,ovarian follicles were measured by ultrasound. Then these indexes were compared with the normal control groups in the same age. Results The uterine indexes of girls with true-precocious puberty and pseudo-precocious puberty were significantly larger than the normal girls (P < 0.05). The volume of ovary and the largest follicle diameter, a section of the largest number of follictes in true-precocious puberty are larger than the normal girls (P < 0.05). The volume of ovary and the largest follicle diameter, a section of the largest number of follicles in pseudo-precocious puberty are similar to the normal girls(P <0.05). Conclusion Ultrasonography has great value on differential diagnosis of precocious puberty in girls.

  20. Germanium Enrichments in Sedimentary Rocks in Gale Crater, Mars: Constraining the Timing of Alteration and Character of the Protolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Gellert, R.; Campbell, J. L.; Boyd, N. I.; Elliott, B. E.; Fisk, M. R.; King, P. L.; Ming, D. W.; Perrett, G. M.; Thompson, L. M.; VanBommel, S. J.; Yen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Rocks enriched in Ge have been discovered in Gale Crater, Mars, by the Alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) on the Mars Science Lab (MSL) rover, Curiosity. The Ge concentrations in Gale Crater (commonly >50 ppm) are remarkably high in comparison to Earth, where Ge ranges from 0.5-4.0 ppm in igneous rocks and 0.2-3.3 ppm in siliciclastic sediment. Primary meteoritic input is not likely the source of high Ge because Ge/Ni in chondrites (approx.0.003) and irons (rocks (0.08-0.2). Earth studies show Ge is a useful geochemical tracer because it is coherent with Si during magmatic processes and Ge/Si varies less than 20% in basalts. Ge and Si fractionate during soil/regolith weathering, with Ge preferentially sequestered in clays. Ge is also concentrated in Cu- and Zn-rich hydrothermal sulfide deposits and Fe- and Mnrich oxide deposits. Other fluid-mobile elements (K, Zn, Cl, Br, S) are also enriched at Gale and further constrain aqueous alteration processes. Here, we interpret the sediment alteration history and present a possible model for Ge enrichments at Gale involving fluid alteration of the protolith.

  1. Girls’ Diets Affect Puberty,Later Disease Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钦虢

    2000-01-01

    本刊上期刊登了吴春拂选注的一篇文章,题目是:Dieting May HarmGirl’s IQs。该文标题中的Dieting的意思是“节食”,节食,会降低女孩的智商;而本文标题中的Diets却是“饮食”的意思。本文的主题句就亮出一个或多或少与前文相左的意见: Young girls who consume diets rich in animal protein and fat may be eatingtheir way to an early puberty(青春期)and possibly increasing their risk for chronicdisease later in life. 女孩如果多吃富含动物蛋白质和动物脂肪的食物将过早进入青春期,并可能日后患上慢性疾病的风险。 根据专家的意见,女孩的“健康饮食”应该是:to reduce intakes of saturated(饱和的)fat and red meat and excess calories and to increase fruit/vegetable intakesin children. 如此饮食,其收效是:result in lower breast cancer rates,along with otherhealth benefits. 也许读者不会料到,如此饮食同样存在着“负面作用”:but the risk ofosteoporosis,and perhaps of other diseases,might increase. 两文并读,或者就单读此文,读者朋友就会深感左右为难,无所适从。 其实,深入一步想,这些意见并不矛盾,世界上许多事情都应该一分为二地去看,去思考。

  2. Age, puberty, body dissatisfaction, and physical activity decline in adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finne Emily

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS. Methods The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%. Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Results Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78. The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56. No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75. BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Conclusions Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies.

  3. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level.

  4. Cognitive, emotional and psychosocial functioning of girls treated with pharmacological puberty blockage for idiopathic central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Wojniusz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central precocious puberty (CPP develops due to premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, resulting in early pubertal changes and rapid bone maturation. CPP is associated with lower adult height and increased risk for development of psychological problems. Standard treatment of CPP is based on postponement of pubertal development by blockade of the HPG axis with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa leading to abolition of gonadal sex hormones synthesis. Whereas the hormonal and auxological effects of GnRHa are well researched, there is a lack of knowledge whether GnRHa treatment influences psychological functioning of treated children, despite the fact that prevention of psychological problems is used as one of the main reasons for treatment initiation. In the present study we seek to address this issue by exploring differences in cognitive function, behavior, emotional reactivity, and psychosocial problems between GnRHa treated CPP girls and age-matched controls.Fifteen girls with idiopathic CPP; median age 10.4 years, treated with slow-release GnRHa (triptorelin acetate – Decapeptyl SR ® 11.25 and 15 age-matched controls, were assessed with a comprehensive test battery consisting of paper and pencil tests, computerized tasks, behavioral paradigms, heart rate variability, and questionnaires filled in by the children’s parents. Both groups showed very similar scores with regard to cognitive performance, behavioral and psychosocial problems. Compared to controls, treated girls displayed significantly higher emotional reactivity (p = 0.016; Cohen’s d = 1.04 on one of the two emotional reactivity task conditions. Unexpectedly, the CPP group showed significantly lower resting heart rates than the controls (p = 0.004; Cohen’s d = 1.03; lower heart rate was associated with longer treatment duration (r = - 0.582, p = 0.037. The results suggest that GnRHa treated CPP girls do not differ in their cognitive or

  5. Hormonal changes during GnRH analogue therapy in children with central precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Juul, A; Andersson, A M;

    2000-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) for more than 15 years. They are generally considered safe although data on potential long-term side effects are scarce. However, GnRHa therapy has profound effects on both the hypoth...

  6. Selection for superior growth advances the onset of puberty and increases reproductive performance in ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-06-01

    The reproductive efficiency of the entire sheep flock could be improved if ewe lambs go through puberty early and produce their first lamb at 1 year of age. The onset of puberty is linked to the attainment of critical body mass, and therefore we tested whether it would be influenced by genetic selection for growth rate or for rate of accumulation of muscle or fat. We studied 136 Merino ewe lambs with phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values at post-weaning age (200 days) for live weight (PWT), eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT). First oestrus was detected with testosterone-treated wethers and then entire rams as the ewes progressed from 6 to 10 months of age. Blood concentrations of leptin and IGF-I were measured to test whether they were related to production traits and reproductive performance (puberty, fertility and reproductive rate). In total, 97% of the lambs reached first oestrus at average weight 39.4 ± 0.4 kg (mean ± s.e.m.) and age 219 days (range 163 to 301). Age at first oestrus decreased with increases in values for PWT (P growth can accelerate the onset of puberty and increase fertility and reproductive rate of Merino ewe lambs. The metabolic hormones, IGF-I and leptin, might act as a physiological link between the growing tissues and the reproductive axis.

  7. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION FROM BIRTH TO 12 YEARS .2. PUBERTY IS RELATED TO DECREASED DYSFUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether puberty is related to decreased minor neurological dysfunction (MND), 174 children from the Groningen Perinatal Project who had had MND at nine years were re-examined at 12 years. No signs of MND could be demonstrated in 39 of the children, 33 of whom showed at least three signs

  8. Other-Sex Relationship Stress and Sex Differences in the Contribution of Puberty to Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the pubertal transition, particularly when experienced earlier than age-matched peers, is associated with heightened depression in girls but less depression in boys. This study examined whether stress within other-sex relationships serves as one process through which puberty differentially contributes to depression for girls…

  9. The clinical course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis in childhood and puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Maretta; Ayuso, Viera Kalinina; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E.; Los, Leonoor I.; Rothova, Aniki; de Boer, Joke H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The long-term course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis is not known yet. This study investigates the course and activity of JIA-associated uveitis in childhood and puberty. Design Retrospective study of the clinical data of 62 JIA patients with uveitis. The main outcome m

  10. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION AFTER THE ONSET OF PUBERTY - ASSOCIATION WITH PERINATAL EVENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the hypotheses that puberty is related to a decrease of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and that persisting MND is associated with perinatal factors, two groups (174 normal, 172 MND) of the Groningen Perinatal Project were followed from 12 to 14 years. At 14 years almost all t

  11. Minor neurological dysfunction from birth to 12 years. II : Puberty is related to decreased dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunsing, R J; Hadders-Algra, M; Huisjes, H J; Touwen, B C

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether puberty is related to decreased minor neurological dysfunction (MND), 174 children from the Groningen Perinatal Project who had had MND at nine years were re-examined at 12 years. No signs of MND could be demonstrated in 39 of the children, 33 of whom showed at least three signs

  12. Significant decline in anticancer immune capacity during puberty in the Tasmanian devil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Heasman, Kim; Peck, Sarah; Peel, Emma; Gooley, Rebecca M.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Hogg, Carolyn J.; Belov, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) are at risk of extinction in the wild due to Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a rare contagious cancer. The prevalence of DFTD differs by age class: higher disease prevalence is seen in adults (2–3 years) versus younger devils (<2 years). Here we propose that immunological changes during puberty may play a role in susceptibility to DFTD. We show that the second year of life is a key developmental period for Tasmanian devils, during which they undergo puberty and pronounced changes in the immune system. Puberty coincides with a significant decrease in lymphocyte abundance resulting in a much higher neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio in adults than subadults. Quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression of transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 and cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) revealed a drastic increase in GATA-3 and IL-4 expression during puberty. These changes led to a significantly lower IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio in 2-year-olds than <1 year olds (on average 1.3-fold difference in males and 4.0-fold in females), which reflects a major shift of the immune system towards Th2 responses. These results all indicate that adult devils are expected to have a lower anticancer immune capacity than subadults, which may explain the observed pattern of disease prevalence of DFTD in the wild. PMID:28300197

  13. Long-term physiological alterations and recovery in a mouse model of separation associated with time-restricted feeding: a tool to study anorexia nervosa related consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Zgheib

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder, with non-negligible rates of mortality and morbidity. Some of the related alterations could participate in a vicious cycle limiting the recovery. Animal models mimicking various physiological alterations related to anorexia nervosa are necessary to provide better strategies of treatment. AIM: To explore physiological alterations and recovery in a long-term mouse model mimicking numerous consequences of severe anorexia nervosa. METHODS: C57Bl/6 female mice were submitted to a separation-based anorexia protocol combining separation and time-restricted feeding for 10 weeks. Thereafter, mice were housed in standard conditions for 10 weeks. Body weight, food intake, body composition, plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, IGF-1, blood levels of GH, reproductive function and glucose tolerance were followed. Gene expression of several markers of lipid and energy metabolism was assayed in adipose tissues. RESULTS: Mimicking what is observed in anorexia nervosa patients, and despite a food intake close to that of control mice, separation-based anorexia mice displayed marked alterations in body weight, fat mass, lean mass, bone mass acquisition, reproductive function, GH/IGF-1 axis, and leptinemia. mRNA levels of markers of lipogenesis, lipolysis, and the brown-like adipocyte lineage in subcutaneous adipose tissue were also changed. All these alterations were corrected during the recovery phase, except for the hypoleptinemia that persisted despite the full recovery of fat mass. CONCLUSION: This study strongly supports the separation-based anorexia protocol as a valuable model of long-term negative energy balance state that closely mimics various symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa, including metabolic adaptations. Interestingly, during a recovery phase, mice showed a high capacity to normalize these parameters with the exception of plasma leptin levels. It will be interesting therefore to

  14. Increased functional connectivity with puberty in the mentalising network involved in social emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapwijk, Eduard T; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". There is increasing evidence that puberty plays an important role in the structural and functional brain development seen in adolescence, but little is known of the pubertal influence on changes in functional connectivity. We explored how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to functional connectivity between components of a mentalising network identified to be engaged in social emotion processing by our prior work, using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. Female adolescents aged 11 to 13years were scanned whilst silently reading scenarios designed to evoke either social emotions (guilt and embarrassment) or basic emotions (disgust and fear), of which only social compared to basic emotions require the representation of another person's mental states. Pubertal stage and menarcheal status were used to assign participants to pre/early or mid/late puberty groups. We found increased functional connectivity between the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during social relative to basic emotion processing. Moreover, increasing oestradiol concentrations were associated with increased functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the right TPJ during social relative to basic emotion processing, independent of age. Our analysis of the PPI data by phenotypic pubertal status showed that more advanced puberty stage was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the left anterior temporal cortex (ATC) during social relative to basic emotion processing, also independent of age. Our results suggest increased functional maturation of the social brain network with the advancement of puberty in girls.

  15. Puberty and the Manifestations of Loss of Control Eating in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Anna; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Kelly, Nichole R.; Hannallah, Louise M.; Pickworth, C. Katherine; Grygorenko, Mariya V.; Brady, Sheila M.; Condarco, Tania A.; Kozlosky, Merel; Demidowich, Andrew P.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated the manifestations of pediatric loss of control (LOC) eating at different stages of pubertal development. Methods Participants were a non-clinical sample of 468 youth (8–17y). Physical examination determined pubertal stage. LOC eating and disordered eating attitudes were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination. In a randomized crossover design, a subset (n=244) ate ad libitum from two test meals designed to capture normal and LOC eating. Results There were no differences in the prevalence rates or frequency of reported LOC eating episodes across pubertal stages (ps≥.50). There were, however, puberty by LOC eating interactions in disordered eating attitudes and palatable food consumption (ps≤.05), even after adjusting for age and body composition. LOC eating was associated with elevated global disordered eating attitudes, weight concern, and shape concern in post-pubertal youth (ps≤.001), but not pre-pubertal youth (ps≥.49). In late-puberty, youth with LOC eating consumed less energy from protein (p<.001) and more from carbohydrate (p=.003) and snack-type foods (p=.02) than those without LOC eating, whereas endorsement of LOC eating in pre- or early-to-mid-puberty was not associated with differences in eating behavior (ps≥.20). Conclusions Findings suggest that puberty may be a critical risk period, when LOC eating behaviors in boys and girls may become accompanied by greater weight and shape concerns and more obesogenic food consumption patterns. Interventions for LOC eating during pre-puberty should be evaluated to determine if they are particularly beneficial for the prevention of exacerbated eating disorder psychopathology and adverse weight outcomes. PMID:24888295

  16. Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; West, R L; Johnson, D D

    2001-08-01

    Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P carcass traits; B x A bulls had the heaviest (P carcass weight, greatest (P 0.10) USDA quality grade. In conclusion, tropically adapted F1 bulls produced from Senepol (Bos taurus) and Tuli (Sanga) sires bred to Angus cows in Florida had lighter BW, shorter hip heights, and smaller carcasses than those from Brahman sires but reached puberty earlier and had higher libido scores and lower WBS force values.

  17. Changes in dendritic architecture: Not your "usual suspect" in control of the onset of puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHemond

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Until the recent past, the search for the underlying drive for the pubertal increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH hormone from the GnRH-containing neurons in the hypothalamus was largely focused on extrinsic factors. The most recent evidence however indicates changes in the structure of GnRH neurons themselves may contribute to this fundamental event in development. Based on our studies in males, dendritic architecture is not static from birth until adulthood. Instead, dendrites undergo a dramatic remodeling during the postnatal period which is independent of testosterone and occurs before the pubertal increase in GnRH release. First, the number of dendrites emanating from somata is reduced between infancy and adulthood. Moreover, a dendrite of adult GnRH neurons invariability arises at angle of 180° from the axon as opposed to the extraordinary variability in location during infancy. In fact, in some neurons from infants, no dendrite even resides in the adult location. Thus, there is a spatially selective remodeling of primary dendrites. Secondly, dendrites of GnRH neurons from infants were highly branched prior to assuming the compact morphology of adults. Finally, other morphological aspects of GnRH neurons such as total dendritic length, the numbers of dendrite branches and the lengths of higher order branches were significantly greater in infants than adults, indicating a consolidation of dendritic arbors. Activity in multi-compartment models of GnRH neurons, suggest the impact of structure on neuronal activity is exerted with both active and passive dendrites. Thus, passive properties make a defining contribution to function. Accordingly, changes in morphology alone are likely to have functional consequences for the pattern of activity in GnRH neurons. Our findings suggest structural remodeling of dendrites during the postnatal period likely facilitates repetitive action potentials and thus, GnRH release at the time of puberty.

  18. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a ti

  19. Cognitive sex differences are not magnified as a function of age, sex hormones, or puberty development during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, Agneta; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Lovén, Johanna; Thilers, Petra P; Rehnman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Are cognitive sex differences magnified by individual differences in age, sex hormones, or puberty development? Cross-sectional samples of 12- to 14-year-old boys (n = 85) and girls (n = 102) completed tasks assessing episodic memory, face recognition, verbal fluency, and mental rotations. Blood estradiol, free testosterone, and self-rated puberty scores were obtained. Sex differences were found on all cognitive measures. However, the magnitude was not larger for older children, hormones and cognitive performance were not associated, and early maturers did not perform better than late maturers. Thus, cognitive sex differences were not associated with age, levels of sex hormones, or puberty development.

  20. Air pollution exposure during critical time periods in gestation and alterations in cord blood lymphocyte distribution: a cohort of livebirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herr Caroline EW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxic exposures have been shown to influence maturation of the immune system during gestation. This study investigates the association between cord blood lymphocyte proportions and maternal exposure to air pollution during each gestational month. Methods Cord blood was analyzed using a FACSort flow cytometer to determine proportions of T lymphocytes (CD3+ cells and their subsets, CD4+ and CD8+, B lymphocytes (CD19+ and natural killer (NK cells. Ambient air concentrations of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and particulate matter 2.5 were measured using fixed site monitors. Arithmetic means of these pollutants, calculated for each gestational month, were used as exposure metrics. Data on covariates were obtained from medical records and questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate associations between monthly PAH or PM2.5 and cord blood lymphocytes, adjusting for year of birth and district of residence and, in further models, gestational season and number of prior live births. Results The adjusted models show significant associations between PAHs or PM2.5 during early gestation and increases in CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes percentages and decreases in CD19+ and NK cell percentages in cord blood. In contrast, exposures during late gestation were associated with decreases in CD3+ and CD4+ fractions and increases in CD19+ and NK cell fractions. There was no significant association between alterations in lymphocyte distribution and air pollution exposure during the mid gestation. Conclusions PAHs and PM2.5 in ambient air may influence fetal immune development via shifts in cord blood lymphocytes distributions. Associations appear to differ by exposure in early versus late gestation.

  1. Does the Neighborhood Context Alter the Link between Youth's After-School Time Activities and Developmental Outcomes? A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, Rebecca C.; Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    This article examines links between different measures of after-school time activity participation (5 specific activities and breadth) on youth's developmental outcomes (anxiety/depression, delinquency, and substance use) over 6 years and whether these links are moderated by neighborhood-level variables. The sample (N = 1,315) of 9- and…

  2. Precocious puberty in Turner Syndrome: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Improda Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Turner Syndrome (TS is caused by monosomy or structural abnormalities of the X chromosome, with a prevalence of about 1/2000 females live birth. Most important clinical features of TS are short stature and gonadal failure. Approximately one third of girls with TS may undergo spontaneous puberty. Here we report on the case of a girl with a rare 45X0/47XXX mosaic TS exhibiting a precocious puberty. Case report The patient was diagnosed with TS at the age of 4 years, upon a diagnostic work-up for dysmorphic features. Chromosome analysis revealed a mosaic karyotype (45X0/47XXX. She presented with normal height and normal growth velocity so that Growth Hormone (GH therapy was not started. She was referred to our Department at the age of 7 years and 10 months, because of vaginal bleeding. A physical examination revealed a Tanner stage III for breast and Tanner stage III for pubic hair development. Height and weight were within the normal range for age. Psychological evaluation showed moderate global developmental delay, together with emotional and social immaturity and reading difficulties. The growth rate was accelerated. Her bone age was 10 years. Pelvic ultrasound demonstrated increased size for age of both the uterus and the ovaries, with bilateral ovarian follicles. GnRH stimulation test revealed pubertal response of gonadotropins (peak LH 22.5 mIU/ml. MRI of the brain was normal. These clinical, radiologic and laboratory findings were consistent with a diagnosis of idiopathic central precocious puberty; therefore, GnRH analog therapy was started, in order to slow pubertal progression and to preserve adult stature. Furthermore, GH treatment was added to further improve adult height. Conclusion Our case highlights the possibility of precocious puberty as an atypical clinical feature of TS. Thus, precocious puberty may occur in TS girls when a dosage compensation by the cell line with more than two X chromosomes allows normal

  3. Static stretching alters neuromuscular function and pacing strategy, but not performance during a 3-km running time-trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara V Damasceno

    Full Text Available Previous studies report that static stretching (SS impairs running economy. Assuming that pacing strategy relies on rate of energy use, this study aimed to determine whether SS would modify pacing strategy and performance in a 3-km running time-trial.Eleven recreational distance runners performed a a constant-speed running test without previous SS and a maximal incremental treadmill test; b an anthropometric assessment and a constant-speed running test with previous SS; c a 3-km time-trial familiarization on an outdoor 400-m track; d and e two 3-km time-trials, one with SS (experimental situation and another without (control situation previous static stretching. The order of the sessions d and e were randomized in a counterbalanced fashion. Sit-and-reach and drop jump tests were performed before the 3-km running time-trial in the control situation and before and after stretching exercises in the SS. Running economy, stride parameters, and electromyographic activity (EMG of vastus medialis (VM, biceps femoris (BF and gastrocnemius medialis (GA were measured during the constant-speed tests.The overall running time did not change with condition (SS 11:35±00:31 s; control 11:28±00:41 s, p = 0.304, but the first 100 m was completed at a significantly lower velocity after SS. Surprisingly, SS did not modify the running economy, but the iEMG for the BF (+22.6%, p = 0.031, stride duration (+2.1%, p = 0.053 and range of motion (+11.1%, p = 0.0001 were significantly modified. Drop jump height decreased following SS (-9.2%, p = 0.001.Static stretch impaired neuromuscular function, resulting in a slow start during a 3-km running time-trial, thus demonstrating the fundamental role of the neuromuscular system in the self-selected speed during the initial phase of the race.

  4. Diagnostic work-up of 449 consecutive girls who were referred to be evaluated for precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette;

    2011-01-01

    A decrease in age at pubertal onset has been observed internationally. The aim of this study was to describe a large cohort of Caucasian girls referred with signs of early puberty according to etiology and compare biochemical characteristics....

  5. Bimodal stimulus timing-dependent plasticity in primary auditory cortex is altered after noise exposure with and without tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2015-12-01

    Central auditory circuits are influenced by the somatosensory system, a relationship that may underlie tinnitus generation. In the guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), pairing spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) stimulation with tones at specific intervals and orders facilitated or suppressed subsequent tone-evoked neural responses, reflecting spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Furthermore, after noise-induced tinnitus, bimodal responses in DCN were shifted from Hebbian to anti-Hebbian timing rules with less discrete temporal windows, suggesting a role for bimodal plasticity in tinnitus. Here, we aimed to determine if multisensory STDP principles like those in DCN also exist in primary auditory cortex (A1), and whether they change following noise-induced tinnitus. Tone-evoked and spontaneous neural responses were recorded before and 15 min after bimodal stimulation in which the intervals and orders of auditory-somatosensory stimuli were randomized. Tone-evoked and spontaneous firing rates were influenced by the interval and order of the bimodal stimuli, and in sham-controls Hebbian-like timing rules predominated as was seen in DCN. In noise-exposed animals with and without tinnitus, timing rules shifted away from those found in sham-controls to more anti-Hebbian rules. Only those animals with evidence of tinnitus showed increased spontaneous firing rates, a purported neurophysiological correlate of tinnitus in A1. Together, these findings suggest that bimodal plasticity is also evident in A1 following noise damage and may have implications for tinnitus generation and therapeutic intervention across the central auditory circuit.

  6. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-03-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a time-dependent effect of the diet composition on energy homeostasis. Male Wistar rats were subjected to chow ad libitum (chow group) or a choice diet with saturated fat, a 30% sugar solution, chow and tap water. The choice diet was provided either with all components ad libitum (AL), with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and a 30% sugar solution, but with access to saturated fat only during the light period (LF), or with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and saturated fat, but access to a 30% sugar solution only during the light period (LS). Caloric intake and body weight gain were monitored during 31 days. Energy expenditure was measured in the third week in calorimetric cages. All rats on a choice diet showed hyperphagia and gained more body weight compared to the chow group. Within the choice diet groups, rats on the LS diet were most food efficient (i.e. gained most body weight per ingested calorie) and showed a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) with an anti-phasic pattern, whereas no differences in locomotor activity or heat production were found. Collectively these data indicate that the timing of the diet composition affects food efficiency, most likely due to a shifted oxidation pattern, which can predispose for obesity. Further studies are underway to assess putative mechanisms involved in this dysregulation.

  7. Antiretroviral treatment initiation does not differentially alter neurocognitive functioning over time in youth with behaviorally acquired HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Bethel, James; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Li, Tiandong; Woods, Steven P.; Patton, E. Doyle; Ren, Weijia; Thornton, Sarah E.; Major-Wilson, Hanna O.; Puga, Ana M.; Sleasman, John W.; Rudy, Bret J; Craig M Wilson; Garvie, Patricia A.; ,

    2015-01-01

    Although youth living with behaviorally acquired HIV (YLWH) are at risk for cognitive impairments, the relationship of impairments to HIV and potential to improve with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are unclear. This prospective observational study was designed to examine the impact of initiation and timing of ART on neurocognitive functioning in YLWH in the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions. Treatment naïve YLWH age 18–24 completed baseline and four additional asses...

  8. Alteration of some cellular function in amikacin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa transfected macrophages:a time dependent approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty; Santanu KarMahapatra; Sabyasachi Das; Somenath Roy

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the free radical generation and antioxidant enzymes status in murine peritoneal macrophage during in vitro amikacin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ARPA) treatment with different time interval. Methods: Peritoneal macrophages were treated with 1×108 CFU/mL ARPA cell suspension in vitro for different time interval (1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h) and super oxide anion generation, NO generation, reduced glutathione level and antioxidant enzymes status were analyzed. Results: Super oxide anion generation and NO generation got peak at 12 h, indicating maximal free radical generation through activation of NADPH oxidase in murine peritoneal macrophages during ARPA transfection. Reduced glutathione level and antioxidant enzymes status were decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing time of ARPA transfection. All the changes in peritoneal macrophages after 12 h in vitro ARPA transfection had significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusions: From this study, it may be summarized that in vitro ARPA infection not only generates excess free radical but also affects the antioxidant system and glutathione cycle in murine peritoneal macrophage.

  9. Diagnostic work-up of 449 consecutive girls who were referred to be evaluated for precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette;

    2011-01-01

    A decrease in age at pubertal onset has been observed internationally. The aim of this study was to describe a large cohort of Caucasian girls referred with signs of early puberty according to etiology and compare biochemical characteristics.......A decrease in age at pubertal onset has been observed internationally. The aim of this study was to describe a large cohort of Caucasian girls referred with signs of early puberty according to etiology and compare biochemical characteristics....

  10. Determinants of puberty health among female adolescents residing in boarding welfare centers in Tehran: An application of health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (phealth behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.

  11. The Effect of Puberty Education on Knowledge, Attitude and Function of Girl's Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrban Mehrabi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study was examined effect of puberty education on knowledge, attitude and function in girl's student in Jiroft. Materials & Methods: this was a quasi experimental study and the target population was girl's student at grade 1 high school in jiroft city and 40 girls were selected and were educated in a 12 sessions. The content of the educational course including physical signs of puberty, physiologic change in menstrual period, nutrition, sleep and psychological changes. The subjects completed in pretest and posttest a researcher made questionnaire that measure knowledge, attitude and function. The data was analyzed using descriptive indexes, t- and F-tests. The significant level was considered in less than 0.05. Results: The results showed that the average difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge, attitude and function in both experimental and control groups was significant (p

  12. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    cai; de-pei

    2001-01-01

    In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.……

  13. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡德培; 季志英; 陈伯英; 张炜

    2001-01-01

    @@In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.

  14. Progress in the treatment of precocious puberty%性早熟治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑郁; 母义明

    2011-01-01

    近年来,性早熟的发病率越来越高,然而其治疗中尚存在许多问题.本文根据国内外最新的文献报道,就如何界定性早熟的年龄、不同病因性早熟的治疗方案、治疗目标、治疗指征、停药指征及药物相关不良反应等进行综述.%Since recent years, the incidence of precocious puberty has been rising. However, questions regarding its treatment and other conditions remain. This article reviews recent published papers with long-term outcome data and guidelines, and systemical introduction to identification of precocious puberty, different treatment options, therapeutic goals, and indications for different types of diseases, as well as adverse effects of drugs.

  15. Changes in breast sensitivity at puberty, during the menstrual cycle, and at parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J E; Short, R V

    1977-05-07

    Sensitivity to pain and touch was measured in the nipple, areola, and cutaneous breast tissue of prepubertal boys and girls, postpubertal men and nuliparous women before and after delivery. Before puberty there were no differences between the sexes, but after puberty the tactile sensitivity of all areas of the women's breast was significantly greater than the men's. Tactil sensitivity of all areas also varied during the menstrual cycle, with maximal sensitivity at midcycle and at menstruation; the mid-cycle peak was absent when the women were taking oral contraceptives. But the most dramatic changes occured within 24 hours of parturition, when there was a great increase in breast sensitivity. This may be the key event for activating the suckling-induced discharge of oxytocin and prolactin and inhibiting ovulation during lactation.

  16. Soil moisture response to experimentally altered snowmelt timing is mediated by soil, vegetation, and regional climate patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Lafe G; Gill, Richard A.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Soil moisture in seasonally snow-covered environments fluctuates seasonally between wet and dry states. Climate warming is advancing the onset of spring snowmelt and may lengthen the summer-dry state and ultimately cause drier soil conditions. The magnitude of either response may vary across elevation and vegetation types. We situated our study at the lower boundary of persistent snow cover and the upper boundary of subalpine forest with paired treatment blocks in aspen forest and open meadow. In treatments plots, we advanced snowmelt timing by an average of 14 days by adding dust to the snow surface during spring melt. We specifically wanted to know whether early snowmelt would increase the duration of the summer-dry period and cause soils to be drier in the early-snowmelt treatments compared with control plots. We found no difference in the onset of the summer-dry state and no significant differences in soil moisture between treatments. To better understand the reasons soil moisture did not respond to early snowmelt as expected, we examined the mediating influences of soil organic matter, texture, temperature, and the presence or absence of forest. In our study, late-spring precipitation may have moderated the effects of early snowmelt on soil moisture. We conclude that landscape characteristics, including soil, vegetation, and regional weather patterns, may supersede the effects of snowmelt timing in determining growing season soil moisture, and efforts to anticipate the impacts of climate change on seasonally snow-covered ecosystems should take into account these mediating factors. 

  17. Ghrelin Levels in Children with Constitutional Delay of Growth and Puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Şen, Tolta Altuğ; Gökşen Şimşek, Damla; Darcan, Şükran; Çoker, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to show the role of ghrelin in growth delay in children with constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Methods: Thirty male children with CDGP constituted the study group and fifteen healthy children with normal growth of similar ages−the control group. In both groups, fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels, serum insulin−like growth factor−1 (IGF−1) and IGF−binding protein−3 (IGFBP−3) levels were determined. Results: There were no differenc...

  18. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Wang, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Li-Shi; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Zeng-Ming; Zhao, Jun; Peng, Shuang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle were delayed following prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. The relative weights of reproductive organs uterus, ovaries, and vagina, and the incidence of corpora lutea were all diminished in T-2 toxin-treated rats. Serum levels of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were also reduced by T-2 toxin treatment. The mRNA expressions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary GnRH receptor displayed significant reductions following exposure to T-2 toxin, which were consistent with the changes of serum gonadotropins, delayed reproductive organ development, and delayed vaginal opening. In conclusion, the present study reveals that prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin delays the onset of puberty in immature female rats, probably by the mechanism of disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function. Considering the vulnerability of developmental children to food contaminants and the relative high level of dietary intake of T-2 toxin in children, we think the findings of the present study

  19. Increased functional connectivity with puberty in the mentalising network involved in social emotion processing

    OpenAIRE

    Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that puberty plays an important role in the structural and functional brain development seen in adolescence, but little is known of the pubertal influence on changes in functional connectivity. We explored how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to functional connectivity between components of a mentalising network identified to be engaged in social emotion processing by our p...

  20. Mental illness and cognition in relation to age at puberty: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1989-09-01

    Onset of puberty is usually considered to coincide with the last major step in brain development: the elimination of some 40% of neuronal synapses. Mean pubertal age has declined by some 4 years during the last 100 years. There is a relation between age at puberty and body build, and between body build and mental illness. The difference in body build between schizophrenia (S) and manic-depressive psychosis (MDP) is similar to that between late and early maturers. It is suggested that S affects late-maturing individuals and MDP very early maturers. The observed marked rise in MDP and decline in the most malignant forms of S (non-paranoid) are in agreement with MDP and S as neurodevelopmental disorders occurring at the extremes of maturation. Maturational irregularities are most likely to occur at the extremes, and it is suggested that abbreviation of the regressive process may have led to persistent redundancy of neuronal synapses in MDP and that prolongation of the process past the optimal has yielded an inadequate synaptic density in S. The lack of cerebral abnormality in the majority of MDP and the presence of only subtle structural deficits in S, are in agreement with this. The two disorders are probably as old as mankind, and early puberty is the necessary factor for the development of MDP and late puberty is the necessary factor for that of S. There is an inverse relation between spatial ability and rate of maturation, whereas verbal ability is unaffected by maturational rate. From a previous predominance in both sexes, spatial ability (Performance IQ scores) has been reduced to below verbal ability (Verbal IQ scores) in the female sex and in early maturing males.

  1. 46,XX/69,XXX diploid-triploid mixoploidy with hypothyroidism and precocious puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Järvelä, I E; Salo, M.K.; Santavuori, P.; Salonen, R K

    1993-01-01

    We report a 20 month old female patient with diploid-triploid mixoploidy (46,XX/69,XXX) syndrome with hypothyroidism and precocious puberty. The triploid cell line was only expressed in the fibroblast culture and comprised the majority (95%) of the cells. Chromosome analysis of the fetal blood sample and peripheral blood sample were normal. The patient shows typical features of full triploidy (growth and severe mental retardation, cranial and facial dysmorphism, complete syndactyly of fingers...

  2. Effect of exogenous prolactin on ultrastructure of pinealocyte in female pigs during puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylska, B.; Dusza, L.; Lewczuk, B.; Ciesielska-Myszka, L. [Akademia Rolniczo-Technicza, Olsztyn (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Influence of the administration of prolactin to female swine during puberty on the ultrastructure of pinealocytes has been examined by means of morphometric analysis. Prolactin administration for 15 consecutive days resulted in a decrease in the cytoplasmic dense bodies type MBB-2, lysosomes and multivesicular bodies. Some differences in structure of pinealocytes were also observed. Prolactin appeared to stimulate the process of transformation of cytoplasmic dense bodies. (author). 28 refs, 5 figs.

  3. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle were delayed following prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. The relative weights of reproductive organs uterus, ovaries, and vagina, and the incidence of corpora lutea were all diminished in T-2 toxin-treated rats. Serum levels of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were also reduced by T-2 toxin treatment. The mRNA expressions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and pituitary GnRH receptor displayed significant reductions following exposure to T-2 toxin, which were consistent with the changes of serum gonadotropins, delayed reproductive organ development, and delayed vaginal opening. In conclusion, the present study reveals that prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin delays the onset of puberty in immature female rats, probably by the mechanism of disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis function. Considering the vulnerability of developmental children to food contaminants and the relative high level of dietary intake of T-2 toxin in children, we think the findings of

  4. Cerebral white matter in early puberty is associated with luteinizing hormone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; Brouwer, Rachel M; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline M; van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Delemarre-Van de Waal, Henriëtte A; Janke, Andrew L; Collins, D Louis; Evans, Alan C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2008-08-01

    Puberty is a period in which cerebral white matter grows considerably, whereas gray matter decreases. The first endocrinological marker of puberty in both boys and girls is an increased secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH). Here we investigated the phenotypic association between LH, global and focal gray and white matter in 104 healthy nine-year-old monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Volumetric MRI and voxel-based morphometry were applied to measure global gray and white matter and to estimate relative concentrations of regional cerebral gray and white matter, respectively. A possible common genetic origin of this association (genetic correlation) was examined. Results showed that higher LH levels are associated with a larger global white matter proportion and with higher regional white matter density. Areas of increased white matter density included the cingulum, middle temporal gyrus and splenium of the corpus callosum. No association between LH and global gray matter proportion or regional gray matter density was found. Our data indicate that a common genetic factor underlies the association between LH level and regional white matter density. We suggest that the increase of white matter growth during puberty reported earlier might be directly or indirectly mediated by LH production. In addition, genes involved in LH production may be promising candidate genes in neuropsychiatric illnesses with an onset in early adolescence.

  5. 论被成人误读的青春期%Puberty Misunderstood by Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林蓉

    2011-01-01

    由于成人的视角,教育和社会等因素的影响,成人在不同程度上误读了青春期,这对青春期个体的发展有消极的影响,甚至会阻碍个体的发展.要改变这种状况,成人必须通过对青春期的普遍性和必然性的认识,消除对青春期的误读,正确对待青春期,确保青春期个体获得良好的发展。%As the adults' perspective, education and social factors, they misunderstand puberty on varying degrees. It has negative effects for the individual's adolescent development and even hinder the development of individual. To change this situation, the adults must be on the adolescent's understanding of the universality and necessity, to eliminate the misunderstanding of puberty, the correct treatment of adolescence, to ensure that individuals get a good development of puberty.

  6. Altered expression of polyamine transporters reveals a role for spermidine in the timing of flowering and other developmental response pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sheaza; Ariyaratne, Menaka; Patel, Jigar; Howard, Alexander E; Kalinoski, Andrea; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Morris, Paul F

    2017-05-01

    Changes in the levels of polyamines are correlated with the activation or repression of developmental response pathways, but the role of polyamine transporters in the regulation of polyamine homeostasis and thus indirectly gene expression, has not been previously addressed. Here we show that the A. thaliana and rice transporters AtPUT5 and OsPUT1 were localized to the ER, while the AtPUT2, AtPUT3, and OsPUT3 were localized to the chloroplast by transient expression in N. benthamiana. A. thaliana plants that were transformed with OsPUT1 under the control the PUT5 promoter were delayed in flowering by 16days. In contrast, put5 mutants flowered four days earlier than WT plants. The delay of flowering was associated with significantly higher levels of spermidine and spermidine conjugates in the leaves prior to flowering. A similar delay in flowering was also noted in transgenic lines with constitutive expression of either OsPUT1 or OsPUT3. All three transgenic lines had larger rosette leaves, thicker flowering stems, and produced more siliques than wild type plants. In contrast, put5 plants had smaller leaves, thinner flowering stems, and produced fewer siliques. Constitutive expression of PUTs was also associated with an extreme delay in both plant senescence and maturation rate of siliques. These experiments provide the first genetic evidence of polyamine transport in the timing of flowering, and indicate the importance of polyamine transporters in the regulation of flowering and senescence pathways.

  7. Time Will Tell : Genetic Influences on Ejaculation Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is a male sexual disorder characterized by persistent short ejaculation times of less than about 1 minute, in more than 90% of intercourses, with nearly every female partner, since the first sexual activities of a man in puberty or adolescence (Waldinger 2007). In

  8. The presence of alpha interferon at the time of infection alters the innate and adaptive immune responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeier, Susan L; Loving, Crystal L; Nelson, Eric A; Miller, Laura C; Nicholson, Tracy L; Register, Karen B; Grubman, Marvin J; Brough, Douglas E; Kehrli, Marcus E

    2012-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most devastating and costly diseases to the swine industry worldwide. Overall, the adaptive immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) is weak, which results in delayed elimination of virus from the host and inferior vaccine protection. PRRSV has been shown to induce a meager alpha interferon (IFN-α) response, and we hypothesized that elevated IFN-α levels early in infection would shorten the induction time and increase elements of the adaptive immune response. To test this, we measured both antibody and cell-mediated immunity in pigs after the administration of a nonreplicating human adenovirus type 5 vector expressing porcine IFN-α (Ad5-pIFN-α) at the time of PRRSV infection and compared the results to those for pigs infected with PRRSV alone. Viremia was delayed, and there was a decrease in viral load in the sera of pigs administered the Ad5-pIFN-α. Although seroconversion was slightly delayed in pigs receiving Ad5-pIFN-α, probably due to the early reduction in viral replication, little difference in the overall or neutralizing antibody response was seen. However, there was an increase in the number of virus-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells detected in the pigs receiving Ad5-pIFN-α, as well as an altered cytokine profile in the lung at 14 days postinfection, indicating that the presence of IFN-α at the time of infection can alter innate and adaptive immune responses to PRRSV.

  9. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-Garda José

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large sensitivity, high reproducibility and essentially unlimited dynamic range of real-time PCR to measure gene expression in complex samples provides the opportunity for powerful multivariate and multiway studies of biological phenomena. In multiway studies samples are characterized by their expression profiles to monitor changes over time, effect of treatment, drug dosage etc. Here we perform a multiway study of the temporal response of four yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different glucose uptake rates upon altered metabolic conditions. Results We measured the expression of 18 genes as function of time after addition of glucose to four strains of yeast grown in ethanol. The data are analyzed by matrix-augmented PCA, which is a generalization of PCA for 3-way data, and the results are confirmed by hierarchical clustering and clustering by Kohonen self-organizing map. Our approach identifies gene groups that respond similarly to the change of nutrient, and genes that behave differently in mutant strains. Of particular interest is our finding that ADH4 and ADH6 show a behavior typical of glucose-induced genes, while ADH3 and ADH5 are repressed after glucose addition. Conclusion Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling is a powerful technique which can be utilized to characterize functions of new genes by, for example, comparing their temporal response after perturbation in different genetic variants of the studied subject. The technique also identifies genes that show perturbed expression in specific strains.

  10. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhlberg, Anders; Elbing, Karin; Andrade-Garda, José Manuel; Sjögreen, Björn; Forootan, Amin; Kubista, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Background The large sensitivity, high reproducibility and essentially unlimited dynamic range of real-time PCR to measure gene expression in complex samples provides the opportunity for powerful multivariate and multiway studies of biological phenomena. In multiway studies samples are characterized by their expression profiles to monitor changes over time, effect of treatment, drug dosage etc. Here we perform a multiway study of the temporal response of four yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different glucose uptake rates upon altered metabolic conditions. Results We measured the expression of 18 genes as function of time after addition of glucose to four strains of yeast grown in ethanol. The data are analyzed by matrix-augmented PCA, which is a generalization of PCA for 3-way data, and the results are confirmed by hierarchical clustering and clustering by Kohonen self-organizing map. Our approach identifies gene groups that respond similarly to the change of nutrient, and genes that behave differently in mutant strains. Of particular interest is our finding that ADH4 and ADH6 show a behavior typical of glucose-induced genes, while ADH3 and ADH5 are repressed after glucose addition. Conclusion Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling is a powerful technique which can be utilized to characterize functions of new genes by, for example, comparing their temporal response after perturbation in different genetic variants of the studied subject. The technique also identifies genes that show perturbed expression in specific strains. PMID:18412983

  11. Time course of altered sensitivity to inhibitory and excitatory agonist responses in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus and analgesia in the guinea pig after chronic morphine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane M Barrett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance that develops after chronic morphine exposure has been proposed to be an adaptive response that develops and decays over a defined time course. The present study examined the development of tolerance to the acute hypothermic and analgesic effects of morphine and correlated the time course for the desensitization in vivo with the reduced responsiveness to DAMGO and 2-CADO and increased responsiveness to nicotine of the longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus (LM/MP preparation in vitro. Assessment was performed at various times after morphine or placebo pellet implantation. Morphine produced a modest hypothermic response to which no tolerance developed. However, the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine, the inhibitory effect of DAMGO and CADO on neurogenic twitches of the LM/MP and hypersensitivity to the contractile response to nicotine was observed to occur in a time-dependent manner. The alterations in sensitivity to DAMGO, nicotine and responsiveness to morphine analgesia occurred between days 4 and 10 and returned to normal by day 14 post-implantation. In contrast, sensitivity of LM/MP preparations to 2-CADO displayed a similar time-dependent onset but the tolerance persisted beyond 14 days after implantation. These data suggest that the heterologous tolerance that develops after chronic morphine treatment is time-dependent and persistent but, ultimately returns to normal in the absence of any intervention. Furthermore, the data suggest that the basis of the adaptive phenomenon may involve multiple cellular mechanisms including the modulation of cell excitability and normal physiology but the consequences of the adaptation extend to all effects of the agonist.

  12. Impact of puberty status and melengestrol acetate supplementation before the breeding period on reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J H; Santos, C S; Silva, M A V; Aguiar, H M V S B; França, I G; Pereira, H G; Ribeiro, D L; Chaves, R M; Souza, J A T; Monteiro, B M; Sá Filho, M F; Torres-Júnior, J R S

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the impact of puberty status and the administration of melengestrol acetate (MGA) before onset of the breeding period on ovulatory responses (Exp. 1) and conception rate after AI performed on estrus detection during 10 d and the pregnancy rate through 80 d of breeding period (Exp. 2) of pasture-grazed beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers (15 pubertal and 15 prepubertal) received 0.5 mg per heifer/d -1 of MGA over 14 d. No differences in the ovulatory responses were found 10 d after the MGA administration (pubertal = 46.7% vs. prepubertal P = 53.3%; P = 0.72). In Exp. 2, 368 heifers were randomly assigned to groups according to pubertal status and the MGA treatment. All heifers were inseminated on estrus detection for up 10 d after MGA administration and following exposure to bulls between 20 and 80 d. The MGA-treated heifers exhibited a greater AI service rate than control heifers (72.1 vs. 41.6%;P breeding period (95.3 vs. 87.5%;P breeding period. At onset of the breeding period, pubertal heifers presented a greater pregnancy rate following AI (pubertal P = 42.2% vs. prepubertal P = 24.9%; P = 0.01). Therefore, pubertal heifers seem to have greater overall reproductive efficiency than prepubertal heifers, particularly at the beginning of the breeding period. Interestingly, administration of MGA before the onset of the breeding period increased AI service rate but did not alter the rate of pregnancy throughout the breeding period of pasture-grazed beef heifers.

  13. Altered expression of BRG1 and histone demethylases, and aberrant H3K4 methylation in less developmentally competent embryos at the time of embryonic genome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzner, Werner G; Wachter, Audrey; Coutinho, Ana Rita S; Albornoz, Marcelo S; Duggavathi, Raj; GonÇAlves, Paulo B D; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetics is a fundamental regulator underlying many biological functions, such as development and cell differentiation. Epigenetic modifications affect key chromatin regulation, including transcription and DNA repair, which are critical for normal embryo development. In this study, we profiled the expression of epigenetic modifiers and patterns of epigenetic changes in porcine embryos around the period of embryonic genome activation (EGA). We observed that Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) and Lysine demethylase 1A (KDM1A), which can alter the methylation status of lysine 4 in histone 3 (H3K4), localize to the nucleus at Day 3-4 of development. We then compared the abundance of epigenetic modifiers between early- and late-cleaving embryos, which were classified based on the time to the first cell cleavage, to investigate if their nuclear localization contributes to developmental competence. The mRNA abundance of BRG1, KDM1A, as well as other lysine demethylases (KDM1B, KDM5A, KDM5B, and KDM5C), were significantly higher in late- compared to early-cleaving embryos near the EGA period, although these difference disappeared at the blastocyst stage. The abundance of H3K4 mono- (H3K4me) and di-methylation (H3K4me2) during the EGA period was reduced in late-cleaving and less developmentally competent embryos. By contrast, BRG1, KDM1A, and H3K4me2 abundance was greater in embryos with more than eight cells at Day 3-4 of development compared to those with fewer than four cells. These findings suggest that altered epigenetic modifications of H3K4 around the EGA period may affect the developmental capacity of porcine embryos to reach the blastocyst stage. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 19-29, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Genome-scan analysis for genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying birth weight and onset of puberty in doe kids (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailizadeh, A K

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) causing variation in birth weight and age of puberty of doe kids in a population of Rayini cashmere goats. Four hundred and thirty kids from five half-sib families were genotyped for 116 microsatellite markers located on the caprine autosomes. The traits recorded were birth weight of the male and female kids, body weight at puberty, average daily gain from birth to age of puberty and age at puberty of the doe kids. QTL analysis was conducted using the least squares interval mapping approach. Linkage analysis indicated significant QTL for birth weight on Capra hircus chromosomes (CHI) 4, 5, 6, 18 and 21. Five QTL located on CHI 5, 14 and 29 were associated with age at puberty. Across-family analysis revealed evidence for overlapping QTL affecting birth weight (78 cM), body weight at puberty (72 cM), average daily gain from birth to age of puberty (72 cM) and age at puberty (76 cM) on CHI 5 and overlapping QTL controlling body weight at puberty and age at puberty on CHI 14 at 18-19 cM. The proportion of the phenotypic variance explained by the detected QTL ranged between 7.9% and 14.4%. Confirming some of the previously reported results for birth weight and growth QTL in goats, this study identified more QTL for these traits and is the first report of QTL for onset of puberty in doe kids.

  15. Physical activity and bone mineral accrual in boys with different body mass parameters during puberty: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donvina Vaitkeviciute

    Full Text Available The aim of our longitudinal study was to investigate the relationships between physical activity and bone mass in boys with different body mass status during the years surrounding pubertal growth spurt. Two hundred and six boys entering puberty took part in this study. The subjects were divided into underweight (BMI 26.02 groups at baseline according to age related categories. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline, after 12 and 24 months to assess body composition (lean body mass, fat mass, and total body (TB, lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN bone mineral density (BMD parameters. Physical activity was measured by 7-day accelerometry. For longitudinal analysis, multilevel fixed effects regression models were constructed. Biological age, height and lean body mass had an effect for explanation of TB BMD, FN BMD and LS BMD. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, vigorous physical activity (VPA and sedentary time (SED had the significant effect only on FN BMD. Being an underweight boy at the baseline indicated greater chance (p<0.01 to have lower TB BMD in the future (2 years at follow up development, compared to normal weight (estimates = -0.038, overweight (estimates = -0.061 and obese boys (estimates = -0.106.

  16. Delusional development in child autism at the onset of puberty: vicissitudes of psychic dimensionality between disintegration and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisagni, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Although the psychogenetic hypotheses on child autism have been superseded, psychoanalysis can still reflect on the relational exchange and its sensory aspects in concomitance with the mental development of these patients. Without making generalizations as regards the pathogenesis, but considering the specific features of each autistic child, it may be possible to achieve an integration of those islands of competence that make up these patients' limited personal heritage. Such integration may be reached through the analysis of representational, emotional and relational transformations. The first part of this article describes the case of an autistic child in treatment from the age of four on a four-times-weekly basis who, during puberty, developed severe formal thought disorders together with delusional and hallucinatory formations. The second part develops some post-Jungian theoretical contributions, such as the concept of self as nothingness and the idea of the unsaturated archetype, so as to evaluate the function of some a-priori concepts in support of the analyst's position. These concepts are considered in relation to Bion's model of transformation, and to the formulations on dimensional awareness, especially on the shift from a two-dimensionality to three-dimensionality view, as well as to the rhythm of the object's presence and absence.

  17. Precocious puberty: clinical and endocrine profile and factors indicating neurogenic precocity in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Anurag; Sharma, Jyoti; Kabra, Madhulika; Kumar Gupta, Arun; Menon, P S N

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and endocrine profile of patients with precocious puberty followed up in a tertiary care hospital. Records of 140 patients (114 girls, 26 boys) with precocious puberty were reviewed. Clinical features including age of onset, stage of pubertal development, presenting symptoms, features suggestive of CNS involvement and family history were analyzed. Endocrine investigations included basal and GnRH-stimulated levels of LH and FSH as well as 17OHP, DHEA, hCG and thyroid profile. Abdominal and pelvic ultrasonography and CNS imaging were correlated with clinical features. Girls outnumbered boys in this series (4.4:1). Neurogenic central isosexual precocious puberty (CIPP) was more common in boys (10 out of 18, 55.6%) than girls (16 out of 77, 20.8%). The most common cause of neurogenic CIPP was hypothalamic hamartoma present in five girls and four boys. Other causes of neurogenic CIPP included neurotuberculosis, pituitary adenoma, hydrocephalus, post radiotherapy, CNS tumors and malformations. Peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) was secondary to adrenal causes in boys and ovarian cysts in girls. Benign variants of precocious puberty, such as premature thelarche and premature adrenarche, were present in 23 and six girls, respectively. Hypothyroidism was present in four girls and McCune-Albright syndrome in one girl. Girls with neurogenic CIPP had a lower age of onset as compared to idiopathic CIPP (3.6 +/- 2.7 years vs 5.4 +/- 2.5 years, p = 0.014). The lowest age of onset was seen in girls with hypothalamic hamartoma (1.6 +/- 0.9 years). Forty-seven girls with CIPP (seven neurogenic and 40 idiopathic) presented after the age of 6 years. Features of CNS involvement, in the form of seizures, mental retardation, raised intracranial tension or focal neurological deficits, were present in seven girls (43.8%) and four boys (40%), and gelastic seizures were present in three children. Girls with CIPP had greater bone age

  18. Pubertal status, pre-meal drink composition, and later meal timing interact in determining children's appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Hamilton, Jill K; Vien, Shirley; Thomas, Scott G; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0.75 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast on 6 separate mornings. Ad libitum FI was measured either 30 or 60 min later and appetite was measured over time. In pre-early and mid-late pubertal boys and girls there was no effect of sex on total FI (kcal). Glucose and whey protein drinks reduced calorie intake similarly at 30 min. But at 60 min, whey protein reduced FI (p children, but not in mid-late pubertal children. However, sex was a factor (p = 0.041) when FI was expressed per kilogram body weight. Pubertal status did not affect FI/kilogram body weight in boys, but it was 32% lower in mid-late pubertal girls than at pre-early puberty (p = 0.010). Appetite was associated with FI in mid-late pubertal children only. In conclusion, pubertal development affects appetite and FI regulation in children.

  19. Reproductive function of the male obese Zucker rats: alteration in sperm production and sperm DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramini, V; Cedenho, A P; Miraglia, S M; Spaine, D M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity has been considered a public health issue in many countries and is of increasing concern for authorities over the past 6 years. The Zucker rat is a good experimental model for obesity and diabetes studies due to its metabolic characteristics that are similar to those developed by humans. A total of 12 obese Zucker rats and their lean littermates were killed in pubertal and young adult phases for assessing organ weights (testis and epididymis), testicular histomorphometric and stereological analyses, daily sperm production, and transit time in the epididymis. Sperm integrity was also investigated in the adult animals using the Comet assay. Alterations in organ weights, seminiferous epithelium architecture, sperm production, and transit time were noticed in the pubertal fatty rats. The volume density of the lymphatic space was decreased in both the ages. Adult animals had a significant increase in the extent of damage found in sperm DNA. Our results show for the first time that leptin receptor deficiency compromises sperm production during puberty and that genetic obese Zucker rats have increased sperm DNA fragmentation.

  20. The effects of nutrition, puberty and dancing on bone density in adolescent ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Peter; Wynn, Emma; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Bagutti, Carlo; Faouzi, Mohamed

    2011-06-01

    Ballet dancers have on average a low bone mineral content (BMC), with elevated fracture-risk, low body mass index (BMI) for age (body mass index, kg/m2), low energy intake, and delayed puberty. This study aims at a better understanding of the interactions of these factors, especially with regard to nutrition. During a competition for pre-professional dancers we examined 127 female participants (60 Asians, 67 Caucasians). They averaged 16.7 years of age, started dancing at 5.8 years, and danced 22 hours/week. Assessments were made for BMI, BMC (DXA), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, pubertal stage (Tanner score), and nutritional status (EAT-40 questionnaire and a qualitative three-day dietary record). BMI for age was found to be normal in only 42.5% of the dancers, while 15.7% had a more or less severe degree of thinness (12.6% Grade2 and 3.1% Grade 3 thinness). Menarche was late (13.9 years, range 11 to 16.8 years). Food intake, evaluated by number of consumed food portions, was below the recommendations for a normally active population in all food groups except animal proteins, where the intake was more than twice the recommended amount. In this population, with low BMI and intense exercise, BMC was low and associated with nutritional factors; dairy products had a positive and non-dairy proteins a negative influence. A positive correlation between BMAD and years since menarche confirmed the importance of exposure to estrogens and the negative impact of delayed puberty. Because of this and the probable negative influence of a high intake of non-dairy proteins, such as meat, fish, and eggs, and the positive association with a high dairy intake, ballet schools should promote balanced diets and normal weight and should recognize and help dancers avoid eating disorders and delayed puberty caused by extensive dancing and inadequate nutrition.

  1. The role of estrogen in bone growth and formation: changes at puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Divya Singh1, Sabyasachi Sanyal2, Naibedya Chattopadhyay11Division of Endocrinology, 2Division of Drug Target Discovery and Development, Central Drug Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: A high peak bone mass (PBM at skeletal maturity is a good predictor for lower rate of fracture risks in later life. Growth during puberty contributes significantly to PBM achievement in women and men. The growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 axis has a critical role in pubertal bone growth. There is an increase in GH and IGF-1 levels during puberty; thus, it is assumed that sex steroids contribute to higher GH/IGF-1 action during growth. Recent studies indicate that estrogen increases GH secretion in boys and girls, and the major effect of testosterone on GH secretion is via aromatization to estrogen. Estrogen is pivotal for epiphyseal fusion in young men and women. From studies of individuals with a mutated aromatase gene and a case study of male patient with defective estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α, it is clear that estrogen is indispensable for normal pubertal growth and growth plate fusion. ER-α and estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β have been localized in growth plate and bone. ER knockout studies have shown that ER-α-/- female mice have reduced linear appendicular growth, while ER-β-/- mice have increased appendicular growth. No such effect is seen in ER-β-/- males; however, repressed growth is seen in ER-α-/- males, resulting in shorter long bones. Thus, ER-β represses longitudinal bone growth in female mice, while it has no function in the regulation of longitudinal bone growth in male mice. These findings indicate that estrogen plays a critical role in skeletal physiology of males as well as females.Keywords: peak bone mass, puberty, estrogen, growth plate

  2. Influence of growth hormone on growth and onset of puberty ofRahmani ewe lamb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K H El-Shahat; N F Khaled; F I El-Far

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of somatotropin administration on growth and puberty attainment of Rahmani ewes -lamb.Methods:TwelveRahmani ewes–lamb of6-7 months of age and average body weight(24.75±0.16) kg were randomly allotted into two equal groups.The first group served as control and the second group was somatotropin-treated.The ewe-lambs were weighed at the start and at the end of the experiment.In addition, the body condition score, withers height and heart girth were determined at the end of the study.Blood samples were collected weekly till the end of experiment(Twelve weeks).Sera samples were assayed for progesterone, insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and urea.Results:It indicated that the somatotropin-treated group attained puberty2.5 weeks(18 days) earlier than control one.Somatotropin-treatedRahmani ewe lambs had higher body weight, and body condition score than those of the control one.A similar tendency was observed in average daily gain, withers height and heart girth.Somatotropin administration had a beneficial effect on blood born metabolites as indicated by increased serum glucose, total lipids, cholesterol,IGF-1 and decreased urea ofRahmani ewes- lamb as compared to control one.Conclusion:Somatotropin administration enhanced puberty inRahmani ewe lambs.This is due to increased provision of trophic signals(represented by increasedSerumIGF-1 secretions) and/or blood-borne metabolites(glucose, cholesterol and lipid).

  3. Helping a boy with chronic medical problems get on friendly terms with his body and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    "My mom wants me to shave off my facial hair, but I like it. I think it makes me look mature," said sixteen-year-old Alex as he proudly stroked the crop of hairs sprouting from his chin. I was speechless. Why? Because for years I had heard about all the medical things that were wrong with Alex's body. Then, when puberty arrived, his distress about his changing body was intense. So how did psychoanalysis help him get on friendly terms with body changes, even enjoying signs of growing up? We shall see.

  4. 成年礼与考试%Puberty Rite and Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维喆

    2011-01-01

    The nature, purpose, content and form of puberty rite decides that it is the rudiment of the test, and it has a positive effect on the personal and social development and has inspiration to people's exam concept and educational philosophy.%成年礼的性质、目的、内容、形式等决定了它是考试的雏形,它对当时个人与社会的发展有积极作用,对当今人们的考试观、教育观不乏启迪意义.

  5. Altered progesterone concentrations by hormonal manipulations before a fixed-time artificial insemination CO-Synch + CIDR program in suckled beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S L; Perry, G A; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; Jaeger, J R; Olson, K C; Stevenson, J S

    2014-07-01

    We hypothesized that pregnancy outcomes may be improved by inducing luteal regression, ovulation, or both (i.e., altering progesterone status) before initiating a timed-artificial insemination (TAI) program in suckled beef cows. This hypothesis was tested in two experiments in which cows were treated with either PGF2α (PG) or PG + GnRH before initiating a TAI program to increase the proportion of cows starting the program in a theoretical marginal (<1 ng/mL; experiment 1) or elevated (≥1 ng/mL; experiment 2) progesterone environment, respectively. The control was a standard CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) program employed in suckled beef cows (100 μg GnRH intramuscularly [IM] [GnRH-1] and insertion of a progesterone-impregnated intravaginal CIDR insert on study Day -10, 25 mg PG and CIDR insert removal on study Day -3, and 100 μg GnRH IM [GnRH-2] and TAI on study Day 0). In both experiments, blood was collected before each injection for later progesterone analyses. In experiment 1, cows at nine locations (n = 1537) were assigned to either: (1) control or (2) PrePG (same as control with a PG injection on study Day -13). The PrePG cows had larger (P < 0.05) follicles on study Day -10 and more (P < 0.05) ovulated after GnRH-1 compared with control cows (60.6% vs. 36.5%), but pregnancy per TAI was not altered (55.5% vs. 52.2%, respectively). In experiment 2, cows (n = 803) at four locations were assigned to: (1) control or (2) PrePGG (same as control with PG injection on study Day -20 and GnRH injection on study Day -17). Although pregnancy per TAI did not differ between control and PrePGG cows (44.0% vs. 44.4%, respectively), cows with body condition score greater than 5.0 or 77 or more days postpartum at TAI were more (P < 0.05) likely to become pregnant than thinner cows or those with fewer days postpartum. Presynchronized cows in both experiments were more (P < 0.05) likely than controls to have luteolysis after initial

  6. Is There a Progressive Withdrawal of Physiological Protections against High-Intensity Exercise-Induced Fatigue during Puberty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ratel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Puberty is characterized by a large number of physiological modifications that translate into increased neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity exercise in adolescents compared to prepubertal children. This greater neuromuscular fatigue in adolescents could be attributed to peripheral (i.e., muscular and central (i.e., nervous factors that change through puberty. Among the peripheral changes are muscle mass, fiber type composition, energy metabolism and musculo-tendinous stiffness. Among the central modifications are the voluntary activation level, the antagonist co-activation and a differential interplay between central and peripheral fatigue. The objective of this review article will be to underline the importance of these factors on the development of neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity exercise throughout puberty and to highlight that the adolescents could be physiologically less protected against fatiguing high-intensity exercise than their prepubertal counterparts.

  7. Plasma androgenic activity in women with acne vulgaris and in healthy girls before, during and after puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlind, V; Carlström, K; Michaëlsson, G; Vahlqvist, A; Victor, A; Mellbin, T

    1982-03-01

    The possible relationship between plasma androgenic activity and acne vulgaris was investigated. Plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were determined in healthy girls during different stages of puberty, in healthy adult women and in women with acne vulgaris. Testosterone increase during puberty, whereas SHBG decreased during the early stages before it increased and stabilized plasma concentrations of testosterone and SHBG. Women with severe acne vulgaris had testosterone levels in the same range but the SHBG levels were significantly lower than those of healthy women and women with mild acne. These results show a high androgenic activity in the intermediate stages of puberty, when acne vulgaris is a common complaint and an increased androgenic activity in adult women with severe acne vulgaris.

  8. UNESCO's Guidance on Puberty and Sexual Health Education for Students Aged 9-12 Years Compared to an Upper Primary School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and young adolescents are reaching puberty earlier. Providing information about such changes before puberty can help them develop in a more competent and informed manner. Context and Objective: UNESCO's "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" forms a comprehensive, evidence-based, authoritative…

  9. Primary School Puberty/Sexuality Education: Student-Teachers' Past Learning, Present Professional Education, and Intention to Teach These Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Coleman, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary school teachers are often tasked with puberty/sexuality education for students who are undergoing sexual maturation at ever-earlier ages. This study explores the changing trajectories of the pre-service learning and teaching of primary school puberty/sexuality education at an urban university, including student-teachers' childhood…

  10. Genome-wide screening in human growth plates during puberty in one patient suggests a role for RUNX2 in epiphyseal maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce; Dutilh, Bas E.; Decker, Eva; Pirzer, Heide; Sticht, Carsten; Gretz, Norbert; Rappold, Gudrun; Cameron, Ewan R.; Neil, James C.; Stein, Gary S.; Wijnen, van Andre J.; Wit, Jan Maarten; Post, Janine N.; Karperien, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In late puberty, estrogen decelerates bone growth by stimulating growth plate maturation. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of estrogen action using two pubertal growth plate specimens of one girl at Tanner stage B2 and Tanner stage B3. Histological analysis showed that progression of puberty

  11. Genome-wide screening in human growth plates during puberty in one patient suggests a role for RUNX2 in epiphyseal maturation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, J.; Dutilh, B.E.; Decker, E.; Pirzer, H.; Sticht, C.; Gretz, N.; Rappold, G.; Cameron, E.R.; Neil, J.C.; Stein, G.S.; Wijnen, A.J. van; Wit, J.M.; Post, J.N.; Karperien, M.

    2011-01-01

    In late puberty, estrogen decelerates bone growth by stimulating growth plate maturation. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of estrogen action using two pubertal growth plate specimens of one girl at Tanner stage B2 and Tanner stage B3. Histological analysis showed that progression of puberty

  12. Relationships between day one piglet serum immunoglobulin immunocrit and subsequent growth, puberty attainment, litter size, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, J L; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A; Nonneman, D J; Lents, C A

    2015-06-01

    Colostrum affects gut and uterine gland development in the neonatal piglet, suggesting that subsequent growth and reproductive performance may be affected. Measuring immunoglobulin in piglet serum using the immunoglobulin immunocrit on Day 1 of age provides a simple, inexpensive indication of the amount of colostrum acquired by the piglet in the first day of life. Relationships between serum immunoglobulin immunocrit measures and subsequent growth rates, age at puberty, incidence of puberty failure, litter size, and lactation performance were examined in pigs born and subsequently farrowing between 2009 and 2013. Immunoglobulin immunocrit measures were collected on 16,762 piglets on Day 1 of age. Of these piglets, BW measurements were available from 15,324 (7,684 males and 7,640 females) piglets at a range of ages from weaning to 200 d of age, allowing an assessment of growth rates. Age at puberty was recorded from a subset of 2,857 of the females after observing them for estrous behavior from approximately 170 to 250 d of age. To examine relationships between d 1 immunocrit and puberty failure, gilts with immunocrit measures that failed to reach puberty (n = 119) were matched with littermate gilts with immunocrit measures that achieved puberty (n = 167). Similarly, number born alive was collected on a subset (n = 799) of females from first to fourth parities for which d 1 immunocrits were measured on them as neonates. Finally, d 1 immunocrit effect on adult lactational competence was assessed by measuring litter average (offspring of 440 females) and litter average piglet preweaning growth rate (offspring of 774 females) in females where d 1 immunocrits were available from them as neonates. Results indicated that low d 1 immunocrits were subsequently associated with reduced growth (P piglets would result in beneficial changes in production efficiency, particularly for gilts destined for the breeding herd. It also suggests that the immunoglobulin immunocrit can be

  13. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    In healthy boys, the pituitary-gonadal axis exhibits diurnal variation in early puberty. Serum testosterone levels are higher during the night and low or immeasurable during the day. These fluctuating levels of circulating androgens in early pubertal boys are difficult to monitor. Prostate specific...... antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn...

  14. A real-time PCR assay for accurate quantification of the individual members of the Altered Schaedler Flora microbiota in gnotobiotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Neto, João Carlos; Mantz, Sara; Held, Kyler; Sinha, Rohita; Segura Munoz, Rafael R; Schmaltz, Robert; Benson, Andrew K; Walter, Jens; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the gastrointestinal microbial community are frequently associated with chronic diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. However, understanding the relationship of any individual taxon within the community to host physiology is made complex due to the diversity and individuality of the gut microbiota. Defined microbial communities such as the Altered Schaedler Flora (ASF) help alleviate the challenges of a diverse microbiota by allowing one to interrogate the relationship between individual bacterial species and host responses. An important aspect of studying these relationships with defined microbial communities is the ability to measure the population abundance and dynamics of each member. Herein, we describe the development of an improved ASF species-specific and sensitive real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for use with SYBR Green chemistry to accurately assess individual ASF member abundance. This approach targets hypervariable regions V1 through V3 of the 16S rRNA gene of each ASF taxon to enhance assay specificity. We demonstrate the reproducibility, sensitivity and application of this new method by quantifying each ASF bacterium in two inbred mouse lines. We also used it to assess changes in ASF member abundance before and after acute antibiotic perturbation of the community as well as in mice fed two different diets. Additionally, we describe a nested PCR assay for the detection of lowly abundant ASF members. Altogether, this improved qPCR method will facilitate gnotobiotic research involving the ASF community by allowing for reproducible quantification of its members under various physiological conditions.

  15. Altered states of consciousness and short-term psychological after-effects induced by the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in an urban context in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Giglio, Joel Sales; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2005-06-01

    This report describes psychological assessments of the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in the religious groups União do Vegetal and Santo Daime. Nineteen subjects who tried the beverage in Santo Daime rituals and nine subjects who tried it in União do Vegetal rituals were evaluated one to four days before their first ayahuasca experience in life and one to two weeks after this experience. Semistructured interviews and a structured psychiatric scale were used in the first evaluation to elicit set variables concerning attitudes towards the ayahuasca experience and to elicit mental health status. Mental health status was reassessed in the second evaluation, which also included a semistructured interview concerning the phenomenology of altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Predominantly positive expectancies concerning the ayahuasca experience were the most prominent findings concerning set variables. Visual phenomena, numinousness, peacefulness, insights and a distressing reaction were the most salient ASC experiences. A significant reduction of the intensity of minor psychiatric symptoms occurred in the Santo Daime group after the hallucinogen experience. Subjects in both groups reported behavioral changes towards assertiveness, serenity and vivacity/joy. The set and setting hypothesis, suggestibility processes, as well as the supposed unique effects of ayahuasca are used in discussing these findings.

  16. [Effects of puberty on glucose-lipid balance during exercise in the obese child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunquin, Gautier; Theunynck, Denis; Sesboüé, Bruno; Arhan, Pierre; Bouglé, Dominique

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate effect of puberty on substrate oxidation rates using a graded exercise test to exhaustion. Two groups of obese adolescent males (34 prepubertal: body mass index (BMI) = 25,94 +/- 2,63; Z-score = 4,43 +/- 1,83; and 26 postpubertal: BMI = 31,14 +/- 4,88; Z-score = 5,264 +/- 1,76) performed an exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The test consisted in a series of graded exercises on a cycle ergometer. Stage duration was 3 min 30 s. Fat and carbohydrate rates were calculated during the last 30 s of each stage using stoichiometric equations, and this permitted us to calculate substrate oxidation according to exercise intensity. Lipid oxidation rates are significantly higher in the postpubertal group. When the fat oxidation rates are reported relative to fat free mass, fat oxidation rates are higher in the prepubertal group. Puberty decreases significantly the capacity of fat free mass to oxidize fat for a same level of exercise.

  17. Short-term sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure alters time-dependent glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin secretion in male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Lozano, Manuel; Hunter, Paola M; Behan, Lucy-Ann; Gladanac, Bojana; Casper, Robert F; Brubaker, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal L cell is the principal source of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a major determinant of insulin release. Because GLP-1 secretion is regulated in a circadian manner in rodents, we investigated whether the activity of the human L cell is also time sensitive. Rhythmic fluctuations in the mRNA levels of canonical clock genes were found in the human NCI-H716 L cell model, which also showed a time-dependent pattern in their response to well-established secretagogues. A diurnal variation in GLP-1 responses to identical meals (850 kcal), served 12 h apart in the normal dark (2300) and light (1100) periods, was also observed in male volunteers maintained under standard sleep and light conditions. These findings suggest the existence of a daily pattern of activity in the human L cell. Moreover, we separately tested the short-term effects of sleep deprivation and nocturnal light exposure on basal and postprandial GLP-1, insulin, and glucose levels in the same volunteers. Sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure disrupted the melatonin and cortisol profiles and increased insulin resistance. Moreover, it also induced profound derangements in GLP-1 and insulin responses such that postprandial GLP-1 and insulin levels were markedly elevated and the normal variation in GLP-1 responses was abrogated. These alterations were not observed in sleep-deprived participants maintained under dark conditions, indicating a direct effect of light on the mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, the metabolic abnormalities known to occur in shift workers may be related to the effects of irregular light-dark cycles on these glucoregulatory pathways.

  18. The status survey of children with precocious puberty in Chinese cities%中国城市儿童性早熟现状的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱迪卿; 朱红

    2016-01-01

    precocious puberty ac-counted for 88.91%.In all patients with central precocious puberty,bone age was higher than the actual average age at about 1.65 years old and the differences were statistically significant(P <0.001).Conclusion The patients with central precocious puberty in Chinese cities are generally older.In order to avoid missing the best time for interven-tion and treatment,great importance should be attached to the disease screening,and early detection,early diagnosis and early treatment must be done.

  19. Delayed Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems such as Turner syndrome in girls or Klinefelter syndrome in boys • Some cancer treatments that affect sex ... Menopause/upload/polycystic- ovary-syndrome-bilingual-071509.pdf ——Klinefelter Syndrome: www.hormone.org/Resources/ upload/FS_MH_Klinefelter_ ...

  20. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    of diagnostic evaluation today remain in distinguishing the benign CDGP from underlying pathological causes such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Several techniques have been investigated for this purpose and are reviewed in this chapter; however, no single test is yet...

  1. Altered carotid plaque signal among different repetition times on T1-weighted magnetic resonance plaque imaging with self-navigated radial-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumi, Shinsuke; Ohba, Hideki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Ohura, Kazumasa; Ono, Ayumi; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Hitomi, Jiro [Iwate Medical University, Department of Anatomy, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging for carotid arteries is usually performed by using an electrocardiograph (ECG)-gating technique to eliminate pulsation-related artifacts, which can affect the plaque signals because of varied repetition time (TR) among patients. Hence, we investigated whether differences in TR causes signal alterations of the carotid plaque by using a non-gated plaque imaging technique. We prospectively examined 19 patients with carotid stenosis by using a T1-weighted self-navigated radial-scan technique with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms. The signal intensity of the carotid plaque was measured, and the contrast ratio (CR) relative to the adjacent muscle was calculated. CRs of the carotid plaques were 1.39 {+-} 0.39, 1.29 {+-} 0.29, and 1.23 {+-} 0.24 with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms, respectively, and were significantly different. Among the plaques, those with a hyperintensity signal (CR > 1.5) and moderate-intensity signal (CR 1.2-1.5) at 500 ms showed a TR-dependent signal decrease (hyperintensity plaques, 1.82 {+-} 0.26; 1.61 {+-} 0.19; and 1.48 {+-} 0.17; moderate-intensity plaques, 1.33 {+-} 0.08; 1.26 {+-} 0.08; and 1.19 {+-} 0.07), while those with an isointensity signal (CR < 1.2) remained unchanged regardless of TR (0.96 {+-} 0.12, 0.96 {+-} 0.11, and 0.97 {+-} 0.13). The signal intensity of the carotid plaque on T1-weighted imaging significantly varies among different TRs and tends to decrease with longer TR. MR plaque imaging with short and constant TR settings that the ECG-gating method cannot realize would be preferable for evaluating plaque characteristics. (orig.)

  2. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with GnRH...

  3. Prospective assessment of pituitary size and shape on MR imaging after suppressive hormonal therapy in central precocious puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, J.T. van; Sharafuddin, M.J.A.; Kao, S.C.S. [Department of Radiology-JPP 3889, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52246 (United States); Luisiri, A. [Cardinal Glennon Children' s Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Garibaldi, L.R. [Children' s Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey (United States); St. Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, New Jersey (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Objective. The diagnostic significance of an enlarged pituitary gland regarding both shape and size parameters on MR imaging has previously been demonstrated in children with central precocious puberty. This study was designed to assess changes in these parameters following successful suppressive therapy of central precocious puberty with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Materials and methods. Twelve girls (mean age 7.3 years) with central precocious puberty were prospectively enrolled in our study protocol. Sagittal and coronal MR images of the pituitary region were obtained in all patients before treatment and after at least 6 months of GnRH analogue therapy (mean 18.0 months). Parameters measured included pituitary gland height, length, width, sagittal cross-sectional area, and volume. Results. All patients had excellent clinical response to treatment with arrest of secondary sexual development, normalization of serum estradiol levels, and complete obliteration of the LH response to diagnostic GnRH stimulation. No significant change occurred in any pituitary size or shape parameter following GnRH analogue therapy. Conclusion. Favorable clinical response to GnRH analogue therapy in central precocious puberty is not accompanied by significant a change in pituitary gland size and shape. (orig.)

  4. Influence of GnRH analogue on body mass index in girls with precocious puberty: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat Moaieri

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa therapy in central precocious puberty (CPP is safe for BMI and increasing of BMI is not significant, long- term follow-up study is required to elucidate whether GnRHa treatment affects adult obesity. Using growth hormone concomitantly, the effect on increasing height is significant.

  5. The Impact of Puberty and Sexual Activity upon the Health and Education of Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, J.

    1987-01-01

    Sex equity issues which are emphasized in this article include: (a) how boys and girls negotiate reproductive transitions; (b) how male and female sexual maturity is treated differently by parents, educators, and society; and (c) how the consequences of puberty and sexual behavior may differ for boys and girls. (IAH)

  6. Stress before Puberty Exerts a Sex- and Age-Related Impact on Auditory and Contextual Fear Conditioning in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Toledo-Rodriguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal, and psychological changes. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. In this study, we evaluated the impact of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform experienced before puberty (days 28–30 on fear memories and hormonal response of male and female rats during adolescence and early adulthood. Stress before puberty impacted in a sex- and age-specific way on the responses to auditory and contextual fear conditioning in adolescence and adulthood: (a increased conditioned fear to the tone in males during adolescence but not during adulthood; (b impaired extinction to the tone in adult males; and (c reduced freezing responses to the context in adolescent females. Stress before puberty did not influence the corticosterone levels 30 minutes after an additional stressor given in adulthood. These results indicate that stress experienced prior to puberty can exert a sex-related differential impact on fear-related behaviors displayed by individuals during late adolescence and early adulthood.

  7. The Role of Sex Hormone Replacement Therapy on Self-Perceived Competence in Adolescents with Delayed Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jacqueline; Kulin, Howard E.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan J.; Liben, Lyye S.; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Demers, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined role of sex steroids in development of self-perceived competence among adolescents receiving hormone therapy for delayed puberty. Found that hormone treatments had a significant positive effect for both males and females in perceived job competence. Significant positive effects were also obtained for perceptions of romantic appeal and…

  8. Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie;

    2012-01-01

    Increased attention is being paid to human mammary gland development because of concerns for environmental influences on puberty onset and breast cancer development. Studies in rodents have showed a variety of changes in the mammary glands after perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals...... exposures may alter mammary gland development, disrupt lactation and alter susceptibility to breast cancer......., indicating progressed development of mammary glands when exposed to oestrogens early in life. However, laboratories use different parameters to evaluate the development of mammary glands, making studies difficult to compare. Moreover, studies of whole mounts in Wistar rats are lacking. In the present study...

  9. Gitelman syndrome manifesting in early childhood and leading to delayed puberty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Farhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gitelman syndrome is an inherited autosomal recessive renal salt-wasting disorder. It presents with variable clinical symptoms including muscle weakness and fatigue, and the diagnosis is based on metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is usually diagnosed incidentally in early adulthood. There are rare cases of Gitelman syndrome presenting in early childhood; however, to the best of our knowledge it has not previously been associated with delayed puberty. Case presentation A 17-year-old South Asian man with recurrent episodes of generalized muscle weakness, fatigue and cramps from the age of two years was admitted for further workup. Before the age of 12 years, the episodes had been mild, but they then got progressively worse. Other symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, nocturia, paresthesia and occasional watery diarrhea. He also had a history of short stature, poor weight gain and delayed developmental landmarks. His family history was unremarkable except for the consanguineous marriage of his parents. An examination revealed a thin and lean man with blood pressure of 95/60mmHg. His height and weight were below the third percentile and his sexual development was at Tanner Stage II. Laboratory work revealed serum sodium of 124mmol/L, potassium 2.4mmol/L, calcium 6.5mmol/L and magnesium of 1.2mg/dL. His testosterone level was low (0.85ng/mL, normal for his age 2.67 to 10.12ng/mL with normal levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The sex hormone findings were attributed to delayed puberty. A 24-hour urinary analysis revealed decreased excretion of calcium (25.9mg/24 hours. Based on the findings of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis without hypertension, severe hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria, a diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome was made. Treatment was started with oral supplementation of potassium, magnesium and calcium along with spironolactone and liberal salt intake

  10. Size- and time-dependent alteration in metabolic activities of human hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes by gold nanoparticles via microsomal coincubations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meiling; Tang, Ling; Luo, Mengjun; Zhou, Jing; Guo, Bin; Liu, Yangyuan; Chen, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Nano-sized particles are known to interfere with drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which can be anticipated to be a potential source of unintended adverse reactions, but the mechanisms underlying the inhibition are still not well understood. Herein we report a systematic investigation of the impacts of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on five major CYP isozymes under in vitro incubations of human liver microsomes (HLMs) with tannic acid (TA)-stabilized AuNPs in the size range of 5 to 100 nm. It is found that smaller AuNPs show more pronounced inhibitory effects on CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in a dose-dependent manner, while 1A2 is the least susceptible to the AuNP inhibition. The size- and dose-dependent CYP-specific inhibition and the nonspecific drug-nanogold binding in the coincubation media can be significantly reduced by increasing the concentration ratio of microsomal proteins to AuNPs, probably via a noncompetitive mode. Remarkably, AuNPs are also found to exhibit a slow time-dependent inactivation of 2D6 and 3A4 in a β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2'-phosphate reduced tetrasodium salt hydrate (NADPH)-independent manner. During microsomal incubations, UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta-potential measurements were used to monitor the changes in particle properties under the miscellaneous AuNP/HLM/CYP dispersion system. An improved stability of AuNPs by mixing HLM with the gold nanocolloid reveals that the stabilization via AuNP-HLM interactions may occur on a faster time scale than the salt-induced nanoaggregation by incubation in phosphate buffer. The results suggest that the AuNP induced CYP inhibition can be partially attributed to its adhesion onto the enzymes to alter their structural conformations or onto the HLM membrane therefore impairing the integral membrane proteins. Additionally, AuNPs likely block the substrate pocket on the CYP surface, depending on both the particle characteristics and the

  11. Luteinizing Hormone Secretion during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulation Tests in Obese Girls with Central Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Sang; Yoon, Jong Seo; Hwang, Jin Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Girls with precocious puberty have high luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and advanced bone age. Obese children enter puberty at earlier ages than do non-obese children. We analyzed the effects of obesity on LH secretion during gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) tests in girls with precocious puberty. Methods: A total of 981 subjects with idiopathic precocious puberty who had undergone a GnRH stimulation testing between 2008 and 2014 were included in the study. Subjects were divided into three groups based on body mass index (BMI). Auxological data and gonadotropin levels after the GnRH stimulation test were compared. Results: In Tanner stage 2 girls, peak stimulated LH levels on GnRH test were 11.9±7.5, 10.4±6.4, and 9.1±6.1 IU/L among normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively (p=0.035 for all comparisons). In Tanner stage 3 girls, peak stimulated LH levels were 14.9±10.9, 12.8±7.9, and 9.6±6.0 IU/L, respectively (p=0.022 for all comparisons). However, in Tanner stage 4 girls, peak stimulated LH levels were not significantly different among normal, overweight, and obese children. On multivariate analysis, BMI standard deviation score was significantly and negatively associated with peak LH (β=-1.178, p=0.001). Conclusion: In girls with central precocious puberty, increased BMI was associated with slightly lower peak stimulated LH levels at early pubertal stages (Tanner stages 2 and 3). This association was not valid in Tanner stage 4 girls. PMID:27215137

  12. Frequency of different types of precocious puberty, determining the predisposing factor and need to treatment in children - Emam Hospital (1993-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayeri H

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed in order to detect the frequency of different types of precocious puberty, predisposing factors and to show which group of patients need to treatment. Materials and Methods: In this study, 74 patients who referred to pediatric endocrine clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital and private office from 1993-2000 were assessed. A complete history was taken and physical examination was done in all patients by pediatrics endocrinologist. Bone age was done in all patients and specific hormonal tests were measured in some of them. Results: Among 74 patients, 50 cases (67.6 percent were female and 24 cases (32.4 percent were male. The age of the patients was between 0.8-10 years old with mean 5.37 year. 75 percent of male patients had central (complete precocious puberty and 25 percent had peripheral (incomplete precocious puberty. 40 percent of female patients had central precocious puberty, 46 percent had premature telarche, 8 percent had premature pubarche, 2 percent had premature menarche and 4 percent had other kinds of precocious puberty (one case with hypothyroidism and one case with Mccune-Albright syndrome. 10 percent of female patients with central precocious puberty had predisposing factor and 90 percent of them were idiopathic. 38.8 percent of male patients with central precocious puberty had predisposing factor and 61.2 percent of them were idiopathic. 100 percent of male patients with peripheral precocious puberty had congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. 38 percent of female patients and 100 percent of male patients needed to treatment. Conclusion: According to this study and references, precocious puberty in female usually benign but in male patients it should be evaluated thoroughly because they usually have a serious disorder which needs treatment.

  13. Bone mineral density and body composition in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty before and after treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist

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    Sandra B. Alessandri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic central precocious puberty and its postponement with a (gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH agonist are complex conditions, the final effects of which on bone mass are difficult to define. We evaluated bone mass, body composition, and bone remodeling in two groups of girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty, namely one group that was assessed at diagnosis and a second group that was assessed three years after GnRH agonist treatment. METHODS: The precocious puberty diagnosis and precocious puberty treatment groups consisted of 12 girls matched for age and weight to corresponding control groups of 12 (CD and 14 (CT girls, respectively. Bone mineral density and body composition were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was estimated after correction for bone age and the mathematical calculation of volumetric bone mineral density. CONEP: CAAE-0311.0.004.000-06. RESULTS: Lumbar spine bone mineral density was slightly increased in individuals diagnosed with precocious puberty compared with controls; however, after correction for bone age, this tendency disappeared (CD = -0.74 + 0.9 vs. precocious puberty diagnosis = -1.73 + 1.2. The bone mineral density values of girls in the precocious puberty treatment group did not differ from those observed in the CT group. CONCLUSION: There is an increase in bone mineral density in girls diagnosed with idiopathic central precocious puberty. Our data indicate that the increase in bone mineral density in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty is insufficient to compensate for the marked advancement in bone age observed at diagnosis. GnRH agonist treatment seems to have no detrimental effect on bone mineral density.

  14. Leuprolide Acetate 1-Month Depot for Central Precocious Puberty: Hormonal Suppression and Recovery

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    Neely EKirk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods. This prospective US multicenter trial of leuprolide acetate 1-month depot (7.5–15 mg for central precocious puberty utilized an open-label treatment period, long-term follow-up, and adult callback. Forty-nine females Results. Subjects were treated for years. Mean peak GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH were prepubertal after the first dose and remained suppressed throughout treatment. During treatment, mean estradiol decreased to the limit of detection and mean testosterone decreased but remained above prepubertal norms. During posttreatment follow-up ( years, all patients achieved a pubertal hormonal response within 1 year and menses were reported in all females ≥12 years old. No impairment of reproductive function was observed at adulthood (mean age: 24.8 years.

  15. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie;

    2010-01-01

    at any age, numerous kisspeptin-positive neurons in the arcuate nucleus were detected in the adult rat. Increasing doses of kisspeptin-54 given peripherally to male rats at PND15, 30, 45, and 60 evoked roughly similar effects, as revealed by the induction of c-Fos in the pituitary and secretion of LH...... periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats along pubertal development. Neurons expressing Kiss1 mRNA were first detected at PND15, but increased significantly around puberty, and declined again in the adult rat. While virtually no immunoreactive cell bodies were detectable in the AVPV...... and testosterone. These results show that both Kiss1 mRNA and the peptide increase in arcuate nucleus along pubertal maturation. Since kisspeptin signaling is potentially functional, even for peripheral activation, and well before the kisspeptin neuronal system is fully matured, our data support...

  16. Psoriasis: Female Skin Changes in Various Hormonal Stages throughout Life—Puberty, Pregnancy, and Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Ceovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is one of the most prevalent immune mediated skin diseases worldwide. Despite the large prevalence in both men and women, the pathogenesis of this disease has not yet been fully clarified. Nowadays, it is believed that psoriasis is most likely a T helper Th1/Th17 induced inflammatory disease. Stressful life situations are known to cause flare-ups and psoriasis activity may be linked to stress from major life events. We know that stress greatly affects both the hormone and immune systems and that there are many different hormonal phases throughout a woman’s lifetime. The severity of psoriasis may fluctuate or be influenced by each phase and this relationship can be seen as disease frequency seems to peak during puberty, postpartum, and menopause when hormone levels fall, while symptoms improve during pregnancy, a state when hormone levels are increased.

  17. A rare case of puberty onset congenital erythropoietic porphyria with ophthalmological manifestations

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    Debjani Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old male patient was presented with foreign body sensation in both the eyes for 2 years duration and blisters followed by scarring and pigmentation in the photo-exposed areas of the body over the previous 12 years. His urine was reddish colored for the previous year. On examination, there was scarring, hyper-pigmentation of photo-exposed parts of the body along with resorption of the distal phalanges of fingers in both hands except the smallest digit which had onycholysis. Ocular examination indicated scleral necrosis in the interpalpebral areas in both eyes and bilateral dry eye. Hematological examination indicated a picture suggestive of hemolytic anemia. Abdominal ultrasonography indicated an enlarged spleen. These clinical features are suggestive of puberty onset congenital erythropoietic porphyria with ophthalmological manifestations.

  18. Female rats are less susceptible during puberty to the lethal effects of percutaneous exposure to VX

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    Linnzi K.M. Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve agents with low volatility such as VX are primarily absorbed through the skin when released during combat or a terrorist attack. The barrier function of the stratum corneum may be compromised during certain stages of development, allowing VX to more easily penetrate through the skin. However, age-related differences in the lethal potency of VX have yet to be evaluated using the percutaneous (pc route of exposure. Thus, we estimated the 24 and 48 h median lethal dose for pc exposure to VX in male and female rats during puberty and early adulthood. Pubescent, female rats were less susceptible than both their male and adult counterparts to the lethal effects associated with pc exposure to VX possibly because of hormonal changes during that stage of development. This study emphasizes the need to control for both age and sex when evaluating the toxicological effects associated with nerve agent exposure in the rat model.

  19. Heritability of volumetric brain changes and height in children entering puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soelen, Inge L C; Brouwer, Rachel M; van Baal, G Caroline M; Schnack, Hugo G; Peper, Jiska S; Chen, Lei; Kahn, René S; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2013-03-01

    The human brain undergoes structural changes in children entering puberty, while simultaneously children increase in height. It is not known if brain changes are under genetic control, and whether they are related to genetic factors influencing the amount of overall increase in height. Twins underwent magnetic resonance imaging brain scans at age 9 (N = 190) and 12 (N = 125). High heritability estimates were found at both ages for height and brain volumes (49-96%), and high genetic correlation between ages were observed (r(g) > 0.89). With increasing age, whole brain (+1.1%), cerebellum (+4.2%), cerebral white matter (+5.1%), and lateral ventricle (+9.4%) volumes increased, and third ventricle (-4.0%) and cerebral gray matter (-1.6%) volumes decreased. Children increased on average 13.8 cm in height (9.9%). Genetic influences on individual difference in volumetric brain and height changes were estimated, both within and across traits. The same genetic factors influenced both cerebral (20% heritable) and cerebellar volumetric changes (45%). Thus, the extent to which changes in cerebral and cerebellar volumes are heritable in children entering puberty are due to the same genes that influence change in both structures. The increase in height was heritable (73%), and not associated with cerebral volumetric change, but positively associated with cerebellar volume change (r(p) = 0.24). This association was explained by a genetic correlation (r(g) = 0.48) between height and cerebellar change. Brain and body each expand at their own pace and through separate genetic pathways. There are distinct genetic processes acting on structural brain development, which cannot be explained by genetic increase in height.

  20. Etiology and therapeutic outcomes of children with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eungu; Cho, Ja Hyang; Choi, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to investigate the etiology, clinical features, and outcomes of patients with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty (GIPP). Methods The study included 16 patients (14 female and 2 male patients) who manifested secondary sexual characteristics, elevated sex hormones, or adrenal androgens with prepubertal luteinizing hormone levels after gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation diagnosed between May 1994 and December 2015. Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia were excluded. Clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment modalities, and outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. Results The median age at diagnosis was 2.6 years (range, 0.7–7.9 years) and median follow-up duration was 4.6 years (range, 1 month–9.8 years). Patients with McCune-Albright syndrome (n=5) and functional ovarian cysts (n=4) presented with vaginal bleeding and elevated estradiol levels (23.3±17.5 pg/mL); adrenocortical tumors (n=4) with premature pubarche and elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels (87.2–6,530 µg/dL); and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-producing tumor (n=1) with premature pubarche and elevated β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels (47.4 mIU/mL). Two patients were idiopathic. Six patients transited to gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty median 3.3 years (range, 0.3–5.1 years) after the onset of GIPP. Initial and follow-up height standard deviation scores (0.99±0.84 vs. 1.10±1.10, P=0.44) and bone age advancement (1.49±1.77 years vs. 2.02±1.95 years, P=0.06) were not significantly different. Conclusion The etiologies of GIPP are heterogeneous, and treatment and prognosis is quite different according to the etiology. Efficacy of treatment with aromatase inhibitors needs to be evaluated after long-term follow-up. PMID:27777905

  1. Recent decline in age at breast development: the Copenhagen Puberty Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent publications showing unexpectedly early breast development in American girls created debate worldwide. However, secular trend analyses are often limited by poor data comparability among studies performed by different researchers in different time periods and populations. Here we...... were found in 8- to 10-year-old girls from the 2006 cohort compared with similarly aged girls from the 1991 cohort. CONCLUSIONS: We found significantly earlier breast development among girls born more recently. Alterations in reproductive hormones and BMI did not explain these marked changes, which...

  2. Chemical characterization of the acid alteration of diesel fuel: Non-targeted analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry with tile-based Fisher ratio and combinatorial threshold determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Brendon A.; Pinkerton, David K.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

    2016-04-01

    The illicit chemical alteration of petroleum fuels is of scientific interest, particularly to regulatory agencies which set fuel specifications, or excises based on those specifications. One type of alteration is the reaction of diesel fuel with concentrated sulfuric acid. Such reactions are known to subtly alter the chemical composition of the fuel, particularly the aromatic species native to the fuel. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC–TOFMS) is ideally suited for the analysis of diesel fuel, but may provide the analyst with an overwhelming amount of data, particularly in sample-class comparison experiments comprised of many samples. The tile-based Fisher-ratio (F-ratio) method reduces the abundance of data in a GC × GC–TOFMS experiment to only the peaks which significantly distinguish the unaltered and acid altered sample classes. Three samples of diesel fuel from different filling stations were each altered to discover chemical features, i.e., analyte peaks, which were consistently changed by the acid reaction. Using different fuels prioritizes the discovery of features which are likely to be robust to the variation present between fuel samples and which will consequently be useful in determining whether an unknown sample has been acid altered. The subsequent analysis confirmed that aromatic species are removed by the acid alteration, with the degree of removal consistent with predicted reactivity toward electrophilic aromatic sulfonation. Additionally, we observed that alkenes and alkynes were also removed from the fuel, and that sulfur dioxide or compounds that degrade to sulfur dioxide are generated by the acid alteration. In addition to applying the previously reported tile-based F-ratio method, this report also expands null distribution analysis to algorithmically determine an F-ratio threshold to confidently select only the features which are sufficiently class-distinguishing. When

  3. Growth and puberty after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia Crescimento e puberdade após tratamento da leucemia linfoblástica aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Helena Bastos da Silva Alves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, after combining treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, there has been an improvement in the survival rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, with a current cure rate of around 70%. Children with the disease have been enrolled into international treatment protocols designed to improve survival and minimize the serious irreversible late effects. Our oncology unit uses the international protocol: GBTLI LLA-85 and 90, with the drugs methotrexate, cytosine, arabinoside, dexamethasone, and radiotherapy. However, these treatments can cause gonadal damage and growth impairment. PATIENTS AND METHOD: The authors analyzed 20 children off therapy in order to determine the role of the various doses of radiotherapy regarding endocrinological alterations. They were divided into 3 groups according to central nervous system prophylaxis: Group A underwent chemotherapy, group B underwent chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (18 Gy, and group C underwent chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (24 Gy. Serum concentrations of LH, FSH, GH, and testosterone were determined. Imaging studies included bone age, pelvic ultrasound and scrotum, and skull magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Nine of the patients who received radiotherapy had decreased pituitary volume. There was a significant difference in the response to GH and loss of predicted final stature (Bayley-Pinneau between the 2 irradiated groups and the group that was not irradiated, but there was no difference regarding the radiation doses used (18 or 24 Gy. The final predicted height (Bayley-Pinneau was significantly less (P = 0.0071 in both groups treated with radiotherapy. Two girls had precocious puberty, and 1 boy with delayed puberty presented calcification of the epididymis. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy was been responsible for late side effects, especially related to growth and puberty.Nos últimos 20 anos, após o tratamento de pacientes portadores de leucemia linfoblástica aguda, com

  4. Time relationships between volcanism-plutonism-alteration-mineralization in Cu-stratabound ore deposits from the Michilla mining district, northern Chile: a 40Ar/39Ar geochronological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Verónica; Tristá-Aguilera, Dania; Féraud, Gilbert; Morata, Diego; Aguirre, Luis; Kojima, Shoji; Ferraris, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The Michilla mining district comprises one of the most important stratabound and breccia-style copper deposits of the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile, hosted by the Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks of the La Negra Formation. 40Ar/39Ar analyses carried out on igneous and alteration minerals from volcanic and plutonic rocks in the district allow a chronological sequence of several magmatic and alteration events of the district to be established. The first event was the extrusion of a thick lava series of the La Negra Formation, dated at 159.9 ± 1.0 Ma (2 σ) from the upper part of the series. A contemporaneous intrusion is dated at 159.6 ± 1.1 Ma, and later intrusive events are dated at 145.5 ± 2.8 and 137.4 ± 1.1 Ma, respectively. Analyzed alteration minerals such as adularia, sericite, and actinolite apparently give valid 40Ar/39Ar plateau and miniplateau ages. They indicate the occurrence of several alteration events at ca. 160-163, 154-157, 143-148, and 135-137 Ma. The first alteration event, being partly contemporaneous with volcanic and plutonic rocks, was probably produced in a high thermal gradient environment. The later events may be related either to a regional low-grade hydrothermal alteration/metamorphism process or to plutonic intrusions. The Cu mineralization of the Michilla district is robustly bracketed between 163.6 ± 1.9 and 137.4 ± 1.1 Ma, corresponding to dating of actinolite coexisting with early-stage chalcocite and a postmineralization barren dyke, respectively. More precisely, the association of small intrusives (a dated stock from the Michilla district) with Cu mineralization in the region strongly suggests that the main Michilla ore deposit is related to a magmatic/hydrothermal event that occurred between 157.4 ± 3.6 and 163.5 ± 1.9 Ma, contemporaneous or shortly after the extrusion of the volcanic sequence. This age is in agreement with the Re-Os age of 159 ± 16 Ma obtained from the mineralization itself (Tristá-Aguilera et al

  5. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  6. Self-reported onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality and reproductive hormones among 1,068 healthy young Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik;

    2016-01-01

    puberty onset had not yet fully matured although most were in Tanner stage 5. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Approximately 15% of young Danish men have self-reported later onset of puberty than their peers. We found poorer testicular function in young men with a history of later pubertal development...... Environmental Protection Agency and Kirsten and Freddy Johansens Foundation (grant 95-103-72087). There are no competing interests....

  7. 性早熟病因的研究进展%Study Progress in Etiologies of Precocious Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳艳; 俞建

    2011-01-01

    性早熟是发于儿童的一种生长发育异常性疾病.多科研究表明,其发病因素是多方面的,是以遗传为基础,遗传因素和环境因素相互作用的结果,现对性早熟的病因在遗传、环境、营养方面的进展作如下综述.%Precocious puberty is an abnormality in children's growth and development. Multiple studies indicate that its pathogenic factors are various. Based on the genetics, it attributes to the interactions between genetics and environments. Coupled with the increasing incidence of precocious puberty, more studies about its etiology have being discovered. Now the article is to summarize them simply.

  8. A case of pediatric virilizing adrenocortical tumor resulting in hypothalamic-pituitary activation and central precocious puberty following surgical removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Oue, Takaharu; Oowari, Mitsugu; Soh, Hideki; Tachibana, Makiko; Kimura, Sadami; Kiyohara, Yuki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Bessyo, Kazuhiko; Mushiake, Sotaro; Homma, Keiko; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Sasano, Hironobu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    We present a 6-year-old boy with a virilizing adrenocortical tumor who initially presented with peripheral precocious puberty. Development of facial acne, pubic hair and a growth spurt were noted at the age of five. A low-pitched voice as well as maturation of external genitalia was noted at the age of six. Both serum and urinary levels of adrenal androgens were elevated. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large right suprarenal mass and he underwent surgical resection without any complications. The histological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma according to the criteria of Weiss. Following surgical removal of the androgen-producing tumor, the patient subsequently developed hypothalamic-pituitary activation and demonstrated central precocious puberty. He was treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in order to delay further pubertal progression. Clinical follow-up of potential secondary effects of excess hormone secretion after removal is important in some pediatric patients with virilizing adrenocortical tumor.

  9. Age at Puberty and Some Biological Parameters of Awassi and its First Crosses with Charollais and Romanov Rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Qasem Al-Momani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to determine the age at puberty of both ram and ewe lambs of three genotypes: Awassi (A, Charollais x Awassi (CA, and Romanov x Awassi (RA F1crosses. Twenty, six-month old lambs (10 from each sex from each genotype were used. Ram and ewe lambs were kept in separate groups from the beginning until the end of the experiment. Birth weight and weaning weight were recorded for all animals. Body weights and body condition scores were recorded at monthly intervals between 6.5 and 12 months of age. Blood samples were collected weekly from ewe lambs and fortnightly from ram lambs to monitor progesterone and testosterone profiles, respectively. Semen character- istics and scrotal circumferences (SC were evaluated fortnightly. Weight at puberty in ewe and ram lambs were not sig- nificantly different among the three genotypes and ranged around 35 kg and 42 kg, respectively. In ewe lambs, age at puberty was significantly higher (P< 0.01 in A (280±11.5 d than in RA (232±11 d and CA (255±11.5 d. Age at puber- ty of ram lambs was also significantly different (P < 0.01 among the three genotypes being higher in A (243±5 d than in CA (223±5 d and RA (226±5 d ram lambs. Semen parameters improved with age in all genotypes. The RA ram lambs had greater semen concentration and lower abnormal spermatozoa than the other two genotypes (P< 0.05. Results of the present study indicate that crossing Awassi ewes with either Charollais or Romanov sires tends to improve reproduc- tive characteristics of the Fcrossbreds through advancing age at puberty in both ram and ewe lambs.

  10. [Relationship between endocrinology and craniofacial growth. I: Puberty and craniofacial growth. II: Growth of the craniofacial skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, A; De Ridder, L; De Zegher, F; Carine, C; Carels, C

    1994-12-01

    In this literature, a review is given of the endocrinology and morphology of the craniofacial complex. This article reviews in a first part the endocrinology of puberty and general growth aspects. Afterwards the adolescence growth spurt of the face and the hormonal regulation will be focused. In a second part the morphogenetic aspects together with growth area's and growth theories of the craniofacial complex will be discussed. At last a detailed description of the maxillary and mandibular growth is given.

  11. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhai

    Full Text Available To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls.Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups.Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years than normal girls (9.2 years and lean girls (9.3 years. The prevalence (% of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8-60.1. None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5% and lean girls (8.1%. The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05.Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls.

  12. Role of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Stimulation Test in Diagnosing Gonadotropin Deficiency in Both Males and Females with Delayed Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hong Sun; Yu Zheng; Xiao-Lin Zhang; Yi-Ming Mu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Delayed puberty can result either from constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDP) or idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH).Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test has been generally accepted as a current method for diagnosing delayed puberty.The objective of this research was to assess the cut-off values and the efficacy of GnRH stimulation test in the diagnosis of delayed puberty in both males and females.Methods:A study of 91 IHH,27 CDP patients,6 prepubertal children,and 20 pubertal adults was undertaken.Blood samples were obtained at 0,30,60,and 120 min after GnRH administration and the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured.For each parameter,the sensitivities and specificities were estimated,and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed.Results:The ROC curves indicated that a serum basal LH <0.6 IU/L or peak LH <9.74 IU/L resulted in moderate sensitivity (73.8% or 80.0%) and specificity (90.9% or 86.4%) in the diagnosis of HH in males.Serum basal LH <0.85 IU/L or basal FSH <2.43 IU/L resulted in moderate sensitivity (80.0% or 100.0%) and specificity (75.0% or 50.0%) in the diagnosis of HH in females.Conclusions:Our data suggest that isolated use of the gonadorelin stimulation test is almost sufficient to discriminate between HH and CDP in males,but unnecessary in females.The most useful predictor is serum basal or peak LH to differentiate these two disorders in males,but serum basal LH or FSH in females.

  13. The effect of puberty on fat oxidation rates during exercise in overweight and normal-weight girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L; Riddell, M C; Schneiderman, J E; McCrindle, B W; Hamilton, J K

    2014-01-01

    Excess weight is often associated with insulin resistance (IR) and may disrupt fat oxidation during exercise. This effect is further modified by puberty. While studies have shown that maximal fat oxidation rates (FOR) during exercise decrease with puberty in normal-weight (NW) and overweight (OW) boys, the effect of puberty in NW and OW girls is unclear. Thirty-three NW and OW girls ages 8-18 yr old completed a peak aerobic capacity test on a cycle ergometer. FOR were calculated during progressive submaximal exercise. Body composition and Tanner stage were determined. For each participant, a best-fit polynomial curve was constructed using fat oxidation vs. exercise intensity to estimate max FOR. In a subset of the girls, IR derived from an oral glucose tolerance test (n = 20), and leptin and adiponectin levels (n = 11) were assessed in relation to FOR. NW pre-early pubertal girls had higher max FOR [6.9 ± 1.4 mg·kg fat free mass (FFM)(-1)·min(-1)] than NW mid-late pubertal girls (2.2 ± 0.9 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)) (P = 0.002), OW pre-early pubertal girls (3.8 ± 2.1 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)), and OW mid-late pubertal girls (3.3 ± 0.9 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)) (P obesity potentially masks the effect of puberty on FOR during exercise in girls.

  14. Expression of melatonin receptor in the hypothalamus and pituitary of female rats with precocious puberty%雌性性早熟大鼠下丘脑、垂体褪黑素受体表达的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周巧利; 石星; 倪世宁; 顾威; 朱子阳; 刘倩琦; 王旭

    2013-01-01

    Objective; To explore the effect of melatonin and melatonin receptors on the onset of the puberty by observing the plasma concentration of melatonin and melatonin receptors (MT1 ,MT2)of hypothalamus and pituitary in precocious puberty female rats. Methods; A total of 40 26-day-old female SD rats were divided into the precocious puberty group (A), the treated group (B)and the control groups including the prepuberty group(Cl)and the normal puberty group(C2). N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid(NMA)was used to establish precocious puberty female rat model. GnRH analog (Triptorelin) were used to treat precocious puberty. The nocturnal plasma melatonin and luteinizing hormone (LH) level were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)and the expressions of melatonin receptors (MT1 ,MT2) and GnRH mRNA were conducted in hypothalamus and pituitary by real time-PCR. Results; There was no significant difference in the plasma melatonin level in each group. The expression of MT1 mRNA of rat hypothalamus and pituitary in the group A was significantly lower than in the group B and Cl,and similar with the group C2. Each group showed no significant differences in the expressions of MT2 of hypothalamus and pituitary. Conclusion: The expressions of MT1 mRNA decreased in precocious puberty female rats. GnRH analog may upregulate the expression of MT1 mRNA in hypothalamus and pituitary. The inhibitory effects of melatonin may decline due to the decreased expression of melatonin receptors in the central nervous system by decrease the expression of melatonin receptor in the hypothalamus. Melatonin and its receptors may participate in normal puberty or precocious puberty.%目的:通过研究雌性性早熟大鼠血浆褪黑素(melatonin,MT)水平,下丘脑、垂体MT受体MT1、MT2表达,探讨MT及MT受体在性发育启动和性早熟中的作用.方法:正常26日龄雌性SD大鼠40只,随机分为性早熟组、性早熟干预组、生理盐水对照组,后者又分为青春前期组

  15. 环境内分泌干扰物与儿童性早熟发病的关系*%The relationship of the environment endocrine disruptors with precocious puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡德培; 乔丽丽; 郑力行

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨环境内分泌干扰物(EEDs)与儿童性早熟发病的关系.方法:收集2005年3月至2005年9月在性早熟专科门诊就诊的初诊患儿110例及正常儿童100例.采用高效液相色谱及气相色谱分析法测定性早熟患儿及正常儿童血清中辛基酚(OP)、双酚A(BPA)和邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)的含量.同时测定患儿的子宫、卵巢体积和血清雌二醇(E2)含量.将血清EEDs含量与靶器官发育的指标作相关性分析.结果:正常儿童中,5.0%血清检测到OP(中位数,下同)为2.72 ng/ml,2.0%检测到BPA(2.11 ng/ml),4.0%检测到DBP(0.52 ng/ml);性早熟患儿中,33.6%血清检测到OP(7.38 ng/ml),40.9%检测到BPA(9.15 ng/ml),27.3%检测到DBP(2.76 ng/ml).性早熟患儿血清中EEDs含量显著高于正常儿童(P<0.001).患儿血清OP、BPA、DBP含量与其子宫体积均呈显著正相关(P<0.05或0.01),血清OP、DBP含量与其卵巢体积均呈显著正相关(P<0.05或0.01).结论:当前的正常儿童已有一部分暴露于EEDs,性早熟患儿EEDs的暴露程度比正常儿童严重得多.EEDs与性早熟的发病密切相关,是其重要的致病因素之一.%ABSTRACT Objective:To explore the relationship of the environmental endocrine disruptors(EEDs) with the onset of precocious puberty. Method:The blood samples were collected from 110 cases of precocious puberty and 100 cases of normal children who initially visited the precocious puberty outpatient department from March to Sept. 2005. The concentrations of octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in the serum were measured with high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and gas chromatography. The volume of uterus and ovary, and the content of estradiol (E2) in the serum of precocious puberty were determined at the same time. The contents of EEDs in the serums and the indices of the target organs were analyzed by the methods of correlation and regression. Result:In normal control group

  16. Efficacy of Subcutaneous Administration of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist on Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; WEI Hong; ZHANG Jianling; HOU Ling; LUO Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess the feasibility of subcutaneous administration of Triptorelin with 6-week intervals for the suppression of pituitary-gonadal axis and changes of clinical signs in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP), 46 girls with ICPP were treated with GnRHa.Triptorelin (Decapeptyl, 3.75 mg) was administered subcutaneously (SC) at 6-weeks intervals or intramuscularly (IM) at 4-weeks intervals randomly for more than 12 months consecutively. During GnRHa therapy, clinical parameters and laboratory data, including height, weight, pubertal stage,bone age, uterine volume and ovarian size, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2), were monitored and analyzed. It was found that both treatment regimes led to regression of precocious puberty and reversal of secondary sexual characteristics.Breast developments regressed. Uterine volume was decreased after treatment, but there was no statistically significant difference. Mean ovarian volume did not change significantly during treatment.The height velocity was decreased significantly from 6.3±1.4 cm/year to 5.8±1.2 cm/year in group SC and 6.7±1.3 cm/year to 5.4±1.0 cm/year in group IM, respectively. The rate of bone maturation was reduced significantly during treatment. The ratio of deltaBA/deltaCA was 1.2±0.2 or 1.3±0.3 at the onset of therapy and decreased significantly after the treatment to 0.7±0.2 or 0.9±0.1, respectively.The predicted adult height was increased significantly and progressively during therapy. The levels of serum LH, FSH and E2 returned to the prepubertal condition. No significant side effects of therapy were noted. The most common side effect during SC treatment was that a non-irritating, 1 cm in diameter mass was palpated at the site of subcutaneous injection in the abdominal wall of patients,which disappeared after 6- 12 weeks. Two girls had minimal withdrawal vaginal bleeding episodes after the first injection. It was

  17. Fulvestrant treatment of precocious puberty in girls with McCune-Albright syndrome

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    Sims Emily K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS is usually characterized by the triad of precocious puberty (PP, fibrous dysplasia, and café au lait spots. Previous treatments investigated for PP have included aromatase inhibitors and the estrogen receptor modulator, tamoxifen. Although some agents have been partially effective, the optimal pharmacologic treatment of PP in girls with MAS has not been identified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fulvestrant (FaslodexTM, a pure estrogen receptor antagonist, in girls with progressive precocious puberty (PP associated with McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS. Methods In this prospective international multicenter trial, thirty girls ≤ 10 years old with MAS and progressive PP received fulvestrant 4 mg/kg via monthly intramuscular injections for 12 months. Changes in vaginal bleeding, rates of bone age advancement, growth velocity, Tanner staging, predicted adult heights, and uterine and ovarian volumes were measured. Results Median vaginal bleeding days decreased from 12.0 days per year to 1.0 day per year, with a median change in frequency of -3.6 days, (95% confidence interval (CI -10.10, 0.00; p = 0.0146. Of patients with baseline bleeding, 74% experienced a ≥50% reduction in bleeding, and 35% experienced complete cessation during the study period (95% CI 51.6%, 89.8%; 16.4%, 57.3%, respectively. Average rates of bone age advancement (ΔBA/ΔCA decreased from 1.99 pre-treatment to 1.06 on treatment (mean change -0.93, 95% CI -1.43, -0.43; p = 0.0007. No significant changes in uterine volumes or other endpoints or serious adverse events occurred. Conclusions Fulvestrant was well tolerated and moderately effective in decreasing vaginal bleeding and rates of skeletal maturation in girls with MAS. Longer-term studies aimed at further defining potential benefits and risks of this novel therapeutic approach in girls with MAS are needed. Trial

  18. Age and sex-specific relationships between phthalate exposures and obesity in Chinese children at puberty.

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    Yunhui Zhang

    Full Text Available To examine the age and sex-specific associations of urine levels of six mono-phthalates with body size and fat distribution in Chinese children at puberty.Four hundred and ninety-three school-aged children (247 boys, 246 girls were recruited. Obesity related anthropometric indices were measured and body fat proportion (BF% was calculated. Spot urine samples were collected and phthalate monoesters were detected by an API 2000 electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS. Associations between phthalate exposure and overweight/obesity measures and their trends were examined by multiple linear regression and Logistic regression analyses, respectively.Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolites and monobutyl phthalate (MBP were found to be the most detectable chemicals. In 8-10 years (yrs group, concentrations of MEHP and MBP were significantly higher in girls than those in boys. However, concentrations of all phthalate monoesters, except for MEP and MEHP, in 11-13 yrs boys were significantly higher than those in girls. After adjusting for confounders including puberty onset, urinary concentrations of MBP and sum of low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (∑LMP were positively associated with boys' obesity in a concentration-effect manner, while concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP and sum of DEHP metabolites (∑MEHP were negatively associated with girls' obesity. Associations between phthalate exposure levels and BMI z-score changes were age- and sex-specific in school-age children.There are age and sex-specific concentration-effect associations between phthalate exposure and fat distribution in Chinese children. Urinary phthalate levels in 11-13 yrs boys were about 30 percent higher than those in girls, and ∑MEHP levels in younger boys (10 yrs. Associations were positive for MBP and ∑LMP with both BMI z-score and fat distribution in boys >10 years of age, and negative for ∑MEHP with fat distribution in girls <10 years of age.

  19. Bone Mineralization in Rhythmic Gymnasts Entering Puberty: Associations with Jumping Performance and Body Composition Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võsoberg, Kristel; Tillmann, Vallo; Tamm, Anna-Liisa; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    This study examined bone mineral density (BMD) accrual in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty and their age-matched untrained control girls, and associations with baseline jumping performance and body composition over the 3-year period. Whole body (WB) and femoral neck (FN) BMD, WB fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM), countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jumps for 15 s (RJ15s) were assessed in 25 rhythmic gymnasts and 25 untrained controls at baseline and after 3-year period. The changes over this period were calculated (Δ scores). Pubertal maturation over the 3-year period was slower in rhythmic gymnasts compared to untrained controls, while no difference in bone age development was seen. WB BMD increased similarly in both groups, while the increase in FN BMD was higher in rhythmic gymnasts compared with untrained controls. In rhythmic gymnasts, baseline FFM was the most significant predictor of ΔWB BMD explaining 19.2% of the variability, while baseline RJ15s was the most significant predictor of ΔFN BMD explaining 18.5% of the variability. In untrained controls, baseline FM explained 51.8 and 18.9% of the variability in ΔWB BMD and ΔFN BMD, respectively. In conclusion, mechanical loading of high-intensity athletic activity had beneficial effect on BMD accrual in rhythmic gymnasts and may have counterbalanced such negative factors on bone development as slower pubertal maturation and lower body FM. Baseline FFM and repeated jumps test performance were related to BMD accrual in rhythmic gymnasts, while baseline FM was related to BMD accrual in untrained controls. Key points Sudy examined bone mineralization in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty and their age-matched untrained control girls, and associations with baseline jumping performance and body composition. Jumping performance and fat free mass values predicted bone mineral accrual in rhythmic gymnasts. Fat mass predicted bone mineral accrual in untrained control girls

  20. Maternal uniparental isodisomy of human chromosome 14 associated with a paternal t(13q14q) and precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, D J; Roux, A F; Waye, J; Freeman, V C; Cox, D W; Whelan, D T

    1996-01-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular investigation of a boy with precocious puberty and motor developmental delay revealed a 45,XY,t(14q14q) or i(14q) karyotype with no paternal chromosome 14 contribution. VNTR analysis of loci on four other chromosomes excluded non-paternity with greater than 99% confidence. Results of VNTR and CA repeat analyses of ten loci along the entire length of chromosome 14 were consistent with homozygosity at all loci, suggesting that the chromosomal rearrangement was a maternal isochromosome for 14q. As the proband's father had a balanced Robertsonian translocation, t(13q14q), we suggest that the origin of the maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) was fertilization by a nullisomy 14 sperm with formation of the isochromosome in the early embryo. Also, the proband has several clinical features in common with six previously reported liveborn cases of maternal UPD 14: hypotonia and motor developmental delay, mild dysmorphic facial features, low birth weight and growth abnormalities, and, more specifically, precocious puberty among the four cases old enough to assess. The emergence of a syndrome associated with maternal UPD 14 suggests the possibility of genomic imprinting of regions of chromosome 14, especially a gene involved in the onset of puberty.

  1. Expressions of hypothalamic KISS-1 and G protein-couple receptor 54 genes in female rats with precocious puberty%KISS-1和GPR54基因在雌性性早熟大鼠下丘脑中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛伟; 王海莲; 薛江

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate expressions of hypothalamic KISS-1 and G protein-couple receptor 54 (GPR54) genes in female rats with precocious puberty and their effects on development of precocious puberty. Methods Fifty 26-day-old female rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, the first experimental group, the second experimental group, the first control group, the second control group, and the third control group. Experimental groups received a subcutaneous injection of N-methyl-DL-aspartate acid (NMA) twice a day until vaginal opening(VO) occurred, while control groups received normal saline. Parameters of puberty were analyzed, including the day of VO, estrous cycle of the rat, index of the ovary, index of the uterus, incidence of the corpora lutea, thickness of the uterus and serum lutein-izing hormone(LH). Expressions of hypothalamic KISS-1 and GPR54 genes in the five groups were detected by Realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-FCR). Results The age of VO and first diestrus in experimental groups were earlier than in control groups(P<0.05). All parameters of puberty gradually increased with the development of puberty (P<0.05). In the same puberty developmental stage, parameters in experimental groups were not different from those in control groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Expressions of KISS-I and GPRS4 genes are associated with developmental stages of puberty, indicating that KISS-1 and GPR54 genes may play important roles in onset and development of true precocious puberty.%目的 研究KISS-1和GPR54基因在雌性性早熟大鼠下丘脑中的表达,探讨其在性早熟发生中的作用.方法 将雌性26日龄SD大鼠50只随机分为实验1组、实验2组、对照1组、对照2组、对照3组.实验组皮下注射N-甲基-D,L-天冬氨酸(NMA)每天2次直至阴道开放,对照组注射生理盐水,观察大鼠阴道开放时间及性周期,测量子宫指数、卵巢指教、卵巢黄体出现率、子宫壁厚度

  2. Female genital mutilation of a karyotypic male presenting as a female with delayed puberty

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    Gisselsson D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female genital mutilation (FGM is commonly practiced mainly in a belt reaching from East to West Africa north of the equator. The practice is known across socio-economic classes and among different ethnic, religious, and cultural groups. Few studies have been appropriately designed to measure the health effects of FGM. However, the outcome of FGM on intersex individuals has never been discussed before. Case presentation The patient first presented as a female with delayed puberty. Hormonal analysis revealed a normal serum prolactin level of 215 Mu/L, a low FSH of 0.5 Mu/L, and a low LH of 1.1 Mu/L. Type IV FGM (Pharaonic circumcision had been performed during childhood. Chromosomal analysis showed a 46, XY karyotype and ultrasonography verified a soft tissue structure in the position of the prostate. Conclusion FGM pose a threat to the diagnosis and management of children with abnormal genital development in the Sudan and similar societies.

  3. Consultation for Disordered Puberty: What Do Adolescent Medicine Patients Teach Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Ambresin, Anne-Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    The period of adolescence is not only marked by important growth and pubertal events, but is also characterized by important psychosocial changes driven by a search for autonomy and the construction of one's identity. It can thus be easily understood that puberty disorders interfere heavily with these process, requiring from the endocrinologist not only medical knowledge, but also a great deal of emotional and psychological skills. They must progressively move from an educational approach that heavily involves the parents to one of shared information and decision making that places the young patient at the center of the therapeutic process. This can be achieved in several ways: respecting the affective and cognitive development of the adolescent; securing his privacy and (if requested by him) confidentiality; exploring his self-image and self-esteem and adapting the therapeutic process to the patient's expectations; reviewing the teenager's lifestyle, including the issue of sexuality and sexual behavior, and involving him in any therapeutic choice that has to be made, even if it does not match with the parents' expectations. The skills required for this respectful and holistic follow-up often exceed the abilities of any physician; it is thus suggested that a team approach involving a clinical nurse and/or a psychologist and/or social worker(s) be set up whenever possible.

  4. Central Precocious Puberty: Treatment with Triptorelin 11.25 mg

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    Elena Chiocca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few data are available on quarterly 11.25 mg GnRH analog treatment in central precocious puberty (CPP. Aim. To assess the efficacy of triptorelin 11.25 mg in children with CPP. Patients. 17 patients (16 females with CPP (7.9±0.9 years were treated with triptorelin 11.25 mg/90 days. Methods. Gonadotropins, basal-, and GnRH-stimulated peak, gonadal steroids, and pubertal signs were assessed at preinclusion and at inclusion visit, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months of treatment. Results. At 3, 6, and 12 months, all patients had suppressed LH peak (<3 IU/L after GnRH stimulation, as well as prepubertal oestradiol levels. Mean LH peak values after GnRH test significantly decreased from 25.7±16.5 IU/L at baseline to 0.9±0.5 IU/L at M3 (<0.0001; they did not significantly changed at M6 and M12. Conclusions. Triptorelin 11.25 mg/90 days efficiently suppressed the pituitary-gonadal axis in children with CPP from first administration.

  5. Treatment of central precocious puberty by GnRH analogs:long-term outcome in men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvano Bertelloni; Dick Mul

    2008-01-01

    In boys, central precocious puberty (CPP) is the appearance of secondary sex characteristics driven by pituitary gonadotropin secretion before the age of 9 years. In the last years, relevant improvements in the treatment of CPP have been achieved. Because CPP is rare in boys, the majority of papers on this issue focus on girls and do not address specific features of male patients regarding end results and safety. In the present paper, recent advances of CPP management with GnRH analogs in men are summarized. End results in untreated and treated patients are also reviewed by an analysis of the recently published literature on treatment of CPP in men. The available data indicate that therapy with GnRH analogs can improve final height into the range of target height without significant adverse short-term and long-term effects, but longer follow-up of larger series of patients is still required to draw definitive conclusions. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 525-534)

  6. Factors influencing aggression toward females by male rats exposed to anabolic androgenic steroids during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2007-01-01

    Previous results showed that male rats pubertally exposed to anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) displayed aggression towards females in response to physical provocation. This experiment examined two factors that may modulate AAS-induced behavior towards females: olfactory cues and frustration. Gonadally intact males began one of three AAS treatments at puberty (D40): testosterone propionate (T), stanozolol (S), T+S, or vehicle control. To test for the relevance of olfactory cues in the elicitation of behavior toward females, a hidden neighbor paradigm was used. The proximal stimulus was an ovariectomized (OVX) female, estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) female, or an E+P female with tape-obstructed vagina (OBS). Distal olfactory cues from a hidden neighbor were delivered from a separate cage connected to the testing arena. The vaginally obstructed, sexually receptive female (OBS) was used to determine the effects of frustration on behavior by AAS males. Both sexual and aggressive behaviors were measured. The presence of distal olfactory cues had no effect on either sexual or aggressive behavior. In the presence of E+P and OBS females, all males displayed sex behaviors, not aggression. However, AAS males displayed significantly more aggression towards proximal OVX females than controls. AAS males mounted OBS females significantly more than controls, indicating a persistence of once rewarded behavior. These results suggest (1) proximal cues of the conspecific female are more salient than distal olfactory cues in determining behavior and (2) AAS males display frustration-induced persistence in response to vaginally obstructed receptive females.

  7. Adaptive reaction of boys’ sympathetic-adrenal system to physical activity in puberty.

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    Alekcei Anatolevich Zverev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of adaptive reactions of the sympathetic-adrenal system of 11-16-year-old boys to graduated exercise at different pubertal stages. To evaluate the functional state of the cardiovascular system, the heart rate, systolic and cardiac output were determined. The state of the sympathetic-adrenal system was analyzed by the excretion level of catecholamines and DOPA. Cardiac output in response to graduated exercise in boys at pubertal stages 1-2 is substantially ensured by the increased heart rate, and at the other stages of puberty - mainly due to increase in stroke volume, which is estimated as a favorable response to exercise. In mechanisms of urgent adaptation to graduated exercise, the boys of third and fourth pubertal stages show an intensive functioning of the cardiovascular system and a reducing reserve capacity of the sympathetic-adrenal system. The adolescents of fifth pubertal stage show economical response to functional tests, a reduced reactivity of the components of the sympathetic-adrenal system on the background of a significant increase in the excretion of precursors.

  8. Morphological changes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the rat preoptic area across puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haogang Xue; Xiaodong Gai; Weiqi Sun; Chun Li; Quan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the preoptic area may undergo mor-phological changes during the pubertal period when their activities are upregulated. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of puberty onset, this study aimed to investigate the morphological changes of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area of GnRH-enhanced green lfuorescent protein transgenic rats. Under confocal laser microscopy, pubertal GnRH neurons exhibited an inverted Y distribution pattern. Prepubertal GnRH neurons were generally unipolar and bipolar, and were distinguished as smooth type cells with few small processes or irregular type cells with many spine-like processes in the proximal dendrites. The number of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area and spine-like processes were increased during the course of reproductive matu-ration. There was no signiifcant difference between male and female rats. Immunolfuorescence staining revealed synaptophysin punctae close to the distal end of GnRH neurons, indicating that some presynaptic terminals may form a synaptic linkage with these neurons.

  9. Genetic associations between intelligence and cortical thickness emerge at the start of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; van Soelen, Inge L C; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Schnack, Hugo G; Ehli, Erik A; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-08-01

    Cognitive abilities are related to (changes in) brain structure during adolescence and adulthood. Previous studies suggest that associations between cortical thickness and intelligence may be different at different ages. As both intelligence and cortical thickness are heritable traits, the question arises whether the association between cortical thickness development and intelligence is due to genes influencing both traits. We study this association in a longitudinal sample of young twins. Intelligence was assessed by standard IQ tests at age 9 in 224 twins, 190 of whom also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three years later at age 12, 177/125 twins returned for a follow-up measurement of intelligence/MRI scanning, respectively. We investigated whether cortical thickness was associated with intelligence and if so, whether this association was driven by genes. At age 9, there were no associations between cortical thickness and intelligence. At age 12, a negative relationship emerged. This association was mainly driven by verbal intelligence, and manifested itself most prominently in the left hemisphere. Cortical thickness and intelligence were explained by the same genes. As a post hoc analysis, we tested whether a specific allele (rs6265; Val66Met in the BDNF gene) contributed to this association. Met carriers showed lower intelligence and a thicker cortex, but only the association between the BDNF genotype and cortical thickness in the left superior parietal gyrus reached significance. In conclusion, it seems that brain areas contributing to (verbal) intellectual performance are specializing under the influence of genes around the onset of puberty.

  10. Experience of office hysteroscopy for diagnostics of abnormal uterine bleeding causes in puberty girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezhanishvili Е.М.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to prove the role of office hysteroscopy as an important additional method in diagnostics of puberty abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB. Material and methods. The study involved 68 patients with AUB. The average age was 13.4 years (10-17 years. The main complaint of patients concerned bleeding from genital tract during 10-45 days (on an average 28.4 days. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the type of AUB determined based on the level of serum estradiol, physical and sexual development, internal genitalia ultrasound data: 35 hypo estrogenic girls, 24 girls with normal estrogenic and 9 girls with hyper estrogenic type of AUB. All of the girls took the office hysteroscopy. Results. When performing hysteroscopy it was revealed that there were a clear relationship between the degree of estrogenic saturation and visual picture obtained in the course of the study. Conclusion. Hysteroscopy enables maximum visualization of uterine cavity, which allows to verify the diagnosis, to reduce the "over diagnosis" rate of organic pathology, perform a differentiated approach to treatment of diseases, based on determination of estradiol level in serum and data obtained in the study.

  11. 儿童肿瘤相关性早熟的病因和临床特征分析%Etiological analysis of children with tumor -associated precocious puberty and its clinical characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞智东; 宁旦

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:To investigate and analyze children with tumor -associated precocious puberty and its clinical characteristics.Methods:40 children with tumor -associated precocious puberty in our hospital from January 201 3 to January 201 4 were selected as research subjects.Comprehensive analysis was conducted based on hormone level detection,breast development,testicular volume,penis length and their clinical manifestations and treatment status,to summarize the etiology and clinical characteristics of children with tumor -associated precocious puberty.Results:The experimental results showed that gender had no effect on tumor -associated precocious pu-berty,and hypothalamic hamartomas was the most common cause,with peripheral precocious puberty being the main form.The clinical characteristics of male patients were genital development,and for female children,breast devel-opment and vaginal bleeding were initial features.Conclusion:Tumor is one of the important causes leading to pre-cocious puberty,and hypothalamic hamartoma is the most common type of tumor.Therefore,attention should be paid to the development of children’s endocrine organs,as well as the diagnosis of rare tumor,for comprehensive diagnosis and timely prevention.%目的:探讨分析儿童肿瘤相关性早熟的病因及临床特征。方法:筛选2013年1月至2014年1月我院收治的肿瘤相关性早熟患儿40例作为研究对象。通过对其进行激素水平检测、乳房发育、睾丸容积、阴茎长度结合临床表现及治疗情况进行综合分析,总结儿童肿瘤相关性早熟的病因及临床特征。结果:本组实验结果表明性别对儿童肿瘤相关性早熟无影响,病因以下丘脑错构瘤较为多见,并且以外周性早熟为主要性早熟形式,其中男患儿以肾上腺皮质肿瘤、女患儿以卵巢囊肿致性早熟居多;临床特征分析中男患儿均以外生殖器发育,女患儿以乳房发育、阴道出血等为首发特征

  12. Combined therapy with GnRH analog plus growth hormone in central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucarelli, I; Segni, M; Ortore, M; Moretti, A; Iannaccone, R; Pasquino, A M

    2000-07-01

    GnRH analogues (GnRHa) arrest pubertal development, and slow growth velocity (GV) and bone maturation, thus improving adult height in central precocious puberty (CPP). In some patients, however, GV decreases to such an extent that it compromises the improvement in predicted adult height (PAH) and therefore the addition of GH is suggested. Of 20 patients with idiopathic CPP (treated with GnRHa [depot-triptorelin] at a dose of 100 microg/kg every 21 days i.m. for at least 2-3 yr) whose GV fell below the 25th percentile for chronological age (CA), ten received, in addition to the GnRHa, GH at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg/wk, s.c. 6 days weekly, for 2-4 yr. Ten patients matched for BA, CA, and duration of GnRHa treatment who showed the same growth pattern but refused GH treatment, served to evaluate the efficacy of the addition of GH. No patient showed classical GH deficiency. Both groups discontinued treatment at a comparable BA (mean +/- SEM): 13.2 +/- 0.2 yr in GnRHa + GH vs 13.0 +/- 0.1 yr in the control group. At the conclusion of the study all the patients had achieved adult height. Adult height was considered to be attained when the growth during the preceding year was less than 1 cm, with a BA of over 15 yr. Patients of the group treated with GH + GnRHa showed an adult height significantly higher (p<0.001) than pretreatment PAH (160.6 +/- 1.3 vs 152.7 +/- 1.7 cm). Height SDS for BA significantly increased from -1.5 +/- 0.2 at start of GnRHa to -0.21 +/- 0.2 at adult height (p<0.001). Target height was significantly exceeded. The GnRH alone treated group reached an adult height not significantly higher than pretreatment PAH (157.1 +/- 2.5 vs 155.5 +/- 1.9 cm). Height SDS for BA did not change (from -1.0 +/- 0.3 at start of GnRHa to -0.7 +/- 0.4 at adult height). Target height was just reached but not significantly exceeded. The gain in centimeters obtained calculated between pretreatment PAH and final height was 7.9 +/- 1.1 cm in patients treated with GH combined with Gn

  13. Time course of altered sensitivity to inhibitory and excitatory agonist responses in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus and analgesia in the guinea pig after chronic morphine treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance that develops after chronic morphine exposure has been proposed to be an adaptive response that develops and decays over a defined time course. The present study examined the development of tolerance to the acute hypothermic and analgesic effects of morphine and correlated the time course for the desensitization in vivo with the reduced responsiveness to DAMGO and 2-CADO and increased responsiveness to nicotine of the longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus (LM/MP) preparation in vitr...

  14. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children's ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children's ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers.

  15. Age, gender and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate eLawrence

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognise simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modelled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children’s ability to recognise facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers.

  16. Leptin’s effect on puberty in mice is relayed by the ventral premammillary nucleus and does not require signaling in Kiss1 neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Jose; Cravo, Roberta M.; Frazão, Renata; Gautron, Laurent; Scott, Michael M.; Lachey, Jennifer; Castro, Inar A.; Margatho, Lisandra O.; Lee, Syann; Lee, Charlotte; Richardson, James A.; Friedman, Jeffrey; Chua, Streamson; Coppari, Roberto; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Elmquist, Joel K.; Elias, Carol F.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in humans and rodents indicate that a minimum amount of stored energy is required for normal pubertal development. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is a key metabolic signal to the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. Humans and mice lacking leptin or the leptin receptor (LepR) (ob/ob and db/db mice, respectively) are infertile and fail to enter puberty. Leptin administration to leptin-deficient subjects and ob/ob mice induces puberty and restores fertility, but the exact site or sites of leptin action are unclear. Here, we found that genetic deletion of LepR selectively from hypothalamic Kiss1 neurons in mice had no effect on puberty or fertility, indicating that direct leptin signaling in Kiss1 neurons is not required for these processes. However, bilateral lesions of the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of ob/ob mice blunted the ability of exogenous leptin to induce sexual maturation. Moreover, unilateral reexpression of endogenous LepR in PMV neurons was sufficient to induce puberty and improve fertility in female LepR-null mice. This LepR reexpression also normalized the increased hypothalamic GnRH content characteristic of leptin-signaling deficiency. These data suggest that the PMV is a key site for leptin’s permissive action at the onset of puberty and support the hypothesis that the multiple actions of leptin to control metabolism and reproduction are anatomically dissociated. PMID:21183787

  17. Genetic variability of the length of postpartum anoestrus in Charolais cows and its relationship with age at puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ménissier François

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fertility records (n = 1 802 were collected from 615 Charolais primiparous and multiparous cows managed in an experimental herd over an 11-year period. The objectives of the study were to describe the genetic variability of the re-establishment of postpartum reproductive activity and the relationship with body weight (BW and body condition score (BCS at calving and age at puberty. The length of postpartum anoestrus was estimated based on weekly blood progesterone assays and on twice daily detection of oestrus behaviour. The first oestrus behaviour was observed 69 days (± 25 days s.d. post-calving and the first positive progesterone measurement (≥ 1 ng mL-1 was observed at 66 days (± 22 days s.d. for the group of easy-calving multiparous suckling cows. Estimates of heritability and repeatability were h2 = 0.12 and r = 0.38 respectively, for the interval from calving to first oestrus (ICO. Corresponding values were h2 = 0.35 and r = 0.60 for the interval from calving to the first positive progesterone test (ICP. The genetic correlation between both criteria was high (rg = 0.98. The genetic relationships between postpartum intervals and BW and BCS of the female at calving were negative: the genetic aptitude to be heavier at calving and to have high body reserves was related to shorter postpartum intervals. A favourable genetic correlation between age at puberty and postpartum intervals was found (rg between 0.45 and 0.70. The heifers which were genetically younger at puberty also had shorter postpartum intervals.

  18. The Timing of Multiple Retrieval Events Can Alter GluR1 Phosphorylation and the Requirement for Protein Synthesis in Fear Memory Reconsolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarome, Timothy J.; Kwapis, Janine L.; Werner, Craig T.; Parsons, Ryan G.; Gafford, Georgette M.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that maintaining a fear memory after retrieval requires de novo protein synthesis. However, no study to date has examined how the temporal dynamics of repeated retrieval events affect this protein synthesis requirement. The present study varied the timing of a second retrieval of an established auditory fear memory…

  19. Temperature cycle amplitude alters the adult eclosion time and expression pattern of the circadian clock gene period in the onion fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yosuke; Watari, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Goto, Shin G

    2016-03-01

    Soil temperature cycles are considered to play an important role in the entrainment of circadian clocks of underground insects. However, because of the low conductivity of soil, temperature cycles are gradually dampened and the phase of the temperature cycle is delayed with increasing soil depth. The onion fly, Delia antiqua, pupates at various soil depths, and its eclosion is timed by a circadian clock. This fly is able to compensate for the depth-dependent phase delay of temperature change by advancing the eclosion time with decreasing amplitude of the temperature cycle. Therefore, pupae can eclose at the appropriate time irrespective of their location at any depth. However, the mechanism that regulates eclosion time in response to temperature amplitude is still unknown. To understand whether this mechanism involves the circadian clock or further downstream physiological processes, we examined the expression patterns of period (per), a circadian clock gene, of D. antiqua under temperature cycles that were square wave cycles of 12-h warm phase (W) and 12-h cool phase (C) with the temperature difference of 8 °C (WC 29:21 °C) and 1 °C (WC 25.5:24.5 °C). The phase of oscillation in per expression was found to commence 3.5h earlier under WC 25.5:24.5 °C as compared to WC 29:21 °C. This difference was in close agreement with the eclosion time difference between the two temperature cycles, suggesting that the mechanism that responds to the temperature amplitude involves the circadian clock.

  20. Clinical Analysis of Ovarian Tumor in Puberty%青春期卵巢肿瘤临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2015-01-01

    目的 探析青春期卵巢肿瘤的临床特点. 方法 随机选择2013年3月—2014年3月期间该院收治的青春期卵巢肿瘤患者50例为研究对象,对其临床治疗资料进行回顾性分析. 结果 50例青春期卵巢肿瘤患者中,45例为良性肿瘤,占90%,其中行卵巢囊肿剥除术患者40例,行患侧附件切除术者5例;5例为恶性肿瘤,占10%,均行生育功能保留手术. 结论 青春期卵巢肿瘤大部分均为良性,主要为生殖细胞肿瘤,应该进一步强化青春期女性的自我保健意识,定期到医院进行妇科B超检查,从而更好地预防肿瘤.%Objective To study the clinical characteristics of ovarian tumor in puberty. Methods 50 patients with ovarian tumor in puberty in our hospital from March 2013 to March 2014 were selected as the research object, and the clinical data were retrospec-tively analyzed. Results In the 50 patients, 45 were found with benign tumors, accounting for 90%, and 40 of them underwent oophorocystectomy and 5 received unilateral adnexectomy; 5 were found with malignant tumors, accounting for 10%, and under-went fertility-sparing surgery. Conclusion Ovarian tumor in puberty mostly is benign germ cell tumor. Females in Puberty should further strengthen the consciousness of self health care and receive gynecological B ultrasound examination regularly so as to better prevent tumor.

  1. Ovarian and uterine characteristics and onset of puberty in adolescent offspring: effects of maternal diet and selenium supplementation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Neville, Tammi L; Borowczyk, Ewa; Sharma, Akanksha; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Caton, Joel S; Redmer, Dale A; Vonnahme, Kimberly A

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal diet with adequate (A) or high (H) selenium (Se) supplementation on ovarian and uterine characteristics, and onset of puberty in adolescent offspring. Sheep were fed a maintenance (M) diet with ASe or HSe levels from breeding to parturition. From Day 50 to parturition, a portion of the ewes from ASe and HSe groups was fed restricted (R, 60% of M) or excess (E, 140% of M) diet. Immediately after birth, lambs were separated from their dams and given artificial colostrum for 20 hours, followed by milk replacer. From Day 57.3 ± 0.6, ewe lambs were fed a pelleted grower diet until Day 116.3 ± 0.6 when they were transitioned to a finisher diet. From Day 99 to 180, serum samples were collected weekly from jugular vein for progesterone analysis to determine onset of puberty. Reproductive tissues were collected on Day 180.1 ± 0.4 of age. Maternal diet or Se supplementation did not affect uterine or ovarian weight and onset of puberty. However, area under the curve for progesterone was greater (P = 0.05) in ASe compared with HSe groups, and was greater in ASeM than HSeM group. In CLs, labeling index (LI; a proportion of proliferating cells) was less (P < 0.04) in HSeM than ASeM group, and in stroma was less (P < 0.05) in R and E groups than M group. Maternal diet did not affect the LI of any follicle types. For all groups combined, LI was the greatest (P < 0.001) in antral, less in early antral and secondary, and the least in atretic follicles. Our results demonstrate that maternal diet influenced ovarian but not uterine characteristics or onset of puberty. These results indicate that maternal plane of nutrition and/or Se supplementation may have specific effects on reproductive function in offspring.

  2. Effect of a postnatal high-fat diet exposure on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Maria Elena Klibo; Overgaard, Agnete; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, plays a key role in pubertal maturation and reproduction as a positive upstream regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To examine the role of high-fat diet (HFD) on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression, female rats...... were exposed to HFD in distinct postnatal periods. Three groups of rats were exposed to HFD containing 60% energy from fat during the pre-weaning period (postnatal day (PND) 1-16, HFD PND 1-16), post-weaning period (HFD PND 21-34), or during both periods (HFD PND 1-34). Puberty onset, evaluated...... that postnatal HFD exposure induced irregular estrous cycles, but had no effect on puberty onset or kisspeptin....

  3. Early pituitary-gonadal activation before clinical signs of puberty in 5- to 8-year-old adopted girls: a study of 99 foreign adopted girls and 93 controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete Katrine; Boas, Malene; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Clinical studies including a contemporary control group are lacking.......Recent studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Clinical studies including a contemporary control group are lacking....

  4. Kisspeptin-GPR54-GnRH神经元轴在雌性大鼠中枢性性早熟中的作用%Effect of Kisspeptin-GPR54-GnRH neuron axis in central precocious puberty of female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海莲; 葛伟; 薛江

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨Kisspeptin-GPR54 -GnRH神经元轴在雌性大鼠中枢性性早熟(CPP)中的作用.方法 选择雌性SD大鼠50只,随机分为对照1组(正常青春前期)、对照2组(正常青春早期)、对照3组(正常青春中期)、实验1组(性早熟青春早期)、实验2组(性早熟青春中期)各10只.实验组皮下注射N-甲基-DL-天冬氨酸(NMA)建立CPP模型.观察各组阴道开放时间及性周期,测量其子宫指数、卵巢指数、卵巢黄体出现个数、子宫壁厚度和血清黄体生成素;用Real-Time RT-PCR法检测下丘脑中的KISS-1 mRNA、GPR54 mRNA、促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH) mRNA表达;在电镜下观察各组下丘脑内分泌神经元的超微结构.结果 实验组性发育起始时间早于对照组,实验组各检查指标明显高于对照1组(P均<0.05),实验1组与对照2组、实验2组与对照3组比较均无统计学差异.随着青春期发育,实验组和对照组大鼠下丘脑中KISS-1 mRNA、GPR54 mRNA、GnRH mRNA表达均逐渐升高,下丘脑内分泌神经元代谢逐渐活跃,分泌旺盛.结论 应用NMA可建立理想的雌性大鼠CPP模型,随着大鼠青春期发育,其下丘脑中的KISS-1 mRNA、GPR54 mRNA、GnRH mRNA表达逐渐升高;提示Kisspeptin-GPR54-GnRH神经元轴在CPP的发生、发展中起重要作用.%Objective To study the effect of Kisspeptin-GPR54-GnRH neuron axis in central precocious puberty (CPP) of female rats. Methods Fifty female rats were randomly assigned to five groups, the first control group (normal prepuberty) , the second control group (early phase of normal puberty) , the third control group (metaphase of normal puberty) , the first experimental group (early phase of precocious puberty), the second experimental group (metaphase of precocious puberty) , ten rats in each group. Experimental group received subcutaneous injection of N-methyl-DL-aspartale acid (NMA) in order to establish the central precocious puberty model. The vaginal open and

  5. 儿童肥胖与性早熟的研究进展%Research progress of childhood obesity and precocious puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤箫萌; 单川; 沈秀华

    2012-01-01

    自20世纪60年代起,儿童性早熟的发病率与儿童肥胖率呈连年上升趋势.专家指出儿童肥胖与性早熟确实存在关联.研究发现肥胖女童的性早熟发病率显著高于正常体质量女童;但在男童方面,情况较为复杂.瘦素被认为是儿童肥胖与性早熟的纽带因素,其与肥胖儿童性早熟关系的相关研究也有较多报道.该文就儿童肥胖与性早熟的研究进展作一综述.%Since 1960s, the prevalences of precocious puberty and childhood obesity have been rising, and it has been pointed out by many experts that childhood obesity may be relevant with precocious puberty. Some studies have revealed that the prevalence of precocious puberty in obese girls is significantly higher than that in girls with normal body weight. However, the results are complicated when it comes to boys. Leptin may be one of the links between childhood obesity and precocious puberty, and there have been many reports about its relationship with precocious puberty in children with obesity. The research progress of childhood obesity and precocious puberty is reviewed in this paper.

  6. Central neuropeptide Y receptors are involved in 3rd ventricular ghrelin induced alteration of colonic transit time in conscious fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritter Michael

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding related peptides have been shown to be additionally involved in the central autonomic control of gastrointestinal functions. Recent studies have shown that ghrelin, a stomach-derived orexigenic peptide, is involved in the autonomic regulation of GI function besides feeding behavior. Pharmacological evidence indicates that ghrelin effects on food intake are mediated by neuropeptide Y in the central nervous system. Methods In the present study we examine the role of ghrelin in the central autonomic control of GI motility using intracerobroventricular and IP microinjections in a freely moving conscious rat model. Further the hypothesis that a functional relationship between NPY and ghrelin within the CNS exists was addressed. Results ICV injections of ghrelin (0.03 nmol, 0.3 nmol and 3.0 nmol/5 μl and saline controls decreased the colonic transit time up to 43%. IP injections of ghrelin (0.3 nmol – 3.0 nmol kg-1 BW and saline controls decreased colonic transit time dose related. Central administration of the NPY1 receptor antagonist, BIBP-3226, prior to centrally or peripherally administration of ghrelin antagonized the ghrelin induced stimulation of colonic transit. On the contrary ICV-pretreatment with the NPY2 receptor antagonist, BIIE-0246, failed to modulate the ghrelin induced stimulation of colonic motility. Conclusion The results suggest that ghrelin acts in the central nervous system to modulate gastrointestinal motor function utilizing NPY1 receptor dependent mechanisms.

  7. Pubertal bisphenol A exposure alters murine mammary stem cell function leading to early neoplasia in regenerated glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danhan; Gao, Hui; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Wu, Anqi; Yeh, I-Tien; Chen, Yidong; Zou, Yi; Huang, Changjiang; Walter, Christi A; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2014-04-01

    Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to cause aberrant mammary gland morphogenesis and mammary neoplastic transformation. Yet, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that mammary glands exposed to BPA during a susceptible window may lead to its susceptibility to tumorigenesis through a stem cell-mediated mechanism. We exposed 21-day-old Balb/c mice to BPA by gavage (25 μg/kg/d) during puberty for 3 weeks, and a subset of animals were further challenged with one oral dose (30 mg/kg) of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) at 2 months of age. Primary mammary cells were isolated at 6 weeks, and 2 and 4 months of age for murine mammary stem cell (MaSC) quantification and function analysis. Pubertal exposure to the low-dose BPA increased lateral branches and hyperplasia in adult mammary glands and caused an acute increase of MaSC in 6-week-old glands and a delayed increase of luminal progenitors in 4-month-old adult gland. Most importantly, pubertal BPA exposure altered the function of MaSC from different age groups, causing early neoplastic lesions in their regenerated glands similar to those induced by DMBA exposure, which indicates that MaSCs are susceptible to BPA-induced transformation. Deep sequencing analysis on MaSC-enriched mammospheres identified a set of aberrantly expressed genes associated with early neoplastic lesions in patients with human breast cancer. Thus, our study for the first time shows that pubertal BPA exposure altered MaSC gene expression and function such that they induced early neoplastic transformation.

  8. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein 3 levels are increased in central precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Nielsen, C T;

    1995-01-01

    Central precocious puberty (CPP) is characterized by early activation of the pituitary-gonadal axis, which leads to increased growth velocity and development of secondary sexual characteristics. It is generally believed that gonadal sex steroids stimulate pulsatile GH secretion, which, in turn......, stimulates insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) production. However, little is known about GH, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 serum levels in children with precocious puberty. Treatment of CPP by GnRH agonists has become the treatment of choice. However, the effect of long term...

  9. Pathological and incidental findings on brain MRI in a single-center study of 229 consecutive girls with early or precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette;

    2012-01-01

    Central precocious puberty may result from organic brain lesions, but is most frequently of idiopathic origin. Clinical or biochemical factors which could predict a pathological brain MRI in girls with CPP have been searched for. With the recent decline in age at pubertal onset among US and Europ......Central precocious puberty may result from organic brain lesions, but is most frequently of idiopathic origin. Clinical or biochemical factors which could predict a pathological brain MRI in girls with CPP have been searched for. With the recent decline in age at pubertal onset among US...

  10. Perceiving control over aversive and fearful events can alter how we experience those events: an investigation of time perception in spider-fearful individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eBuetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We used a time perception task to study the effects of the subjective experience of control on emotion and cognitive processing. This task is uniquely sensitive to the emotionality of the stimuli: high-arousing negative stimuli are perceived as lasting longer than high-arousing positive events, while the opposite pattern is observed for low-arousing stimuli. We evaluated the temporal distortions of emotionally-charged events in non-anxious (Experiments 1 and 5 and spider-fearful individuals (Experiments 2-4. Participants were shown images of varying durations between 400 and 1600 ms and were asked to report if the perceived duration of the image seemed closer to a short (400 ms or to a long (1600 ms standard duration. Our results replicate previous findings showing that the emotional content of the image modulated the perceived duration of that image. More importantly, we studied whether giving participants the illusion that they have some control over the emotional content of the images could eliminate this temporal distortion. Results confirmed this hypothesis, even though our participant population was composed of highly-reactive emotional individuals (spider fearful facing fear-related images (spiders. Further, we also showed that under conditions of little-to-no control, spider-fearful individuals perceive temporal distortions in a distinct manner from non-anxious participants: the duration of events was entirely determined by the valence of the events, rather than by the typical valence x arousal interaction. That is, spider-fearful participants perceived negative events as lasting longer than positive events, regardless of their level of arousal. Finally, we also showed that under conditions of cognitive dissonance, control can eliminate temporal distortions of low arousal events, but not of high-arousing events, providing an important boundary condition to the otherwise positive effects of control on time estimation.

  11. Factors to predict positive results of gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test in girls with suspected precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Rhie, Young Jun; Son, Chang Sung; Park, Sang Hee; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2012-02-01

    Sometimes, the clinical findings and the results of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test are inconsistent in girls with early breast development and bone age advancement. We aimed to investigate the factors predicting positive results of the GnRH stimulation test in girls with suspected central precocious puberty (CPP). We reviewed the records of 574 girls who developed breast budding before the age of 8 yr and underwent the GnRH stimulation test under the age of 9 yr. Positive results of the GnRH stimulated peak luteinizing hormone (LH) level were defined as 5 IU/L and over. Girls with the initial positive results (n = 375) showed accelerated growth, advanced bone age and higher serum basal LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol levels, compared to those with the initial negative results (n = 199). Girls with the follow-up positive results (n = 64) showed accelerated growth and advanced bone age, compared to those with the follow-up negative results. In the binary logistic regression, the growth velocity ratio was the most significant predictive factor of positive results. We suggest that the rapid growth velocity is the most useful predictive factor for positive results in the GnRH stimulation test in girls with suspected precocious puberty.

  12. Neural systems supporting cognitive-affective interactions in adolescence: The role of puberty and implications for affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile D. Ladouceur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that adolescence may represent a period of vulnerability that, in the context of adverse events, could contribute to developmental trajectories toward behavioral and emotional health problems, including affective disorders. Adolescence is also a sensitive period for the development of neural systems supporting cognitive-affective processes, which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders such as anxiety and mood disorders. In particular, the onset of puberty brings about a cascade of physical, hormonal, psychological, and social changes that contribute in complex ways to the development of these systems. This article provides a brief overview of neuroimaging research pertaining to the development of cognitive-affective processes in adolescence. It also includes a brief review of evidence from animal and human neuroimaging studies suggesting that sex steroids influence the connectivity between prefrontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions in ways that contribute to increased reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli. We integrate these findings in the context of a developmental affective neuroscience framework suggesting that the impact of rising levels of sex steroids during puberty on fronto-limbic connectivity may be even greater in the context of protracted development of prefrontal cortical regions in adolescence. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for future research aimed at identifying neurodevelopmental markers of risk for future onset of affective disorders.

  13. The Effect of Puberty on Interaction between Vitamin D Status and Insulin Resistance in Obese Asian-Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Khadgawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of puberty on the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and parameters of insulin kinetics in obese Asian-Indian children. Material and Methods. The study population included 62 obese Asian-Indian children and adolescents in the age group of 6–17 years. Blood glucose, serum insulin, and serum 25(OHD were measured. Total body fat was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Indices of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, AUC for insulin and sensitivity (WBISI were calculated after oral glucose tolerance test. Result. A total of 62 subjects (35 boys; mean age = 13.0 ± 3 years; BMI = 29.3 ± 4.8 kg/sq M; 19 subjects in Tanner stage 1, 11 in stage 2, 6 in stage 3, 3 in stage 4, and 23 subjects in Tanner stage 5 were studied. All study subjects were vitamin D deficient with a mean serum 25(OHD of 8.5 ± 4.2 ng/mL. No significant relationship was observed between serum 25(OHD and parameters of insulin kinetics in prepubertal children. However, a significant inverse correlation was seen between serum 25(OHD and HOMAIR (=−0.41, =0.03 in postpubertal subjects. Conclusion. The relationship between vitamin D status and parameters of insulin kinetics are affected by puberty.

  14. Time-dependent alterations in growth, photosynthetic pigments and enzymatic defense systems of submerged Ceratophyllum demersum during exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Mi-Hee; Pflugmacher, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.pflugmacher@tu-berlin.de

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •We examined time-dependent metabolic changes in C. demersum exposed to anatoxin-a. •Biotransformation and antioxidative defense mechanisms responded positively to anatoxin-a. •Decline in chlorophylls contents was detected in company with irreversible plant growth inhibition during exposure to anatoxin-a. •Anatoxin-a exhibits phytotoxic allelopathy by provoking oxidative stress. •Macrophytes may have interactions with anatoxin-a in aquatic environments. -- Abstract: Recently, aquatic macrophytes have been considered as promising tools for eco-friendly water management with a low running cost. However, only little information is available thus far regarding the metabolic capacity of macrophytes for coping with cyanobacterial toxins (cyanotoxins) in the aquatic environment. Cyanotoxins have become emerging contaminants of great concern due to the high proliferation of cyanobacteria (cyanobacterial bloom) accelerated by eutrophication and climate change. Anatoxin-a, one of the common and major cyanotoxins, is suggested as a high priority water pollutant for regulatory consideration owing to its notoriously rapid mode of action as a neurotoxin. In this study, the time-course metabolic regulation of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) was investigated during exposure to anatoxin-a at an environmentally relevant concentration (15 μg/L). Biotransformation and antioxidative systems in C. demersum responded positively to anatoxin-a through the promoted synthesis of most of the involved enzymes within 8 h. Maximum enzyme activities were exhibited after 24 or 48 h of exposure to anatoxin-a. However, an apparent decline in enzyme activities was also observed at longer exposure duration (168 and 336 h) in company with high steady-state levels of cell internal H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which showed its highest level after 48 h. Meanwhile, irreversible inhibitory influence on chlorophyll content (vitality) was noticed, whereas the ratio of

  15. Puberdade e maturidade sexual em touros jovens da raça Simental, criados sob regime extensivo em clima tropical Puberty and sexual maturity in young Simmental bulls, raised under pasture conditions in a tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires Miranda Neto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a idade à puberdade e maturidade sexual e sua relação com peso corporal e mensurações testiculares em tourinhos da raça Simental criados sob regime extensivo em clima tropical. Utilizaram-se 44 tourinhos com 1 a 30 meses de idade. As mensurações corporais e testiculares foram feitas mensalmente e os ejaculados coletados quinzenalmente, a partir dos seis meses de idade, utilizando-se o método de eletroejaculação. Observou-se idade à puberdade aos 13,42 ± 3,02 meses e maturidade sexual aos 21,43 ± 6,6 meses de idade, com peso corporal e perímetro escrotal, respectivamente, de 324,2 ± 23,7 kg e 26,90 ± 1,41 cm para a puberdade e 360 ± 69,04 kg e 34,88 ± 3,9 cm para maturidade sexual. Este estudo revelou idade tardia para a cronologia dos eventos reprodutivos, com relação direta do tipo de manejo adotado.The objective of this study was to determine the age at puberty and sexual maturity and its relationship with body weight and testicular measurements in Simmental young bulls raised under pasture conditions in a tropical climate. Forty-four young bulls at 1 to 30 months of age were used. Body and testicular measurements were made monthly and ejaculates collected fortnightly, from six months of age by using the method of electroejaculation. Age at puberty was 13.42 ± 3.02 months and sexual maturity was observed at 21.43 ± 6.6 months of age, with body weight and scrotal circumference of 324.2 ± 23.7 kg and 26.90 ± 1.41 cm for puberty and 360 ± 69.04 kg and 34.88 ± 3.9 cm to sexual maturity, respectively. This study found late age to the timing of reproductive events, with direct relation to the type of management adopted.

  16. Dose- and time-dependent gene expression alterations in prostate and colon cancer cells after in vitro exposure to carbon ion and X-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetens, Annelies; Moreels, Marjan; Quintens, Roel; Soors, Els; Buset, Jasmine; Chiriotti, Sabina; Tabury, Kevin; Gregoire, Vincent; Baatout, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Hadrontherapy is an advanced form of radiotherapy that uses beams of charged particles (such as protons and carbon ions). Compared with conventional radiotherapy, the main advantages of carbon ion therapy are the precise absorbed dose localization, along with an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE). This high ballistic accuracy of particle beams deposits the maximal dose to the tumor, while damage to the surrounding healthy tissue is limited. Currently, hadrontherapy is being used for the treatment of specific types of cancer. Previous in vitro studies have shown that, under certain circumstances, exposure to charged particles may inhibit cell motility and migration. In the present study, we investigated the expression of four motility-related genes in prostate (PC3) and colon (Caco-2) cancer cell lines after exposure to different radiation types. Cells were irradiated with various absorbed doses (0, 0.5 and 2 Gy) of accelerated (13)C-ions at the GANIL facility (Caen, France) or with X-rays. Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the RBE. RT-qPCR analysis showed dose- and time-dependent changes in the expression of CCDC88A, FN1, MYH9 and ROCK1 in both cell lines. However, whereas in PC3 cells the response to carbon ion irradiation was enhanced compared with X-irradiation, the effect was the opposite in Caco-2 cells, indicating cell-type-specific responses to the different radiation types.

  17. Gender specific associations between early puberty and behavioral and emotional characteristics in children%青春发动时相提前与心理行为问题关联性的性别差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽; 郭欣; 张静; 刘亨辉; 许韶君; 许媛媛; 陶芳标

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the gender specific association between early puberty and behavioral and emotional characteristics in children.Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted among the girls in grade 2-3,boys in grade 3-4 and both girls and boys in grade 7-8 selected through cluster sampling in 2 middle schools and 2 primary schools in Beijing and Shenyang respectively in November 2014.The questionnaire contents included general information,physical activity and video time,pubertal development scale (PDS) and strength and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ).Descriptive statistics were used to describe the prevalence of early puberty and the detection rate of abnormal behavioral problems.The effects of early puberty on behavioral and emotional problems were estimated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.The odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated.Results A total of 3 253 complete questionnaires were collected,the prevalence of early puberty was 15.9% (518).The detection rate (number) of abnormal emotional symptoms,conduct problems,hyperactivity/inattention,peer relationship problems,pro-social behaviors and total difficulties were 8.3% (269),9.1% (297),6.5% (211),16.4% (534),9.2% (299) and 13.8%(448) respectively.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that early puberty was the risk factor for conduct problems (OR=2.260,95%CI:1.322-3.863) and hyperactivity/inattention (OR=1.980,95% CI:1.111-3.527) in the girls,and early puberty was risk factor for total difficulties in boys (95%CI:1.018-2.063).Conclusions Early puberty might increase the risk of conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention in girls and increase the risk of total difficulties in boys.It is important to conduct gender specific psychological intervention among adolescents for improving their physical and mental health.%目的 探讨青少年青春发动时相提前与心理行为问题

  18. Muscular Dystrophies at Different Ages: Metabolic and Endocrine Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana del Rocío Cruz Guzmán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Common metabolic and endocrine alterations exist across a wide range of muscular dystrophies. Skeletal muscle plays an important role in glucose metabolism and is a major participant in different signaling pathways. Therefore, its damage may lead to different metabolic disruptions. Two of the most important metabolic alterations in muscular dystrophies may be insulin resistance and obesity. However, only insulin resistance has been demonstrated in myotonic dystrophy. In addition, endocrine disturbances such as hypogonadism, low levels of testosterone, and growth hormone have been reported. This eventually will result in consequences such as growth failure and delayed puberty in the case of childhood dystrophies. Other consequences may be reduced male fertility, reduced spermatogenesis, and oligospermia, both in childhood as well as in adult muscular dystrophies. These facts all suggest that there is a need for better comprehension of metabolic and endocrine implications for muscular dystrophies with the purpose of developing improved clinical treatments and/or improvements in the quality of life of patients with dystrophy. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe the current knowledge about of metabolic and endocrine alterations in diverse types of dystrophinopathies, which will be divided into two groups: childhood and adult dystrophies which have different age of onset.

  19. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Alters Left Ventricular Function and Activates Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-kB in a Time and Dose Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Y. Hargrave

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is an illicit psychoactive drug with cardiovascular effects that have not been fully described. In the current study, we observed the effects of acute MDMA on rabbit left ventricular function. We also observed the effects of MDMA on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB activity in cultured rat ventricular myocytes (H9c2. In the rabbit, MDMA (2 mg/kg alone caused a significant increase in heart rate and a significant decrease in the duration of the cardiac cycle. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS by pretreatment with L-NAME (10 mg/kg alone caused significant dysfunction in heart rate, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, duration of relaxation, duration of cardiac cycle, and mean left ventricular pressure. Pretreatment with L-NAME followed by treatment with MDMA caused significant dysfunction in additional parameters that were not abnormal upon exposure to either compound in isolation: duration of contraction, inotropy, and pulse pressure. Exposure to 1.0 mM MDMA for 6 h or 2.0 mM MDMA for 12 h caused increased nuclear localization of NF-kB in cultured H9c2 cells. The current results suggest that MDMA is acutely detrimental to heart function and that an intact cardiovascular NOS system is important to help mitigate early sequelae in some functional parameters. The delayed timing of NF-kB activation suggests that this factor may be relevant to MDMA induced cardiomyopathy of later onset.

  20. Short communication: Field fertility in Holstein bulls: Can type of breeding strategy (artificial insemination following estrus versus timed artificial insemination) alter service sire fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Carvalho, P D; Rivera, H; Cabrera, V; Wiltbank, M C; Baruselli, P S; Souza, A H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) from service sires used on artificial insemination after estrus detection (EAI) or timed artificial insemination (TAI) breedings. Confirmed artificial insemination outcome records from 3 national data centers were merged and used as a data source. Criteria edits were herd's overall P/AI within 20 and 60%, a minimum of 30 breedings reported per herd-year, service sires that were used in at least 10 different herds with no more than 40% of the breedings performed in a single herd, breeding records from lactating Holstein cows receiving their first to fifth postpartum breedings occurring within 45 to 375 d in milk, and cows with 1 to 5 lactations producing a minimum of 6,804 kg. Initially 1,142,859 breeding records were available for analysis. After editing, a subset of the data (n=857,539) was used to classify breeding codes into either EAI or TAI based on weekly insemination profile in each individual herd. The procedure HPMIXED of SAS was used and took into account effects of state, farm, cow identification, breeding month, year, parity, days in milk at breeding, and service sire. This model was used independently for the 2 types osires f breeding codes (EAI vs. TAI), and service sire P/AI rankings within each breeding code were performed for sires with >700 breedings (94 sires) and for with >1,000 breedings (n=56 sires) following both EAI and TAI. Correlation for service sire fertility rankings following EAI and TAI was performed with the PROC CORR of SAS. Service sire P/AI rankings produced with EAI and TAI were 0.81 (for sires with >700 breedings) and 0.84 (for sires with >1,000 breedings). In addition, important changes occurred in service sire P/AI ranking to EAI and TAI for sires with less than 10,000 recorded artificial inseminations. In conclusion, the type of breeding strategy (EAI or TAI) was associated with some changes in service sire P/AI ranking, but ranking changes

  1. Puberty induction in Turner syndrome: Results of oestrogen treatment on development of secondary sexual characteristics, uterine dimensions and serum hormone levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, E.M.N.; Sassen, C. van; Buuren, S. van; Jong, F.H. de; Lequin, M.; Mulder, P.G.H.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de

    2009-01-01

    Background: Besides short stature, gonadal dysgenesis leading to a lack of oestrogen is one of the main characteristics of Turner syndrome (TS). In most TS girls, puberty is induced with exogenous oestrogens. Objective: To describe the pubertal development and uterine dimensions achieved by low-dose

  2. Direct mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR) test in semen at follow-up after testicular biopsy of maldescended testes operated in puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Brandt, B; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1990-01-01

    In thirty patients bilateral orchiopexy was performed in puberty. At the operation twenty-five patients underwent bilateral testicular biopsies, and five patients underwent unilateral biopsies only. In adulthood the semen was analysed for antisperm antibodies by the direct mixed antiglobulin...

  3. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

  4. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein 3 levels are increased in central precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Nielsen, C T;

    1995-01-01

    Central precocious puberty (CPP) is characterized by early activation of the pituitary-gonadal axis, which leads to increased growth velocity and development of secondary sexual characteristics. It is generally believed that gonadal sex steroids stimulate pulsatile GH secretion, which, in turn, s...

  5. 儿童期性早熟42例临床分析%Clinical analysis on 42 childish cases of precocious puberty.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉贞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical features of precocious puberty in order to improve clinical understanding of pediatric physician s. Methods The clinical data of 42 cases of precocious puberty in pediatric department of this hospital from January 2006 to February 2010 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Results Among these 42 childish patients, 19 cases suffered from precocious puberty, 17 cases of pseudo precocious puberty and 6 cases of partial precocious puberty and the ratio of girls to boys was 10 : 1. Precocious puberty in majority of children was manifested as acceleration in height growth, in advance of bone age, enlargement of gon ads and positive stimulation of luteinizing hormone release test ( LHRH ). In cases of pseudo - precocious puberty, suspicious inducing factors could be found in most of them, some of them with accerated height growth and advanced bone age, and enlargement of gon ads is not obvious. LHRH stimulation test was negative. Conclusion In precocious children, girls are more prevalent than boys, precocious puberty is mostly idiopathic in girls. The majority of children with precocious puberty have related inducing factors. The determination of bone age, gonadal BUS and LHRH stimulation test are important in dfferential diagnosis of precocious puberty in children.%目的 总结儿童性早熟的临床特点,提高临床儿保科医师对儿童性早熟的认识.方法 回顾性分析我院儿保科2006年1月月至2010年2月诊断明确的性早熟儿童42例的病例临床资料.结果 女孩:男孩=10:1;真性性早熟19例,假性性早熟17例,部分性性早熟6例.真性性早熟儿童多数表现为身高增速,骨龄提前,性腺增大,促性腺激素释放激素(LHRH)兴奋试验阳性.假性性早熟:多数可以问及可疑诱因,部分患儿有身高增速,但骨龄提前、性腺增大不明显.LHRH兴奋试验阴性.结论 性早熟儿童女孩明显多于男孩,女孩真性性早熟多数为特发性,多数性

  6. [Altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  7. Growth hormone deficiency and central precocious puberty in Klinefelter syndrome: report of a case and review of KIGS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Ellis, Bryn A; Pingul, Mia M; Reddy, Sujana; Boney, Charlotte M; Wajnrajch, Michael P; Quintos, Jose Bernarto

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and central precocious puberty (CPP) have each, individually, been described in patients with Klinefelter syndrome. However, the combination of GHD, CPP, and Klinefelter syndrome has never been reported. We described a Klinefelter syndrome patient who developed GHD at age 2 10/12 years and CPP at 8 6/12 years. Despite CPP, GnRH agonist therapy was not initiated because of his excellent predicted adult height. At 11 8/12 years, his height was 164.6 cm, close to his mid-parental target height of 165 cm. We report an additional nine patients with Klinefelter syndrome and GHD from the Pfizer International Growth Study (KIGS) database, none of whom had CPP. We conclude that the combination of GHD and CPP is very rare in Klinefelter syndrome and that CPP is unlikely to compromise final adult height.

  8. Teaching adolescents about changing bodies: Randomized controlled trial of an Internet puberty education and body dissatisfaction prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Tara M; Franko, Debra L; Trant, Meredith; Rancourt, Diana; Ainscough, Jessica; Chaudhuri, Anamika; Brevard, Julie

    2010-09-01

    This study tested the efficacy of an Internet-based prevention program, Trouble on the Tightrope: In Search of Skateboard Sam, on pubertal knowledge, body esteem, and self-esteem. One hundred and ninety participants (mean age 11.6 years) were randomized to either an intervention or attention placebo control condition and were assessed at baseline, after three Internet-based sessions, and at 3-month follow-up. Although the primary hypotheses were not supported, exploratory moderator analyses indicated that the intervention was beneficial for select students. Specifically, pubertal status moderated the effects on weight-related body esteem and several domains of self-esteem, resulting in positive effects for participants in the intervention group who had begun puberty. Gender differences were found on self-esteem subscales, indicating more robust effects for girls than boys. Tailored Internet programs based on personal characteristics such as gender and pubertal status may be a fruitful area for future research with adolescents.

  9. Predictive Value of Dental Maturity for a Positive Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulation Test Result in Girls with Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Dental maturity is associated with skeletal maturity, which is advanced in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). We investigated the performance of dental maturity as a screening method for CPP using mandibular second premolar and molar calcification stages, assessed the associated anthropometric and laboratory factors, and evaluated pubertal response predictors using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test (GnRHST) in prepubertal and pubertal girls. A prospective case-control study was conducted in girls, aged 7.0–8.9 years, classified into pubertal (peak luteinizing hormone [LH] after GnRHST ≥ 5 IU/L), prepubertal (peak LH < 5 IU/L), and control groups. Auxological and biochemical tests, panoramic radiographs, and GnRHSTs in participants with breast development were conducted. Dental maturity was assessed using the Demirjian index (DI). We included 103 girls (pubertal, 40; prepubertal, 19; control, 44). Chronological age (CA) was not significantly different between groups. Bone age (BA) and BA advancement was higher in the pubertal and prepubertal groups. Increased DI values at the mandibular second premolar and molar were significantly associated with CA, BA, BA advancement, height standard deviation score (SDS), peak LH after GnRHST, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (all P < 0.05). Moreover, odds ratio (OR) of the mandibular second premolar and molar (a DI value of ≥ E) for predicting a positive response to GnRHST was 8.7 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 2.9–26.1) and 5.2 (95% CI, 2.2–12.7), respectively. Dental maturity was a strong predictor for diagnosing CPP. Determining dental maturity in girls with suspected precocious puberty might help determine the performance of GnRHSTs. PMID:28049241

  10. 从小儿体质特点探讨性早熟防治的重要性%Importance investigation of prevention and treatment of precocious puberty based on the physical characteristics of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚君; 琚玮; 郑宏

    2013-01-01

    With the development of society, the incidence of precocious puberty in children was significantly higher than before. This paper analyzes the correlation of precocious puberty and physical characteristics that explore the importance of prevention and treatment of precocious puberty.%随着社会的发展,小儿性早熟的发病率明显增高,本文通过分析性早熟与体质特征的相关性,探讨防治性早熟的重要性。

  11. Pubertal Timing and Early Sexual Intercourse in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2011-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when…

  12. Ultrasonography in differential diagnosis of precocious puberty in girls%超声在女童性早熟鉴别诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    锁仁静; 穆仲平; 余春燕

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the differential diagnostic value of ulrasound with precocious puberty. Methods The uterine , ovarian follicles were measured by ultrasound. Then these indexes were compared with the normal control groups in the same age. Results The uterine indexes of girls with true-precocious puberty and pseudo-precocious puberty were significantly larger than the normal girls( P <0. 05 ) . The volume of ovary and the largest follicle diameter, a section of the largest number of follictes in true-precocious puberty are larger than the normal girls( P< 0. 05 ) . The volume of ovary and the largest follicle diameter,a section of the largest number of follicles in pseudo-precocious puberty are similar to the normal girls ( P< 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Ultrasonography has great value on differential diagnosis of precocious puberty in girls.%目的 探讨超声在女童性早熟不同类型的鉴别诊断中的价值.方法 对临床及实验室检查确诊的真性性早熟,假性性早熟及正常女童三组患者进行超声检查,观察其子宫大小,卵巢大小,一个切面最大卵泡数和最大卵泡直径,比较检查结果.结果 真性性早熟患儿子宫测量各径线均大于正常同龄女童,卵巢容积、最大卵泡直径及一个切面卵泡数量均大于正常同龄女童(P<0.05).假性性早熟患儿子宫测量各径线均大于正常同龄女童(P0.05).结论 超声对于不同类型女童性早熟的鉴别诊断有重要价值.

  13. MRI study in children with central precocious puberty%头颅MRI在儿童中枢性性早熟的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀民; 陆文丽; 董治亚; 王伟

    2012-01-01

    目的:探索头颅鞍区MRI在小儿中枢性性早熟(central precocious puberty,CPP)病因诊断中的应用价值.方法:分析44例CPP患儿的垂体MRI资料,于SE序列T1WI头颅正中、矢状及冠状面上观测垂体的大小、形态及信号特征,并比较其与临床特征间的联系.结果:6~10岁CPP患儿的头颅MRI检查显示,其垂体冠状高径与正常均值间的差异明显(P<0.0.5),且比其他各径线更有意义.患儿性发育的程度、年龄对应身高标准差积分与颅内MRI阳性发现率间存在一定联系.结论:应重视CPP患儿的头颅MRI检查,其垂体形态、结构的阳性发现有助于临床疾病的诊断及鉴别,必要时应随访MRI,综合临床表现进行诊治及预后判断.%Objective To study the value of brain MRI in the pathogenetic diagnosis of central precious puberty. Methods The brain MRI of 44 children with central precious puberty were analyzed. Size, shape and signal characteristics of pituitary gland were measured on SE series T1WI medial sagittal and coronary view, and their correlation with clinical characteristic was analyzed. Result Brain MRI of central precious puberty children aged <10 showed that the maximum diameter of coronary view of pituitary gland was significantly higher than the average normal value (P<0.05), and was of more significance than other measures. There was a correlation between degree of sexual development, age related height standard score and brain MRI positive findings. Conclusions Children with central precious puberty should have a brain MRI performed, size, shape and structure findings are helpful for the clinical and differential diagnosis of central precious puberty, and MRI should be followed if necessary.

  14. Clinical Analysis of 30 Cases of Peripheral Precocious Puberty%外周性性早熟30例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓景; 李春枝; 卫海燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:总结外周性性早熟临床特点。方法回顾性分析我院2013年1月~2015年7月收治的30例外周性性早熟临床资料。结果30例外周性性早熟男孩17例,女孩13例,先天性肾上腺皮质增生症8例,肾上腺肿瘤2例,误服避孕药12例,卵巢囊肿3例,McCune-Albright综合征3例,原发性甲状腺功能减退症1例,分泌HCG生殖细胞瘤1例。结论外周性性早熟多为继发性,多数病历进展快,可转为中枢性性早熟,由肿瘤引起的外周性性早熟尚可危及生命,应积极寻找原发病,以免延误疾病。%Objective To summarize the clinical characteristics of peripheral precocious puberty. Methods A retrospective analysis of our hospital from January 2013 to July 2015, 30 cases of clinical data of peripheral precocious puberty. Results 30 cases with peripheral precocious puberty, 17 cases with peripheral precocious boy, 13 cases of girls, 8 cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 2 cases of adrenal tumor, swallowed the pill in 12 cases, 3 cases of ovarian cyst , McCune-Albright syndrome in 3 cases, 1 patients of primary hypothyroidism, secretion hCG germ cell tumor in 1 case. Conclusion It is secondary of peripheral precocious puberty, most medical progress quickly, can turn for central precocious puberty, caused by tumor peripheral precocious puberty passable life-threatening, should be actively looking for primary disease, so as not to delay the disease.

  15. 儿童性早熟192例临床分析%Clinical analysis on 192 children with precocious puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华燕; 谢薇; 杨培; 郭相锐

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the age, causes, and clinical characteristics of precocious puberty, elevate cognition of children with precocious puherty. Methods: The age, clinical characteristics, causes, laboratory data of 192 children (including 5 boys and 187 girls) with precocious puberty who were diagnosed and treated in the hospital from April 2007 to May 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results; The proportion of girls among the children with precocious puberty was 97.4% ; the percentages of children aged 8 months-one year, -3 years, -9 years accounted for 2. 08% , 28. 12% , and 69.79% , respectively. The most common clinical manifestation was breast hyperplasia, accounting for 92.9% , followed by breast pigmentation (65. 5% ) , increase of vulval secretion (12. 3% ) , premature pubarche ( for 4. 3 % ), augmentation of clitoris (cauda salax) and didymus (4.6% ), and vaginal bleeding (0.01 %) . Causes; the children with gonadotropic hormone dependent precocious puberty accounted for 26.4%. Among the girls with isosexual precocious puberty, except two girls with pituitary neoplasms, one girl with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) , and one girl with Williams syndrome, other girls were diagnosed as idiopalhic precocious puberty. Two boys were diagnosed as congenital adrenal cortical hyperplasia (CAH) . The children with non - gonadotropic hormone dependent precocious puberty accounted for 73. 6%. All the girls manifested as isosexual precacious puberty; 3 boys manifested as heterosexual precocious puberty because of intake of exogenous estrogen (contraceptives) . The preva-lence of precocious puberty among the infants less than three years was 28. 12%. Except one child with CAH and one child with pituitary neoplasms , other children were diagnosed as non - gonadotropic hormone dependent precocious puberty; among the children with precocious puberty, rural children accounted for 87% , stay - at - home children accounted for most of the children, the main causes

  16. Serum concentrations of free and total insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF binding proteins -1 and -3 and IGFBP-3 protease activity in boys with normal or precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan;

    1996-01-01

    Circulating IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels both increase in puberty where growth velocity is high. The amount of free IGF-I is dependent on the IGF-I level and on the concentrations of the specific IGFBPs. Furthermore, IGFBP-3 proteolysis regulates the bioavailability of IGF......-I. However, the concentration of free IGF-I and possible IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity in puberty has not previously been studied....

  17. Study on Realationship of Child Obesity and Precocious Puberty%儿童肥胖与性早熟关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫海燕; 王会贞; 李春枝; 陈永兴; 王凌飞; 罗淑颖

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between obesity and precocious puberty. Methods Totally 8750 children from 3 to 12 years old were selected from Zhengzhou by stratified and cluster sampling. All the individuals selected were medical examined, and the data was analyzed by descriptive statistics, Chi - square tests, tendency tests. Results The detection rates of precocious puberty in overweight and obesity children (1.4 % ) was higher than that of the normal children (0. 6% ) , and the detection rates of precocious puberty in overweight and obesity girls (3. 1% ) was much higheT than that of the normal girls (1.1%), while there were no significance in boys. With the increase of the degree of obesity, the detection rates of precocious puberty also increased ( t = 10. 629, P =0. 001). Conclusions There was close relationship between obesity and precocious puberty , and the detection rate of precocious puberty among the overweight and obese children was higher than normal weight children. The girls' incidence of precocious puberty was colser with BMI than boys' , and with the increasing of the degree of obesity, the detection rates of precocious puberty also increased among girls.%目的 了解儿童肥胖与性早熟发生之间的关系。方法 以郑州地区3~12岁儿童为对象,采用分层随机整群抽样方法,共获取研究对象8750名,全部进行体格检查,进行描述性统计分析、卡方检验、趋势检验,检验水准α=0.05。结果 超重和肥胖儿童中性早熟的检出率(1.4%)高于正常体重儿童(0.6%),差异有统计学意义(P=0.002);其中超重和肥胖女童性早熟的检出率(3.1%)高于正常体重女童(1.1%),差异有统计学意义(P=0.001);男童差异无统计学意义,随着肥胖度的增加女童性早熟的检出率呈上升趋势。结论 郑州地区儿童肥胖与性早熟的发生密切相关,超重和肥胖儿童中性早熟的检出率高于正常体重儿童,且女童

  18. Impact of the growth hormone receptor exon 3 deletion gene polymorphism on glucose metabolism, lipids, and insulin-like growth factor-I levels during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor;

    2009-01-01

    the impact of the GHRd3 gene polymorphism on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, lipids, and IGF-I levels in healthy children and adolescents. DESIGN: This was cross-sectional and was part of the COPENHAGEN puberty study. SETTING: The study was conducted at a tertiary center for pediatric endocrinology......-I levels. RESULTS: Insulin secretion was higher in children and adolescents with a least one GHRd3 allele, even after adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, and insulin sensitivity (P = 0.018). Disposition index was higher in GHRd3-positive subjects (P = 0.026). In addition, the GHRd3 allele...... was associated with higher triglyceride (P = 0.028), but not IGF-I levels. CONCLUSION: The presence of at least one GHRd3 allele was associated with higher insulin secretion for a given degree of insulin sensitivity in healthy children and adolescents during puberty. In addition, the presence of the GHRd3 allele...

  19. 听障学生青春期教育刍议%Humble Opinions on the Puberty Education of Hearing-impaired Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 鹿崇涛

    2011-01-01

    青春期作为人一生中朝气蓬勃、充满活力的时期,也是人身体、心理发育成长的一个关键期。当前,青春期教育虽已然引起关注,但在聋教育领域仍有许多问题值得探索,有些尚属空白。结合我们的实践研究体会,现就"听障学生青春期教育"话题中的几个关键性问题,即"青春期听障学生生存现状透视与教育重点""听障学生青春期教育的有效实施策略""值得进一步探讨的几个问题"等,谈些粗浅的看法。%Puberty is a period in which human beings are vibrant and full of vigor as well as a critical period for the growth of the human body and human's psychological development. Currently, puberty education has aroused much attention but there are still many problems in hearing-impaired students' education field, which deserve exploration, and some of which are still almost in blank. Based on our practice research experience, we intend to put forward some simple views on a couple of critical issues in the subject, the puberty education of hearing-impaired students, that is, the analysis of the current survival status and the education status of hearing-impaired students, effective implementation strategies on hearing-impaired students' puberty education, several issues deserving further discussion and so on.

  20. Integrity of the plasma membrane, the acrosomal membrane, and the mitochondrial membrane potential of sperm in Nelore bulls from puberty to sexual maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.L.S. Reis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal membrane integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential of Nelore bull sperm from early puberty to early sexual maturity and their associations with sperm motility and vigor, the mass motility of the spermatozoa (wave motion, scrotal circumference, and testosterone. Sixty Nelore bulls aged 18 to 19 months were divided into four lots (n=15 bulls/lot and evaluated over 280 days. Semen samples, collected every 56 days by electroejaculation, were evaluated soon after collection for motility, vigor and wave motion under an optical microscope. Sperm membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial activity were evaluated under a fluorescent microscope using probe association (FITC-PSA, PI, JC-1, H342. The sperm were classified into eight integrity categories depending on whether they exhibited intact or damaged membranes, an intact or damaged acrosomal membrane, and high or low mitochondrial potential. The results show that bulls have a low amount of sperm with intact membranes at puberty, and the sperm show low motility, vigor, and wave motion; however, in bulls at early sexual maturity, the integrity of the sperm membrane increased significantly. The rate of sperm membrane damage was negatively correlated with motility, vigor, wave motion, and testosterone in the bulls, and a positive correlation existed between sperm plasma membrane integrity and scrotal circumference. The integrity of the acrosomal membrane was not influenced by puberty. During puberty and into early sexual maturity, bulls show low sperm mitochondrial potential, but when bulls reached sexual maturity, high membrane integrity with high mitochondrial potential was evident.

  1. Habitually Higher Dietary Glycemic Index During Puberty Is Prospectively Related to Increased Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Younger Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletzke, Janina; Herder, Christian; Joslowski, Gesa; Bolzenius, Katja; Remer, Thomas; Wudy, Stefan A.; Roden, Michael; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Buyken, Anette E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Carbohydrate nutrition during periods of physiological insulin resistance such as puberty may affect future risk of type 2 diabetes. This study examined whether the amount or the quality (dietary glycemic index [GI], glycemic load [GL], and added sugar, fiber, and whole-grain intake) of carbohydrates during puberty is associated with risk markers of type 2 diabetes in younger adulthood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The analysis was based on 226 participants (121 girls and 105 boys) from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study (DONALD) with an average of five 3-day weighed dietary records (range 2–6) during puberty (girls, age 9–14 years; boys, age 10–15 years) and fasting blood samples in younger adulthood (age 18–36 years) (average duration of follow-up 12.6 years). Multivariable linear regression was used to analyze the associations between carbohydrate nutrition and homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as well as the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) (n = 214). RESULTS A higher dietary GI was prospectively related to greater values of HOMA-IR (Ptrend = 0.03), ALT (Ptrend = 0.02), and GGT (Ptrend = 0.04). After adjustment for sex, adult age, baseline BMI, and early life and socioeconomic factors as well as protein and fiber intake, predicted mean HOMA-IR values in energy-adjusted tertiles of GI were 2.37 (95% CI 2.16–2.60), 2.47 (2.26–2.71), and 2.59 (2.35–2.85). The amount of carbohydrates, GL, and added sugar, fiber, and whole-grain intake were not related to the analyzed markers. CONCLUSIONS Our data indicate that a habitually higher dietary GI during puberty may adversely affect risk markers of type 2 diabetes in younger adulthood. PMID:23349549

  2. Combined treatment with bicalutamide and anastrozole in a young boy with peripheral precocious puberty due to McCune-Albright Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessaris, Daniele; Matarazzo, Patrizia; Mussa, Alessandro; Tuli, Gerdi; Verna, Francesca; Fiore, Ludovica; Lala, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS) is a congenital endocrine disorder due to mosaic tissutal hyper-function. We describe a boy with a molecularly confirmed MAS, clinically evident with congenital café-au-lait spots, bone fibrous dysplasia, hyperthyroidism, and renal phosphate wasting syndrome. At 4.6 years of age he disclosed a rapid progression of peripheral puberty, so we decided to treat him with bicalutamide 25 mg/day and anastrozole 1 mg/day. Combined third generation aromatase inhibitors - competitive androgen receptor blockers were employed in familial male precocious puberty (FMPP). Combined treatment was performed for 49 months from the age of 4.6 to 6.7 years. The patient underwent clinical, laboratory, and instrumental evaluation twice a year from the first admission to the current age. This treatment caused a rapid normalization of growth velocity, subsequent reduction of penile androgenization, and stabilization of testicular volume. The therapy was well tolerated for all its duration and neither side effects, nor secondary hypothalamic activation were noted. This report provides further evidence of effectiveness and safety of combined third generation aromatase inhibitors - competitive androgen receptor blockers in male precocious peripheral puberty, firstly employed in male MAS, and contributes to expand the spectrum of disorders in which their employment may reveal promising.

  3. Therapeutic and Ethical Dilemma of Puberty and Menstruation Problems in an Intellectually Disabled (Autistic) Female: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Azadeh; Mehrpisheh, Shahrokh

    2015-10-01

    Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills. Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Teenagers with learning and physical disabilities are more likely to have menstrual problems compared to the general populations. The parents of a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability referred to the coroner due to her numerous problems of puberty (menstruation) including: poor hygiene and polluting herself and the environment, not allowing to put or change the pads and changes in mood and physical health prior period, requested for the surgery (hysterectomy). In legal medicine organization after reviewing the medical records, physical exams and medical consultations with a gynecologist and psychiatric, surgery was not accepted. Hysterectomy (surgery) due to the age of the child, either physically or morally is not recommended. The use of hormone replacement therapy has side effects such as osteoporosis. In these cases, it seems noninvasive methods (behavioral therapy and learning care skills) under the welfare experts is also more effective and morally.

  4. Comparison of Changes in Body Composition during Puberty Development of Obese and Normal-weight Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN MA; NING FENG; SHI-WEI ZHANG; YONG-PING PAN; YONG-BO HUANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the changes in body composition, including fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI) during puberty development of obese and normal-weight children in China, and to explore the effect of age and gender on body composition. Methods A total of 356 children at the age of 7-15 years were enrolled in this study. Body composition of 10 normal-weight and obese children in each age group was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). FFMI and FMI were calculated according to the following formula: FFMI (kg·mT~(-2))= FFM(kg) / height~2 (m~2) and FMI (kg· m~2)= FM (kg) / height~2 (m~2). Results The fat mass and fat free mass of obese children were significantly higher than those of normal-weight children (P<0.05). The FMI and FFMI of obese children increased significantly with age and were higher than those of the same sex, gender, and age normal-weight children (P<0.05). Conclusion The levels of fat mass, fat free mass, FMI, and FFMI are different in obese and normal-weight children, and gender effects are significant in boys having higher levels of these indicators than in girls. FFMI and FMI can be used as monitoring indexes in weight control of obese children.

  5. Stress during puberty boosts metabolic activation associated with fear-extinction learning in hippocampus, basal amygdala and cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Pitiot, Alain; Paus, Tomáš; Sandi, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by major developmental changes that may render the individual vulnerable to stress and the development of psychopathologies in a sex-specific manner. Earlier we reported lower anxiety-like behavior and higher risk-taking and novelty seeking in rats previously exposed to peri-pubertal stress. Here we studied whether peri-pubertal stress affected the acquisition and extinction of fear memories and/or the associated functional engagement of various brain regions, as assessed with 2-deoxyglucose. We showed that while peri-pubertal stress reduced freezing during the acquisition of fear memories (training) in both sexes, it had a sex-specific effect on extinction of these memories. Moreover hippocampus, basal amygdala and cingulate and motor cortices showed higher metabolic rates during extinction in rats exposed to peri-pubertal stress. Interestingly, activation of the infralimbic cortex was negatively correlated with freezing during extinction only in control males, while only males stressed during puberty showed a significant correlation between behavior during extinction and metabolic activation of hippocampus, amygdala and paraventricular nucleus. No correlations between brain activation and behavior during extinction were observed in females (control or stress). These results indicate that exposure to peri-pubertal stress affects behavior and brain metabolism when the individual is exposed to an additional stressful challenge. Some of these effects are sex-specific.

  6. Results of a Second Year of Therapy with the 12-Month Histrelin Implant for the Treatment of Central Precocious Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulman Dorothy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHas are standard of care for central precocious puberty (CPP. The histrelin subcutaneous implant is safe and effective in the treatment of CPP for one year. Objective. The study evaluates a second year of therapy in children with CPP who received a new implant after one year of treatment. Methods. A prospective one-year study following an initial 12-month treatment period was conducted. Results. Thirty-one patients (29 girls aged years received a second implant. Eighteen were naïve to GnRHa therapy at first implantation. Peak LH declined from  mIU/mL at 12 months to  mIU/mL at 24 months ( mIU/mL at 12 months to  mIU/mL at 24 months ( in previously treated subjects. Predicted adult height increased by 5.1 cm at 24 months (. Minor implant site reactions occurred in 61%, while minor difficulties with explantation occurred in 32.2% of subjects. Conclusion. The histrelin implant demonstrates profound hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis suppression when a new implant is placed for a second year of treatment. Prospective follow-up of this therapeutic modality for the treatment of CPP is needed.

  7. Partial benefit of anastrozole in the long-term treatment of precocious puberty in McCune-Albright syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cresio; Silva, Sheila Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    We report a long-term follow-up on the use of anastrozole in the treatment of peripheral precocious puberty (PP) in McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). A girl, age 3 years and 9 months, was diagnosed with MAS due to PP, café-au-lait spots, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. Serum estradiol was elevated, and gonadotropins were suppressed. Pelvic ultrasound showed an enlarged uterus and a follicle cyst (13 mm) in the left ovary. Bone scintigraphy showed osteogenic lesions on the skull, humerus, tibia, and acetabulum. Bone age was 3 years and 5 months at the chronological age of 3 years. After 36 months of treatment with anastrozole (1 mg/day), there was suppression of breast growth, normalization of growth velocity and serum estradiol, and disappearance of ovarian cysts. However, there was increase in uterine volume, advancement of bone age, and two episodes of vaginal bleeding (18th and 24th months). This report shows the partial benefit of anastrozole in the treatment of peripheral PP of girls with MAS.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Domestic Leuprorelin in Girls with Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty: A Multicenter, Randomized, Parallel, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In central precocious puberty (CPP, the pulse secretion and release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH are increased due to early activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in developmental abnormalities with gonadal development and appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. The CPP without organic disease is known as idiopathic CPP (ICPP. The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of domestic leuprorelin (GnRH analog in girls with ICPP. Methods: A total of 236 girls with ICPP diagnosed from April 2012 to January 2014 were selected and were randomized into two groups. One hundred fifty-seven girls in the test group were treated with domestic leuprorelin acetate, 79 girls in the control group were treated with imported leuprorelin acetate. They all were treated and observed for 6 months. After 6-month treatment, the percentage of children with peak luteinizing hormone (LH ≤3.3 U/L, the percentage of children with peak LH/peak follicle stimulating hormone (FSH ratio 0.05. Conclusions: Domestic leuprorelin is effective and safe in the treatment of Chinese girls with ICPP. Its effectiveness and safety are comparable with imported leuprorelin.

  9. Body image and depression in girls with idiopathic precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Precocious puberty (PP) is associated with psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to evaluate the perception of body image and depression in girls with PP receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue therapy. Methods From March to August 2013, 82 girls with PP receiving GnRH analogue therapy were enrolled. Height, weight, body mass index, and stages of pubertal development were assessed. Participants completed a series of questionnaires on their body image perception and pubertal self-assessment. The depression score was calculated using the Korean Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory. Results The patients perceived their body to be more obese than the controls did. The mean depression score did not differ between the patients and controls. The mean depression scores according to Tanner stages (1: prepubertal, 2: early pubertal, and 3–5: mid to late pubertal stage) by self-assessment were 5.2±3.6, 6.8±4.9, and 11.4±10.1 (Pperception of overall body build and figure (%) and the mean depression scores in patients were: dissatisfied (25.6%, 9.7±7.8) and satisfied (74.4%, 5.5±3.4) (Pperception of pubertal status and satisfaction about height or weight are unrelated to objective physical findings. Patients with PP are prone to distorted perception about their body image and breast development. Such incorrect body image seems to contribute to depression score. PMID:27777908

  10. Lin28B Gene Expression and its Role in the Onset of Puberty of Sheep%Lin28B基因表达与绵羊初情期启动的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢萍平; 邢凤; 刘博丹; 梁志鹏

    2014-01-01

    初情期是家畜从不能繁殖到获得繁殖能力的标志,是雌性动物发育过程中的一个关键阶段。研究以性早熟的多浪羊和性晚熟的和田羊为研究对象,对其 L in28B 基因外显子3进行克隆,采用 Real-time PCR 技术分析 Lin28B 基因在多浪羊和和田羊幼年期、初情期下丘脑、卵巢中表达变化,结果显示多浪羊和和田羊 L in28B 基因外显子3序列相同,多浪羊下丘脑和卵巢中 L in28B 基因 mRNA 表达量在初情期时低于幼年期( P <0.05);和田羊卵巢L in28B 基因 mRNA 表达量在初情期时低于幼年期(P<0.05)。研究结果表明,L in28B 基因表达下调与初情期启动呈正相关,该研究对于揭示 L in28B 基因在绵羊初情期启动中的作用及机制提供了科学依据。%Puberty of animals marked their fertility and is a key stage in female animal development . Precocious sheep breed ,Duolang sheep ,and late-maturing sheep breed ,Hetian sheep were selected as sub-jects in the study ,the exon 3 of Lin28B gene of the selected animals were cloned ,and the real-time PCR technology was used to examine the mRNA expression level of Lin28B gene in the hypothalamus and ovary of juvenile stage and pubertal stage .The results showed the sequences alignment of Lin28B exons 3 of Duo-lang sheep and Hetian sheep were the same ;the expression level of Lin28B gene in the hypothalamus and ovary were significantly lower than that in juvenlie period of Duolang sheep (P< 0 .05) ,the expression lev-el of Lin28B gene in the ovary was significantly lower than that in the juvenlie period of Hetian sheep (P<0 .05) .The results indicated that the down-regulated expression of Lin28B gene was positively correlated with the onset of puberty in sheep .The study can help to provide a scientific basis for revealing the effect and mechanism of Lin28B gene in the onset of puberty in sheep .

  11. Anxiety Symptoms in African American Youth: The Role of Puberty and Biological Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of pubertal status, pubertal timing (actual and perceived), and youth biological sex on symptom dimensions of anxiety (i.e., social, separation, harm avoidance, physical) in African Americans (n = 252; ages 8-12). For girls, results indicated that pubertal status and timing (actual) exerted similar effects for some…

  12. Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy on body mass index and growth in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Anik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to assess the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist therapy on body mass index (BMI and growth in girls diagnosed with idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP. Materials and Methods: Hospital records of 32 girls with idiopathic CPP who have been receiving GnRH agonist therapy for at least 12 months were retrospectively reviewed and auxological, clinical and laboratory parameters of the patients were recorded. BMI, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS for chronological age body mass index standard deviation score (CA-BMI SDS, BMI SDS for bone age body mass index standard deviation score (BA-BMI SDS, ratios of obesity and overweight were assessed before treatment and on the 12 th month of therapy in patients diagnosed with idiopathic CPP. Results: The study comprised of 32 girls diagnosed with idiopathic CPP. BMI values showed statistically significant increase in the 1 st year of treatment (19.16 ± 2.8 vs. 20.7 ± 3.4, P = 0.001. Despite a mild increase in CA-BMI SDS in the 1 st year of treatment versus before treatment, it was no statistically significant (1.0 ± 0.8 vs. 1.1 ± 0.9, P = 0.061. However, significant increase was observed in BA-BMI SDS in the 1 st year of treatment versus before treatment (0.8 ± 0.7 vs. 0.4 ± 0.8, P < 0.001. Before treatment, 37.5% (12/32 of the patients were overweight and 21.9% (5/32 were obese, whereas in the 1 st year, 34.4% (11/32 of the patients were overweight and 31.3% were obese (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Whilst 1/3 of the cases diagnosed with idiopathic CPP were overweight and obese at the time of diagnosis, GnRH agonist therapy caused statistically significant weight gain in patients diagnosed with CPP. Therefore, these patients should be closely monitored and weight control should be provided by diet and exercise programs in the course of treatment.

  13. The roles of puberty and age in explaining the diminished effectiveness of parental buffering of HPA reactivity and recovery in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R; Hostinar, Camelia E; VanZomeren-Dohm, Adrienne A; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-09-01

    Parental support is a powerful regulator of stress and fear responses for infants and children, but recent evidence suggests it may be an ineffective stress buffer for adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this developmental shift are not well-understood. The goal of the present study was to examine the independent and joint contributions of pubertal status and chronological age in explaining this shift. A sample of 75 typically developing youth (M age=12.95 years, SD=0.70, range=11.7-14.6 years; 37 females) was recruited to complete a modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-M) in the laboratory. Participants were recruited in such a way as to disentangle pubertal stage and chronological age by phone screening for markers of pubertal stage and then recruiting roughly equal numbers of younger and older, pre/early and mid/late pubertal youth who were then randomly assigned within groups to condition. The TSST-M was used as the stressor and youth prepared either with their parent or stranger (parent condition: N=39). Pubertal stage was confirmed by the Petersen Pubertal Development Scale at the time of testing and treated, along with chronological age, as a continuous variable in the analyses. The results revealed an interaction of pubertal stage and support condition for cortisol reactivity to the TSST-M such that preparing for the speech with the parent became a less potent buffer of the HPA axis as pubertal stage increased. Age did not interact with condition in predicting cortisol reactivity. In contrast, the parent's presence during speech preparation decreased in its effectiveness to hasten recovery of the HPA axis as children got older, but pubertal stage was not predictive of recovery rate. These patterns were specific to cortisol and were not observed with salivary alpha-amylase levels or subjective stress ratings for the task. These analyses suggest that the switch away from using parents as social buffers may be the result of neurobiological mechanisms

  14. Modelling glass alteration in an altered argillaceous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildstein, O.; Trotignon, L.; Pozo, C.; Jullien, M.

    2007-05-01

    The long term behaviour of materials such as glass, steel and clay has been investigated in the context of deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The interactions between vitrified wastes, canister corrosion products (CPs) and clay are studied using a modified version of the reaction-transport code Crunch, especially looking at pH changes and possible cementation at the interface with the clayey materials. These perturbations may indeed affect the lifetime of glass matrix in deep repositories, e.g., high pH enhances the rate of glass alteration. This work focuses on the argillite of Bure. The calculations were performed at 323 K with a glass alteration rate switching from a high initial rate to a residual rate according to the sorption capacity of CPs. The time at which this sorption capacity is saturated is crucial to the system in terms of wastes package lifetime. The results show that the glass alteration imposes a high pH value at the interface with CPs and clay: up to a value of 9.2, compared to 7.3 which is the initial pH value in the argillite. Experimental data show that the rate of glass alteration is much higher in such pH conditions. For a R7T7-type glass, the rate is about five times higher at pH 9 than at pH 7. This pH perturbation migrates through the clayey domain as a result of the migration of mobile elements such as boron and sodium, and despite the existence of strong pH buffers in the argillite. The cementation of porosity at the interface between glass and clay is predicted by the model due to the massive precipitation of iron corrosion products and glass alteration products. At this point of the evolution of the system, the pH starts to decrease and the alteration rate of the glass could be significantly reduced. This porosity clogging effect is difficult to confirm by experiments especially since existing data on short term experiments tend to show a pervasive precipitation of silica in the domain instead of a localized precipitation

  15. Alterations in tone of voice in patients with restrictive anorexia nervosa: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción García-Santana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the tone of voice (acoustic perception in patients with restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN-R. Our goal was to study whether or not there is an alteration of the tone in restrictive anorexia nervosa when the disease has started in the puberty. The total sample consisted of 148 subjects divided in two groups: control (n=102 and AN-R (n=46. The voice´s fundamental frequencies (F0 were determined based on the repetition of two phonemes ("a" and "i" and measured by a microphone Plantonic 300 and a digital recorder. We analyzed the voice´s F0 using Praat software. We present the first data for the normal range of the F0 in Spanish healthy women from 9 to 17 years old who were Spanish native speakers. Finally, we show a comparison of data between AN-R patients and control group.

  16. 超声辅助检查在女童特发性真、假性性早熟鉴别诊断中的作用分析%Effect of ultrasonic auxiliary examination on the differential diagnosis of central precocious puberty and pseudo precocious puberty of girls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾理; 胡晶; 马继斌

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To investigate the effect of ultrasonic auxiliary examination on the differential diagnosis of central precocious puberty and pseudo precocious puberty of girls.Methods:77 girls with sexual precocity were divided into two groups,44 cases in the central precocious puberty group,while 31 cases in the pseudo precocious puberty group. Another 30 healthy girls were selected as the control group.The uterine and ovarian ultrasound testing results of the three groups were recorded and compared.Results:The transverse diameters,vertical diameters and volumes of the uterine and the largest follicle diameter in the central precocious puberty group were significantly higher than those in the pseudo precocious puberty group and the control group (P 0.05).The transverse diameters,vertical diameters,antero-posterior diameters and volumes of the uterus in the central precocious puberty group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P <0.05).Conclusion:Ultrasonic auxiliary examination plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of central precocious puberty and pseudo precocious puberty of girls.%目的:探讨超声辅助检查在女童特发性真、假性性早熟鉴别诊断中的作用。方法:将75例性早熟女童按照真、假性性早熟分为真性组(n =44例)和假性组(n =31例),并选取健康女童30例作为对照组,比较三组女童的子宫和卵巢超声检查结果。结果:真性组卵巢横径、卵巢纵径、卵巢容积、最大卵泡直径均高于假性组和对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),假性组卵巢横径、卵巢纵径、卵巢容积、最大卵泡直径与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);真性组子宫纵径、子宫横径、子宫前后径、子宫容积均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:超声辅助检查在女童特发性真性、假性性早熟鉴别诊断中具有重要价值。

  17. Nocturnal urinary gonadotropin in diagnosis of precocious puberty in girls%夜尿促性腺激素检测对女童性早熟的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷; 徐庄剑; 马亚萍; 王勍; 赵金玲; 卢隽滢

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the diagnostic value of the nocturnal urinary gonadotropin for precocious puberty in girls. Methods Sixty- three girls with precocious puberty, in which 42 girls had central precocious puberty and other 21 girls had non - CPP, were hospitalized for gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue stimulating test. Nocturnal spontaneous urine was collected at 12 h as Gn samples before the test. Urine amount was also recorded. Serum samples, which were obtained at midnight before the test and Omin during the test, were respectively regarded as the samples of spontaneous nocturnal and diurnal gonadotropin. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle - stimulating hormone (FSH) in serum and urine were examined by imrnunochemilurninometric assay. Results The correlation coefficient between the urinary LH quantity (concentration X volume) and serum peak LH (PLH) wasO.597 (P<0.001), for diurnal spontaneous serum LH and PLH 0.514 (P<0.001), for nocturnal spontaneous serum LH and PLH 0.423 (P<0.01). The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves of urinary LH quantity, diurnal spontaneous serum LH, nocturnal spontaneous serum LH for the diagnoses of CPP were 0.825, 0.680 and 0.654, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the diagnoses of CPP were 71.4% and 90.5% respectively when urinary LH quantity was not less than 0.113 IU. Conclusion Noninvasive determination of timed 12 - hour nocturnal spontaneous urinary gonadotropin by immunochemiluminometric assay can be used as a screening tool for CPP in girls. The value of nocturnal urinary LH quantity may be higher than that of spontaneous LH.%目的 探讨免疫化学放光法检测夜尿促性腺激素(Gn)检测对女童性阜熟的诊断价值.方法 性早熟女童63例,其中中枢性性早熟(CPP)42例,非CPP 21例,均住院行促性腺激素释放激素类似物激发试验.激发试验前留取夜间12h尿作为自发性夜尿Cn标本,并计尿量;激发试验0min与前夜f间 00:00血,分

  18. Lack of sexual dimorphism in femora of the eusocial and hypogonadic naked mole-rat: a novel animal model for the study of delayed puberty on the skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M; Jepsen, K J; Terranova, C J; Buffenstein, R

    2010-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones are major determinants of bone morphology and quality and are responsible for sexually dimorphic skeletal traits. Hypogonadism results in suboptimal skeletal development and may lead to an increased risk of bone fracture later in life. The etiology of delayed puberty and/or hypothalamic amenorrhea is poorly understood, and experimental animal models addressing this issue are predominantly based upon short-term experimental induction of hormonal suppression via gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH-a). This acute change in hormone profile does not necessarily emulate the natural progression of hypogonadic bone disorders. We propose a novel animal model with which to explore the effects of chronic hypogonadism on bone quality, the naked mole-rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber). This mouse-size rodent may remain reproductively suppressed throughout its life, if it remains as a subordinate within the eusocial mole-rat colony. NMRs live in large colonies with a single dominant breeding female. She, primarily by using aggressive social contact, naturally suppresses the hypothalamic gonadotropic axis of subordinate NMRs and thereby their reproductive expression. However, should an NMR be separated from the dominant breeder, within less than a week reproductive hormones may become elevated and the animal attains breeding status. We questioned if sexual suppression of subordinates impact upon the development and maintenance of the femora and lead to a sexually indistinct monomorphic skeleton. Femora were obtained from male and female NMRs that were either non-breeders (subordinate) or breeders at the time of sacrifice. Diaphyseal cross-sectional morphology, metaphyseal trabecular micro-architecture and tissue mineral density of the femur were measured using microcomputed tomography and diaphyseal mechanical properties were assessed by four-point bending tests to failure. Subordinates were sexually monomorphic and showed no significant

  19. Transient pseudo-precocious puberty by probable oestrogen intake in 3 girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, A M; Balducci, R; Bitti, M L Manca; Spadoni, G L; Boscherini, B

    1982-01-01

    We report the clinical and laboratory findings in 3 prepubertal girls with transient signs of sexual precocity. Accidental oestrogen intake from contaminated food was the most likely cause, the luteinsing hormone—releasing hormone test showing suppressed secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinsing hormone at the time of maximal oestrogenisation. PMID:6758707

  20. Results of a Second Year of Therapy with the 12-Month Histrelin Implant for the Treatment of Central Precocious Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Rahhal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHas are standard of care for central precocious puberty (CPP. The histrelin subcutaneous implant is safe and effective in the treatment of CPP for one year. Objective. The study evaluates a second year of therapy in children with CPP who received a new implant after one year of treatment. Methods. A prospective one-year study following an initial 12-month treatment period was conducted. Results. Thirty-one patients (29 girls aged 7.7±1.5 years received a second implant. Eighteen were naïve to GnRHa therapy at first implantation. Peak LH declined from 0.92±0.58 mIU/mL at 12 months to 0.51±0.33 mIU/mL at 24 months (P < .0001 in naïve subjects, and from 0.74±0.50 mIU/mL at 12 months to 0.45±0.35 mIU/mL at 24 months (P=.0081 in previously treated subjects. Predicted adult height increased by 5.1 cm at 24 months (P=.0001. Minor implant site reactions occurred in 61%, while minor difficulties with explantation occurred in 32.2% of subjects. Conclusion. The histrelin implant demonstrates profound hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis suppression when a new implant is placed for a second year of treatment. Prospective follow-up of this therapeutic modality for the treatment of CPP is needed.

  1. Maturation, proliferation and apoptosis of seminal tubule cells at puberty after administration of estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone or both

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renata Walczak-Jedrzejowska; Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer; Katarzyna Marchlewska; Krzysztof Kula

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess proliferative and apoptotic potential of the seminiferous epithelium cells in relation to Sertoli cell maturation in newborn rats under the influence of estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or both agents given together. Methods: From postnatal day (PND) 5 to 15 male rats were daily injected with 12.5 μg of 17β-estradiol benzoate (EB) or 7.5 IU of human purified FSH (hFSH) or EB + hFSH or solvents (control). On postnatal day 16, autopsy was performed. Sertoli cell maturation/function was assessed by morphometry. Proliferation of the semini- ferous epithelium cells was quantitatively evaluated using immunohistochemical labeling against proliferating cell nuclear antigen and apoptosis using the TUNEL method. Results: Although EB inhibited Sertoli cell maturation and hFSH was not effective, a pronounced acceleration of Sertoli cell maturation occurred after EB + hFSH. Whereas hFSH stimulated Sertoli cell proliferation, EB or EB + hFSH inhibited Sertoli cell proliferation. All treatments signifi- cantly stimulated germ cell proliferation. Apoptosis of Sertoli cells increased 9-fold and germ cells 2-fold after EB, and was not affected by hFSH but was inhibited after EB + hFSH. Conclusion: At puberty, estradiol inhibits Sertoli cell maturation, increases Sertoli and germ cell apoptosis but stimulates germ cell proliferation. Estradiol in synergism with FSH, but neither of the hormones alone, accelerates Sertoli cell maturation associated with an increase in germ cell survival. Estradiol and FSH cooperate to induce seminal tubule maturation and trigger first spermatogenesis. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 585-592)

  2. Precocious puberty with hypothalamic hamartoma and non classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, A M; Pucarelli, I; Cambiaso, P; Cappa, M

    2009-10-01

    Two girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) associated with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) and non classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH), are reported. Case 1. The first patient, who showed at age around 4 years the onset of CPP, was submitted in view of some organic lesion to magnetic resonance (MRI) of the brain which documented the presence of HH. The remarkable acceleration of bone age (BA) advanced of 3 SD and some clinical signs of hyperandrogenism suggested the coexistence of NCAH, proved by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test and molecular analysis. She resulted carrier of partial 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Case 2. In the second girl with CPP, aged 6.5 years, the remarkable advancement (4 SD) of bone age (BA) alerted to adrenal involvement. ACTH stimulation test and molecular analysis showed NACH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Brain MRI, performed mainly for severe headache, showed the presence of HH. Yearly brain MRI to monitor HH dimensions and neurological examination with EEG, in order to exclude anomalies referable to gelastic epilepsy are advisable, in both cases. The authors' observation emphasizes the need to be careful in young patients with CPP, with fast progression of pubertal development and remarkable BA advancement. The association of CPP with HH and NCAH should be considered, performing not only MRI of the brain, but also ACTH test, beside LHRH test for the diagnosis of CPP. At the authors' knowledge this association has not been reported so far. Further observations are needed to understand if this rare combination is occasional or genetically determined.

  3. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  4. Pubertal onset in boys and girls is influenced by pubertal timing of both parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfart-Veje, Christine; Korsholm Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P;

    2016-01-01

    .1(-10.4;-3.7) if the father/mother respectively had early pubertal development compared to late. In girls, menarche was significantly associated with both parents' pubertal timing: -10.5 months (-15.9;-5.1) / -10.1 (-14.3;-6.0) if father/mother had early pubertal development compared to late. For onset of PH2+and B2......CONTEXT: Epidemiological evidence on maternal and paternal heritability of the wide normal variation within pubertal timing is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the impact of parental pubertal timing on onset of puberty in boys and girls. DESIGN: Annual pubertal examinations of healthy...... children in a longitudinal cohort study. Information on parental timing of puberty (earlier, comparable to or later compared to peers) and menarche-age was retrieved from questionnaires. PARTICIPANTS: 672 girls 846 boys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age at onset of pubic hair (PH2+), breasts (B2+) and menarche...

  5. Oral alterations among chemical dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Vanessa COLODEL

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been daily observed a significant increase ofchemical dependent individuals, as well as the lack of depth on thisissue in the dentistry area. Nevertheless many times the dentalclinicians are the first professionals to diagnose possible alterations,which appear due to the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs. Objectives: To make a literature review of oral alterations and to identify them on a specific group of persons, which are addicted to different types of drugs. Material and methods: The clinical history of the selected individuals was added to the answers of a questionnaire,comprising the data of the present research. Results: Besides other minor soft tissue alterations, a high prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases were found in the studied population. Conclusion: It was concluded that the role of the dental clinician is very important to the health rehabilitation of drug addicts, individuals with physical and mental disorders that need specific oral care, which sometimes is neglected.

  6. Heritability of regional and global brain structure at the onset of puberty: a magnetic resonance imaging study in 9-year-old twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; Schnack, Hugo G; Brouwer, Rachel M; Van Baal, G Caroline M; Pjetri, Eneda; Székely, Eszter; van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; Collins, D Louis; Evans, Alan C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2009-07-01

    Puberty represents the phase of sexual maturity, signaling the change from childhood into adulthood. During childhood and adolescence, prominent changes take place in the brain. Recently, variation in frontal, temporal, and parietal areas was found to be under varying genetic control between 5 and 19 years of age. However, at the onset of puberty, the extent to which variation in brain structures is influenced by genetic factors (heritability) is not known. Moreover, whether a direct link between human pubertal development and brain structure exists has not been studied. Here, we studied the heritability of brain structures at 9 years of age in 107 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (N = 210 individuals) using volumetric MRI and voxel-based morphometry. Children showing the first signs of secondary sexual characteristics (N = 47 individuals) were compared with children without these signs, based on Tanner-stages. High heritabilities of intracranial, total brain, cerebellum, and gray and white matter volumes (up to 91%) were found. Regionally, the posterior fronto-occipital, corpus callosum, and superior longitudinal fascicles (up to 93%), and the amygdala, superior frontal and middle temporal cortices (up to 83%) were significantly heritable. The onset of secondary sexual characteristics of puberty was associated with decreased frontal and parietal gray matter densities. Thus, in 9-year-old children, global brain volumes, white matter density in fronto-occipital and superior longitudinal fascicles, and gray matter density of (pre-)frontal and temporal areas are highly heritable. Pubertal development may be directly involved in the decreases in gray matter areas that accompany the transition of our brains from childhood into adulthood.

  7. Expression of kisspeptin in hypothalamus and the relationship between kisspeptin and puberty%下丘脑Kisspeptin表达与青春期发育的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海珍

    2010-01-01

    The priming of puberty is date from the increase of the secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Recently,Kisspeptins/ GPR54 signaling were found critical to promote the secretion of GnRH and the onset of puberty. KISSI expresses in special area of hypothalamus and is regulated by sex steroids in the estrous cycle.Kisspeptins transitive steroid feedback signals to GnRH cells, especially the positive feedback signal which causes preovulatory GnRH / LH secretion. Kisspeptins bind KISS1R in the hypothalamic GnRH neurons and evoke the release of GnRH and the onset of puberty.%青春期启动始于下丘脑促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)分泌的提高.Kisspeptin/G蛋白耦联受体(GPR 54或KISSIR)信号通路是最近发现能促进GnRH分泌和正常青春期启动的关键因素.KISS1表达定位于下丘脑的特定区域,在动情周期中受性激素调节,Kisspeptin传递性激素的反馈信号至GnRH细胞,特别是正反馈信号可以引起排卵前的GnRH/黄体生成素分泌.Kisspetin与位于下丘脑GnRH神经元上的受体KISS1R相互作用,导致GnRH脉冲性释放和青春期启动.

  8. Glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in type A insulin resistance syndrome around puberty: a 9-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Liu, J; Ma, L; Wan, X; He, X; Fang, D; Liao, Z; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is thought to be progressive. Insufficient insulin secretion in compensation for insulin resistance leads to glucose intolerance. A previously reported proband with type A insulin resistance syndrome and her younger twin brothers with and without the R1174W missense mutation in the insulin receptor gene were followed for 9 years to study the progression of glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function around puberty. Five-hour OGTT was performed in them at each visit. Areas under the curves of glucose, insulin and C-peptides, insulinogenic index, AIR, and Homa indices were assessed. Intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) were quantified in the proband and compared to those of 12 nondiabetic subjects, 118 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. The proband maintained normal HbA1c (27-37 mmol/mol) and fasting plasma glucose (3.7-4.5 mmol/l), and her glucose tolerance ameliorated over years. The proband's Homa-IR decreased into adulthood, while her Homa-B, insulinogenic index, AIR, AUCs of insulin, and C-peptide decreased accordingly. Homa-B to Homa-IR ratios stayed significantly higher than normal. Homa-B, AUCs of insulin, and C-peptide of the twin brothers increased in response to the increment of Homa-IR as they entered middle and late puberty. The changes were more dramatic in the twin brothers carrying the mutation. IMCLs of the proband were lower than those of the nondiabetic counterparts and were disproportional for the degree of insulin resistance. Our longitudinal data of type A insulin resistance syndrome around puberty provide significant information for the study of insulin secretion in compensation for insulin resistance.

  9. Notch-2在大鼠牙髓炎中的时空分布及其意义%Time-sequenced alteration of immunolocalization and significance of Notch-2 expression in rat pulpitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亮; 张亚庆; 王胜朝; 黄贞贞

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究单纯开髓导致大鼠牙髓炎进程中Notch-2在牙髓损伤修复中的作用.方法:通过开髓建立大鼠牙髓炎模型,用免疫组织化学染色方法研究Notch-2的时空表达变化及其意义.结果:牙髓损伤早期(3 d),牙髓间充质细胞和牙髓成纤维细胞中Notch-2均呈弱阳性表达,成牙本质细胞为阴性表达.牙髓损伤中期(5 d),靠近损伤区的成牙本质细胞深层细胞Notch-2阳性表达达到高峰;同时,新生毛细血管内皮细胞呈强阳性表达.牙髓损伤晚期(7 d),Notch-2在牙髓间充质细胞、血管内皮细胞中表达均减弱,而在成牙本质细胞阳性表达达到高峰.牙髓损伤末期(14 d),Notch-2仅在成牙本质细胞下层细胞中尚有微弱表达,而其余牙髓细胞均为阴性表达.对照组正常牙髓组织Notch-2表达为阴性.结论:Notch-2在牙髓损伤应激情况下在牙髓间充质细胞和成牙本质细胞中上调表达,对于启动牙髓自我修复、诱导牙髓间充质细胞功能性分化以及抑制受损成牙本质细胞凋亡、维系和调动其相对正常的生理功能可能具有重要作用.%Objective; To investigate the immunolocalization and significance of Notch-2 expression in the process of dental pulp repair after injury. Methods: An experimental animal model of injury-induced pulpitis was established to observe the time-sequenced alteration of the expression of Notch-2. Results: Three days post-operation, weak positive staining of Notch-2 was observed in pulp mesenchyme cells and pulp fibroblasts but not in vascular endothelial cells or odontoblasts. Five days post-operation, strong Notch-2 reactivity was found in subodontoblasts as well as newly bom capillary endothelial cells. Seven days after cavity preparation, Notch-2 staining became weaker in pulp mesenchyme cells and capillary endothelial cells, but stronger positive staining was found in odontoblasts. Two weeks post-operation, weak Notch-2 staining was seen in pulp

  10. FSHbeta gene mutation in a female with delayed puberty and hypogonadism: response to recombinant human FSH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Alain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a woman with primary amenorrhoea and infertility associated with an isolated deficiency of pituitary FSH that does not respond to GnRH administration. Serum inhibin B was undetectable and antimullerian hormone (AMH was within the normal range. Ultra sound examination revealed a small uterus and small ovaries with few small follicles. We identified an homozygous 1-bp (G deletion at codon 79 in FSHbeta gene suggesting a complete loss of function. The patient underwent studies of ovarian responsiveness to recombinant human FSH according to the following protocol: 150UI/d for five days following by 75 UI/d for 10 days. Estradiol plasma level started to increase from day 5 associated to a sharp increase of inhibine B and a decrease of LH. During the same time, we observed an excessive development of multiple follicles resulting in an arrest of the treatment to avoid hyperstimulation. The present study confirm that follicles up to 5 mm in diameter had developed in the absence of FSH and that FSH is required for the growth of follicles beyond the two-layer granulose stage.

  11. Increased intake of carbohydrates from sources with a higher glycemic index and lower consumption of whole grains during puberty are prospectively associated with higher IL-6 concentrations in younger adulthood among healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletzke, Janina; Buyken, Anette E; Joslowski, Gesa; Bolzenius, Katja; Remer, Thomas; Carstensen, Maren; Egert, Sarah; Nöthlings, Ute; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Roden, Michael; Herder, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation represents a likely intermediary in the relation between carbohydrate nutrition and both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the prospective association between carbohydrate quantity and quality [dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and added sugar, fiber, and whole-grain intake] during puberty, a potentially critical period for later disease, and low-grade inflammation in younger adulthood. The analysis was based on 205 participants (113 girls and 92 boys) from the DONALD (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) study with at least 2 3-d weighed dietary records during puberty (girls: 9-14 y, boys: 10-15 y) and blood samples in younger adulthood (18-36 y). Multivariable linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between carbohydrate nutrition and circulating concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory immune mediators [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL) 6, IL-18, and adiponectin]. A higher intake of carbohydrates during puberty (P-trend = 0.005), particularly from higher-GI food sources (P-trend = 0.01), was prospectively related to higher concentrations of IL-6 in younger adulthood, independently of baseline BMI and early life, socioeconomic, and other nutritional factors. Furthermore, a higher dietary GL (P-trend = 0.002) and a lower intake of whole grains (P-trend = 0.01) were independently associated with higher IL-6 concentrations in adults. Dietary GI and added sugar and fiber intakes were not independently associated with IL-6 (P-trend ≥ 0.09). Carbohydrate nutrition during puberty was not independently related to hs-CRP, IL-18, and adiponectin concentrations (all P-trend > 0.1). During puberty, a higher intake of carbohydrates from higher-GI food sources and lower whole-grain consumption prospectively predict greater IL-6 concentrations in young adulthood. These data support the hypothesis that diet during

  12. Composição corporal e puberdade de leitoas alimentadas com níveis alto e baixo de proteína na dieta Body composition and puberty of gilts fed low and high protein diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Enrique Lemos Budiño

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar alterarações na composição corporal, diferentes níveis protéicos (12 e 18% PB foram utilizados na dieta de leitoas de reposição, dos 100 aos 221 dias de idade. Durante esse período foram avaliados o peso corporal, espessura de toucinho (ET, manifestação de estro, características do trato reprodutivo e o balanço nitrogenado. Para a determinação do balanço nitrogenado, as leitoas foram submetidas a dois ensaios de digestibilidade (aos 136 e aos 201 dias de idade. Em ambos os ensaios, as leitoas alimentadas com 18% PB apresentaram maior ingestão, retenção e excreção de nitrogênio e maiores níveis de uréia plasmática e urinária (P0,05. Houve redução de 48% na excreção de nitrogênio com a dieta menos protéica. Leitoas alimentadas com 12% PB apresentaram maior ganho de ET (7,4 mm em comparação às alimentadas com 18% PB (4,5 mm, dos 100 aos 207 dias de idade (PWith the aim of altering body composition, diets with different protein levels (12 and 18 CP were offered to breeding gilts from 100 to 221 days of age. During this period, body weight, backfat thickness, oestrus manifestation, characteristics of reproductive tract and nitrogen balance were evaluated. Nitrogen balance was measured during two metabolism trials (at 136 and at 201 days of age. In both trials, gilts fed 18% CP showed higher nitrogen intake, retention and excretion and higher plasmatic and urinary urea levels (P.05. The low-protein diet reduced by 48% the excretion of nitrogen. Gilts fed 12% CP showed a greater backfat change (7.4 mm than those fed 18% CP (4.5 mm, between 100 and 207 days of age (P<.02. Body weight, uterine weight, uterine horns length and number of corpora lutea were not influenced by the level of dietary protein. The rate of oestrus detection, up to 25 days after male exposure, was similar to females receiving 12% (71% and 18% CP (75%. The protein level affected body composition without altering body

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Domestic Leuprorelin in Girls with Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty: A Multicenter,Randomized, Parallel, Controlled Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Jing Li; Chun-Xiu Gong; Mei-Jie Guo; Jie Xing; Tang Li; Wen-Hui Song; Xiao-Ping Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background:In central precocious puberty (CPP),the pulse secretion and release ofgonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are increased due to early activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis,resulting in developmental abnormalities with gonadal development and appearance of secondary sexual characteristics.The CPP without organic disease is known as idiopathic CPP (ICPP).The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of domestic leuprorelin (GnRH analog) in girls with ICPP.Methods:A total of 236 girls with ICPP diagnosed from April 2012 to January 2014 were selected and were randomized into two groups.One hundred fifty-seven girls in the test group were treated with domestic leuprorelin acetate,79 girls in the control group were treated with imported leuprorelin acetate.They all were treated and observed for 6 months.After 6-month treatment,the percentage of children with peak luteinizing hormone (LH) ≤3.3 U/L,the percentage of children with peak LH/peak follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio <0.6,the improvements of secondary sexual characteristics,gonadal development and sex hormone levels,the change of growth rate of bone age (BA) and growth velocity,and drug adverse effects between two groups were compared.Results:After the treatment,the percentage of children with a suppressed LH response to GnRH,defined as a peak LH ≤3.3 U/L,at 6 months in test and control groups were 96.80% and 96.20%,respectively,and the percentage of children with peak LH/FSH ratio ≤0.6 at 6 months in test and control groups were 93.60% and 93.70%,respectively.The sizes of breast,uterus and ovary of children and the levels of estradiol (E2) were significantly reduced,and the growth rate of BA was also reduced.All the differences between pre-and post-treatment in each group were statistically significant (P < 0.05),but the differences of the parameters between two groups were not significant (P > 0.05).Conclusions

  14. Ressourcenorientierte Diagnostik im Alter

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Trotz der im Alter zunehmenden körperlichen, kognitiven und sozialen Verlusten bleibt das subjektive Wohlbefinden relativ stabil. Dies weist auf die vielen Ressourcen älterer Menschen hin. Dieser Artikel stellt für die klinische Ressourcendiagnostik relevante Verfahren vor und erläutert die zugrunde liegenden Konzepte. Berücksichtigt werden Aktivitäten und Erlebnisse als Ressourcen, emotionale Ressourcen (positiver Affekt, Lebenszufriedenheit, Selbstwerterleben, Lebensqualität), motivationale...

  15. Epigenetic Alterations in Muscular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Lanzuolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms, acting via chromatin organization, fix in time and space different transcriptional programs and contribute to the quality, stability, and heritability of cell-specific transcription programs. In the last years, great advances have been made in our understanding of mechanisms by which this occurs in normal subjects. However, only a small part of the complete picture has been revealed. Abnormal gene expression patterns are often implicated in the development of different diseases, and thus epigenetic studies from patients promise to fill an important lack of knowledge, deciphering aberrant molecular mechanisms at the basis of pathogenesis and diseases progression. The identification of epigenetic modifications that could be used as targets for therapeutic interventions could be particularly timely in the light of pharmacologically reversion of pathological perturbations, avoiding changes in DNA sequences. Here I discuss the available information on epigenetic mechanisms that, altered in neuromuscular disorders, could contribute to the progression of the disease.

  16. Male Central Precocious Puberty: Serum Profile of Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Inhibin B before, during, and after Treatment with GnRH Analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Grinspon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to describe the functional changes of Sertoli cells, based on the measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and inhibin B during treatment with GnRHa and after its withdrawal in boys with central precocious puberty. Six boys aged 0.8 to 5.5 yr were included. AMH was low at diagnosis in patients >1 yr but within the normal range in younger patients. AMH increased to normal prepubertal levels during treatment. After GnRHa withdrawal, AMH declined concomitantly with the rise in serum testosterone. At diagnosis, inhibin B was elevated and decreased throughout therapy, remaining in the upper normal prepubertal range. In patients with testicular volume above 4 mL AMH remained higher in spite of suppressed FSH. After treatment withdrawal, inhibin B rose towards normal pubertal levels. In conclusion, AMH did not decrease in patients <1 yr reflecting the lack of androgen receptor expression in Sertoli cells in early infancy. Serum inhibin B might result from the contribution of two sources: the mass of Sertoli cells and the stimulation exerted by FSH. Sertoli cell markers might provide additional tools for the diagnosis and treatment followup of boys with central precocious puberty.

  17. Boys and Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including at night. Some call this a “wet dream.” This happens when a boy’s testosterone level rises. ... friends and love interests. Their work and organizational habits may improve, as will their plans for their ...

  18. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... voice is a sign that his voice is changing and will become deeper. Dark, coarse, curly hair ...

  19. Does cancer start in the womb? altered mammary gland development and predisposition to breast cancer due to in utero exposure to endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Ana M; Brisken, Cathrin; Schaeberle, Cheryl; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    We are now witnessing a resurgence of theories of development and carcinogenesis in which the environment is again being accepted as a major player in phenotype determination. Perturbations in the fetal environment predispose an individual to disease that only becomes apparent in adulthood. For example, gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol resulted in clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and breast cancer. In this review the effects of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A (BPA) on mammary development and tumorigenesis in rodents is used as a paradigmatic example of how altered prenatal mammary development may lead to breast cancer in humans who are also widely exposed to it through plastic goods, food and drink packaging, and thermal paper receipts. Changes in the stroma and its extracellular matrix led to altered ductal morphogenesis. Additionally, gestational and lactational exposure to BPA increased the sensitivity of rats and mice to mammotropic hormones during puberty and beyond, thus suggesting a plausible explanation for the increased incidence of breast cancer.

  20. Quantitative calcaneal ultrasound parameters and bone mineral density at final height in girls treated with depot gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist for central precocious puberty or idiopathic short stature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordelaar, S. van; Noordam, C.; Otten, B.J.; Bergh, J.P.W. van den

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment on bone quality at final height, we studied girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) and with idiopathic short stature (ISS). A total of 25 Caucasian girls were included: group A (n=14) with idiopathic CPP (mean ag

  1. Serum concentrations of type I and III procollagen propeptides in healthy children and girls with central precocious puberty during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and cyproterone acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Juul, A;

    1993-01-01

    Serum levels of type I and III procollagen propeptides (s-PICP and s-PIIINP) were measured in 466 healthy school children and in 23 girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) during GnRH analog and cyproterone acetate therapy, using two commercially available RIAs. In normal children, s-PICP and...

  2. Adult height in girls with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues and growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, A M; Pucarelli, I; Segni, M; Matrunola, M; Cerroni, F; Cerrone, F

    1999-02-01

    GnRH analogues (GnRHa) represent the treatment of choice in central precocious puberty (CPP), because arresting pubertal development and reducing either growth velocity (GV) or bone maturation (BA) should improve adult height. However, in some patients, GV decrease is so remarkable that it impairs predicted adult height (PAH); and therefore, the addition of GH is suggested. Out of twenty subjects with idiopathic CPP (treated with GnRHa depot-triptorelin, at a dose of 100 microg/kg im every 21 days, for at least 2-3 yr), whose GV fall below the 25th percentile for chronological age, 10 received, in addition to GnRHa, GH at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg x week s.c., 6 days weekly, for 2-4 yr; and 10 matched for BA, chronological age, and duration of GnRHa treatment, who showed the same growth pattern but refused GH treatment, served to evaluate the efficacy of GH addition. No patient showed classical GH deficiency. Both groups discontinued treatment at a comparable BA (mean +/- SEM): 13.2 +/- 0.2 in GnRHa plus GH vs. 13.0 +/- 0.1 yr in the control group. At the conclusion of the study, all the patients had achieved adult height. Adult height was considered to be attained when the growth during the preceding year was less than 1 cm, with a BA of over 15 yr. Patients of the group treated with GH plus GnRHa showed an adult height significantly higher (P < 0.001) than pretreatment PAH (160.6 +/- 1.3 vs. 152.7 +/- 1.7 cm). Target height (TH) was significantly exceeded. The group treated with GnRH alone reached an adult height not significantly higher than pretreatment PAH (157.1 +/- 2.5 vs. 155.5 +/- 1.9 cm). TH was just reached but not significantly exceeded. The gain in centimeters obtained, calculated between pretreatment PAH and final height, was 7.9 +/- 1.1 cm in patients treated with GH combined with GnRHa; whereas in patients treated with GnRHa alone, the gain was just 1.6 +/- 1.2 cm (P = 0.001). Furthermore, no side effects have been observed either on bone age progression

  3. Genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif; Lena Karapanagiotou; Kostas Syrigos

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is devastating for patients and their relatives as the incidence rate is approximately the same as mortality rate. Only a small percentage, which ranges from 0.4% to 4% of patients who have been given this diagnosis, will be alive at five years. At the time of diagnosis, 80% of pancreatic cancer patients have unresectable or metastatic disease.Moreover, the therapeutic alternatives offered by chemotherapy or radiotherapy are few, if not zero. For all these reasons, there is an imperative need of analyzing and understanding the primitive lesions that lead to invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Molecular pathology of these lesions is the key of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of this cancer and will probably help us in earlier diagnosis and better therapeutic results. This review focuses on medical research on pancreatic cancer models and the underlying genetic alterations.

  4. The effect of maternal malnutrition during lactation on the endometrial ERalpha expression, collagen type, and blood vessels in the rats offspring at puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt Brasil, Flávia; Silva Faria, Tatiane; Barcellos Sampaio, Francisco José; da Fonte Ramos, Cristiane

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript was to evaluate the effects of maternal protein-energy-restriction and energy restriction during lactation on endometrial collagen and blood vessels, uterus Eralpha expression, and estradiol serum levels in the rats offspring at puberty. At parturition, dams were grouped as: control group (C), with free access to standard rat chow containing 23% protein and 17,038.7 KJ/Kg; protein-energy restricted group (PER), with free access to formulated chow containing 8% protein but made isoenergetic to the C diet (17,038.7 KJ/Kg); and energy-restricted group (ER), which received standard rat chow containing 23% protein based on the mean ingestion of the PER group corresponding to 60% of that consumed by the control group. After weaning, all female pups had free access to standard laboratory chow until puberty, when they were killed at the diestrum stage. The uterine ERalpha expression was determined by Western-Blot and estradiol serum levels by radioimmunoassay. Endometrial collagen and blood vessels were quantified by stereology. The volumetric density of blood vessels (C = 70.7 +/- 2.2; PER = 29.2 +/- 2.4; ER = 32.3 +/- 3.6; P < 0.001) and endometrial collagen (C = 31.1 +/- 1; PER = 26.9 +/- 1.0; ER = 26.5 +/- 0.7; P < 0.05) were significantly reduced in both malnourished groups. The ER group presented higher estradiol serum levels (C = 69.2 +/- 6.4; PER = 73.4 +/- 5.5; ER = 101.0 +/- 5.4; P < 0.01) in relation to C and PER groups. ERalpha expression was greater in both malnourished groups (C = 0.11 +/- 0.02; PER = 0.41 +/- 0.12; ER = 0.35 +/- 0.03; P < 0.05). In conclusion, maternal malnutrition during lactation caused changes in endometrial angiogenesis, collagen deposition, and Eralpha expression in female offspring that will appear in puberty and could affect the reproductive biology of the female offspring.

  5. 青春期多囊卵巢综合征的诊断%Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳; 马明; 侯丽辉

    2013-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)以稀发排卵或无排卵、临床和/或生化的高雄激素血症、卵巢的多囊样改变为特征.PCOS患者多于月经初潮前后出现症状,而正常青春期女孩也会出现月经变化和卵巢的多囊样改变,青春期因为环境改变如体重增加也会发生PCOS,目前国际上尚无青春期PCOS的诊断标准,这使得青春期PCOS的诊断困难,PCOS的结局既有生殖障碍,又有代谢异常,且容易发生糖尿病、心血管疾病、子宫内膜癌等远期并发症.所以早期诊断PCOS,进行相应治疗,可有效预防远期并发症的发生.文章认为应从排卵功能障碍和月经紊乱、临床的高雄激素血症、生化的高雄激素血症、卵巢的多囊样改变、促性腺激素异常、肥胖和代谢障碍、破坏性的睡眠呼吸暂停等方面考虑对PCOS的诊断.%Polycystic ovary syndrome( PCOS )is characterized as less ovulation or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary changes. The symptoms of PCOS happen commonly around menarche.The healthy girls in puberty also have menstrual changes and polycystic ovary alternations. PCOS may also occur in puberty because of the environmental changes such as body weight gaining. Currently, the diagnostic standard on puberty PCOS has not been issued yet in the world, which brings the difficulty in the diagnosis. The consequences of PCOS include reproductive disturbance, metabolic abnormality and the long-term complications such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and endometrial cancer. Therefore , the early diagnosis of PCOS and treatment can effectively prevent the long-term complications. The paper believed that PCOS diagnosis should be considered in terms of ovulatory dysfunction,menstrual disorders, clinical hyperandrogenism, biochemical hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary changes, gonadotropin abnormality , obesity, metabolic disturbance, destructive sleep apnea, etc.

  6. Gender differences of oligomers and total adiponectin during puberty: a cross-sectional study of 859 Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian Kjaer; Frystyk, Jan; Wolthers, Ole D;

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Pubertal stages have been shown to influence total adiponectin (ADPN) levels. Furthermore, testosterone has been shown to alter the isomer distribution of ADPN. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate whether pubertal stages and testosterone levels influenced total serum ADP...

  7. Puberdade precoce: a experiência de um ambulatório de Ginecologia Infanto-Puberal Precocious puberty: the experience of o Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Neves de Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os casos com suspeita de puberdade precoce, em relação à classificação diagnóstica e etiológica, atendidos no período compreendido entre os anos de 2000 e 2005. MÉTODOS: foram revisados os prontuários de 58 pacientes com suspeita diagnóstica de puberdade precoce atendidas no período compreendido entre os anos de 2000 e 2005 para análise de dados relevantes. Os critérios de inclusão foram desenvolvimento de mamas e/ou pêlos pubianos antes dos oito anos de idade. As pacientes foram classificadas de acordo com o quadro clínico e os exames complementares em uma das seguintes categorias: puberdade precoce central (PPC, pseudopuberdade precoce, telarca precoce e pubarca precoce. RESULTADOS: dos 58 casos revisados, 28 tiveram diagnóstico de PPC, um de pseudopuberdade precoce, dez de telarca precoce e 19 de pubarca precoce. Todos os casos de PPC foram de origem idiopática, com exceção de uma paciente em que houve ativação do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-ovariano secundária a hiperplasia adrenal congênita. Houve um caso com suspeita diagnóstica de pseudopuberdade precoce devido à síndrome de McCune-Albright. Todos os casos de telarca precoce foram de origem idiopática, exceto um caso que foi associado a hipotireoidismo primário. Todos os casos de pubarca precoce foram de origem idiopática. CONCLUSÕES: dentre os casos atendidos com diagnóstico de puberdade precoce no período de cinco anos, o diagnóstico final predominante foi PPC e a grande maioria dos casos foi de origem idiopática, havendo baixa incidência de patologias orgânicas.PURPOSE: to evaluate the classification and the etiology of girls attended in a Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology Clinic. METHODS: The hospital charts of 58 female patients attended from 2000 to 2005 with diagnosis of probable precocious puberty were reviewed and relevant data analyzed. Inclusion criteria were breast and/or pubic hair growth before eight years old. The

  8. 能量代谢因子促生长激素释放肽与青春期启动%Energy metabolism factor ghrelin and puberty onset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳艳

    2012-01-01

    促生长激素释放肽与机体摄食和能量代谢的调节有关,同时能够调节机体与性激素分泌相关的促性腺激素类物质释放,是连接能量代谢与下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴的桥梁因子.生殖系统功能的启动与成熟与机体的营养状态密切相关,儿童青春期的启动需要一定的体脂储备,肥胖儿童青春期易提前启动,促生长激素释放肽可能是传递机体营养状态的信号因子之一,可能在青春期的启动中发挥一定的作用.%Ghrelin is involved in the process of feeding behavior and regulation of related energy metabolism,it also modulates the secretion of gonadotropins or transmitters concerning sex hormone releasing.It is considered as the factor connecting the HPG axis and energy metabolism.Body's nutrition has a bearing upon the process of reproductive system's onset and maturation.Adequate body weight is necessary for normal puberty onset.Obese children tend to have an earlier menarche.Ghrelin may pass on the information about nutrition to the hypothamalus in puberty onset.

  9. Long-term effects of human growth hormone-releasing hormone and photoperiod on hormone release and puberty in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringuet, H; Pelletier, G; Brazeau, P; Gaudreau, P; Guilbault, L A; Morisset, J; Couture, Y; Petitclerc, D

    1994-10-01

    Forty-eight Holstein dairy heifers (98.9 kg BW; 3 mo old) were subjected for 246 d to twice-daily s.c. injections of saline (CTL) or human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH; 5 micrograms/kg BW) and to photoperiods of 8 h of light (L): 16 h of dark (D) or 16L:8D according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Jugular blood samples were collected from 16 heifers at 3, 4, 8, and 11 mo of age to monitor prolactin, growth hormone, and estradiol-17 beta. Plasma progesterone concentrations were monitored weekly in all heifers as an index of puberty (> 1 ng/mL). Growth hormone release was induced by GRH (P GRH heifers. However, GRH-induced GH response was less (P GRH, photoperiod, and days of treatment on GRH-induced GH response; AUC was greater in GRH-16L:8D than in GRH-8L:16D heifers at 3 mo but less at 8 mo of age. The PRL concentrations were similar for both photoperiods at 3 mo (36.4 vs 41.7 ng/mL) and 8 mo (16.2 vs 12.8 ng/mL) of age but were greater in 16L:8D vs 8L:16D heifers at 4 mo (18.4 vs 39.3 ng/mL) and 11 mo (26.3 vs 44.1 ng/mL) of age (photoperiod x day interaction, P GRH-treated heifers (271 vs 284 kg BW; GRH x photoperiod interaction, P = .10). In conclusion, GH response is maintained throughout 8 mo of GRH treatment, and a 16L:8D photoperiod will reduce age and weight at puberty in heifers. Furthermore, refractoriness to photoperiod-induced PRL changes was detected.

  10. 高脂肪饮食对大鼠青春期启动影响的实验研究%Effect of High Fat Diet on the Onset of Puberty of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    矫金玲; 陈华; 董逸翔; 陶敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察高脂肪饮食对大鼠青春期启动的影响。方法20只雌性SD大鼠按配对设计的分组原则,分为标准组、高脂组,各20只。实验第1天起标准组大鼠喂养标准饲料,高脂组大鼠喂养高脂肪饲料。每天观察大鼠阴道口开放情况,当高脂组大鼠全部出现阴道口开放,即于当日下午处死全部大鼠。观察两组大鼠阴道口开放时间(VO)及第一性周期时间(D1),计算子宫、卵巢指数,采用放射免疫法检测血清黄体生成素(LH)的含量。结果与标准组比较,高脂组阴道口开放时间(VO)(33.2±1.87)天,第一动情间期时间(D1)(35.7±1.16)天,均较标准组的(36.4±0.96)天、(37.5±0.53)天明显提前(P<0.01),LH含量高脂组(6.275±0.422)mIU/mL,标准组(4.979±0.587)mIU/mL,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论高脂肪饮食可促使大鼠青春期启动提前。%Objective To investigate the effect of high fat diet on the onset of puberty of rats. Methods Twen-ty female SD rats were randomized into standard group and high-fat group by paired design, 10 for each group. From the first day of the experiment, rats in standard group were fed with standard diet, rats in high-fat group were fed with high fat diet. When all 10 rats in high-fat group had vaginal opening (VO), then they were sacri-ficed on the afternoon of that day. The times of VO and first cycle(D1) were observed, the uterus index and ovar-ian index were calculated, and the content of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) was detected by radioimmunoassay. Results Compared with standard group, VO and D1 was significantly earlier in high-fat group (VO:33.2±1.87d vs 36.4±0.96d;D1:35.7±1.16d vs 37.5±0.53d;all P<0.01),and the serum LH were statistically increased in high-fat group(6.275±0.422mIU/mL vs 4.979±0.587mIU/mL,P<0.05). Conclusion The high fat diet can induce early puber-ty starts in rats.

  11. Etiology and prognosis of peripheral precocious puberty in children%外周性性早熟患儿的病因及预后随访

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓红; 陈瑞敏; 张莹; 林祥泉

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨外周性性早熟的病因及预后.方法 应用简化的促性腺激素释放激素( GnRH)激发试验测定卵泡刺激素(FSH)及黄体生成素(LH)、雌二醇(E2)水平,并采用B超检查及骨龄检测等方法对125例外周性性早熟患儿进行病因诊断.随访病例102例,随访时间3个月至7.5年.结果 125例患儿的病因分布为:摄入外源性性激素80例,卵巢囊肿11例,McCune-Albright综合征11例,先天性肾上腺皮质增生症(CAH)5例,卵巢畸胎瘤、男性化肾上腺肿瘤、女性化肾上腺肿瘤、垂体柄肿瘤各1例,另有14例患儿病因尚不能确定.预后:摄入外源性性激素者随访72例,均在1~6个月性征消退;11例卵巢囊肿患儿中,8例1~4个月性征自行消退,但其中1例2年3个月后转为中枢性性早熟;1例囊肿切除术后性征消退;卵巢畸胎瘤者术后性征消退;McCune-Albright综合征及CAH者治疗后临床症状减轻,7例转为中枢性性早熟;2例肾上腺肿瘤术后性征消退;1例垂体柄肿瘤术后1年死亡.结论 外周性性早熟病因多样,详细的病史、体检、辅助检查有助于早期明确诊断,不同病因预后不同.%Objective To study the causes and prognosis of peripheral precocious puberty. Methods The levels of follicle stimulating hormone ( FSH) , luteinizing hormone ( LH ) and estradiol ( E2 ) were detected by a simplified gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test. The etiologies of 125 children with peripheral precocious puberty were explored by ultrasound scans and bone age assessment. A total of 102 cases were followed up for 3 months to 7.5 years. Results The etiological distribution of these children was as follows: exogenous hormones intake (n =80), ovarian cyst ( n = 11 ) , McCune-Albright syndrome ( n = 11 ) , congenital adrenal hyperplasia ( CAH ) ( n = 5 ) , ovarian teratoma (n = 1 ) , masculine adrenal tumor ( n = 1 ) , feminine adrenal tumor ( n = 1 ) , and handle pituitary

  12. Criteria for recognition of localization and timing of multiple events of hydrothermal alteration in sandstones illustrated by petrographic, fluid inclusion, and isotopic analysis of the Tera Group, Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acebrón, Laura; Goldstein, R. H.; Mas, Ramón; Arribas, José

    2011-11-01

    Stratigraphic relations, detailed petrography, microthermometry of fluid inclusions, and fine-scale isotopic analysis of diagenetic phases indicate a complex thermal history in Tithonian fluvial sandstones and lacustrine limestones of the Tera Group (North Spain). Two different thermal events have been recognized and characterized, which are likely associated with hydrothermal events that affected the Cameros Basin during the mid-Cretaceous and the Eocene. Multiple stages of quartz cementation were identified using scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence on sandstones and fracture fills. Primary fluid inclusions reveal homogenization temperatures (Th) from 195 to 350°C in the quartz cements of extensional fracture fillings. The high variability of Th data in each particular fluid inclusion assemblage is related to natural reequilibration of the fluid inclusions, probably due to Cretaceous hydrothermal metamorphism. Some secondary fluid inclusion assemblages show very consistent data (Th = 281-305°C) and are considered not to have reequilibrated. They are likely related to an Eocene hydrothermal event or to a retrograde stage of the Cretaceous hydrothermalism. This approach shows how multiple thermal events can be discriminated. A very steep thermal gradient of 97-214°C/km can be deduced from δ18O values of ferroan calcites (δ18O -14.2/-11.8‰ V-PDB) that postdate quartz cements in fracture fillings. Furthermore, illite crystallinity data (anchizone-epizone boundary) are out of equilibrium with high fluid inclusion Th. These observations are consistent with heat-flux related to short-lived events of hydrothermal alteration focused by permeability contrasts, rather than to regional heat-flux associated with dynamo-thermal metamorphism. These results illustrate how thermal data from fracture systems can yield thermal histories markedly different from host-rock values, a finding indicative of hydrothermal fluid flow.

  13. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  14. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bralten, Linda B. C.; French, Pim J., E-mail: p.french@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Neurology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3000 CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-07

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes.

  15. Analysis on the proportion of incidence of etiological agents in 133 cases with constitutional delayed puberty%青春发育延迟133例病因构成比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德云; 杨琍琦; 胡静; 戴瑞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the proportion of incidence of etiological agents in 133 cases with constitutional delayed puberty.Methods Clinical data of etiological agents in 133 patients with constitutional delayed puberty were retrospectively analyzed.Results Etiological agents in 133 cases with constitutional delayed puberty were as follows:Hypo-gonadotrophic hormone group(56.39%,n=75):39 cases with unknown reason(idiopathy,3 cases were female),intrapartum asphyxia/hypoxia or hemorrhage(n=23),pituitary glands dysplasia(n=6),cephal trauma(n=3),postoperative craniopharyngioma(n=2),empty sella turciea(n=2),combined hormone deficiency(n=59).Hyper-gonadotrophic hormone group(17.29%,n=23):17 cases with chromosomal disorders(n=17,male:female=7:16),3 cases with unknown reason(idiopathy).31 cases with constitutional delayed puberty(23.31%),4 cases with functional delayed puberty(3.01%).Conclusion Many etiological agents could result in delayed puberty,different origins of delayed puberty had different therapies.Classification of etiological agents in patients with constitutional delayed puberty phyed an important role in guiding option of clnical treatment.%目的 分析青春发育延迟(constitu tionaldelayed puberty,CDP)病因构成比并指导治疗.方法 对符合青春发育延迟的患者133例,进行病因分析.结果 133例青春发育延迟患者依据病因分为:低促性腺激索性青春发育延迟组(HH)占56.39%(75/133):其中病因未明(特发性)39例(包括女性3例),另外36例分别为:出生时缺氧窒息、出血(23例)、垂体发育不良(6例)、头颅外伤(3例)、颅咽管瘤术后(2例)、空泡蝶鞍2例,75例中同时有联合激素缺乏(2种及以上垂体激素缺乏)患者59例,占HH组总数的78.3%;高促性腺激素性青春发育延迟组占17.29%(23/133),其中有染色体异常者17例,男性7例中:染色体病变4例、睾丸病变3例.女:16例中,13例为染色体病变,另外3例(女)病因未明(特发性).体质

  16. 遗传因素对青春期启动时间的调控%Genetics of pubertal timing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓宇

    2010-01-01

    青春期是性成熟并获得生殖能力的重要发育阶段.遗传因素是对个体青春期启动时间影响最大的因素.近来分子遗传学的分析逐渐阐明了一些青春发育时间异常疾病的遗传学基础,例如特发性低促性腺激素性性功能减退症和Kallmann综合征.一般人群青春启动时间变异的遗传学基础成为目前研究的热点,然而迄今为止却没有一个基因位点被证实与性发育时间有关.该文主要阐述与青春期启动时间异常有关的基因学研究进展,并讨论与正常青春期启动时间有关的基因.%Puberty is an important developmental stage that leads to sexual maturation and reproductive capability. Genetic factors play a significant role in regulating the variation of pubertal timing. Recent genetic analysis are increasingly elucidating the genetic basis of disorders of pubertal timing such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Kallmann syndrome. Ongoing studies are also investigating the genetic control of puberty in the general population, although no genetic loci have been reproducibly associated with pubertal timing thus far. This review summarizes an update of the genes implicated in disorders of puberty,discusses genes that may be involved in the timing of normal puberty.

  17. Altering the SNR by noise manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2000-12-01

    Irradiation of a photodetector by very short pulses is presented as the primary and perhaps the only remote technology for altering the SNR. Such noise manipulation will decrease the SNR value for certain types of common MIR and LWIR photodetectors. The effect is based on the differences between carrier lifetime, detector material heat transfer rate and altering pulse dwell time. When the pulse width is much less than photodetector rise time, most of the photons cannot generate free carriers, but only heat. Since the heat transfer rate in semiconductors is much slower than carrier's lifetime, high temperature will affect the detector much longer than common input signal correlation length or frame period. We describe thermal, radiometric and electronic circuit models developed to simulate the transfer of short pulses of time-dependent radiant and electrical signals through a photodetector during the alteration. The models are developed to provide an analysis tool for evaluating the time-dependent radiometric sensitivity for the remote gain control of IR photodetectors.

  18. AGE-ASSOCIATED ALTERATIONS IN THE TIME-DEPENDENT PROFILE OF PRO- AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROTEINS WITHIN THE HIPPOCAMPUS IN RESPONSE TO ACUTE EXPOSURE TO INTERLEUKIN-1β

    OpenAIRE

    Hopp, Sarah C.; Royer, Sarah; Brothers, Holly M.; Kaercher, Roxanne M; D’Angelo, Heather; Bardou, Isabelle; Wenk, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β is known to play a role in several models of aging, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we document a detailed time- and age-dependent pattern of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers following bilateral intrahippocampal injection of interleukin-1β. During the first 12 hours several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines increased in the aged (24 mo old) rats, some of which returned to baseline levels by 24 hours post-injection while othe...

  19. Alterações no tempo de cozimento e textura dos grãos de feijão comum durante o armazenamento Alterations in the cooking time and texture of the common bean grains during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Renata Machado Coelho

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, foi comparar alterações no tempo de cozimento e dureza dos grãos de duas variedades de feijão comum, durante o envelhecimento natural e o acelerado. O envelhecimento de um lote de cada variedade de feijão (Iapar 81 variedade carioca e Iapar 44 - variedade preto foi acelerado em estufa a 40ºC e 76% de UR% por 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 dias. Outro lote, das mesmas variedades, foi submetido ao envelhecimento em condições ambientais por três, seis, nove e doze meses. O lote-controle foi armazenado a 5 ºC. Após cada tempo de armazenagem, foram determinados os parâmetros de tempo de cozimento e dureza. Os grãos da variedade carioca apresentaram maiores tempos de cozimento em relação ao feijão preto, em ambos os sistemas de armazenagem. O feijão cozido da variedade carioca apresentou dureza maior que o feijão da variedade preto, tanto no envelhecimento acelerado quanto no envelhecimento natural. A dureza dos grãos cozidos e resfriados à temperatura ambiente foi superior a dos grãos resfriados a 60 ºC, visto que a temperatura influenciou nas medições, provavelmente pela maior retrogradação do amido à temperatura ambiente. O envelhecimento acelerado por vinte dias foi equivalente a um ano em condições naturais, em relação à dureza dos grãos.This experiment aimed to compare the changes of two varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. concerning the cooking time and hardness data during their natural and accelerated aging processes. The aging of a parcel of each variety of bean (Iapar 81 - carioca variety and Iapar 44 - black variety was performed in a 40ºC oven at 76% RH during 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 days. Another parcel of the same varieties was submitted to the aging at room conditions during 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The control lot was storage at 5 ºC. After each storage time, cooking time and hardness parameters were registered. Carioca variety showed the longest cooking times when

  20. Developmental variations in environmental influences including endocrine disruptors on pubertal timing and neuroendocrine control: Revision of human observations and mechanistic insight from rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Gérard, Arlette; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Puberty presents remarkable individual differences in timing reaching over 5 years in humans. We put emphasis on the two edges of the age distribution of pubertal signs in humans and point to an extended distribution towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final pubertal stages. Such distortion of distribution is a recent phenomenon. This suggests changing environmental influences including the possible role of nutrition, stress and endocrine disruptors. Our ability to assess neuroendocrine effects and mechanisms is very limited in humans. Using the rodent as a model, we examine the impact of environmental factors on the individual variations in pubertal timing and the possible underlying mechanisms. The capacity of environmental factors to shape functioning of the neuroendocrine system is thought to be maximal during fetal and early postnatal life and possibly less important when approaching the time of onset of puberty.

  1. GnIH/GPR147和Kisspeptin/GPR54与青春发育启动%GnIH/GPR147 and Kisspeptin/GPR54 in puberty onset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素环(综述); 汪永红(审校)

    2014-01-01

    The initiation of puberty is associated with the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal( HPG) axis. The activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone( GnRH) is the key factor in the initiation of puberty. The initi-ation of puberty is a complicated process,GnRH is under the influence of many associated neuropeptides. Re-cently,the studies have found that GnIH and Kisspeptin can respectively inhibit and promote the hypothalamus GnRH secretion of mammals,indicating that GnIH and Kisspeptin on regulation of reproductive endocrine axis play very important roles. Therefore,GnIH/GPR147 and Kisspeptin/GPR54 pathways may be closely associated with the initiation of puberty.%小儿青春发育启动与下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴的发动有关,而下丘脑促性腺激素释放激素( gona-dotropin-releasing hormone,GnRH)神经元的激活是青春期启动的关键。青春期启动过程是一个复杂的过程,GnRH又受到许多相关神经肽调节的影响。近来研究发现促性腺激素抑制激素( gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone,GnIH)和 Kisspeptin 分别能够抑制和促进哺乳类动物的下丘脑 GnRH 的分泌,提示 GnIH 和Kisspeptin对生殖内分泌轴起着非常重要的调节作用。因此,GnIH/GPR147和Kisspeptin/GPR54两条通路可能与小儿青春发育启动密切相关。

  2. Engineering out motion: a surface disulfide bond alters the mobility of tryptophan 22 in cytochrome b5 as probed by time-resolved fluorescence and 1H NMR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, E M; Grinstead, J S; Campbell, A P; Daggett, V; Atkins, W M

    1999-04-20

    In the accompanying paper [Storch et al. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 5054-5064] equilibrium denaturation studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to investigate localized dynamics on the surface of cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) that result in the formation of a cleft. In those studies, an S18C:R47C disulfide mutant was engineered to inhibit cleft mobility. Temperature- and urea-induced denaturation studies revealed significant differences in Trp 22 fluorescence between the wild-type and mutant proteins. On the basis of the results, it was proposed that wild type populates a conformational ensemble that is unavailable to the disulfide mutant and is mediated by cleft mobility. As a result, the solvent accessibility of Trp 22 is decreased in S18C:R47C, suggesting that the local environment of this residue is less mobile due to the constraining effects of the disulfide on cleft dynamics. To further probe the structural effects on the local environment of Trp 22 caused by inhibition of cleft formation, we report here the results of steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching, differential phase/modulation fluorescence anisotropy, and 1H NMR studies. In Trp fluorescence experiments, the Stern-Volmer quenching constant increases in wild type versus the oxidized disulfide mutant with increasing temperature. At 50 degrees C, KSV is nearly 1.5-fold greater in wild type compared to the oxidized disulfide mutant. In the reduced disulfide mutant, KSV was the same as wild type. The bimolecular collisional quenching constant, kq, for acrylamide quenching of Trp 22 increases 2.7-fold for wild type and only 1.8-fold for S18C:R47C, upon increasing the temperature from 25 to 50 degrees C. The time-resolved anisotropy decay at 25 degrees C was fit to a double-exponential decay for both the wild type and S18C:R47C. Both proteins exhibited a minor contribution from a low-amplitude fast decay, consistent with local motion of Trp 22. This component was more prevalent in

  3. Genetic alteration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Chul; Kang, Tae Woong; Lee, Jin Oh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Cancer of stomach, colon and liver are a group of the most common cancer in Korea. However, results with current therapeutic modalities are still unsatisfactory. The intensive efforts have been made to understand basic pathogenesis and to find better therapeutic tools for the treatment of this miserable disease. We studied the alteration of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea. We found that alteration of Rb gene, APC were 33 %, 13 % respectively. But alterations of oncogenes such as myc, ras and mdm2 were rarely found. Our results suggests that HBV may act as oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis instead of oncogenes. 6 figs, 2 tabs. (Author).

  4. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  5. Recent secular trends in pubertal timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Mouritsen, Annette; Aksglaede, Lise

    2012-01-01

    The decline in age at puberty in the general population has been paralleled by an increase in the number of girls referred for evaluation of precocious puberty (PP). In 1999, The Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society recommended a lowering of the age limit for evaluation of PP in girls. Howe...

  6. 超声影像检查在诊断女孩真性性早熟中的应用%APPLICATION OF ULTRA SONOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSIS OF GIRLS WITH PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨超声影像检查对女孩特发性真性性早熟诊断的应用价值.[方法]应用超声监测性早熟女孩子宫、卵巢大小及卵泡直径,检测血清性激素水平.[结果]女孩特发性真性性早熟子宫、卵巢大小及容积明显大于正常值:随青春成熟度增加,性激素水平提高,卵泡直径与个数增加.[结论]超声影像检查是一种间接观察下丘脑-垂体-性腺轴功能的简便易行的可靠方法.%[Objective] To investigate the value of ultra stenography in the diagnosis and treatment of girls with precocious puberty. [Methods] Used ultrasound techniques to measure the uterus, ovary size and follicle diameter of precocious puberty girls, serum sex hormone levels. [Results] The idiopathic central precocious puberty uterus, ovary size and volume were significantly greater than normal; with the increasing maturity, sex hormone levels rose, the number and diameter of follicles increased. [Conclusion] Ultrasound imaging is a simple and reliable method of the indirect examination of the function of hy-pothalamus - pituitary - gonadal axis.

  7. 中医治疗儿童性早熟辨证用药规律探析%Exploration of regularity of TCM syndrome differentiation and treatment of precocious puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 汪永红; 俞建

    2011-01-01

    自20世纪80年代以来.中医界关于儿童性早熟的诊疗已逐步形成一些基本共识,但尚缺乏有力论证.本研究选取了1981年-2010年共30年间国内中医药治疗儿童性早熟的学术论文,制定纳入标准和排除标准,进行文献筛选、计量分析,从而探析其辨证用药规律,为既有共识提供有力依据,推动中医药诊疗性早熟的规范化进程.%Basic consensuses on TCM diagnosis and treatment of precocious puberty were formed since 1980s, but seldom certificated. Research papers of TCM treatment for precocious puberty from 1981-2010 during recent 30 years were included. An inclusive and exclusive criterion for selecting literatures was established. Metrological analysis was performed in order to explore regularity of syndrome differentiation and treatment, demonstrate these consensuses powerfully and fuel standardization process of TCM diagnosis and treatment for precocious puberty.

  8. 458例注射抑那通治疗中枢性性早熟儿童的护理%Nursing for 458 central precocious puberty children treated with enantone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵迎春; 刘姝嫔; 黄书妹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the nursing methods for central precocious puberty children treated with enantone. Methods The nursing process of 458 central precocious puberty children treated with enantone was statistically analyzed to summarize effective nursing methods. Results The adolescence symptoms of the 458 children stopped or decreased. The rapid growth of the children slowed down and skeletal maturity was brought back to the normal. Conclusion The guidance in psychology,sleep,diet,and exercise is conducive to the recovery of central precocious puberty children with pharmacotherapy.%目的 探讨抑那通治疗中枢性性早熟的护理方法.方法 对458例中枢性性早熟患儿的护理过程进行回顾性分析,总结抑那通治疗中枢性性早熟护理方法.结果 458例患儿治疗前已有的青春期症状停止或减少,患儿迅猛的生长速度减慢,骨骼的成熟也减慢到正常速度.结论 对中枢性性早熟患儿在药物治疗的基础上对患儿进行心理、睡眠、饮食、运动等方面的指导,有利于患儿康复.

  9. Ocean acidification alters fish-jellyfish symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pitt, Kylie A; Rutte, Melchior D; Geertsma, Robbert C

    2016-06-29

    Symbiotic relationships are common in nature, and are important for individual fitness and sustaining species populations. Global change is rapidly altering environmental conditions, but, with the exception of coral-microalgae interactions, we know little of how this will affect symbiotic relationships. We here test how the effects of ocean acidification, from rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, may alter symbiotic interactions between juvenile fish and their jellyfish hosts. Fishes treated with elevated seawater CO2 concentrations, as forecast for the end of the century on a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario, were negatively affected in their behaviour. The total time that fish (yellowtail scad) spent close to their jellyfish host in a choice arena where they could see and smell their host was approximately three times shorter under future compared with ambient CO2 conditions. Likewise, the mean number of attempts to associate with jellyfish was almost three times lower in CO2-treated compared with control fish, while only 63% (high CO2) versus 86% (control) of all individuals tested initiated an association at all. By contrast, none of three fish species tested were attracted solely to jellyfish olfactory cues under present-day CO2 conditions, suggesting that the altered fish-jellyfish association is not driven by negative effects of ocean acidification on olfaction. Because shelter is not widely available in the open water column and larvae of many (and often commercially important) pelagic species associate with jellyfish for protection against predators, modification of the fish-jellyfish symbiosis might lead to higher mortality and alter species population dynamics, and potentially have flow-on effects for their fisheries.

  10. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0523 TITLE: Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: George Tsokos, M.D. CONTRACTING...Activation Alters Platelet Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0523 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) George Tsokos, M.D...a decreased level of disease. Further studies will expand upon these observations better outlining the function of platelets in the injury associated

  11. Neck muscle fatigue alters upper limb proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Murphy, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Limb proprioception is an awareness by the central nervous system (CNS) of the location of a limb in three-dimensional space and is essential for movement and postural control. The CNS uses the position of the head and neck when interpreting the position of the upper limb, and altered input from neck muscles may affect the sensory inputs to the CNS and consequently may impair the awareness of upper limb joint position. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fatigue of the cervical extensors muscles (CEM) using a submaximal fatigue protocol alters the ability to recreate a previously presented elbow angle with the head in a neutral position. Twelve healthy individuals participated. CEM activity was examined bilaterally using surface electromyography, and kinematics of the elbow joint was measured. The fatigue protocol included an isometric neck extension task at 70 % of maximum until failure. Joint position error increased following fatigue, demonstrating a significant main effect of time (F 2, 18 = 19.41, p ≤ 0.0001) for absolute error. No significant differences were found for variable error (F 2, 18 = 0.27, p = 0.76) or constant error (F 2, 18 = 1.16 of time, p ≤ 0.33). This study confirms that fatigue of the CEM can reduce the accuracy of elbow joint position matching. This suggests that altered afferent input from the neck subsequent to fatigue may impair upper limb proprioception.

  12. The influence of puberty onset, body mass index, and pressure to be thin on disordered eating behaviors in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Line; Lariviere, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to verify the hypothesis that pubertal development, obesity, body satisfaction, as well as family and peer influences predict unhealthy eating habits in children and adolescents. A randomized stratified sample of young Quebecers aged 9, 13, and 16 years on March 31, 1999 [608 children aged of 9 years (325 girls and 283 boys) and 662 adolescents aged of 13 and 16 years (349 girls and 313 boys)] were used. Children's weight, height, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded. Questionnaires were administered to children and a parent (usually the mother). Among 9-year-old children, this study found that weight loss or weight control behaviors were predicted mainly by the onset of puberty, lower maternal abusive control, and the level of peer pressure. Among adolescents, mother's BMI, income, peer pressure, and negative comments about the child's weight most strongly predicted behaviors to control weight, strategies to lose weight and the frequency of such behaviors. The findings suggest that both parents and children need to understand the impact of comments on a child's behavior.

  13. A case of anemia caused by combined vitamin B12 and iron deficiency manifesting as short stature and delayed puberty Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Min Song

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency resulting from inadequate dietary intake is rare in children in the modern era because of improvements in nutritional status. However, such anemia can be caused by decreased ingestion or impaired absorption and/ or utilization of vitamin B12. We report the case of an 18-year-old man with short stature, prepubertal sexual maturation, exertional dyspnea, and severe anemia with a hemoglobin level of 3.3 g/dL. He had a history of small bowel resection from 50 cm below the Treitz ligament to 5 cm above the ileocecal valve necessitated by midgut volvulus in the neonatal period. Laboratory tests showed deficiencies of both vitamin B12 and iron. A bone marrow examination revealed dyserythropoiesis and low levels of hemosiderin particles, and a cytogenetic study disclosed a normal karyotype. After treatment with parenteral vitamin B12 and elemental iron, both anemia and growth showed gradual improvement. This is a rare case that presented with short stature and delayed puberty caused by nutritional deficiency anemia in Korea.

  14. Ultrasound imaging of the patellar tendon attachment to the tibia during puberty: a 12-month follow-up in tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, G; Cook, J; Spurrier, D; Coombs, P; Ptasznik, R; Black, J; Bass, S

    2010-02-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the ultrasound appearance of the patellar tendon attachment to the tibia throughout puberty in young tennis players with and without Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD). Twenty-eight competitive players (17 boys), aged 10.6-15.3 years, had bilateral ultrasound imaging of the patellar tendon attachment to the tibia at baseline and 1 year later. On each occasion, anthropometric measurements, pubertal status and injury history were recorded. Ultrasound appearance of the patellar tendon attachment was categorized into three stages: cartilage attachment, insertional cartilage and mature attachment. Stage 1 appearance, a large anechoic region with or without ossicles and irregularity of the apophysis that are classically associated with OSD, was found in eight players, seven of them were pain free. A majority (62%) of the patellar tendons in stage 1 at baseline progressed toward stage 2 or stage 3 1 year later. Likewise the patellar tendon attachment in most athletes with cartilage insertion showed progression to a mature enthesis over 1 year. The imaging appearance that is classically interpreted as OSD was common in asymptomatic knees. This ultrasonographic description of the patellar tendon attachment to the tibia during growth provides a reference for the assessment of bone tendon attachments in adolescents.

  15. Therapeutic and Ethical Dilemma of Puberty and Menstruation Problems in an Intellectually Disabled (Autistic Female: a Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Memarian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills. Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Teenagers with learning and physical disabilities are more likely to have menstrual problems compared to the general populations. The parents of a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability referred to the coroner due to her numerous problems of puberty (menstruation including: poor hygiene and polluting herself and the environment, not allowing to put or change the pads and changes in mood and physical health prior period, requested for the surgery (hysterectomy. In legal medicine organization after reviewing the medical records, physical exams and medical consultations with a gynecologist and psychiatric, surgery was not accepted. Hysterectomy (surgery due to the age of the child, either physically or morally is not recommended. The use of hormone replacement therapy has side effects such as osteoporosis. In these cases, it seems noninvasive methods (behavioral therapy and learning care skills under the welfare experts is also more effective and morally.

  16. Effect of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched diet on plasma IGF-1 and testosterone concentration, puberty and semen quality in male buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, L V; Malla, B A; Sharma, A N; Kumar, Sachin; Tyagi, Nitin; Tyagi, A K

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA enriched diet on plasma IGF-1 and testosterone concentrations, puberty, sperm fatty acid profile and semen quality in male buffalo. Eighteen male buffalo calves were distributed randomly in three different groups and fed concentrate mixture along with green fodder and wheat straw in 50:40:10 ratios as per requirements. Basis ration of animals in group I was supplemented with 4% of prilled fat (PFA), while in group II and group III were added 4.67% of Calcium salt from Soybean (CaSFA) and Linseed oil (CaLFA), respectively. Male buffalo fed omega-3 PUFA high diet significantly increased concentrations of IGF-1 and testosterone in plasma as compared to two other diets (pdiet (CaLFA) had the largest influence as compared to other diets (PFA and CaSFA). Feeding of n-3 PUFA rich diet significantly increased the DHA (C22:6n-3) content in sperm (pdiet increased IGF-1 and testosterone secretion, reduced pubertal age and improved both fresh and post-thawing semen quality in male buffalo.

  17. Analysis on epidemiological characteristics and related risk factors of precocious puberty among children%性早熟儿童流行特征以及相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉; 黄慧; 杨利; 谢理玲

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨性早熟的流行特征及危险因素,为儿童卫生保健、青春期健康教育提供依据.方法:选择2009年1月~2010年12月在江西省儿童医院内分泌科确诊为性早熟及南昌地区4所小学诊断为性早熟儿童共600人,对其家庭因素、社会因素、生活方式、饮食等多个方面进行问卷调查.结果:多因素Logistic回归分析结果发现,父母关系是否和睦、母亲初潮年龄、居住区域、家庭中使用塑料制品、喜爱看言情类电视剧、小说等、服用营养滋补品、喜食动物性食品或高蛋白饮食、经常食用洋快餐、经常食用饮料等含防腐剂、色素食品等因素与儿童性早熟有相关性(P<0.1).结论:改善家庭关系,帮助儿童养成良好的饮食习惯和生活习惯有利于降低儿童性早熟的发病率.%Objective; To explore the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of precocious puberty, provide a basis for health care of children and health education during puberty. Methods: 600 children diagnosed as precocious puberty were selected from department of endocrinology in the hospital and 4 primary schools in Nanchang city from January 2009 to December 2010, their family factor, social factor, life style and diet were surveyed by a questionnaire. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that harmonious relationship between parents, menarche age of their mothers, living region, using plastic products, favoring romance drama class and novels, taking nutritional supplements, eating animal food or high protein diet, regular consumption of Western fast food, regular consumption of drinks containing preservatives and pigment were correlated with precocious puberty (P < 0. 1) . Conclusion: Harmonious relationship between parents, developing good dietary habit and living habit may be helpful to reduce the incidence of precocious puberty.

  18. Application of ultrasonic combined with Back-propagation neural network in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty%超声结合 BP 神经网络技术诊断女童中枢性性早熟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁哲浩; 鲁伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨超声结合人工神经网络技术在女童中枢性性早熟诊断中的应用价值。方法选用170例性早熟女童进行常规超声检查子宫、卵巢,以其中130例的子宫体积、卵巢体积以及双侧卵巢最大卵泡内径为输入变量,以中枢性性早熟或非中枢性性早熟为输出变量,建立反向传播(BP)神经网络,并对另40例性早熟病例分类。结果利用 BP 神经网络结合常规超声检查对中枢性性早熟诊断的敏感性、特异性和准确率分别为95.0%、85.0%、90.0%。结论神经网络结合超声检查对中枢性性早熟的诊断和鉴别诊断具有较大的价值。%Objective To explore the value of ultrasonic combined with Back‐propagation artificial neural network in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty .Methods In 170 girls with precocious puberty ,the uterine and ovarian were ex‐amined with ultrasound ,in which 130 cases of uterine volume ,ovarian volume and bilateral ovarian follicles biggest diame‐ter were taken as inputs ,the central precocious puberty or non‐central precocious puberty as output variable .The back‐propagation (BP) neural network was established using such data .The other 40 cases were sorted by this BP neural net‐work .Results The diagnostic sensitivity ,specificity and accuracy of the BP neural network combination of ultrasound were 95 .0% ,85 .0% and 90 .0% ,respectively .Conclusion The BP neural network in combination of ultrasound is help‐ful in diagnosing central precocious puberty .

  19. Etiology and clinical characteristics of 78 boys presenting with isosexual precocious puberty.%男性儿童同性性早熟78例病因及临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷; 苏喆; 马华梅; 李燕虹; 杜敏联; 陈红珊; 陈秋莉

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析男性儿童同性性早熟的病因及临床特点.方法 回顾性分析1988年1月至2009年4月中山大学附属第一医院收治的明确病因诊断的78例男性同性性早熟病例的病因及临床特点.结果 中枢性性早熟(CPP)55例(70.51%),按构成比前三位病因为特发性性早熟、下丘脑错构瘤、先天性肾上腺皮质增生症(CAH)继发,其中下丘脑错构瘤患儿就诊年龄小、GnRHa激发试验后LH浓度最高,CAH患儿骨龄提前最多、HtSDSba负值最大;外周性性早熟(PPP)23例(29.49%),分泌HCG生殖细胞瘤和CAH为主要病因,CAH患儿由PPP转变为CPP的比例较大(5/9),尤其是初治年龄较大者更易发生.分泌HCG的生殖细胞瘤血和(或)脑脊液的β-HCG水平均升高.结论 男性儿童性早熟以器质性病变引起多见,在诊治过程中应积极寻找病因.%Objective To review the etiology and clinical characteristics of isosexual precocious puberty in boys. Methods Seventy-eight boys referred for evaluation with isosexual precocity in Department of Pediatrics of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between Jan. 1988 and Apr.2009 were reviewed. Results Of the 78 boys referred for isosexual precocity, 55(70.51%) were GnRH-dependent precocious puberty (central precocious puberty,CPP) and 23(29.49%) were GnRH-independent precocious puberty (peripheral precocious puberty, PPP). The three most common diagnoses in CPP were idiopathic precocosious puberty (ICPP), hypothalamic hamartoma and secondary CPP with congenital adrenal hyperplasia(CAH) in order. Among them, the medical age of the hypothalamic hamartoma was the smallest, and the concentration of LH after the GnRHa Stimulation test was the highest. The CAH children had the highest incidence rate of advanced bone age and the maximum negative value of HtSDSba.And the two most common diagnosis in PPP were HCG-secreting germ cell tumor and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). CAH patients from

  20. Study of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone′s Curative Effects on Puberty Idiopathic Short Stature%重组人生长激素对不同青春期特发性矮小症疗效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何毅; 钟燕; 赵莎; 丁大为

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨重组人生长激素对不同青春期时期特发性矮小症(ISS)患儿的疗效.方法 应用重组人生长激素治疗青春期不同时期ISS患儿6个月,比较三组患儿治疗前后生长发育、血糖、甲状腺功能和血胰岛素样生长因子1及胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白3的差异.结果 三组ISS患儿治疗后的身高、体质量、生长速度和骨龄较治疗前增加,其中在身高和生长速度方面的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).青春期前期组ISS患儿治疗后的生长速度改善显著高于青春期中期组和后期组患儿(P<0.05).三组ISS患儿治疗前后的血糖和甲状腺功能均处于正常状态,且三组间血糖和甲状腺功能无明显差异(P>0.05).三组患儿治疗后的血胰岛素样生长因子1和胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白3浓度较治疗前均显著增加(P<0.05),其中青春前期组患儿改善程度显著高于青春期中期组和后期组(P<0.05).结论 重组人生长激素对青春期前期ISS患儿疗效最好,ISS患儿应早期治疗.%Objective To study recombinant human growth hormone's curative effects on idiopathic short stature(ISS) in different puberty stages. Methods Children with ISS in different puberty stages were treated for 6 months with recombinant human growth hormone. Growth, blood glucose, thyroid function, insu-lin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 were compared. Results The height, weight,growth velocity and bone age were significantly promoted especially 3 months after treatment. The pro-motions in pre-puberty group were significantly higher than that in mid-puberty and post-puberty groups( P 0.05 ). Blood insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 signifi-cantly increased especially in pre-puberty group( P <0.05 ). Conclusion Recombinant human growth hor-mone has the best curative effects on pre-puberty children with ISS. Children with ISS should be

  1. The Role of Dietary Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Corn Oil on the Alteration of Epigenetic Patterns in the Rat DMBA-Induced Breast Cancer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Miguel, Cristina; Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Vela, Elena; Solanas, Montserrat; Escrich, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of epigenetic patterns is a major change occurring in all types of cancers. Such alterations are characterized by global DNA hypomethylation, gene-promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone modifications, and may be modified by environment. Nutritional factors, and especially dietary lipids, have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Thus, we aimed to analyze the influence of different high fat diets on DNA methylation and histone modifications in the rat dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, a high corn-oil or a high extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction with DMBA. In mammary glands and tumors we analyzed global and gene specific (RASSF1A, TIMP3) DNA methylation by LUMA and bisulfite pyrosequencing assays, respectively. We also determined gene expression and enzymatic activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b) and evaluated changes in histone modifications (H3K4me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me3 and H4K16ac) by western-blot. Our results showed variations along time in the global DNA methylation of the mammary gland displaying decreases at puberty and with aging. The olive oil-enriched diet, on the one hand, increased the levels of global DNA methylation in mammary gland and tumor, and on the other, changed histone modifications patterns. The corn oil-enriched diet increased DNA methyltransferase activity in both tissues, resulting in an increase in the promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A and TIMP3. These results suggest a differential effect of the high fat diets on epigenetic patterns with a relevant role in the neoplastic transformation, which could be one of the mechanisms of their differential promoter effect, clearly stimulating for the high corn-oil diet and with a weaker influence for the high EVOO diet, on breast cancer progression. PMID:26401660

  2. The Role of Dietary Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Corn Oil on the Alteration of Epigenetic Patterns in the Rat DMBA-Induced Breast Cancer Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodríguez-Miguel

    Full Text Available Disruption of epigenetic patterns is a major change occurring in all types of cancers. Such alterations are characterized by global DNA hypomethylation, gene-promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone modifications, and may be modified by environment. Nutritional factors, and especially dietary lipids, have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Thus, we aimed to analyze the influence of different high fat diets on DNA methylation and histone modifications in the rat dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-induced breast cancer model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, a high corn-oil or a high extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO diet from weaning or from induction with DMBA. In mammary glands and tumors we analyzed global and gene specific (RASSF1A, TIMP3 DNA methylation by LUMA and bisulfite pyrosequencing assays, respectively. We also determined gene expression and enzymatic activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b and evaluated changes in histone modifications (H3K4me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me3 and H4K16ac by western-blot. Our results showed variations along time in the global DNA methylation of the mammary gland displaying decreases at puberty and with aging. The olive oil-enriched diet, on the one hand, increased the levels of global DNA methylation in mammary gland and tumor, and on the other, changed histone modifications patterns. The corn oil-enriched diet increased DNA methyltransferase activity in both tissues, resulting in an increase in the promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A and TIMP3. These results suggest a differential effect of the high fat diets on epigenetic patterns with a relevant role in the neoplastic transformation, which could be one of the mechanisms of their differential promoter effect, clearly stimulating for the high corn-oil diet and with a weaker influence for the high EVOO diet, on breast cancer progression.

  3. [Neurocutaneous syndrome with hair alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Martínez, F

    1997-09-01

    There are multiple neurocutaneous syndromes that may show hair alterations such as the interglabellar peak or 'widow's peak', which is an alteration of the hair implantation, in addition to the genohypotrichosis, hypertrichosis and hair shaft dysplasias. In this chapter we will focus on the latter. Out of the unspecific hair shaft dysplasias the only ones showing neurological alterations are trichorrhexis invaginata, observed in the syndrome of Netherton. Among the specific dysplasias we would like to point out monilethrix, and very especially the moniliform hair syndrome, the trichorrhexis nodosa, the pili torti and trichotiodystrophy. The latter is actually a group of syndromes which associates a series of diverse symptoms that have in common hair brittleness, fertility problems and physical and mental retardation, and they constitute the basic syndrome know as 'BIDS syndrome.

  4. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Einen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004. The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group

  5. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einen, J.; Kruber, C.; Øvreås, L.; Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.

    2006-03-01

    Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004). The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group of prosthecate oligotrophic

  6. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  7. Study of the expression of lubricin in condylar cartilage of puberty rats%青春期大鼠髁突软骨内润滑素的表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正; 涂少勤; 卢红飞; 麦志辉; 陈琳; 陈奇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To detect the expression of lubricin in the condylar cartilage of the puberty rats without interventions.Methods Twenty five 5-week-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD)rats were randomly divided into five groups (n =5).The animals were fed with ground pellets and sacrificed on 3-,7-,1 4-,21 -and 30-d.The mandibular condyle tissues were prepared for H.E and immunohistochemical staining.Under in-verted optical microscope,integrated optical density (IOD)of the area of positive lubricin was quantitatively analyzed.The expression levels of lubricin were measured and compared at different time points.Results Condylar cartilages presented with varying characteristics among different layers.Lubricin was expressed throughout the whole condyle.Lubricin was slightly expressed in the static zone.In the articular fibrous zone, lubricin was abundant in the chondrocyte cytoplasm of the superficial layer.In the proliferative zone,lubricin was distributed throughout the condylar cartilages.In the hypertrophic zone,lubricin was observed in the cyto-plasm of hypertropic cartilage lacuna,with higher expression in the superficial layer than the deep layer.At the same time point,IOD values of the positive lubricin area in the proliferative zone were significantly higher com-pared with those in the hypertrophic zone of the posterior mandibular condyle (all P 0.05).Conclusion In the condylar cartilage of the puberty SD rats,lubricin was stably and continuously expressed,creating a sound inner environment for physiological reconstruction of mandibular con-dyle and normal growth of the mandible.%目的:研究无干预措施下青春期大鼠髁突软骨内润滑素的表达情况。方法选取5组5周龄的雌性 SD 大鼠(每组5只),软食喂养下分别于3、7、14、21和30 d 处死,下颌骨髁突制作切片,行苏木素-伊红(HE)染色及 Envision 二步法进行免疫组织化学染色检查,应用倒置相差光学显微镜、光学显微照相系统观察

  8. Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.

    2014-07-01

    The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P → F → B → C → G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus

  9. Puberdade precoce central como única manifestação de cisto aracnoide supraselar Central precocious puberty as a sole manifestation of suprasellar arachnoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mangue E. Aun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os cistos aracnoides são achados raros. Em 10% dos casos, sua localização é supraselar e ocorrem quase exclusivamente em crianças. Em geral, apresentam manifestações neurológicas e visuais, sendo incomum a puberdade precoce central como sinal clínico de sua presença. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Menina avaliada aos dois anos e sete meses por telarca iniciada com um ano e oito meses e pubarca e axilarca com dois anos, com aumento da velocidade de crescimento (13cm/ano e da idade óssea (sete anos e um mês. Ao exame, apresentou peso de 22,6kg (Z+4,0, estatura de 106cm (Z+3,5 e Tanner de M3P2. Exames realizados: teste de estímulo com GnRH (LH basal 8,3 UI/L, pico aos 30 minutos 94,3 UI/L; FSH basal=10,1 UI/L, pico aos 30 minutos 29,5 UI/L, ressonância nuclear magnética de crânio com cisto aracnoide supraselar e demais testes de função hipofisária normais. Foi iniciado tratamento com análogo de GnRH. Atualmente, aos quatro anos e três meses com estadio puberal M3P2, velocidade de crescimento e desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor normais para a idade. COMENTÁRIOS: A puberdade precoce central pode ser manifestação única de um cisto aracnoide, sendo essenciais o diagnóstico e o tratamento precoces, além de seguimento prolongado, uma vez que outras disfunções hipofisárias podem ocorrer tardiamente.OBJECTIVE: Arachnoid cysts (AC are a rare finding; 10% of them are suprasellar and occur almost exclusively in children. They are frequently associated with neurological and visual manifestations. Central precocious puberty as a sole manifestation is uncommon. CASE DESCRIPTION: Girl evaluated at the age of two years and seven months. She started breast development at the age of one year and eight months, pubic and axillary hair at the age of two years, with growth velocity acceleration (13cm/year and increased bone age (seven years and one month. On exam: weight: 22.6kg (Z+4.0, height: 106cm (Z+3.5 and puberal stage of B3P2. The Gn

  10. Art as Alterity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

  11. Expression of the IGF and the aromatase/estrogen receptor systems in human adrenal tissues from early infancy to late puberty: implications for the development of adrenarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgorosky, Alicia; Baquedano, María Sonia; Guercio, Gabriela; Rivarola, Marco A

    2009-03-01

    Adrenarche is a process of postnatal sexual maturation occurring in higher primates, in which there is an increase in the secretion of adrenal androgens. It is the consequence of a process of postnatal organogenesis characterized by the development of a new zone in the adrenal cortex, the zona reticularis (ZR). The mechanism of this phenomenon remains poorly understood, suggesting that it might be a multifactorial event. A relationship between circulating IGF-I, insulin sensitivity, and adrenal androgens has been postulated. Boys and girls have different patterns of changes in insulin sensitivity at puberty, perhaps secondary to differences in the estrogen milieu. Estrogen effects may also play a role in premature adrenarche. Peripheral or local IGF-1 actions could regulate adrenal progenitor cell proliferation and migration. Since adrenal progenitor cells as well as IGF-I and the IGF-R1 are located in the outer zone of the adrenal cortex during childhood and adolescence, this peripheral cell layer, below the capsule, may contain undifferentiated progenitor cells. Therefore, the IGF-R1 signaling pathway might positively modulate the proliferation and migration of adrenal progenitor cell to stimulate the development of adrenal zones, including ZR. However, no evidence of a direct action of IGF-I on ZR was found. In addition, a role for estrogens in the ontogenesis of ZR is suggested by the presence of aromatase (CYP19) in the subcapsular zona glomerulosa and in the adrenal medulla. Estrogens produced locally could act on ZR by interacting with estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), but not alpha, and membrane estrogen receptor GPR-30. An estradiol-induced increase in DHEA/cortisol ratio was indeed seen in cultures of adrenocortical cells from post-adrenarche adrenals. In summary, several lines of evidence point to the action of multiple factors, such as local adrenal maturational changes and peripheral metabolic signals, on postnatal human adrenal gland ZR formation.

  12. Relative importance of prenatal and postnatal androgen action in determining growth of the penis and anogenital distance in the rat before, during and after puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Driesche, S; Scott, H M; MacLeod, D J; Fisken, M; Walker, M; Sharpe, R M

    2011-12-01

    Experimental animal studies show that measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and/or penis length may provide lifelong 'read-outs' of foetal androgen exposure during the masculinization programming window (MPW). However, variation in postnatal androgen exposure may complicate interpretation of such measurements. This is important to clarify if such measurements are to be applied to humans. The present aim was to evaluate effects of prenatal and/or postnatal manipulation of androgen production/action on growth of AGD and the penis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated daily before (e13.5-e21.5) and after birth (postnatal days 1-15) with either vehicle, 500 mg/kg di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) or 100 mg/kg flutamide (postnatal only) in prenatal + postnatal treatment combinations (N = 6 treatment combinations); DBP impairs androgen production whereas flutamide impairs androgen action. Male offspring were killed on postnatal day 8 (prepuberty), 25 (early puberty) or 90 (adulthood) when AGD was measured, the penis dissected out and its weight and length measured; plasma testosterone and ventral prostate weight were measured at day 90 to assess endogenous androgen exposure. In controls, penis length, girth and AGD increased 2.2-, 5.3-and 5.9-fold respectively from day 8 to day 90. Significant inhibition of penis growth and final length and girth was induced by treatments that inhibited postnatal androgen action. Conversely, growth and ultimate (adult) AGD was inhibited by prenatal inhibition of androgen production whereas postnatal androgen inhibition had negligible effect. Nevertheless, AGD and penis length were highly correlated at every age (R(2) > 0.33; p penis size reflects both prenatal + postnatal androgen exposure. At the group treatment level, prepubertal measurement of either AGD or penis size accurately predicts their size in adulthood.

  13. The research progress of Chinese medicine's treatment to precocious puberty simple early breast development%性早熟单纯乳房早发育中医药研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚艾妮

    2014-01-01

    文章通过收集整理近十年来中医药治疗性早熟单纯乳房早发育的进展和研究概况,得出结论为中医药治疗单纯乳房早发育的效果确实显著。其优点又在于无特殊不良反应。中医在辨证论治的基础上采用各种有效方药、中成药和外治疗法,研究治疗上,取得了可喜的进展,呈现着向内治与外治相结合的趋势发展。为中医药防治性早熟研究的进一步标准化提供了理论的支持和起到了指导作用。%The research of Chinese medicine treatment of precocious puberty simple early breast development is done by collecting materias including research and progress of this symptom in recent ten years. The conclusion of this research is that Chinese treatment effective .Having no special adverse reactions is the advantage of Chinese treatment. The early development of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of pure breast is based on syndrome differentiation, using a variety of effective prescription, Chinese medicine and external therapy, which has made a gratifying progress and presente a developing trend of combination of internal and external treatment. As a Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of precocious puberty can provides theoretical support and guidance for the further standardization of precocious puberty simple early breast development study.

  14. GnRH依赖型性早熟遗传调控系统研究进展%Research Progress of the Genetic Regulation System in GnRH-dependent Precocious Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩威; 李慧芳; 朱云芬; 宋迟; 徐文娟

    2013-01-01

    性早熟在人类上表现为病理状态,而在家禽生产上则是一个具有重要经济价值的性状.人类性早熟调控机理的研究较为透彻,尤其是近年来全基因关联分析方法的应用,使得研究者对于性成熟启动相关新基因发掘及其调控网络的认识更加深入.论文综述了人类GnRH依赖型性早熟(GDPP)的5个基因调控系统,包括kisspeptin系统、γ-GABA系统、NPY和leptin系统、LIN28B系统和NKB系统的研究进展,为禽类早熟性状研究提供依据.%Precocious puberty performs as pathological condition in humans, but it is an important trait in animal production. The research of human precocious puberty regulation mechanism is more thorough, especially in recent years the genome-wide association study method contributes to find more new genes and deeply understand the genetic networks. This paper summarized the progress of genetic systems in human GnRH-dependent precocious puberty, including kisspeptin system, γ-GABA system, NPY and leptin system, LIN28B system and NKB system. These could supply a basis for the relevant study in animals

  15. Value of uterus and ovaries by ultrasound in girls with precocious puberty%超声子宫及卵巢大小在性早熟女童中应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹媛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyse the value of the uterus and ovaries in girls with precocious puberty by ultrasound. Methods Forty-nine patients with precocious puberty from December 2010 to December 2013 in our hospital were studied, and 30 healthy girls were chosen to be controlled. The uterus, ovary size and follicle diameter, and serum hormone level were detected. Results The uterus, ovarian volume of precocious puberty girls was greater than that of normal girls (P<0. 05);sex hormone levels and follicle diameters in 9-10 year old girls were significantly higher than those in 7-8 years old girls (P<0. 05). Conclusion Ultrasound can be used as a simple and relia-ble noninvasive assessment method in the diagnosis of precocious puberty.%目的:探讨超声检查女童子宫及卵巢大小在判定女童性早熟的应用价值。方法选取2010年12月至2013年12月在本院性早熟门诊就诊的患儿49例,选择同期正常的儿童30例进行对比研究,采用超声监测性早熟女童和正常女童子宫、卵巢大小及卵泡直径,同时进行血清性激素水平检测。结果性早熟女童的子宫、卵巢容积均大于正常女童(P<0.05);9-10岁女童性激素水平和卵泡直径均显著高于7~8岁女童(P<0.05)。结论超声检查可以作为一种简便可靠的无创性评估性早熟的方法应用于特发性性早熟的诊断。

  16. 儿童性早熟与环境内分泌干扰素的相关性%Study on the relationship between the onset of precocious puberty and endocrine interferon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between children's precocious puberty and environmental endocrine interferon ( EEDs) .Methods 63 cases of girls with precocious puberty in our hospital from April 2013 and March 2015 were selected as the ob-servation group, and 63 cases of healthy girls were selected as control group.The levels of serum EEDs and serum estradiol, ovarian volume, and uterine volume of both groups were detected and compared.Results The levels of DEHP, Op, BPA EEDs of the obser-vation were significantly higher than those of the control group, the difference between the two groups has statistical significance ( P <0.01);The ovarian volume, uterine volume, and estradiol level of the observation group were also significantly higher than those of the control group, the difference is statistically significant ( P <0.01).Conclusion EEDs and the onset of precocious puberty were closely related, which maybe the main cause of precocious puberty.%目的:探讨儿童性早熟与环境内分泌干扰素( EEDs)的相关性。方法选择我院2013年4月至2015年3月收治的63例性早熟女童为观察组,另选健康女童63例为对照组,检测两组血清EEDs水平及卵巢体积、子宫体积、血清雌二醇水平等,进行对比分析。结果观察组DEHP、OP、BPA等EEDs指标水平明显高于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义( P <0.01);观察组卵巢体积、子宫体积、雌二醇等指标水平显著较对照组高,差异有统计学意义( P <0.01)。结论 EEDs与性早熟发病呈密切相关性,可能是导致儿童性早熟的主要原因。

  17. Serum concentrations of type I and III procollagen propeptides in healthy children and girls with central precocious puberty during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and cyproterone acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Juul, A;

    1993-01-01

    Serum levels of type I and III procollagen propeptides (s-PICP and s-PIIINP) were measured in 466 healthy school children and in 23 girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) during GnRH analog and cyproterone acetate therapy, using two commercially available RIAs. In normal children, s-PICP and s...... after 6 months of therapy (r = 0.64; P children, but due to the large variation, both propeptides seem unsuitable as markers for screening of growth disorders in children....

  18. The challenge of growth hormone deficiency (GHD diagnosis and treatment during the transition from puberty into adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eCianfarani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In children with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency, replacement GH therapy is effective in normalising height during childhood and achieving adult height within the genetic target range. GH has further beneficial effects on body composition and metabolism through adult life. The transition phase, defined as the period from mid to late teens until 6–7 years after the achievement of final height, represents a crucial time for reassessing children’s GH secretion and deciding whether GH therapy should be continued throughout life. Evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of GHD children during transition are lacking. The aim of this review is to critically review the up-to-date evidence on the best management of transition patients in order to ensure the correct definitive diagnosis and establish the appropriate therapeutic regimen.

  19. Learning arm/hand coordination with an altered visual input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftime Nielsen, Simona Denisia; Dosen, Strahinja; Popović, Mirjana B; Popović, Dejan B

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to test a novel tool for the analysis of motor coordination with an altered visual input. The altered visual input was created using special glasses that presented the view as recorded by a video camera placed at various positions around the subject. The camera was positioned at a frontal (F), lateral (L), or top (T) position with respect to the subject. We studied the differences between the arm-end (wrist) trajectories while grasping an object between altered vision (F, L, and T conditions) and normal vision (N) in ten subjects. The outcome measures from the analysis were the trajectory errors, the movement parameters, and the time of execution. We found substantial trajectory errors and an increased execution time at the baseline of the study. We also found that trajectory errors decreased in all conditions after three days of practice with the altered vision in the F condition only for 20 minutes per day, suggesting that recalibration of the visual systems occurred relatively quickly. These results indicate that this recalibration occurs via movement training in an altered condition. The results also suggest that recalibration is more difficult to achieve for altered vision in the F and L conditions compared to the T condition. This study has direct implications on the design of new rehabilitation systems.

  20. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  1. Fantastic alterities and The Sandman

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which the comics medium enhances our understanding of literary models of the Fantastic. It examines the presence and depiction of multiple worlds in Neil Gaiman’s The Sandman, with specific reference to the role of the comics medium and its denial of mimesis when creating such alterities. \\ud \\ud It initially uses literature review to establish a contemporary working model of the Fantastic, taking as its basis the framework devised by Tzvetan Todorov, and inc...

  2. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  3. Growth and development of the ovary and small follicle pool from mid fetal life to pre-puberty in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stansfield Fiona J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicle numbers and developing ovarian morphology, particularly with reference to the presence of interstitial tissue, are intimately linked within the ovary of the African elephant during the period spanning mid-gestation to puberty. These have not been previously quantified in any studies. The collection of 7 sets of elephant fetal ovaries between 11.2 and 20.2 months of gestation, and 29 pairs of prepubertal calf ovaries between 2 months and 9 years of age during routine management off-takes of complete family groups in private conservancies in Zimbabwe provided an opportunity for a detailed study of this period. Results The changing morphology of the ovary is described as the presumptive cortex and medulla components of the fetal ovary settled into their adult form. Interstitial tissue dominated the ovary in late fetal life and these cells stained strongly for 3β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This staining continued postnatally through to 4.5 years of age suggesting continued secretion of progestagens by the ovary during this period. The considerable growth of antral follicles peaked at 28% of ovarian volume at around 16.7 months of fetal age. The numbers of small follicles (primordial, early primary and true primary, counted in the cortex using stereological protocols, revealed fewer small follicles in the ovaries of animals aged 0 to 4.5 years of age than during either late fetal life or prepubertal life. Conclusions The small follicle populations of the late-fetal and prepubertal ovaries of the African elephant were described along with the changing morphology of these organs. The changes noted represent a series of events that have been recorded only in the elephant and the giraffe species to date. The expansion of the interstitial tissue of the fetal ovary and its continued presence in early post natal life may well contribute to the control of follicle development in these early years. Further

  4. 阴道斜隔综合征早期诊断与治疗%The clinical analysis of the early diagnosis and therapy of oblique vaginal septum syndrome in puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志华

    2012-01-01

    目的 提高临床医生对青春期阴道斜膈综合征早期诊治的认识.方法 回顾性分析我院在2005年7月~2010年12月诊治的4例患者的临床资料,并复习文献.结果 4例患者全部行阴道斜隔切除术及处女膜修复术.结论 早期诊治青春期阴道斜隔综合征对预防生殖系统疾病的发生和保护生育能力有重要的临床意义.%Objective To improve the realization of the clinician with the early diagnosis and therapy of oblique vaginal septum syndrome in puberty. Methods The clinical data of 4 cases diagnosed as oblique vaginal septum syndrome from July 2005 to December 2010 in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively, and literatures were reviewed. Results All cases were taken the resection of oblique vaginal septum and repair of hymen. Conclusion The early diagnosis and therapy of oblique vaginal septum syndrome in puberty may possess an important clinical significance in prevention of genital system diseases and protection of fertility.

  5. Plant cells in vitro under altered gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D O

    1998-07-01

    Establishing the role of gravity in plant requires information about how gravity regulates the metabolism of individual cells. Plant cells and tissues in vitro are valuable models for such purpose. Disrupted intercellular relations in such models have allowed to elucidate both the gravity role in non-specialised to gravity plant cells and the correlative relation role of an intact plant organism. The data obtained from non-numerous space and clinostat experiments with plant cells in vitro have demonstrated that their metabolism is sensitive to g-environment. The most experiments have shown a decrease in the biomass production and cell proliferation of spaceflight samples compared with ground controls, although there is study reporting of increased biomass production in an anise suspension culture and D. carota crown gall tissue culture. At the same time, results of experiments with single carrot cells and tomato callus culture demonstrated similarities in differentiation process in microgravity and in ground controls. Noted ultrastructural arrangement in cells, especially mitochondria and plastids, have been related to altered energy load and functions of organelles in microgravity, as well as changes in the lipid peroxidation and the content of malonic dyaldehyde in a haplopappus tissue culture under altered gravity supposed with modification of membrane structural-functional state. This article focuses on growth aspects of the cultured cells in microgravity and under clinostat conditions and considers those aspects that require further analysis.

  6. Obesity Promotes Alterations in Iron Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Citelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin is a key hormone that induces the degradation of ferroportin (FPN, a protein that exports iron from reticuloendothelial macrophages and enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate if the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD modifies the expression of FPN in macrophages and enterocytes, thus altering the iron bioavailability. In order to directly examine changes associated with iron metabolism in vivo, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or a HFD. Serum leptin levels were evaluated. The hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1, FPN and ferritin genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The amount of iron present in both the liver and spleen was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ferroportin localization within reticuloendothelial macrophages was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Obese animals were found to exhibit increased hepcidin gene expression, while iron accumulated in the spleen and liver. They also exhibited changes in the sublocation of splenic cellular FPN and a reduction in the FPN expression in the liver and the spleen, while no changes were observed in enterocytes. Possible explanations for the increased hepcidin expression observed in HFD animals may include: increased leptin levels, the liver iron accumulation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Together, the results indicated that obesity promotes changes in iron bioavailability, since it altered the iron recycling function.

  7. Effect of protection and refrigeration time alteration on hatching rate of acid-treated silkworm (Bombyx mori) eggs%不同库外保护时间和冷藏时间对冷藏浸酸种孵化率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余武昌; 蒋满贵; 李国栋; 阳诚; 何珊珊; 莫云霞; 李燕飞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]进一步验证库外保护时间和冷藏时间对冷藏浸酸种孵化率的影响程度.[方法]以"两广二号"正、反交一代杂交种为研究对象,将不同库外保护时间(2~7 d,25℃)和不同内库冷藏时间(30~110 d,3~5℃)的蚕卵,经同一标准浸酸处理后统计其冷藏浸酸种孵化率.[结果]冷藏时间相同,库外保护时间短的冷藏浸酸种比库外保护时间长的发育快,而库外保护时间间隔越长,蚕种孵化整齐度越差.随着冷藏时间的延长,不同库外保护时间的冷藏浸酸种实用孵化率提高明显,冷藏时间达到70 d以上,其实用孵化率全部达到生产要求(90.0%以上);而且不同库外保护时间的冷藏浸酸种孵化整齐度也明显提高.[结论]冷藏浸酸种的卵龄差过大、内库冷藏时间不足等容易出现孵化不整齐.因此,在生产上应尽量减少冷藏浸酸种补种,防止蚕种孵化不整齐.%[Objective]The present experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of altering protection and refrigeration times outside storeroom on hatching rate of acid-treated silkworm (Bombyx mori) eggs. [Method]The hatching rate of acid-treated eggs (in HCl solution, 48℃), obtained from the cross and reciprocal cross species of silkworm variety Liangguang 2, was investigated after protecting them outside storeroom at 25℃ for 2-7 days and refrigerating at 3-5℃ for 30-110 days. [Result]The growth in the eggs kept for same refrigeration time was found faster in shorter protection time treated eggs compared to those kept for longer protection time. Further, the uniformity of hatching was lesser in those eggs which have been kept for longer protection time. While the practical hatching rate increased significantly in silkworm eggs kept for different protection time and the longer refrigeration duration. The hatching rate increased to more than 90% after refrigerating the eggs for 70 days, which was equal to the production demand, also the

  8. Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162249.html Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria Study of Washington farm workers finds alterations persist ... News) -- Pesticide exposure may change the makeup of bacteria in the mouths of farm workers, a new ...

  9. Altered states of consciousness are related to higher sexual responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui M; Pestana, José; Costa, David; Wittmann, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Altered states of consciousness lead to profound changes in the sense of self, time and space. We assessed how these changes were related to sexual responsiveness during sex. 116 subjects reported (a) intensity of awareness concerning body, space and time, and (b) satisfaction, desire, arousal, and orgasm occurrence. We differentiated vaginal intercourse orgasm from noncoital orgasm. Female vaginal intercourse orgasm was further differentiated as with or without concurrent clitoral masturbation. Overall, sexual responsiveness was related to greater body awareness and lesser time and space awareness. Satisfaction, desire, and arousal were especially associated with less time awareness in women. Female orgasms during vaginal intercourse were related to greater body awareness and lesser time awareness, but noncoital orgasms were unrelated. Our findings provide empirical support for the hypotheses that altered states of consciousness with attentional absorption are strongly related to sexual responsiveness in women, and to a lesser extent in men.

  10. A kernel version of multivariate alteration detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2013-01-01

    Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations.......Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations....

  11. Functional Maturation of Neuroendocrine Gonadal Axis is Altered by Specific Phase Relations of Circadian Neurotransmitter Activity in Japanese Quail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DORISPHILLIPS; CHANDRAMOHINICHATURVEDI

    1995-01-01

    The preset study was designed to ascertain the effects of temporal relationship of circadian neural oscillations on puberty attainment and reproductive growth of Japances Quail,Coturnix coturnix japonica,Serotonin and dopamine precursors(5-hydroxytryptophan,5-HTP and L-dihydroxyphenylalanine,L-DOPA,5mg/100g body weight)were injected daily,8and 12h apart in two groups of one-day ld chick,while cotrols received two daily injections of normal saline.Weekly/biweekly observations(body weight,cloacal gland size,testicular volume and activity,ovarian follicular diameter and rate of egg production)were made until 9 weeks of age,when the experiment was terminated.Results indicate that 8 h relationship completely suppressed gonadal growth even under long photoperiod(LD16:8),while a 12 h relationship induced precocious sexual maturity and increased the rate of reproductin(spermatogenesis and egg production).It is concluded that circadian phase relationship of serotonergic and dopaminergic activity may not only determine the onset of reproduction in this pultry species,but may also alter the rate of reproduction possibly by affecting photoperiodic mechanism of reproductive regulation.

  12. All about Puberty (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the uterus and is fertilized by a sperm cell, it may plant itself in that lining and grow into a baby. The extra blood and tissue nourishes and protects the baby as it ... — the fluid that contains sperm — comes out of the penis. That's why they' ...

  13. All about Puberty (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of activity or something that happens in a hurry. And a growth spurt is just that: Your ... KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  14. Concerns Boys Have about Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thanks largely to influence from their peers and advertising messages. Watch for signs of a child who has a negative image of their bodies, which in some cases can result in eating disorders . It is very important to avoid even good- ...

  15. Female Pubertal Timing and Problem Behaviour: The Role of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therese; Stattin, Hakan; Ruiselova, Zdena; Ozdemir, Metin

    2013-01-01

    We tested the peer-socialization/contextual-amplification explanation for the link between early female puberty and problem behaviour. We propose that in cultures with high tolerance for adolescent heterosexual involvement, early puberty should be linked with problem behaviour--not in other cultures. We compared girls in two cultures (Slovakia and…

  16. Volcanic glasses, their origins and alteration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Long, W.

    1984-01-01

    Natural glass can be formed by volcanic processes, lightning (fulgarites) burning coal, and by meteorite impact. By far the most common process is volcanic - basically the glass is rapidly chilled molten rock. All natural glasses are thermodynamically unstable and tend to alter chemically or to crystallize. The rate of these processes is determined by the chemical composition of the magma. The hot and fluid basaltic melts have a structure that allows for rapid crystal growth, and seldom forms glass selvages greater than a few centimeters thick, even when the melt is rapidly cooled by extrusion in the deep sea. In contrast the cooler and very viscous rhyolitic magmas can yield bodies of glass that are tens of meters thick. These highly polymerized magmas have a high silica content - often 71-77% SiO2. Their high viscosity inhibits diffusive crystal growth. Basalt glass in sea water forms an alteration zone called palagonite whose thickness increases linearly with time. The rate of diffusion of water into rhyolitic glass, which follows the relationship - thickness = k (time) 1 2, has been determined as a function of the glass composition and temperature. Increased SiO2 increases the rate, whereas increased CaO, MgO and H2O decrease the rate. The activation energy of water diffusion varies from about 19 to 22 kcal/mol. for the glasses studied. The diffusion of alkali out of rhyolite glass occurs simultaneously with water diffusion into the glass. The rate of devitrification of rhyolitic glass is a function of the glass viscosity, which in turn is a function of water content and temperature. Although all of the aforementioned processes tend to destroy natural glasses, the slow rates of these processes, particularly for rhyolitic glass, has allowed samples of glass to persist for 60 million years. ?? 1984.

  17. Window to 'Clovis's' Altered Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole (center) into it with its rock abrasion tool. An analysis of the interior of the hole with the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer found higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine compared to basaltic, or volcanic, rocks at Gusev. This might indicate that Clovis was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements. Spirit's solar panels can be seen in the foreground. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera on sol 205 (July 31, 2004).

  18. Epigenetic alterations underlying autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Karami, Jafar; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Malekshahi, Zahra; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in genetic explorations have extended our understanding through discovery of genetic patterns subjected to autoimmune diseases (AID). Genetics, on the contrary, has not answered all the conundrums to describe a comprehensive explanation of causal mechanisms of disease etiopathology with regard to the function of environment, sex, or aging. The other side of the coin, epigenetics which is defined by gene manifestation modification without DNA sequence alteration, reportedly has come in to provide new insights towards disease apprehension through bridging the genetics and environmental factors. New investigations in genetic and environmental contributing factors for autoimmunity provide new explanation whereby the interactions between genetic elements and epigenetic modifications signed by environmental agents may be responsible for autoimmune disease initiation and perpetuation. It is aimed through this article to review recent progress attempting to reveal how epigenetics associates with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  19. Genetic alterations in pancreatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer of the exocrine pancreas represents the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the Western population with an average survival after diagnosis of 3 to 6 months and a five-year survival rate under 5%. Our understanding of the molecular carcinogenesis has improved in the last few years due to the development of novel molecular biological techniques. Pancreatic cancer is a multi-stage process resulting from the accumulation of genetic changes in the somatic DNA of normal cells. In this article we describe major genetic alterations of pancreatic cancer, mutations in the proto-oncogene K-RAS and the tumor suppressors INK4A, TP53 and DPC4/SMAD4. The accumulation of these genetic changes leads to a profound disturbance in cell cycle regulation and continuous growth. The knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms will offer new therapeutic and diagnostic options and hopefully improve the outcome of this aggressive disease.

  20. Self-alteration in HRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamazaki, Ryuji; Nørskov, Marco

    Humanlike androids are being developed with the ambition to be immersed into our daily life and meet us on an equal level in social interaction. The possibilities and limitations of these types of robots can potentially change societies and Human-Robot Interaction might affect the very way in which...... the ways in which our subjectivity can be innerly transformed, decentred, in other words, self-altered. In our trials so far, we have been investigating the potential of teleoperated androids, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances. By conducting pilot studies in Japan...... and Denmark, we examine how Telenoid, a new type of teleoperated android robot designed as a minimalistic human, affect people in the real world. We introduce Telenoid to real-world as the fields of elderly care and child education by focusing on the social aspects of the android robot that might facilitate...