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Sample records for altered puberty timing

  1. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    sexual debut, potential sexual abuse, and psychosocial difficulties. Altered puberty timing is also of concern for the development of reproductive tract cancers later in life. For example, an early age of menarche is a risk factor for breast cancer. A low age at male puberty is associated...

  2. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, M.S.; Collman, G.W.; Foster, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty...

  3. Timing and Stages of Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and stages of puberty Timing and stages of puberty Adolescence and puberty can be so confusing! Here’s some info on what to expect and when: Puberty in girls usually starts between the ages of ...

  4. Puberty and Adolescence as a Time of Vulnerability to Stressors that Alter Neurobehavioral Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Mary K.; Blaustein, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty and adolescence are major life transitions during which an individual’s physiology and behavior changes from that of a juvenile to that of an adult. Here we review studies documenting the effects of stressors during pubertal and adolescent development on the adult brain and behavior. The experience of complex or compound stressors during puberty/adolescence generally increases stress reactivity, increases anxiety and depression, and decreases cognitive performance in adulthood. These behavioral changes correlate with decreased hippocampal volumes and alterations in neural plasticity. Moreover, stressful experiences during puberty disrupt behavioral responses to gonadal hormones both in sexual performance and on cognition and emotionality. These behavioral changes correlate with altered estrogen receptor densities in some estrogen-concentrating brain areas, suggesting a remodeling of the brain’s response to hormones. A hypothesis is presented that activation of the immune system results in chronic neuroinflammation that may mediate the alterations of hormone-modulated behaviors in adulthood. PMID:24184692

  5. Contributions of Function-Altering Variants in Genes Implicated in Pubertal Timing and Body Mass for Self-Limited Delayed Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sasha R; Guasti, Leonardo; Poliandri, Ariel; David, Alessia; Cabrera, Claudia P; Barnes, Michael R; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Aiken, Catherine E; Coll, Anthony P; Ma, Marcella; Rimmington, Debra; Yeo, Giles S H; Dunkel, Leo

    2018-02-01

    Self-limited delayed puberty (DP) is often associated with a delay in physical maturation, but although highly heritable the causal genetic factors remain elusive. Genome-wide association studies of the timing of puberty have identified multiple loci for age at menarche in females and voice break in males, particularly in pathways controlling energy balance. We sought to assess the contribution of rare variants in such genes to the phenotype of familial DP. We performed whole-exome sequencing in 67 pedigrees (125 individuals with DP and 35 unaffected controls) from our unique cohort of familial self-limited DP. Using a whole-exome sequencing filtering pipeline one candidate gene [fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO)] was identified. In silico, in vitro, and mouse model studies were performed to investigate the pathogenicity of FTO variants and timing of puberty in FTO+/- mice. We identified potentially pathogenic, rare variants in genes in linkage disequilibrium with genome-wide association studies of age at menarche loci in 283 genes. Of these, five genes were implicated in the control of body mass. After filtering for segregation with trait, one candidate, FTO, was retained. Two FTO variants, found in 14 affected individuals from three families, were also associated with leanness in these patients with DP. One variant (p.Leu44Val) demonstrated altered demethylation activity of the mutant protein in vitro. Fto+/- mice displayed a significantly delayed timing of pubertal onset (P puberty in the general population may contribute to the pathogenesis of self-limited DP. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  6. The physiology and timing of male puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing.......To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing....

  7. Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a period) usually happens last. In boys: Puberty usually begins with the testicles and penis getting bigger. Then hair grows in the pubic area and armpits. Muscles grow, the voice deepens, and facial hair develops as puberty continues. Both boys and girls may get acne. ...

  8. Early metabolic programming of puberty onset: impact of changes in postnatal feeding and rearing conditions on the timing of puberty and development of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    the timing of puberty; however, the potential underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report how changes in the pattern of postnatal feeding affect the onset of puberty and evaluate key hormonal and neuropeptide [Kiss1/kisspeptin (Kp)] alterations linked to these early nutritional manipulations...... of puberty, together with higher levels of leptin and hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA. Conversely, postnatal underfeeding caused a persistent reduction in body weight, lower ovarian and uterus weights, and delayed vaginal opening, changes that were paralleled by a decrease in leptin and Kiss1 mRNA levels. Kisspeptin...... at puberty were similar in all groups, except for enhanced responsiveness to low doses of Kp-10 in postnatally underfed rats. In conclusion, our data document that the timing of puberty is sensitive to both overfeeding and subnutrition during early (postnatal) periods and suggest that alterations...

  9. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Secular trends in timing of puberty appear to continue although under-nutrition has not been any longer a limiting factor for pubertal development. Now obesity and other environmental reasons have been suspected to cause this trend, and endocrine disrupting chemicals have become into focus...... as possible contributors. Epidemiological studies on endocrine disrupters are still scarce and show only weak associations between exposures and timing of puberty. Since genetic background explains 50-80% of variability in the timing of puberty, it is not surprising that the observed environmental effects...... are rather modest when individual exposures are assessed. Despite that, some exposures have been reported to be associated to early (e.g., polybrominated biphenyls) or delayed (e.g., lead) puberty. Here we shortly review the available data on recent trends in timing of puberty and the possible role...

  10. Examination of US puberty-timing data from 1940 to 1994 for secular trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, Susan Y; Herman-Giddens, Marcia E; Lee, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    or girls. A majority of the panelists agreed that data are sufficient to suggest a trend toward an earlier breast development onset and menarche in girls but not for other female pubertal markers. A minority of panelists concluded that the current data on girls' puberty timing for any marker...... are insufficient. Almost all panelists concluded, on the basis of few studies and reliability issues of some male puberty markers, that current data for boys are insufficient to evaluate secular trends in male pubertal development. The panel agreed that altered puberty timing should be considered an adverse effect......Whether children, especially girls, are entering and progressing through puberty earlier today than in the mid-1900s has been debated. Secular trend analysis, based on available data, is limited by data comparability among studies in different populations, in different periods of time, and using...

  11. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Secular trends in timing of puberty appear to continue although under-nutrition has not been any longer a limiting factor for pubertal development. Now obesity and other environmental reasons have been suspected to cause this trend, and endocrine disrupting chemicals have become into focus...... as possible contributors. Epidemiological studies on endocrine disrupters are still scarce and show only weak associations between exposures and timing of puberty. Since genetic background explains 50-80% of variability in the timing of puberty, it is not surprising that the observed environmental effects...

  12. Delayed Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DPeulbayeertdy What Parents Need to Know What is puberty? Puberty is the time of life when a child’s body matures into an adult’s. • For girls, puberty can start as early as age 7½ years ...

  13. Environmental factors and puberty timing: Expert panel research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    An expert panel reviewed the literature on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), body size and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of EDCs and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progressio...

  14. Environmental factors and puberty timing: expert panel research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.

    2008-01-01

    initiatives include (1) etiologic research that focus on environmentally relevant levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to normal puberty as well as its variants, (2) exposure assessment of relevant endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical windows of human development......, body size, and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progression in boys and girls. Critical data gaps prioritized for future research...

  15. Environmental factors and puberty timing: expert panel research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louis, G.M. Buck; Jr, L.E. Gray; Marcus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Serono Symposia International convened an expert panel to review the impact of environmental influences on the regulation of pubertal onset and progression while identifying critical data gaps and future research priorities. An expert panel reviewed the literature on endocrine-disrupting chemicals......, body size, and puberty. The panel concluded that available experimental animal and human data support a possible role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and body size in relation to alterations in pubertal onset and progression in boys and girls. Critical data gaps prioritized for future research......, and (3) basic research to identify the primary signal(s) for the onset of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent/central puberty and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-independent/peripheral puberty. Prospective studies of couples who are planning pregnancies or pregnant women are needed to capture...

  16. Timing of Puberty in Overweight Versus Obese Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joyce M; Wasserman, Richard; Kaciroti, Niko; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Steffes, Jennifer; Dowshen, Steven; Harris, Donna; Serwint, Janet; Abney, Dianna; Smitherman, Lynn; Reiter, Edward; Herman-Giddens, Marcia E

    2016-02-01

    Studies of the relationship of weight status with timing of puberty in boys have been mixed. This study examined whether overweight and obesity are associated with differences in the timing of puberty in US boys. We reanalyzed recent community-based pubertal data from the American Academy of Pediatrics' Pediatric Research in Office Settings study in which trained clinicians assessed boys 6 to 16 years for height, weight, Tanner stages, testicular volume (TV), and other pubertal variables. We classified children based on BMI as normal weight, overweight, or obese and compared median age at a given Tanner stage or greater by weight class using probit and ordinal probit models and a Bayesian approach. Half of boys (49.9%, n = 1931) were white, 25.8% (n = 1000) were African American, and 24.3% (n = 941) were Hispanic. For genital development in white and African American boys across a variety of Tanner stages, we found earlier puberty in overweight compared with normal weight boys, and later puberty in obese compared with overweight, but no significant differences for Hispanics. For TV (≥3 mL or ≥4 mL), our findings support earlier puberty for overweight compared with normal weight white boys. In a large, racially diverse, community-based sample of US boys, we found evidence of earlier puberty for overweight compared with normal or obese, and later puberty for obese boys compared with normal and overweight boys. Additional studies are needed to understand the possible relationships among race/ethnicity, gender, BMI, and the timing of pubertal development. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Role of environmental factors in the timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, S.Y.; Selevan, S.G.; Pescovitz, O.H.

    2008-01-01

    Puberty-timing measures have historically been used as indicators of adequate nutrition and growth. More recently, these measures have been examined in relation to exposure to estrogenic or antiandrogenic agents, as well as other environmental factors. The scientific community has debated whether...... puberty timing is occurring earlier today than in the mid-1900s in the United States and, if so, whether environmental factors play a role; however, no one has asked a multidisciplinary panel to resolve this question. Thus, a multidisciplinary expert panel jointly sponsored by the US Environmental...... Protection Agency, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and Serono Symposia International was convened to examine the evidence of a secular trend, identify potential environmental factors of concern, and identify research needs regarding environmental factors and puberty timing at "The...

  18. [Soy isoflavones and human health: breast cancer and puberty timing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Luis; Garrido, Argelia; Sierralta, Walter

    2012-04-01

    Accumulated exposure to high levels of estrogen is associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer. Thus, factors such as early puberty, late menopause and hormone replacement therapy are considered to be risk factors, whereas early childbirth, breastfeeding and puberty at a later age are known to consistently decrease the lifetime breast cancer risk. Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of isoflavones correlates with a lower incidence of breast cancer. Data from human intervention studies show that the effects of isoflavones on early breast cancer markers differ between pre- and post-menopausal women. The reports from experimental animals (rats and mice) on mammary tumors are variable. These results taken together with heterogeneous outcomes of human interventions, have led to a controversy surrounding the intake of isoflavones to reduce breast cancer risk. This review summarizes recent studies and analyzes factors that could explain the variability of results. In mammary tissue, from the cellular endocrine viewpoint, we analyze the effect of isoflavones on the estrogen receptor and their capacity to act as agonists or antagonists. On the issue of puberty timing, we analyze the mechanisms by which girls, but not boys, with higher prepuberal isoflavone intakes appear to enter puberty at a later age.

  19. Delayed Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Puberty KidsHealth / For Teens / Delayed Puberty What's in this ... wonder if there's anything wrong. What Is Delayed Puberty? Puberty is the time when your body grows ...

  20. Shared genetic aetiology of puberty timing between sexes and with health-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Hinds, David A; Finucane, Hilary K; Murabito, Joanne M; Tung, Joyce Y; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2015-11-09

    Understanding of the genetic regulation of puberty timing has come largely from studies of rare disorders and population-based studies in women. Here, we report the largest genomic analysis for puberty timing in 55,871 men, based on recalled age at voice breaking. Analysis across all genomic variants reveals strong genetic correlation (0.74, P=2.7 × 10(-70)) between male and female puberty timing. However, some loci show sex-divergent effects, including directionally opposite effects between sexes at the SIM1/MCHR2 locus (Pheterogeneity=1.6 × 10(-12)). We find five novel loci for puberty timing (Ppuberty, LEPR and KAL1. Finally, we identify genetic correlations that indicate shared aetiologies in both sexes between puberty timing and body mass index, fasting insulin levels, lipid levels, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  1. [Relevant factors of early puberty timing in urban primary schools in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Liu, Qin; Wen, Yi; Liu, Shudan; Lei, Xun; Wang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the status of puberty timing and relevant factors of early puberty timing in children from grade one to four in urban primary schools of Chongqing. According to the purposive sample method, four urban primary schools in Chongqing were selected and of which 1471 children from grade one to four who have obtained informed consent were recruited. Questionnaire survey on social-demographic characteristics and family environment (e.g., age, parents' relationship, diet and lifestyle, etc), and Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) survey and physical examination (measurements of height, weight, pubertal development status, etc) were conducted. P25, P50, P75 ages of each important pubertal event were calculated by probit regression. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze relevant factors. The detection rate of early puberty timing was 17.7%, and the median ages of the onset of breast and testicular development were 10.77 and 11.48 years old, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that early puberty timing occurred more likely in girls than in boys (OR = 0.561, 95% CI 0.406-0.774), and bad relationship between parents (OR = 1.320, 95% CI 1.007-1.729) and hair-products-use (OR = 1.685, 95%, CI 1.028-2.762) were risk factors of early puberty timing. Early onset of puberty in urban Chongqing is still exist. Gender, parents' relationship, and hair-products-use have an essential impact on early puberty timing.

  2. The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade, possible advancement in timing of puberty has been reported in the United States. In addition, early pubertal development and an increased incidence of sexual precocity have been noticed in children, primarily girls, migrating for foreign adoption in several Western European...... countries. These observations are raising the issues of current differences and secular trends in timing of puberty in relation to ethnic, geographical, and socioeconomic background. None of these factors provide an unequivocal explanation for the earlier onset of puberty seen in the United States....... In the formerly deprived migrating children, refeeding and catch-up growth may prime maturation. However, precocious puberty is seen also in some nondeprived migrating children. Attention has been paid to the changing milieu after migration, and recently, the possible role of endocrine- disrupting chemicals from...

  3. The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade, possible advancement in timing of puberty has been reported in the United States. In addition, early pubertal development and an increased incidence of sexual precocity have been noticed in children, primarily girls, migrating for foreign adoption in several Western European...... the environment has been considered. These observations urge further study of the onset of puberty as a possible sensitive and early marker of the interactions between environmental conditions and genetic susceptibility that can influence physiological and pathological processes....

  4. Alcohol alters hypothalamic glial-neuronal communications involved in the neuroendocrine control of puberty: In vivo and in vitro assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, W L; Hiney, J K; Srivastava, V K

    2015-11-01

    The onset of puberty is the result of the increased secretion of hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). The pubertal process can be altered by substances that can affect the prepubertal secretion of this peptide. Alcohol is one such substance known to diminish LHRH secretion and delay the initiation of puberty. The increased secretion of LHRH that normally occurs at the time of puberty is due to a decrease of inhibitory tone that prevails prior to the onset of puberty, as well as an enhanced development of excitatory inputs to the LHRH secretory system. Additionally, it has become increasingly clear that glial-neuronal communications are important for pubertal development because they play an integral role in facilitating the pubertal rise in LHRH secretion. Thus, in recent years attempts have been made to identify specific glial-derived components that contribute to the development of coordinated communication networks between glia and LHRH cell bodies, as well as their nerve terminals. Transforming growth factor-α and transforming growth factor-β1 are two such glial substances that have received attention in this regard. This review summarizes the use of multiple neuroendocrine research techniques employed to assess these glial-neuronal communication pathways involved in regulating prepubertal LHRH secretion and the effects that alcohol can have on their respective functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade, possible advancement in timing of puberty has been reported in the United States. In addition, early pubertal development and an increased incidence of sexual precocity have been noticed in children, primarily girls, migrating for foreign adoption in several Western European...

  6. Examination of US puberty-timing data from 1940 to 1994 for secular trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Euling, Susan Y; Herman-Giddens, Marcia E; Lee, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    different methods. As a result, conclusions from data comparisons have not been consistent. An expert panel was asked to evaluate the weight of evidence for whether the data, collected from 1940 to 1994, are sufficient to suggest or establish a secular trend in the timing of puberty markers in US boys...

  7. The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade, possible advancement in timing of puberty has been reported in the United States. In addition, early pubertal development and an increased incidence of sexual precocity have been noticed in children, primarily girls, migrating for foreign adoption in several Western Europe...

  8. Bone Density and Timing of Puberty in a Longitudinal Study of Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattran, Ashley M; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Pinney, Susan M; Huang, Bin; Biro, Frank M

    2015-06-01

    Primary: To examine the relationship between relative timing of puberty with bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of adolescent girls; Secondary: To determine if family history of breast cancer was associated with bone mineral density. Longitudinal study of girls recruited between 6 and 7 years of age seen every 6 months for 5 years, and subsequently seen annually. BMD of the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at mean age of 12.5 years; age- and race-specific Z-scores (BMDz) were calculated. Age of pubertal onset was determined by the first occurrence of breast stage 2, and participants were categorized into race-specific early, on-time and late puberty onset groups. BMDz by timing of pubertal onset, and by family history of breast cancer. DXA scans were performed on 227 study participants, and a second scan was performed on 114 participants 2 years later. Age of onset of puberty was inversely correlated with BMDz, r = -0.31 (P puberty was associated with higher BMD. The high shared variance of BMD and timing of pubertal onset implies an underlying biologic basis. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Puberty: Maturation, Timing and Adjustment, and Sexual Identity Developmental Milestones among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Foss, Alexander H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined pubertal maturation, pubertal timing and outcomes, and the relationship of puberty and sexual identity developmental milestones among 507 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. The onset of menarche and spermarche occurred at the mean ages of 12.05 and 12.46, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in…

  10. Association between Obesity and Puberty Timing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Liu, Qin; Deng, Xu; Chen, Yiwen; Liu, Shudan; Story, Mary

    2017-10-24

    This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the associations between obesity and puberty timing based on scientific evidence. Eight electronic databases were searched up to February 2017 for eligible studies, and two reviewers screened the articles and extracted the data independently. A total of 11 cohort studies with 4841 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Compared with the group of normal-weight girls, the obese group had more girls with menarche (RR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.59-2.19, 2 studies). The number of girls with early puberty was significantly higher in the obese group than the normal weight group (RR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.32-4.52, 5 studies). However, no differences were detected between girls who were obese or normal weight at age of menarche (WMD: -0.53 years, 95% CI: -1.24-0.19, 2 studies). There is no consistent result in the relationship between obesity and timing of pubertal onset in boys. Obesity may contribute to early onset of puberty in girls, while in boys, there is insufficient data. Given the limited number of cohort studies included in this meta-analysis, high-quality studies with strong markers of puberty onset, as well as standardized criteria for defining obesity are needed.

  11. Association between Obesity and Puberty Timing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the associations between obesity and puberty timing based on scientific evidence. Eight electronic databases were searched up to February 2017 for eligible studies, and two reviewers screened the articles and extracted the data independently. A total of 11 cohort studies with 4841 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Compared with the group of normal-weight girls, the obese group had more girls with menarche (RR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.59–2.19, 2 studies. The number of girls with early puberty was significantly higher in the obese group than the normal weight group (RR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.32–4.52, 5 studies. However, no differences were detected between girls who were obese or normal weight at age of menarche (WMD: −0.53 years, 95% CI: −1.24–0.19, 2 studies. There is no consistent result in the relationship between obesity and timing of pubertal onset in boys. Obesity may contribute to early onset of puberty in girls, while in boys, there is insufficient data. Given the limited number of cohort studies included in this meta-analysis, high-quality studies with strong markers of puberty onset, as well as standardized criteria for defining obesity are needed.

  12. Insulin Resistance of Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zeitler, Philip S

    2016-07-01

    Puberty is a time of considerable metabolic and hormonal change. Notably, puberty is associated with a marked decrease in insulin sensitivity, on par with that seen during pregnancy. In otherwise healthy youth, there is a nadir in insulin sensitivity in mid-puberty, and then it recovers at puberty completion. However, there is evidence that insulin resistance (IR) does not resolve in youth who are obese going into puberty and may result in increased cardiometabolic risk. Little is known about the underlying pathophysiology of IR in puberty, and how it might contribute to increased disease risk (e.g., type 2 diabetes). In this review, we have outlined what is known about the IR in puberty in terms of pattern, potential underlying mechanisms and other mediating factors. We also outline other potentially related metabolic changes that occur during puberty, and effects of underlying insulin resistant states (e.g., obesity) on pubertal changes in insulin sensitivity.

  13. Association between Small Fetuses and Puberty Timing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xu; Li, Wenyan; Luo, Yan; Liu, Shudan; Wen, Yi; Liu, Qin

    2017-11-13

    Background : Epidemiological studies reporting the effect of small fetuses (SF) on puberty development have shown inconsistent results. Objective : To examine current study evidence and determine the strength and direction of the association between SF and puberty timing. Methods : PubMed, OVID, Web of Science, EBSCO, and four Chinese databases were searched from their date of inception to February 2016. All cohort studies that examined the association between SF and puberty timing in children were identified. Two reviewers independently screened the studies, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data. The quality of the included cohort studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Risk ratio (RR), Weighted Mean Difference (WMD), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and pooled by RevMan5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, London, UK). Results : A total of 10 cohort studies involving 2366 subjects was included in the final analysis. The pooled estimates showed that SF did not significantly increase the number of pubertal children in boys (RR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.15), or in girls (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.04). Compared with the control group, the SF group had an earlier onset of puberty in girls (WMD: -0.64; 95% CI: -1.21 to -0.06), and in precocious pubarche (PP) girls (WMD: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.13 to -0.07). There was no difference in the onset of puberty in boys (WMD: -0.48; 95% CI: -1.45 to 0.50) between SF and control groups. The pooled result indicated an earlier age at menarche in girls born small for gestational age (WMD: -0.30; 95% CI: -0.58 to -0.03), but no difference in the age at menarche in the SF group of PP girls. Conclusions : SF may be associated with an earlier age of onset of puberty, especially among girls, as well as earlier age at menarche for girls. Well-designed studies with larger sample sizes and long-term follow-up among different countries and ethnicities are needed.

  14. The relationship between obesity and body compositions with respect to the timing of puberty in Chongqing adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Guan, Peiyu; Liu, Qin; Crabtree, Donna; Peng, Linli; Wang, Hong

    2017-08-18

    It is well known that excess adiposity during childhood may influence pubertal development. However, the extent to which body compositions vary in throughout puberty in boys and girls is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity and body compositions correlate with the timing of puberty in boys and girls. By random cluster sampling, our study analyzed data from 1472 students (690 girls, 782 boys) aged 6-17 years from two schools in the Chongqing area. Data were collected by physical examination of weight, height, and skinfold thicknesses. Testicular volume was measured in boys and breast development in girls. By which we got the indicators of obesity, timing of puberty and body compositions. Probit regression analysis was used to group subjects into early puberty (>P 25 ), on-time puberty (P 25  ~ P 75 ), and delayed puberty (puberty groups by sex. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine the association between timing of puberty and body composition indicators. There were significant differences in the distribution of fat levels (normal weigh, overweight, obesity) among different pubertal groups in different sex (boys:χ2 = 10.639, P = 0.031; girls:χ2 = 63.232, P = 0.000). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that percentage of body fat, fat mass and fat-free mass in the delayed puberty girls were significantly lower than the girls in the on-time puberty and early puberty, while body density had the opposite result (all P puberty groups (all P > 0.05). In girls, delayed puberty was negatively correlated with Obesity, percentage of body fat, fat mass and fat-free mass, and positively correlated with body density. But in boys, delayed puberty was only negatively correlated with Obesity, the relation between puberty and body compositions was not found.

  15. Puberty timing associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also diverse health outcomes in men and women: the UK Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R; Elks, Cathy E; Murray, Anna; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2015-06-18

    Early puberty timing is associated with higher risks for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease in women and therefore represents a potential target for early preventive interventions. We characterised the range of diseases and other adverse health outcomes associated with early or late puberty timing in men and women in the very large UK Biobank study. Recalled puberty timing and past/current diseases were self-reported by questionnaire. We limited analyses to individuals of White ethnicity (250,037 women; 197,714 men) and to disease outcomes with at least 500 cases (~ 0.2% prevalence) and we applied stringent correction for multiple testing (corrected threshold P puberty timing was associated with higher risks for angina, hypertension and T2D. Furthermore, compared to the median/average group, earlier or later puberty timing in women or men was associated with higher risks for 48 adverse outcomes, across a range of cancers, cardio-metabolic, gynaecological/obstetric, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neuro-cognitive categories. Notably, both early and late menarche were associated with higher risks for early natural menopause in women. Puberty timing in both men and women appears to have a profound impact on later health.

  16. Timing and rate of spheno-occipital synchondrosis closure and its relationship to puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Eduardo; Palomo, J. Martin; Hans, Mark; Latimer, Bruce; Simpson, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the relationship between spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) closure and puberty onset in a modern American population. It also investigates the timing and the rate of SOS closure in males and females. Materials and methods The sample includes cross-sectional and longitudinal 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of 741 individuals (361 males and 380 females) aged 6–20 years. Each CBCT scan is visualized in the mid-sagittal plane, and the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) is scored as completely open, partially fused, mostly fused, and completely fused. The Menarche commencement is used as an indicator of puberty onset in females. Results Mean ages of open, partially-fused, mostly-fused, and completely fused SOS were 11.07, 12.95, 14.44, and 16.41 years in males, and 9.75, 11.67, 13.25, and 15.25 in females, respectively. The results show there is a significant association between the SOS closure stage and the commencement of menarche (Fisher's Exact Test p < 0.001). It was found that females had a higher SOS closure rate (38.60%) per year than males at the age of 10 years. The closure rate in males appears slower than females at age 10, but it lasts a longer time, ranging between 22 and 26% per year from age 11 to 14 years. Conclusion There is a significant relationship between puberty onset and SOS closure, suggesting its closure is at least partially affected by systemic, hormonal changes in the growing adolescent. Also, SOS closure occurs at a faster rate and at an earlier age in females compared to males. PMID:28827837

  17. Timing of puberty and physical growth in obese children: a longitudinal study in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, C; Marcovecchio, M L; Chiavaroli, V; de Giorgis, T; Chiarelli, F; Mohn, A

    2014-08-01

    To assess whether puberty and physical growth vary in obese when compared to normal-weight children. One hundred obese pre-pubertal children (44 boys; mean age (±SD): 9.01 ± 0.62 years; 56 girls; 8.70 ± 0.57 years) were compared to 55 normal-weight controls (27 boys; 9.17 ± 0.26 years; 28 girls; 8.71 ± 0.62 years). All study participants were followed prospectively with 6-monthly follow-up visits. At each study visit, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and pubertal stage were assessed. Obese children entered puberty and achieved later stages of puberty earlier than controls (onset of puberty: boys: 11.66 ± 1.00 vs. 12.12 ± 0.91 years, P = 0.049; girls: 9.90 ± 0.78 vs. 10.32 ± 1.70, P = 0.016; late puberty: boys: 13.33 ± 0.71 vs. 14.47 ± 1.00 years, P puberty (β = -0.506, P puberty (β = -0.514, P puberty and completion of puberty and an impaired height gain during puberty. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. Hypothesis: exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may interfere with timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Aksglaede, L; Sørensen, K

    2010-01-01

    A recent decline in onset of puberty - especially among girls - has been observed, first in the US in the mid-1990s and now also in Europe. The development of breast tissue in girls occurs at a much younger age and the incidence of precocious puberty (PP) is increasing. Genetic factors...... of normal puberty are poorly understood. This hampers investigation of the possible role of environmental influences. There are many types of EDCs. One chemical may have more than one mode of action and the effects may depend on dose and duration of the exposure, as well as the developmental stage...... in life. Most known EDCs have oestrogenic and/or anti-androgenic actions and only few have androgenic or anti-oestrogenic effects. Thus, it appears plausible that they interfere with normal onset of puberty. The age at menarche has only declined by a few months whereas the age at breast development has...

  19. Puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well child - puberty in girls; Development - puberty in girls; Menstruation - puberty in girls; Breast development - puberty in girls ... a year. When you are done going through puberty, you will be almost as tall as you ...

  20. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . The underlying reasons for the large variation in the age at pubertal onset are not fully established; however, nutritional status and socioeconomic and environmental factors are known to be influencing, and a significant amount of influencing genetic factors have also been identified. The challenges...... optimal in discriminating especially CDGP from HH. Management of the delayed puberty depends on the etiology. For boys with CDGP an observational period will often reveal imminent puberty. If puberty is not progressing spontaneously, sex steroid replacement is effective in stimulating the development...

  1. Hypothesis: exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may interfere with timing of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, A; Aksglaede, L; Sørensen, K

    2010-01-01

    and increasing prevalence of adiposity may contribute, but environmental factors are also likely to be involved. In particular, the widespread presence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is suspected to contribute to the trend of earlier pubertal onset. The factors regulating the physiological onset...... of normal puberty are poorly understood. This hampers investigation of the possible role of environmental influences. There are many types of EDCs. One chemical may have more than one mode of action and the effects may depend on dose and duration of the exposure, as well as the developmental stage......A recent decline in onset of puberty - especially among girls - has been observed, first in the US in the mid-1990s and now also in Europe. The development of breast tissue in girls occurs at a much younger age and the incidence of precocious puberty (PP) is increasing. Genetic factors...

  2. Psychological assessment of mothers and their daughters at the time of diagnosis of precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelwer, Melissa J; Donahue, Kelly L; Bryk, Kristina; Didrick, Paula; Berenbaum, Sheri A; Eugster, Erica A

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about psychological distress are often used to justify treatment of girls with precocious puberty, but there is little evidence to support these concerns. The extent to which psychological problems are associated with central precocious puberty (CPP) compared with other forms of early puberty in girls has likewise not been established. Girls presenting with untreated CPP, premature adrenarche (PA) or early normal puberty (ENP) were recruited from our pediatric endocrine clinic along with their mothers. Child psychological adjustment was assessed by child self-report and parent report. Parent self-reported personality, anxiety, and depression were also assessed. Differences between groups were explored using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 test. Sixty-two subjects (aged 7.5 ± 1.4 years, range 4.8-10.5) were enrolled, of whom 19 had CPP, 22 had PA, and 21 had ENP. Girls with ENP were significantly older (8.9 ± .9 years) than girls with CPP (6.9 ± 1.1 years, p psychological adjustment. However, mothers of girls with PA scored significantly higher than mothers of girls with ENP on one measure of depression (p = .04) and stress (p = .01). While mothers of girls with PA report increased psychological distress on some measures, no differences in psychological adjustment were found at baseline amongst the girls themselves. Whether these results will change as puberty progresses in the PA and ENP groups or with treatment of CPP is unknown. Long-term prospective studies are needed in order to further investigate psychological correlates of early puberty in girls.

  3. Individual differences in boys' and girls' timing and tempo of puberty: modeling development with nonlinear growth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Houts, Renate M; Grimm, Kevin J; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2011-09-01

    Pubertal development is a nonlinear process progressing from prepubescent beginnings through biological, physical, and psychological changes to full sexual maturity. To tether theoretical concepts of puberty with sophisticated longitudinal, analytical models capable of articulating pubertal development more accurately, we used nonlinear mixed-effects models to describe both the timing and tempo of pubertal development in the sample of 364 White boys and 373 White girls measured across 6 years as part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Individual differences in timing and tempo were extracted with models of logistic growth. Differential relations emerged for how boys' and girls' timing and tempo of development were related to physical characteristics (body mass index, height, and weight) and psychological outcomes (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and risky sexual behavior). Timing and tempo are associated in boys but not girls. Pubertal timing and tempo are particularly important for predicting psychological outcomes in girls but only sparsely related to boys' psychological outcomes. Results highlight the importance of considering the nonlinear nature of puberty and expand the repertoire of possibilities for examining important aspects of how and when pubertal processes contribute to development.

  4. Effect of melatonin implants on the incidence and timing of puberty in female red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W; Archer, J A; Ward, J F; Scott, I C; Littlejohn, R P

    2011-02-01

    A study was conducted to test the hypotheses that exogenous melatonin treatment of 11-13 month-old red deer hinds: (1) advances the timing of first ovulation, (2) increases the proportion of individuals attaining puberty at ∼16 months of age, and (3) reduces the live-weight threshold for attainment of first pregnancy. A total of 3901 rising-2-year-old (R₂) hinds within two herds (A and B) across two years either received single melatonin implants on two occasions in summer (n=1399) or were untreated controls (n=2502). Hinds were joined with stags from mid January to mid May, and were subjected to real-time rectal ultrasonography in early June to assess pregnancy status (proxy for puberty attainment) and foetal age for conception date assignment. Live-weights were recorded for each hind in January (12 months of age) as a proxy for weight at puberty. Melatonin treatment of hinds was associated with a significant advancement in mean conception dates in both herds in both years (Pmelatonin treatment was associated with higher conception rates to first ovulation (P0.05); for every 10kg increase in live-weight conception date was advanced by an average of 1.3 days. In Herd A, melatonin treatment was associated with significantly higher pregnancy rates in both years (90.3% vs. 78.0% in Year 1 and 84.4% vs. 57.1% in Year 2; Pmelatonin treatment was to increase the pregnancy rate of hinds of low body-mass. In Year 1, at 60kg live-weight a logit regression model indicated a pregnancy rate of 52% for untreated hinds and 83% for treated hinds. At 105kg the rate for both cohorts was 90%. In Herd B, melatonin treatment was associated with higher conception rates in both years but these differences were not significant following correction for slight differences in mean live-weight (P>0.05). The study has demonstrated that factors influencing puberty attainment in R₂ red deer hinds can vary between populations. In Herd A, in which body mass of hinds immediately prior to

  5. The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity: variations around the world, secular trends, and changes after migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2003-10-01

    During the past decade, possible advancement in timing of puberty has been reported in the United States. In addition, early pubertal development and an increased incidence of sexual precocity have been noticed in children, primarily girls, migrating for foreign adoption in several Western European countries. These observations are raising the issues of current differences and secular trends in timing of puberty in relation to ethnic, geographical, and socioeconomic background. None of these factors provide an unequivocal explanation for the earlier onset of puberty seen in the United States. In the formerly deprived migrating children, refeeding and catch-up growth may prime maturation. However, precocious puberty is seen also in some nondeprived migrating children. Attention has been paid to the changing milieu after migration, and recently, the possible role of endocrine- disrupting chemicals from the environment has been considered. These observations urge further study of the onset of puberty as a possible sensitive and early marker of the interactions between environmental conditions and genetic susceptibility that can influence physiological and pathological processes.

  6. Delayed puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual development - girls; Pubertal delay - girls; Constitutional delayed puberty ... In most cases of delayed puberty, growth changes just begin later than usual, sometimes called a late bloomer. Once puberty begins, it progresses normally. This pattern runs ...

  7. Delayed puberty in boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007695.htm Delayed puberty in boys To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delayed puberty in boys is when puberty does not begin ...

  8. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Understanding Puberty KidsHealth / For Parents / Understanding Puberty What's in this ... your child through all the changes? Stages of Puberty Sure, most of us know the telltale signs ...

  9. Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Day, Felix R; Thompson, Deborah J; Helgason, Hannes; Chasman, Daniel I; Finucane, Hilary; Sulem, Patrick; Ruth, Katherine S; Whalen, Sean; Sarkar, Abhishek K; Albrecht, Eva; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Amini, Marzyeh; Barbieri, Caterina M; Boutin, Thibaud; Campbell, Archie; Demerath, Ellen; Giri, Ayush; He, Chunyan; Hottenga, Jouke J; Karlsson, Robert; Kolcic, Ivana; Loh, Po-Ru; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Mangino, Massimo; Marco, Brumat; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Nolte, Ilja M; Noordam, Raymond; Nutile, Teresa; Paternoster, Lavinia; Perjakova, Natalia; Porcu, Eleonora; Rose, Lynda M; Schraut, Katharina E; Segrè, Ayellet V; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; de Geus, Eco J C N; Mbarek, Hamdi; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Visser, Jenny A

    2017-01-01

    The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for age at menarche, a milestone in female

  10. Precocious Puberty in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, I.; Laghari, T. M.; Khan, N. Y.; Lone, W. S.; Ibrahim, M.; Raza, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the etiology of precocious puberty in children and to compare the clinical and laboratory parameters of central and peripheral precocious puberty. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Endocrine Clinic at National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2011. Methodology: Children presenting with precocious puberty were included. The age of onset of puberty was documented. Clinical evaluation, Tanner staging, height, height SDS, weight, weight SDS, body mass index, bone age, pelvic USG, plasma estradiol level and GnRH stimulation were done. Ultrasound of adrenal glands, serum level of 17 hydroxyprogesterone, ACTH, Renin, aldosterone and testosterone were performed in children with peripheral precocious puberty. MRI of adrenal glands and gonads was done in patients with suspected tumor of that organ and MRI of brain was done in patients with central precocious puberty. Skeletal survey was done in patients with Mc Cune-Albright syndrome. Results: CAH (81.8%) indentified as a main cause in peripheral percocious puberty and idiopathic (67.74%) in central precocious puberty. Eighty five patients were registered during this period. The conditions causing precocious puberty were central precocious puberty (36.47%), peripheral precocious puberty (38.82%), premature pubarche (10.58%) and premature thelarche (14.11%). There was a difference in the age of onset of puberty in case of central precocious puberty (mean=3, 2-6 years) versus peripheral precocious puberty (mean=5.25; 3.62 - 7.0 years). Children with central precocious puberty showed higher height SDS, weight SDS, FSH, LH than those with peripheral precocious puberty. Conclusion: Etiology in majority of cases with peripheral precocious puberty was congenital adrenal hyperplasia and idiopathic in central precocious puberty. Central precocious puberty children showed higher height SDS, weight SDS, FSH, LH than peripheral precocious puberty

  11. Transition in endocrinology: induction of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Leo; Quinton, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Puberty is the period during which we attain adult secondary sexual characteristics and reproductive capability. Its onset depends upon reactivation of pulsative GNRH, secretion from its relative quiescence during childhood, on the background of intact potential for pituitary-gonadal function. This review is intended: to highlight those current practices in diagnosis and management that are evidence based and those that are not; to help clinicians deal with areas of uncertainty with reference to physiologic first principles; by sign-posting relevant data arising from other patient groups with shared issues; to illustrate how recent scientific advances are (or should be) altering clinician perceptions of pubertal delay; and finally, to emphasise that the management of men and women presenting in advanced adult life with absent puberty cannot simply be extrapolated from paediatric practice. There is a broad spectrum of pubertal timing that varies among different populations, separated in time and space. Delayed puberty usually represents an extreme of the normal, a developmental pattern referred to as constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP), but organic defects of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis predisposing to hypogonadism may not always be initially distinguishable from it. CDGP and organic, or congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism are both significantly more common in boys than girls. Moreover, around 1/3 of adults with organic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism had evidence of partial puberty at presentation and, confusingly, some 5-10% of these subsequently may exhibit recovery of endogenous gonadotrophin secretion, including men with Kallmann syndrome. However, the distinction is crucial as expectative ('watch-and-wait') management is inappropriate in the context of hypogonadism. The probability of pubertal delay being caused by organic hypogonadism rises exponentially both with increasing age at presentation and the presence of associated 'red

  12. In Utero and Lactational Effects of Aqueous Foeniculum Vulgare (Fennel Seed Extract on Puberty Timing, Estrus Cycle and Sexual Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Parandin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Several studies have shown that developmental exposure to phytoestrogens causes adverse effects on the reproductive functions. Fennel as a phytoestrogen plant has a rich history in household use and traditional medicine.So, the current study was designed to investigate the effects of in utero and neonatal exposure with fennel on the puberty onset, estrus cycle, reproductive organs and sexual behavior of their offspring. Materials and Methods: BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0 (control, 100, 200 and 400 (mg/kg bw aqueous fennel seed extract (AFSE, daily from day 7 of gestation to postnatal day (PND 7. Results: Vaginal opening (sign of puberty onset was advanced in 200 (p<0.01 and 400 AFSE (p<0.001 treated females. A 30 days vaginal smear check indicated that 200 or 400 AFSE treated mice showed a prolonged estrus with decreased proestrus, estrus and metestrus stages and increased and diestrus stage and index. The ovary weight, number of corpora lutea and LH concentration decreased and uterus weight and estradiol concentration increased in the 200 or 400 treated mice in PND 70. 400 AFSE (p<0.01 treated females showed lordosis with a low lordosis quotient (LQ when compared to the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that developmental exposure to AFSE, due to its estrogenic compounds, it may cause the precocious puberty, disrupted estrus cycle, altered weight of reproductive organs, hormonal imbalance and low lordosis behavior.

  13. Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Felix R; Thompson, Deborah J; Helgason, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P ... pubertal development. In Icelandic data, these signals explain ∼7.4% of the population variance in age at menarche, corresponding to ∼25% of the estimated heritability. We implicate ∼250 genes via coding variation or associated expression, demonstrating significant enrichment in neural tissues. Rare...... variants near the imprinted genes MKRN3 and DLK1 were identified, exhibiting large effects when paternally inherited. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest causal inverse associations, independent of body mass index (BMI), between puberty timing and risks for breast and endometrial cancers in women...

  14. Feeding prepubescent gilts a high-fat diet induces molecular changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and predicts early timing of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yong; Zhou, Dongsheng; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Wu, De

    2014-01-01

    The onset of puberty in females has been occurring earlier over the past decades, presumably as a result of improved nutrition in developed countries. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the early attainment of puberty as a result of nutrition fortification remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hormone and gene expression changes in prepubescent gilts fed a high-fat diet to investigate whether these changes could predict the early timing of puberty. Forty gilts were fed a daily basal diet (LE) or a basal diet with an additional 270 g/d or 340 g/d of fat (HE) during the prepubescent phase. Blood samples were collected during the prepubescent phase to detect hormone secretion changes in insulin-like growth factor-1, kisspeptin, estradiol, progesterone, and leptin. The gene expressions at the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis were examined on day 73 of the experiment (average age on day 177) during the prepubescent phase. An HE diet resulted in accelerated body weight gain and back-fat thickness at the P2 point compared with LE gilts during the prepubescent phase. Gilts that were fed HE diets attained puberty 12 d earlier than LE gilts, and a larger proportion of HE gilts reached puberty at day 180 or 190 of age. A postmortem analysis revealed a promoted development of the uterus and ovary tissue that was characterized by a 53.7% and 29.5% increase in the uterine and ovary weight, respectively, and an increased length of the uterine horn and oviduct tissue in HE gilts. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that HE gilts had higher Kiss-1, G protein-coupled receptor 54, gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor α mRNA expression levels in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular nucleus; the leptin receptor mRNA expression level was higher in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and ovary tissue; the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression was higher in the pituitary and

  15. Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R; Thompson, Deborah J; Helgason, Hannes; Chasman, Daniel I; Finucane, Hilary; Sulem, Patrick; Ruth, Katherine S; Whalen, Sean; Sarkar, Abhishek K; Albrecht, Eva; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Amini, Marzyeh; Barbieri, Caterina M; Boutin, Thibaud; Campbell, Archie; Demerath, Ellen; Giri, Ayush; He, Chunyan; Hottenga, Jouke J; Karlsson, Robert; Kolcic, Ivana; Loh, Po-Ru; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Mangino, Massimo; Marco, Brumat; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Nolte, Ilja M; Noordam, Raymond; Nutile, Teresa; Paternoster, Lavinia; Perjakova, Natalia; Porcu, Eleonora; Rose, Lynda M; Schraut, Katharina E; Segrè, Ayellet V; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broer, Linda; Brüning, Thomas; Buring, Julie E; Campbell, Harry; Catamo, Eulalia; Chanock, Stephen; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Corre, Tanguy; Couch, Fergus J; Cousminer, Diana L; Cox, Angela; Crisponi, Laura; Czene, Kamila; Davey Smith, George; de Geus, Eco J C N; de Mutsert, Renée; De Vivo, Immaculata; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dunning, Alison M; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Franke, Lude; Gabrielson, Marike; Gandin, Ilaria; Giles, Graham G; Grallert, Harald; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Harris, Tamara B; Hartman, Catharina A; Heiss, Gerardo; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank; Hunter, David J; Ikram, M Arfan; Im, Hae Kyung; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Joshi, Peter K; Karasik, David; Kellis, Manolis; Kutalik, Zoltan; LaChance, Genevieve; Lambrechts, Diether; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J; Laven, Joop S E; Lenarduzzi, Stefania; Li, Jingmei; Lind, Penelope A; Lindstrom, Sara; Liu, YongMei; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Mannermaa, Arto; Mbarek, Hamdi; McCarthy, Mark I; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Menni, Cristina; Metspalu, Andres; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Montgomery, Grant W; Mulligan, Anna M; Nalls, Mike A; Navarro, Pau; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nyholt, Dale R; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; O'Mara, Tracy A; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Nancy; Peters, Annette; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Pouta, Anneli; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Iffat; Ring, Susan M; Robino, Antonietta; Rosendaal, Frits R; Rudan, Igor; Rueedi, Rico; Ruggiero, Daniela; Sala, Cinzia F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Scott, Robert A; Shah, Mitul; Sorice, Rossella; Southey, Melissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir; Steri, Maristella; Strauch, Konstantin; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; Timpson, Nicholas J; Traglia, Michela; Truong, Thérèse; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uitterlinden, André G; Edwards, Digna R Velez; Vitart, Veronique; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wang, Qin; Widen, Elisabeth; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Zygmunt, Marek; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Boomsma, Dorret I; Ciullo, Marina; Cucca, Francesco; Esko, Tõnu; Franceschini, Nora; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hayward, Caroline; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie A; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Nohr, Ellen A; Polasek, Ozren; Porteous, David; Price, Alkes L; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stöckl, Doris; Toniolo, Daniela; Ulivi, Sheila; Visser, Jenny A; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J; Wilson, James F; Spurdle, Amanda B; Thorsteindottir, Unnur; Pollard, Katherine S; Easton, Douglas F; Tung, Joyce Y; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hinds, David; Murray, Anna; Murabito, Joanne M; Stefansson, Kari; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2017-06-01

    The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10 -8 ) for age at menarche, a milestone in female pubertal development. In Icelandic data, these signals explain ∼7.4% of the population variance in age at menarche, corresponding to ∼25% of the estimated heritability. We implicate ∼250 genes via coding variation or associated expression, demonstrating significant enrichment in neural tissues. Rare variants near the imprinted genes MKRN3 and DLK1 were identified, exhibiting large effects when paternally inherited. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest causal inverse associations, independent of body mass index (BMI), between puberty timing and risks for breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. In aggregate, our findings highlight the complexity of the genetic regulation of puberty timing and support causal links with cancer susceptibility.

  16. Kisspeptin and Puberty in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Ei; Guerriero, Kathryn A.; Plant, Tony M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of the G-protein coupled receptor (kisspeptin receptor) and its ligand, kisspeptin, our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms that govern the pituitary-gonadal axis has evolved dramatically. In this chapter, we have reviewed progress regarding the relationship between kisspeptin and puberty, and have proposed a novel hypothesis for the role of kisspeptin signaling in the onset of this crucial developmental event. According to this hypothesis, although kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are critical for puberty, this is simply because these cells are an integral component of the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generating mechanism that drives intermittent release of the decapeptide, as an increase in GnRH is obligatory for the onset of puberty. In our model, ARC kisspeptin neurons play no “regulatory” role in controlling the timing of puberty. Rather, as a component of the neural network responsible for GnRH pulse generation, they subserve upstream regulatory mechanisms that are responsible for the timing of puberty. PMID:23550010

  17. Examination of U.S. Puberty Timing Data from 1940 to 1994 for Secular Trends: Panel Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five articles based on "The Role of Environmental Factors on the Onset and Progression of Puberty" expert panel workshop findings were published as a Supplement to Pediatrics on Feb. 1, 2008. This workshop, sponsored by EPA, NIEHS, and Serono International and held in November o...

  18. Improving the assessment of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) effects on puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    During puberty, key developmental events occur that are critical for normal adult male and female reproductive maturation. Recent studies raised concern that exposure to environmental chemicals alter the normal progression through puberty and lead to impaired reproductive functio...

  19. Normal female puberty in a developmental perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is unique in the sense that its onset shows an extraordinary individual variability of about 5 years, the basis of which being still elusive despite research efforts to understand the reason why. Continuing changes in environmental influences and interaction with genetic determinants...... with less obvious changes in menarcheal age. Conceptually, puberty and subsequent reproduction appear now to be influenced by conditions not only at the time when they occur, but also during fetal and perinatal life. In addition, these influences can be apparently opposing since early maturation follows...... fetal malnourishment and postnatal overfeeding. In this review, the semiology and pathophysiology of puberty are discussed in a lifelong developmental perspective....

  20. Neuroendocrine control of the onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Tony M

    2015-07-01

    This chapter is based on the Geoffrey Harris Memorial Lecture presented at the 8th International Congress of Neuroendocrinology, which was held in Sydney, August 2014. It provides the development of our understanding of the neuroendocrine control of puberty since Harris proposed in his 1955 monograph (Harris, 1955) that "a major factor responsible for puberty is an increased rate of release of pituitary gonadotrophin" and posited "that a neural (hypothalamic) stimulus, via the hypophysial portal vessels, may be involved." Emphasis is placed on the neurobiological mechanisms governing puberty in highly evolved primates, although an attempt is made to reverse translate a model for the timing of puberty in man and monkey to non-primate species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Precocious Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spurt" start of menstruation (her period) acne "mature" body odor In boys, the signs of precocious puberty before ... growth — a growth "spurt" voice deepening acne "mature" body odor Many kids who show some of the early ...

  2. Puberty and adolescent sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Neuroendocrine mechanisms of puberty onset].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teinturier, C

    2002-10-01

    An increase in pulsatile release of GnRH is essential for the onset of puberty. However, the mechanism controlling the pubertal increase in GnRH release is still unclear. The GnRH neurosecretory system is already active during the neonatal period but subsequently enters a dormant state by central inhibition in the juvenile period. When this central inhibition is removed or diminished, an increase in GnRH release occurs with increase in synthesis and release of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids, followed by the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Recent studies suggest that disinhibition of GnRH neurons from GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) appears to be a critical factor in female rhesus monkey. After central inhibition is removed, increases in stimulatory input from glutamatergic neurons as well as new stimulatory input from norepinephrine and NPY neurons and inhibitory input from beta endorphin neurons appear to control pulsatile GnRH release as well as gonadal steroids. Nonetheless, the most important question still remains: what determines the timing to remove central inhibition? Because many genes are turned on or turned off to establish a complex series of events occurring during puberty, the timing of puberty must be regulated by a master gene or genes, as a part of developmental events.

  4. Concerns Boys Have about Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Concerns Boys Have About Puberty Page Content Article Body Boys have pubertal concerns ... just part of growing up. Involuntary Erections During puberty, boys get erections spontaneously, without touching their penis ...

  5. Boys and Puberty (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Boys and Puberty KidsHealth / For Kids / Boys and Puberty What's in this article? Why Are Girls Taller ... as you grow up, especially as you reach puberty (say: PYOO-bur-tee), the name for the ...

  6. All about Puberty (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español All About Puberty KidsHealth / For Kids / All About Puberty What's in ... you get older. Putting the P.U. in Puberty P.U.! A lot of kids notice that ...

  7. Puberty in boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your body makes hormones to get puberty started. Here are some changes you will start seeing. You will: See your testicles and penis get bigger. Grow body hair. You may grow hair on your face around your upper lip, cheeks, and chin. You may see ...

  8. Idiopathic precocious puberty in girls: Psychosexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, H F; Ehrhardt, A A; Bell, J J; Cohen, S F; Healey, J M; Feldman, J F; Morishima, A; Baker, S W; New, M I

    1985-08-01

    A promising model syndrome for the examination of the role of physical maturation in the development of female sexuality is idiopathic precocious puberty (IPP). In this first controlled study of psychosexual development in IPP females, 16 females between 13 and 20 years of age with a history of IPP were compared to 16 control subjects with a history of normal puberty pair-matched to the index subjects on the basis of sex, race, age, socioeconomic level, and menarcheal status. The psychosexual history and the current psychosexual status were assessed by a systematic half-structured interview. The IPP females on average passed the psychosexual milestones at an earlier age than their normal maturing peers, with a particularly early onset of masturbation. Those who were sociosexually active tended to report a higher total orgasmic outlet and a higher sex drive. There was no increase in homosexuality among IPP girls. The timing of puberty has a (modest) influence on psychosexual development in females.

  9. In utero and lactational exposure to bisphenol A, in contrast to ethinyl estradiol, does not alter sexually dimorphic behavior, puberty, fertility, and anatomy of female LE rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many chemicals released into the environment display estrogenic activity including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA). EE2 is present in some aquatic systems at concentrations sufficient to alter reproductive function of fishe...

  10. Talking to Your Child about Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should know about puberty ahead of time. Many kids receive some sex education at school. Often, though, the lessons are ... January 2015 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Sexual Development Questions and Answers About Sex A Parent's Guide to Surviving the Teen Years ...

  11. Facial growth and development in unilateral cleft lip and palate from the time of palatoplasty to the onset of puberty: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smahel, Z; Müllerová, Z

    1995-01-01

    X-ray cephalometry was used for the assessment of facial growth and development from the time of palate surgery to the onset of puberty (from 5 to 11 years) in 24 boys with unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with primary periosteoplasty (at 8 months) and palatal pushback supplemented by pharyngeal flap surgery (at 5 years). The lowest growth showed the depth of the maxilla and the height of the upper lip. An increasing protrusion of the mandible and in particular the increasing retrusion of the maxilla resulted in a flattening of the face and in an impairment of sagittal jaw relations. However, it was possible to attain an improvement of overjet produced by a substantial increase of the proclination of upper incisors and of the alveolar process. There was a deterioration of the prominence of the upper lip. Anterior growth rotation was absent during the development of the face, though a rotation in both directions was quite common in individual cases. The steepness of the mandibular body, vertical jaw relations, and facial vertical proportions remained unchanged. As compared to the pubertal period, the growth and development differed only by a more marked proclination of the dentoalveolar component of the maxilla and by an improvement of overjet. Facial convexity and sagittal jaw relations deteriorated in more than 90% of the patients, the overjet only in 20%, yet the prominence of the lip in 70%. Facial convexity and sagittal jaw relations were not correlated with mandibular rotation but they affected the overjet and the prominence of the upper lip.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Testicular growth and development in puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E; Toppari, Jorma

    2017-06-01

    To describe pubertal testicular growth in humans, changes in testicular cell populations that result in testicular growth, and the role of testosterone and gonadotrophins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in testicular growth. When human data were not available, studies in nonhuman primates and/or rodents were used as surrogates. Testicular growth in puberty follows a sigmoidal growth curve, with a large variation in timing of testicular growth and adult testicular volume. Testicular growth early in puberty is due to increase in Sertoli cell number and length of seminiferous tubules, whereas the largest and fastest growth results from the increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules first due to spermatogonial proliferation and then due to the expansion of meiotic and haploid germ cells. FSH stimulates Sertoli cell and spermatogonial proliferation, whereas LH/testosterone is mandatory to complete spermatogenesis. However, FSH and LH/testosterone work in synergy and are both needed for normal spermatogenesis. Testicular growth during puberty is rapid, and mostly due to germ cell expansion and growth in seminiferous tubule diameter triggered by androgens. Pre-treatment with FSH before the induction of puberty may improve the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but remains to be proven.

  13. PC Greyling CH van Niekerk* Most investigators determine puberty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    progesterone concentrations, cyclic activity for kids weaned in December and April on a high- or ... goats had an effect upon synchronization and timing of puberty, entrained by ... research done on ewe lambs is much more comjJrehensive.

  14. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Brook, Charles G D; Hindmarsh, Peter C

    2004-11-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders resulting from deficiency of one of the five enzymes required for synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal cortex. The most common form of the disease is classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which is characterized by decreased synthesis of glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids, adrenal hyperandrogenism and impaired development and function of the adrenal medulla. The clinical management of classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency is often suboptimal, and patients are at risk of developing in tandem iatrogenic hypercortisolism and/or hyperandogenism. Limitations of current medical therapy include the inability to control hyperandrogenism without employing supraphysiologic doses of glucocorticoid, hyperresponsiveness of the hypertrophied adrenal glands to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and difficulty in suppressing ACTH secretion from the anterior pituitary. Puberty imposes increased difficulty in attaining adrenocortical suppression despite optimal substitution therapy and adherence to medical treatment. Alterations in the endocrine milieu at puberty may influence cortisol pharmacokinetics and, consequently, the handling of hydrocortisone used as replacement therapy. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant increase in cortisol clearance at puberty and a shorter half-life of free cortisol in pubertal females compared with males. Furthermore, children with classic CAH have elevated fasting serum insulin concentrations and insulin resistance. The latter may further enhance adrenal and/or ovarian androgen secretion, decrease the therapeutic efficacy of glucocorticoids and contribute to later development of the metabolic syndrome and its complications.

  15. Puberty menorrhagia Requiring Inpatient Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Khosla

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Puberty menorrhagia is a significant health problem in adolescent age group and severe cases may require admission and blood transfusion. Aim of this study was to evaluate the causes, associated complications and management of puberty menorrhagia. METHODS: Hospital records of all patients of puberty menorrhagia requiring admission were analyzed for etiology, duration since menarche, duration of bleeding, investigation profile and management. RESULTS: There were 18 patients of puberty menorrhagia requiring hospital admission. Etiology was anovulatory bleeding in 11 patients, bleeding disorders in five which included idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura in three and one each with Von-Willebrand disease and leukemia. Two patients had hypothyroidism as the cause. Fourteen patients presented with severe anaemia and required blood transfusion. All except one responded to oral hormonal therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Puberty menorrhagia can be associated with severe complications and requiring blood transfusion. Although most common cause is anovulation but bleeding disorder, other medical condition and other organic causes must be ruled out in any patient of Puberty menorrhagia. KEYWORDS: anovulation, bleeding disorder, puberty, menorrhagia, anaemia.

  16. Neoplastic causes of abnormal puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Susanne; Shelso, John; Wright, Karen; Furman, Wayne

    2014-04-01

    Neoplasm-related precocious puberty (PP) is a rare presenting feature of childhood cancer. Moreover, evaluation of suspected PP in a child is complex, and cancer is often not considered. We characterized the clinicopathologic features of patients presenting with PP at a large pediatric cancer center, reviewed the relevant literature, and developed an algorithm for the diagnostic work-up of these patients. We examined the records of all patients with a neoplasm and concomitant PP treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from January 1975 through October 2011, reviewed the available literature, and analyzed the demographic, clinical, endocrine, and neoplasm-related features. Twenty-four of 13,615 children and adolescents (0.18%) were diagnosed with PP within 60 days of presentation. Primary diagnoses included brain tumor (12), adrenocortical carcinoma (5), hepatoblastoma (4), and others (3). PP was observed 0-48 months before diagnosis of neoplasm; 17 patients had peripheral PP and 7 had central PP. Neoplasm-related PP is rare and takes the form of a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by tumor production of hormones or by alteration of physiologic gonadotropin production. PP can precede diagnosis of malignancy by months or years, and neoplastic causes should be considered early to avoid delayed cancer diagnosis. Treatment of the primary malignancy resolved or diminished PP in surviving patients with an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sex- and brain region-specific patterns of gene expression associated with socially-mediated puberty in a eusocial mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Faykoo-Martinez

    Full Text Available The social environment can alter pubertal timing through neuroendocrine mechanisms that are not fully understood; it is thought that stress hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids or corticotropin-releasing hormone influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to inhibit puberty. Here, we use the eusocial naked mole-rat, a unique species in which social interactions in a colony (i.e. dominance of a breeding female suppress puberty in subordinate animals. Removing subordinate naked mole-rats from this social context initiates puberty, allowing for experimental control of pubertal timing. The present study quantified gene expression for reproduction- and stress-relevant genes acting upstream of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in brain regions with reproductive and social functions in pre-pubertal, post-pubertal, and opposite sex-paired animals (which are in various stages of pubertal transition. Results indicate sex differences in patterns of neural gene expression. Known functions of genes in brain suggest stress as a key contributing factor in regulating male pubertal delay. Network analysis implicates neurokinin B (Tac3 in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus as a key node in this pathway. Results also suggest an unappreciated role for the nucleus accumbens in regulating puberty.

  18. Pubertal development in children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1 before puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, K C X; Pugliese, B S; Guimarães, M M; Gama, M P

    2015-02-01

    To investigate an association between pubertal development and timing of menarche with glycemic control, disease duration, and body mass index (BMI) in patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) before puberty. Retrospective study. The study was performed at the diabetes outpatient clinic of Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira--IPPMG of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro--UFRJ. A total of 131 children, 61 girls and 70 boys, diagnosed with DM1 before puberty participated in the study. The study investigated how age at puberty onset relates to mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) before puberty, BMI percentile, and disease duration; how puberty duration relates to mean HbA1c before and during puberty and to disease duration; and how timing of menarche relates to mean HbA1c before puberty, BMI percentile, and disease duration. Age at puberty onset was positively correlated with mean HbA1c before puberty (r = 0.204, R(2) = 0.042; P = .019) and disease duration (r = 0.451, R(2) = 0.203; P puberty later than those diagnosed more recently. Girls in higher BMI percentiles reached menarche sooner.

  19. When can stress facilitate divergence by altering time to flowering?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Crispin Y.; Ally, Dilara; Hodgins, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stressors and heterogeneity are ubiquitous features of natural environments, and theory suggests that when environmental qualities alter flowering schedules through phenotypic plasticity, assortative mating can result that promotes evolutionary divergence. Therefore, it is important to determine whether common ecological stressors induce similar changes in flowering time. We review previous studies to determine whether two important stressors, water restriction and herbivory, induce ...

  20. Epigenetic regulation of female puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in recent years toward deciphering the molecular and genetic underpinnings of the pubertal process. The availability of powerful new methods to interrogate the human genome has led to the identification of genes that are essential for puberty to occur. Evidence has also emerged suggesting that the initiation of puberty requires the coordinated activity of gene sets organized into functional networks. At a cellular level, it is currently thought that loss of transsynaptic inhibition, accompanied by an increase in excitatory inputs, results in the pubertal activation of GnRH release. This concept notwithstanding, a mechanism of epigenetic repression targeting genes required for the pubertal activation of GnRH neurons was recently identified as a core component of the molecular machinery underlying the central restraint of puberty. In this chapter we will discuss the potential contribution of various mechanisms of epigenetic regulation to the hypothalamic control of female puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Concerns Girls Have about Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Concerns Girls Have About Puberty Page Content Article Body Girls have pubertal concerns and worries, too, including: Breast Development Some girls ...

  2. What Are Normal Puberty, Precocious Puberty, and Delayed Puberty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos Get to Know NICHD Podcasts and Audio Social Media Join NICHD Listservs About NICHD Organization Office of ... many children do not experience major psychological or social problems, ... body's timing for sexual maturity is later than the normal range of ages. ...

  3. Central precocious puberty: from physiopathological mechanisms to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, V; Lacquaniti, A; Salpietro, V; Buemi, M; Salpietro, C; Arrigo, T

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a complex, coordinated biological process with multiple levels of regulations. The timing of puberty varies greatly in children and it is influenced by environmental, endocrine and genetic factors. Precocious puberty (PP) is an important issue, affecting between 1 in 5.000-10.000 children. The physiopathological mechanism is still unknown. From an etiological point of view, PP may be subdivided into gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) -dependent and independent causes. GnRH-dependent PP, often called central precocious puberty (CPP), is based on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis activation associated with progressive pubertal development, accelerated growth rate and advancement of skeletal age. Conversely, peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) is related to sex steroid exposure, independently of hypothalamic-–pituitary-–gonadal (HPG) axis activation. Kisspeptins play a central role in the modulation of GnRH secretion with peripheral factors that influence the timing of puberty, such as adipokines and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Moreover, PP could be related to genetic disorders, involving pivotal genes of the HPG axis. The standard test used to verify HPG activity is the gonadotropin response to administered GnRH analogs. We describe the physiopathological mechanisms of PP and its clinical implications, analysing diagnostic flow-chart and new potential biomarkers that could reveal PP. An update of the current literature was also carried out regarding the recent novelty for treatment.

  4. What Are Common Treatments for Problems of Puberty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print What are common treatments for problems of puberty? Precocious Puberty There are a number of reasons to treat ... hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Delayed Puberty With delayed puberty or hypogonadism, treatment varies with ...

  5. Environmental pollutants and dysregulation of male puberty--a comparison among species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Ulf; Ljungvall, Karl

    2014-04-01

    The scientific literature on altered onset of puberty predominantly involves studies on females. This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of environmental pollutants in dysregulation of male puberty in humans, laboratory rodents and farm animals. The methods used to determine the onset of puberty are well developed in humans and farm animals, and standardized across studies in humans. In laboratory rodents standardized external morphological endpoints are used. There is an increasing weight of evidence from epidemiological studies in humans, as well as from experiments in animals, indicating that environmental pollutants dysregulate puberty in males. Most data are from studies on "classical" persistent environmental pollutants. Assessing the effect of multichemical environmental pollution on dysregulation of puberty in humans is more challenging; further solid epidemiological data would likely contribute most to our understanding, especially if combined with systematically collected field-data from selected wildlife. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-reported onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality and reproductive hormones in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2016-01-01

    , at the same time as or later than their peers. Their semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count and percentages of motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa) and serum concentrations of sex hormones (LH, FSH, total testosterone, SHBG, inhibin B) and testicular size were determined......Study Question Is there an association between pubertal onset and subsequent reproductive health in young men? Summary Answer Self-reported later onset of puberty was associated with reduced semen quality and altered serum levels of reproductive hormones among 1068 healthy, young Danish men. What...... is Known Already The long-term effects of variations in the onset of male puberty on subsequent reproduction remain largely unstudied. Study Design, Size, Duration In a cross-sectional study, young healthy Danish men were approached when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine...

  7. Excess androgen during puberty disrupts circadian organization in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellix, Michael T; Murphy, Zachary C; Menaker, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Circadian clocks have been described in each tissue of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis. Although a role for the clock in the timing of ovulation is indicated, the impact of diseases that disrupt fertility on clock function or the clocks' role in the etiology of these pathologies has yet to be fully appreciated. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a particularly devastating endocrinopathy, affecting approximately 10% of women at childbearing age. Common features of PCOS are a polycystic ovary, amenorrhea, and excess serum androgen. Approximately 40% of these women have metabolic syndrome, including hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia. It has been suggested that excess androgen is a critical factor in the etiology of PCOS. We have examined the effects of androgen excess during puberty on the phase of circadian clocks in tissues of the metabolic and hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axes. Female period1-luciferase (per1-luc) rats were exposed to androgen (5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT]) or placebo for 4-6 weeks (short term) or 9-15 weeks (long term). As expected, DHT-treated animals gained more weight than controls and had disrupted estrous cycles. At the end of treatment, tissues, including the liver, lung, kidney, white adipose, cornea, pituitary, oviduct, and ovarian follicles, were cultured, and per1-luc expression in each was recorded. Analysis of per1-luc expression revealed that DHT exposure increased phase distribution of multiple oscillators, including ovarian follicles, liver, and adipose, and altered phase synchrony between animals. These data suggest that excess androgen during puberty, a common feature of PCOS, negatively affects internal circadian organization in both the reproductive and metabolic axes.

  8. When can stress facilitate divergence by altering time to flowering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Crispin Y; Ally, Dilara; Hodgins, Kathryn A

    2015-12-01

    Stressors and heterogeneity are ubiquitous features of natural environments, and theory suggests that when environmental qualities alter flowering schedules through phenotypic plasticity, assortative mating can result that promotes evolutionary divergence. Therefore, it is important to determine whether common ecological stressors induce similar changes in flowering time. We review previous studies to determine whether two important stressors, water restriction and herbivory, induce consistent flowering time responses among species; for example, how often do water restriction and herbivory both delay flowering? We focus on the direction of change in flowering time, which affects the potential for divergence in heterogeneous environments. We also tested whether these stressors influenced time to flowering and nonphenology traits using Mimulus guttatus. The literature review suggests that water restriction has variable effects on flowering time, whereas herbivory delays flowering with exceptional consistency. In the Mimulus experiment, low water and herbivory advanced and delayed flowering, respectively. Overall, our results temper theoretical predictions for evolutionary divergence due to habitat-induced changes in flowering time; in particular, we discuss how accounting for variation in the direction of change in flowering time can either increase or decrease the potential for divergence. In addition, we caution against adaptive interpretations of stress-induced phenology shifts.

  9. Etiology of precocious puberty, 10 years study in Endocrine Reserch Centre (Firouzgar, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Safari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precocious puberty, as early physical development and low final height might lead to psychosocial problems.Objective: To evaluate etiology and clinical feature of precocious puberty in a cohort of Iranian children.Materials and Methods: In this case-series study, 44 girls and 8 boys with precocious puberty referred to Endocrine Reserch Centre (Firouzgar, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism (Hemmat Campus, were examined in a 10 years period of time. Results: Mean age of girls and boys was 7.43±1.4 years and 5.8±2.1 years respectively. Most of the patients fell within the age category of 7-7.9 years old (40.9% for girls and 50% for boys. Patients, concerning etiology of precocious puberty were classified in three categories: 42.6% of patients had central precocious puberty (CPP, including idiopathic CPP (87.5% and neurogenic CPP (12.5%. 23.3% of patients had peripheral precocious puberty (PPP, including congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH (42.8%, ovarian cysts (28.4%, McCune-Albright syndrome (14.2% and adrenal carcinoma (14.2%. 34.1% of girls and 25% of boys had normal variant puberty including premature thelarche (57%, premature adrenarche (38% as well as premature menarche (4.7%l. Conclusion: The most common etiology of precocious puberty in girls was idiopathic central precocious puberty and premature thelarche, while in boys they were neurogenic central precocious puberty and CAH. Therefore precocious puberty in girls is usually benign. In boys, CNS anomalies should first be considered in the differential diagnosis of CPP. Therefore brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is mandatory in all cases.

  10. Targeted resequencing of the pericentromere of chromosome 2 linked to constitutional delay of growth and puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L Cousminer

    Full Text Available Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP is the most common cause of pubertal delay. CDGP is defined as the proportion of the normal population who experience pubertal onset at least 2 SD later than the population mean, representing 2.3% of all adolescents. While adolescents with CDGP spontaneously enter puberty, they are at risk for short stature, decreased bone mineral density, and psychosocial problems. Genetic factors contribute heavily to the timing of puberty, but the vast majority of CDGP cases remain biologically unexplained, and there is no definitive test to distinguish CDGP from pathological absence of puberty during adolescence. Recently, we published a study identifying significant linkage between a locus at the pericentromeric region of chromosome 2 (chr 2 and CDGP in Finnish families. To investigate this region for causal variation, we sequenced chr 2 between the genomic coordinates of 79-124 Mb (genome build GRCh37 in the proband and affected parent of the 13 families contributing most to this linkage signal. One gene, DNAH6, harbored 6 protein-altering low-frequency variants (< 6% in the Finnish population in 10 of the CDGP probands. We sequenced an additional 135 unrelated Finnish CDGP subjects and utilized the unique Sequencing Initiative Suomi (SISu population reference exome set to show that while 5 of these variants were present in the CDGP set, they were also present in the Finnish population at similar frequencies. Additional variants in the targeted region could not be prioritized for follow-up, possibly due to gaps in sequencing coverage or lack of functional knowledge of non-genic genomic regions. Thus, despite having a well-characterized sample collection from a genetically homogeneous population with a large population-based reference sequence dataset, we were unable to pinpoint variation in the linked region predisposing delayed puberty. This study highlights the difficulties of detecting genetic variants

  11. Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: a review of human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Puberty suppression in gender identity disorder: the Amsterdam experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreukels, B.P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2011-01-01

    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) to suppress puberty in adolescents with gender dysphoria is a fairly new intervention in the field of gender identity disorders or transsexualism. GnRHa are used to give adolescents time to make balanced decisions on any further treatment

  13. Puberty as an accelerator for diabetes complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Hi; Craig, Maria E; Donaghue, Kim C

    2014-02-01

    Much is written about how difficult it is to deal with diabetes during adolescence, and rightly so. Less is understood as to how puberty may be an accelerator of vascular complications. With the increase in childhood diabetes, complication risks need to be revisited in relation to puberty and the secular increase in adiposity. Recent data suggest greater risk for severe vascular complications in those with diabetes during puberty, compared with young people who develop diabetes after puberty. It is also widely recognized that higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) results are often seen during the pubertal period. This article will review complication outcomes in relation to puberty and examine mechanisms by which puberty may modify risk above glycemic exposure, and possible gender disparities in the risk of complications in the adolescent period. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: familial male-limited precocious puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... male-limited precocious puberty Familial male-limited precocious puberty Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial male-limited precocious puberty is a condition that causes early sexual development ...

  15. Time Perception and the Experience of Time When Immersed in an Altered Sensory Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksohn, Joseph; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Mauro, Federica; Ben-Soussan, Tal D

    2017-01-01

    The notion that exposure to a monotonous sensory environment could elicit reports indicating aberrant subjective experience and altered time perception is the impetus for the present report. Research has looked at the influence of exposure to such environments on time perception, reporting that the greater the environmental variation, the shorter is the time estimation obtained by the method of production. Most conditions for creating an altered sensory environment, however, have not facilitated an immersive experience, one that directly impacts both time perception and subjective experience. In this study, we invited our participants to enter a whole-body altered sensory environment for a 20-min session, wherein they were asked to relax without falling asleep. The session included white-colored illumination of the chamber with eyes closed (5 min), followed by 10 min of illuminating the room with color, after which a short report of subjective experience was collected using a brief questionnaire; this was followed by an additional 5 min of immersion in white light with closed eyes. The participants were then interviewed regarding their subjective experience, including their experience of time within the chamber. Prior to entering the chamber, the participants completed a time-production (TP) task. One group of participants then repeated the task within the chamber, at the end of the session; a second group of participants repeated the task after exiting the chamber. We shall report on changes in TP, and present data indicating that when produced time is plotted as a function of target duration, using a log-log plot, the major influence of sensory environment is on the intercept of the psychophysical function. We shall further present data indicating that for those participants reporting a marked change in time experience, such as "the sensation of time disappeared," their TP data could not be linearized using a log-log plot, hence indicating that for these

  16. Time Perception and the Experience of Time When Immersed in an Altered Sensory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Glicksohn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion that exposure to a monotonous sensory environment could elicit reports indicating aberrant subjective experience and altered time perception is the impetus for the present report. Research has looked at the influence of exposure to such environments on time perception, reporting that the greater the environmental variation, the shorter is the time estimation obtained by the method of production. Most conditions for creating an altered sensory environment, however, have not facilitated an immersive experience, one that directly impacts both time perception and subjective experience. In this study, we invited our participants to enter a whole-body altered sensory environment for a 20-min session, wherein they were asked to relax without falling asleep. The session included white-colored illumination of the chamber with eyes closed (5 min, followed by 10 min of illuminating the room with color, after which a short report of subjective experience was collected using a brief questionnaire; this was followed by an additional 5 min of immersion in white light with closed eyes. The participants were then interviewed regarding their subjective experience, including their experience of time within the chamber. Prior to entering the chamber, the participants completed a time-production (TP task. One group of participants then repeated the task within the chamber, at the end of the session; a second group of participants repeated the task after exiting the chamber. We shall report on changes in TP, and present data indicating that when produced time is plotted as a function of target duration, using a log–log plot, the major influence of sensory environment is on the intercept of the psychophysical function. We shall further present data indicating that for those participants reporting a marked change in time experience, such as “the sensation of time disappeared,” their TP data could not be linearized using a log–log plot, hence

  17. Central precocious puberty in girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.; Malandry, F.; Perignon, F.; Brunelle, F.; Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls depends on its etiology and evolution, the latter based on the degree of accelerated bone maturation. The goal of this paper is to assess the diagnostic value of MR imaging in studying CPP in girls. Thirty-four girls with CPP were studied with MR imaging. Pituitary gland height (PGH) was measured on a sagittal midline image and compared with normal measurements. Correlations among clinical presentation, PGH, estradiol levels, and LH/FSH ratio were evaluated

  18. Puberty as a Critical Risk Period for Eating Disorders: A Review of Human and Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

  19. The importance of puberty for adolescent development: conceptualization and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M; Corley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    How and why are teenagers different from children and adults? A key question concerns the ways in which pubertal development shapes psychological changes in adolescence directly through changes to the brain and indirectly through the social environment. Empirical work linking pubertal development to adolescent psychological function draws from several different perspectives, often with varying approaches and a focus on different outcomes and mechanisms. The main themes concern effects of atypical pubertal timing on behavior problems during adolescence, effects of pubertal status (and associated hormones) on normative changes in behaviors that can facilitate or hinder development (especially risk-taking, social reorientation, and stress responsivity), and the role of puberty in triggering psychopathology in vulnerable individuals. There is also interest in understanding the ways in which changes in the brain reflect pubertal processes and underlie psychological development in adolescence. In this chapter, we consider the ways that puberty might affect adolescent psychological development, and why this is of importance to developmentalists. We describe the processes of pubertal development; summarize what is known about pubertal influences on adolescent development; consider the assumptions that underlie most work and the methodological issues that affect the interpretation of results; and propose research directions to help understand paths from puberty to behavior. Throughout, we emphasize the importance of pubertal change in all aspects of psychological development, and the ways in which puberty represents an opportunity to study the interplay of biological and social influences. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. NEUROBEHAVIORAL RELATIONSHIPS AND PUBERTY - ANOTHER TRANSFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ

    In a follow-up study of the Groningen Perinatal Project (GPP) on minor neurological dysfunction (MND) at 12 and 14 years the onset of puberty appeared to play a role. The children were selected on the presence (n = 185) and absence (n = 185) of MND at 9 years. Puberty was defined by the presence of

  1. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles in girls with central precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Mouritsen, Annette; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis....

  2. Role of Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B in Puberty in Female Non-Human Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Ei Terasawa; Ei Terasawa; James P. Garcia; Stephanie B. Seminara; Kim L. Keen

    2018-01-01

    In human patients, loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding kisspeptin (KISS1) and neurokinin B (NKB) and their receptors (KISS1R and NK3R, respectively) result in an abnormal timing of puberty or the absence of puberty. To understand the neuroendocrine mechanism of puberty, we investigated the contribution of kisspeptin and NKB signaling to the pubertal increase in GnRH release using rhesus monkeys as a model. Direct measurements of GnRH and kisspeptin in the median eminence of the h...

  3. Metabolic control of puberty: roles of leptin and kisspeptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garrido, Miguel A; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Reproduction is an energy-demanding function. Accordingly, puberty is metabolically gated, as a means to prevent fertility in conditions of energy insufficiency. In addition, obesity has been shown to impact the timing of puberty and may be among the causes for the earlier trends of pubertal age reported in various countries. The metabolic control of puberty in such a spectrum of situations, ranging from energy deficit to extreme overweight, is the result of the concerted action of different peripheral hormones and central transmitters that sense the metabolic state of the organism and transmit this information to the various elements of the reproductive axis, mainly the GnRH neurons. Among the peripheral signals involved, the adipose hormone, leptin, is known to play an essential role in the regulation of puberty, especially in females. Yet, although it is clear that the effects of leptin on puberty onset are predominantly permissive and mainly conducted at central (hypothalamic) levels, the primary sites and mechanisms of action of leptin within the reproductive brain remain unsolved. In this context, neurons expressing kisspeptins, the products of the Kiss1 gene that have emerged recently as essential upstream regulators of GnRH neurons, operate as key sensors of the metabolic state and funnel of the reproductive effects of leptin. Yet, much debate has arisen recently on whether the putative actions of leptin on the Kiss1 system are actually indirect and/or may primarily target Kiss1-independent pathways, such as those originating from the ventral premmamilary nucleus. Moreover, evidence has been presented for extra-hypothalamic or peripheral actions of leptin, including direct gonadal effects, which may contribute to the metabolic control of reproduction in extreme body weight conditions. In this work, we will critically review the experimental evidence supporting a role of leptin, kisspeptin

  4. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles in girls with central precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Mouritsen, Annette; Mogensen, Signe Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis.......Early menarche is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unknown whether metabolic risk factors are adversely affected in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) already at time of diagnosis....

  5. Puberty and Its Measurement: A Decade in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Biro, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, the focus on the importance of puberty to adolescent development has continued with variability in the methodology selected to measure puberty. To capture the relevant and important issues regarding the measurement of puberty in the last decade, this paper will address (1) the neuroendocrine aspects of puberty and its…

  6. Radioimmunoassay of hormonal secretion of the gonadal axis in patients with puberty metrorrhagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balova, V.; Maleeva, A.; Khristov, L.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty two girls aged 10 to 16 years, admitted to the Institute of Obstetries and Genecology, are investigated. The concentration levels of gonadal axis hormones are determined, and the obtained results are compared with the hormonal concentrations in normal girls of comparable age. It is established that the luteinizing hormone level is considerably and statistically significantly increased (P> 0.001), exceeding as much as four times average the level of the follicle-stimulating hormone (LH:FSH = 4:1), whereas in normal conditions there is a 2:1 ratio. Presumably, in cases of puberty metrorrhagia the uterine bleedings are associated with enhanced and disturbed secretion of Gonadotropic hormones, occurring as a result of the altered immunoreactivity of the organism. (author)

  7. Genetics Home Reference: central precocious puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... odor. Girls also develop breasts and begin their menstrual periods. Boys have growth of the penis and ... puberty earlier than normal. For most genes, both copies of the gene (one copy inherited from each ...

  8. The Natural Time Course of Membrane Alterations During Peritoneal Dialysis Is Partly Altered by Peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Sadie; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2016-01-01

    ♦ The quality of the peritoneal membrane can deteriorate over time. Exposure to glucose-based dialysis solutions is the most likely culprit. Because peritonitis is a common complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), distinguishing between the effect of glucose exposure and a possible additive effect

  9. A novel MKRN3 missense mutation causing familial precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, L; Gat-Yablonski, G; Dror, N; Singer, A; Phillip, M

    2014-12-01

    Central precocious puberty may be familial in about a quarter of the idiopathic cases. However, little is known about the genetic causes responsible for the disorder. In this report we describe a family with central precocious puberty associated with a mutation in the makorin RING-finger protein 3 (MKRN3) gene. A novel missense mutation (p.H420Q) in the imprinted MKRN3 gene was identified in the four affected siblings, in their unaffected father and in his affected mother. An in silico mutant MKRN3 model predicts that the mutation p.H420Q leads to reduced zinc binding and, subsequently, impaired RNA binding. These findings support the fundamental role of the MKRN3 protein in determining pubertal timing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Natural Time Course of Membrane Alterations During Peritoneal Dialysis Is Partly Altered by Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esch, Sadie; Struijk, Dirk G; Krediet, Raymond T

    2016-01-01

    ♦ The quality of the peritoneal membrane can deteriorate over time. Exposure to glucose-based dialysis solutions is the most likely culprit. Because peritonitis is a common complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), distinguishing between the effect of glucose exposure and a possible additive effect of peritonitis is difficult. The aim of the present study was to compare the time-course of peritoneal transport characteristics in patients without a single episode of peritonitis-representing the natural course-and in patients who experienced 1 or more episodes of peritonitis during long-term follow-up. ♦ This prospective, single-center cohort study enrolled incident adult PD patients who started PD during 1990-2010. A standard peritoneal permeability analysis was performed in the first year of PD treatment and was repeated every year. The results in patients without a single episode of peritonitis ("no-peritonitis group") were compared with the results obtained in patients who experienced 1 or more peritonitis episodes ("peritonitis group") during a follow-up of 4 years. ♦ The 124 patients analyzed included 54 in the no-peritonitis group and 70 in the peritonitis group. The time-course of small-solute transport was different in the groups, with the peritonitis group showing an earlier and more pronounced increase in the mass transfer area coefficient for creatinine (p = 0.07) and in glucose absorption (p = 0.048). In the no-peritonitis group, the net ultrafiltration rate (NUFR) and the transcapillary ultrafiltration rate (TCUFR) both showed a steep increase from the 1st to the 2nd year of PD that was absent in the peritonitis group. Both groups showed a decrease in the NUFR after year 3. A decrease in the TCUFR occurred only in the peritonitis group. That decrease was already present after the year 1 in patients with severe peritonitis. The time-course of free water transport showed a continuous increase in the patients without peritonitis, but a decrease in the

  11. Timing is everything: priority effects alter community invasibility after disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Celia C; Arnott, Shelley E

    2014-02-01

    Theory suggests that communities should be more open to the establishment of regional species following disturbance because disturbance may make more resources available to dispersers. However, after an initial period of high invasibility, growth of the resident community may lead to the monopolization of local resources and decreased probability of successful colonist establishment. During press disturbances (i.e., directional environmental change), it remains unclear what effect regional dispersal will have on local community structure if the establishment of later arriving species is affected by early arriving species (i.e., if priority effects are important). To determine the relationship between time-since-disturbance and invasibility, we conducted a fully factorial field mesocosm experiment that exposed tundra zooplankton communities to two emerging stressors - nutrient and salt addition, and manipulated the arrival timing of regional dispersers. Our results demonstrate that invasibility decreases with increasing time-since-disturbance as abundance (nutrient treatments) or species richness (salt treatments) increases in the resident community. Results suggest that the relative timing of dispersal and environmental change will modify the importance of priority effects in determining species composition after a press disturbance.

  12. Substance p regulates puberty onset and fertility in the female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simavli, Serap; Thompson, Iain R; Maguire, Caroline A; Gill, John C; Carroll, Rona S; Wolfe, Andrew; Kaiser, Ursula B; Navarro, Víctor M

    2015-06-01

    Puberty is a tightly regulated process that leads to reproductive capacity. Kiss1 neurons are crucial in this process by stimulating GnRH, yet how Kiss1 neurons are regulated remains unknown. Substance P (SP), an important neuropeptide in pain perception, induces gonadotropin release in adult mice in a kisspeptin-dependent manner. Here, we assessed whether SP, through binding to its receptor NK1R (neurokinin 1 receptor), participates in the timing of puberty onset and fertility in the mouse. We observed that 1) selective NK1R agonists induce gonadotropin release in prepubertal females; 2) the expression of Tac1 (encoding SP) and Tacr1 (NK1R) in the arcuate nucleus is maximal before puberty, suggesting increased SP tone; 3) repeated exposure to NK1R agonists prepubertally advances puberty onset; and 4) female Tac1(-/-) mice display delayed puberty; moreover, 5) SP deficiency leads to subfertility in females, showing fewer corpora lutea and antral follicles and leading to decreased litter size. Thus, our findings support a role for SP in the stimulation of gonadotropins before puberty, acting via Kiss1 neurons to stimulate GnRH release, and its involvement in the attainment of full reproductive capabilities in female mice.

  13. [Evolutionary perspective in precocious puberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2014-10-01

    Pubertal development is subject to substantial heritability, but much variation remains to be explained, including fast changes over the last 150 years, that cannot be explained by changes of gene frequency in the population. This article discusses the influence of environmental factors to adjust maturational tempo in the service of fitness goals. Utilizing evolutionary development thinking (evo-devo), the author examines adolescence as an evolutionary life-history stage in its developmental context. The transition from the preceding stage of juvenility entails adaptive plasticity in response to energy resources, social needs of adolescence and maturation toward youth and adulthood. Using Belsky's evolutionary theory of socialization, I show that familial psychosocial environment during the infancy-childhood and childhood-juvenility transitions foster a fast life-history and reproductive strategy rather than early maturation being just a risk factor for aggression and delinquency. The implications of the evo-devo framework for theory building, illuminates new directions in the understanding of precocious puberty other than a diagnosis of a disease.

  14. LIN28B polymorphisms are associated with central precocious puberty and early puberty in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers within &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt; have been reported to be related to the timing of pubertal growth. However, no study has investigated the frequency of genetic markers in girls with precocious puberty (PP or early puberty (EP. This study aimed to determine the frequency of putative genetic markers in girls with PP or EP. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; Genomic DNAs were obtained from 77 and 109 girls that fulfilled the criteria for PP and EP, respectively. The controls in this study were 144 healthy volunteers between 20 and 30 years of age. The haplotypes were reconstructed using 11 SNPs of &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt;, and haplotype association analysis was performed. The haplotype frequencies were compared. Differences in the clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed according to the haplotype dosage. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Eleven SNPs in &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt; were all located in a block that was in linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype could be reconstructed using 2 representative SNPs, rs4946651 and rs369065. The AC haplotype was less frequently observed in the PP group than in the controls (0.069 vs. 0.144, &lt;I&gt;P&lt;/I&gt;=0.010. The trend that girls with non-AC haplotypes tended to have earlier puberty onset (&lt;I&gt;P&lt;/I&gt;=0.037 was illustrated even in the EP+PP patient group by Kaplan-Meier analysis. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The results of the present study showed that non-AC haplotypes of &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt;had a significant association with PP in girls.

  15. Growth and puberty after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Claudia Helena Bastos da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, after combining treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, there has been an improvement in the survival rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, with a current cure rate of around 70%. Children with the disease have been enrolled into international treatment protocols designed to improve survival and minimize the serious irreversible late effects. Our oncology unit uses the international protocol: GBTLI LLA-85 and 90, with the drugs methotrexate, cytosine, arabinoside, dexamethasone, and radiotherapy. However, these treatments can cause gonadal damage and growth impairment. PATIENTS AND METHOD: The authors analyzed 20 children off therapy in order to determine the role of the various doses of radiotherapy regarding endocrinological alterations. They were divided into 3 groups according to central nervous system prophylaxis: Group A underwent chemotherapy, group B underwent chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (18 Gy, and group C underwent chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (24 Gy. Serum concentrations of LH, FSH, GH, and testosterone were determined. Imaging studies included bone age, pelvic ultrasound and scrotum, and skull magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Nine of the patients who received radiotherapy had decreased pituitary volume. There was a significant difference in the response to GH and loss of predicted final stature (Bayley-Pinneau between the 2 irradiated groups and the group that was not irradiated, but there was no difference regarding the radiation doses used (18 or 24 Gy. The final predicted height (Bayley-Pinneau was significantly less (P = 0.0071 in both groups treated with radiotherapy. Two girls had precocious puberty, and 1 boy with delayed puberty presented calcification of the epididymis. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy was been responsible for late side effects, especially related to growth and puberty.

  16. Defining a novel leptin–melanocortin–kisspeptin pathway involved in the metabolic control of puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manfredi-Lozano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Puberty is a key developmental phenomenon highly sensitive to metabolic modulation. Worrying trends of changes in the timing of puberty have been reported in humans. These might be linked to the escalating prevalence of childhood obesity and could have deleterious impacts on later (cardio-metabolic health, but their underlying mechanisms remain unsolved. The neuropeptide α-MSH, made by POMC neurons, plays a key role in energy homeostasis by mediating the actions of leptin and likely participates in the control of reproduction. However, its role in the metabolic regulation of puberty and interplay with kisspeptin, an essential puberty-regulating neuropeptide encoded by Kiss1, remain largely unknown. We aim here to unveil the potential contribution of central α-MSH signaling in the metabolic control of puberty by addressing its role in mediating the pubertal effects of leptin and its potential interaction with kisspeptin. Methods: Using wild type and genetically modified rodent models, we implemented pharmacological studies, expression analyses, electrophysiological recordings, and virogenetic approaches involving DREADD technology to selectively inhibit Kiss1 neurons, in order to interrogate the physiological role of a putative leptin→α-MSH→kisspeptin pathway in the metabolic control of puberty. Results: Stimulation of central α-MSH signaling robustly activated the reproductive axis in pubertal rats, whereas chronic inhibition of melanocortin receptors MC3/4R, delayed puberty, and prevented the permissive effect of leptin on puberty onset. Central blockade of MC3/4R or genetic elimination of kisspeptin receptors from POMC neurons did not affect kisspeptin effects. Conversely, congenital ablation of kisspeptin receptors or inducible, DREADD-mediated inhibition of arcuate nucleus (ARC Kiss1 neurons resulted in markedly attenuated gonadotropic responses to MC3/4R activation. Furthermore, close appositions were observed between

  17. Puberty suppression in adolescents with gender identity disorder: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2011-08-01

    Puberty suppression by means of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) is used for young transsexuals between 12 and 16 years of age. The purpose of this intervention is to relieve the suffering caused by the development of secondary sex characteristics and to provide time to make a balanced decision regarding actual gender reassignment. To compare psychological functioning and gender dysphoria before and after puberty suppression in gender dysphoric adolescents. Of the first 70 eligible candidates who received puberty suppression between 2000 and 2008, psychological functioning and gender dysphoria were assessed twice: at T0, when attending the gender identity clinic, before the start of GnRHa; and at T1, shortly before the start of cross-sex hormone treatment. Behavioral and emotional problems (Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth-Self Report), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), anxiety and anger (the Spielberger Trait Anxiety and Anger Scales), general functioning (the clinician's rated Children's Global Assessment Scale), gender dysphoria (the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale), and body satisfaction (the Body Image Scale) were assessed. Behavioral and emotional problems and depressive symptoms decreased, while general functioning improved significantly during puberty suppression. Feelings of anxiety and anger did not change between T0 and T1. While changes over time were equal for both sexes, compared with natal males, natal females were older when they started puberty suppression and showed more problem behavior at both T0 and T1. Gender dysphoria and body satisfaction did not change between T0 and T1. No adolescent withdrew from puberty suppression, and all started cross-sex hormone treatment, the first step of actual gender reassignment. Puberty suppression may be considered a valuable contribution in the clinical management of gender dysphoria in adolescents. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Puberty and structural brain development in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period of physical and behavioral development between childhood and adulthood. Puberty is a distinct period of sexual maturation that occurs during adolescence. Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human studies have largely examined neurodevelopment in the context of age. A breadth of animal findings suggest that sex hormones continue to influence the brain beyond the prenatal period, with both organizational and activational effects occurring during puberty. Given the animal evidence, human MRI research has also set out to determine how puberty may influence otherwise known patterns of age-related neurodevelopment. Here we review structural-based MRI studies and show that pubertal maturation is a key variable to consider in elucidating sex- and individual- based differences in patterns of human brain development. We also highlight the continuing challenges faced, as well as future considerations, for this vital avenue of research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Early puberty, negative peer influence, and problem behaviors in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Elliott, Marc N; Davies, Susan; Tortolero, Susan R; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    To determine how early puberty and peer deviance relate to trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and whether these relationships differ by race/ethnicity. In this longitudinal study, 2607 girls from 3 metropolitan areas and their parents were interviewed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years. Girls reported on their age of onset of menarche, best friend's deviant behavior, delinquency, and physical, relational, and nonphysical aggression. Parents provided information on family sociodemographic characteristics and girls' race/ethnicity. Sixteen percent of girls were classified as early maturers (defined by onset of menarche before age 11 years). Overall, relational and nonphysical aggression increased from age 11 to age 16, whereas delinquency and physical aggression remained stable. Early puberty was associated with elevated delinquency and physical aggression at age 11. The relationship with early puberty diminished over time for physical aggression but not for delinquency. Best friend's deviant behavior was linked with higher levels of all problem behaviors, but the effect lessened over time for most outcomes. Early puberty was associated with a stronger link between best friend's deviance and delinquency, suggesting increased vulnerability to negative peer influences among early-maturing girls. A similar vulnerability was observed for relational and nonphysical aggression among girls in the "other" racial/ethnic minority group only. Early puberty and friends' deviance may increase the risk of problem behavior in young adolescent girls. Although many of these associations dissipate over time, early-maturing girls are at risk of persistently higher delinquency and stronger negative peer influences.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF SPONTANEOUS AND INDUCED PUBERTY IN GIRLS WITH TURNER SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Lisal J; Slaven, James E; Nabhan, Zeina M; Eugster, Erica A

    2017-07-01

    To characterize puberty in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) and determine whether specific patient characteristics are associated with the timing of menarche. We also sought to compare spontaneous versus induced puberty in these patients. Medical records of girls followed in our Pediatric Endocrine clinic for TS from 2007 to 2015 were reviewed. Fifty-three girls were included, of whom 10 (19%) achieved menarche spontaneously and 43 (81%) received hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Of girls receiving HRT, a younger age at estrogen initiation correlated with a longer time to menarche (P = .02), and a mosaic karyotype was associated with a shorter time to menarche (P = .02), whereas no relationship was seen for body mass index, estrogen regimen, or maternal age at menarche. Nineteen girls (44%) receiving HRT had bleeding on estrogen alone at a wide dose range and were more likely to be on transdermal than oral preparations (P = .01). Girls with spontaneous puberty achieved menarche at a younger age (PTurner syndrome.

  1. The Emerging Role of Epigenetics in the Regulation of Female Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the pace of discovering the molecular and genetic underpinnings of the pubertal process has accelerated considerably. Genes required for human puberty to occur have been identified and evidence has been provided suggesting that the initiation of puberty requires coordinated changes in the output of a multiplicity of genes organized into functional networks. Recent evidence suggests that a dual mechanism of epigenetic regulation affecting the transcriptional activity of neurons involved in stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone release plays a fundamental role in the timing of puberty. The Polycomb group (PcG) of transcriptional silencers appears to be a major component of the repressive arm of this mechanism. PcG proteins prevent the premature initiation of female puberty by silencing the Kiss1 gene in kisspeptin neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Because the abundance of histone marks either catalyzed by--or associated with--the Trithorax group (TrxG) of transcriptional activators increases at the time when PcG control subsides, it appears that the TrxG complex is the counteracting partner of PcG-mediated gene silencing. In this chapter, we discuss the concept that a switch from epigenetic repression to activation within ARC kisspeptin neurons is a core mechanism underlying the initiation of female puberty. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Trithorax dependent changes in chromatin landscape at enhancer and promoter regions drive female puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Carlos A; Wright, Hollis; Aylwin, Carlos F; Ojeda, Sergio R; Lomniczi, Alejandro

    2018-01-04

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins control the timing of puberty by repressing the Kiss1 gene in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons. Here we identify two members of the Trithorax group (TrxG) of modifiers, mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1), and 3 (MLL3), as central components of an activating epigenetic machinery that dynamically counteracts PcG repression. Preceding puberty, MLL1 changes the chromatin configuration at the promoters of Kiss1 and Tac3, two genes required for puberty to occur, from repressive to permissive. Concomitantly, MLL3 institutes a chromatin structure that changes the functional status of a Kiss1 enhancer from poised to active. RNAi-mediated, ARC-specific Mll1 knockdown reduced Kiss1 and Tac3 expression, whereas CRISPR-Cas9-directed epigenome silencing of the Kiss1 enhancer selectively reduced Kiss1 activity. Both interventions delay puberty and disrupt reproductive cyclicity. Our results demonstrate that an epigenetic switch from transcriptional repression to activation is crucial to the regulatory mechanism controlling the timing of mammalian puberty.

  3. Control of the onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadas, Sarantis; Chrousos, George P

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of puberty initiation remains an enigma, despite extensive research in the field. Pulsatile pituitary gonadotropin secretion under the guidance of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) constitutes a sine qua non for pubertal onset. In turn, the secretion of GnRH in the human hypothalamus is regulated by kisspeptin and its receptor as well as by permissive or opposing signals mediated by neurokinin B and dynorphin acting on their respective receptors. These three supra-GnRH regulators compose the Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B and Dynorhin neurons (KNDy) system, a key player in pubertal onset and progression. The recent discovery that makorin ring finger protein 3 is also involved in puberty initiation provided further insights into the regulation of the KNDy pathway. In fact, the inhibitory (γ-amino butyric acid, neuropeptide Y, and RFamide-related peptide-3) and stimulatory signals (glutamate) acting upstream of KNDy called into question the role of makorin ring finger protein 3 as the gatekeeper of puberty. Meanwhile, the findings that 'neuroestradiol' produced locally and endocrine disruptors from the environment may influence GnRH secretion is intriguing. Finally, epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in pubertal onset through recently discovered mechanisms. The exact molecular machinery underlying puberty initiation in humans is under intensive investigation. In this review, we summarize research evidence in the field, while emphasizing the areas of uncertainty and underlining the impact of current information on the evolving theory regarding this fascinating phenomenon.

  4. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  5. Out of time? - Music, consciousness states and neuropharmacological mechanisms of an altered temporality

    OpenAIRE

    Fachner, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced altered temporality is a well-known effect of cannabis action that is utilised from musicians and music listeners for music appreciation since the early days of jazz. Cannabis has an influence on timing processes at short time scales of hundreds of milliseconds as O’Leary et al (2003) have shown in their tapping studies, proving evidence of an altered cerebellar functioning. This paper will focus on cannabis and its action on timing and aims to discuss selected scientific streams...

  6. [Precocious puberty and von Recklinghausen's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Ewa; Wikiera, Beata; Basiak, Aleksander; Głab, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Von Recklinghausen's disease belongs to a group of neurocutaneous syndromes and is characterised by skin, nerve and bone abnormalities. We present a case of von Recklinghausen's disease and precocious puberty in 7-year-old boy. At the age of three café au lait spots on the skin and an incranial tumour situated near the optic chiasm--qualified as inoperable--were discovered. At the age of 7 first signs of precocious puberty appeared (pubic hair P3 and enlargement of the testes (15 ml) and penis). Laboratory measurements included: LH 7.5 mIU/ml, FSH 1.1 mIU/ml, testosterone 183 ng/ml, assessment of bone age: 9 years. The response to LHRH stimulation was characteristic for true precocious puberty (LH 15.9 mIU/ml and FSH 1.5 mIU/ml after 30 minutes). The MRI of the brain showed a tumour of the suprasellar region with compression of pituitary stalk. True precocious puberty was diagnosed. Treatment with Diphereline was introduced. At present the boy is 9 years old and has been treated with Diphereline for 16 months. The volume of the testicles has decreased to 7 ml and loss of pubic hair was noted. The MRI does not show any progression in tumour growth. The authors would like to underline the need of close observation of children with von Reclinghausen disease with regard to possibility of uncovering true precocious puberty which is critical for rapid diagnosis and introduction of correct treatment.

  7. Epigenetic regulation of puberty via Zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Matagne, Valerie; Toro, Carlos A; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2015-12-16

    In primates, puberty is unleashed by increased GnRH release from the hypothalamus following an interval of juvenile quiescence. GWAS implicates Zinc finger (ZNF) genes in timing human puberty. Here we show that hypothalamic expression of several ZNFs decreased in agonadal male monkeys in association with the pubertal reactivation of gonadotropin secretion. Expression of two of these ZNFs, GATAD1 and ZNF573, also decreases in peripubertal female monkeys. However, only GATAD1 abundance increases when gonadotropin secretion is suppressed during late infancy. Targeted delivery of GATAD1 or ZNF573 to the rat hypothalamus delays puberty by impairing the transition of a transcriptional network from an immature repressive epigenetic configuration to one of activation. GATAD1 represses transcription of two key puberty-related genes, KISS1 and TAC3, directly, and reduces the activating histone mark H3K4me2 at each promoter via recruitment of histone demethylase KDM1A. We conclude that GATAD1 epitomizes a subset of ZNFs involved in epigenetic repression of primate puberty.

  8. Circulating MKRN3 Levels Decline During Puberty in Healthy Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S.; Hagen, Casper P; Almstrup, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Initiation and progression of puberty requires concerted action of hypothalamic activating and inhibiting factors. Recently, cases of familial central precocious puberty have been linked to loss-of-function mutations of makorin RING-finger protein 3 (MKRN3) indicating a pivotal inhibitory.......8-11.8) years at baseline followed for 6.0 (0.5-7.6) years (2006-2014) with blood sampling every 6 months. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of MKRN3: 623 samples, median (range) 12 (2-14) per boy. RESULTS: MKRN3 levels declined before onset of puberty; the geometric mean (95% confidence...... interval) 5 years before onset of puberty vs last visit before onset of puberty was 216 (169-272) pg/mL vs 128 (118-139) pg/mL (P puberty progressed. MKRN3 levels were not associated with age at onset of puberty. CONCLUSION: Declining MKRN3...

  9. Binge-pattern alcohol exposure during puberty induces long-term changes in HPA axis reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a dynamic and important period of brain development however, little is known about the long-term neurobiological consequences of alcohol consumption during puberty. Our previous studies showed that binge-pattern ethanol (EtOH treatment during pubertal development negatively dysregulated the responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, as manifested by alterations in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP, and corticosterone (CORT during this time period. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether these observed changes in important central regulators of the stress response were permanent or transient. In this study, juvenile male Wistar rats were treated with a binge-pattern EtOH treatment paradigm or saline alone for 8 days. The animals were left undisturbed until adulthood when they received a second round of treatments consisting of saline alone, a single dose of EtOH, or a second binge-pattern treatment paradigm. The results showed that pubertal binge-pattern EtOH exposure induced striking long-lasting alterations of many HPA axis parameters. Overall, our data provide strong evidence that binge-pattern EtOH exposure during pubertal maturation has long-term detrimental effects for the healthy development of the HPA axis.

  10. Age and body weight of Moroccan local cattle at puberty: Effect of season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazouz, A.; Asri, A.

    1988-01-01

    Moroccan local cattle are a distinct breed comprising almost 90% of the total cattle population of 2.5 million. The age and the body weight of some 1662 heifers attaining puberty were determined under two production systems by monitoring plasma progesterone levels as an indicator of the first ovulation. The effect of season on these parameters was also studied. Ovarian cyclicity commenced in 50% of heifers by the age of 16.5 months and at a body weight of 144 kg (70% of the mature body weight). The time of puberty was correlated with both age and body weight and was influenced by both the season of the year at which puberty was reached and the system of rearing. The mean age at which behavioural oestrus was first observed and the heifer inseminated was 26.5 months. Fifty per cent of 546 heifers were pregnant by 27 months of age. (author). 18 refs, 7 figs

  11. Noonan syndrome and related disorders: alterations in growth and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Jacqueline A

    2006-12-01

    Noonan syndrome is a relatively common multiple malformation syndrome with characteristic facies, short stature and congenital heart disease, most commonly pulmonary stenosis (Noonan, Clin Pediatr, 33:548-555, 1994). Recently, a mutation in the PTPN11 gene (Tartaglia, Mehler, Goldberg, Zampino, Brunner, Kremer et al., Nat Genet, 29:465-468, 2001) was found to be present in about 50% of individuals with Noonan syndrome. The phenotype noted in Noonan syndrome is also found in a number of other syndromes which include LEOPARD (Gorlin, Anderson, Blaw, Am J Dis Child, 17:652-662, 1969), Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (Reynolds, Neri, Hermann, Blumberg, Coldwell, Miles et al., Am J Med Genet, 28:413-427, 1986) and Costello syndrome (Hennekam, Am J Med Genet, 117C(1):42-48, 2003). All three of these syndromes share similar cardiac defects and all have postnatal short stature. Very recently, HRAS mutations (Aoki, Niihori, Kawame, Kurosawa, Ohashi, Tanaka et al., Nat Genet, 37:1038-1040, 2005) have been found in the Costello syndrome and germline mutations in KRAS and BRAF genes (Rodriguez-Viciana, Tetsu, Tidyman, Estep, Conger, Santa Cruz et al., Nat Genet, 2006; Niihori, Aoki, Narumi, Neri, Cave, Verloes et al., Nat Genet, 38:294-296, 2006) in the Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. Phenotypic overlap between these genetic disorders can now be explained since each is caused by germline mutations that are major components of the RAS-MAPK pathway. This pathway plays an important role in growth factor and cytokine signaling as well as cancer pathogenesis.

  12. Detection of random alterations to time-varying musical instrument spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew; Beauchamp, James; So, Richard

    2004-09-01

    The time-varying spectra of eight musical instrument sounds were randomly altered by a time-invariant process to determine how detection of spectral alteration varies with degree of alteration, instrument, musical experience, and spectral variation. Sounds were resynthesized with centroids equalized to the original sounds, with frequencies harmonically flattened, and with average spectral error levels of 8%, 16%, 24%, 32%, and 48%. Listeners were asked to discriminate the randomly altered sounds from reference sounds resynthesized from the original data. For all eight instruments, discrimination was very good for the 32% and 48% error levels, moderate for the 16% and 24% error levels, and poor for the 8% error levels. When the error levels were 16%, 24%, and 32%, the scores of musically experienced listeners were found to be significantly better than the scores of listeners with no musical experience. Also, in this same error level range, discrimination was significantly affected by the instrument tested. For error levels of 16% and 24%, discrimination scores were significantly, but negatively correlated with measures of spectral incoherence and normalized centroid deviation on unaltered instrument spectra, suggesting that the presence of dynamic spectral variations tends to increase the difficulty of detecting spectral alterations. Correlation between discrimination and a measure of spectral irregularity was comparatively low.

  13. Central precocious puberty: evaluation by neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornreich, L.; Horev, G.; Blaser, S.; Daneman, D.; Kauli, R.; Grunebaum, M.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of abnormal intracranial findings in children with central precocious puberty, 62 children (51 girls, 11 boys) were examined by computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Forty-four had normal examinations; 18 (11 girls, 7 boys) showed intracranial pathologies, including hamartoma of the tuber cinereum (8 cases), parenchymal loss (3 cases), hypothalamicchiasmatic lesions (2 cases), lesions of the corpus callosum (2 cases), suprasellar cyst (1 case), and pineal cyst and mesiotemporal sclerosis (1 case each). Based on the correlation between the clinical and the imaging results of this series, the authors recommend MRI as the imaging method of choice in the investigation of precocious puberty. (orig.)

  14. Central precocious puberty: evaluation by neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, L. [Dept. of Pediatric Imaging, Children`s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel); Horev, G. [Dept. of Pediatric Imaging, Children`s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel); Blaser, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada); Daneman, D. [Div. of Endocrinology, Dept. of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada); Kauli, R. [Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)]|[Inst. of Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology, Children`s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva (Israel); Grunebaum, M. [Dept. of Pediatric Imaging, Children`s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)

    1995-02-01

    To evaluate the incidence of abnormal intracranial findings in children with central precocious puberty, 62 children (51 girls, 11 boys) were examined by computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Forty-four had normal examinations; 18 (11 girls, 7 boys) showed intracranial pathologies, including hamartoma of the tuber cinereum (8 cases), parenchymal loss (3 cases), hypothalamicchiasmatic lesions (2 cases), lesions of the corpus callosum (2 cases), suprasellar cyst (1 case), and pineal cyst and mesiotemporal sclerosis (1 case each). Based on the correlation between the clinical and the imaging results of this series, the authors recommend MRI as the imaging method of choice in the investigation of precocious puberty. (orig.)

  15. Time Average Holography Study of Human Tympanic Membrane with Altered Middle Ear Ossicular Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.; Hulli, Nesim; Hernandez-Montes, Maria S.; Furlong, Cosme

    2009-02-01

    Computer-assisted time average holographic interferometry was used to study the vibration of the human tympanic membrane (TM) in cadaveric temporal bones before and after alterations of the ossicular chain. Simultaneous laser Doppler vibrometer measurements of stapes velocity were performed to estimate the conductive hearing loss caused by ossicular alterations. The quantified TM motion described from holographic images was correlated with stapes velocity to define relations between TM motion and stapes velocity in various ossicular disorders. The results suggest that motions of the TM are relatively uncoupled from stapes motion at frequencies above 1000 Hz.

  16. Puberty suppression in adolescents with gender identity disorder: a prospective follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.L.C.; Steensma, T.D.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Puberty suppression by means of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) is used for young transsexuals between 12 and 16 years of age. The purpose of this intervention is to relieve the suffering caused by the development of secondary sex characteristics and to provide time to

  17. Hormonal regulation of puberty onset in female rats: is leptin a missing link?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous factors in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) are involved in the timing of puberty onset.Leptin signals the nutritional status and the presence of an adequate amount of loaded adipose tissue, as a long-term

  18. Puberty and Sexuality Education Using a Learning and Teaching Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2017-01-01

    All children need timely puberty and sexuality education. The task falls to schools because they have the learning and teaching processes, competency programmes, opportunities, and resources for age-appropriate cognitive, knowledge, and skills development in children and adolescents. Quality sexuality education guidance documents have been…

  19. Evaluation of 451 Danish Boys With Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; P. Hagen, Casper; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet

    2015-01-01

    Context: Few data exist on the diagnostic criteria, and on the effects of puberty induction, in boyswith constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP). Objective: To develop puberty nomograms based on Danish boys with normal pubertal development.To evaluate the different diagnostic criteria...... and the effect of oral testosterone undecanoate(TU) in boys with CDGP. Design: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of Danish boys with normal pubertal development(COPENHAGEN puberty study). A retrospective observational study of 451 boys evaluated fordelayed puberty between 1990 and 2013. Setting: Tertiary...... by the puberty nomogram(genital stage 2 SD for age) versus the classical criteria (genital stage 1 at 14 years). The effectof one year of oral TU treatment on pubertal progression, circulating hormones, height, andpredicted adult height (PAH). Results: Seventy-eight (27%) of the 287 boys had delayed pubertal...

  20. Puberty suppression in gender identity disorder: the Amsterdam experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2011-05-17

    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) to suppress puberty in adolescents with gender dysphoria is a fairly new intervention in the field of gender identity disorders or transsexualism. GnRHa are used to give adolescents time to make balanced decisions on any further treatment steps, and to obtain improved results in the physical appearance of those who opt to continue with sex reassignment. The effects of GnRHa are reversible. However, concerns have been raised about the risk of making the wrong treatment decisions, as gender identity could fluctuate during adolescence, adolescents in general might have poor decision-making abilities, and there are potential adverse effects on health and on psychological and psychosexual functioning. Proponents of puberty suppression emphasize the beneficial effects of GnRHa on the adolescents' mental health, quality of life and of having a physical appearance that makes it possible for the patients to live unobtrusively in their desired gender role. In this Review, we discuss the evidence pertaining to the debate on the effects of GnRHa treatment. From the studies that have been published thus far, it seems that the benefits outweigh the risks. However, more systematic research in this area is needed to determine the safety of this approach.

  1. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina eKercmar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty, followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female ’attractiveness’ was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for one month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period.

  2. Sex differences in athletic performance emerge coinciding with the onset of male puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, David J

    2017-07-01

    Male performance in athletic events begins to exceed that of age-matched females during early adolescence, but the timing of this divergence relative to the onset of male puberty and the rise in circulating testosterone remains poorly defined. This study is a secondary quantitative analysis of four published sources which aimed to define the timing of the gender divergence in athletic performance and relating it to the rise in circulating testosterone due to male puberty. Four data sources reflecting elite swimming and running and jumping track and field events as well as hand-grip strength in nonathletes were analysed to define the age-specific gender differences through adolescence and their relationship to the rising circulating testosterone during male puberty. The onset and tempo of gender divergence were very similar for swimming, running and jumping events as well as the hand-grip strength in nonathletes, and all closely paralleled the rise in circulating testosterone in adolescent boys. The gender divergence in athletic performance begins at the age of 12-13 years and reaches adult plateau in the late teenage years with the timing and tempo closely parallel to the rise in circulating testosterone in boys during puberty. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Alteration of gastrointestinal transit time in the rat after bile duct cannulation surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, P.H.; Medinsky, M.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Bond, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Alteration of gastrointestinal (GI) transit time could affect the bioavailability of a toxicant if the toxicant is absorbed in the GI tract. The effect of surgery on GI transit time was investigated using radiographic imaging of barium during passage through the GI tract of the rat. Bile duct cannulation surgery delayed transit of barium to over 18 h, whereas in the normal animal, transit required approximately 6 h. GI transit time was only moderately affected by laparotomy after an 18-h postsurgery recovery period. These results suggest that the gastrointestinal absorption of orally administered toxicants could be affected by bile duct cannulation. 3 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  4. Early Puberty, Negative Peer Influence, and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan; Tortolero, Susan R.; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how early puberty and peer deviance relate to trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and whether these relationships differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 2607 girls from 3 metropolitan areas and their parents were interviewed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years. Girls reported on their age of onset of menarche, best friend’s deviant behavior, delinquency, and physical, relational, and nonphysical aggression. Parents provided information on family sociodemographic characteristics and girls’ race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Sixteen percent of girls were classified as early maturers (defined by onset of menarche before age 11 years). Overall, relational and nonphysical aggression increased from age 11 to age 16, whereas delinquency and physical aggression remained stable. Early puberty was associated with elevated delinquency and physical aggression at age 11. The relationship with early puberty diminished over time for physical aggression but not for delinquency. Best friend’s deviant behavior was linked with higher levels of all problem behaviors, but the effect lessened over time for most outcomes. Early puberty was associated with a stronger link between best friend’s deviance and delinquency, suggesting increased vulnerability to negative peer influences among early-maturing girls. A similar vulnerability was observed for relational and nonphysical aggression among girls in the “other” racial/ethnic minority group only. CONCLUSIONS: Early puberty and friends’ deviance may increase the risk of problem behavior in young adolescent girls. Although many of these associations dissipate over time, early-maturing girls are at risk of persistently higher delinquency and stronger negative peer influences. PMID:24324002

  5. Delayed puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Differential diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoep, Marinus Cornelis

    1978-01-01

    This thesis describes a method enabling a prospecrive differential diagnosis to be made berween delayed puberty (DP) and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). The influence of androgen administration on the gonadal feedback sysrem of patients with delayed puberty was also studied. ... Zie: Summary

  6. Is Puberty Education Evident in Australia's First National Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2017-01-01

    The processes of puberty, including reproductive fertility and social-role transitions, now begin earlier, last longer, and are experienced in very different contexts. Because of this, all children and adolescents need good-quality puberty education in school curricula, and this need is supported by positive cost-benefit analysis and international…

  7. Effect of altering starting length and activation timing of muscle on fiber strain and muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Timothy A; Herzog, Walter

    2006-05-01

    Muscle strain injuries are some of the most frequent injuries in sports and command a great deal of attention in an effort to understand their etiology. These injuries may be the culmination of a series of subcellular events accumulated through repetitive lengthening (eccentric) contractions during exercise, and they may be influenced by a variety of variables including fiber strain magnitude, peak joint torque, and starting muscle length. To assess the influence of these variables on muscle injury magnitude in vivo, we measured fiber dynamics and joint torque production during repeated stretch-shortening cycles in the rabbit tibialis anterior muscle, at short and long muscle lengths, while varying the timing of activation before muscle stretch. We found that a muscle subjected to repeated stretch-shortening cycles of constant muscle-tendon unit excursion exhibits significantly different joint torque and fiber strains when the timing of activation or starting muscle length is changed. In particular, measures of fiber strain and muscle injury were significantly increased by altering activation timing and increasing the starting length of the muscle. However, we observed differential effects on peak joint torque during the cyclic stretch-shortening exercise, as increasing the starting length of the muscle did not increase torque production. We conclude that altering activation timing and muscle length before stretch may influence muscle injury by significantly increasing fiber strain magnitude and that fiber dynamics is a more important variable than muscle-tendon unit dynamics and torque production in influencing the magnitude of muscle injury.

  8. Nutritional Programming of Accelerated Puberty in Heifers: Involvement of Pro-Opiomelanocortin Neurones in the Arcuate Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, R C; Alves, B R C; Sharpton, S M; Williams, G L; Amstalden, M

    2015-08-01

    The timing of puberty and subsequent fertility in female mammals are dependent on the integration of metabolic signals by the hypothalamus. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) comprise a critical metabolic-sensing pathway controlling the reproductive neuroendocrine axis. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH), a product of the POMC gene, has excitatory effects on gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones and fibres containing αMSH project to GnRH and kisspeptin neurones. Because kisspeptin is a potent stimulator of GnRH release, αMSH may also stimulate GnRH secretion indirectly via kisspeptin neurones. In the present work, we report studies conducted in young female cattle (heifers) aiming to determine whether increased nutrient intake during the juvenile period (4-8 months of age), a strategy previously shown to advance puberty, alters POMC and KISS1 mRNA expression, as well as αMSH close contacts on GnRH and kisspeptin neurones. In Experiment 1, POMC mRNA expression, detected by in situ hybridisation, was greater (P high-gain, HG; n = 6) compared to heifers that gained 0.5 kg/day (low-gain, LG; n = 5). The number of KISS1-expressing cells in the middle ARC was reduced (P < 0.05) in HG compared to LG heifers. In Experiment 2, double-immunofluorescence showed limited αMSH-positive close contacts on GnRH neurones, and the magnitude of these inputs was not influenced by nutritional status. Conversely, a large number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells in the ARC were observed in close proximity to αMSH-containing varicosities. Furthermore, HG heifers (n = 5) exhibited a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of kisspeptin neurones in direct apposition to αMSH fibres and an increased (P < 0.05) number of αMSH close contacts per kisspeptin cell compared to LG heifers (n = 6). These results indicate that the POMC-kisspeptin pathway may be important in mediating the nutritional acceleration of puberty in heifers.

  9. An approach to constitutional delay of growth and puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional delay of growth and puberty is a transient state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with prolongation of childhood phase of growth, delayed skeletal maturation, delayed and attenuated pubertal growth spurt, and relatively low insulin-like growth factor-1 secretion. In a considerable number of cases, the final adult height (Ht does not reach the mid-parental or the predicted adult Ht for the individual, with some degree of disproportionately short trunk. In the pre-pubertal male, testosterone (T replacement therapy can be used to induce pubertal development, accelerate growth and relieve the psychosocial complaints of the adolescents. However, some issues in the management are still unresolved. These include type, optimal timing, dose and duration of sex steroid treatment and the possible use of adjunctive or alternate therapy including: oxandrolone, aromatase inhibitors and human growth hormone.

  10. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin(®)) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal height gain from onset of puberty till adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (ppenis and pubic hair is promoted by the anabolic steroid hormone, no psychosocial problems arose because of delayed puberty. No clinically significant adverse events appeared. Combined treatment with GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone significantly increased height gain during puberty and adult height in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone.

  11. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Circulating miRNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Measuring Puberty Onset in Chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Zhu, Yunfen; Su, Yijun; Li, Guohui; Qu, Liang; Zhang, Huiyong; Wang, Kehua; Zou, Jianmin; Liu, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    There are still no highly sensitive and unique biomarkers for measurement of puberty onset. Circulating miRNAs have been shown to be promising biomarkers for diagnosis of various diseases. To identify circulating miRNAs that could be served as biomarkers for measuring chicken (Gallus gallus) puberty onset, the Solexa deep sequencing was performed to analyze the miRNA expression profiles in serum and plasma of hens from two different pubertal stages, before puberty onset (BO) and after puberty onset (AO). 197 conserved and 19 novel miRNAs (reads > 10) were identified as serum/plasma-expressed miRNAs in the chicken. The common miRNA amounts and their expression changes from BO to AO between serum and plasma were very similar, indicating the different treatments to generate serum and plasma had quite small influence on the miRNAs. 130 conserved serum-miRNAs were showed to be differentially expressed (reads > 10, P 1.0, P puberty onset. Further quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) test found that a seven-miRNA panel, including miR-29c, miR-375, miR-215, miR-217, miR-19b, miR-133a and let-7a, had great potentials to serve as novel biomarkers for measuring puberty onset in chicken. Due to highly conserved nature of miRNAs, the findings could provide cues for measurement of puberty onset in other animals as well as humans.

  12. The Role of Mother in Informing Girls About Puberty: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooki, Zahra; Shariati, Mohammad; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Effatpanah, Mohammad; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    mothers about the time, trends, and factors affecting the start of puberty using a multi-dimensional approach that involves religious organizations, community groups, and peer groups. PMID:27331056

  13. HYPERANDROGENISM OF PUBERTY AGE AS A FACTOR REDUCING FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bogatyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Hyperandrogenism is a common cause of infertility in women. The onset of symptoms of hyperandrogenism takes place during puberty in the majority of women. Hyperandrogenism reduces reproductive potential,so early detection and development of its prognostic factors, allows us to solve serious problems of puberty and prevent infertility.Materials and methods. 113 adolescent girls with hyperandrogenism from 14 to 19 years were included. The control group consists of 25 healthy girls of a similar age. To confirm the prediction of decreased reproductive capacity were examined 35 women with hyperandrogenism from 19 to 36 years. In addition to routine methods of examination (anamnesis, physical examination, anthropometry, assessment of the hairline using Ferriman – Gallwey scale, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, the definition of the hormonal status (LH, FSH, prolactin, 17-OHP, estradiol, TSH, DHEAS-s, GHPG, testosterone, glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance test and dexamethasone suppression test when necessary.Results. We have proved the reduction of reproductive potential of adolescent girls with high free androgen index (FAI. When the FAI has increased from 36 to 100 conventional units it caused reduction of the reproductive capacity in 9.7 times in comparison with control group (χ2=56,24; p < 0.001; overall prediction accuracy of 92.8%.Conclusion. Free androgen index more than 36 conventional units is a high risk factor of reduced fertility.

  14. Overexpression of AtLOV1 in Switchgrass alters plant architecture, lignin content, and flowering time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. is a prime candidate crop for biofuel feedstock production in the United States. As it is a self-incompatible polyploid perennial species, breeding elite and stable switchgrass cultivars with traditional breeding methods is very challenging. Translational genomics may contribute significantly to the genetic improvement of switchgrass, especially for the incorporation of elite traits that are absent in natural switchgrass populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we constitutively expressed an Arabidopsis NAC transcriptional factor gene, LONG VEGETATIVE PHASE ONE (AtLOV1, in switchgrass. Overexpression of AtLOV1 in switchgrass caused the plants to have a smaller leaf angle by changing the morphology and organization of epidermal cells in the leaf collar region. Also, overexpression of AtLOV1 altered the lignin content and the monolignol composition of cell walls, and caused delayed flowering time. Global gene-expression analysis of the transgenic plants revealed an array of responding genes with predicted functions in plant development, cell wall biosynthesis, and flowering. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first report of a single ectopically expressed transcription factor altering the leaf angle, cell wall composition, and flowering time of switchgrass, therefore demonstrating the potential advantage of translational genomics for the genetic improvement of this crop.

  15. Premature pubarche before one year of age: distinguishing between mini-puberty variants and precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourayou, Rafik; Giabicani, Eloïse; Pouillot, Monique; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Brauner, Raja

    2015-04-02

    The aim of this study was to facilitate the distinction between the benign "mini-puberty of early infancy" and precocious puberty (PP). We compared 59 patients (21 boys and 38 girls) seen for pubic hair development before one year of age diagnosed as mini-puberty to 13 patients (2 boys) in whom pubertal development before one year revealed a PP. The boys with mini-puberty presented with pubic hair development and prepubertal testicular volume, with low plasma testosterone concentrations. Their gonadotropin responses to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) test showed predominant luteinising hormone increase in 9/13. The girls presented with pubic hair development that was accompanied by breast development in 47% of cases, with low plasma estradiol concentrations. Their gonadotropin responses showed predominant follicle-stimulating hormone increase in the 17 evaluated. The patients with PP had organic central PP (5 hypothalamic hamartoma) or idiopathic central PP (n=6), or peripheral PP (one ovarian tumor and one congenital adrenal hyperplasia). The diagnosis was challenging only in 3 girls with idiopathic central PP presenting with prepubertal plasma estradiol concentrations and responses to GnRH test. The diagnosis of PP was easily determined based on the clinical presentation and the pubertal concentrations of testosterone in boys or of estradiol in girls, as was the diagnosis of central or peripheral origin of PP based on gonadotropin response to the GnRH test. Once PP is excluded, these patients need careful follow-up and physician consultation is needed if clinical pubertal signs progress.

  16. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: implications of absent mini-puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Andrew A; Jayasena, Channa N; Quinton, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The phenomenon known as "mini-puberty" refers to activation of the neonatal hypothalamo-pituitary axis causing serum concentrations of gonadotrophins and testosterone (T) to approach adult male levels. This early neonatal period is a key proliferative window for testicular germ cells and immature Sertoli cells. Although failure to spontaneously initiate (adolescent) puberty is the most evident consequence of a defective gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory network, absent mini-puberty is also likely to have a major impact on the reproductive phenotype of men with congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (CHH). Furthermore, the phase of male mini-puberty represents a key window-of-opportunity to identify congenital GnRH deficiency (either isolated CHH, or as part of combined pituitary hormone deficiency) in childhood. Among male neonates exhibiting "red flag" indicators for CHH (i.e. maldescended testes with or without cryptorchidism) a single serum sample (between 4-8 weeks of life) can pinpoint congenital GnRH deficiency far more rapidly and with much greater accuracy than dynamic tests performed in later childhood or adolescence. Potential consequences for missing absent mini-puberty in a male neonate include the lack of monitoring of pubertal progression/lack of progression, and the missed opportunity for early therapeutic intervention. This article will review our current understanding of the mechanisms and clinical consequences of mini-puberty. Furthermore, evidence for the optimal clinical management of patients with absent mini-puberty will be discussed.

  17. Circulating MKRN3 Levels Decline During Puberty in Healthy Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Almstrup, Kristian; Juul, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Initiation and progression of puberty requires concerted action of hypothalamic activating and inhibiting factors. Recently, cases of familial central precocious puberty have been linked to loss-of-function mutations of makorin RING-finger protein 3 (MKRN3) indicating a pivotal inhibitory role of the protein on GnRH secretion. To investigate peripubertal circulating MKRN3 levels in healthy boys. Population-based longitudinal study in healthy Danish boys. General community. Healthy boys (n = 60) aged (median [range]) 9.3 (5.8-11.8) years at baseline followed for 6.0 (0.5-7.6) years (2006-2014) with blood sampling every 6 months. None. Serum levels of MKRN3: 623 samples, median (range) 12 (2-14) per boy. MKRN3 levels declined before onset of puberty; the geometric mean (95% confidence interval) 5 years before onset of puberty vs last visit before onset of puberty was 216 (169-272) pg/mL vs 128 (118-139) pg/mL (P puberty progressed. MKRN3 levels were not associated with age at onset of puberty. Declining MKRN3 before pubertal onset support MKRN3 as an inhibitor of GnRH secretion during midchildhood.

  18. Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Thomas W.; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.

  19. Detection of time-varying harmonic amplitude alterations due to spectral interpolations between musical instrument tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B; Beauchamp, James W; So, Richard H Y

    2009-01-01

    Gradated spectral interpolations between musical instrument tone pairs were used to investigate discrimination as a function of time-averaged spectral difference. All possible nonidentical pairs taken from a collection of eight musical instrument sounds consisting of bassoon, clarinet, flute, horn, oboe, saxophone, trumpet, and violin were tested. For each pair, several tones were generated with different balances between the primary and secondary instruments, where the balance was fixed across the duration of each tone. Among primary instruments it was found that changes to horn and bassoon [corrected] were most easily discriminable, while changes to saxophone and trumpet timbres were least discriminable. Among secondary instruments, the clarinet had the strongest effect on discrimination, whereas the bassoon had the least effect. For primary instruments, strong negative correlations were found between discrimination and their spectral incoherences, suggesting that the presence of dynamic spectral variations tends to increase the difficulty of detecting time-varying alterations such as spectral interpolation.

  20. Clinical review: Distinguishing constitutional delay of growth and puberty from isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: critical appraisal of available diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jennifer; Palmert, Mark R

    2012-09-01

    Determining the etiology of delayed puberty during initial evaluation can be challenging. Specifically, clinicians often cannot distinguish constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) from isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), with definitive diagnosis of IHH awaiting lack of spontaneous puberty by age 18 yr. However, the ability to make a timely, correct diagnosis has important clinical implications. The aim was to describe and evaluate the literature regarding the ability of diagnostic tests to distinguish CDGP from IHH. A PubMed search was performed using key words "puberty, delayed" and "hypogonadotropic hypogonadism," and citations within retrieved articles were reviewed to identify studies that assessed the utility of basal and stimulation tests in the diagnosis of delayed puberty. Emphasis was given to a test's ability to distinguish prepubertal adolescents with CDGP from those with IHH. Basal gonadotropin and GnRH stimulation tests have limited diagnostic specificity, with overlap in gonadotropin levels between adolescents with CDGP and IHH. Stimulation tests using more potent GnRH agonists and/or human chorionic gonadotropin may have better discriminatory value, but small study size, lack of replication of diagnostic thresholds, and prolonged protocols limit clinical application. A single inhibin B level in two recent studies demonstrated good differentiation between groups. Distinguishing IHH from CDGP is an important clinical issue. Basal inhibin B may offer a simple, discriminatory test if results from recent studies are replicated. However, current literature does not allow for recommendation of any diagnostic test for routine clinical use, making this an important area for future investigation.

  1. Complexity and time asymmetry of heart rate variability are altered in acute mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnovcova, Z; Mestanik, M; Javorka, M; Mokra, D; Gala, M; Jurko, A; Calkovska, A; Tonhajzerova, I

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to study the complexity and time asymmetry of short-term heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of complex neurocardiac control in response to stress using symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility methods. ECG was recorded at rest and during and after two stressors (Stroop, arithmetic test) in 70 healthy students. Symbolic dynamics parameters (NUPI, NCI, 0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%), and time irreversibility indices (P%, G%, E) were evaluated. Additionally, HRV magnitude was quantified by linear parameters: spectral powers in low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands. Our results showed a reduction of HRV complexity in stress (lower NUPI with both stressors, lower NCI with Stroop). Pattern classification analysis revealed significantly higher 0V% and lower 2LV% with both stressors, indicating a shift in sympathovagal balance, and significantly higher 1V% and lower 2UV% with Stroop. An unexpected result was found in time irreversibility: significantly lower G% and E with both stressors, P% index significantly declined only with arithmetic test. Linear HRV analysis confirmed vagal withdrawal (lower HF) with both stressors; LF significantly increased with Stroop and decreased with arithmetic test. Correlation analysis revealed no significant associations between symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility. Concluding, symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility could provide independent information related to alterations of neurocardiac control integrity in stress-related disease.

  2. Complexity and time asymmetry of heart rate variability are altered in acute mental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visnovcova, Z; Mestanik, M; Javorka, M; Mokra, D; Calkovska, A; Tonhajzerova, I; Gala, M; Jurko, A

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study the complexity and time asymmetry of short-term heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of complex neurocardiac control in response to stress using symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility methods. ECG was recorded at rest and during and after two stressors (Stroop, arithmetic test) in 70 healthy students. Symbolic dynamics parameters (NUPI, NCI, 0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%), and time irreversibility indices (P%, G%, E) were evaluated. Additionally, HRV magnitude was quantified by linear parameters: spectral powers in low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands. Our results showed a reduction of HRV complexity in stress (lower NUPI with both stressors, lower NCI with Stroop). Pattern classification analysis revealed significantly higher 0V% and lower 2LV% with both stressors, indicating a shift in sympathovagal balance, and significantly higher 1V% and lower 2UV% with Stroop. An unexpected result was found in time irreversibility: significantly lower G% and E with both stressors, P% index significantly declined only with arithmetic test. Linear HRV analysis confirmed vagal withdrawal (lower HF) with both stressors; LF significantly increased with Stroop and decreased with arithmetic test. Correlation analysis revealed no significant associations between symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility. Concluding, symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility could provide independent information related to alterations of neurocardiac control integrity in stress-related disease. (paper)

  3. Leuprolide acetate-stimulated androgen response during female puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, María Isabel; Martinez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Cavada, Gabriel; Avila, Alejandra; Iñiguez, German; Mericq, Veronica

    2015-08-01

    A physiological increase in androgen levels occurs during adolescence. Measuring androgen concentrations is the best method to distinguish normal evolution processes from hyperandrogenic disorders. The increase in circulating androgens during puberty is inversely associated with insulin sensitivity in normal weight girls. To assess circulating levels of ovarian androgens and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) at baseline and after GnRH analogue (GnRH-a) stimulation in normal pubertal girls across different Tanner stages. We also studied the association between this response and insulin sensitivity. Prospective study of healthy girls (6-12 years) from the local community (n = 63). Tanner I (n = 23) subjects were assessed cross-sectionally, and Tanner II girls (n = 40) were evaluated every 6 months until they reached Tanner V. Early morning dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), AMH, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione, glucose and insulin levels were measured. A GnRH-a test (500 μg/m(2) ; sc) and oral glucose intolerance test (OGTT) were performed. Differences throughout puberty were evaluated. Basal and/or stimulated Testosterone DHEA-S and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (WIBSI) from the beginning of puberty, whereas androstenedione was directly associated with gonadotrophins. AMH was inversely associated with basal and stimulated gonadotrophins and directly with insulin area under the curve (AUC) only in the early stages of puberty. 17OHP and testosterone responsiveness increased significantly during puberty in all subjects, whereas testosterone levels changed less consistently. This pattern of ovarian-steroidogenic response was most evident during mid- and late puberty. Moreover, during late puberty only, basal 17OHP, testosterone and DHEA-S were positively associated with gonadotrophins. In normal nonobese girls born appropriate for gestational age, androgen synthesis was associated with

  4. A rare presentation of craniopharyngioma: delayed puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnci, Mehmet Fatih; Özkan, Fuat; Bozkurt, Selim; Demir, Caner Feyzi

    2012-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are the most frequently encountered suprasellar tumours in children. Owing to the slow growth rate of these tumours, they are often quite large before becoming symptomatic. They are more common among children and older adults (55–74 years). Depending upon the direction of growth and tumour size, craniopharyngiomas can affect the hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, optic nerves and chiasm and carotid arteries. Compression of these neural and vascular structures frequently precipitates endocrine disorders, visual loss and an increased intracranial pressure. Hypopituitarism leading to a delayed puberty is a rare presentation of craniopharyngioma. The diagnosis of craniopharyngioma is usually made with the classic radiological imaging features based on CT and MRI. PMID:23195827

  5. Altered time course of amygdala activation during speech anticipation in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Carolyn D; Young, Katherine; Torre, Jared B; Burklund, Lisa J; Goldin, Philippe R; Brown, Lily A; Niles, Andrea N; Lieberman, Matthew D; Craske, Michelle G

    2017-02-01

    Exaggerated anticipatory anxiety is common in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Neuroimaging studies have revealed altered neural activity in response to social stimuli in SAD, but fewer studies have examined neural activity during anticipation of feared social stimuli in SAD. The current study examined the time course and magnitude of activity in threat processing brain regions during speech anticipation in socially anxious individuals and healthy controls (HC). Participants (SAD n=58; HC n=16) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during which they completed a 90s control anticipation task and 90s speech anticipation task. Repeated measures multi-level modeling analyses were used to examine group differences in time course activity during speech vs. control anticipation for regions of interest, including bilateral amygdala, insula, ventral striatum, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. The time course of amygdala activity was more prolonged and less variable throughout speech anticipation in SAD participants compared to HCs, whereas the overall magnitude of amygdala response did not differ between groups. Magnitude and time course of activity was largely similar between groups across other regions of interest. Analyses were restricted to regions of interest and task order was the same across participants due to the nature of deception instructions. Sustained amygdala time course during anticipation may uniquely reflect heightened detection of threat or deficits in emotion regulation in socially anxious individuals. Findings highlight the importance of examining temporal dynamics of amygdala responding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Practice of leisure-time physical activities and episodes of mood alteration amongst men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Jerônimo Costa; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean Pierre; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; da Silva Alves, Giovanna Del Grande; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and episodes of mood alteration in a population-based sample of adults, and its relation with gender. This is a cross-sectional population-based study with young adults aged between 18 and 35 years old. Sample selection was performed by clusters. The practice of physical activity was evaluated through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), whereas mood disorders were evaluated using a short structured diagnostic interview-the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for DSM-IV and ICD-10 psychiatric disorders. Causal inferences are limited due the study׳s design. Sample consisted of 1953 young adults. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and of depressive episodes in the total sample was 25.3% and 17.2%, respectively. The prevalence of activity amongst men was 1.18 (CI 95% 1.18-1.32) times higher than in the women׳s group, whereas depression was 1.87 (CI 95% 1.41-2.47) times more prevalent amongst women than men. The prevalence of physical activity was not different between women (p=0.287), nor between men (p=0.895) regarding the presence of mania/hypomania episode. The prevalence of physical activity and depression was different concerning gender. The prevalence of physical activity is lower amongst women, whereas the prevalence of depression is higher amongst women when compared to men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Yoon

    Full Text Available In modern society, growing numbers of people are engaged in various forms of shift works or trans-meridian travels. Such circadian misalignment is known to disturb endogenous diurnal rhythms, which may lead to harmful physiological consequences including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and gastric disorders as well as other physical and mental disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s underlying these changes are yet unclear. The present work, therefore examined the effects of 6 h advance or delay of usual meal time on diurnal rhythmicities in home cage activity (HCA, body temperature (BT, blood metabolic markers, glucose homeostasis, and expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol homeostasis by feeding young adult male mice in a time-restrictive manner. Delay of meal time caused locomotive hyperactivity in a significant portion (42% of subjects, while 6 h advance caused a torpor-like symptom during the late scotophase. Accordingly, daily rhythms of blood glucose and triglyceride were differentially affected by time-restrictive feeding regimen with concurrent metabolic alterations. Along with these physiological changes, time-restrictive feeding also influenced the circadian expression patterns of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR as well as most LDLR regulatory factors. Strikingly, chronic advance of meal time induced insulin resistance, while chronic delay significantly elevated blood glucose levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that persistent shifts in usual meal time impact the diurnal rhythms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in addition to HCA and BT, thereby posing critical implications for the health and diseases of shift workers.

  8. Injury timing alters metabolic, inflammatory and functional outcomes following repeated mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Zachary M; Gaier, Kristopher R; Karelina, Kate

    2014-10-01

    Repeated head injuries are a major public health concern both for athletes, and members of the police and armed forces. There is ample experimental and clinical evidence that there is a period of enhanced vulnerability to subsequent injury following head trauma. Injuries that occur close together in time produce greater cognitive, histological, and behavioral impairments than do injuries separated by a longer period. Traumatic brain injuries alter cerebral glucose metabolism and the resolution of altered glucose metabolism may signal the end of the period of greater vulnerability. Here, we injured mice either once or twice separated by three or 20days. Repeated injuries that were separated by three days were associated with greater axonal degeneration, enhanced inflammatory responses, and poorer performance in a spatial learning and memory task. A single injury induced a transient but marked increase in local cerebral glucose utilization in the injured hippocampus and sensorimotor cortex, whereas a second injury, three days after the first, failed to induce an increase in glucose utilization at the same time point. In contrast, when the second injury occurred substantially later (20days after the first injury), an increase in glucose utilization occurred that paralleled the increase observed following a single injury. The increased glucose utilization observed after a single injury appears to be an adaptive component of recovery, while mice with 2 injuries separated by three days were not able to mount this response, thus this second injury may have produced a significant energetic crisis such that energetic demands outstripped the ability of the damaged cells to utilize energy. These data strongly reinforce the idea that too rapid return to activity after a traumatic brain injury can induce permanent damage and disability, and that monitoring cerebral energy utilization may be a tool to determine when it is safe to return to the activity that caused the initial

  9. EXPOSURE TO DIETHYL HEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP) DELAYS PUBERTY AND REDUCES ANDROGEN-DEPENDENT TISSUE WEIGHTS IN LONG EVANS HOODED AND SPRAGUE DAWLEY MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEHP is a plasticizer that alters sexual differentiation in the male rat by reducing fetal Leydig cell testosterone synthesis and insl3 mRNA levels. When exposure includes the pubertal stage of life, DEHP and other phthalates delay puberty and reduce androgen-dependent tissue wei...

  10. Everything You Wanted to Know about Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it's not a pretty one. That smell is body odor, and everyone gets it. As you enter puberty, ... deodorant with antiperspirant) every day can help keep body odor in check, too. There's More? Guys and girls ...

  11. General anesthesia alters time perception by phase shifting the circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, James F; Winnebeck, Eva C; Millar, Craig D; Kirkland, Lisa S; Sleigh, James; Goodwin, Mark; Pawley, Matt D M; Bloch, Guy; Lehmann, Konstantin; Menzel, Randolf; Warman, Guy R

    2012-05-01

    Following general anesthesia, people are often confused about the time of day and experience sleep disruption and fatigue. It has been hypothesized that these symptoms may be caused by general anesthesia affecting the circadian clock. The circadian clock is fundamental to our well-being because it regulates almost all aspects of our daily biochemistry, physiology, and behavior. Here, we investigated the effects of the most common general anesthetic, isoflurane, on time perception and the circadian clock using the honeybee (Apis mellifera) as a model. A 6-h daytime anesthetic systematically altered the time-compensated sun compass orientation of the bees, with a mean anticlockwise shift in vanishing bearing of 87° in the Southern Hemisphere and a clockwise shift in flight direction of 58° in the Northern Hemisphere. Using the same 6-h anesthetic treatment, time-trained bees showed a delay in the start of foraging of 3.3 h, and whole-hive locomotor-activity rhythms were delayed by an average of 4.3 h. We show that these effects are all attributable to a phase delay in the core molecular clockwork. mRNA oscillations of the central clock genes cryptochrome-m and period were delayed by 4.9 and 4.3 h, respectively. However, this effect is dependent on the time of day of administration, as is common for clock effects, and nighttime anesthesia did not shift the clock. Taken together, our results suggest that general anesthesia during the day causes a persistent and marked shift of the clock effectively inducing "jet lag" and causing impaired time perception. Managing this effect in humans is likely to help expedite postoperative recovery.

  12. Neural code alterations and abnormal time patterns in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The neural code used by the basal ganglia is a current question in neuroscience, relevant for the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While a rate code is known to participate in the communication between the basal ganglia and the motor thalamus/cortex, different lines of evidence have also favored the presence of complex time patterns in the discharge of the basal ganglia. To gain insight into the way the basal ganglia code information, we studied the activity of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), an output node of the circuit. Approach. We implemented the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinsonism in Sprague-Dawley rats, and recorded the spontaneous discharge of single GPi neurons, in head-restrained conditions at full alertness. Analyzing the temporal structure function, we looked for characteristic scales in the neuronal discharge of the GPi. Main results. At a low-scale, we observed the presence of dynamic processes, which allow the transmission of time patterns. Conversely, at a middle-scale, stochastic processes force the use of a rate code. Regarding the time patterns transmitted, we measured the word length and found that it is increased in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, it showed a positive correlation with the frequency of discharge, indicating that an exacerbation of this abnormal time pattern length can be expected, as the dopamine depletion progresses. Significance. We conclude that a rate code and a time pattern code can co-exist in the basal ganglia at different temporal scales. However, their normal balance is progressively altered and replaced by pathological time patterns in Parkinson’s disease.

  13. Ectopic expression of a WRKY homolog from Glycine soja alters flowering time in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Luo

    Full Text Available Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG. Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time.

  14. Ectopic Expression of a WRKY Homolog from Glycine soja Alters Flowering Time in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Cao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Mingchao; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-01-01

    Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO) and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG). Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time. PMID:23991184

  15. MRI study of pituitary in girls with central precocious puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhiqiu; Guo Qinglu; Feng Changzheng; Wei Beiyang; Liu Yongxi; Zhang Yan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the shape, size and signal intensity of pituitary gland in girls aged 3-10 year old with central precocious puberty. Methods: MRI data of pituitary glands in 40 girls aged 3-10 years old with central precocious puberty were selected. The shape, height and the appearances of pituitary glands were measured and observed on sagittal T 1 WI. Results: Quantitative data about size, shape and single intensity changes of pituitary glands in central precocious puberty were obtained in two groups, including girls aged from 3-5 and 5-10. The convex pituitary gland were 85.0% in former group. The height of pituitary gland were 6.1±0.2mm (former group) and 6.4± 0.4mm (latter one) respectively. The width of pituitary stalk was 1.93±0.50mm. The posterior pituitary gland demonstrated high signal intensity in all cases. Conclusion: Obvious changes of the size and shape of pituitary glands were found in central precocious puberty of girls aged from 3-10. The pituitary glands manifested physiologic hypertrophy with more convex in central precocious puberty girls than in normal ones. The changes on MRI could reflect the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. It is of important value and significance in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty. (authors)

  16. Metabolic control of female puberty: potential therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Juan M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The onset of puberty in females is highly sensitive to the nutritional status and the amount of energy reserves of the organism. This metabolic information is sensed and transmitted to hypothalamic GnRH neurons, considered to be ultimately responsible for triggering puberty through the coordinated action of different peripheral hormones, central neurotransmitters, and molecular mediators. This article will review and discuss (i) the relevant actions of the adipose hormone leptin, as a stimulatory/permissive signal, and the gut hormone ghrelin, as an inhibitory factor, in the metabolic control of female puberty; (ii) the crucial role of the hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons, recently emerged as essential gatekeepers of puberty, in transmitting this metabolic information to GnRH neurons; and (iii) the potential involvement of key cellular energy sensors, such as mTOR, as molecular mediators in this setting. The thorough characterization of the physiological roles of the above elements in the metabolic control of female puberty, along with the discovery of novel factors, pathways, and mechanisms involved, will promote our understanding of the complex networks connecting metabolism and puberty and, ultimately, will aid in the design of target-specific treatments for female pubertal disorders linked to conditions of metabolic stress.

  17. Puberty and Perimenopause: Reproductive Transitions and their Implications for Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Lindsay T.; Falconi, April

    2015-01-01

    This scoping review synthesizes existing research on two major transitions in females’ lives: puberty and perimenopause. These two periods of vast physiological change demarcate the beginning and the end of the reproductive life cycle and are associated with major neuroendocrine reorganization across two key systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Despite growing evidence suggesting that the timing and experience of puberty and perimenopause are related to various physical and mental health outcomes (e.g., mood disorders, metabolism, cardiovascular health, autoimmune conditions and cancer), these two processes are rarely examined together. In this paper, we bridge these disparate literatures to highlight similarities, isolate inconsistencies, and identify important areas for future research in women’s health. PMID:25797100

  18. Phenotypic and Functional Alterations in Circulating Memory CD8 T Cells with Time after Primary Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Martin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory CD8 T cells confer increased protection to immune hosts upon secondary viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections. The level of protection provided depends on the numbers, quality (functional ability, and location of memory CD8 T cells present at the time of infection. While primary memory CD8 T cells can be maintained for the life of the host, the full extent of phenotypic and functional changes that occur over time after initial antigen encounter remains poorly characterized. Here we show that critical properties of circulating primary memory CD8 T cells, including location, phenotype, cytokine production, maintenance, secondary proliferation, secondary memory generation potential, and mitochondrial function change with time after infection. Interestingly, phenotypic and functional alterations in the memory population are not due solely to shifts in the ratio of effector (CD62Llo and central memory (CD62Lhi cells, but also occur within defined CD62Lhi memory CD8 T cell subsets. CD62Lhi memory cells retain the ability to efficiently produce cytokines with time after infection. However, while it is was not formally tested whether changes in CD62Lhi memory CD8 T cells over time occur in a cell intrinsic manner or are due to selective death and/or survival, the gene expression profiles of CD62Lhi memory CD8 T cells change, phenotypic heterogeneity decreases, and mitochondrial function and proliferative capacity in either a lymphopenic environment or in response to antigen re-encounter increase with time. Importantly, and in accordance with their enhanced proliferative and metabolic capabilities, protection provided against chronic LCMV clone-13 infection increases over time for both circulating memory CD8 T cell populations and for CD62Lhi memory cells. Taken together, the data in this study reveal that memory CD8 T cells continue to change with time after infection and suggest that the outcome of vaccination strategies designed to elicit

  19. New insights into the factors mediating the onset of puberty in sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares, F; Rocha, A; Molés, G; Gómez, A; Carrillo, M; Zanuy, S

    2015-12-01

    In populations of 1-year-old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), only large males are able to acquire for the first time a functional competence of their reproductive axis; in other words, to attain puberty. To examine the causes and mechanisms involved in the onset of puberty in this species, a size sorting sampling was carried out to obtain two experimental groups of small and large male fish exhibiting different growth rates. As expected, only large fish reached full spermiogenesis (stage V of testicular development) by the end of the experiment. Our study suggests that fish size is a permissive condition to ensure full effectiveness of the hormonal (Gnrh1, gonadotropins and sexual steroids) actions. Thus, though small fish had endocrine profiles similar to those of large fish, their amplitude was much lower, and was most likely the reason why functional competence of the reproductive axis was not achieved. Moreover, this work provides evidence of the involvement of kisspeptin and Gnrh1 systems in the onset of puberty in a marine teleost fish. It also indicates that very likely kisspeptin and Gnrh1 may regulate gonadotropins and sex steroids at specific stages of testicular development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A new pathway in the control of the initiation of puberty: the MKRN3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Ana Paula; Macedo, Delanie B; Brito, Vinicius N; Kaiser, Ursula B; Latronico, Ana Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Pubertal timing is influenced by complex interactions among genetic, nutritional, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. The role of MKRN3, an imprinted gene located in the Prader-Willi syndrome critical region (chromosome 15q11-13), in pubertal initiation was first described in 2013 after the identification of deleterious MKRN3 mutations in five families with central precocious puberty (CPP) using whole-exome sequencing analysis. Since then, additional loss-of-function mutations of MKRN3 have been associated with the inherited premature sexual development phenotype in girls and boys from different ethnic groups. In all of these families, segregation analysis clearly demonstrated autosomal dominant inheritance with complete penetrance, but with exclusive paternal transmission, consistent with the monoallelic expression of MKRN3 (a maternally imprinted gene). Interestingly, the hypothalamic Mkrn3 mRNA expression pattern in mice correlated with a putative inhibitory input on puberty initiation. Indeed, the initiation of puberty depends on a decrease in factors that inhibit the release of GnRH combined with an increase in stimulatory factors. These recent human and animal findings suggest that MKRN3 plays an inhibitory role in the reproductive axis to represent a new pathway in pubertal regulation. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Role of Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B in Puberty in Female Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Terasawa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In human patients, loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding kisspeptin (KISS1 and neurokinin B (NKB and their receptors (KISS1R and NK3R, respectively result in an abnormal timing of puberty or the absence of puberty. To understand the neuroendocrine mechanism of puberty, we investigated the contribution of kisspeptin and NKB signaling to the pubertal increase in GnRH release using rhesus monkeys as a model. Direct measurements of GnRH and kisspeptin in the median eminence of the hypothalamus with infusion of agonists and antagonists for kisspeptin and NKB reveal that kisspeptin and NKB signaling stimulate GnRH release independently or collaboratively by forming kisspeptin and NKB neuronal networks depending on the developmental age. For example, while in prepubertal females, kisspeptin and NKB signaling independently stimulate GnRH release, in pubertal females, the formation of a collaborative kisspeptin and NKB network further accelerates the pubertal increase in GnRH release. It is speculated that the collaborative mechanism between kisspeptin and NKB signaling to GnRH neurons is necessary for the complex reproductive function in females.

  2. Dentofacial growth changes in subjects with untreated Class II malocclusion from late puberty through young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to compare dentofacial growth changes in untreated subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusion with those in subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from late puberty through young adulthood. The Class II Division 1 sample consisted of 23 subjects (10 male, 13 female). The Class I sample included 30 subjects (13 male, 17 female). The lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups were analyzed at 2 consecutive stages of development: T1, postpubertal observation (cervical vertebral maturation stage 6), and T2, young adulthood stage. The average time between T1 and T2 was 3.5 years. The statistical comparisons of the growth changes in the 2 groups were performed with Mann-Whitney U tests. From late puberty through young adulthood, dentofacial growth in subjects with untreated Class II malocclusion does not show significant differences when compared with that observed in untreated subjects with normal occlusion. These findings show that Class II dentoskeletal disharmony does not exhibit significant growth change from late puberty through young adulthood.

  3. Silent Crooke’s cell corticotroph adenoma of the pituitary gland presenting as delayed puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Giri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Corticotroph adenomas are extremely rare in children and adolescents. We present a 15-year-old boy who was investigated for delayed puberty (A1P2G1, bilateral testicular volumes of 3 mL each. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence suggestive of chronic illness, and the initial clinical impression was constitutional delay in puberty. Subsequently, MRI scan of the brain revealed the presence of a mixed cystic and solid pituitary lesion slightly displacing the optic chiasma. The lesion was removed by transphenoidal surgery and the biopsy confirmed the lesion to be pituitary adenoma. Furthermore, the adenoma cells also had Crooke’s hyaline changes and were intensely positive for ACTH. However there was no clinical/biochemical evidence of ACTH excess. There was a spontaneous pubertal progression twelve months after the surgery (A2P4G4, with bilateral testicular volume of 8 mL. Crooke’s cell adenoma is an extremely rare and aggressive variant of corticotroph adenoma that can uncommonly present as a silent corticotroph adenoma in adults. We report for the first time Crooke’s cell adenoma in an adolescent boy presenting with delayed puberty.

  4. BMI change during puberty and the risk of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindblom, J M; Bygdell, M; Sondén, A; Célind, J; Rosengren, A; Ohlsson, C

    2018-03-12

    Hospitalization for heart failure amongst younger men has increased. The reason for this is unknown but it coincides with the obesity epidemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between childhood BMI (Body Mass Index) and BMI change during puberty for risk of adult heart failure in men. Using the BMI Epidemiology Study (BEST), a population-based study in Gothenburg, Sweden, we collected information on childhood BMI at age 8 years and BMI change during puberty (BMI at age 20 - BMI at 8) for men born 1945-1961, followed until December 2013 (n = 37 670). BMI was collected from paediatric growth charts and mandatory military conscription tests. Information on heart failure was retrieved from high-quality national registers (342 first hospitalizations for heart failure). BMI change during puberty was independently of childhood BMI associated with risk of heart failure in a nonlinear J-shaped manner. Subjects in the upper quartile of BMI change during puberty (Q4) had more than twofold increased risk of heart failure compared with subjects in Q1 [HR (Hazard Ratio) = 2.29, 95% CI (Confidence Interval) 1.68-3.12]. Childhood BMI was not independently associated with risk of heart failure. Boys developing overweight during puberty (HR 3.14; 95% CI 2.25-4.38) but not boys with childhood overweight that normalized during puberty (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.63-2.00) had increased risk of heart failure compared with boys without childhood or young adult overweight. BMI change during puberty is a novel risk factor for adult heart failure in men. © 2018 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  5. Puberty and dispersal in a wild primate population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Patrick O; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". The onset of reproduction is preceded by a host of organismal adjustments and transformations, involving morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes. In highly social mammals, including humans and most nonhuman primates, the timing and nature of maturational processes are affected by the animal's social milieu as well as its ecology. Here, we review a diverse set of findings on how maturation unfolds in wild baboons in the Amboseli basin of southern Kenya, and we place these findings in the context of other reports of maturational processes in primates and other mammals. First, we describe the series of events and processes that signal maturation in female and male baboons. Sex differences in age at both sexual maturity and first reproduction documented for this species are consistent with expectations of life history theory; males mature later than females and exhibit an adolescent growth spurt that is absent or minimal in females. Second, we summarize what we know about sources of variance in the timing of maturational processes including natal dispersal. In Amboseli, individuals in a food-enhanced group mature earlier than their wild-feeding counterparts, and offspring of high-ranking females mature earlier than offspring of low-ranking females. We also report on how genetic admixture, which occurs in Amboseli between two closely related baboon taxa, affects individual maturation schedules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered time structure of neuro-endocrine-immune system function in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carughi Stefano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The onset and the development of neoplastic disease may be influenced by many physiological, biological and immunological factors. The nervous, endocrine and immune system might act as an integrated unit to mantain body defense against this pathological process and reciprocal influences have been evidenced among hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pineal gland and immune system. In this study we evaluated differences among healthy subjects and subjects suffering from lung cancer in the 24-hour secretory profile of melatonin, cortisol, TRH, TSH, FT4, GH, IGF-1 and IL-2 and circadian variations of lymphocyte subpopulations. Methods In ten healthy male volunteers (age range 45-66 and ten male patients with untreated non small cell lung cancer (age range 46-65 we measured melatonin, cortisol, TRH, TSH, FT4, GH, IGF-1 and IL-2 serum levels and percentages of lymphocyte subpopulations on blood samples collected every four hours for 24 hours. One-way ANOVA between the timepoints for each variable and each group was performed to look for a time-effect, the presence of circadian rhythmicity was evaluated, MESOR, amplitude and acrophase values, mean diurnal levels and mean nocturnal levels were compared. Results A clear circadian rhythm was validated in the control group for hormone serum level and for lymphocyte subsets variation. Melatonin, TRH, TSH, GH, CD3, CD4, HLA-DR, CD20 and CD25 expressing cells presented circadian rhythmicity with acrophase during the night. Cortisol, CD8, CD8bright, CD8dim, CD16, TcRδ1 and δTcS1 presented circadian rhythmicity with acrophase in the morning/at noon. FT4, IGF-1 and IL-2 variation did not show circadian rhythmicity. In lung cancer patients cortisol, TRH, TSH and GH serum level and all the lymphocyte subsubsets variation (except for CD4 showed loss of circadian rhythmicity. MESOR of cortisol, TRH, GH, IL-2 and CD16 was increased, whereas MESOR of TSH, IGF-1, CD8, CD8bright, TcRδ1 and

  7. Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: Does timing of digital alteration information matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Bury, B.; Tiggemann, M.; Slater, A.

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether a message informing readers about digital alteration read before exposure to thin ideal advertisements would enhance the effectiveness of disclaimer labels. Participants were 280 female undergraduate students who viewed eleven thin ideal fashion magazine advertisements. Half viewed the advertisements in their original format, and half viewed the same advertisements with a digital alteration disclaimer label. Prior to viewing the advertisements, participa...

  8. The effect of puberty on diurnal sodium regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B; Kamperis, K; Ankarberg-Lindgren, C; Djurhuus, J C; Rittig, S

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of sex and puberty stage on circadian changes in sodium excretion, sodium-regulating hormones, and hemodynamics. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers (9 prepuberty boys, 10 prepuberty girls, 10 puberty boys, and 10 puberty girls) were included. They all underwent a 24-h circadian in-patient study under standardized conditions regarding activity, diet, and fluid intake. Blood samples were drawn every 4 h, and the urine was collected in fractions. Blood pressure and heart rate were noninvasively monitored. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), angiotensin II, aldosterone, and renin were measured in blood. Children in puberty had lower plasma levels of renin (Ppuberty group. There is a circadian rhythm of sodium excretion and sodium regulation in 7- to 15-yr-old children. This rhythm is similar in boys and girls. As an important new finding, puberty changes the plasma levels of renin and angiotensin II without changing the amount of sodium excreted or the day to night sodium excretion ratio. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. [Age of puberty and western young women sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, C; Ohl, J

    2015-02-01

    The onset of menarche and age of first sexual experience have both lowered over the past century. Does the age of puberty influence the sexuality of the girl/young occidental woman? If so, to what degree? Besides, is the acquisition of reproductive function, regardless of age, a sign of sufficient maturity to engage in sexual activity? Studies show that early puberty, early sex, unprotected sexual intercourse in adolescence and number of sexual partners in early adulthood are closely related. These early sexual experiences could be stimulated by early drug use as well as by depressive disorders. The age of puberty has a real influence on sexuality but this link will be modulated by a number of social behavioral factors and it is not sustainable. The age of puberty is not a good indicator of maturity for teenage sexuality; early maturation and early sexual activity are usually associated with risky behaviors. However, other studies on the subject are required, including a consideration of the issues associated with delayed puberty, a subject virtually absent from the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of puberty on white matter development in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Lara; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Viner, Russell M

    2015-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies demonstrate considerable changes in white matter volume and microstructure during adolescence. Most studies have focused on age-related effects, whilst puberty-related changes are not well understood. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics, we investigated the effects of pubertal status on white matter mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in 61 males aged 12.7-16.0 years. Participants were grouped into early-mid puberty (≤Tanner Stage 3 in pubic hair and gonadal development; n=22) and late-post puberty (≥Tanner Stage 4 in pubic hair or gonadal development; n=39). Salivary levels of pubertal hormones (testosterone, DHEA and oestradiol) were also measured. Pubertal stage was significantly related to MD in diverse white matter regions. No relationship was observed between pubertal status and FA. Regression modelling of MD in the significant regions demonstrated that an interaction model incorporating puberty, age and puberty×age best explained our findings. In addition, testosterone was correlated with MD in these pubertally significant regions. No relationship was observed between oestradiol or DHEA and MD. In conclusion, pubertal status was significantly related to MD, but not FA, and this relationship cannot be explained by changes in chronological age alone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of puberty on subcortical brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddings, Anne-Lise; Mills, Kathryn L; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-03-01

    Puberty is characterized by hormonal, physical and psychological transformation. The human brain undergoes significant changes between childhood and adulthood, but little is known about how puberty influences its structural development. Using a longitudinal sample of 711 magnetic resonance imaging scans from 275 individuals aged 7-20years, we examined how subcortical brain regions change in relation to puberty. Our regions of interest included the amygdala, hippocampus and corpus striatum including the nucleus accumbens (NA), caudate, putamen and globus pallidus (GP). Pubertal development was significantly related to structural volume in all six regions in both sexes. Pubertal development and age had both independent and interactive influences on volume for the amygdala, hippocampus and putamen in both sexes, and the caudate in females. There was an interactive puberty-by-age effect on volume for the NA and GP in both sexes, and the caudate in males. These findings suggest a significant role for puberty in structural brain development. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation and Referral of Children With Signs of Early Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplowitz, Paul; Bloch, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about possible early pubertal development are a common cause for referral to pediatric medical subspecialists. Several recent studies have suggested that onset of breast and/or pubic hair development may be occurring earlier than in the past. Although there is a chance of finding pathology in girls with signs of puberty before 8 years of age and in boys before 9 years of age, the vast majority of these children with signs of apparent puberty have variations of normal growth and physical development and do not require laboratory testing, bone age radiographs, or intervention. The most common of these signs of early puberty are premature adrenarche (early onset of pubic hair and/or body odor), premature thelarche (nonprogressive breast development, usually occurring before 2 years of age), and lipomastia, in which girls have apparent breast development which, on careful palpation, is determined to be adipose tissue. Indicators that the signs of sexual maturation may represent true, central precocious puberty include progressive breast development over a 4- to 6-month period of observation or progressive penis and testicular enlargement, especially if accompanied by rapid linear growth. Children exhibiting these true indicators of early puberty need prompt evaluation by the appropriate pediatric medical subspecialist. Therapy with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist may be indicated, as discussed in this report. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT, during a bed rest period (HDT0, and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7. One-way analysis of variance of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (P<0.05, corrected. Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment.

  14. Calcifying discopathy in infancy in the cervical spine: Evaluation of vertebral alterations over a period of time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urso, S; Colajacomo, M; Migliorini, A; Fassari, F M

    1987-07-01

    CDI in the cervical spine has already been observed and described by many authors, as a well-defined clinico-radiological syndrome with a benign course. The clinical picture is composed of: pain and functional limitation, sometimes with a stiff neck, more rarely slight fever, increase of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate or leukocytosis. The radiographic picture consists of the association of morphological and structural alterations of vertebral bodies adjacent to one or more disc calcifications usually centrally sited, sometimes associated with anterior or posterior herniations. On the basis of the observation of 7 patients, in the 15-year-old range, the authors propose to evaluate the changes of both the vertebral bodies and the discs involved in the disease over a period of time. The repetition of even modest alterations, that persist in time, testify to the involvement of the vertebral growth perhaps, more than the discal alterations connected with the calcification.

  15. The role of puberty in the making and breaking of young ballet dancers: Perspectives of dance teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Siobhan B; Haase, Anne M; Malina, Robert M; Cumming, Sean P

    2016-02-01

    Physical changes associated with puberty may conflict with functional and aesthetic ideals for a career in ballet. The dance teacher is in a position to guide young dancers through the pubertal transition, although dancers rather than teachers are often the focus of research. This study explores the social stimulus value of the female body in ballet as perceived by the dance teacher and how value may change during puberty. Ten UK dance teachers were interviewed; interpretative phenomenological analysis was used. Four main themes perceived by dance teachers emerged as central to the social stimulus value of the body among adolescent dancers: the ideal body; teacher approaches to managing puberty in the dance environment; puberty as a 'make or break' stage in ballet; and teacher awareness of pubertal onset and the implications of timing. Dance teachers can play an important role in moderating external and individual expectations during the pubertal transition. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum levels of growth hormone binding protein in children with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Fisker, Sidse; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2000-01-01

    To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty.......To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty....

  17. Age at puberty and the emerging obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Olsen, Lina W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that puberty starts at younger ages than previously. It has been hypothesized that the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is contributing to this trend. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between prepubertal body mass index (BMI...... was significantly inversely associated with age at OGS and PHV. Dividing the children into five levels of prepubertal BMI, we found a similar secular trend toward earlier maturation in all BMI groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The heavier both boys and girls were at age seven, the earlier they entered puberty....... Irrespective of level of BMI at age seven, there was a downward trend in the age at attaining puberty in both boys and girls, which suggests that the obesity epidemic is not solely responsible for the trend....

  18. Neurokinin B receptor antagonism decreases luteinising hormone pulse frequency and amplitude and delays puberty onset in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S Y; Li, X F; Hu, M H; Shao, B; Poston, L; Lightman, S L; O'Byrne, K T

    2014-08-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling puberty onset remain enigmatic. Humans with loss of function mutations in TAC3 or TACR3, the genes encoding neurokinin B (NKB) or its receptor, neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3R), respectively, present with severe congenital gonadotrophin deficiency and pubertal failure. Animal studies have shown ambiguous actions of NKB-NK3R signalling with respect to controlling puberty onset. The present study aimed to determine the role of endogenous NKB-NK3R signalling in the control of pulsatile luteinising hormone (LH) secretion and the timing of puberty onset, and also whether precocious pubertal onset as a result of an obesogenic diet is similarly regulated by this neuropeptide system. Prepubertal female rats, chronically implanted with i.c.v. cannulae, were administered SB222200, a NK3R antagonist, or artificial cerebrospinal fluid via an osmotic mini-pump for 14 days. SB222200 significantly delayed the onset of vaginal opening and first oestrus (as markers of puberty) compared to controls in both normal and high-fat diet fed animals. Additionally, serial blood sampling, via chronic indwelling cardiac catheters, revealed that the increase in LH pulse frequency was delayed and that the LH pulse amplitude was reduced in response to NK3R antagonism, regardless of dietary status. These data suggest that endogenous NKB-NK3R signalling plays a role in controlling the timing of puberty and the associated acceleration of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse generator frequency in the female rat. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  19. Serum inhibin B levels during male childhood and puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2001-01-01

    Inhibin B is a testicular peptide hormone that regulates FSH secretion in a negative feedback loop. In males serum levels of inhibin B are detectable throughout life with prominent changes in the first year of life and during puberty. Serum inhibin B is normally detectable throughout childhood...... normal or near-normal levels are seen in cryptorchidism and disorders with preserved Sertoli cell function in spite of absence of germ cells or impaired androgen biosynthesis or action. During puberty a developmental change in the regulation of serum inhibin B occurs. In contrast to childhood inhibin B...

  20. Hypothalamic hamartoma associated with precocious puberty: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Won Kyong; Kim, Pyo Nuyn; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Byoung Ho; Lee, Kyeong Seok; Bae, Hack Gun; Yun, Il Gyu

    1989-01-01

    Hamartoma of the hypothalamic area is a well recognized cause of central precocious puberty. We report a case of histologically proven hypothalamic hamartoma in a 8 year old girl with precocious puberty. The CT showed an isodense, nonenhancing mass in suprasellar area, measuring 4.2 X 3.1 cm, which, to our knowledge, seems to be the largest one of the published cases. On MR imaging, the signal intensity of the mass was homogeneous and isointense relative to gray matter on T1-, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The clinical and radiologic findings of the published cases of hypothalamic hamartoma are reviewed

  1. Hypothalamic hamartoma associated with precocious puberty: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Won Kyong; Kim, Pyo Nuyn; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Byoung Ho; Lee, Kyeong Seok; Bae, Hack Gun; Yun, Il Gyu [Soonchunhyang University, Chonan Hospital, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Hamartoma of the hypothalamic area is a well recognized cause of central precocious puberty. We report a case of histologically proven hypothalamic hamartoma in a 8 year old girl with precocious puberty. The CT showed an isodense, nonenhancing mass in suprasellar area, measuring 4.2 X 3.1 cm, which, to our knowledge, seems to be the largest one of the published cases. On MR imaging, the signal intensity of the mass was homogeneous and isointense relative to gray matter on T1-, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The clinical and radiologic findings of the published cases of hypothalamic hamartoma are reviewed.

  2. Time related alterations in digestibility and faecal characteristics as affected by dietary composition in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirkolaie, A.K.; Schrama, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    After being shifted to a new diet, time related alterations in digestibility, faecal waste production and faeces recovery in Nile tilapia were assessed in relation with dietary ingredient composition. Four experimental diets were formulated according to a 2 by 2 factorial design: two starch

  3. Alterations in the Timing of Huperzine A Cerebral Pharmacodynamics in the Acute Traumatic Brain Injury Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damar, Ugur; Gersner, Roman; Johnstone, Joshua T; Kapur, Kush; Collins, Stephen; Schachter, Steven; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2018-01-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may affect the pharmacodynamics of centrally acting drugs. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) is a safe and noninvasive measure of cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated cortical inhibition. Huperzine A (HupA) is a naturally occurring acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with newly discovered potent GABA-mediated antiepileptic capacity, which is reliably detected by ppTMS. To test whether TBI alters cerebral HupA pharmacodynamics, we exposed rats to fluid percussion injury (FPI) and tested whether ppTMS metrics of cortical inhibition differ in magnitude and temporal pattern in injured rats. Anesthetized adult rats were exposed to FPI or sham injury. Ninety minutes post-TBI, rats were injected with HupA or saline (0.6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). TBI resulted in reduced cortical inhibition 90 min after the injury (N = 18) compared to sham (N = 13) controls (p = 0.03). HupA enhanced cortical inhibition after both sham injury (N = 6; p = 0.002) and TBI (N = 6; p = 0.02). The median time to maximum HupA inhibition in sham and TBI groups were 46.4 and 76.5 min, respectively (p = 0.03). This was consistent with a quadratic trend comparison that projects HupA-mediated cortical inhibition to last longer in injured rats (p = 0.007). We show that 1) cortical GABA-mediated inhibition, as measured by ppTMS, decreases acutely post-TBI, 2) HupA restores lost post-TBI GABA-mediated inhibition, and 3) HupA-mediated enhancement of cortical inhibition is delayed post-TBI. The plausible reasons of the latter include 1) low HupA volume of distribution rendering HupA confined in the intravascular compartment, therefore vulnerable to reduced post-TBI cerebral perfusion, and 2) GABAR dysfunction and increased AChE activity post-TBI.

  4. A missense mutation in MKRN3 in a Danish girl with central precocious puberty and her brother with early puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Känsäkoski, Johanna; Raivio, Taneli; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) results from the premature reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis leading to development of secondary sexual characteristics prior to 8 y in girls or 9 y in boys. Since the initial discovery of mutations in the maternally...... hypothalamic complementary DNA (cDNA) was investigated by PCR. RESULTS: One paternally inherited rare variant, c.1034G>A (p.Arg345His), was identified in one girl with ICPP and in her brother with early puberty. The variant is predicted to be deleterious by three different in silico prediction programs....... Expression of MKRN3 was confirmed in adult human hypothalamus. CONCLUSION: Our results are in line with previous studies in which paternally inherited MKRN3 mutations have been found both in males and in females with ICPP or early puberty. Our report further expands the set of MKRN3 mutations identified...

  5. Disclaimer labels on fashion magazine advertisements: Does timing of digital alteration information matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2017-04-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether a message informing readers about digital alteration read before exposure to thin ideal advertisements would enhance the effectiveness of disclaimer labels. Participants were 280 female undergraduate students who viewed eleven thin ideal fashion magazine advertisements. Half viewed the advertisements in their original format, and half viewed the same advertisements with a digital alteration disclaimer label. Prior to viewing the advertisements, participants read either a brief message informing them that advertisements are commonly digitally altered, or a control message. Irrespective of experimental condition, exposure to the thin ideal advertisements led to increased body dissatisfaction, with social comparison predicting this increase. Neither the disclaimer label nor the pre-exposure message, nor their combination, led to reductions in perceived realism, social comparison, or body dissatisfaction. However, trait appearance comparison moderated the effect of pre-exposure message on perceived realism, such that women high on trait appearance comparison in the digital alteration pre-exposure message condition rated the models as relatively more realistic than did women low on this trait. It was concluded that more research is needed to identify brief and easy-to-implement universal prevention strategies that can reduce the negative effects of thin ideal media imagery on women's body image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Female Puberty: A Review of Research on Etiology and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Eileen; Balog, Linda F.

    2009-01-01

    The age of female puberty appears to have decreased in the United States and western countries as child health and nutrition have improved and obesity has become more prevalent. Also, environmental contaminants, particularly endocrine disruptors, may also play a role in lowering the age of puberty. Puberty at an early age increases the risk of…

  7. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor...... of glucose metabolism and metabolic risk during puberty....

  8. Speech perception in older listeners with normal hearing:conditions of time alteration, selective word stress, and length of sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soojin; Yu, Jyaehyoung; Chun, Hyungi; Seo, Hyekyung; Han, Woojae

    2014-04-01

    Deficits of the aging auditory system negatively affect older listeners in terms of speech communication, resulting in limitations to their social lives. To improve their perceptual skills, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of time alteration, selective word stress, and varying sentence lengths on the speech perception of older listeners. Seventeen older people with normal hearing were tested for seven conditions of different time-altered sentences (i.e., ±60%, ±40%, ±20%, 0%), two conditions of selective word stress (i.e., no-stress and stress), and three different lengths of sentences (i.e., short, medium, and long) at the most comfortable level for individuals in quiet circumstances. As time compression increased, sentence perception scores decreased statistically. Compared to a natural (or no stress) condition, the selectively stressed words significantly improved the perceptual scores of these older listeners. Long sentences yielded the worst scores under all time-altered conditions. Interestingly, there was a noticeable positive effect for the selective word stress at the 20% time compression. This pattern of results suggests that a combination of time compression and selective word stress is more effective for understanding speech in older listeners than using the time-expanded condition only.

  9. Time-sequential observation of spindle and phragmoplast orientation in BY-2 cells with altered cortical actin microfilament patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Kei H; Yasuhara, Hiroki; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Precise division plane determination is essential for plant development. At metaphase, a dense actin microfilament meshwork appears on both sides of the cell center, forming a characteristic cortical actin microfilament twin peak pattern in BY-2 cells. We previously reported a strong correlation between altered cortical actin microfilament patterning and an oblique mitotic spindle orientation, implying that these actin microfilament twin peaks play a role in the regulation of mitotic spindle orientation. In the present study, time-sequential observation was used to reveal the progression from oblique phragmoplast to oblique cell plate orientation in cells with altered cortical actin microfilament patterning. In contrast to cells with normal actin microfilament twin peaks, oblique phragmoplast reorientation was rarely observed in cells with altered cortical actin microfilament patterning. These results support the important roles of cortical actin microfilament patterning in division plane orientation.

  10. The influence of stress at puberty on mood and learning: Role of the α4βδ GABAA receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sheryl S.

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that the onset of puberty is associated with changes in mood as well as cognition. Stress can have an impact on these outcomes, which in many cases, can be more influential in females, suggesting that gender differences exist. The adolescent period is a vulnerable time for the onset of certain psychopathologies, including anxiety disorders, depression and eating disorders, which are also more prevalent in females. One factor which may contribute to stress-triggered anxiety at puberty is the GABAA receptor (GABAR), which is known to play a pivotal role in anxiety. Expression of α4βδ GABARs increases on the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells at the onset of puberty in the hippocampus, part of the limbic circuitry which governs emotion. This receptor is a sensitive target for the stress steroid THP (3α-OH-5[α]β-pregnan-20-one), which paradoxically reduces inhibition and increases anxiety during the pubertal period (~PND 35–44) of female mice in contrast to its usual effect to enhance inhibition and reduce anxiety. Spatial learning and synaptic plasticity are also adversely impacted at puberty, likely a result of increased expression of α4βδ GABARs on the dendritic spines of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, which are essential for consolidation of memory. This review will focus on the role of these receptors in mediating behavioral changes at puberty. Stress-mediated changes in mood and cognition in early adolescence may have relevance for the expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. PMID:23079628

  11. Short-Term High-Fat Diet Increases Leptin Activation of CART Neurons and Advances Puberty in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio, Jade Cabestre; Margatho, Lisandra Oliveira; Rorato, Rodrigo; Rosales, Roberta Ribeiro Costa; Debarba, Lucas Kniess; Coletti, Ricardo; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Carol F; Elias, Lucila Leico K

    2017-11-01

    Leptin is a permissive factor for puberty initiation, participating as a metabolic cue in the activation of the kisspeptin (Kiss1)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal circuitry; however, it has no direct effect on Kiss1 neurons. Leptin acts on hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons, participating in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We investigated the influence of a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the effect of leptin on puberty timing. Kiss1-hrGFP female mice received a HFD or regular diet (RD) after weaning at postnatal day (PN)21 and were studied at PN28 and PN32. The HFD increased body weight and plasma leptin concentrations and decreased the age at vaginal opening (HFD, 32 ± 0.53 days; RD, 38 ± 0.67 days). Similar colocalization of neurokinin B and dynorphin in Kiss1-hrGFP neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was observed between the HFD and RD groups. The HFD increased CART expression in the ARC and Kiss1 messenger RNA expression in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV)/anterior periventricular (Pe). The HFD also increased the number of ARC CART neurons expressing leptin-induced phosphorylated STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at PN32. Close apposition of CART fibers to Kiss1-hrGFP neurons was observed in the ARC of both RD- and HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, these data reinforce the notion that a HFD increases kisspeptin expression in the AVPV/Pe and advances puberty initiation. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the HFD-induced earlier puberty is associated with an increase in CART expression in the ARC. Therefore, these data indicate that CART neurons in the ARC can mediate the effect of leptin on Kiss1 neurons in early puberty induced by a HFD. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  12. In silico analysis of a novel MKRN3 missense mutation in familial central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neocleous, Vassos; Shammas, Christos; Phelan, Marie M; Nicolaou, Stella; Phylactou, Leonidas A; Skordis, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    The onset of puberty is influenced by the interplay of stimulating and restraining factors, many of which have a genetic origin. Premature activation of the GnRH secretion in central precocious puberty (CPP) may arise either from gain-of-function mutations of the KISS1 and KISS1R genes or from loss-of-function manner mutations of the MKRN3 gene leading to MKRN3 deficiency. To explore the genetic causes responsible for CPP and the potential role of the RING finger protein 3 (MKRN3) gene. We investigated potential sequence variations in the intronless MKRN3 gene by Sanger sequencing of the entire 507 amino acid coding region of exon 1 in a family with two affected girls presented with CPP at the age of 6 and 5·7 years, respectively. A novel heterozygous g.Gly312Asp missense mutation in the MKRN3 gene was identified in these siblings. The imprinted MKRN3 missense mutation was also identified as expected in the unaffected father and followed as expected an imprinted mode of inheritance. In silico analysis of the altered missense variant using the computational algorithms Polyphen2, SIFT and Mutation Taster predicted a damage and pathogenic alteration causing CPP. The pathogenicity of the alteration at the protein level via an in silico structural model is also explored. A novel mutation in the MKRN3 gene in two sisters with CPP was identified, supporting the fundamental role of this gene in the suppression of the hypothalamic GnRH neurons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Impact of soda-lime borosilicate glass composition on water penetration and water structure at the first time of alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebiscoul, D.; Bruguier, F.; Gin, S.; Magnin, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the impact of soda-lime borosilicate glass composition and particularly the effect of charge compensators such Ca and Na and, of network formers such Si and Zr, on water penetration and water structure at the first time of alteration were investigated. Two non-destructive techniques were combined: the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection geometry to precise the predominant alteration mechanisms and assess the water structure in altered zone and the grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry to determine the thickness of the altered glass zone allowing to calculate the water diffusion coefficients through the glasses. The results of glass alteration at pH = 3 and 30 degrees C have shown that hydrolysis was the predominant mechanism after few seconds for glass having a high amount of non-binding oxygen. For the other glasses, which for the diffusion was the limiting reaction, the calculated water diffusion coefficients were comprised between 10 -21 and 10 -19 m 2 .s -1 and vary as a function of glass composition. An activation energy of 76.9 kJ.mol -1 was calculated and appears to be higher than inert gas diffusion through the glass highlighting that water molecules strongly interact with the glass matrix. (authors)

  14. PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY DUE TO OVARIAN CYST – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    Discussion/Conclusion: Most autonomous ovarian cysts regress spontaneously with regression of pubertal signs, as in the present case. Therapy with a GnRH agonist may become necessary in the case of transformation from precocious pseudopuberty to central precocious puberty after recurrences of the ovarian cysts or when there is significant loss of height potential.

  15. Young Adult Psychological Outcome After Puberty Suppression and Gender Reassignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.L.C.; McGuire, J.K.; Steensma, T.D.; Wagenaar, E.C.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, puberty suppression by means of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs has become accepted in clinical management of adolescents who have gender dysphoria (GD). The current study is the first longer-term longitudinal evaluation of the effectiveness of this approach.

  16. The Family Antecedents and the Subsequent Outcomes of Early Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arim, Rubab G.; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Dahinten, V. Susan; Willms, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.…

  17. Peer Relationships and Depressive Symptomatology in Boys at Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Graber, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    The physical changes of puberty coincide with an increase in the salience of peer relationships and a growing risk for depression and other forms of psychopathology. Previously, we reported that pubertal tempo, defined as a child's rate of intraindividual change in pubertal status (measured using parent-reported Tanner stages; Marshall & Tanner,…

  18. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  19. Idiopathic central precocious puberty in a Nigerian boy | Ojukwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of idiopathic central precocious puberty, a rare condition is reported in a 21/2 year-old Nigerian boy. He presented with progressive genital growth, a growth spurt, advanced skeletal maturation, and inappropriately high serum concentrations of pituitary and gonadal sex homones for his age. There was no family ...

  20. A Paleomagnetic and Diagenetic Study of the Woodford Shale, Oklahoma, U.S.A.: The Timing of Hydrothermal Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Elmore, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    An oriented Woodford Shale core from the Ardmore Basin near the Ouachita thrust zone (Core B) was sampled to identify diagenetic events and interpret their origin, and to test if a magnetization was present that can be used to date the altering event(s). The shale is extensively altered, exhibiting a complex paragenesis with multiple fractures and brecciated intervals. Multiple hydrothermal minerals, including biotite, magnesite, norsethite, witherite, gorceixite, potassium feldspar, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and saddle dolomite, are present in and around fractures and in the matrix. Vitrinite and bitumen reflectance measurements indicate VRo values of 1.82% ( 230°C). Two other Woodford Shale cores (A and C) from the Anadarko Basin also contain hydrothermal minerals. Vitrinite and bitumen reflectance data reveal trends between thermal maturity and the level of hydrothermal alteration, with Core A (0.80% VRo ( 125°C) displaying the lowest alteration, and Core C ( 1.5% VRo ( 210°C) displaying intermediate alteration compared to core B. Paleomagnetic analysis of Core B reveals the presence of a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) with south-southeasterly declinations and shallow inclinations that is unblocked by 450°C and is interpreted to reside in magnetite. This ChRM is interpreted to be either a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) or a thermochemical remanent magnetization (TCRM) acquired during the Late Permian based on the pole position. The presence of specimens with the CRM/TCRM in altered rock and high thermal maturities suggests that this CRM/TCRM originated from alteration by hydrothermal fluids. These results suggest that the Woodford Shale evolved into an open diagenetic system. In addition to causing heightened thermal maturities, these hydrothermal fluids both increased porosity through dissolution and decreased porosity through precipitation of minerals. The Late Permian timing agrees with the dating of hydrothermal alteration found

  1. Mistimed food intake and sleep alters 24-hour time-of-day patterns of the human plasma proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depner, Christopher M; Melanson, Edward L; McHill, Andrew W; Wright, Kenneth P

    2018-06-05

    Proteomics holds great promise for understanding human physiology, developing health biomarkers, and precision medicine. However, how much the plasma proteome varies with time of day and is regulated by the master circadian suprachiasmatic nucleus brain clock, assessed here by the melatonin rhythm, is largely unknown. Here, we assessed 24-h time-of-day patterns of human plasma proteins in six healthy men during daytime food intake and nighttime sleep in phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i.e., circadian alignment) versus daytime sleep and nighttime food intake out of phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i.e., circadian misalignment induced by simulated nightshift work). We identified 24-h time-of-day patterns in 573 of 1,129 proteins analyzed, with 30 proteins showing strong regulation by the circadian cycle. Relative to circadian alignment, the average abundance and/or 24-h time-of-day patterns of 127 proteins were altered during circadian misalignment. Altered proteins were associated with biological pathways involved in immune function, metabolism, and cancer. Of the 30 circadian-regulated proteins, the majority peaked between 1400 hours and 2100 hours, and these 30 proteins were associated with basic pathways involved in extracellular matrix organization, tyrosine kinase signaling, and signaling by receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2. Furthermore, circadian misalignment altered multiple proteins known to regulate glucose homeostasis and/or energy metabolism, with implications for altered metabolic physiology. Our findings demonstrate the circadian clock, the behavioral wake-sleep/food intake-fasting cycle, and interactions between these processes regulate 24-h time-of-day patterns of human plasma proteins and help identify mechanisms of circadian misalignment that may contribute to metabolic dysregulation.

  2. Diurnal and seasonal cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA rhythms in boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L; Dorn, Lorah D; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2007-01-01

    Diurnal and seasonal rhythms of cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA were examined, as little is known about the relationship between these rhythmicities and pubertal development. Salivary samples were obtained from 60 boys and 60 girls at approximately 07:45, 08:00, 08:30, 12:00, 16:50, and 21:00 h. The participants' ages ranged from 8-14 yrs, and each participant was tested three times at six-month intervals. The study was conducted at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) and at the homes of the participants. All hormones showed diurnal fluctuations. The acrophase (peak time) of cortisol occurred earlier than for testosterone or DHEA and showed a seasonal effect, with the acrophase occurring earlier in spring than in summer. The cortisol acrophase also occurred later in the day for boys than for girls during later puberty. Seasonal effects were found only for cortisol with higher concentrations in the spring and summer. Cortisol concentrations were relatively stable across pubertal maturation, but significantly lower concentrations were observed at pubertal stage 3 compared to the other stages. Morning cortisol levels were also higher in boys at pubertal stage 2. Testosterone concentrations were higher in boys at pubertal stages 3 and 4, and DHEA was lower at pubertal stage 1 than 3 and 4 for both boys and girls. For the total sample, there was a positive correlation between DHEA and testosterone during early puberty (stages 1-3) but not later puberty (stages 4-5). Awakening secretory activity correlated with daytime secretory activity for testosterone and DHEA, but not for cortisol. These data provide novel chronobiological information on cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA as it relates to sexual maturation and encourage further study on both normal and abnormal endocrine rhythms.

  3. Early puberty in internationally adopted girls: hormonal and clinical markers of puberty in 276 girls examined biannually over two years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Petersen, Jørgen H; Gormsen, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Hypothetically, this could be due to selection bias. The aim of this study was to determine age at reaching pubertal milestones in healthy internationally adopted girls...

  4. Age at Onset of Puberty and Adolescent Depression: "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-06-01

    Timing of onset of puberty has fallen, with profound and detrimental consequences for health. We examined the associations of earlier onset of puberty with the presence of depression in early to middle adolescence. The study examined prospective adjusted associations of age at onset of puberty, based on clinically assessed Tanner stage for breast/genitalia and pubic hair development, and self-reported presence of depression, assessed from the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire on average at 13.6 years (n = 5795 [73%]). These factors were examined by using multivariable logistic regression in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort (ie, the "Children of 1997"). We also assessed whether associations varied according to gender. Association of age at onset of breast/genitalia development with the presence of depression varied according to gender. Earlier onset of breast development was associated with higher risk of the presence of depression (odds ratio, 0.83 per 1 year increase in age of onset [95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.98]) adjusted for age, socioeconomic position, mother's place of birth, birth order, secondhand smoke exposure, parental age, survey mode, gender-specific birth weight z score, BMI z score at 7 years, and parental marital status. In boys, similarly adjusted, age at onset of genitalia development was unrelated to the presence of depression. Earlier age at onset of pubic hair development was unrelated to the presence of depression in girls and boys. Early onset of breast development was associated with high risk of the presence of depression. Whether these findings are indicators of the effects of hormones or transient effects of social pressures remain to be determined. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Puberty suppression and executive functioning: An fMRI-study in adolescents with gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphorsius, Annemieke S; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Veltman, Dick J; Burke, Sarah M; Schagen, Sebastian E E; Wouters, Femke M; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriëtte A; Bakker, Julie

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) may be treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) to suppress puberty and, thus, the development of (unwanted) secondary sex characteristics. Since adolescence marks an important period for the development of executive functioning (EF), we determined whether the performance on the Tower of London task (ToL), a commonly used EF task, was altered in adolescents with GD when treated with GnRHa. Furthermore, since GD has been proposed to result from an atypical sexual differentiation of the brain, we determined whether untreated adolescents with GD showed sex-atypical brain activations during ToL performance. We found no significant effect of GnRHa on ToL performance scores (reaction times and accuracy) when comparing GnRHa treated male-to-females (suppressed MFs, n=8) with untreated MFs (n=10) or when comparing GnRHa treated female-to-males (suppressed FMs, n=12) with untreated FMs (n=10). However, the suppressed MFs had significantly lower accuracy scores than the control groups and the untreated FMs. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses showed significantly greater activation in control boys (n=21) than control girls (n=24) during high task load ToL items in the bilateral precuneus and a trend (pright DLPFC. In contrast, untreated adolescents with GD did not show significant sex differences in task load-related activation and had intermediate activation levels compared to the two control groups. GnRHa treated adolescents with GD showed sex differences in neural activation similar to their natal sex control groups. Furthermore, activation in the other ROIs (left DLPFC and bilateral RLPFC) was also significantly greater in GnRHa treated MFs compared to GnRHa treated FMs. These findings suggest that (1) GnRHa treatment had no effect on ToL performance in adolescents with GD, and (2) pubertal hormones may induce sex-atypical brain activations during EF in adolescents with GD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Constitutional delay of puberty: presentation and inheritance pattern in 48 familial cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sarah; Ousidhoum, Aldjia; McElreavey, Kenneth; Brauner, Raja

    2016-03-12

    The mechanism that initiates the onset of puberty is largely unknown but the age of onset is mainly under genetic control and influenced by environmental factors including nutrition. Familial forms of constitutional delay of puberty (CDP) suggest the involvement of genetic factors. The purpose of this study is to describe the presentation and the mode of inheritance of CDP in a series of familial cases. A retrospective, single center study was carried out over 10 years on 48 probands (14 girls and 34 boys) from 48 families seen for CDP with a familial component. Of the 48 probands, 46 (96 %) had at least one affected 1(st) degree relatives and 2 (4 %, 2 boys) had only 2(nd) degree relatives affected. In girls, 11 families (79 %) exhibited exclusive maternal inheritance, 1 (7 %) paternal inheritance and 2 (14 %) both maternal and paternal inheritance. In boys, 14 families (41 %) exhibited exclusive maternal inheritance, 12 (35 %) paternal inheritance and 8 (24 %) both maternal and paternal inheritance. In the boys with bilineal inheritance, the ages at onset of puberty (16 ± 1.41 years) and at evaluation (16.05 ± 2.47 years) were higher than in those with unilineal inheritance (15.25 ± 0.35 and 15.1 ± 0.42 years respectively), but the difference was not significant. In girls exclusive maternal inheritance seems to be the major mode of inheritance whereas for boys the mode of inheritance was almost equally maternal, paternal or bilineal. Clinical phenotype of boys with bilineal inheritance seems to be more severe, but the difference did not reach statistical significance, perhaps because of the small sample size. This greater severity of the phenotype in boys with bilineal inheritance is likely due to inheriting different puberty timing genes from each parent. Future research should be directed at identifying such genes.

  7. Female Offspring From Chronic Hyperandrogenemic Dams Exhibit Delayed Puberty and Impaired Ovarian Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Shen, Mingjie; Xue, Ping; DiVall, Sara A; Segars, James; Wu, Sheng

    2018-02-01

    Female offspring of many species exposed to high doses of androgens in utero experience endocrine dysfunction during adulthood. The phenotype of offspring from females with prepregnancy hyperandrogenemia and impaired ovulation, however, has not been examined. We developed a mouse model of hyperandrogenemia by implanting a low-dose dihydrotestosterone (DHT) pellet 15 days before conception. Female offspring born to dams with hyperandrogenemia (DHT daughters) had delayed puberty (P DHT (non-DHT daughters, PND37.5). Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in the DHT daughters were fourfold higher (P DHT daughters (controls). DHT daughters showed an extended time in metestrus/diestrus and a shorter time in the proestrus/estrus phase compared with non-DHT daughters (P DHT daughters compared with non-DHT daughters (P DHT daughters compared with non-DHT daughters. Daughters from hyperandrogenemic females exhibited elevated prepubertal FSH levels, diminished ovarian response to superovulation, impaired estrous cyclicity, delayed onset of puberty, and reduced ovarian reserve, suggesting that fetal androgen exposure had lasting effects on female reproductive function. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  8. Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma advancing to central precocious puberty after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Yang, Eu Jeen; Cho, Dong Hyu; Hwang, Pyung Han; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2015-05-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in pediatric and adolescent patients is rare, and it is associated with various clinical symptoms. We introduce the case of an 8-year-old boy with ACC who presented with peripheral precocious puberty at his first visit. He displayed penis enlargement with pubic hair and facial acne. His serum adrenal androgen levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a right suprarenal mass. After complete surgical resection, the histological diagnosis was ACC. Two months after surgical removal of the mass, he subsequently developed central precocious puberty. He was treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to delay further pubertal progression. In patients with functioning ACC and surgical removal, clinical follow-up and hormonal marker examination for the secondary effects of excessive hormone secretion may be a useful option at least every 2 or 3 months after surgery.

  9. Extending reactor time-to-poison and reducing poison shutdown time by pre-shutdown power alterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Edward

    1963-10-15

    Manipulation of reactor power prior to shutdown and increasing the time- to-poison a sufficient amount to enable the required maintenance work to be completed and the reactor immediately restarted are discussed. The method employed in the NRU Reactor to gain the maximum timeto-poison with the least production loss is outlined. The method is based on intuition and is described by means of an analog of the iodine--xenon equations rather than the equations themselves. (C.E.S.)

  10. Elevated temperature alters the lunar timing of Planulation in the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camerron M Crowder

    Full Text Available Reproductive timing in corals is associated with environmental variables including temperature, lunar periodicity, and seasonality. Although it is clear that these variables are interrelated, it remains unknown if one variable in particular acts as the proximate signaler for gamete and or larval release. Furthermore, in an era of global warming, the degree to which increases in ocean temperatures will disrupt normal reproductive patterns in corals remains unknown. Pocillopora damicornis, a brooding coral widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific, has been the subject of multiple reproductive ecology studies that show correlations between temperature, lunar periodicity, and reproductive timing. However, to date, no study has empirically measured changes in reproductive timing associated with increased seawater temperature. In this study, the effect of increased seawater temperature on the timing of planula release was examined during the lunar cycles of March and June 2012. Twelve brooding corals were removed from Hobihu reef in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan and placed in 23 and 28°C controlled temperature treatment tanks. For both seasons, the timing of planulation was found to be plastic, with the high temperature treatment resulting in significantly earlier peaks of planula release compared to the low temperature treatment. This suggests that temperature alone can influence the timing of larval release in Pocillopora damicornis in Nanwan Bay. Therefore, it is expected that continued increases in ocean temperature will result in earlier timing of reproductive events in corals, which may lead to either variations in reproductive success or phenotypic acclimatization.

  11. Duplication of the glans penis manifested at puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentileschi, S; Bracaglia, R; Seccia, A; Farallo, E

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a complete duplication of the glans, with prepuce and a blind end urethra just proximal to the dorsal aspect of the balanopreputial fold. The malformation was not evident at birth and during childhood, and became manifest only at puberty, with the growth of the external genitalia. It was not associated with other urinary malformations. Surgical excision was easy and uneventful.

  12. Virilizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma Advancing to Central Precocious Puberty after Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Sun; Yang, Eu Jeen; Cho, Dong Hyu; Hwang, Pyung Han; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in pediatric and adolescent patients is rare, and it is associated with various clinical symptoms. We introduce the case of an 8-year-old boy with ACC who presented with peripheral precocious puberty at his first visit. He displayed penis enlargement with pubic hair and facial acne. His serum adrenal androgen levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a right suprarenal mass. After complete surgical resection, the histological diagnosis was...

  13. Schmidt's syndrome: a rare cause of puberty menorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, J B; Tiwari, S; Gulati, N; Sharma, S

    1990-12-01

    Schmidt's syndrome, also known as polyglandular deficiency syndrome, is the presence of Addison's disease and hypothyrodism in a single patient. It is usually associated with other autoimmune disorders like vitiligo, diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis. A rare case of an 18-year-old girl having Schmidt's syndrome and vitiligo who presented with puberty menorrhagia is reported. A brief review of the literature is also given.

  14. Msx2 alters the timing of retinal ganglion cells fate commitment and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shao-Yun, E-mail: jiangshaoyun@yahoo.com [School of Dentistry, Tianjin Medical University, 12 Qi Xiang Tai Street, Tianjin 300070 (China); Wang, Jian-Tao, E-mail: wangjiantao65@hotmail.com [Eye Center, Tianjin Medical University, 64 Tongan Road, Tianjin 300070 (China); Dohney Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1355 San Pablo Street, DOH 314, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2010-05-14

    Timing of cell fate commitment determines distinct retinal cell types, which is believed to be controlled by a tightly coordinated regulatory program of proliferation, cell cycle exit and differentiation. Although homeobox protein Msx2 could induce apoptosis of optic vesicle, it is unclear whether Msx2 regulates differentiation and cell fate commitment of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In this study, we show that overexpression of Msx2 transiently suppressed the expression of Cyclin D1 and blocked cell proliferation. Meanwhile, overexpression of Msx2 delayed the expression of RGC-specific differentiation markers (Math5 and Brn3b), which showed that Msx2 could affect the timing of RGCs fate commitment and differentiation by delaying the timing of cell cycle exit of retinal progenitors. These results indicate Msx2 possesses dual regulatory functions in controlling cell cycle progression of retinal RPCs and timing of RGCs differentiation.

  15. Transient anhedonia phenotype and altered circadian timing of behaviour during night-time dim light exposure in Per3−/− mice, but not wildtype mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynhak, Bruno Jacson; Hogben, Alexandra L.; Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Andreatini, Roberto; Kitchen, Ian; Archer, Simon N.; von Schantz, Malcolm; Bailey, Alexis; van der Veen, Daan R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are ‘direct’ effects of light on affect, an ‘indirect’ pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3−/− mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3−/−) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2–3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not. Per3−/− mice also exhibited a significantly smaller delay in behavioural timing than WT mice during weeks 1, 2 and 4 of dim light at night exposure. When treated with imipramine, neither Per3−/− nor WT mice exhibited an anhedonia-like phenotype, and neither genotypes exhibited a delay in behavioural timing in responses to dLAN. While the association between both Per3−/− phenotypes remains unclear, both are alleviated by imipramine treatment during dim night-time light. PMID:28071711

  16. Transient anhedonia phenotype and altered circadian timing of behaviour during night-time dim light exposure in Per3-/- mice, but not wildtype mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynhak, Bruno Jacson; Hogben, Alexandra L; Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Andreatini, Roberto; Kitchen, Ian; Archer, Simon N; von Schantz, Malcolm; Bailey, Alexis; van der Veen, Daan R

    2017-01-10

    Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are 'direct' effects of light on affect, an 'indirect' pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3 -/- mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3 -/- ) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2-3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not. Per3 -/- mice also exhibited a significantly smaller delay in behavioural timing than WT mice during weeks 1, 2 and 4 of dim light at night exposure. When treated with imipramine, neither Per3 -/- nor WT mice exhibited an anhedonia-like phenotype, and neither genotypes exhibited a delay in behavioural timing in responses to dLAN. While the association between both Per3 -/- phenotypes remains unclear, both are alleviated by imipramine treatment during dim night-time light.

  17. Central precocious puberty in a 3 year-old girl with Phenylketonuria: a rare association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Central precocious puberty (CPP) and phenylketonuria (PKU) are two rare conditions, the latter being the rarer. To date, only one case featuring both these conditions has been reported, and hyperphenylalaninemia was assumed triggering CPP. Case presentation We present a 3.2 years old girl referred with a 12 months history of breast and pubic hair development, and vaginal discharge. Hyperphenylalaninemia had been identified by newborn screening and PKU subsequently confirmed by plasma amino acid and genetic analysis. Early dietary control of plasma phenylalanine had been excellent afterwards, resulting in phenylalanine concentrations consistently within the recommended range. Clinical scenario, hormonal assessment and imaging were in keeping with true idiopathic central precocious puberty. Treatment with long lasting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue led to regression of secondary sexual characteristics. Conclusion We describe for the first time CPP in a girl affected with PKU but with persistently well controlled blood phenylalanine concentrations. This finding is in contrast to a previous report which suggested persistently high phenylalaninemia levels as potential trigger for CPP in PKU patients. Our report, together with the lack of evidence in published cohort studies of children with PKU, strongly suggests this rare association is coincidental and independent of the presence of severe hyperphenylalaninemia. PMID:24773629

  18. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemamalini Ketha

    Full Text Available Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH2D concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined.In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25(OH2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH2D, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls.Serum Ca and 1,25(OH2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001. Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH2D/25(OHD ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008. Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82. In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OHD and 24,25(OH2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05.Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk.

  19. Time-Varying Estimation of Crop Insurance Program in Altering North Dakota Farm Economic Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Jane A.; Shaik, Saleem

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how federal farm policies, specifically crop insurance, have affected the farm economic structure of North Dakota’s agriculture sector. The system of derived input demand equations is estimated to quantify the changes in North Dakota farmers’ input use when they purchase crop insurance. Further, the cumulative rolling regression technique is applied to capture the varying effects of the farm policies over time. Empirical results from the system of input demand functions in...

  20. Sailing Vessel Routing Considering Safety Zone and Penalty Time for Altering Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Zyczkowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce new model for simulation sea vessel routing. Besides a vessel types (polar diagram and weather forecast, travel security and the number of maneuvers are considered. Based on these data both the minimal travelling costs and the minimal processing time are found for different vessels and different routes. To test our model the applications SailingAssistance wad improved. The obtained results shows that we can obtain quite acceptable results.

  1. Time-dependent leaf proteome alterations of Brachypodium distachyon in response to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatli, Ozge; Sogutmaz Ozdemir, Bahar; Dinler Doganay, Gizem

    2017-08-01

    For the first time, a comprehensive proteome analysis was conducted on Brachypodium leaves under drought stress. Gradual changes in response to drought stress were monitored. Drought is one of the major stress factors that dramatically affect the agricultural productivity worldwide. Improving the yield under drought is an urgent challenge in agriculture. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for monocot plants such as wheat, barley and several potential biofuel grasses. In the current study, a comprehensive proteome analysis was conducted on Brachypodium leaves under different levels of drought application. To screen gradual changes upon drought, Brachypodium leaves subjected to drought for 4, 8 and 12 days were collected for each treatment day and relative water content of the leaves was measured for each time point. Cellular responses of Brachypodium were investigated through a proteomic approach involving two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Among 497 distinct spots in Brachypodium protein repertoire, a total of 13 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified as responsive to drought by mass spectrometry and classified according to their functions using bioinformatics tools. The biological functions of DEPs included roles in photosynthesis, protein folding, antioxidant mechanism and metabolic processes, which responded differentially at each time point of drought treatment. To examine further transcriptional expression of the genes that code identified protein, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed. Identified proteins will contribute to the studies involving development of drought-resistant crop species and lead to the delineation of molecular mechanisms in drought response.

  2. The behavior of an opponent alters pacing decisions in 4-km cycling time trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Marco J; Schoenmakers, Patrick P J M; Walker, Andrew J; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to explore how athletes respond to different behaviors of their opponents. Twelve moderately to highly physically active participants with at least two years of cycling experience completed four 4-km time trials on a Velotron cycle ergometer. After a familiarization time trial (FAM), participants performed three experimental time trials in randomized order with no opponent (NO), a virtual opponent who started slower and finished faster compared to FAM (OP-SLOWFAST), or a virtual opponent who started faster and finished slower compared to FAM (OP-FASTSLOW). Repeated-measures ANOVAs (Ppower output, velocity and RPE. OP-SLOWFAST and OP-FASTSLOW were completed faster compared to NO (385.5±27.5, 385.0±28.6, and 390.6±29.3s, respectively). An interaction effect for condition×distance (F=3.944, Ppower outputs by the participants in the initial 750m compared to a slower starting opponent. The present study is the first to show that the behavior of an opponent affects pacing-related decisions in laboratory-controlled conditions. Our findings support the recently proposed interdependence of perception and action, and emphasize the interaction with the environment as an important determinant for an athlete's pacing decisions, especially during the initial stages of a race. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A missense mutation in MKRN3 in a Danish girl with central precocious puberty and her brother with early puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Känsäkoski, Johanna; Raivio, Taneli; Juul, Anders; Tommiska, Johanna

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) results from the premature reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis leading to development of secondary sexual characteristics prior to 8 y in girls or 9 y in boys. Since the initial discovery of mutations in the maternally imprinted MKRN3 gene in 2013, several case reports have described mutations in this gene in ICPP patients from different populations, highlighting the importance of MKRN3 as a regulator of pubertal onset. We screened 29 Danish girls with ICPP for mutations in MKRN3. Expression of MKRN3 in human hypothalamic complementary DNA (cDNA) was investigated by PCR. One paternally inherited rare variant, c.1034G>A (p.Arg345His), was identified in one girl with ICPP and in her brother with early puberty. The variant is predicted to be deleterious by three different in silico prediction programs. Expression of MKRN3 was confirmed in adult human hypothalamus. Our results are in line with previous studies in which paternally inherited MKRN3 mutations have been found both in males and in females with ICPP or early puberty. Our report further expands the set of MKRN3 mutations identified in ICPP patients across diverse populations, thus supporting the major regulatory function of MKRN3 in pubertal onset.

  4. Circulating MKRN3 levels decline prior to pubertal onset and through puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar; Mieritz, Mikkel G

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Puberty is initiated by a complex interaction of suppressing and stimulating factors. Genetic studies of familial central precocious puberty have suggested makorin ring finger protein 3 (MKRN3) as a major inhibitor of GnRH secretion during childhood. Furthermore, genetic variation near...... of hypothalamic GnRH secretion during childhood. Undetectable or low MKRN3 levels were observed in a subgroup of patients with early onset of puberty....

  5. Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness in 1323 Children Aged 11 to 12 Years and Association With Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao Qiang; Jeppesen, Pia; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    .0001). There was no effect of height or puberty in boys, who were less sexually mature than girls. CONCLUSIONS: Choroidal thickness in girls increased with body height and sexual maturation. The results suggest that puberty promotes choroidal thickening in girls, an effect that may be mediated by the pubertal growth spurt....... The lack of pubertal effect in boys may be related to a smaller proportion of boys in this study having entered puberty....

  6. Idiopathic pancreatitis is a consequence of an altering spectrum of bile nucleation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarage SK

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of idiopathic pancreatitis (IP remains poorly understood. Our hypothesis is that IP is a sequel of micro-crystallization of hepatic bile. Methods A prospective case control study compared 55 patients; symptomatic cholelithiasis - 30 (14 male, median age 36 years; mean BMI - 25.1 kg/m2, gallstone pancreatitis - 9 (3 male, median age 35 years; mean BMI - 24.86 kg/m2 and IP - 16 (9 male, median age 34 years; mean BMI -23.34 kg/m2 with 30 controls (15 male, median age 38 years; mean BMI = 24.5 kg/m2 undergoing laparotomy for conditions not related to the gall bladder and bile duct. Ultrafiltered bile from the common hepatic duct in patients and controls was incubated in anaerobic conditions and examined by polarized light microscopy to assess bile nucleation time (NT. In the analysis, the mean NT of patients with gallstones and gallstone pancreatitis was taken as a cumulative mean NT for those with established gallstone disease (EGD. Results Patients were similar to controls. Mean NT in all groups of patients was significantly shorter than controls (EGD cumulative mean NT, 1.73 +/- 0.2 days vs. controls, 12.74 +/- 0.4 days, P = 0.001 and IP patients mean NT, 3.1 +/- 0.24 days vs. controls, 12.74 +/- 0.4 days, P = 0.001. However, NT in those with IP was longer compared with those with EGD (mean NT in IP, 3.1 +/- 0.24 days vs. cumulative mean in EGD: 1.73 +/- 0.2 days, P = 0.002. Conclusion Nucleation time of bile in patients with IP is abnormal and is intermediate to nucleation time of lithogenic bile at one end of the spectrum of lithogenicity and non-lithogenic bile, at the other end.

  7. Delayed puberty but normal fertility in mice with selective deletion of insulin receptors from Kiss1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaoliang; Dowling, Abigail R; Marino, Joseph S; Faulkner, Latrice D; Bryant, Benjamin; Brüning, Jens C; Elias, Carol F; Hill, Jennifer W

    2013-03-01

    Pubertal onset only occurs in a favorable, anabolic hormonal environment. The neuropeptide kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, modifies GnRH neuronal activity to initiate puberty and maintain fertility, but the factors that regulate Kiss1 neurons and permit pubertal maturation remain to be clarified. The anabolic factor insulin may signal nutritional status to these neurons. To determine whether insulin sensing plays an important role in Kiss1 neuron function, we generated mice lacking insulin receptors in Kiss1 neurons (IR(ΔKiss) mice). IR(ΔKiss) females showed a delay in vaginal opening and in first estrus, whereas IR(ΔKiss) males also exhibited late sexual maturation. Correspondingly, LH levels in IR(ΔKiss) mice were reduced in early puberty in both sexes. Adult reproductive capacity, body weight, fat composition, food intake, and glucose regulation were comparable between the 2 groups. These data suggest that impaired insulin sensing by Kiss1 neurons delays the initiation of puberty but does not affect adult fertility. These studies provide insight into the mechanisms regulating pubertal timing in anabolic states.

  8. Timing of stressors alters interactive effects on a coastal foundation species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jillian M; Cheng, Brian S; Chang, Andrew L; Ferner, Matthew C; Wasson, Kerstin; Zabin, Chela J; Latta, Marilyn; Sanford, Eric; Deck, Anna; Grosholz, Edwin D

    2017-09-01

    The effects of climate-driven stressors on organismal performance and ecosystem functioning have been investigated across many systems; however, manipulative experiments generally apply stressors as constant and simultaneous treatments, rather than accurately reflecting temporal patterns in the natural environment. Here, we assessed the effects of temporal patterns of high aerial temperature and low salinity on survival of Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida), a foundation species of conservation and restoration concern. As single stressors, low salinity (5 and 10 psu) and the highest air temperature (40°C) resulted in oyster mortality of 55.8, 11.3, and 23.5%, respectively. When applied on the same day, low salinity and high air temperature had synergistic negative effects that increased oyster mortality. This was true even for stressor levels that were relatively mild when applied alone (10 psu and 35°C). However, recovery times of two or four weeks between stressors eliminated the synergistic effects. Given that most natural systems threatened by climate change are subject to multiple stressors that vary in the timing of their occurrence, our results suggest that it is important to examine temporal variation of stressors in order to more accurately understand the possible biological responses to global change. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Alterations in the properties of neonatal thalamocortical synapses with time in in vitro slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana L Luz

    Full Text Available New synapses are constantly being generated and lost in the living brain with only a subset of these being stabilized to form an enduring component of neuronal circuitry. The properties of synaptic transmission have primarily been established in a variety of in vitro neuronal preparations. It is not clear, however, if newly-formed and persistent synapses contribute to the results of these studies consistently throughout the lifespan of these preparations. In neonatal somatosensory, barrel, cortex we have previously hypothesized that a population of thalamocortical synapses displaying unusually slow kinetics represent newly-formed, default-transient synapses. This clear phenotype would provide an ideal tool to investigate if such newly formed synapses consistently contribute to synaptic transmission throughout a normal experimental protocol. We show that the proportion of synapses recorded in vitro displaying slow kinetics decreases with time after brain slice preparation. However, slow synapses persist in vitro in the presence of either minocycline, an inhibitor of microglia-mediated synapse elimination, or the TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone a promoter of synapse formation. These findings show that the observed properties of synaptic transmission may systematically change with time in vitro in a standard brain slice preparation.

  10. Time-Dependent Structural Alteration of Rituximab Analyzed by LC/TOF-MS after a Systemic Administration to Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Otani

    Full Text Available Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have heterogeneities in their structures. Multiple studies have reported that the variety of post-translational modifications could affect the pharmacokinetic profiles or pharmacological potencies of therapeutic mAbs. Taking into the account that the structural modification of mAbs would affect the efficacy, it is worth investigating the structural alteration of therapeutic mAbs in the blood and the relationship between their structures and pharmacological effects. Herein, we have developed the method to isolate rituximab from plasma in which endogenous IgGs interfere the detection of rituximab, and successfully developed the analytical method with a liquid chromatograph time-of-flight mass spectrometer to detect the structure of rituximab in plasma with errors less than 30 parts per millions. Eight types of carbohydrate chains in rituximab were detected by this method. Interestingly, time-dependent changes in carbohydrate chains such as AAF (G2F and GnGn (G0 were observed in rats, although the amino acids were stable. Additionally, these structural changes were observed via incubation in plasma as in the rat experiment, suggesting that a certain type of enzyme in plasma caused the alterations of the carbohydrate chains. The present analytical methods could clarify the actual pharmacokinetics of therapeutic mAbs, and help to evaluate the interindividual variations in pharmacokinetics and efficacy.

  11. Immune system handling time may alter the outcome of competition between pathogens and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspoon, Philip B; Banton, Sydney; Mideo, Nicole

    2018-06-14

    Predators may be limited in their ability to kill prey (i.e., have type II or III functional responses), an insight that has had far-reaching consequences in the ecological literature. With few exceptions, however, this possibility has not been extended to the behaviour of immune cells, which kill pathogens much as predators kill their prey. Rather, models of the within-host environment have tended to tacitly assume that immune cells have an unlimited ability to target and kill pathogens (i.e., a type I functional response). Here we explore the effects of changing this assumption on infection outcomes (i.e., pathogen loads). We incorporate immune cell handling time into an ecological model of the within-host environment that considers both the predatory nature of the pathogen-immune cell interaction as well as competition between immune cells and pathogens for host resources. Unless pathogens can preempt immune cells for host resources, adding an immune cell handling time increases equilibrium pathogen load. We find that the shape of the relationship between energy intake and pathogen load can change: with a type I functional response, pathogen load is maximised at intermediate inputs, while for a type II or III functional response, pathogen load is solely increasing. With a type II functional response, pathogen load can fluctuate rather than settling to an equilibrium, a phenomenon unobserved with type I or III functional responses. Our work adds to a growing literature highlighting the role of resource availability in host-parasite interactions. Implications of our results for adaptive anorexia are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of early metabolic alterations in the ocular fundus of diabetic patients by time-resolved autofluorescence of endogenous fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, D.; Klemm, M.; Quick, S.; Deutsch, L.; Jentsch, S.; Hammer, M.; Dawczynski, J.; Kloos, C. H.; Mueller, U. A.

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of time-resolved autofluorescence (FLIM) at the human ocular fundus of diabetic patients permit the detection of early pathologic alterations before signs of diabetic retinopathy are visible. The measurements were performed by the Jena Fluorescence Lifetime Laser Scanner Ophthalmoscope applying time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) in two spectral channels (K1: 490-560 nm, K2:560-700ps). The fluorescence was excited by 70 ps pulses (FWHM) at 448 nm. The decay of fluorescence intensity was triple-exponentially approximated. The frequency of amplitudes, lifetimes, and relative contributions was compared in fields of the same size and position in healthy subjects and in diabetic patients. The most sensitive parameter was the lifetime T2 in the short-wavelength channel, which corresponds to the neuronal retina. The changes in lifetime point to a loss of free NADH and an increased contribution of protein-bound NADH in the pre-stage of diabetic retinopathy.

  13. Differential alterations in gene expression profiles contribute to time-dependent effects of nandrolone to prevent denervation atrophy

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    Bauman William A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anabolic steroids, such as nandrolone, slow muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Their effects on muscle size and gene expression depend upon time, and the cause of muscle atrophy. Administration of nandrolone for 7 days beginning either concomitantly with sciatic nerve transection (7 days or 29 days later (35 days attenuated denervation atrophy at 35 but not 7 days. We reasoned that this model could be used to identify genes that are regulated by nandrolone and slow denervation atrophy, as well as genes that might explain the time-dependence of nandrolone effects on such atrophy. Affymetrix microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes due to nandrolone at 7 and 35 days and to identify major gene expression changes in denervated muscle between 7 and 35 days. Results Nandrolone selectively altered expression of 124 genes at 7 days and 122 genes at 35 days, with only 20 genes being regulated at both time points. Marked differences in biological function of genes regulated by nandrolone at 7 and 35 days were observed. At 35, but not 7 days, nandrolone reduced mRNA and protein levels for FOXO1, the mTOR inhibitor REDD2, and the calcineurin inhibitor RCAN2 and increased those for ApoD. At 35 days, correlations between mRNA levels and the size of denervated muscle were negative for RCAN2, and positive for ApoD. Nandrolone also regulated genes for Wnt signaling molecules. Comparison of gene expression at 7 and 35 days after denervation revealed marked alterations in the expression of 9 transcriptional coregulators, including Ankrd1 and 2, and many transcription factors and kinases. Conclusions Genes regulated in denervated muscle after 7 days administration of nandrolone are almost entirely different at 7 versus 35 days. Alterations in levels of FOXO1, and of genes involved in signaling through calcineurin, mTOR and Wnt may be linked to the favorable action of nandrolone on

  14. Does the Timing of Measurement Alter Session-RPE in Boxers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Marco C; Teixeira, Luis F M; Godoi, Vladmir J; Marchetti, Paulo H; Conte, Marcelo; Coutts, Aaron J; Bacurau, Reury F P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of measuring the overall session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) at 10 vs. 30 minutes following exercise. Eight boxers completed three different standardized training sessions of different intensities (easy, moderate and hard) in a matchedpairs, randomized research design. Exercise intensity was assessed during each bout by measuring heart rate, blood lactate concentration and session-RPE. To assess the effect of measurement timing on session-RPE, RPE data were collected either 10 or 30 minutes post-exercise. There was no significant effect of measurement time on session-RPE values following easy (10 minutes: session-RPE = 1.3 ± 1.0 Arbitrary Unit (AU), %Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) = 49.5 ± 11.1, and ∆Blood lactate = -2.3 ± 16.3%; 30 minutes: session-RPE = 1.7 ± 1.0 AU, %HRR = 51.3 ± 10.8, and ∆Blood lactate = 0.7 ± 25.2%), moderate (10 minutes: session-RPE = 2.7 ± 1.6 AU, %HRR = 67.2 ± 10.8, and ∆Blood lactate = 2.2 ± 19%; 30 minutes: session-RPE = 2.5 ± 0.9 AU, %HRR = 67.2 ± 5.9, and ∆Blood lactate = 24.5 ± 17.1%) and hard (10 minutes: session-RPE = 5.7 ± 1.0 AU, %HRR = 88.1 ± 6.3, and ∆Blood lactate = 146.3 ± 87.9%; 30 minutes: session-RPE = 5.8 ± 1.9 AU, %HRR> = 83.3 ± 8.0, and ∆Blood lactate = 91.6 ± 39%) sessions. In conclusion, our findings suggest that session-RPE can be used in boxing training routines across a range of intensities and accurate measurements can be determined as early as 10 minutes after exercise. Key PointsIt is difficult to quantify and monitoring the external training load in martial arts (e.g. Aikido, Kung Fu, Judo) and physical combat sports (e.g. Boxing, Muay Thai), session RPE method appears to be a reliable method to quantifying training load in those sports.For many athletes it is impractical to wait 30 minutes after training session to provide a session-RPE. The present findings show that collecting ses-sion-RPE measures at 10 min

  15. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla P. Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  16. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  17. Distillation time alters essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of male Juniperus scopulorum trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Schlegel, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 15 distillation times (DT), ranging from 1.25 to 960 min, on oil yield, essential oil profiles, and antioxidant capacity of male J. scopulorum trees. Essential oil yields were 0.07% at 1.25 min DT and reached a maximum of 1.48% at 840 min DT. The concentrations of alpha-thujene (1.76-2.75%), alpha-pinene (2.9-8.7%), sabinene (45-74.7%), myrcene (2.4-3.4%), and para-cymene (0.8-3.1%) were highest at the shortest DT (1.5 to 5 min) and decreased with increasing DT. Cis-sabinene hydrate (0.5-0.97%) and linalool plus trans-sabinene (0.56-1.6%) reached maximum levels at 40 min DT. Maximum concentrations of limonene (2.3-2.8%) and pregeijerene-B (0.06-1.4%) were obtained at 360-480 min DT, and 4-terpinenol (0.7-5.7%) at 480 min DT. Alpha-terpinene (0.16-2.9%), gamma-terpinene (0.3-4.9%) and terpinolene (0.3-1.4%) reached maximum at 720 min DT. The concentrations of delta-cadinene (0.06-1.65%), elemol (0-6.0%), and 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol (0-4.4%) reached maximum at 840 min DT. The yield of the essential oil constituents increased with increasing DT. Only linalool/transsabinene hydrate reached a maximum yield at 360 min DT. Maximum yields of the following constituents were obtained at 720 min DT: alpha-thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, alpha-terpinene, para-cimene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, and 4-terpinenol. At 840 min DT, cis-sabinene hydrate, prejeijerene-B, gamma muurolene, delta-cadinene, reached maximum. At 960 min DT, maximum yields of beta-pinene, elemol, alphaeudesmol/betaeudesmol, 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol were reached. These changes were adequately modeled by either the Michaelis-Menten or the Power (Convex) nonlinear regression models. Oils from the 480 min DT showed higher antioxidant activity compared to samples collected at 40, 160, or 960 min DT. These results show the potential for obtaining essential oils with various compositions and antioxidant capacity from male J

  18. Impact of Puberty Health Education on Anxiety of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Mokari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents, as a large group in the world, face many physical changes and psychological evolutions in their puberty period. If enough attention is not paid to such changes, negative effects on their health and knowledge may be induced. Thus, it is very important to hold health education approperiate for their needs using new educational methods and confident sources. The main goal of this study is to explore the impact of puberty health education on the anxiety of girls. Itis a quasi-experimental study using clustered sampling which was done on 159 girls from two high schools in Tehran divided into two experimental (N=86 and control (N=73 groups. Then,using a systematic educational plan revised by the researcher and expert panel from Department of Midwifery, all the students and their parents in the experimental group were instructed. Data were gathered by demographic questionnaire and Spielberger Scale. Questionnaires were completed by students in three phases including before, after, and three months after the end of the educational program. Data analysis was performed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi square, and multivariate tests. Mean anxiety scores in the experimental and control groups were 90.45 and 85.36 before the education, 78.79 and 85.49 at the end of the education, and 78.46 as well as 87.33 3 months later, respectively.Anxiety scores were statistically different post-intervention (p<0.001 and three months later(p<0.001. Puberty health education programs could reduce anxiety in female adolescents.

  19. [Adolescent crises in puberty. Diagnosis and therapy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Küppers, M

    1979-08-24

    Psychological disorders which become manifest as adolescent crises must be seen as complex phenomena and treated thoroughly: besides the genetic, biographic and psychosocial background of the youthful individual the cultural and economic aspects play an important role. Nevertheless we must admit that associated causal explanations, e.g. for accelerated or late development are lacking. Focal points for the subsequent symptom complexes of sexual behavior in puberty are: psychosexual prematurity or retardation, masturbation, homosexual relations, pubertal asceticism and premature and frequently changing sexual relations.

  20. Diffusion in Altered Tonalite Sample Using Time Domain Diffusion Simulations in Tomographic Images Combined with Lab-scale Diffusion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, M.; Sardini, P.; Togneri, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Timonen, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this work an effect of rock heterogeneity on diffusion was investigated. Time domain diffusion simulations were used to compare behavior of diffusion in homogeneous and heterogeneous 3D media. Tomographic images were used as heterogeneous rock media. One altered tonalite sample from Sievi, Finland, was chosen as test case for introduced analysis procedure. Effective diffusion coefficient of tonalite sample was determined with lab-scale experiments and the same coefficient was used also for homogeneous media. Somewhat technically complicated mathematical solution for analysis of through diffusion experiment is shortly described. Computed tomography (CT) is already quite widely used in many geological, petrological, and paleontological applications when the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the material is of interest, and is an excellent method for gaining information especially about its heterogeneity, grain size, or porosity. In addition to offering means for quantitative characterization, CT provides a lot of qualitative information [1]. A through -diffusion laboratory experiment using radioactive tracer was fitted using the Time Domain Diffusion (TDD) method. This rapid particle tracking method allows simulation of the heterogeneous diffusion based on pore-scale images and local values of diffusivities [2]. As a result we found out that heterogeneity has only a small effect to diffusion coefficient and in-diffusion profile for used geometry. Also direction dependency was tested and was found to be negligible. Whereas significant difference between generally accepted value and value obtained from simulations for constant m in Archie’s law was found. [1] Voutilainen, M., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Sardini, P., and Timonen, J., (2010). On pore-space characterization of an altered tonalite by X-ray µCT and the 14C-PMMA method (in progress). [2] Sardini, P., Robinet, J., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Delay, F., and Hellmuth, K-H, (2007). On direct simulation of heterogeneous

  1. The Alteration of Emotion Regulation Precedes the Deficits in Interval Timing in the BACHD Rat Model for Huntington Disease

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    Daniel Garces

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is an autosomal dominantly inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disorder which is accompanied by executive dysfunctions and emotional alteration. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of emotion/stress on on-going highly demanding cognitive tasks, i.e., temporal processing, as a function of age in BACHD rats (a “full length” model of HD. Middle-aged (4–6 months and old (10–12 months rats were first trained on a 2 vs. 8-s temporal discrimination task, and then exposed to a series of bisection tests under normal and stressful (10 mild unpredictable foot-shocks conditions. The animals were then trained on a peak interval task, in which reinforced fixed-interval (FI 30-s trials were randomly intermixed with non-reinforced probe trials. After training, the effect of stress upon time perception was again assessed. Sensitivity to foot-shocks was also assessed independently. The results show effects of both age and genotype, with largely greater effects in old BACHD animals. The older BACHD animals had impaired learning in both tasks, but reached equivalent levels of performance as WT animals at the end of training in the temporal discrimination task, while remaining impaired in the peak interval task. Whereas sensitivity to foot-shock did not differ between BACHD and WT rats, delivery of foot-shocks during the test sessions had a disruptive impact on temporal behavior in WT animals, an effect which increased with age. In contrast, BACHD rats, independent of age, did not show any significant disruption under stress. In conclusion, BACHD rats showed a disruption in temporal learning in late symptomatic animals. Age-related modification in stress-induced impairment of temporal control of behavior was also observed, an effect which was greatly reduced in BACHD animals, thus confirming previous results suggesting reduced emotional reactivity in HD animals. The results suggest a staggered onset in cognitive

  2. Serum IGF1 and insulin levels in girls with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2012-01-01

    IGF1 plays an important role in growth and metabolism during puberty. IGF1 levels are increased in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). However, the relationship with insulin before and during gonadal suppression is unknown. In addition, the influence of the exon 3-deleted GH receptor gene...

  3. Safety Extension Study Of Leuprolide Acetate (Lupron Depot) In The Treatment Of Central Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-08

    Precocious; Leuprolide Acetate; Luteinizing Hormone (LH); Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone Agonist (GnRHa); Tanner Staging; Depot Formulation; Suppression of LH; Central Precocious Puberty (CPP); Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH); Lupron; GnRH Analog; Pediatrics Central Precocious Puberty

  4. The roles of age at puberty and energy restriction in sow reproductive longevity: a genomic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 50% of sows are culled annually with more than one third due to poor fertility. Our research demonstrated that age at puberty is an early pre-breeding indicator of reproductive longevity. Age at puberty can be measured early in life, has a moderate heritability and is negatively correl...

  5. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e., hypothal...

  6. What Do Preservice Teachers Want to Learn about Puberty and Sexuality Education? An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The processes of puberty are now commonly observed in primary school-aged students. Schools, therefore, need to address puberty and sexuality education for students' health, well-being, safety and pastoral care. Similarly, preservice teacher education needs to address future primary school teachers' unfamiliarity and lack of confidence with these…

  7. [Rapidly progressive puberty in a patient with mosaic Turner syndrome: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Wei, H; Yu, X; Huang, W; Luo, X P

    2017-02-02

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of diagnosis and treatment in patients with Turner syndrome and rapidly progressive puberty. Method: A rare case of rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome with a mosaic karyotype of 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21)(80%/20%)was diagnosed at Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in January. 2015. Clinical characteristics and the related literature were reviewed. Original papers on precocious puberty or rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome, published until Apr. 2016 were retrieved at PubMed and CNKI databases by the use of the key words "Turner syndrome" , "precocious puberty" and "rapidly progressive puberty" . Result: The patient was born at term with birth weight of 2 450 g and was diagnosed with SGA at 3 years of age for the first evaluating of growth and development. Then recombined human growth hormone (rhGH )was given at 4 years of age due to short stature (heightTurner syndrome is reported. Although short stature and ovarian dysgenesis are common in TS, precocious puberty may occur in TS, which is liable to cause delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Careful examination is recommended for patients with unusual growth pattern, even though girls have normal height in accord with standard growth curve or spontaneous puberty. Evaluation for TS and subsequent investigation should be prompted.

  8. Is puberty a risk factor for back pain in the young? a systematic critical literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lardon, A.; Leboeuf-Yde, C.; Le Scanff, C.

    2014-01-01

    the increasing stages of puberty and the subsequent prevalence of back pain? 4) Is there a temporal link between puberty and back pain? DESIGN: A systematic critical literature review. METHODS: Systematic searches were made in March 2014 in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO including longitudinal or cross...

  9. Social housing conditions around puberty determine later changes in plasma cortisol levels and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Sylvia; Harderthauer, Simone; Sachser, Norbert; Hennessy, Michael B

    2007-02-28

    A recent study found that male guinea pigs raised in large, mixed age/sex groups exhibited an unexpected suppression of their cortisol response at 4 mo of age. The present study examined the effect of social experience around the time of puberty on cortisol response suppression and social behavior at 4 mo of age. Males reared in large, mixed age/sex groups were either pair-housed with a female or moved to another large colony at 55 days of age. When tested at 4 mo, pair-housed males exhibited much higher levels of courtship and sexual behavior than did colony-housed males, and a shorter latency to begin courtship when with an unfamiliar adult female. In addition, pair-housed males showed much higher levels of agonistic behavior and a shorter latency to escalated aggression with an unfamiliar adult male. Pair-housed males also had lower basal cortisol concentrations and exhibited a greater increment in cortisol levels when isolated in a novel cage than did colony-housed males. Finally, pair-housed males showed a smaller increment in cortisol levels when with the stimulus female or male than when isolated, but colony-housed males did not. The findings demonstrate that social housing conditions around the time of puberty can have pervasive effects on social behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in 4-mo-old males. Further, these findings are consistent with the notion that changes in HPA activity contribute to social behavior development beyond the time of sexual maturity.

  10. Nocturnal Urinary Excretion of FSH and LH in Children and Adolescents With Normal and Early Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander S; Aksglaede, Lise

    2017-01-01

    aimed to evaluate urinary and serum gonadotropin levels according to age, sex, and pubertal stage in healthy children and to assess the clinical use of FMV urinary gonadotropins in children with disordered puberty. Design: Cross-sectional part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study and longitudinal study...... of patients. Setting: Population-based and outpatient clinic. Patients or Other Participants: Eight hundred forty-three healthy children from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study and 25 girls evaluated for central precocious puberty (CPP). Main Outcome Measures: Clinical pubertal staging, including serum and urinary...... gonadotropin levels. Results: Urinary gonadotropins increased with advancing age and pubertal development and were detectable in FMV urine before physical signs of puberty. FMV urinary LH correlated strongly with basal (r = 0.871, P

  11. How does the predicted geomagnetic main field variation alter the thermosphere-ionosphere storm-time response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maute, A. I.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's magnetic main field plays an important role in the thermosphere-ionosphere (TI) system, as well as its coupling to Earth's magnetosphere. The ionosphere consists of a weakly ionized plasma strongly influenced by the main field and embedded in the thermosphere. Therefore, ion-neutral coupling and ionospheric electrodynamics can influence the plasma distribution and neutral dynamics. There are strong longitude variations of the TI storm response. At high latitude magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is organized by the geomagnetic main field, leading in general to stronger northern middle latitude storm time response in the American sector due to the geomagnetic dipole location. In addition, the weak geomagnetic main field in the American sector leads to larger local ExB drift and can alter the plasma densities. During geomagnetic storms the intense energy input into the high latitude region is redistributed globally, leading to thermospheric heating, wind circulation changes and alterations of the ionospheric electrodynamics. The storm time changes are measurable in the plasma density, ion drift, temperature, neutral composition, and other parameters. All these changes depend, to some degree, on the geomagnetic main field which changes on decadal time scales. In this study, we employ a forecast model of the geomagnetic main field based on data assimilation and geodynamo modeling [Aubert et al., 2015]. The main field model predicts that in 50 years the South Atlantic Anomaly is further weakened by 2 mT and drifts westward by approximately 10o. The dipole axis moves northward and westward by 2o and 6o, respectively. Simulating the March 2015 geomagnetic storm with the Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) driven by the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE), we evaluate the thermosphere-ionosphere response using the geomagnetic main field of 2015, 2065, and 2115. We compare the TI response for 2015 with

  12. MRI study of normal pituitary glands in stage of puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guangwu; Zhang Tao; Yang Ning; Cai Feng; Shi Yifan; Deng Jieying; Zhang Luodong; Jiang Yayun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of shape, size and signal intensity of normal pituitary glands in adolescents and to correlate the size and shape of normal pituitary glands with the age, height and weight in stage of puberty. Methods: One hundred and fifty-five cases of MRI data of pituitary glands in normal adolescents range from 6.0 year to 18.9 year were used. Using high-field 1.5T MR scanner, the appearances of pituitary glands in 152 normal adolescents were analyzed on T 1 WI in standard median sagittal and coronal plane. Results: Three groups quantitative data of size, shape and single intensity changes of normal pituitary glands were obtained, which were divided into 6- m =0.74, t=3.624, P=0.004; r f =0.94, t=9.562, P=0.000), however, it was not markedly correlated with the height and weight (P>0.05). Conclusion: Obvious changes of the size and shape of pituitary glands were found in health adolescents. The pituitary glands manifest physiologic hypertrophy with more convex of upper border when age increased in stage of puberty. The spherical appearance of the pituitary glands is a normal developmental feature and should not warrant clinical investigation for the presence of an underlying micro-adenoma in teenage females. (authors)

  13. Chronic leptin infusion advances, and immunoneutralization of leptin postpones puberty onset in normally fed and feed restricted female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinoaldini, S.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Does leptin play a vital role in initiating puberty in female rats and can it overrule a nutrionally imposed (i.e. a 30% feed restriction, FR) delay in puberty onset? Prepubertal female rats were chronically infused for 14 days with leptin (icv or sc) or leptin-antiserum (icv) while puberty onset

  14. Gender differences in asthma development and remission during transition through puberty : The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Nienke M; Postma, Dirkje S; Schouten, Jan P; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Boezen, Hendrika

    BACKGROUND: During puberty, a gender shift in asthma prevalence occurs, with a preponderance of boys before puberty. The mechanisms underlying this gender shift are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations of pubertal stages and transition through puberty with (1) the prevalence, incidence, and

  15. Evolution of the alteration process in time of granitic materials from Valdemorillo quarries used in built heritage, Madrid, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.; Perez-Monserrat, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    Alteration of building materials used for heritage construction already starts in the quarries, where materials are subjected to both natural alteration and anthropic decay, this latter caused by the rock extracting, cutting and carving processes. Once the materials are placed in the building, they are exposed to other agents that accelerate their decay, especially if they are exposed to aggressive environments. Materials petrophysical properties tend to vary according to the alteration degree they have experienced, the longer they have been exposed to decay agents, the greater the properties change. Surface hardness of granitic rocks tend to diminish when they deteriorate, increasing its porosity, which usually is reflected on a decrease of the ultrasound propagation velocity measurements. Ultrasound velocity and surface hardness were measured in 200 monzogranite ashlars use to build the Assumption of Our Lady church (Valdemorillo, Madrid, Spain). Ultrasound velocity was measured using the indirect transmission mode, with 54 kHz frequency transductors, and surface hardness by means of the Schmidt hammer rebound tester. This monument was erected in different building stages. The starting point was a Mozarab or Visigoth defensive tower (8th century). Templars readapt it to a castle-convent (12th and 14th centuries), the tower being converted into a higher bell-tower. During the 14th-15th centuries the Cistercian Order made significant modifications of the complex, being the construction of the Chapter House one of the last enlargements during the 17th century. The quarries located in the surroundings of the monument were used for the first building stages. In the recent fronts of these quarries that have been used along the 20th century, ultrasound and hardness measurements were performed to obtain the values of these parameters in unaltered materials to compare them to those measured in ashlars from different constructive periods. A total of 50 recent front

  16. Back pain reporting in young girls appears to be puberty-related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froberg Karsten

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a large increase in back pain reporting in the early teens. In no previous study has the prevalence of low back pain been investigated in relation to the onset of puberty. The objective of this study was to establish whether the onset of puberty is associated with back pain reporting in young girls. Methods A subsample of 254 girls aged 8–10 years and 165 girls aged 14–16 years from a cross-sectional survey of 481 children aged 8–10 years and 325 adolescents aged 14–16 years of both sexes. Main outcome measures were back pain defined as low back pain, mid back pain, and/or neck pain in the past month. Other variables of interest were Puberty (five different stages, age, body mass index, and smoking. Independent information on onset of puberty was obtained through a physical examination and on back pain through an individual structured interview. The association was studied between onset of puberty and the outcome variable (the one month period prevalence of back pain, controlling for overweight, and smoking. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to describe bivariate associations, logistic regression with robust standard errors was used for multivariate analyses. Results There is a highly significant trend for increased back pain reporting with increasing level of puberty until maturity is reached. The biggest leap appears between the second level (beginning of puberty and the third level (mid puberty and the findings remain after controlling for the covariates. These results emanate from the low back, whereas pain in the mid back and neck do not seem to be linked with pubertal stage. Conclusion In girls, the reporting of low back pain increases in frequency during puberty until maturity, regardless of age. Why some girls are susceptible to back pain in the early stage of puberty is unknown.

  17. Childhood family disruption and adult height: is there a mediating role of puberty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Paula; Garcia, Justin R; Sear, Rebecca

    2015-11-24

    Childhood family background is known to be associated with child growth and development, including the onset of puberty, but less is known about the influence of childhood family disruption on outcomes in later life. Given the associations between early family disruption and childhood development, we predicted that there may be long-term health-relevant consequences of childhood disruption. Using data from a large US interview sample (n = 16 207), we test if death or divorce of parents, at different childhood periods, was associated with adult stature, and whether age at puberty mediated this relationship, for men and women. RESULTS MEN: : parental death and divorce during early childhood was associated with shorter adult height, and later puberty. Later puberty was associated with shorter adult height. Path analyses demonstrated that the relationship between parental divorce and height was completely mediated by age at puberty; although parental death was only partially mediated by age at puberty. WOMEN: the father's death during early childhood was associated with earlier puberty, which was in turn associated with shorter adult stature. The relationship between paternal death and height is entirely mediated by age at puberty; no evidence of a direct relationship between childhood family disruption and adult height. Early childhood familial disruption is associated with shorter height for men, and is partially mediated by later puberty. For women, the relationship between father's death, and height was completely mediated by earlier puberty. These findings indicate that disruption during childhood can have long-reaching health repercussions, particularly for boys. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  18. Study regarding the incidence of physical deficiencies of the vertebral column at puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Avramescu-Opriţoiu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical deficiencies of the vertebral column at puberty have become an acute reality of our present time in the schools ofTimisoara and not only, reason for which a study regarding their incidence on the pupils at the age of puberty, from Timisoara,has been started; the study was performed on a 308 pupil group (V-XI classes and used as methods the somatoscopic andsomatometrical exam of the pupils, as well as a short period of time related to the daily activities, which could be the sublayerof these pathological changes at the level of the vertebral column. The results of the study confirmed the hypothesis inaccordance with which there is an increasing number of deficient postures and proper deficiencies at the level of the vertebralcolumn at the young people being studied, correlated with a daily program where the static activities (TV watching, computeruse, individual study, etc. prevail over the physical activities; in accordance with this study 20,13% of them pupils do notshow changes at the level of the axial segment, the rest of 79,87% being diagnosed with deficient postures (45,12%,respectively with proper deficiencies (34,75%; the type of the found deficiencies are scoliosis (14,94%, kiphoses (8,77%,lumbar hyperlordoses (6,82% and kiphoscolioses (2,27%. The alarming proportion of young people that have been diagnosedwith such modifications make us conclude that there is given an insignificant importance to the physical exercise, the mainmethod of primary prophylaxis, but secondary as well of these disturbances.

  19. Feasibility study into the use of mechanical choppers to alter the natural time structure of the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The prospect of extending static x-ray measurements into the time domain is an exciting one indeed. The foundations for this extension have already been laid by some very innovative experiments performed at existing storage ring sources. The enormous enhancement in brilliance that the APS will afford over existing sources will, I believe, foster a tremendous growth in the area of time-resolved x-ray experimentation. The growing interest in this field is evidenced by both the number of participants and their enthusiasm at an APS Workshop on Time-Resolved Studies and Ultrafast Detectors held on January 25-26, 1988, at Argonne. We present here what may be a viable approach to the problem of altering the natural time structure of the APS with a minimal impact on other users. Our technique involves placing 19 of the 20 circulating bunches of positrons in (nearly) contiguous RF buckets and the remaining one bunch 180 degrees around the ring from this pack. The method we are advocating has several advantages over other schemes (such as wobblers) in that it is a passive technique: there are no external forces on the particle beam to destroy its stability, emittance, or lifetime properties, and it will not limit the total number of bunches in the beam to one (or a few) in order to get long dark periods between x-ray bursts. In this configuaration is should be possible to transmit the lone bunch and mechanically shutter the remaining 19 bunches with a chopper running at approximately 18,000 RPM. Although high, such revolution frequencies are achieved in neutron choppers which are generally much more massive than what is envisioned for an x-ray chopper

  20. Study Of Morphological Changes Of Uterine Horn Of Surri Mouse Depended To Morphine Before Puberty And DuringPuberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadkhast M

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available : Morphine is the most important alkaloid of opium family which is found as much as ten percent in opium, and is in two types the sulfate morphine and the hydrochloride morphine."nMaterials and Methods: In this study morphological changes of uterus of surri mice due to oral consumption of sulfate morphine were studied. It was shown that, female surri mice following gradually increasing of morphine to water (0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml were depended to morphine. Female surri mice were classified in two age groups before puberty and depended to morphine during puberty. Each age group took morphine for 21 days. After finishing the period, the mice anesthetizing were weighted, then were anesthetizing and uterus was studied the length, width and apparent features."nResults&ConcIusion: In this study it was distinguished that length and width of uterine horn, between experimental and control groups, were significant (P< 0.01. Morphological changes such as anemia, the thinness and fragitidily walls of uterus and filiformity of uterine horns were observed."n"n"n"n"n"n 

  1. Daily grazing time as a risk factor for alterations at the hock joint integument in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Rousing, Tine

    2013-01-01

    hours and other potential cow and herd-level risk factors were evaluated for their impact on hock integument alterations using a logistic analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for hock integument alterations such as hair loss, lesions or swellings decreased with increasing amount...

  2. Hypothalamic hamartoma with precocious puberty: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M S; Kader, M A; Huq, F I; Khan, N A

    2012-07-01

    Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is one of the most important causes of central precocious puberty in male children. Hamartomas are malformations composed of ectopic gonadotropic hormone (GnRH) neurons which secrete pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone. They are generally observed in children under 3 years. A case of 11/3 year-old male child presented with premature development of secondary sexual characters i.e., growth of pubic and axillary hair, enlargement of penis and acne over the face for the last 5 months. On physical examination, his height was 1.02 m and his weight 18kg, enlarged penile length of which 58mm; testicles were enlarged in size right one measuring 32X25mm and the left 30X23mm. His hematological and other biochemical investigations revealed no abnormality. Plain radiographic examination revealed radiological bone age of about 8-9 years. Endocrinological findings were as follows: Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH): 1.5mIU/ml, Luteinizing hormone (LH): 9.1mIU/ml, Testosterone: 701ng/dl (Testosterone level less than 30ng/dl in prepubertal age). Thyroid function tests were normal. Patient showed no adrenal pathology on ultrasound and his testicular parenchyma was homogeneous echotexture with the size of 30X22X16mm on the right (volume 5.4ml) and 30X20X15mm on the left (volume 4.6ml). With above physical & endocrinological findings and age of the child, it was suspected as a case of central precocious puberty. Subsequently MR imaging of the brain done & showed an oval non-enhancing pedunculated hypothalamic mass arising from the tubercinereum that was iso to hypointense to brain parenchyma on T1 - and intermediate signal on T2-weighted images, 20X10X10mm in diameter, extending into suprasellar cistern. During follow up after 06 months of starting conservative medication with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog (Leuprolide acetate), his progression of puberty has been arrested and the testosterone level 18ng/dl, which is normal for his age.

  3. Maternal Preeclampsia and Androgens in the Offspring around Puberty: A Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild V Alsnes

    Full Text Available Children born after preeclampsia may have a dominant androgen profile in puberty compared with other children. Circulating androgen concentrations at 11-12 years of age were compared between offspring born after preeclampsia, and children whose mothers did not have preeclampsia.A total of 611 mother-offspring pairs were followed up 11 (daughters or 12 (sons years after birth: 218 pairs in the preeclampsia group, and 383 pairs without preeclampsia. Circulating total testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I were measured in the children. In boys, testicular volume was also measured.Among girls born after preeclampsia, DHEAS concentrations were higher than in unexposed girls (p<0.001, however, girls born after preeclampsia with severe features had the lowest DHEAS levels. In contrast, testosterone concentrations were highest in girls born after preeclampsia with severe features, both compared to other girls in the preeclampsia group, and compared to unexposed girls (p<0.001. For boys, testosterone concentrations were higher in the preeclampsia group compared with unexposed boys (p<0.001, and boys born after preeclampsia with severe features had the lowest concentrations of DHEAS. Compared with unexposed boys, testicular volume (p = 0.015 and IGF-I (p = 0.004 were higher for boys in the preeclampsia group, except for boys in the clinically severe preeclampsia group.In utero exposure to preeclampsia is associated with androgen hormonal patterns in early puberty that depend on clinical severity of preeclampsia and sex of the offspring. The hormonal differences may reflect different timing of pubertal development, and may have consequences for future health of the offspring.

  4. Advanced bone age as an indicator facilitates the diagnosis of precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Qin Xu

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Diagnosis of central precocious puberty has always been challenging in clinical practice. As an important method in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test is complex and time-consuming. In many cases, clinical traits are inconsistent with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test results, therefore not reliable for diagnosis. In this study, the authors intended to find an indicator that predicts the results of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test among subjects with early pubertal signs. Methods: Cases of 382 girls with early breast development before 8 years old and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test before 9 years old were included and underwent follow-up tests. Patients with peak luteinizing hormone level ≥5 IU/L were considered positive in the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test. Anthropometric data, body mass index, bone age evaluation, blood hormones levels of luteinizing hormone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and uterine and ovarian volumes were analyzed. Results: Subjects with positive results in the initial test demonstrated early bone maturation, accelerated growth, and elevated basal blood luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, when compared with subjects with negative results in the initial test. Subjects with positive results in the follow-up test presented a more advanced bone age and more accelerated linear growth, when compared with subjects with negative results in the follow-up test. Conclusions: According to the statistical analysis, advanced bone age is the most effective predictor of the result of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test.

  5. Elevated phthalates' exposure in children with constitutional delay of growth and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changming; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Lianlian; Chen, Jiao; Cai, Depei; Zhang, Yunhui

    2015-05-15

    Phthalates have been proven to be antiandrogenic, which may interfere with the timing of puberty. Children with Constitutional Delay of Growth and Puberty (CDGP) typically display short stature and pubertal delay. This study investigated whether phthalate's exposure was associated with CDGP, and evaluated the potential mediator role of testosterone. In this case-control study, a total of 167 boys, including 57 boys with CDGP (cases) and 110 controls were enrolled. We measured six major phthalate metabolites in urine samples using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The serum testosterone level was determined by radioimmunoassay. Children in the CDGP group were determined to have significantly elevated urinary phthalates concentration compared with control subjects (total phthalates median: case, 107.00 ng/ml; control, 62.22 ng/ml, p = 0.001). After adjustment for BMI and other confounding factors: mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and total phthalate concentrations were significantly negatively associated with serum testosterone level (MBP: β = -45.7, p = 0.017; MEP: β = -31.6, p = 0.022; total phthalates: β = -24.6, p = 0.011); MBP, MEP, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and total phthalates were significantly associated with CDGP (odds ratio: MBP: 8.30, p = 0.002; MEP: 5.43, p = 0.002; MEHP: 3.83, p = 0.017; total phthalates: 9.09, p = 0.001). Serum testosterone level acted as a mediator of the association between phthalates' exposure and CDGP (p = 0.002) (proportion mediated: 34.4%). In this case-control study, elevated phthalates' level was detected in children with CDGP in Shanghai, China and phthalate level was associated with CDGP, which appeared to be mediated by circulating testosterone level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nocturnal Urinary Excretion of FSH and LH in Children and Adolescents With Normal and Early Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander S; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar; Petersen, Jorgen Holm; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Juul, Anders

    2017-10-01

    Clinical use of single serum gonadotropin measurements in children is limited by the pulsatile secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, first morning voided (FMV) urine may integrate the fluctuating gonadotropin serum levels. We aimed to evaluate urinary and serum gonadotropin levels according to age, sex, and pubertal stage in healthy children and to assess the clinical use of FMV urinary gonadotropins in children with disordered puberty. Cross-sectional part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study and longitudinal study of patients. Population-based and outpatient clinic. Eight hundred forty-three healthy children from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study and 25 girls evaluated for central precocious puberty (CPP). Clinical pubertal staging, including serum and urinary gonadotropin levels. Urinary gonadotropins increased with advancing age and pubertal development and were detectable in FMV urine before physical signs of puberty. FMV urinary LH correlated strongly with basal (r = 0.871, P 5 IU/L). Urinary concentrations of LH decreased after 3 months of GnRH treatment to levels below +2 SDs. Urinary gonadotropin levels increased before the onset of puberty and were elevated in girls with CPP. We suggest urinary LH as an alternative noninvasive method to improve diagnosing and therapeutic management of children with disordered puberty. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  7. The Effect of Bisphenol A on Puberty: A Critical Review of the Medical Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Alberto; Cofini, Marta; Rigante, Donato; Lucchetti, Laura; Cipolla, Clelia; Penta, Laura; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-09-10

    Many scientific studies have revealed a trend towards an earlier onset of puberty and have disclosed an increasing number of children that display precocious puberty. As an explanation, some authors have considered the global socio-economic improvement across different populations, and other authors have considered the action of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Among these, bisphenol A (BPA), an aromatic compound largely used worldwide as a precursor of some plastics and chemical additives, is well known for its molecular oestrogen-like and obesogenic actions. We reviewed the medical literature of the previous 20 years that examined associations between BPA exposure and the age of puberty in humans, considering only those referring to clinical or epidemiological data. Of 19 studies, only 7 showed a correlation between BPA and puberty. In particular, the possible disruptive role of BPA on puberty may be seen in those with central precocious puberty or isolated premature breast development aged 2 months to 4 years old, even if the mechanism is undefined. Some studies also found a close relationship between urinary BPA, body weight, and early puberty, which can be explained by the obesogenic effect of BPA itself. The currently available data do not allow establishment of a clear role for BPA in pubertal development because of the conflicting results among all clinical and epidemiological studies examined. Further research is needed to fully understand the potential role of exposure to EDCs and their adverse endocrine health outcomes.

  8. True precocious puberty following treatment of a Leydig cell tumour: two case reports and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eVerrotti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Leydig cell testicular tumours are a rare cause of precocious pseudopuberty in boys. Surgery is the main therapy and shows good overall prognosis. The physical signs of precocious puberty are expected to disappear shortly after surgical removal of the mass. We report two children, 7.5 and 7.7 year-old boys, who underwent testis-sparing surgery for a Leydig cell testicular tumour causing precocious pseudopuberty. During follow-up, after an immediate clinical and laboratory regression, both boys presented signs of precocious puberty and ultimately developed central precocious puberty. They were successfully treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues. Only 6 other cases have been described regarding the development of central precocious puberty after successful treatment of a Leydig cell tumour causing precocious pseudo puberty. Gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty should be considered in children treated for a Leydig cell tumour presenting persistent or recurrent physical signs of puberty activation. In such cases, therapy with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues appears to be the most effective medical treatment.

  9. Natural acidification changes the timing and rate of succession, alters community structure, and increases homogeneity in marine biofouling communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Norah E M; Milazzo, Marco; Rastrick, Samuel P S; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Therriault, Thomas W; Harley, Christopher D G

    2018-01-01

    Ocean acidification may have far-reaching consequences for marine community and ecosystem dynamics, but its full impacts remain poorly understood due to the difficulty of manipulating pCO 2 at the ecosystem level to mimic realistic fluctuations that occur on a number of different timescales. It is especially unclear how quickly communities at various stages of development respond to intermediate-scale pCO 2 change and, if high pCO 2 is relieved mid-succession, whether past acidification effects persist, are reversed by alleviation of pCO 2 stress, or are worsened by departures from prior high pCO 2 conditions to which organisms had acclimatized. Here, we used reciprocal transplant experiments along a shallow water volcanic pCO 2 gradient to assess the importance of the timing and duration of high pCO 2 exposure (i.e., discrete events at different stages of successional development vs. continuous exposure) on patterns of colonization and succession in a benthic fouling community. We show that succession at the acidified site was initially delayed (less community change by 8 weeks) but then caught up over the next 4 weeks. These changes in succession led to homogenization of communities maintained in or transplanted to acidified conditions, and altered community structure in ways that reflected both short- and longer-term acidification history. These community shifts are likely a result of interspecific variability in response to increased pCO 2 and changes in species interactions. High pCO 2 altered biofilm development, allowing serpulids to do best at the acidified site by the end of the experiment, although early (pretransplant) negative effects of pCO 2 on recruitment of these worms were still detectable. The ascidians Diplosoma sp. and Botryllus sp. settled later and were more tolerant to acidification. Overall, transient and persistent acidification-driven changes in the biofouling community, via both past and more recent exposure, could have important

  10. Effects of puberty on cystic fibrosis related pulmonary exacerbations in women versus men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Shelby; Rosenbluth, Daniel; Raghavan, Deepa; Zheng, Jie; Jain, Raksha

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic data from studies of airway diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis indicate a gender disparity where women have worse outcomes. The explanation for this is largely unknown. We hypothesize that female sex hormones play a role in this gender disparity, predisposing women to more exacerbations and decreased lung function post-puberty. In Cystic Fibrosis, to determine if puberty marks a point of increasing exacerbations and decreasing lung function in women relative to men. Using the United States Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry, we used linear regression to compare lung function and rate of pulmonary exacerbations in men versus women before and after puberty. Of 5,137 subjects who met inclusion criteria, 2,689 were male and 2,448 were female. Average age of puberty was found to be 13.2 ± 2.2 years in men and 11.2 ± 2.0 years of age in women. Percent predicted FEV1 pre- and post-puberty were no different between males versus females (P = 0.44 pre-puberty and P = 0.16 post-puberty). In contrast, women had a significantly higher rate of pulmonary exacerbations post-puberty than men (1.17 ± 1.35 exacerbations per year in women versus 0.95 ± 1.27 in men; P puberty, the rate of pulmonary exacerbations increased in adolescent women relative to men with cystic fibrosis, supporting a role for sex hormones in the disease process. Further understanding of the mechanisms that modulate sex hormone receptors in airway disease may serve as future targets for therapy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. MR imaging of the pituitary gland in central precocious puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, S.C.S.; Cook, J.S.; Hansen, J.R.; Simonson, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 17 children with central precocious puberty (CPP) and 19 aged-matched controls to compare the appearance of the pituitary gland. Gland size was measured on T1-weighted sagittal and coronal images. The gland was graded according to the concavity or convexity of the upper surface, and the signal intensity of the gland was assessed visually. The mean pituitary volume in 13 CPP children without hypothalamic tumor (292.6 mm 3 ) was significantly greater than that in normal controls (181.35 mm 3 ). The mean volume for the four CPP children with hypothalamic tumor was smaller (145.0 mm 3 ). Compared to controls, the upper pituitary surface in CPP patients appeared convex in a higher proportion. The anterior pituitary was isointense to pons in all patients and controls. Although the posterior pituitary bright spot was present in 14 controls and 11 CPP patients, none with hypothalamic tumor showed it. (orig.)

  12. Testicular Growth During Puberty in Boys With and Without a History of Congenital Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadov, Sergey; Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The pattern of testicular growth during puberty may provide important information about early testicular damage and reproductive potential in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pubertal testicular growth in boys with congenital cryptorchidism and controls. DESIGN: Longitudinal case...... mL by orchidometer and 25 mm by ruler as cut-offs in definition of the onset of puberty. An orchidometer size of 3 mL and ruler length of 25 mm corresponded to 1.6 and 1.7 mL by ultrasound (with Lambert's formula), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Testicular growth in puberty was impaired in congenitally...

  13. Gender differences of oligomers and total adiponectin during puberty: a cross-sectional study of 859 Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian Kjaer; Frystyk, Jan; Wolthers, Ole D

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Pubertal stages have been shown to influence total adiponectin (ADPN) levels. Furthermore, testosterone has been shown to alter the isomer distribution of ADPN. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate whether pubertal stages and testosterone levels influenced total serum ADPN...... levels and the distribution of ADPN isomers. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. PATIENTS: The study included 859 children and adolescents (396 males) aged 6-20 yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total ADPN and ADPN isomers were measured using a validated in-house immunofluorometric assay. Fractioning...... of the ADPN into the three major molecular fractions was performed in representative subgroups of pre- and postpubertal males and females (n = 40, 10 in each group) using a validated fast protein liquid chromatography method. RESULTS: Total ADPN levels before puberty were 13.4 (11.1-15.9) mg/liter (median...

  14. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Precocious Puberty and Delayed Puberty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... organs and blood flow in real time An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan of the brain and ...

  15. Cardiovascular alterations at different stages of hypertension development during ethanol consumption: Time-course of vascular and autonomic changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestani, Carlos C. [Department of Natural Active Principles and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Univ. Estadual Paulista—UNESP (Brazil); Lopes da Silva, Andréia [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Scopinho, América A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ruginsk, Silvia G.; Uchoa, Ernane T. [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Correa, Fernando M.A. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Resstel, Leonardo B.M., E-mail: leoresstel@yahoo.com.br [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present work was to establish a time-course correlation between vascular and autonomic changes that contribute to the development of hypertension during ethanol ingestion in rats. For this, male Wistar rats were subjected to the intake of increasing ethanol concentrations in their drinking water during four weeks. Ethanol effects were investigated at the end of each week. Mild hypertension was already observed at the first week of treatment, and a progressive blood pressure increase was observed along the evaluation period. Increased pressor response to phenylephrine was observed from first to fourth week. α{sub 1}-adrenoceptor protein in the mesenteric bed was enhanced at the first week, whereas β{sub 2}-adrenoceptor protein in the aorta was reduced after the second week. In the third week, ethanol intake facilitated the depressor response to sodium nitroprusside, whereas in the fourth week it reduced nitrate content in aorta and increased it plasma. The bradycardic component of the baroreflex was impaired, whereas baroreflex tachycardia was enhanced at the third and fourth weeks. AT{sub 1A} receptor and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) mRNAs in the nucleus tractus solitarius were increased at the fourth week. These findings suggest that increased vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agents is possibly a link factor in the development and maintenance of the progressive hypertension induced by ethanol consumption. Additionally, baroreflex changes are possibly mediated by alterations in angiotensinergic mechanisms and CNP content within the brainstem, which contribute to maintaining the hypertensive state in later phases of ethanol ingestion. Facilitated vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide seems to counteract ethanol-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Mild hypertension was observed during the entire period of ethanol ingestion. • Ethanol facilitated vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents. • Changes in baroreflex activity

  16. Puberty Is Delayed in Male Mice With Dextran Sodium Sulfate Colitis Out of Proportion to Changes in Food Intake, Body Weight, and Serum Levels of Leptin

    OpenAIRE

    DEBOER, MARK D.; LI, YONGLI

    2011-01-01

    In boys, inflammatory bowel disease often results in delayed puberty associated with decreased bone mineral density and decreased linear growth. Our goal was to investigate whether pubertal timing and levels of leptin differed between prepubertal male mice with colitis and food-restricted (FR) mice maintained at a similar weight. We induced colitis in 32-d-old male mice using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), resulting in 10 d of worsening colitis. We followed up these mice for separation of the ...

  17. HPG-axis hormones during puberty : A study on the association with hypothalamic and pituitary volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, Jiska S.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Schnack, Hugo G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kahn, Rene S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff

    Objective: During puberty, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is activated, leading to increases in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) levels. We aimed to study the association between hypothalamic and pituitary

  18. Granulosa cell tumor in a six-year-old girl presented as precocious puberty

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    Mahin Hashemipour

    2010-01-01

    Microscopic features of the resected mass were characteristic of juvenile GCT. Although in most of girls with precocious puberty, the etiology is idiopathic, important causes, such as ovarian tumors must be considered.

  19. Cardiometabolic risk factors and insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: relation to puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobisch, B; Blatniczky, L; Barkai, L

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity with concomitant increasing risk for having cardiometabolic diseases is rising in the childhood population. Insulin resistance has a key role in metabolic changes in these children. Insulin levels elevate as puberty commences in every individual. Children with increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases show significant differences in insulin levels even before the onset of puberty compared with those without risks. The pattern of appearance of dyslipidaemia also varies in children with risk factors even in the pre-pubertal group from those without risk. Children with metabolic syndrome display considerably pronounced changes in their metabolic parameters before the onset of puberty, which become more pronounced as puberty passes. Insulin resistance (IR) has a key role in the metabolic changes in obese children. In commencing puberty, the insulin levels elevate. It is not clear, however, how insulin levels develop if the metabolic syndrome appears. Metabolic changes were assessed in obese children before, during and after puberty to analyse the relationship between IR and puberty in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. Three hundred thirty-four obese children (5-19 years) attended the study. The criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were used to assess the presence of cardiometabolic risks (CMRs). Subjects with increased CMR were compared with those without risk (nCMR). Pubertal staging, lipid levels, plasma glucose and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test were determined in each participant. IR was expressed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and the ratio of glucose and insulin areas under the curve (AUC-IR). Significantly higher AUC-IR were found in pre-pubertal CMR children compared with nCMR subjects (11.84 ± 1.03 vs. 8.00 ± 0.69; P puberty. HOMA-IR differs between CMR and nCMR only in post-puberty (6.03 ± 1.26 vs. 2.54 ± 0.23; P puberty. CMR is associated with increased

  20. Puberty as a Critical Risk Period for Eating Disorders: A Review of Human and Animal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from hum...

  1. To treat or not to treat: puberty suppression in childhood-onset gender dysphoria

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rosalia; Carmichael, Polly; Colizzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Puberty suppression using gonadotropin-releasing-hormone analogues (GnRHa) has become increasingly accepted as an intervention during the early stages of puberty (Tanner stage 2-3) in individuals with clear signs of childhood-onset gender dysphoria. However, lowering the age threshold for using medical intervention for children with gender dysphoria is still a matter of contention, and is more controversial than treating the condition in adolescents and adults, as children with gender dysphor...

  2. A case of late presentation of precocious puberty due to pituitary astrocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fahimeh Soheilipour; Hossein Ghalaenov; Seyyed-Hossein Samedanifard; Fatemeh Jesmi

    2015-01-01

    The importance of assessing precocious puberty, especially in boys, is not only due to the great complications it has for the affected patients, but also to the fatal underlying diseases. Therefore, children with central precocious puberty should first undergo neuroimaging. In this case study, we present a 9.5-year-old boy who was referred to Rasoul-e-Akram Medical Center with increased intracranial pressure, nausea/vomiting, and severe headache having begun three months earlier. ...

  3. Psychological Support, Puberty Suppression, and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rosalia; Dunsford, Michael; Skagerberg, Elin; Holt, Victoria; Carmichael, Polly; Colizzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Puberty suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) is prescribed to relieve the distress associated with pubertal development in adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) and thereby to provide space for further exploration. However, there are limited longitudinal studies on puberty suppression outcome in GD. Also, studies on the effects of psychological support on its own on GD adolescents' well-being have not been reported.AIM: This study aimed to assess GD ado...

  4. The changes in running economy during puberty in overweight and normal weight boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: running economy (RE is important indicator of endurance performance. During puberty dynamic changes in body composition and function are observed, as such RE is also expected to change. The aim of the study was to compare the running economy (RE in overweight and normoweight boys during a running exercise performed with constant velocity, and the assessment of changes in RE during puberty.

  5. Diagnosis and constitutional and laboratory features of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty

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    Doosoo Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Precocious puberty is defined as breast development before the age of 8 years in girls. The present study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty and to compare the constitutional and endocrinological features among diagnosis groups. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; The present study used a retrospective chart review of 988 Korean girls who had visited a pediatric endocrinology clinic from 2006 to 2010 for the evaluation of precocious puberty. Study groups comprised fast puberty, true precocious puberty (PP, pseudo PP, premature thelarche, and control. We determined the height standard deviation score (HSDS, weight standard deviation score (WSDS, and body mass index standard deviation score (BMISDS of each group using the published 2007 Korean growth charts. Hormone tests were performed at our outpatient clinic. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The PP groups comprised fast puberty (67%, premature thelarche (17%, true PP (15%, and pseudo PP (1%. Advanced bone age and levels of estradiol, basal luteinizing hormone (LH, and peak LH after gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation testing were significantly high in the fast puberty and true PP groups compared with the control group. HSDS, WSDS, and BMISDS were significantly higher in the true PP group than in the control group (P&lt;0.05. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The frequent causes of PP were found to be fast puberty, true PP, and premature thelarche. Furthermore, BMISDS were significantly elevated in the true PP group. Therefore, we emphasize the need for regular follow-up of girls who are heavier or taller than others in the same age group.

  6. Descriptive review: hormonal influences on risk for eating disorder symptoms during puberty and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K Paige; Kretsch, Natalie; Moore, Sarah R; Mendle, Jane

    2014-11-01

    Puberty is an important period of risk for the onset of eating pathology in adolescent females. This review focuses on changes in reproductive hormones during puberty as one specific psychopathogenic mechanism. Studies of puberty and eating disorder-related phenotypes were identified using search databases and the reference sections of previous literature. Correlational studies of adult women and experimental studies of animals provide evidence for the effects of reproductive hormones on eating disorder symptoms. Very few studies of puberty, however, have directly measured or tested the effects of hormonal change in samples of human adolescents. Commonly used measures of pubertal development, such as menarche or self-reported pubertal status, are relatively poor indicators of individual differences in hormones. The extent to which puberty-related hormonal change accounts for elevated risk for disordered eating remains unclear. Future research is necessary to elucidate the specific relations between hormonal change during puberty and risk for disordered eating. In particular, there is a need for longitudinal studies with multivariate measurement of pubertal development, including direct measures of change in reproductive hormones. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Age of onset of puberty in Chilean boys according to testicular volume and Tanner stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Ximena; García, Roberto; Riquelme, Joel; Codner, Ethel

    2015-03-01

    A secular trend towards a younger age of puberty onset has been reported in Chilean girls. To evaluate the age of onset of puberty and prevalence of early puberty in Chilean boys. A pediatric endocrinologist examined 319 children attending schools in central Santiago. Pubertal development was assessed by testicular volume (TV) and genital inspection (GI) using Tanner graduation. Precocious and early puberty development was diagnosed if TV ≥ 4 ml or GI > stage 2 occurred in boys younger than 9 years and at 9-10 years of age, respectively. Pubertal onset occurred at 10.2 ± 1.5 years according to TV and at 11.1 ± 1.6 years according to GI (p puberty was observed in 23.8% of children according to TV and 9.5% according to GI. However, no child of less than 11 years old had a TV ≥ 4 ml, genital changes and pubic hair simultaneously. Late pubertal stages occurred at the same age according to both criteria used. Body mass index z score was not associated with the age of pubertal onset. Testicular enlargement occurs one year earlier than changes in genitalia according to inspection. Testicular growth, but not late stages of puberty, are occurring one year earlier than previously reported in Chile 10 years ago.

  8. Does salt have a permissive role in the induction of puberty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitynski, Dori; Flynn, Francis W; Skinner, Donal C

    2015-10-01

    Puberty is starting earlier than ever before and there are serious physiological and sociological implications as a result of this development. Current research has focused on the potential role of high caloric, and commensurate high adiposity, contributions to early puberty. However, girls with normal BMI also appear to be initiating puberty earlier. Westernized diets, in addition to being high in fat and sugar, are also high in salt. To date, no research has investigated a link between elevated salt and the reproductive axis. We hypothesize that a high salt diet can result in an earlier onset of puberty through three mechanisms that are not mutually exclusive. (1) High salt activates neurokinin B, a hormone that is involved in both the reproductive axis and salt regulation, and this induces kisspeptin release and ultimate activation of the reproductive axis. (2) Vasopressin released in response to high salt acts on vasopressin receptors expressed on kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, thereby stimulating gonadotropin releasing hormone and subsequently luteinizing hormone secretion. (3) Salt induces metabolic changes that affect the reproductive axis. Specifically, salt acts indirectly to modulate adiposity, ties in with the obesity epidemic, and further compounds the pathologic effects of obesity. Our overall hypothesis offers an additional cause behind the induction of puberty and provides testable postulates to determine the mechanism of potential salt-mediated affects on puberty. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Alterations in the molecular species of rat liver lecithin by corn-oil feeding to essential fatty acid-deficient rats as a function of time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golde, L.M.G. van; Pieterson, W.A.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1968-01-01

    The present paper describes, as a function of time, the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the molecular species pattern of rat liver lecithin which are observed when corn oil is fed to essential fatty acid-deficient rats. One of the most important changes observed was a very rapid

  10. Influence of ovarian hormones on development of ingestive responding to alterations in fatty acid oxidation in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E.; McCurley, Melissa; Hamilton, Erica; Doerflinger, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    Adult male rats have been demonstrated to increase food intake in response to administration of drugs that interfere with oxidation of fatty acids (e.g. methyl palmoxirate and mercaptoacetate [MA]), effects that are larger in animals maintained on a high-fat diet. In contrast, while administration of MA has been reported to stimulate food intake in pre-pubertal female rats, food intake is not stimulated by MA in adult female rats. Instead, administration of MA to adult females results in changes in reproductive behavior and physiology. The present experiments were designed to examine the effects of administration of MA on food intake in adult female rats. The results demonstrated that, as previously reported, food intake was stimulated by MA in adult male rats on low-fat and high-fat diets, but food intake in was not stimulated by MA in gonadally-intact adult female rats on either low-fat or high-fat diet. Further, MA did not stimulate food intake in female rats ovariectomized as adults. However, when females were ovariectomized prior to the onset of puberty (postnatal day 25 – 28), food intake was stimulated by administration of MA in adulthood. Finally, cyclic injections of 17-β-estradiol benzoate given to females ovariectomized prior to the onset of puberty abolished the stimulatory effects of MA on food intake in adult females. Taken together, the data suggest that exposure to estrogens during the time of puberty in female rats can persistently alter adult ingestive responding to signals related to changes in energy utilization. PMID:18586247

  11. The relationship between puberty and social emotion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddings, Anne-Lise; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2012-01-01

    The social brain undergoes developmental change during adolescence, and pubertal hormones are hypothesized to contribute to this development. We used fMRI to explore how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to brain activity during a social emotion task. Forty-two females aged 11.1 to 13.7 years underwent fMRI scanning while reading scenarios pertaining either to social emotions, which require the representation of another person’s mental states, or to basic emotions, which do not. Pubertal stage and menarcheal status were used to assign girls to early or late puberty groups. Across the entire sample, the contrast between social versus basic emotion resulted in activity within the social brain network, including dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), the posterior superior temporal sulcus, and the anterior temporal cortex (ATC) in both hemispheres. Increased hormone levels (independent of age) were associated with higher left ATC activity during social emotion processing. More advanced age (independent of hormone levels) was associated with lower DMPFC activity during social emotion processing. Our results suggest functionally dissociable effects of pubertal hormones and age on the adolescent social brain. PMID:23106734

  12. Puberty Onset among Boys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Ibrahim Al Alwan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods Cross-sectional study among male school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2006, 542 schoolboys, aged 6 to 16 years old, from diverse socioeconomic levels were selected into the sample using a cluster sample design. Tanner stages were ascertained during physical examination by pediatric endocrine consultants, and also trained pediatric residents and fellows. Results The mean age (standard deviation at Tanner Stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 for pubic hair development of Saudi boys was 11.4 (1.6, 13.3 (1.3, 14.4 (1.0 and 15.1 (0.8 years old, respectively. For gonadal development, the mean age (standard deviation at stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 11.4 (1.5, 13.3 (1.2, 14.3 (1.1 and 15.0 (0.9 years old, respectively. Conclusion The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics, based on gonadal development, among Saudi boys are comparable to those reported in Western populations.

  13. MR imaging of the pituitary gland in central precocious puberty

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    Kao, S.C.S. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Iowa Coll. of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)); Cook, J.S. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Iowa Coll. of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)); Hansen, J.R. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Iowa Coll. of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)); Simonson, T.M. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Iowa Coll. of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 17 children with central precocious puberty (CPP) and 19 aged-matched controls to compare the appearance of the pituitary gland. Gland size was measured on T1-weighted sagittal and coronal images. The gland was graded according to the concavity or convexity of the upper surface, and the signal intensity of the gland was assessed visually. The mean pituitary volume in 13 CPP children without hypothalamic tumor (292.6 mm[sup 3]) was significantly greater than that in normal controls (181.35 mm[sup 3]). The mean volume for the four CPP children with hypothalamic tumor was smaller (145.0 mm[sup 3]). Compared to controls, the upper pituitary surface in CPP patients appeared convex in a higher proportion. The anterior pituitary was isointense to pons in all patients and controls. Although the posterior pituitary bright spot was present in 14 controls and 11 CPP patients, none with hypothalamic tumor showed it. (orig.)

  14. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (Buserelin) treatment for central precocious puberty: a multi-centre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werther, G A; Warne, G L; Ennis, G; Gold, H; Silink, M; Cowell, C T; Quigley, C; Howard, N; Antony, G; Byrne, G C

    1990-02-01

    A multi-centre open trial of Buserelin, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue, was conducted in 13 children with central precocious puberty. Eleven children (eight girls and three boys), aged 3.4-10.2 years at commencement, completed the required 12 month period of treatment. Initially all patients received the drug by intranasal spray in a dose of 1200 micrograms/day, but by the end of the 12 month period two were having daily subcutaneous injections and three were receiving an increased dose intranasally. The first month of treatment was associated in one boy with increased aggression and masturbation, and in the girls with an increase in the prevalence of vaginal bleeding. Thereafter, however, both behavioural abnormalities and menstruation were suppressed. Median bone age increased significantly during the study, but without any significant change in the ratio of height age to bone age. The median predicted adult height for the group therefore did not alter significantly over the twelve months of the study. Buserelin treatment caused a reduction in the peak luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) responses to LHRH, mostly to prepubertal levels, and also suppressed basal FSH. In the first weeks of treatment, the girls' serum oestradiol levels rose significantly and then fell to prepubertal or early pubertal levels. A similar pattern was seen for serum testosterone levels. Serum somatomedin-C levels, however, showed little fluctuation over the course of the study. Buserelin treatment was safe and well accepted, and offers the promise of improved linear growth potential in precocious puberty.

  15. Treatment of early puberty in adopted and non-adopted children: when, why and how : Auxological, psychological and ethical aspects of growth promoting treatment around puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Mul (Dick)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractNormal puberty is the result of the maturation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Primary and secondary sexual characteristics develop by the increase in the serum levels of gonadal steroids: oestradiol in girls and testosterone in boys. The main players in the process of

  16. Puberty is delayed in male mice with dextran sodium sulfate colitis out of proportion to changes in food intake, body weight, and serum levels of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboer, Mark D; Li, Yongli

    2011-01-01

    In boys, inflammatory bowel disease often results in delayed puberty associated with decreased bone mineral density and decreased linear growth. Our goal was to investigate whether pubertal timing and levels of leptin differed between prepubertal male mice with colitis and food-restricted (FR) mice maintained at a similar weight. We induced colitis in 32-d-old male mice using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), resulting in 10 d of worsening colitis. We followed up these mice for separation of the prepuce from the glans penis as a marker of pubertal progression. Compared with free-feeding control mice, DSS and FR mice had significantly lower weight on d 7-10 of treatment. DSS mice had later puberty than control and FR mice. DSS mice also had smaller testes, lower FSH levels, increased systemic cytokines, and increased colonic inflammation by histology. Leptin levels were similar between DSS and FR mice, whereas both had decreases in leptin compared with controls. We conclude that DSS colitis causes delayed puberty in sexually immature male mice beyond what is seen among FR mice of similar weight, food intake, and leptin levels. These experiments provide support for the hypothesis that pubertal delay in colitis is influenced by factors beyond poor weight gain alone.

  17. Influences on the onset and tempo of puberty in human beings and implications for adolescent psychological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yvonne; Styne, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Historical records reveal a secular trend toward earlier onset of puberty in both males and females, often attributed to improvements in nutrition and health status. The trend stabilized during the mid 20th century in many countries, but recent studies describe a recurrence of a decrease in age of pubertal onset. There appears to be an associated change in pubertal tempo in girls, such that girls who enter puberty earlier have a longer duration of puberty. Puberty is influenced by genetic factors but since these effects cannot change dramatically over the past century, environmental effects, including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and perinatal conditions offer alternative etiologies. Observations that the secular trends in puberty in girls parallel the obesity epidemic provide another plausible explanation. Early puberty has implications for poor behavioral and psychosocial outcomes as well as health later in life. Irrespective of the underlying cause of the ongoing trend toward early puberty, experts in the field have debated whether these trends should lead clinicians to reconsider a lower age of normal puberty, or whether such a new definition will mask a pathologic etiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Puberty is an important developmental period for the establishment of adipose tissue mass and metabolic homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrup, Brandon; Church, Christopher D; Berry, Ryan; Colman, Laura; Jeffery, Elise; Bober, Jeremy; Rodeheffer, Matthew S

    2017-07-03

    Over the past 2 decades, the incidence of childhood obesity has risen dramatically. This recent rise in childhood obesity is particularly concerning as adults who were obese during childhood develop type II diabetes that is intractable to current forms of treatment compared with individuals who develop obesity in adulthood. While the mechanisms responsible for the exacerbated diabetic phenotype associated with childhood obesity is not clear, it is well known that childhood is an important time period for the establishment of normal white adipose tissue in humans. This association suggests that exposure to obesogenic stimuli during adipose development may have detrimental effects on adipose function and metabolic homeostasis. In this study, we identify the period of development associated with puberty, postnatal days 18-34, as critical for the establishment of normal adipose mass in mice. Exposure of mice to high fat diet only during this time period results in metabolic dysfunction, increased leptin expression, and increased adipocyte size in adulthood in the absence of sustained increased fat mass or body weight. These findings indicate that exposure to obesogenic stimuli during critical developmental periods have prolonged effects on adipose tissue function that may contribute to the exacerbated metabolic dysfunctions associated with childhood obesity.

  19. [Puberty-delaying hormone therapy in adolescents with gender identity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2013-01-01

    The guideline for the treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology was revised in January 2012. The guideline eased restrictions for the endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents. A medical specialist can start treating transsexual adolescents at the age of 15 after the diagnosis of GID. It recommends that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2 [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until the age of 15 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. Female-to-male transsexuals do not necessarily want to start androgen therapy before presenting female secondary sexual characteristics because androgen can easily stop menstruation, cause beard growth, and lower the voice. On the contrary, male-to-female transsexuals want to start estrogen therapy before presenting male secondary sexual characteristics because estrogen cannot alter the beard and low voice. It is important to identify children with gender dysphoria in school and help them receive medical advice. However, approximately half of school teachers think that children with gender dysphoria are very rare and they do not know of the notification from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN, which aims to help children with gender dysphoria. The revision of the guideline for the treatment of transsexual people and endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents by medical specialists may prevent them from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Furthermore, the treatment may help avoid mental disorders, aid being employed with the desired sexuality, and, subsequently, getting married and having children.

  20. Significant adverse reactions to long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of central precocious puberty and early onset puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Woo Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeLong-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa are commonly used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP in Korea. Although rare, there have been reports on the characteristic of adverse reactions of GnRHa in CPP among the Korean population. This study was intended to report on our clinical experience regarding significant adverse reactions to long-acting GnRHa in CPP and early onset puberty and to evaluate the prevalence rate of serious side effects.MethodsThis retrospective study included children with CPP and early onset puberty, who were administered monthly with long-acting GnRHa (leuprolide acetate, triptorelin acetate at the outpatient clinic of Department of Pediatrics, at Inha University Hospital, between January 2011 and December 2013. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who experienced significant adverse reactions and evaluated the prevalence rate.ResultsSix serious side effects (0.9% were observed among total of 621 CPP and early onset puberty children with GnRHa therapy. The number of sterile abscess formation was four in three patients (4 events of 621. Anaphylaxis occurred in only one patient, and unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE in another one patient. Anaphylaxis occurred after the 6th administration of the monthly depot triptorelin acetate. Unilateral SCFE developed in GnRHa therapy.ConclusionSterile abscess formation occurred in 0.6% of CPP and early onset puberty patients from the administration of a monthly depot GnRHa therapy. The occurrences of anaphylaxis and SCFE are extremely rare, but can have serious implications on patients. Clinicians should be aware of these potential adverse effects related to GnRHa therapy in CPP.

  1. Serum leptin concentration during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandão C.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained during the past five years have indicated that there are important age- and gender-based differences in the regulation and action of leptin in humans. To study the physiological changes of leptin during puberty in both sexes, and its relationship with body composition and sexual maturation, we measured leptin concentrations in 175 healthy adolescents (80 girls, 95 boys, 10-18 years of age, representing all pubertal stages. We excluded individuals with a body mass index (BMI below the 5thor above the 95th percentile relative to age. Serum concentrations of leptin were determined by a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorimetric assay, developed in our laboratory. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pubertal stage was assigned by physical examination, according to Tanner criteria for breast development in females and genital development in males. Leptin concentration in girls (N = 80 presented a positive linear correlation with age (r = 0.35, P = 0.0012, BMI (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001. In boys (N = 95 there was a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001, but a significant negative linear correlation with Tanner stage (r = -0.45, P < 0.0001 and age (r = -0.40, P < 0.0001. The regression equation revealed that %fat mass and BMI are the best parameters to be used to estimate leptin levels in both sexes. Thus, the normal reference ranges for circulating leptin during adolescence should be constructed according to BMI or %fat mass to assure a correct evaluation.

  2. Endocrine evaluation of puberty and post-partum ovarian function in indigenous and imported Brahman cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, H.S.; Ismaya, K.H.; Sulong, A.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor the reproductive performance of Kedah Kelantan (KK) and Brahman cattle maintained under similar environmental and management conditions on commercial farms in Malaysia. This allowed the physiological differences affecting reproductive efficiency to be identified in both pubertal and adult stock. The results revealed that the Brahman breed exhibited a better growth rate but poorer post-partum fertility than the KK. It appears that Brahman cattle require feed supplementation around the time of calving in order to reduce the duration of post-partum anoestrus. Both breeds exhibited late onset of puberty (on average at 25-36 months of age), although some animals initiated sexual activity at a much earlier age; this suggests that better selection as well as nutritional supplementation and possibly endocrine manipulation are necessary management inputs. Although the Brahman shows excellent potential in terms of performance per animal, the greater carrying capacity of the KK and its greater adaptiveness to local conditions indicate that this indigenous animal still has a major role to play in livestock production in Malaysia. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  3. Timing of Secondary Hydrothermal Alteration of the Luobusa Chromitites Constrained by Ar/Ar Dating of Chrome Chlorites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Chrome chlorites are usually found as secondary phases formed by hydrothermal alteration of chromite deposits and associated mafic/ultramafic rocks. Here, we report the 40Ar/39Ar age of chrome chlorites separated from the Luobusa massive chromitites which have undergone secondary alteration by CO2-rich hydrothermal fluids. The dating results reveal that the intermediate heating steps (from 4 to 10 of sample L7 generate an age plateau of 29.88 ± 0.42 Ma (MSWD = 0.12, plateau 39Ar = 74.6%, and the plateau data points define a concordant inverse isochron age of 30.15 ± 1.05 Ma (MSWD = 0.08, initial 40Ar/36Ar = 295.8 ± 9.7. The Ar release pattern shows no evidence of later degassing or inherited radiogenic component indicated by an atmospheric intercept, thus representing the age of the hydrothermal activity. Based on the agreement of this hydrothermal age with the ~30 Ma adakitic plutons exposed in nearby regions (the Zedong area, tens of kilometers west Luobusa and the extensive late Oligocene plutonism distributed along the southeastern Gangdese magmatic belt, it is suggested that the hydrothermal fluids are likely related to the ~30 Ma magmatism. The hydrothermal fluid circulation could be launched either by remote plutons (such as the Sangri granodiorite, the nearest ~30 Ma pluton west Luobusa or by a similar coeval pluton in the local Luobusa area (inferred, not found or reported so far. Our results provide important clues for when the listwanites in Luobusa were formed.

  4. Increased risk of precocious puberty in internationally adopted children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, G.; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Skakkebæk, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    settings from birth to adoption, whereas most other countries are reported to take care of the children in orphanages before adoption. It can only be speculated whether a relation between preadoption living conditions and later risk of precocious puberty exists. Genetic factors play a key role...... identified through the unique Danish Civil Registration System and subsequently categorized as being Danish (N = 1,062,333), adopted (N = 10,997), immigrating with their family (N = 72,181), or being descendants of immigrants (N = 128,152). The incidence rate ratio of precocious puberty was estimated by log......-linear Poisson regression. All rate ratios were adjusted for age and its interaction with gender and calendar year. P values were based on likelihood ratio tests, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Wald's test. RESULTS: In the study period, 655 children developed precocious puberty during 5...

  5. Lives in a chiaroscuro. Should we suspend the puberty of children with gender identity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, S

    2008-08-01

    Transgender children who are not treated for their condition are at high risk of violence and suicide. As a matter of survival, many are willing to take whatever help is available, even if this is offered by illegal sources, and this often traps them into the juvenile criminal system and exposes them to various threats. Endocrinology offers a revolutionary instrument to help children/adolescents with gender identity disorder: suspension of puberty. Suspension of puberty raises many ethical issues, and experts dissent as to when treatment should be commenced and how children should be followed up. This paper argues that suspension of puberty is not only not unethical: if it is likely to improve the child's quality of life and even save his or her life, then it is indeed unethical to defer treatment.

  6. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    receptor is the primary component in the initiation of puberty and where in the hypothalamus regulation of the kisspeptin/Kiss1R system occurs is unresolved. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the level of Kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the anteroventral...... periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats along pubertal development. Neurons expressing Kiss1 mRNA were first detected at PND15, but increased significantly around puberty, and declined again in the adult rat. While virtually no immunoreactive cell bodies were detectable in the AVPV...... that the regulation of kisspeptin synthesis and release are key events in puberty onset in the male rat....

  7. Increase in first morning voided urinary luteinizing hormone levels precedes the physical onset of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demir, Ahmet; Voutilainen, R; Juul, A

    1996-01-01

    Determinations of serum gonadotropin concentrations by ultra-sensitive methods have improved the diagnosis of pubertal disorders. The onset of puberty can be estimated by measuring serum gonadotropin pulsation, but as this requires serial nocturnal blood sampling, it is not a routine investigation...... before clinical signs of puberty can be detected. The correlation between FMV urine and S-LH values was good (r = 0.64; P ... for S-LH. A significant increase in FMV U-LH concentration occurs before the first clinical signs of puberty in a sex-independent fashion. Our data indicate that FMV U-LH measurement is a clinically relevant, noninvasive method for the evaluation of pubertal development, and it may be helpful...

  8. Evaluation of puberty by verifying spontaneous and stimulated gonadotropin values in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Vivian L; Cai, Ziyong; Lam, Leslie; Shah, Bina; Zhou, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Changes in pharmacological agents and advancements in laboratory assays have changed the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog stimulation test. To determine the best predictive model for detecting puberty in girls. Thirty-five girls, aged 2 years 7 months to 9 years 3 months, with central precocious puberty (CPP) (n=20) or premature thelarche/premature adrenarche (n=15). Diagnoses were based on clinical information, baseline hormones, bone age, and pelvic sonogram. Gonadotropins and E2 were analyzed using immunochemiluminometric assay. Logistic regression for CPP was performed. The best predictor of CPP is the E2-change model based on 3- to 24-h values, providing 80% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Three-hour luteinizing hormone (LH) provided 75% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Basal LH lowered sensitivity to 65% and specificity to 53%. The E2-change model provided the best predictive power; however, 3-h LH was more practical and convenient when evaluating puberty in girls.

  9. Induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl--practices and attitudes of pediatric endocrinologists in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Conway, G; Ritzen, M

    2002-01-01

    The management of children and adolescents with hypogonadism and in particular the induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl is subject to controversy. Therefore, under the auspices and through organization of the Drugs and Therapeutics Committee of the European Society of Paediatric Endocrino......The management of children and adolescents with hypogonadism and in particular the induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl is subject to controversy. Therefore, under the auspices and through organization of the Drugs and Therapeutics Committee of the European Society of Paediatric...... of the results of the questionnaires and discussions of that session to further the discussion on and knowledge of current concepts of induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl in Europe. It became clear from the data accumulated here that the start of treatment, the aims of therapy and the modalities of how...

  10. BLOOD LEAD CONCENTRATION AND DELAYED PUBERTY IN GIRLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Environmental lead exposure has been linked to alterations in growth and endocrine function. It is not known whether such exposure affects pubertal development.Methods We analyzed the relations between blood lead concentration and pubertal...

  11. Final height in central precocious puberty after long term treatment with a slow release GnRH agonist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, W; Rikken, B; Schreuder, S; Otten, Barto; Odink, R; Rouwe, C; Jansen, M; Gerver, WJ; Waelkens, J; Drop, S

    1996-01-01

    Objective-To study the resumption of puberty and the final height achieved in children with central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with the GnRH agonist triptorelin. Patients-31 girls and five boys with CPP who were treated with triptorelin 3.75 mg intramuscularly every four weeks. Girls were

  12. Primary School Puberty/Sexuality Education: Student-Teachers' Past Learning, Present Professional Education, and Intention to Teach These Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Coleman, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary school teachers are often tasked with puberty/sexuality education for students who are undergoing sexual maturation at ever-earlier ages. This study explores the changing trajectories of the pre-service learning and teaching of primary school puberty/sexuality education at an urban university, including student-teachers' childhood…

  13. Spermaturia and serum hormone concentrations at the age of puberty in boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Nanette M; Sørensen, Nicolina; Weihe, Pal

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty.......To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty....

  14. An Early Window of Opportunity for Promoting Girls' Health: Policy Implications of the Girl's Puberty Book Project in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marni

    2011-01-01

    The onset of puberty, and specifically menstruation, is an opportune moment for reaching girls as they transition into adolescence and young womanhood. Despite the importance of this transitional period, the reproductive health community has tended to overlook the onset of menstruation and early puberty in global, national and local policy and…

  15. Lung volume and expiratory flow rates from pre- to post-puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua R; Emerson, Sam R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Gandhi, Kirti; Harms, Craig A

    2015-08-01

    The purpose was to determine if the airways and lungs grow disproportionately from pre- to post-puberty in boys and girls. We hypothesized that the airways grow at a slower rate than lung volume (i.e. dysanapsis growth) during puberty and boys would exhibit more dysanaptic growth compared to girls. Twenty-one pre-pubescent children [11 boys (pre 10.1 ± 0.5 years, post 15.3 ± 0.5 years); 10 girls (pre 9.4 ± 1.0 years, post 14.1 ± 1.0 years)] performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs) ~5 years ago from an original cohort of 40 children. These 21 children performed PFTs, which included forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow at 50 % FVC (FEF50). Static pressure at 50 % of FVC [Pst(L)50 %] was estimated based on age. Dysanapsis ratio (DR) was calculated [FEF50 × FVC(-1) × Pst(L) 50 % (-1) ]. Maturation status was determined via Tanner stages. Stage of maturation was not different (p > 0.05) between boys and girls (4.2 ± 0.6 stage vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 stage, respectively). FVC and FEF50 increased (p 0.05) from pre- to post-puberty. FEF50 and FVC significantly increased and DR decreased (p puberty for both sexes. Post-puberty, boys had a significantly larger FVC, but FEF50, DR, and FEF50/FVC were not different (p > 0.05) compared to girls. These data suggest that dysanaptic growth occurs during puberty and that it is not different between boys and girls.

  16. Ussefulnes of imaging techniques in the diagnostics of precocious puberty in boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowska, Anna; Grajewska-Ferens, Magdalena; Brzewski, Michał; Sopyło, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Precocious puberty (PP) is defined as the appearance of symptoms of puberty in girls before 8 years of age and in boys under 9. Statistically, it occurs much more frequently in girls, while it is a rare pathology in boys. Over the period of 10 years, between 1999 and 2009, 39 girls and 17 boys aged 18 months – 9 years were diagnosed with precocious puberty,, and treated at the Endocrinology Clinic. The following tests were performed in all children: physical and anthropometric examinations, abdominal ultrasound scan (US) with evaluation of adrenal glands, examination of testes in boys or breasts and pelvic organs in girls, evaluation of skeletal age and, in selected cases, CT scans of the abdomen, MRI of the CNS, and hormonal laboratory tests. In the group of 17 boys the findings included: gonadotropin –dependent central puberty in 6 boys: idiopathic in 5 cases, and 1 case of a brain tumor – astrocytoma. Gonadotropin-independent precocious pseudopuberty was diagnosed in 11 boys: congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 5; in 1case – hyperandrogenism caused by overactivity of 5-α reductase; in 2 subjects – adrenal adenoma; in 2 boys adrenocortical carcinoma was diagnosed and Leydig cell tumor of testis in 1. 1. Precocious puberty occurs less often in boys, but in our population it was found in 17 boys of 56 treated children, which constituted as much as 30%. 2. Precocious pseudopuberty was found in 64% of the boys with PP. 3. Adrenal and testicular tumors were the causes of precocious puberty in the youngest group of boys aged 18 months – 6 years

  17. Male patients presenting with rapidly progressive puberty associated with malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jung Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In males, precocious puberty (PP is defined as the development of secondary sexual characteristics before age 9 years. PP is usually idiopathic; though, organic abnormalities including tumors are more frequently found in male patients with PP. However, advanced puberty in male also can be an important clinical manifestation in tumors. We report 2 cases of rapidly progressive puberty in males, each associated with a germ-cell tumor. First, an 11-year-old boy presented with mild fever and weight loss for 1 month. Physical examination revealed a pubertal stage of G3P3 with 10-mL testes. Investigations revealed advanced bone age (16 years with elevated basal luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels. An anterior mediastinal tumor was identified by chest radiography and computed tomography, and elevated α-fetoprotein (AFP and β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG levels were noted. Histopathologic analysis confirmed a yolk-sac tumor. Second, a 12-year-old boy presented with diplopia, polydipsia, and polyuria for 4 months. Physical examination revealed a pubertal stage of G3P3 with 8-mL testes. Bone age was advanced (16 years and laboratory tests indicated panhypopituitarism with elevated testosterone level. A mixed germ-cell tumor was diagnosed with elevated AFP and β-hCG levels. Of course, these patients also have other symptoms of suspecting tumors, however, rapidly progressive puberty can be the more earlier screening sign of tumors. Therefore, in male patients with accelerated or advanced puberty, malignancy should be considered, with evaluation of tumor markers. In addition, advanced puberty in male should be recognized more widely as a unique sign of neoplasm.

  18. Compliance to the prescribed dose and overall treatment time in five randomized clinical trials of altered fractionation in radiotherapy for head-and-neck carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Azza A.; Bentzen, Soeren M.; Bernier, Jacques; Saunders, Michele I.; Horiot, Jean-Claude; Bogaert, Walter van den; Cummings, Bernard J.; Dische, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate compliance to the prescribed dose-fractionation schedule in five randomized controlled trials of altered fractionation in radiotherapy for head-and-neck carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Individual patient data from 2566 patients participating in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 22791, EORTC 22811, EORTC 22851, Princess Margaret Hospital (PMH), and continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART) head-and-neck trials were merged in the fractionation IMPACT (Intergroup Merger of Patient data from Altered or Conventional Treatment schedules) study database. The ideal treatment time was defined as the minimum time required to deliver a prescribed schedule. Compliance to the prescribed overall treatment time was quantified as the difference between the actual and the ideal overall time. An overall measure of compliance in an individual patient, the total dose lost (TDL), was calculated as the dose lost due to prolongation of therapy (assuming a D prolif of 0.64 Gy/day) plus the difference between the prescribed and the actual dose given. Results: The time in excess of the ideal ranged up to 97 days (average 3.9 days), and 25% of the patients had delays of 6 days or more. World Health Organization (WHO) performance status and nodal stage had a significant effect on TDL. TDL was significantly higher in the conventional than in the altered arm of the EORTC 22851 and CHART trials. In the PMH trial, TDL was significantly higher in the hyperfractionation than in the conventional arm. Centers participating in the three EORTC trials varied significantly in their compliance. There was a significant improvement in compliance in patients treated more recently. Conclusions: Even in randomized controlled trials, compliance to the prescribed radiation therapy schedule may be relatively poor, especially after conventional fractionation. This affects the interpretation of the outcome of these trials

  19. Hormonal changes during GnRH analogue therapy in children with central precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Juul, A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) for more than 15 years. They are generally considered safe although data on potential long-term side effects are scarce. However, GnRHa therapy has profound effects on both the hypoth......Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) for more than 15 years. They are generally considered safe although data on potential long-term side effects are scarce. However, GnRHa therapy has profound effects on both...

  20. METHOD OF TREATMENT OF CONSTITUTIONAL PUBERTY RETARDATION IN BOYS (CASE HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sinitsina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of examination of a 15-year-old boy with growth and puberty retardation are analyzed in this article. On the grounds of performed complex examination the patient was found physical development delay, changes at the endocrinal status, as well as pathological signs on X-ray, rheo- and electroencephalography, which are characteristic for functional growth and puberty retardation. In order to correct the found disturbances transcranial magnetotherapy was carried out. During the performed treatment improvement of the physical development characteristics, endocrinal status and data of rheo- and electroencephalography were noted.

  1. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a

  2. Age, puberty, body dissatisfaction, and physical activity decline in adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finne Emily

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS. Methods The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%. Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Results Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78. The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56. No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75. BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Conclusions Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies.

  3. The Value of Comparative Approaches to our Understanding of Puberty as Illustrated by Investigations in Birds and Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F.; Wade, Juli

    2013-01-01

    Studies of birds and reptiles have provided many basic insights into the neuroendocrine control of reproductive processes. This research has elucidated mechanisms regulating both early development, including sexual differentiation, and adult neuroendocrine function and behavior. However, phenomena associated with the transition into sexual maturation (puberty) have not been a focus of investigators working on species in these taxonomic classes. Research is complicated in birds and reptiles by a variety of factors, including what can be extended times to maturation, the need to reach particular body size regardless of age, and environmental conditions that can support or inhibit endocrine responses. However, careful selection of model systems, particularly those with available genetic tools, will lead to important comparative studies that can elucidate both generalizability and diversity of mechanisms regulating the onset of reproductive maturity. PMID:23998665

  4. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  5. Integrative testis transcriptome analysis reveals differentially expressed miRNAs and their mRNA targets during early puberty in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaftnesmo, K O; Edvardsen, R B; Furmanek, T; Crespo, D; Andersson, E; Kleppe, L; Taranger, G L; Bogerd, J; Schulz, R W; Wargelius, A

    2017-10-18

    , miR-222a/b, miR-190a) or have now been found connected (miR-2188, miR-144, miR-731, miR-8157 and the novel n2) to the initiation of puberty. This study has - for the first time - linked testis maturation to specific miRNAs and their inversely correlated expressed targets in Atlantic salmon. The study indicates a broad functional conservation of already known miRNAs and associated pathways involved in the transition into puberty in vertebrates. The analysis also reveals miRNAs not previously associated with testis tissue or its maturation, which calls for further functional studies in the testis.

  6. Diurnal Alterations of Refraction, Anterior Segment Biometrics, and Intraocular Pressure in Long-Time Dehydration due to Religious Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Gonen; Cengiz, Hakan; Uyar, Murat; Seker Un, Emine

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of dehydration due to fasting on diurnal changes of intraocular pressure, anterior segment biometrics, and refraction. The intraocular pressures, anterior segment biometrics (axial length: AL; Central corneal thickness: CCT; Lens thickness: LT; Anterior chamber depth: ACD), and refractive measurements of 30 eyes of 15 fasting healthy male volunteers were recorded at 8:00 in the morning and 17:00 in the evening in the Ramadan of 2013 and two months later. The results were compared and the statistical analyses were performed using the Rstudio software version 0.98.501. The variables were investigated using visual (histograms, probability plots) and analytical methods (Kolmogorov-Smirnov/Shapiro-Wilk test) to determine whether or not they were normally distributed. The refractive values remained stable in the fasting as well as in the control period (p = 0.384). The axial length measured slightly shorter in the fasting period (p = 0.001). The corneal thickness presented a diurnal variation, in which the cornea measured thinner in the evening. The difference between the fasting and control period was not statistically significant (p = 0.359). The major differences were observed in the anterior chamber depth and IOP. The ACD was shallower in the evening during the fasting period, where it was deeper in the control period. The diurnal IOP difference was greater in the fasting period than the control period. Both were statistically significant (p = 0.001). The LT remained unchanged in both periods. The major difference was shown in the anterior chamber shallowing in the evening hours and IOP. Our study contributes the hypothesis that the posterior segment of the eye is more responsible for the axial length alterations and normovolemia has a more dominant influence on diurnal IOP changes.

  7. Air pollution exposure during critical time periods in gestation and alterations in cord blood lymphocyte distribution: a cohort of livebirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herr Caroline EW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxic exposures have been shown to influence maturation of the immune system during gestation. This study investigates the association between cord blood lymphocyte proportions and maternal exposure to air pollution during each gestational month. Methods Cord blood was analyzed using a FACSort flow cytometer to determine proportions of T lymphocytes (CD3+ cells and their subsets, CD4+ and CD8+, B lymphocytes (CD19+ and natural killer (NK cells. Ambient air concentrations of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and particulate matter 2.5 were measured using fixed site monitors. Arithmetic means of these pollutants, calculated for each gestational month, were used as exposure metrics. Data on covariates were obtained from medical records and questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate associations between monthly PAH or PM2.5 and cord blood lymphocytes, adjusting for year of birth and district of residence and, in further models, gestational season and number of prior live births. Results The adjusted models show significant associations between PAHs or PM2.5 during early gestation and increases in CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes percentages and decreases in CD19+ and NK cell percentages in cord blood. In contrast, exposures during late gestation were associated with decreases in CD3+ and CD4+ fractions and increases in CD19+ and NK cell fractions. There was no significant association between alterations in lymphocyte distribution and air pollution exposure during the mid gestation. Conclusions PAHs and PM2.5 in ambient air may influence fetal immune development via shifts in cord blood lymphocytes distributions. Associations appear to differ by exposure in early versus late gestation.

  8. Factors that predict a positive response on gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test for diagnosing central precocious puberty in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghwan Suh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe rapid increase in the incidence of precocious puberty in Korea has clinical and social significance. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH stimulation test is required to diagnose central precocious puberty (CPP, however this test is expensive and time-consuming. This study aimed to identify factors that can predict a positive response to the GnRH stimulation test.MethodsClinical and laboratory parameters, including basal serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and estradiol (E2, were measured in 540 girls with clinical signs of CPP.ResultsTwo hundred twenty-nine of 540 girls with suspected CPP had a peak serum LH level higher than 5 IU/L (the CPP group. The CPP group had advanced bone age (P<0.001, accelerated yearly growth rate (P<0.001, increased basal levels of LH (P=0.02, FSH (P<0.001, E2 (P=0.001, and insulin-like growth factor-I levels (P<0.001 compared to the non-CPP group. In contrast, body weight (P<0.001 and body mass index (P<0.001 were lower in the CPP group. Although basal LH was significantly elevated in the CPP group compared to the non-CPP group, there was considerable overlap between the 2 groups. Cutoff values of basal LH (0.22 IU/L detected CPP with 87.8% sensitivity and 20.9% specificity.ConclusionNo single parameter can predict a positive response on the GnRH stimulation test with both high sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, multiple factors should be considered in evaluation of sexual precocity when deciding the timing of the GnRH stimulation test.

  9. Cognitive, emotional and psychosocial functioning of girls treated with pharmacological puberty blockage for idiopathic central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Wojniusz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central precocious puberty (CPP develops due to premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, resulting in early pubertal changes and rapid bone maturation. CPP is associated with lower adult height and increased risk for development of psychological problems. Standard treatment of CPP is based on postponement of pubertal development by blockade of the HPG axis with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa leading to abolition of gonadal sex hormones synthesis. Whereas the hormonal and auxological effects of GnRHa are well researched, there is a lack of knowledge whether GnRHa treatment influences psychological functioning of treated children, despite the fact that prevention of psychological problems is used as one of the main reasons for treatment initiation. In the present study we seek to address this issue by exploring differences in cognitive function, behavior, emotional reactivity, and psychosocial problems between GnRHa treated CPP girls and age-matched controls.Fifteen girls with idiopathic CPP; median age 10.4 years, treated with slow-release GnRHa (triptorelin acetate – Decapeptyl SR ® 11.25 and 15 age-matched controls, were assessed with a comprehensive test battery consisting of paper and pencil tests, computerized tasks, behavioral paradigms, heart rate variability, and questionnaires filled in by the children’s parents. Both groups showed very similar scores with regard to cognitive performance, behavioral and psychosocial problems. Compared to controls, treated girls displayed significantly higher emotional reactivity (p = 0.016; Cohen’s d = 1.04 on one of the two emotional reactivity task conditions. Unexpectedly, the CPP group showed significantly lower resting heart rates than the controls (p = 0.004; Cohen’s d = 1.03; lower heart rate was associated with longer treatment duration (r = - 0.582, p = 0.037. The results suggest that GnRHa treated CPP girls do not differ in their cognitive or

  10. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level.

  11. Antiretroviral treatment initiation does not differentially alter neurocognitive functioning over time in youth with behaviorally acquired HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sharon L; Bethel, James; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Li, Tiandong; Woods, Steven P; Patton, E Doyle; Ren, Weijia; Thornton, Sarah E; Major-Wilson, Hanna O; Puga, Ana M; Sleasman, John W; Rudy, Bret J; Wilson, Craig M; Garvie, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Although youth living with behaviorally acquired HIV (YLWH) are at risk for cognitive impairments, the relationship of impairments to HIV and potential to improve with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are unclear. This prospective observational study was designed to examine the impact of initiation and timing of ART on neurocognitive functioning in YLWH in the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions. Treatment naïve YLWH age 18-24 completed baseline and four additional assessments of attention/working memory, complex executive, and motor functioning over 3 years. Group 1 co-enrolled in an early ART initiation study and initiated ART at enrollment CD4 >350 (n = 56); group 2 had CD4 >350 and were not initiating ART (n = 66); group 3 initiated ART with CD4 treatment guidelines at the time. Treatment was de-intensified to boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy at 48 weeks for those in group 1 with suppressed viral load. Covariates included demographic, behavioral, and medical history variables. Analyses used hierarchical linear modeling. All groups showed improved performance with peak at 96 weeks in all three functional domains. Trajectories of change were not significantly associated with treatment, timing of treatment initiation, or ART de-intensification. Demographic variables and comorbidities were associated with baseline functioning but did not directly interact with change over time. In conclusion, YLWH showed improvement in neurocognitive functioning over time that may be related to practice effects and nonspecific impact of study participation. Neither improvement nor decline in functioning was associated with timing of ART initiation or therapy de-intensification.

  12. The sex-shift in single disease and multimorbid asthma and rhinitis during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Theresa; Hohmann, C; Standl, M

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies suggested that allergy prevalence in childhood is higher in boys compared to girls, but it remains unclear if this inequality changes after puberty. We examined the sex-specific prevalence of asthma and rhinitis as single and as multimorbid diseases before and ...

  13. The sex‐shift in single disease and multimorbid asthma and rhinitis during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Theresa; Hohmann, C; Standl, M

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies suggested that allergy prevalence in childhood is higher in boys compared to girls, but it remains unclear if this inequality changes after puberty. We examined the sex-specific prevalence of asthma and rhinitis as single and as multimorbid diseases before...

  14. Other-Sex Relationship Stress and Sex Differences in the Contribution of Puberty to Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the pubertal transition, particularly when experienced earlier than age-matched peers, is associated with heightened depression in girls but less depression in boys. This study examined whether stress within other-sex relationships serves as one process through which puberty differentially contributes to depression for girls…

  15. Normalized Urinary Flow at Puberty after Tubularized Incised Plate Urethroplasty for Hypospadias in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marie; Doroszkiewicz, Monika; Arfwidsson, Charlotte; Abrahamsson, Kate; Sillén, Ulla; Holmdahl, Gundela

    2015-11-01

    An obstructive urinary flow pattern is frequently seen after tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for hypospadias. However, the significance of this finding has not been determined and long-term results are few. We describe postoperative long-term uroflowmetry results after puberty in males who underwent tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in childhood. A total of 126 boys underwent tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for distal penile to mid shaft hypospadias at Queen Silvia Children's Hospital in Gothenburg between 1999 and 2003. Of the patients 48 were toilet trained at surgery. We report on 40 patients who had data available at 2 and 12 months postoperatively, 7 years postoperatively and at puberty (median age 15.0 years, range 13.7 to 17.1). Of the patients 31 had distal and 9 had mid penile hypospadias. Clinical examination, urinary medical history, uroflowmetry and ultrasound measuring residual urine were performed. Maximum urinary flow was correlated to age and voided volume, using Miskolc nomograms for comparison of percentiles. At 1 year postoperatively 15 boys (37.5%) had normal urinary flow (above 25th percentile), compared to 16 (40%) at 7 years and 38 (95%) at puberty (p puberty for boys with hypospadias treated with tubularized incised plate urethroplasty. Unless symptoms occur, a conservative approach seems preferable. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Final height after gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist treatment for central precocious puberty : The Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, D; Oostdijk, W; Otten, BJ; Rouwe, C; Jansen, M; Delemarre-van de Waal, HA; Waelkens, JJJ; Drop, SLS

    Final height (FH) data of 96 children (87 girls) treated with GnRH agonist for central precocious puberty were studied. In girls mean FH exceeded initial height prediction by 7.4 (5.7) cm (p <0.001); FH was significantly lower than target height, but still in the genetic target range. When treatment

  17. Relationship between pre-weaning gain, age at puberty, and reproductive tract development in Angus heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef heifers should initiate reproductive cycles by 12 mo of age to insure multiple estrous cycles before the start of the breeding season to maximize fertility. Previous research indicated that pre-weaning gain positively influenced the onset of puberty and antral follicle numbers. Therefore, the...

  18. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION AFTER THE ONSET OF PUBERTY - ASSOCIATION WITH PERINATAL EVENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    In order to study the hypotheses that puberty is related to a decrease of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and that persisting MND is associated with perinatal factors, two groups (174 normal, 172 MND) of the Groningen Perinatal Project were followed from 12 to 14 years. At 14 years almost all

  19. Endocrine profiles during attainment of puberty may predict reproductive longevity in heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that attainment of puberty through initiation and continuation of cyclic activity may be a predictor of reproductive longevity in heifers. Blood plasma was collected from 379 spring born heifers over four years from weaning to prior to breeding (October-June) in 2012-2015. Four pube...

  20. A single sample GnRHa stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been the standard test for diagnosing central precocious puberty. Because GnRH is no longer available, GnRH analogues (GnRHa) are now used. Random LH concentration, measured by the third-generation immunochemiluminometric assay, is a useful screening tool ...

  1. Apparent Transition in the Human Height Distribution Caused by Age-Dependent Variation during Puberty Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takaki; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Kuninaka, Hiroto

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we examine the validity of the transition of the human height distribution from the log-normal distribution to the normal distribution during puberty, as suggested in an earlier study [Kuninaka et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 78 (2009) 125001]. Our data analysis reveals that, in late puberty, the variation in height decreases as children grow. Thus, the classification of a height dataset by age at this stage leads us to analyze a mixture of distributions with larger means and smaller variations. This mixture distribution has a negative skewness and is consequently closer to the normal distribution than to the log-normal distribution. The opposite case occurs in early puberty and the mixture distribution is positively skewed, which resembles the log-normal distribution rather than the normal distribution. Thus, this scenario mimics the transition during puberty. Additionally, our scenario is realized through a numerical simulation based on a statistical model. The present study does not support the transition suggested by the earlier study.

  2. Recent decline in age at breast development: the Copenhagen Puberty Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar; Petersen, Jørgen H

    2009-01-01

    cohorts. RESULTS: Onset of puberty, defined as mean estimated age at attainment of glandular breast tissue (Tanner breast stage 2+), occurred significantly earlier in the 2006 cohort (estimated mean age: 9.86 years) when compared with the 1991 cohort (estimated mean age: 10.88 years). The difference...

  3. Genome-wide association and identification of candidate genes for age at puberty in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive efficiency has a great impact on the economic success of pork production. Gilts comprise a significant portion of breeding females and gilts that reach puberty earlier tend to stay in the herd longer and be more productive. About 10 to 30% of gilts never farrow a litter and the most com...

  4. Puberty suppression and executive functioning : An fMRI-study in adolescents with gender dysphoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staphorsius, Annemieke S; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Veltman, Dick J; Burke, Sarah M; Schagen, Sebastian E E; Wouters, Femke M; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriëtte A; Bakker, J.

    Adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) may be treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) to suppress puberty and, thus, the development of (unwanted) secondary sex characteristics. Since adolescence marks an important period for the development of executive functioning (EF), we

  5. Puberty suppression and executive functioning: An fMRI-study in adolescents with gender dysphoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staphorsius, A.S.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Veltman, D.J.; Burke, S.M.; Schagen, S.E.E.; Wouters, F.M.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Bakker, J.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) may be treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) to suppress puberty and, thus, the development of (unwanted) secondary sex characteristics. Since adolescence marks an important period for the development of executive functioning (EF), we

  6. Some Sociological Contexts for Consideration When Designing a School Puberty/Sexuality Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2017-01-01

    Sociological contexts are key factors in education and schooling. Contemporary contexts of world-view, or "Weltanschauungen," such as human rights, public health, demographics, biosocial factors including earlier puberty and a developmentalist approach, and technological connectivity, warrant significant professional consideration by…

  7. Perceptions of Sex, Gender, and Puberty Suppression: A Qualitative Analysis of Transgender Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouenraets, L.J.; Fredriks, A.M.; Hannema, S.E.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Vries, M.C. de

    2016-01-01

    International guidelines recommend the use of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) agonists in adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) to suppress puberty. Little is known about the way gender dysphoric adolescents themselves think about this early medical intervention. The purpose of the present

  8. Bimodal stimulus timing-dependent plasticity in primary auditory cortex is altered after noise exposure with and without tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2015-12-01

    Central auditory circuits are influenced by the somatosensory system, a relationship that may underlie tinnitus generation. In the guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), pairing spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) stimulation with tones at specific intervals and orders facilitated or suppressed subsequent tone-evoked neural responses, reflecting spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Furthermore, after noise-induced tinnitus, bimodal responses in DCN were shifted from Hebbian to anti-Hebbian timing rules with less discrete temporal windows, suggesting a role for bimodal plasticity in tinnitus. Here, we aimed to determine if multisensory STDP principles like those in DCN also exist in primary auditory cortex (A1), and whether they change following noise-induced tinnitus. Tone-evoked and spontaneous neural responses were recorded before and 15 min after bimodal stimulation in which the intervals and orders of auditory-somatosensory stimuli were randomized. Tone-evoked and spontaneous firing rates were influenced by the interval and order of the bimodal stimuli, and in sham-controls Hebbian-like timing rules predominated as was seen in DCN. In noise-exposed animals with and without tinnitus, timing rules shifted away from those found in sham-controls to more anti-Hebbian rules. Only those animals with evidence of tinnitus showed increased spontaneous firing rates, a purported neurophysiological correlate of tinnitus in A1. Together, these findings suggest that bimodal plasticity is also evident in A1 following noise damage and may have implications for tinnitus generation and therapeutic intervention across the central auditory circuit. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Time-, Sex-, and Dose-Dependent Alterations of the Gut Microbiota by Consumption of Dietary Daikenchuto (TU-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Miyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Medications or dietary components can affect both the host and the host’s gut microbiota. Changes in the microbiota may influence medication efficacy and interactions. Daikenchuto (TU-100, a herbal medication, comprised of ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper, is widely used in Japanese traditional Kampo medicine for intestinal motility and postoperative paralytic ileus. We previously showed in mice that consumption of TU-100 for 4 weeks changed the gut microbiota and increased bioavailability of bacterial ginsenoside metabolites. Since TU-100 is prescribed in humans for months to years, we examined the time- and sex-dependent effects of TU-100 on mouse gut microbiota. Oral administration of 1.5% TU-100 for 24 weeks caused more pronounced changes in gut microbiota in female than in male mice. Changes in both sexes largely reverted to baseline upon TU-100 withdrawal. Effects were time and dose dependent. The microbial profiles reverted to baseline within 4 weeks after withdrawal of 0.75% TU-100 but were sustained after withdrawal of 3% TU-100. In summary, dietary TU-100 changed mouse microbiota in a time-, sex-, and dose-dependent manner. These findings may be taken into consideration when determining optimizing dose for conditions of human health and disease with the consideration of differences in composition and response of the human intestinal microbiota.

  10. Ketamine alters behavior and decreases BDNF levels in the rat brain as a function of time after drug administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane B. Fraga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate behavioral changes and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in rats subjected to ketamine administration (25 mg/kg for 7 days. Method: Behavioral evaluation was undertaken at 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Results: We observed hyperlocomotion 1 hour after the last injection and a decrease in locomotion after 6 hours. Immobility time was decreased and climbing time was increased 6 hours after the last injection. BDNF levels were decreased in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala when rats were killed 6 hours after the last injection, compared to the saline group and to rats killed 1 hour after the last injection. BDNF levels in the striatum were decreased in rats killed 6 hours after the last ketamine injection, and BDNF levels in the hippocampus were decreased in the groups that were killed 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Conclusion: These results suggest that the effects of ketamine on behavior and BDNF levels are related to the time at which they were evaluated after administration of the drug.

  11. DEHP exposure in utero disturbs sex determination and is potentially linked with precocious puberty in female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongan; Yang, Qing; Liu, Wei; Yu, Mingxi; Zhang, Zhou; Cui, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Human's ubiquitous exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is thought to be associated with female reproductive toxicity. Previous studies found that DEHP inhibited follicle growth and decreased estradiol levels in adult female mice. However, limited information is available on the link between in utero DEHP exposure and ovarian development in female mouse offspring. The present study evaluates the disturbances in regulatory genes involved in female sex determination and the ovarian outcomes in fetal and postnatal female mice treated with in utero DEHP exposure. Pregnant mice were exposed to DEHP by gavage, with the dosage regime beginning at human relevant exposure levels. After in utero DEHP exposure, increased follicular atresia was observed in the female pups at postnatal days (PND) 21. Foxl2 expression was significantly upregulated, and Fst was significantly downregulated by DEHP above 2 mg/kg/d at PND 1 and 21. This suggests that lesion of granulosa cell differentiation and disturbance of follicle development in postnatal female mice. The expression of Cyp11a1 and Star were significantly downregulated by in utero DEHP exposure, indicating effects on estradiol biosynthesis. The female sex determination pathway was disturbed in fetus by DEHP at 2 mg/kg/d and above during the critical time window of sex determination causing significant upregulation of Foxl2, Wnt4, β-catenin and Fst. Furthermore, the increased expression of Wnt4 was supported by whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). These results suggest a possible association between in utero DEHP exposure and precocious puberty in the postnatal life of mice offspring, where disturbance of the sex determination regulating pathway acted as an important mechanism. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate disturbs fetus sex determination. • DEHP upregulated Foxl2 expression potentially disturbs postnatal granulosa cell differentiation. • DEHP accelerated medulla

  12. DEHP exposure in utero disturbs sex determination and is potentially linked with precocious puberty in female mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongan [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Yang, Qing [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: liu_wei@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Yu, Mingxi; Zhang, Zhou; Cui, Xiaoyu [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Human's ubiquitous exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is thought to be associated with female reproductive toxicity. Previous studies found that DEHP inhibited follicle growth and decreased estradiol levels in adult female mice. However, limited information is available on the link between in utero DEHP exposure and ovarian development in female mouse offspring. The present study evaluates the disturbances in regulatory genes involved in female sex determination and the ovarian outcomes in fetal and postnatal female mice treated with in utero DEHP exposure. Pregnant mice were exposed to DEHP by gavage, with the dosage regime beginning at human relevant exposure levels. After in utero DEHP exposure, increased follicular atresia was observed in the female pups at postnatal days (PND) 21. Foxl2 expression was significantly upregulated, and Fst was significantly downregulated by DEHP above 2 mg/kg/d at PND 1 and 21. This suggests that lesion of granulosa cell differentiation and disturbance of follicle development in postnatal female mice. The expression of Cyp11a1 and Star were significantly downregulated by in utero DEHP exposure, indicating effects on estradiol biosynthesis. The female sex determination pathway was disturbed in fetus by DEHP at 2 mg/kg/d and above during the critical time window of sex determination causing significant upregulation of Foxl2, Wnt4, β-catenin and Fst. Furthermore, the increased expression of Wnt4 was supported by whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). These results suggest a possible association between in utero DEHP exposure and precocious puberty in the postnatal life of mice offspring, where disturbance of the sex determination regulating pathway acted as an important mechanism. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate disturbs fetus sex determination. • DEHP upregulated Foxl2 expression potentially disturbs postnatal granulosa cell differentiation. • DEHP accelerated medulla

  13. Renal tissue alterations were size-dependent with smaller ones induced more effects and related with time exposure of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrar Bashir M

    2011-09-01

    interfering with the antioxidant defense mechanism and leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS generation which in turn may induce stress in the renal cells to undergo atrophy and necrosis. The produced alterations were size-dependent with smaller ones induced more affects and related with time exposure of GNPs.

  14. Determinants of puberty health among female adolescents residing in boarding welfare centers in Tehran: An application of health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadi, Shayesteh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Nadrian, Haidar; Mahmoodi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical stage of growth and development. That is associated with changes in body shape and appearance. Issues such as irregular menstrual periods, amenorrhea, and menstrual cycle are major issues in women's health. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of physical puberty health based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among female adolescents. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in welfare boarding centers in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected in 2011 by a structured and valid questionnaire. Total 61 female adolescents (age range: 12-19 yrs) participated in this study from welfare boarding centers in Iran, Tehran, by using convenience sampling method. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors gathered by using interview. A series of univariate general linear models were used to assess the relationship between puberty health and health belief model constructs. Results: According to the results of this study there were positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action and increased puberty health in female adolescents (p<0.05). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers and cues to action were predictors of physical puberty health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study to improve the physical Puberty health behaviors of female adolescents should make them aware of the benefits of health behaviors, and remove or reform the perceived barriers of health behaviors. Also, the appropriate information resources should be introduced for obtaining information about puberty health.

  15. Cognitive assessment of mice strains heterozygous for cell-adhesion genes reveals strain-specific alterations in timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Tucci, Valter; Nolan, Patrick M; Schachner, Melitta; Jakovcevski, Igor; Kheifets, Aaron; Barboza, Luendro

    2014-03-05

    We used a fully automated system for the behavioural measurement of physiologically meaningful properties of basic mechanisms of cognition to test two strains of heterozygous mutant mice, Bfc (batface) and L1, and their wild-type littermate controls. Both of the target genes are involved in the establishment and maintenance of synapses. We find that the Bfc heterozygotes show reduced precision in their representation of interval duration, whereas the L1 heterozygotes show increased precision. These effects are functionally specific, because many other measures made on the same mice are unaffected, namely: the accuracy of matching temporal investment ratios to income ratios in a matching protocol, the rate of instrumental and classical conditioning, the latency to initiate a cued instrumental response, the trials on task and the impulsivity in a switch paradigm, the accuracy with which mice adjust timed switches to changes in the temporal constraints, the days to acquisition, and mean onset time and onset variability in the circadian anticipation of food availability.

  16. Puberty and the manifestations of loss of control eating in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Anna; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Kelly, Nichole R; Hannallah, Louise M; Pickworth, C Katie; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Brady, Sheila M; Condarco, Tania A; Kozlosky, Merel; Demidowich, Andrew P; Yanovski, Susan Z; Shomaker, Lauren B; Yanovski, Jack A

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the manifestations of pediatric loss of control (LOC) eating at different stages of pubertal development. Participants were a nonclinical sample of 468 youth (8-17 years). Physical examination determined pubertal stage. LOC eating and disordered eating attitudes were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination. In a randomized crossover design, a subset (n = 244) ate ad libitum from two test meals designed to capture normal and LOC eating. There were no differences in the prevalence rates or frequency of reported LOC eating episodes across pubertal stages (ps ≥ 0.50). There were, however, puberty by LOC eating interactions in disordered eating attitudes and palatable food consumption (ps ≤ .05), even after adjusting for age and body composition. LOC eating was associated with elevated global disordered eating attitudes, weight concern, and shape concern in post-pubertal youth (ps ≤ .001), but not pre-pubertal youth (ps ≥ .49). In late-puberty, youth with LOC eating consumed less energy from protein (p puberty was not associated with differences in eating behavior (ps ≥ 0.20). Findings suggest that puberty may be a critical risk period, when LOC eating behaviors in boys and girls may become accompanied by greater weight and shape concerns and more obesogenic food consumption patterns. Interventions for LOC eating during pre-puberty should be evaluated to determine if they are particularly beneficial for the prevention of exacerbated eating disorder psychopathology and adverse weight outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Hormonal factors and incident asthma and allergic rhinitis during puberty in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junxiang; Gerlich, Jessica; Genuneit, Jon; Nowak, Dennis; Vogelberg, Christian; von Mutius, Erika; Radon, Katja

    2015-07-01

    Accumulating evidence is indicating that hormonal factors play a role in new-onset allergic rhinitis and asthma after puberty. To determine whether age at menarche and use of hormonal contraceptives predict new-onset allergic rhinitis and asthma after puberty in young German women. A prospective community-based cohort study followed 1,191 girls 9 to 11 years old to early adulthood (19-24 years old). Self-administrated questionnaires concerning age at menarche, use of hormonal contraceptives, and status and age at onset of physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis and asthma were collected at 16 to 18 and 19 to 24 years of age. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the incidence of asthma and allergic rhinitis after puberty and pooled estimates were obtained from the final model. Eleven percent of girls developed allergic rhinitis after menarche and 3% reported new-onset asthma. Late menarche (>13 years of age) was statistically significantly inversely related to allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.74) but did not reach the level of statistical significance for asthma (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.07-1.42). Use of hormonal contraceptives was inversely associated with new-onset allergic rhinitis (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.08-0.23) and asthma (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.12-0.58) after puberty. This study shows that girls with late onset of menarche are less likely to develop allergic rhinitis after puberty compared with those who have menarche at an average age. These findings also suggest that, in addition to endogenous hormones, hormonal contraceptives play a role and might protect young women from allergies and asthma. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychological Support, Puberty Suppression, and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosalia; Dunsford, Michael; Skagerberg, Elin; Holt, Victoria; Carmichael, Polly; Colizzi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Puberty suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) is prescribed to relieve the distress associated with pubertal development in adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) and thereby to provide space for further exploration. However, there are limited longitudinal studies on puberty suppression outcome in GD. Also, studies on the effects of psychological support on its own on GD adolescents' well-being have not been reported. This study aimed to assess GD adolescents' global functioning after psychological support and puberty suppression. Two hundred one GD adolescents were included in this study. In a longitudinal design we evaluated adolescents' global functioning every 6 months from the first visit. All adolescents completed the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS), a self-report measure of GD-related discomfort. We used the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) to assess the psychosocial functioning of adolescents. At baseline, GD adolescents showed poor functioning with a CGAS mean score of 57.7 ± 12.3. GD adolescents' global functioning improved significantly after 6 months of psychological support (CGAS mean score: 60.7 ± 12.5; P puberty suppression had significantly better psychosocial functioning after 12 months of GnRHa (67.4 ± 13.9) compared with when they had received only psychological support (60.9 ± 12.2, P = 0.001). Psychological support and puberty suppression were both associated with an improved global psychosocial functioning in GD adolescents. Both these interventions may be considered effective in the clinical management of psychosocial functioning difficulties in GD adolescents. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Qualitative assessment of precocious puberty-related user-created contents on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Kyoung Nam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeUser-created content (UCC has provided a considerable amount of medical information and become an important source. We aimed to evaluate the quality and scientific accuracy of precocious puberty-related UCC on YouTube.MethodsThe keywords "precocious puberty", "early puberty", "sexual precocity", and "precocity" were searched for on YouTube during June and July 2014. More than 1,500 UCC matched the keywords. According to the information provider, UCC was classified as medical, oriental, or commercial & others. We evaluated the quality and scientific accuracy of the information provided in UCC using the DISCERN instrument and information scores, respectively.ResultsWe selected 51 UCC, which were categorized into three types: medical (n=17, oriental (n=17, or commercial & others (n=17. The overall quality score for medical UCC (3.4 was significantly higher relative to those of oriental and commercial & others UCC (2.8 and 2.3, respectively (P<0.001. In the assessment of scientific accuracy, the mean information score for medical UCC (30.7 was significantly higher than those of oriental and commercial & others UCC (15.9 and 5.1, respectively (P<0.001. The mean duration of oriental UCC was the longest (P<0.001, however, it was viewed less frequently among them (P=0.086.ConclusionThe quality and accuracy of precocious puberty-related health information in UCC were variable and often unreliable. The overall quality of UCC regarding precocious puberty was moderate. Only medical UCC provided scientifically accurate information. As UCC becomes a popular source of health information, it is important to provide reliable, scientifically accurate information.

  20. Puberty and Fertility of Ewe Lambs Fed on By-products of Palm and Olive Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-T arabany, A.A.; Mostafa, M.M.M.; Mohamed, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to elucidate the effect of palm and olive oil by-products adding to rations on production and reproductive performance of Rahmani and Osimi female sheep. After weaning, Rahmani and Osimi ewe lambs (24 for each) of similar birth type were identified to compare between two rations containing hard fatty acids (HFA) or olive cake (OC) on sexual puberty and fertility of two breeds. The lambs of both breed were randomly divided into three groups: the first group is considered control and received ration which contained concentrate feed mixture (CFM). The second group nourished (OC) consisted of CFM +HFA and the third group nourished (HFA) composed of CFM +OC. The CFM was offered as basal ration to all experimental lambs. Body weight, functions of the liver, kidney, thyroid and progesterone hormones at puberty, and the fertility traits were assayed in the two breeds of ewes. The average body weight of female lambs was higher (P<0.05) with OC than HFA. Female lambs supplied OC reached puberty faster and their thyroid and sexual hormones (progesterone) have been developed earlier than ewe lambs given HFA and those in the control group. Age at puberty and progesterone level in both Rahmani and Osimi ewe lambs were better in ewes fed on OC , than other two groups. The fertility (%) from total ewe lambs and birth weight in ewe lambs fed on OC were higher than ewes fed on HFA and the control. It may be concluded that feeding ewe lambs on diet containing HFA from weaning had positive effects on age at puberty, reproductive fertility and prolificacy

  1. Puberty Health Status among Adolescent Girls: A Model- based Educational Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Kheirollahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood and is one of the fastest stages of human development which is simultaneous to start of puberty. This study aimed to investigate the puberty health status among adolescent girls through a model- based educational program. Materials and Methods The current study was an interventional quasi-experimental research. It was conducted on 152 girls aged 13 to 15 years old on the city of Qom- Iran. To select the subjects, first an education zone was randomly selected. In that zone, two schools were randomly selected as the intervention and control groups (76 for interventional group and 76 for control group.After confirming the reliability and validity of a researcher-made questionnaire, it was used to collect the required data via self-reports. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. Results The mean age and menarche of the students were 13.59 ± 0.87 and 12.38 ± 0.99 years, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of knowledge and behavior in intervention and control groups after educational intervention, so that the mean scores of knowledge and behavior about puberty health in the intervention group were higher than the control group (P 0.05. Conclusion As the results showed, before the intervention the status of knowledge, attitude toward puberty health, and behavior about puberty health of the studied students was not favorable. Therefore, it is necessary to highlight the need for educational interventions and the role of health professionals in this field.

  2. Intraoperative transit-time flow measurement is not altered in venous bypass grafts covered by the eSVS mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert W; Solien, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the eSVS Mesh interferes with transit-time flow measurement (TTFM) assessing intraoperative coronary vein graft patency. In four swine undergoing off-pump bypass grafting to the anterior descending coronary artery, five TTFMs were sequentially obtained on meshed and bare grafts at baseline and under Dobutamine stress at five separate locations on the graft in each animal. The Medistim VeriQ was used for TTFM. The grafts were examined for patency after the swine were killed. There was no difference in hemodynamics or TTFM either at baseline or under Dobutamine stress between the eSVS Mesh covered and uncovered grafts. Dobutamine, however, significantly increased hemodynamics and graft flow parameters measured from baseline. The eSVS Mesh does not interfere with Doppler flow measurement in covered coronary vein grafts.

  3. Altered developmental timing in early life stages of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) exposed to p,p'-DDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Anita H., E-mail: anita.poulsen@uq.edu.au [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), 39 Kessels Rd, Brisbane, Qld 4108 (Australia); Kawaguchi, So, E-mail: so.kawaguchi@aad.gov.au [Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tas 7050 (Australia); Leppaenen, Matti T., E-mail: matti.t.leppanen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, Department of Biology, FIN-80101 (Finland); Kukkonen, Jussi V.K., E-mail: jussi.kukkonen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, Department of Biology, FIN-80101 (Finland); Bengtson Nash, Susan M., E-mail: s.bengtsonnash@griffith.edu.au [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), 39 Kessels Rd, Brisbane, Qld 4108 (Australia); Griffith University, Atmospheric Environment Research Centre, Brisbane, Qld 4111 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are persistent, toxic and bioaccumulative anthropogenic organic chemicals, capable of undergoing long range environmental transport to remote areas including the Antarctic. p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) has been identified as a dominant POP accumulating in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), which is a key Southern Ocean species. This study examined the developmental toxicity of p,p'-DDE via aqueous exposure to Antarctic krill larvae. p,p'-DDE exposure was found to stimulate developmental timing in the first three larval stages of Antarctic krill, while extended monitoring of larvae after a five day exposure period had ended, revealed delayed inhibitory responses during development to the fourth larval stage. Stimulatory responses were observed from the lowest p,p'-DDE body residue tested of 10.1 {+-} 3.0 {mu}mol/kg (3.2 {+-} 0.95 mg/kg) preserved wet weight, which is comparable to findings for temperate species and an order of magnitude lower than the exposure level found to cause sublethal behavioural effects in Antarctic krill. The delayed responses included increased mortality, which had doubled in the highest p,p'-DDE treatment (95 {+-} 8.9% mortality at 20 {mu}g/L p,p'-DDE) compared to the solvent control (44 {+-} 11% mortality) 2 weeks after end of exposure. Development of surviving metanauplius larvae to calyptopis 1 larvae was delayed by 2 days in p,p'-DDE exposed larvae compared with untreated larvae. Finally, the developmental success of surviving p,p'-DDE exposed larvae was reduced by 50 to 75% compared to the solvent control (100% developmental success). The lowest observed effect concentration for all delayed effects was 1 {mu}g/L, the lowest exposure concentration tested. These findings demonstrate the importance of delayed and indirect effects of toxicant exposure. Further, the findings of this study are important for environmental risk assessment

  4. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhlberg, Anders; Elbing, Karin; Andrade-Garda, José Manuel; Sjögreen, Björn; Forootan, Amin; Kubista, Mikael

    2008-04-16

    The large sensitivity, high reproducibility and essentially unlimited dynamic range of real-time PCR to measure gene expression in complex samples provides the opportunity for powerful multivariate and multiway studies of biological phenomena. In multiway studies samples are characterized by their expression profiles to monitor changes over time, effect of treatment, drug dosage etc. Here we perform a multiway study of the temporal response of four yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different glucose uptake rates upon altered metabolic conditions. We measured the expression of 18 genes as function of time after addition of glucose to four strains of yeast grown in ethanol. The data are analyzed by matrix-augmented PCA, which is a generalization of PCA for 3-way data, and the results are confirmed by hierarchical clustering and clustering by Kohonen self-organizing map. Our approach identifies gene groups that respond similarly to the change of nutrient, and genes that behave differently in mutant strains. Of particular interest is our finding that ADH4 and ADH6 show a behavior typical of glucose-induced genes, while ADH3 and ADH5 are repressed after glucose addition. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling is a powerful technique which can be utilized to characterize functions of new genes by, for example, comparing their temporal response after perturbation in different genetic variants of the studied subject. The technique also identifies genes that show perturbed expression in specific strains.

  5. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-Garda José

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large sensitivity, high reproducibility and essentially unlimited dynamic range of real-time PCR to measure gene expression in complex samples provides the opportunity for powerful multivariate and multiway studies of biological phenomena. In multiway studies samples are characterized by their expression profiles to monitor changes over time, effect of treatment, drug dosage etc. Here we perform a multiway study of the temporal response of four yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different glucose uptake rates upon altered metabolic conditions. Results We measured the expression of 18 genes as function of time after addition of glucose to four strains of yeast grown in ethanol. The data are analyzed by matrix-augmented PCA, which is a generalization of PCA for 3-way data, and the results are confirmed by hierarchical clustering and clustering by Kohonen self-organizing map. Our approach identifies gene groups that respond similarly to the change of nutrient, and genes that behave differently in mutant strains. Of particular interest is our finding that ADH4 and ADH6 show a behavior typical of glucose-induced genes, while ADH3 and ADH5 are repressed after glucose addition. Conclusion Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling is a powerful technique which can be utilized to characterize functions of new genes by, for example, comparing their temporal response after perturbation in different genetic variants of the studied subject. The technique also identifies genes that show perturbed expression in specific strains.

  6. A possible association between dietary intake of copper, zinc and phosphate and delayed puberty in heifers in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M M M; Fadlalla, I M T; Barri, M E S

    2002-02-01

    Zinc and copper deficiencies have been reported in heifers of various breeds at four different locations in Sudan. These were Kuku (5 km north of Khartoum), Seleit (20 km northwest of Khartoum), Medani (180 km south of Khartoum) and El Obeid (600 km west of Khartoum). Phosphorus deficiency was only observed in the serum of heifers at El Obeid. The heifers at all locations showed delayed puberty, stunted growth and infertility. The heifers of the local breeds at El Obeid only attained puberty by 1530 days of age compared with 840 days for the pure Friesian heifers at Seleit. The crossbred animals at Kuku and Medani attained puberty at 1440 and 1020 days of age, respectively. The marginal or low zinc and copper contents in pasture, soil or animal feed may have been predisposing factors for the observed deficiencies and might have been responsible for the delayed age of puberty.

  7. Timing of prenatal exposure to trauma and altered placental expressions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes and genes driving neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Li, Q; Deyssenroth, M; Lambertini, L; Finik, J; Ham, J; Huang, Y; Tsuchiya, K J; Pehme, P; Buthmann, J; Yoshida, S; Chen, J; Nomura, Y

    2018-04-01

    Prenatal maternal stress increases the risk for negative developmental outcomes in offspring; however, the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unexplored. In the present study, alterations in placental gene expression associated with maternal stress were examined to clarify the potential underlying epi/genetic mechanisms. Expression levels of 40 selected genes involved in regulating foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurodevelopment were profiled in placental tissues collected from a birth cohort established around the time of Superstorm Sandy. Objective prenatal traumatic stress was defined as whether mothers were exposed to Superstorm Sandy during pregnancy. Among the 275 mother-infant dyads, 181 dyads were delivered before Superstorm Sandy (ie, Control), 66 dyads were exposed to Superstorm Sandy during the first trimester (ie, Early Exposure) and 28 were exposed to Superstorm Sandy during the second or third trimester (ie, Mid-Late Exposure). Across all trimesters, expression of HSD11B2, MAOA, ZNF507 and DYRK1A was down-regulated among those exposed to Superstorm Sandy during pregnancy. Furthermore, trimester-specific differences were also observed: exposure during early gestation was associated with down-regulation of HSD11B1 and MAOB and up-regulation of CRHBP; exposure during mid-late gestation was associated with up-regulation of SRD5A3. The findings of the present study suggest that placental gene expression may be altered in response to traumatic stress exposure during pregnancy, and the susceptibility of these genes is dependent on the time of the exposure during pregnancy. Further studies should aim to clarify the biological mechanisms that underlie trimester-specific exposure by evaluating the differential impact on offspring neurodevelopment later in childhood. © 2018 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  8. Transitions into puberty and access to sexual and reproductive health information in two humanitarian settings: a cross-sectional survey of very young adolescents from Somalia and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kågesten, Anna E; Zimmerman, Linnea; Robinson, Courtland; Lee, Catherine; Bawoke, Tenaw; Osman, Shahd; Schlecht, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Very young adolescents (VYA) in humanitarian settings are largely neglected in terms of sexual and reproductive health (SRH). This study describes the characteristics of VYA aged 10-14 years in two humanitarian settings, focusing on transitions into puberty and access to SRH information. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey with Somali VYA residing in the Kobe refugee camp in Ethiopia ( N  = 406) and VYA from Myanmar residing in the Mae Sot and Phop Phra migrant communities in Thailand ( N  = 399). The average age was 12 years (about half were girls) in both communities. Participants were recruited using multi-stage cluster-based sampling with probability proportional to size in each site. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sociodemographic, family, peer, and schooling characteristics and to explore transitions into puberty and access to SRH information. Most VYA in both sites reported living with both parents; nine in ten reported feeling that their parents/guardians care about them, and over half said that their parents/guardians monitor how and with whom they spend their free time. High proportions in both sites were currently enrolled in school (91.4% Somali, 87.0% from Myanmar). Few VYA, particularly those aged 10-12, reported starting puberty, although one in four Somali indicated not knowing whether they did so. Most girls from Myanmar who had started menstruating reported access to menstrual hygiene supplies (water, sanitation, cloths/pads). No Somali girls reported access to all these supplies. While over half of respondents in both sites reported learning about body changes, less than 20% had learnt about pregnancy and the majority (87.4% Somali, 78.6% from Myanmar) indicated a need for more information about body changes. Parents/guardians were the most common source of SRH information in both sites, however VYA indicated that they would like more information from friends, siblings, teachers and health workers. This

  9. Diagnostic work-up of 449 consecutive girls who were referred to be evaluated for precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette

    2011-01-01

    A decrease in age at pubertal onset has been observed internationally. The aim of this study was to describe a large cohort of Caucasian girls referred with signs of early puberty according to etiology and compare biochemical characteristics.......A decrease in age at pubertal onset has been observed internationally. The aim of this study was to describe a large cohort of Caucasian girls referred with signs of early puberty according to etiology and compare biochemical characteristics....

  10. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn......RH agonists to evaluate the effect of normal and precocious puberty on PSA levels and to study the correlation between testosterone and PSA in boys....

  11. Features of Puberty Onset in Children Born to Fathers with Burdened Radiation Anamnesis. Neurohormonal Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Plekhova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the neurohormonal mechanisms that underlie the clinical features of puberty onset in children born to parents exposed to low-dose irradiation. Hormonal homeostasis is assessed according to the data of immune-enzyme, radioimmune, and fluorometric methods. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by means of the application package Excel and Statgrafics-5, SPSS 17.0. It has been established that the earlier puberty onset is caused by accelerated stimulation of pituitary-gonadal system due to activation of central mechanisms of pituitary gonadotrophic function regulation and eary reversal of melatonin blockage of this system. Reasonable basis has been suggested for careful clinical supervision over development of the reproductive system of the children from families with burdened radiation history.

  12. Age at puberty on Nganda cattle under traditional and improved management conditions in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyingo-Kezimbira, L.

    1990-01-01

    Research into the reproductive efficiency of Nganda cattle was carried out in a study with two separate parts. The aim of the first part of the study was to determine whether delayed puberty was a serious problem in Nganda heifers. Sixty Nganda heifers and their crosses with the other local types were monitored for ovarian activity to establish their cyclicity. The results indicated that over 50% started cycling at about 2.5 years of age; nearly 90% of the heifers had started sexual activity by 3 years of age. To test whether the age at puberty could be reduced by supplementary feeding and control of internal and external parasites, 20 Nganda heifers 1.5 years old were selected in the second part of the study. The results proved that supplementary feeding, deworming and spraying against ectoparasites had a positive influence on the initiation of sexual activity in pubertal Nganda heifers. (author). 10 refs, 6 tabs

  13. Within-person changes in salivary testosterone and physical characteristics of puberty predict boys' daily affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipker, Kathrin; Wrzus, Cornelia; Rauers, Antje; Boker, Steven M; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-09-01

    Recent investigations highlighted the role of within-person pubertal changes for adolescents' behavior. Yet, little is known about effects on adolescents' daily affect, particularly regarding the hormonal changes underlying physical changes during puberty. In a study with 148 boys aged 10 to 20years, we tested whether within-person physical and hormonal changes over eight months predicted everyday affect fluctuations, measured with experience sampling. As expected, greater within-person changes in testosterone (but not in dehydroepiandrosterone) were associated with higher affect fluctuations in daily life. Additionally, greater physical changes predicted higher affect fluctuations for individuals in the beginning of puberty. The findings demonstrate the relevance of physical and hormonal changes in boys' affective (in)stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  15. Ideologies of sexuality, menstruation and risk: girls' experiences of puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marni

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines girls' voiced experiences of menstruation, puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania. The study was conducted in Moshi and Rombo Districts of Kilimanjaro, a predominantly Chagga region with historically strong support for girls' education. The major question explored was how the onset of menses and puberty may be impacting on girls' school participation, given societal implications of pubertal onset and potentially gender discriminatory school environments. The methodology included a comparative case study using in-depth interviews and participatory research with young women living in urban and rural Kilimanjaro. Along with important findings about how menstrual onset creates challenges for girls attending school emerged findings about the significant gaps in girls' knowledge about body changes, sexual health and HIV/AIDS. These findings underline the importance of identifying new girl-centred approaches to guidance on bodily development and HIV prevention.

  16. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  17. The Effect of Puberty Education on Knowledge, Attitude and Function of Girl's Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrban Mehrabi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study was examined effect of puberty education on knowledge, attitude and function in girl's student in Jiroft. Materials & Methods: this was a quasi experimental study and the target population was girl's student at grade 1 high school in jiroft city and 40 girls were selected and were educated in a 12 sessions. The content of the educational course including physical signs of puberty, physiologic change in menstrual period, nutrition, sleep and psychological changes. The subjects completed in pretest and posttest a researcher made questionnaire that measure knowledge, attitude and function. The data was analyzed using descriptive indexes, t- and F-tests. The significant level was considered in less than 0.05. Results: The results showed that the average difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge, attitude and function in both experimental and control groups was significant (p

  18. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    receptor is the primary component in the initiation of puberty and where in the hypothalamus regulation of the kisspeptin/Kiss1R system occurs is unresolved. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the level of Kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the anteroventral...... periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats along pubertal development. Neurons expressing Kiss1 mRNA were first detected at PND15, but increased significantly around puberty, and declined again in the adult rat. While virtually no immunoreactive cell bodies were detectable in the AVPV...... at any age, numerous kisspeptin-positive neurons in the arcuate nucleus were detected in the adult rat. Increasing doses of kisspeptin-54 given peripherally to male rats at PND15, 30, 45, and 60 evoked roughly similar effects, as revealed by the induction of c-Fos in the pituitary and secretion of LH...

  19. Effect of exogenous prolactin on ultrastructure of pinealocyte in female pigs during puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylska, B.; Dusza, L.; Lewczuk, B.; Ciesielska-Myszka, L.

    1994-01-01

    Influence of the administration of prolactin to female swine during puberty on the ultrastructure of pinealocytes has been examined by means of morphometric analysis. Prolactin administration for 15 consecutive days resulted in a decrease in the cytoplasmic dense bodies type MBB-2, lysosomes and multivesicular bodies. Some differences in structure of pinealocytes were also observed. Prolactin appeared to stimulate the process of transformation of cytoplasmic dense bodies. (author). 28 refs, 5 figs

  20. Association of aromatase (TTTA)n repeat polymorphisms with central precocious puberty in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Sang; Kim, Kyung Hee; Hwang, Jin Soon

    2014-09-01

    Precocious puberty is characterized by early activation of the pituitary-gonadal axis. Oestrogen is the final key factor to start the onset of puberty. The cytochrome P450 19A1 (CYP19A1) gene encodes an aromatase that is responsible for the conversion of androgens to oestrogen, which is a key step in oestrogen biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to identify CYP19A1 gene mutations or polymorphisms in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). We evaluated the frequency of allelic variants of the CYP19A1 exons and the tetranucleotide tandem repeat (TTTA)n in intron 4 in 203 idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP) girls and 101 normal healthy women. The genotype analysis of the CYP19A1 (TTTA)n polymorphism revealed six different alleles ranging from seven to 13 repeats. Among the six different repeat alleles detected in this study, the (TTTA)₁₃ repeat allele was only detected in the patient group and carriers of the (TTTA)₁₃ allele were significantly associated with an increased risk of CPP (OR = 1·509, 95% CI = 1·425-1·598, P = 0·033). Carriers of the (TTTA)₁₃ repeat allele were significantly younger at pubertal onset and had higher levels of oestrogen than noncarriers of the (TTTA)₁₃ repeat allele. Although nine polymorphisms were detected in exons of the CYP19A1 gene, no clinical significance was observed. In this study, carriers of a higher repeat (TTTA)₁₃ polymorphism in intron 4 of the CYP19A1 gene had higher levels of oestrogen. Those carrying the (TTTA)₁₃ repeat allele may have a higher risk of developing CPP. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of exogenous prolactin on ultrastructure of pinealocyte in female pigs during puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylska, B.; Dusza, L.; Lewczuk, B.; Ciesielska-Myszka, L. [Akademia Rolniczo-Technicza, Olsztyn (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Influence of the administration of prolactin to female swine during puberty on the ultrastructure of pinealocytes has been examined by means of morphometric analysis. Prolactin administration for 15 consecutive days resulted in a decrease in the cytoplasmic dense bodies type MBB-2, lysosomes and multivesicular bodies. Some differences in structure of pinealocytes were also observed. Prolactin appeared to stimulate the process of transformation of cytoplasmic dense bodies. (author). 28 refs, 5 figs.

  2. Increased functional connectivity with puberty in the mentalising network involved in social emotion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that puberty plays an important role in the structural and functional brain development seen in adolescence, but little is known of the pubertal influence on changes in functional connectivity. We explored how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to functional connectivity between components of a mentalising network identified to be engaged in social emotion processing by our prior work, using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. Female adolescents aged 11 to 13 years were scanned whilst silently reading scenarios designed to evoke either social emotions (guilt and embarrassment) or basic emotions (disgust and fear), of which only social compared to basic emotions require the representation of another person’s mental states. Pubertal stage and menarcheal status were used to assign participants to pre/early or mid/late puberty groups. We found increased functional connectivity between the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during social relative to basic emotion processing. Moreover, increasing oestradiol concentrations were associated with increased functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the right TPJ during social relative to basic emotion processing, independent of age. Our analysis of the PPI data by phenotypic pubertal status showed that more advanced puberty stage was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the left anterior temporal cortex (ATC) during social relative to basic emotion processing, also independent of age. Our results suggest increased functional maturation of the social brain network with the advancement of puberty in girls. PMID:23998674

  3. Four generations in a family with neurofibromatosis 1: precocious puberty and optic nerve tumor (OPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucev, Z; Krstevska-Konstantinova, M; Tasic, V; Jancevska, A; Kirovski, I; Pop-Jordanova, N

    2010-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder with varied clinical manifestations. The proband is a 6-year-old boy with signs of precocious puberty. His penis was 10 cm, testicles 8 ml, pubic hair P2-3, and the genital skin was hyperpigmented. Multiple cafe au lait spots well above 5 mm were noticeable on his skin, as well as hard subcutaneous nodules, mostly on his trunk. His intelligence and hearing are normal. He has no history of seizures. Laboratory analysis showed: LH LH 1.4 mIU/ml, FSH 6.2 mIU/ml, testosterone 183 ng/ml. Bone age was 9 years. LHRH stimulation was characteristic of true precocious puberty (LH 9.8 mIU/ml and FSH 8.9 mIU/ml after 30 minutes). The MRI of the brain showed a tumor of the suprasellar region with compression of the pituitary stalk. At present the boy is 6 years old and has been treated with triptoreline acetate for 3 months. The volume of the testicles has decreased to 7 ml and a slight loss of pubic hair was noted. In addition, his mother and his grandfather exhibited dermal masses, and focal cutaneous and subcutaneous growths. The great-grand father had had the same cutaneous changes and died at the age of 75 from unrelated causes. It has already been well documented that NF is associated with an increased risk of malignancy and precocious puberty. Hence, we emphasize the need for a close and regular clinical follow-up of the OPT, puberty and patterns of growth.

  4. Rathke′s cyst with ectopic neurohypophysis presenting as severe short stature with delayed puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Deep Dutta; Ajitesh Roy; Sujoy Ghosh; Pradip Mukhopadhyay; Ranen Dasgupta; Satinath Mukhopadhyay; Subhankar Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic neurohypophysis (EN) is found in nearly half of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Rathke's cyst (RC) is uncommon in children and when present, hypopituitarism is found in nearly half of them. We present a fourteen and half-year-old girl with severe short stature and delayed puberty who on evaluation was found to have GHD, secondary hypocortisolism, and hypogonadism. Imaging revealed hypoplastic anterior pituitary, stalk agenesis, EN at tuber cinereum and intrapituitary RC...

  5. Childhood family disruption and adult height: is there a mediating role of puberty?

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, P; Garcia, JR; Sear, R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Childhood family background is known to be associated with child growth and development, including the onset of puberty, but less is known about the influence of childhood family disruption on outcomes in later life. Given the associations between early family disruption and childhood development, we predicted that there may be long-term health-relevant consequences of childhood disruption. METHODOLOGY: Using data from a large U.S. interview sample (n=16,207), we te...

  6. Time Will Tell : Genetic Influences on Ejaculation Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is a male sexual disorder characterized by persistent short ejaculation times of less than about 1 minute, in more than 90% of intercourses, with nearly every female partner, since the first sexual activities of a man in puberty or adolescence (Waldinger 2007). In

  7. Endocrine studies in ivermectin-treated heifers from birth to puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacau-Mengido, I M; Mejía, M E; Díaz-Torga, G S; Gonzalez Iglesias, A; Formía, N; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D

    2000-04-01

    Continuous treatment with ivermectin from birth to puberty advanced sexual maturation by 3.7 wk in Holstein heifers grazing pastures naturally infected with nematodes. Every 14 d jugular blood samples were taken from birth to 45 wk of age from all heifers. No differences in serum FSH, estradiol, or thyroxine levels were observed during the trial between the treated and untreated group. Mean LH levels were diminished in untreated heifers 4 wk before the first estrus and the amplitude of LH pulses was augmented in treated heifers when puberty was reached. Serum IGF-I levels increased from birth to 22 wk of age and then reached a plateau in both groups, but levels were consistently higher in treated heifers from 26 wk of age onward. Body weight gain was retarded in parasitized heifers and IGF-I values were positively correlated with body weight only during the first 20 wk of life. We suggest that enhanced prepubertal IGF-I levels in conjunction with increased prepubertal LH levels and pubertal LH pulse amplitude might be involved in the accelerated somatic maturation and in puberty advancement observed in ivermectin-treated heifers.

  8. Metabolic cues for puberty onset in free grazing Holstein heifers naturally infected with nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Torga, G S; Mejia, M E; González-Iglesias, A; Formia, N; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2001-07-01

    Leptin is a new plausible candidate for the molecular link between nutritional status and the reproductive axis. In previous studies we described that continuous natural nematode infections in heifers retarded growth and delayed the onset of puberty, and that the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was involved. In the present study we monitored the leptin levels during development in heifers naturally parasitized versus those chronically treated with ivermectin and we investigated whether growth hormone (GH) accounted for the differences in IGF-I previously noted. Insulin levels were also measured. Prolactin hormone was recorded as an indicator of immune system activation. We found a direct correlation between leptin and body weight during development and a prepubertal surge of the hormone 2 weeks before the first progesterone peak that indicates the onset of puberty. This suggests that leptin may act as a signal for this event. Insulin did not vary during growth and prepuberty. On the other hand, GH as not responsible for diminished IGF-I levels in parasitized animals as levels were similar in both groups. The GH levels were high at birth and then diminished rapidly and remained constant during development and puberty. The last hormone studied, prolactin, followed seasonal changes of sunlight duration and presented sporadic bursts in infected animals. These were related to high nematode infection and are probably involved in the immune response of the host.

  9. A Study To Evaluate The Aetiological Factors And Management of Puberty Menorrhagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeb Roychowdhury

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the incidence, clinical presentation, etiological factors and treatment outcomes of the patients suffering from puberty menorrhagia. Methods: 65 patients with puberty menorrhagia attending the outpatient as well as indoor department of NRS Medical College, Kolkata during the period from February, 2005 to July,2006 were included in the study. They were prospectively analysed to assess the aetiological factors and the outcome of treatment required to manage these cases.Results – The incidence of puberty menorrhagia was 9.6% in our study. 40%s patients had menarche between 12-13 years. 61.6% had anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding(DUB. 15.4% had hematological causes. Hypothyroidism, endometrial tuberculosis, polycystic ovarian disease were other important causes. 40% were relieved with tranexamic acid, 26% required hormone treatment and 35.3% received blood transfusion.Conclusion: Anovulatory DUB is the cause of menorrhagia in most of the cases .Medical treatment is mostly effective while surgical procedures are limited to few specific cases.

  10. Influence of the body weight on the onset and progression of puberty in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomova, Analia; Robeva, Ralitsa; Kumanov, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Unlike in girls, the data on the relationship between pubertal development and body weight in boys are controversial. We measured the height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), pubic hair stages, testicular volume, penis length and circumference of 4030 boys, aged between 7 and 19 years. According to their body weight, the investigated children and adolescents were divided in four groups at each age: underweight boys (BMI puberty occurred when the boys' weight gained 40.33±9.03 kg (median 39.00) and BMI was 18.62±3.12 kg/m2 (median 17.80), whereas the late stage was reached at weight of 62.44±10.39 kg (median 61.00) and BMI 21.47±2.84 kg/m2 (median 21.20). Earlier maturing boys were heavier than their coevals, whereas underweight boys developed puberty later. The onset and progression of puberty in boys are in a significant positive relationship with weight and BMI. Moreover, in the overweight boys pubertal development begins and comes to the late stage earlier in comparison with normal weight children, whereas in those who are underweight a delay at every stage of the development is observed.

  11. A case of late presentation of precocious puberty due to pituitary astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Soheilipour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of assessing precocious puberty, especially in boys, is not only due to the great complications it has for the affected patients, but also to the fatal underlying diseases. Therefore, children with central precocious puberty should first undergo neuroimaging. In this case study, we present a 9.5-year-old boy who was referred to Rasoul-e-Akram Medical Center with increased intracranial pressure, nausea/vomiting, and severe headache having begun three months earlier. The development of secondary sexual changes had started two years earlier, and had been neglected. His testes, penis, and pubic hair were at the fourth Tanner stage. He had elevated luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones. Microscopic evaluation confirmed low-grade pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade 1. Emergency brain surgery was conducted in which the brain was decompressed, and chemotherapy was started postoperatively. Two years after the surgery, he remains under chemotherapy, with obvious sexual maturation and a height of 154 cm. Training families and medical staff efficiently can help prevent the late diagnosis and treatment of precocious puberty and, as a result, help patients in their social life.

  12. An FSH and TSH pituitary adenoma, presenting with precocious puberty and central hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Vargas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old woman with a history of isosexual precocious puberty and bilateral oophorectomy at age 10 years because of giant ovarian cysts, presents with headaches and mild symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. Hormonal evaluation revealed elevated FSH and LH levels in the postmenopausal range and free hyperthyroxinemia with an inappropriately normal TSH. Pituitary MRI showed a 2-cm macroadenoma with suprasellar extension. She underwent successful surgical resection of the pituitary tumor, which proved to be composed of two distinct populations of cells, each of them strongly immunoreactive for FSH and TSH, respectively. This mixed adenoma resulted in two different hormonal hypersecretion syndromes: the first one during childhood and consisting of central precocious puberty and ovarian hyperstimulation due to the excessive secretion of biologically active FSH and which was not investigated in detail and 10 years later, central hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate secretion of biologically active TSH. Although infrequent, two cases of isosexual central precocious puberty in girls due to biologically active FSH secreted by a pituitary adenoma have been previously reported in the literature. However, this is the first reported case of a mixed adenoma capable of secreting both, biologically active FSH and TSH.

  13. Effect of extended photoperiod during winter on growth and onset of puberty in Murrah buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar Roy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of extended photoperiod on growth rate, hormonal levels, and puberty in Murrah heifers. Materials and Methods: About 14 Murrah buffalo heifers were divided into normal day photoperiod (NDP; n=7 and extended NDP (ENDP; n=7 groups. The ENDP group was exposed to 4 h of extended photoperiod with artificial light (160 lux after sunset for 3 months during winter. Results: Group, age and group-by-age interaction effects on plasma glucose concentrations were non-significant (p>0.05. A significant effect of age on non-esterified fatty acids (p0.05 while significant (p0.05. Average daily gain and dry matter intake of heifers were nonsignificant between the NDP and ENDP groups but were comparatively higher in ENDP group. By the end of the experiment, 6 out of 7 heifers attained puberty in ENDP group in comparison to 4 out of 7 in NDP group. Conclusion: Extending the photoperiod by artificial light for 4 h during winter season resulted in better growth rate and early onset of puberty in Murrah buffalo heifers.

  14. Sex hormone binding globulin, free estradiol index, and lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Wook Chae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeSex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG modulates the availability of biologically active free sex hormones. The regulatory role of SHBG might be important in the relationship between hormone levels and the modification of lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship of SHBG, free estradiol index (FEI, and lipid levels in these girls.MethodsOne hundred and nine girls less than 8 years of age with pubertal development were enrolled. FEI was calculated with SHBG and estradiol (E2. We analyzed SHBG between peak luteinizing hormone (LH≥5 (IU/L (group 1 and LH<5 (IU/L (group 2 through a gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test.ResultsBody mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS was higher in group 2 than in group 1 (P=0.004. Serum SHBG levels did not differ and FEI was not higher in group 1 (P=0.122. Serum cholesterol, HDL, and LDL did not differ; however, triglyceride levels were higher in group 2 (P=0.023. SHBG was negatively correlated with bone age advancement, BMI, BMI SDS, and FEI, and was positively correlated with HDL. However, SHBG was not correlated with E2 or peak LH.ConclusionSerum SHBG itself might not be associated with precocious puberty in girls, but it might be related to BMI and lipid profiles. Further studies are needed to reveal the relationship between sex hormone and obesity in girls with precocious puberty.

  15. Characterization of patients diagnosed with central precocious puberty starting treatment with leuprolide acetate, at the Hospital Nacional de Ninos in the period January 2004 to December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viquez Viquez, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Clinical characteristics and laboratory and cabinet findings (hormone levels, bone age, pelvic ultrasound) were determined in a sample of 39 patients diagnosed with central precocious puberty (CPP) who started treatment with leuprolide acetate (LPA). The cross-sectional observational study was developed at the Hospital Nacional de Ninos 'Dr. Carlos Saenz Herrera' during the period 2004 and 2009. The chronological age of patients with CPP was specified at the time of diagnosis and to start treatment with LPA. Epidemiological characteristics (sex, origin) were described in patients with CPP. Bone age with respect to chronological age was identified in patients with CPP. Sexual maturity of patients with CPP was established by the Tanner scale. The hormone levels of estrogen, testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone were specified in patients with CPP. The etiology was determined in patients with CPP treated with LPA. The adverse effects of treatment with LPA were described. Anthropometric measurements were detailed. The heredo-familial antecedents of precocious puberty were established in patients with diagnosis of CPP. The size of the pelvic organs was evaluated by pelvic ultrasound [es

  16. Mechanisms of Disease: the first kiss-a crucial role for kisspeptin-1 and its receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 54, in puberty and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, Stephanie B

    2006-06-01

    Although the hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the defining hormonal event of puberty, the physiologic mechanisms that drive secretion of GnRH at the time of sexual maturation have been difficult to identify. After puberty is initiated, the factors that modulate the frequency and amplitude of GnRH secretion in rapidly changing sex-steroid environments (i.e. the female menstrual cycle) also remain unknown. The discovery that, in both humans and mouse models, loss-of-function mutations in the gene that encodes G-protein-coupled receptor 54 result in phenotypes of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with an absence of pubertal development has unearthed a novel pathway regulating GnRH secretion. Ligands for G-protein-coupled receptor 54 (KiSS-1R), including metastin (derived from the parent compound, kisspeptin-1) and metastin's C-terminal peptide fragments, have been shown to be powerful stimulants for GnRH release in vivo via their stimulation of G-protein-coupled receptor 54. This article reviews the discovery of the GPR54 gene, places it into the appropriate biological context, and explores the data from in vitro and in vivo studies that point to this ligand-receptor system as a major driver of GnRH secretion.

  17. Association of PAEs with Precocious Puberty in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precocious puberty (PP currently affects 1 in 5000 children and is 10 times more common in girls. Existing studies have tried to detect an association between phathalic acid esters (PAEs and PP, but the results did not reach a consensus. Objective: To estimate the association between PAEs and children with PP based on current evidence. Methods: Databases including PubMed (1978 to March 2015, OVID (1946 to March 2015, Web of Science (1970 to March 2015, EBSCO (1976 to March 2015, CNKI (1979 to March 2015, WANFANG DATA (1987 to March 2015, CBM (1978 to March 2015 and CQVIP (1989 to March 2015 were searched to identify all case-control studies that determined the exposure and concentration of PAEs and their metabolites in children with PP. Meta-analysis of the pooled standard mean difference (SMD and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results: A total of 14 studies involving 2223 subjects were finally included. The pooled estimates showed that PP was associated with di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP exposure (OR: 3.90, 95% CI: 2.77 to 5.49. Besides, the concentration of DEHP (SMD: 1.73, 95% CI: 0.54 to 2.91 and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP (SMD: 4.31, 95% CI: 2.67 to 5.95 in the PP group were significantly higher than those in the control group, respectively, while no difference was detected between case and control groups in either serum or urinary concentration of mono-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (MEHP, monobutyl phthalate (MBP, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate(MEOHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP, monomethyl phthalate (MMP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP or monoethyl phthalate (MEP. Conclusions: Exposure of DEHP and DBP might be associated with PP risk for girls, however, there is no evidence to show an association between the exposure to most PAE metabolites and PP. Given the moderate strength of the results, well-designed cohort studies with large sample size should be performed in future.

  18. Effect of Group Training of Personal Hygiene during Puberty to Mothers on Parent-Child Conflicts and Controlling Over the Emotions of Their Female Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Anahita Khodabakhshi-Koolaee; Shahrzad Barghei Khameneh; Marjan Mojarab; Mahnaz Khatiban

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Puberty and adolescence is an important phase of human growth. Puberty leads to a set of physiological, social, and psychological changes in adolescents, which affect different dimensions of their life including parent-child relationship and the control of adolescents’ emotions. This study aimed to determine the impact of group training of personal hygiene during puberty to mothers on parent-child conflicts and controlling over the emotions of the first high school c...

  19. Enhanced Striatal β1-Adrenergic Receptor Expression Following Hormone Loss in Adulthood Is Programmed by Both Early Sexual Differentiation and Puberty: A Study of Humans and Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Adam N.; Westenbroek, Christel; Hedges, Valerie L.; Becker, Jill B.; Mermelstein, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    After reproductive senescence or gonadectomy, changes occur in neural gene expression, ultimately altering brain function. The endocrine mechanisms underlying these changes in gene expression beyond immediate hormone loss are poorly understood. To investigate this, we measured changes in gene expression the dorsal striatum, where 17β-estradiol modulates catecholamine signaling. In human caudate, quantitative PCR determined a significant elevation in β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) expression in menopausal females when compared with similarly aged males. No differences were detected in β2-adrenergic and D1- and D2-dopamine receptor expression. Consistent with humans, adult ovariectomized female rats exhibited a similar increase in β1AR expression when compared with gonadectomized males. No sex difference in β1AR expression was detected between intact adults, prepubertal juveniles, or adults gonadectomized before puberty, indicating the necessity of pubertal development and adult ovariectomy. Additionally, increased β1AR expression in adult ovariectomized females was not observed if animals were masculinized/defeminized with testosterone injections as neonates. To generate a model system for assessing functional impact, increased β1AR expression was induced in female-derived cultured striatal neurons via exposure to and then removal of hormone-containing serum. Increased β1AR action on cAMP formation, cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and gene expression was observed. This up-regulation of β1AR action was eliminated with 17β-estradiol addition to the media, directly implicating this hormone as a regulator of β1AR expression. Beyond having implications for the known sex differences in striatal function and pathologies, these data collectively demonstrate that critical periods early in life and at puberty program adult gene responsiveness to hormone loss after gonadectomy and potentially reproductive senescence. PMID:23533220

  20. The effect of puberty on fat oxidation rates during exercise in overweight and normal-weight girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L; Riddell, M C; Schneiderman, J E; McCrindle, B W; Hamilton, J K

    2014-01-01

    Excess weight is often associated with insulin resistance (IR) and may disrupt fat oxidation during exercise. This effect is further modified by puberty. While studies have shown that maximal fat oxidation rates (FOR) during exercise decrease with puberty in normal-weight (NW) and overweight (OW) boys, the effect of puberty in NW and OW girls is unclear. Thirty-three NW and OW girls ages 8-18 yr old completed a peak aerobic capacity test on a cycle ergometer. FOR were calculated during progressive submaximal exercise. Body composition and Tanner stage were determined. For each participant, a best-fit polynomial curve was constructed using fat oxidation vs. exercise intensity to estimate max FOR. In a subset of the girls, IR derived from an oral glucose tolerance test (n = 20), and leptin and adiponectin levels (n = 11) were assessed in relation to FOR. NW pre-early pubertal girls had higher max FOR [6.9 ± 1.4 mg·kg fat free mass (FFM)(-1)·min(-1)] than NW mid-late pubertal girls (2.2 ± 0.9 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)) (P = 0.002), OW pre-early pubertal girls (3.8 ± 2.1 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)), and OW mid-late pubertal girls (3.3 ± 0.9 mg·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)) (P puberty; however, this decrease associated with puberty was blunted in OW girls due to lower FOR in pre-early puberty. The presence of IR due to obesity potentially masks the effect of puberty on FOR during exercise in girls.

  1. Lactational exposure to hexavalent chromium delays puberty by impairing ovarian development, steroidogenesis and pituitary hormone synthesis in developing Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Samuel, Jawahar B.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Aruldhas, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) is used in a wide range of industries. Cr-VI from chromate industries and atmospheric emissions contribute to the Cr contamination in the environment. Cr is a reproductive metal toxicant that can traverse the placental barrier and cause a wide range of fetal effects including ovotoxicity. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the basic mechanisms involved in Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity, and the protective role of vitamin C on ovarian follicular development and function in Cr(VI)-induced reproductive toxicity using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. Lactating rats received potassium dichromate (200 mg/L) with or without vitamin C (500 mg/L), through drinking water from postpartum days 1-21. During postnatal days (PND) 1-21 the pups received Cr(VI) via the mother's milk. Pups from both control and treatment groups were continued on regular diet and water from PND-21 onwards, and euthanized on PND-21, -45 and -65. Cr(VI) decreased steroidogenesis, GH and PRL, increased FSH and did not alter LH. Cr(VI) delayed puberty, decreased follicle number, and extended estrous cycle. Spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells were treated with 12.5 μM (IC 50 ) potassium dichromate for 12 and 24 h, with or without vitamin C pre-treatment. Cr(VI) decreased the mRNA expressions of StAR, SF-1, 17β-HSD-1, 17β-HSD-2, FSHR, LHR, ERα and ERβ. Vitamin C pre-treatment protected ovary and granulosa cells from the deleterious effects of Cr(VI) toxicity, both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, Cr(VI) toxicity could be a potential risk to the reproductive system in developing females, and vitamin C plays a protective role against Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity

  2. Effect of energy and protein levels on health, growth, puberty and semen quality of Holstein bull-calves undergoing progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, J L; Zaldivar, V; Tamayo-Aviles, A; Faure, R [Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Havana (Cuba). Dept. de Reproduccion; Boado, A; Lannes, M [Instituto Superior de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Habana, Havana (Cuba). Dept. de Nutricion Animal

    1996-05-01

    Three energy and protein levels in the ration fed potential artificial insemination sires during the first year of age were evaluated with respect to health, body and testicular growth rate, puberty and sperm quality of the animals. Treatment were, Group I, NRC requirements for energy and protein for growing dairy bulls with daily weight gains from 0.4 to 0.9 kg/day; and Groups II and III which were fed 15 and 30% over the recommended energy and protein requirements, respectively. Blood metabolites were found within the reference range. Plasma Cu and Zn were lower in Groups I and III as compared to Group II. Histological studies and gross weights of the thyroid glands were compatible with hypofunction of the glands in animals from Groups I and III. In Group III, 60% of animals showed abundant fat deposition in testicles. Normal fibroelastic consistency of testicles was found in 30, 80, and 20% of animals in Groups I, II, and III, respectively, at 365 days of age. The area under the curve was 641.5, 982.9 and 462.2 for Groups I, II and III, respectively. Volume, motility and percentage of living spermatozoa increased with age (P<0.05) while total morphological alterations decreased significantly. Animals in Group II had the best sperm production. Histological evaluation revealed 80 and 100% of testicular degeneration in animals from Groups I and III, respectively. The application of diet in Group II is recommended to be used in specialized AI bull rearing units in Cuba according to the quantities and characteristics evaluated in this design. 61 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs.

  3. Altered states of consciousness and short-term psychological after-effects induced by the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in an urban context in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Giglio, Joel Sales; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2005-06-01

    This report describes psychological assessments of the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in the religious groups União do Vegetal and Santo Daime. Nineteen subjects who tried the beverage in Santo Daime rituals and nine subjects who tried it in União do Vegetal rituals were evaluated one to four days before their first ayahuasca experience in life and one to two weeks after this experience. Semistructured interviews and a structured psychiatric scale were used in the first evaluation to elicit set variables concerning attitudes towards the ayahuasca experience and to elicit mental health status. Mental health status was reassessed in the second evaluation, which also included a semistructured interview concerning the phenomenology of altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Predominantly positive expectancies concerning the ayahuasca experience were the most prominent findings concerning set variables. Visual phenomena, numinousness, peacefulness, insights and a distressing reaction were the most salient ASC experiences. A significant reduction of the intensity of minor psychiatric symptoms occurred in the Santo Daime group after the hallucinogen experience. Subjects in both groups reported behavioral changes towards assertiveness, serenity and vivacity/joy. The set and setting hypothesis, suggestibility processes, as well as the supposed unique effects of ayahuasca are used in discussing these findings.

  4. Pre-Exercise Hyperhydration-Induced Bodyweight Gain Does Not Alter Prolonged Treadmill Running Time-Trial Performance in Warm Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. B. Goulet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE upon treadmill running time-trial (TT performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%–30% RH on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between 2.5 km at 1% and 2 km at 6% gradient, while drinking a total of 7 mL/kg BW of a 6% sports drink solution (Gatorade, USA. PEH increased BW by 1.00 ± 0.34 kg (P < 0.01 and, compared with PEE, reduced BW loss from 3.1% ± 0.3% (EUH to 1.4% ± 0.4% (HYP (P < 0.01 during exercise. Running TT time did not differ between groups (PEH: 85.6 ± 11.6 min; PEE: 85.3 ± 9.6 min, P = 0.82. Heart rate (5 ± 1 beats/min and rectal (0.3 ± 0.1 °C and body (0.2 ± 0.1 °C temperatures of PEE were higher than those of PEH (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in abdominal discomfort and perceived exertion or heat stress between groups. Our results suggest that pre-exercise sodium-induced hyperhydration of a magnitude of 1 L does not alter 80–90 min running TT performance under warm conditions in highly-trained runners drinking ~500 mL sports drink during exercise.

  5. Puberty and dispersal in a wild primate population

    OpenAIRE

    Onyango, Patrick O.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    The onset of reproduction is preceded by a host of organismal adjustments and transformations, involving morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes. In highly social mammals, including humans and most nonhuman primates, the timing and nature of maturational processes is affected by the animal’s social milieu as well as its ecology. Here, we review a diverse set of findings on how maturation unfolds in wild baboons in the Amboseli basin of southern Kenya, and we place these findings ...

  6. Puberty in the male chimpanzee: progressive maturation of semen characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, J; Meuris, S; Cooper, R W; Jouannet, P

    1991-03-01

    Cellular and biochemical characteristics of semen obtained by masturbation were studied in 5 pubertal chimpanzees during 1.5 yr. The dental age corresponding to the beginning of the pubertal testicular growth (Po) ranged from 5.0 to 8.3 years (mean = 6.7 +/- 1.2 yr). Time-related variations of all studied parameters were analyzed according to Po and, therefore, independently of the dental age. The emission of first ejaculates, and therefore the onset of activity of the accessory sex gland, was estimated to occur 4 mo after Po. The ejaculate volume (n = 132, r = 0.704, p less than 0.001), as well as the total amounts of l-carnitine (n = 65, r = 0.649, p less than 0.001), fructose (r = 0.522, p less than 0.001), citrate (r = 0.748, p less than 0.001), and acid phosphatase (r = 0.756, p less than 0.001) increased with time. First-obtained ejaculates contained no spermatozoa. Spermarche was estimated to occur 9.4 mo after Po. Total sperm count increased with time (r = 0.595, p less than 0.001). The motility and viability of spermatozoa increased with time (r = 0.474, p less than 0.01 and r = 0.632, p less than 0.001, respectively) while their morphology did not vary. The volume of the liquefied fraction and its content in free spermatozoa considered as available for fecundation remained low until the end of the study, most likely because of a delayed maturation of the prostate. This study shows that the maturation of the male genital tract is a progressive process. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Effect of physical and psychological puberty training on general well being and its dimensions in girl students

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    Shahrban Mehrabi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behavior and emotion. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of training puberty (physical and psychological matters in general well being and its dimensions in girl adolescents. This was a quasi-experimental study in which the target population included all girl students at the first grade of high school in Jiroft, Iran. 40 students (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group was selected using multi stage sampling method. The experimental group was educated in twelve-90- minute sessions. The content of the educational course included physical signs of puberty, physiologic change in menstrual period, hygiene, nutrition, and psychological changes of puberty. The participants completed the Skehill's general well being questionnaire before and after the intervention. Covariance analysis revealed the efficacy of education on the enhancement of psychological well being and psychological distress reduction. Therefore, it is recommended to implement health educational programs about physical and psychological matters during puberty to elementary and secondary school students to improve their mental health

  8. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

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    Stančić Ivan B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (i.e. delayed puberty is a major contributing factor for culling up to 30% of the replacement gilts at large breeding farm units in Vojvodina. It is imperative to determine if these gilts are acyclic (prepubertal or cyclic, but just fail to exhibit behavioural estrus. Recent investigations demonstrate that treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG can increase the diestrous phase duration in sexually mature gilts. Based on these finding, the aim of the present studies was to determine the reproductive status of delayed puberty gilts following injection with eCG. Methods Two experiments were conducted on a swine breeding farm in Vojvodina. In Exp. 1, 20 prepubertal (acyclic gilts, and 120 sexually mature (cyclic gilts were injected with a single injection of 400 IU eCG + 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or with 1000 IU eCG (cyclic gilts, at d5, d11 or d17 after spontaneous estrus detection, to determine their ovarian reaction and induced estrus manifestation. In Exp. 2, sixty delayed puberty gilts (estrus not detected until 8 month of age, av. 258 days were culled from breeding herd and slaughtered to determine their reproductive status based on ovarian anatomical features. The second group of gilts (n = 60 was treated with a single 1000 IU eCG injection to determine their reproductive status, based on the interval between eCG injection to estrus detection and duration. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and Duncan’s test in the software package Statistics 10th. Results Ovulations were induced in 90% of acyclic (sexually immature and, on average, 93.3% of cyclic (sexually mature gilts after the eCG injection. On average, 4 days after the eCG injection, estrus was detected in 85% of the treated acyclic (sexually immature gilts and in 95% (19/20 of the cyclic (sexually mature gilts, treated with eCG on day 17

  9. Precocious puberty and large multicystic ovaries in young girls with primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeevaiah, Aravind Raj; Sanjay, Subbarayappa; Deepak, Tejesweni; Sharada, Ardanareshwaran; Srikanta, Sri S

    2007-10-01

    To describe 2 cases of primary hypothyroidism, precocious puberty, large multicystic ovaries, possible diagnostic dilemma, unilateral oophorectomies, and subsequent response to levothyroxine replacement therapy. We present the clinical, biochemical, radiologic, and histopathologic findings in 2 patients with rare cases of Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome and megaovaries, who underwent unilateral oophorectomy. Two patients, an 8-year-old girl and a 3-year-old girl (cases 1 and 2, respectively), were referred to our center. Both patients presented with precocious puberty and vaginal bleeding and had undergone unilateral oophorectomy before referral. In the first patient (case 1), the surgical intervention was a consequence of torsion of the left megaovary, necessitating emergency oophorectomy. Oophorectomy in the second patient (case 2) was a result of initial diagnostic confusion, inasmuch as a sexcord stromal tumor was suspected. A detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory results pointed toward primary hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid dysgenesis, respectively. Serial ultrasound studies of the abdomen and pelvis revealed large multicystic ovaries, with progressive enlargement (including regrowth from an apparent ovarian "postsurgical remnant"). Both patients responded dramatically after initiation of levothyroxine replacement therapy, with no further vaginal bleeding and reversal of megaovary to normal size (in case 1). In a highly selected minority of children with untreated primary hypothyroidism, there is development of precocious puberty and progressively enlarging multicystic ovaries. The precise endocrine, neuroanatomic, and neurophysiologic bases for this phenomenon are unclear. Nevertheless, the entire clinicopathologic picture, including giant ovaries, dramatically reverts to normal status with the restoration of a euthyroid state by means of simple levothyroxine replacement therapy.

  10. Poor bone health in underprivileged Indian girls: an effect of low bone mass accrual during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Sanwalka, Neha J; Kadam, Nidhi S; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Mughal, M Zulf

    2012-05-01

    A socio-economic gradient exists for most reasons of morbidity and mortality including delayed puberty in lower (LSES) as compared to higher (HSES) socio-economic stratum and puberty is an important factor affecting bone status in children and adolescents. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 195 age-matched pairs of girls (8-17years) from LSES and HSES in Pune City, India to assess the hypothesis that socio-economic factors working through late puberty would have a negative association with bone status of adolescents. Height, weight and Tanner stage were assessed. Total body bone mineral content (TBBMC), total body bone area (TBBA), total body bone mineral density (TBBMD), lean body mass (LBM) and total body fat mass (TBFM) were measured using GE Lunar DPX Pro Pencil Beam DXA (Wisconsin, USA) scanner. Mean TBBMC (1172±434g), TBBA (1351±356cm(2)), TBBMD (0.846±0.104g/cm(2)), LBM (21,622±5306g) and TBFM (7746±5194g) in LSES girls were significantly lower than that of HSES girls [TBBMC (1483±525g), TBBA (1533±380cm(2)), TBBMD (0.942±0.119g/cm(2)), LBM (24,308±5829g) and TBFM (12,196±7404g)] (pbone parameters. The differences in TBBMC, TBBA, LBM and TBFM between the 2 socio-economic strata at Tanner stage I were not significant (p>0.1) whereas there were significant differences in these parameters from Tanner stages II to V (pbone health in adolescent girls from the lower socio-economic stratum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of estrogen in bone growth and formation: changes at puberty

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    Divya Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Divya Singh1, Sabyasachi Sanyal2, Naibedya Chattopadhyay11Division of Endocrinology, 2Division of Drug Target Discovery and Development, Central Drug Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: A high peak bone mass (PBM at skeletal maturity is a good predictor for lower rate of fracture risks in later life. Growth during puberty contributes significantly to PBM achievement in women and men. The growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 axis has a critical role in pubertal bone growth. There is an increase in GH and IGF-1 levels during puberty; thus, it is assumed that sex steroids contribute to higher GH/IGF-1 action during growth. Recent studies indicate that estrogen increases GH secretion in boys and girls, and the major effect of testosterone on GH secretion is via aromatization to estrogen. Estrogen is pivotal for epiphyseal fusion in young men and women. From studies of individuals with a mutated aromatase gene and a case study of male patient with defective estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α, it is clear that estrogen is indispensable for normal pubertal growth and growth plate fusion. ER-α and estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β have been localized in growth plate and bone. ER knockout studies have shown that ER-α-/- female mice have reduced linear appendicular growth, while ER-β-/- mice have increased appendicular growth. No such effect is seen in ER-β-/- males; however, repressed growth is seen in ER-α-/- males, resulting in shorter long bones. Thus, ER-β represses longitudinal bone growth in female mice, while it has no function in the regulation of longitudinal bone growth in male mice. These findings indicate that estrogen plays a critical role in skeletal physiology of males as well as females.Keywords: peak bone mass, puberty, estrogen, growth plate

  12. The effects of nutrition, puberty and dancing on bone density in adolescent ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Peter; Wynn, Emma; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Bagutti, Carlo; Faouzi, Mohamed

    2011-06-01

    Ballet dancers have on average a low bone mineral content (BMC), with elevated fracture-risk, low body mass index (BMI) for age (body mass index, kg/m2), low energy intake, and delayed puberty. This study aims at a better understanding of the interactions of these factors, especially with regard to nutrition. During a competition for pre-professional dancers we examined 127 female participants (60 Asians, 67 Caucasians). They averaged 16.7 years of age, started dancing at 5.8 years, and danced 22 hours/week. Assessments were made for BMI, BMC (DXA), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, pubertal stage (Tanner score), and nutritional status (EAT-40 questionnaire and a qualitative three-day dietary record). BMI for age was found to be normal in only 42.5% of the dancers, while 15.7% had a more or less severe degree of thinness (12.6% Grade2 and 3.1% Grade 3 thinness). Menarche was late (13.9 years, range 11 to 16.8 years). Food intake, evaluated by number of consumed food portions, was below the recommendations for a normally active population in all food groups except animal proteins, where the intake was more than twice the recommended amount. In this population, with low BMI and intense exercise, BMC was low and associated with nutritional factors; dairy products had a positive and non-dairy proteins a negative influence. A positive correlation between BMAD and years since menarche confirmed the importance of exposure to estrogens and the negative impact of delayed puberty. Because of this and the probable negative influence of a high intake of non-dairy proteins, such as meat, fish, and eggs, and the positive association with a high dairy intake, ballet schools should promote balanced diets and normal weight and should recognize and help dancers avoid eating disorders and delayed puberty caused by extensive dancing and inadequate nutrition.

  13. Physical growth, puberty and hormones in adolescents with Nodding Syndrome; a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piloya-Were, Theresa; Odongkara-Mpora, Beatrice; Namusoke, Hanifa; Idro, Richard

    2014-11-28

    Nodding syndrome is an epidemic symptomatic generalized epilepsy syndrome of unknown cause in Eastern Africa. Some patients have extreme short stature. We hypothesized that growth failure in nodding syndrome is associated with specific endocrine dysfunctions. In this pilot study, we examined the relationship between serum hormone levels and stature, bone age and sexual development. We recruited ten consecutive children, 13 years or older, with World Health Organization defined nodding syndrome and assessed physical growth, bone age, development of secondary sexual characteristics and serum hormone levels. Two children with incomplete results were excluded. Of the eight remaining, two had severe stunting (height for age Z [HAZ] scorebone age was delayed by a median 3(range 0-4) years. Serum growth hormone levels were normal in all eight but the two patients with severe stunting and one with moderate stunting had low levels of Somatomedin C (Insulin like Growth Factor [IGF1]) and/or IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), mediators of growth hormone function. A linear relationship was observed between serum IGF1 level and HAZ score. With the exception of one child, all were either pre-pubertal or in early puberty (Tanner stages 1 and 2) and in the seven, levels of the gonadotrophins (luteinising and follicle stimulating hormone) and the sex hormones (testosterone/oestrogen) were all within pre-pubertal ranges or ranges of early puberty. Thyroid function, prolactin, adrenal, and parathyroid hormone levels were all normal. Patients with nodding syndrome may have dysfunctions in the pituitary growth hormone and pituitary gonadal axes that manifest as stunted growth, delayed bone age and puberty. Studies are required to determine if such endocrine dysfunction is a primary manifestation of the disease or a secondary consequence of chronic ill health and malnutrition and if so, whether targeted interventions can improve outcome.

  14. Altered carotid plaque signal among different repetition times on T1-weighted magnetic resonance plaque imaging with self-navigated radial-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumi, Shinsuke; Ohba, Hideki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Ohura, Kazumasa; Ono, Ayumi; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Hitomi, Jiro [Iwate Medical University, Department of Anatomy, Morioka (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging for carotid arteries is usually performed by using an electrocardiograph (ECG)-gating technique to eliminate pulsation-related artifacts, which can affect the plaque signals because of varied repetition time (TR) among patients. Hence, we investigated whether differences in TR causes signal alterations of the carotid plaque by using a non-gated plaque imaging technique. We prospectively examined 19 patients with carotid stenosis by using a T1-weighted self-navigated radial-scan technique with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms. The signal intensity of the carotid plaque was measured, and the contrast ratio (CR) relative to the adjacent muscle was calculated. CRs of the carotid plaques were 1.39 {+-} 0.39, 1.29 {+-} 0.29, and 1.23 {+-} 0.24 with TRs of 500, 700, and 900 ms, respectively, and were significantly different. Among the plaques, those with a hyperintensity signal (CR > 1.5) and moderate-intensity signal (CR 1.2-1.5) at 500 ms showed a TR-dependent signal decrease (hyperintensity plaques, 1.82 {+-} 0.26; 1.61 {+-} 0.19; and 1.48 {+-} 0.17; moderate-intensity plaques, 1.33 {+-} 0.08; 1.26 {+-} 0.08; and 1.19 {+-} 0.07), while those with an isointensity signal (CR < 1.2) remained unchanged regardless of TR (0.96 {+-} 0.12, 0.96 {+-} 0.11, and 0.97 {+-} 0.13). The signal intensity of the carotid plaque on T1-weighted imaging significantly varies among different TRs and tends to decrease with longer TR. MR plaque imaging with short and constant TR settings that the ECG-gating method cannot realize would be preferable for evaluating plaque characteristics. (orig.)

  15. Current Evidence of Gait Modification with Real-time Biofeedback to Alter Kinetic, Temporospatial, and Function-Related Outcomes: A Review

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    Oladipo Eddo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gait retraining using real-time biofeedback (RTB may have positive outcomes in decreasing knee adduction moment (KAM in healthy individuals and has shown equal likelihood in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the most effective gait modification strategy, mode of biofeedback or treatment dosage. Objective: The purpose of this review was: i to assess if gait retraining interventions using RTB are valuable to reduce KAM, pain, and improve function in individuals with knee osteoarthritis, ii to evaluate the effectiveness of different gait modifications and modes of RTB in reducing KAM in healthy individuals, and iii to assess the impact of gait retraining interventions with RTB on other variables that may affect clinical outcomes. Methods: Seven electronic databases were searched using five search terms. Studies that utilized any form of gait retraining with RTB to improve one or a combination of the following measures were included: KAM, knee pain, and function. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria, evaluating eleven distinctive gait modifications and three modes of RTB. Results: All but one study showed positive outcomes. Self-selected and multi-parameter gait modifications showed the greatest reductions in KAM with visual and haptic RTB being more effective than auditory. Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that gait modification using RTB can Positively alter KAM in asymptomatic and symptomatic participants. However, the existing literature is limited and of low quality, with the optimal combination strategies remaining unclear (gait and biofeedback mode. Future studies should employ randomized controlled study designs to compare the effects of different gait modification strategies and biofeedback modes on individuals with knee OA.

  16. The Diagnostic Value of Pelvic Ultrasound in Girls with Central Precocious Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Joo, Eun Young; Lee, Ji-Eun; Jun, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test is the gold standard for differentiating central precocious puberty (CPP) from exaggerated thelarche (ET). Because of this test's limitations, previous studies have clarified the clinical and laboratory factors that predict CPP. The present study investigated the early diagnostic significance of pelvic ultrasound in girls with CPP. The GnRH stimulation test and pelvic ultrasound were performed between March 2007 and February 2015 in 192 girls (aged values in pelvic ultrasound for differentiating between CPP and ET. Pelvic ultrasound should be combined with clinical and laboratory tests to maximize its diagnostic value for CPP.

  17. Learning about facts of life: perspective from medical students on sources and preferences about puberty and sex education in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Mubeen, Syed Muhammand; Furqan, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Puberty heralds the onset of adulthood, and is fraught with complex physiological and psychological changes and emotions. In this study, we looked at the sources of information about puberty and sex education among males and females, age at which they learned about them, and the opinions on the role of schools and parents in imparting this education among medical students.A cross-sectional pilot study, using convenience sampling was conducted among 153 medical students of the Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry (HCM&D) in Karachi. Regarding most common source of information about puberty; 23 (25.3%) males identified friends as the most important source of information. While 31 (50.0%) women identified their mothers as the most important source.Regarding most common source of information about reproductive systems and sex; 17 (27.4%) women identified school teachers as the most common source of information, while 26 (28.6%) men identified books and magazines.

  18. Pubertal administration of DEHP delays puberty, suppresses testosterone production and inhibits reproductive tract development in male Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    While is clear that exposure to high dosage levels of some phthalates delays the onset of puberty in the male rat it has been hypothesized that low levels of DEHP accelerate puberty by enhancing testicular androgen synthesis. The current study was designed to determine if the do...

  19. UNESCO's Guidance on Puberty and Sexual Health Education for Students Aged 9-12 Years Compared to an Upper Primary School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and young adolescents are reaching puberty earlier. Providing information about such changes before puberty can help them develop in a more competent and informed manner. Context and Objective: UNESCO's "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" forms a comprehensive, evidence-based, authoritative…

  20. Longitudinal follow-up of bone density and body composition in children with precocious or early puberty before, during and after cessation of GnRH agonist therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge); A.M. Boot (Annemieke); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe studied bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, and body composition in 47 children with central precocious puberty (n = 36) or early puberty (n = 11) before, during, and after cessation of GnRH agonist. Bone density and body composition were measured with dual

  1. A seasonal variation of calcitropic hormones, bone turnover and bone mineral density in early and mid-puberty girls - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viljakainen, H.T.; Palssa, A.; Karkkainen, M.

    2006-01-01

    -six girls, mean age 11 center dot 4 (sd 0 center dot 4) years, in Tanner stage 2 (early puberty) and 3 (mid-puberty) were studied during September to March. The BMD was measured from the lumbar vertebrae and the left femur by dual-energy X-ray absoptiometry. Their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25-OHD), serum...

  2. Structure, alteration, and geochemistry of the Charlotte quartz vein stockwork, Mt Charlotte gold mine, Kalgoorlie, Australia: time constraints, down-plunge zonation, and fluid source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.

    2015-02-01

    The Kalgoorlie district in the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, comprises two world-class gold deposits: Mt Charlotte (144 t Au produced to 2013) in the northwest and the Golden Mile (1,670 t Au) in the southeast. Both occur in a folded greenschist-facies gabbro sill adjacent to the Golden Mile Fault (D2) in propylitic alteration associated with porphyry dikes. At Mt Charlotte, a shear array of fault-fill veins within the Golden Mile Fault indicates sinistral strike-slip during Golden Mile-type pyrite-telluride mineralization. The pipe-shaped Charlotte quartz vein stockwork, mined in bulk more than 1 km down plunge, is separated in time by barren D3 thrusts from Golden Mile mineralization and alteration, and occurs between two dextral strike-slip faults (D4). Movement on these faults generated an organized network of extension and shear fractures opened during the subsequent infiltration of high-pressure H2S-rich fluid at 2,655 ± 13 Ma (U-Pb xenotime). Gold was deposited during wall rock sulphidation in overlapping vein selvages zoned from deep albite-pyrrhotite (3 g/t Au) to upper muscovite-pyrite assemblages (5 g/t Au bulk grade). Chlorite and fluid inclusion thermometry indicate that this kilometre-scale zonation is due to fluid cooling from 410-440 °C at the base to 350-360 °C at the top of the orebody, while the greenstone terrane remained at 250 °C ambient temperature and at 300 MPa lithostatic pressure. The opened fractures filled with barren quartz and scheelite during the retrograde stage (300 °C) of the hydrothermal event. During fracture sealing, fluid flux was periodically restricted at the lower D3 thrust. Cycles of high and low up-flow, represented by juvenile H2O-CO2 and evolved H2O-CO2-CH4 fluid, respectively, are recorded by the REE and Sr isotope compositions of scheelite oscillatory zones. The temperature gradient measured in the vein stockwork points to a hot (>600 °C) fluid source 2-4 km below the mine workings, and several

  3. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn......In healthy boys, the pituitary-gonadal axis exhibits diurnal variation in early puberty. Serum testosterone levels are higher during the night and low or immeasurable during the day. These fluctuating levels of circulating androgens in early pubertal boys are difficult to monitor. Prostate specific...

  4. Effects of continuous ivermectin treatment from birth to puberty on growth and reproduction in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, M; Gonzalez-Iglesias, A; Díaz-Torga, G S; Villafañe, P; Formía, N; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    1999-06-01

    The effect of continuous ivermectin treatment from birth to puberty on growth and reproductive performance was studied in Holstein heifer calves grown on pastures in comparison to naturally nematode-infected, untreated animals. Ivermectin effectively abated the presence of nematode eggs in feces. Eggs per gram (EPG) in parasitized animals increased rapidly from wk 12 to 18 of age and then decreased. Animals treated with ivermectin grew faster than untreated ones, and differences in body weight became significant at 6 wk of life, even before eggs appeared in the feces of either treatment group. Ivermectin-treated heifers reached puberty 3 wk earlier than infected ones as assessed with serum progesterone concentrations (ivermectin, 30.4 +/- .8 vs untreated, 33.7 +/- 1.3 wk of age). This delay was not directly related to body weight. In addition, pelvic area at 39 wk and at 15 mo of age was increased in treated heifers (8 and 11%, respectively) compared with parasitized animals. No differences in the wither heights were observed. We conclude that ivermectin treatment in dairy heifers may increase growth rate during development, advance the onset of ovarian function, and positively affect yearling pelvic area.

  5. The significant effects of puberty on the genetic diathesis of binge eating in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L; Culbert, Kristen M; O'Connor, Shannon; Fowler, Natasha; Burt, S Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Recent data show significant phenotypic and genetic associations between ovarian hormones and binge eating in adulthood. Theories of hormonal risk focus on puberty and the possibility that hormone activation induces changes in genetic effects that then lead to differential risk for binge eating in postpuberty and adulthood. Although this theory is difficult to test in humans, an indirect test is to examine whether genetic influences on binge eating increase during the pubertal period in girls. Prior work has shown pubertal increases in genetic influences on overall disordered eating symptoms, but no study to date has examined binge eating. The present study was the first to examine these increases for binge eating. Participants included 1,568 female twins (aged 8-25 years) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Binge eating and pubertal development were assessed with self-report questionnaires. Twin moderation models showed significant linear increases in genetic effects from prepuberty (5%) to postpuberty (42%), even after controlling for the effects of age and body mass index. Results provide critical support for increased genetic influences on binge eating during puberty. Additional studies are needed to identify hormonal mechanisms and fully test contemporary models of ovarian hormone risk. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Progression of puberty after initiation of androgen therapy in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onset of puberty in boys usually occurs by 14 years of age. Some boys may exhibit delayed sexual maturation till about 17-18 years of age. However, pubertal onset beyond 18 years of age is exceedingly rare. Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed as idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH who had onset of puberty (increase in testicular volume >10 ml while on androgen therapy were studied. These patients were evaluated prospectively. Results: There were nine subjects that were included in the study. The pre-therapy testicular volumes ranged from 3 to 6 ml. Luteinizing hormone (LH levels increased from 1.2 ± 0.96 to 2.8 ± 1.0 IU/L, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH levels increased from 1.5 ± 0.79 to 3.5 ± 1.9 IU/L, and testosterone increased from 0.36 ± 0.16 to 3.4 ± 2.1 ng/ml. Three out of nine patients had testosterone levels below 3 ng/ml. Conclusion: Our present study indicates that pubertal development can occur in patients presenting with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism after 18 years of age. However, acquired pubertal status may be subnormal

  7. Precocious puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery to remove a tumor. Children with early sexual development may have psychological and social problems. Children and ... to be the same as their peers. Early sexual development can make them appear different. Parents can support ...

  8. Chemical characterization of the acid alteration of diesel fuel: Non-targeted analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry with tile-based Fisher ratio and combinatorial threshold determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Brendon A.; Pinkerton, David K.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

    2016-04-01

    The illicit chemical alteration of petroleum fuels is of scientific interest, particularly to regulatory agencies which set fuel specifications, or excises based on those specifications. One type of alteration is the reaction of diesel fuel with concentrated sulfuric acid. Such reactions are known to subtly alter the chemical composition of the fuel, particularly the aromatic species native to the fuel. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC–TOFMS) is ideally suited for the analysis of diesel fuel, but may provide the analyst with an overwhelming amount of data, particularly in sample-class comparison experiments comprised of many samples. The tile-based Fisher-ratio (F-ratio) method reduces the abundance of data in a GC × GC–TOFMS experiment to only the peaks which significantly distinguish the unaltered and acid altered sample classes. Three samples of diesel fuel from different filling stations were each altered to discover chemical features, i.e., analyte peaks, which were consistently changed by the acid reaction. Using different fuels prioritizes the discovery of features which are likely to be robust to the variation present between fuel samples and which will consequently be useful in determining whether an unknown sample has been acid altered. The subsequent analysis confirmed that aromatic species are removed by the acid alteration, with the degree of removal consistent with predicted reactivity toward electrophilic aromatic sulfonation. Additionally, we observed that alkenes and alkynes were also removed from the fuel, and that sulfur dioxide or compounds that degrade to sulfur dioxide are generated by the acid alteration. In addition to applying the previously reported tile-based F-ratio method, this report also expands null distribution analysis to algorithmically determine an F-ratio threshold to confidently select only the features which are sufficiently class-distinguishing. When

  9. Chemical characterization of the acid alteration of diesel fuel: Non-targeted analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry with tile-based Fisher ratio and combinatorial threshold determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Brendon A; Pinkerton, David K; Wright, Bob W; Synovec, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    The illicit chemical alteration of petroleum fuels is of keen interest, particularly to regulatory agencies that set fuel specifications, or taxes/credits based on those specifications. One type of alteration is the reaction of diesel fuel with concentrated sulfuric acid. Such reactions are known to subtly alter the chemical composition of the fuel, particularly the aromatic species native to the fuel. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) is well suited for the analysis of diesel fuel, but may provide the analyst with an overwhelming amount of data, particularly in sample-class comparison experiments comprised of many samples. Tile-based Fisher-ratio (F-ratio) analysis reduces the abundance of data in a GC×GC-TOFMS experiment to only the peaks which significantly distinguish the unaltered and acid altered sample classes. Three samples of diesel fuel from differently branded filling stations were each altered to discover chemical features, i.e., analyte peaks, which were consistently changed by the acid reaction. Using different fuels prioritizes the discovery of features likely to be robust to the variation present between fuel samples and may consequently be useful in determining whether an unknown sample has been acid altered. The subsequent analysis confirmed that aromatic species are removed by the acid alteration, with the degree of removal consistent with predicted reactivity toward electrophilic aromatic sulfonation. Additionally, we observed that alkenes and alkynes were also removed from the fuel, and that sulfur dioxide or compounds that degrade to sulfur dioxide are generated by the acid alteration. In addition to applying the previously reported tile-based F-ratio method, this report also expands null distribution analysis to algorithmically determine an F-ratio threshold to confidently select only the features which are sufficiently class-distinguishing. When applied to the acid

  10. Pneumatic tube system transport does not alter platelet function in optical and whole blood aggregometry, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count and fibrinogen in patients on anti-platelet drug therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Mangge, Harald; Münch, Andreas; Niedrist, Tobias; Mahla, Elisabeth; Metzler, Helfried; Prüller, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess pneumatic tube system (PTS) alteration on platelet function by the light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and whole blood aggregometry (WBA) method, and on the results of platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen. Materials and methods Venous blood was collected into six 4.5 mL VACUETTE® 9NC coagulation sodium citrate 3.8% tubes (Greiner Bio-One International GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) from 49 intensive care unit (ICU) patients on dual anti-platelet therapy and immediately hand carried to the central laboratory. Blood samples were divided into 2 Groups: Group 1 samples (N = 49) underwent PTS (4 m/s) transport from the central laboratory to the distant laboratory and back to the central laboratory, whereas Group 2 samples (N = 49) were excluded from PTS forces. In both groups, LTA and WBA stimulated with collagen, adenosine-5’-diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA) and thrombin-receptor-activated-peptide 6 (TRAP-6) as well as platelet count, PT, APTT, and fibrinogen were performed. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between blood samples with (Group 1) and without (Group 2) PTS transport (P values from 0.064 – 0.968). The AA-induced LTA (bias: 68.57%) exceeded the bias acceptance limit of ≤ 25%. Conclusions Blood sample transportation with computer controlled PTS in our hospital had no statistically significant effects on platelet aggregation determined in patients with anti-platelet therapy. Although AA induced LTA showed a significant bias, the diagnostic accuracy was not influenced. PMID:28392742

  11. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  12. Incidence, puberty, and fertility in 45,X/47,XXX mosaicism: Report of a patient and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Han Hyuk; Kil, Hong Ryang; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2017-05-09

    Turner syndrome (TS), characterized by short stature and premature ovarian failure, is caused by chromosomal aberrations with total or partial loss of one of the two X chromosomes. Spontaneous puberty, menarche, and pregnancy occur in some patients depending on the abnormality of the X. Moreover, spontaneous pregnancy is uncommon (XXX karyotype is extremely rare. Previous reports have demonstrated that TS with 45,X/47,XXX is less severe than common TS due to higher occurrence of puberty (83%), menarche (57-67%), and fertility (14%) and lower occurrence of congenital anomalies (XXX mosaicism who presented with short stature. She showed mild TS phenotype including short stature but had spontaneous puberty. Based on our case and previous reports, we expect that girls with 45,X/47,XXX mosaicism may progress through puberty normally, without estrogen therapy. Therefore, it is necessary to consider specific guidelines for clinical decisions surrounding pubertal development and fertility in TS with 45,X/47,XXX karyotype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Integration of genomic resources to uncover pleiotropic regions associated with age at puberty and reproductive longevity in sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial and experimental genetic resources were used to investigate genetic pleiotropic factors that influence age at puberty, litter-size and reproductive longevity. The phenotypes were complemented by high-density genotyping and whole genome and RNA sequencing. The SNPs from Porcine SNP60 BeadA...

  14. Prospective assessment of pituitary size and shape on MR imaging after suppressive hormonal therapy in central precocious puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, J.T. van; Sharafuddin, M.J.A.; Kao, S.C.S. [Department of Radiology-JPP 3889, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52246 (United States); Luisiri, A. [Cardinal Glennon Children' s Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Garibaldi, L.R. [Children' s Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey (United States); St. Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, New Jersey (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Objective. The diagnostic significance of an enlarged pituitary gland regarding both shape and size parameters on MR imaging has previously been demonstrated in children with central precocious puberty. This study was designed to assess changes in these parameters following successful suppressive therapy of central precocious puberty with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Materials and methods. Twelve girls (mean age 7.3 years) with central precocious puberty were prospectively enrolled in our study protocol. Sagittal and coronal MR images of the pituitary region were obtained in all patients before treatment and after at least 6 months of GnRH analogue therapy (mean 18.0 months). Parameters measured included pituitary gland height, length, width, sagittal cross-sectional area, and volume. Results. All patients had excellent clinical response to treatment with arrest of secondary sexual development, normalization of serum estradiol levels, and complete obliteration of the LH response to diagnostic GnRH stimulation. No significant change occurred in any pituitary size or shape parameter following GnRH analogue therapy. Conclusion. Favorable clinical response to GnRH analogue therapy in central precocious puberty is not accompanied by significant a change in pituitary gland size and shape. (orig.)

  15. A Critical Analysis of UNESCO's International Technical Guidance on School-Based Education for Puberty and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2012-01-01

    Preparing children and adolescents for sexual safety and reproductive responsibility lies at the heart and purpose of puberty/sexuality education. The document of International Technical Guidance released by UNESCO in December 2009 aims to provide an evidence-based and rights-based platform offering children and adolescents vital knowledge about…

  16. GENOMICS SYMPOSIUM: Using genomic approaches to uncover sources of variation in age at puberty and reproductive longevity in sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variants associated with traits such as age at puberty and litter size could provide insight into the underlying genetic sources of variation impacting sow reproductive longevity and productivity. Genomewide characterization and gene expression profiling were used using gilts from the Univer...

  17. Effect of feeding three lysine to energy diets on growth, body composition and age at puberty in replacement gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effect of diets differing in standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine on lysine intake, growth rate, body composition and age at puberty on maternal line gilts. Crossbred Large White×Landrace gilts (n =641) were fed corn-soybean diets differing in SID lysine concentration (%, ...

  18. Prospective assessment of pituitary size and shape on MR imaging after suppressive hormonal therapy in central precocious puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, J.T. van; Sharafuddin, M.J.A.; Kao, S.C.S.; Luisiri, A.; Garibaldi, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. The diagnostic significance of an enlarged pituitary gland regarding both shape and size parameters on MR imaging has previously been demonstrated in children with central precocious puberty. This study was designed to assess changes in these parameters following successful suppressive therapy of central precocious puberty with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Materials and methods. Twelve girls (mean age 7.3 years) with central precocious puberty were prospectively enrolled in our study protocol. Sagittal and coronal MR images of the pituitary region were obtained in all patients before treatment and after at least 6 months of GnRH analogue therapy (mean 18.0 months). Parameters measured included pituitary gland height, length, width, sagittal cross-sectional area, and volume. Results. All patients had excellent clinical response to treatment with arrest of secondary sexual development, normalization of serum estradiol levels, and complete obliteration of the LH response to diagnostic GnRH stimulation. No significant change occurred in any pituitary size or shape parameter following GnRH analogue therapy. Conclusion. Favorable clinical response to GnRH analogue therapy in central precocious puberty is not accompanied by significant a change in pituitary gland size and shape. (orig.)

  19. The Impact of Puberty and Sexual Activity upon the Health and Education of Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, J.

    1987-01-01

    Sex equity issues which are emphasized in this article include: (a) how boys and girls negotiate reproductive transitions; (b) how male and female sexual maturity is treated differently by parents, educators, and society; and (c) how the consequences of puberty and sexual behavior may differ for boys and girls. (IAH)

  20. How SNP chips will advance our knowledge of factors controlling puberty and aid in selecting replacement females

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promise of genomic selection is that genetic potential can be accurately predicted from genotypes. Simple deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) tests might replace low accuracy predictions based on performance and pedigree for expensive or lowly heritable measures of puberty and fertility. The promise i...

  1. How single nucleotide polymorphism chips will advance our knowledge of factors controlling puberty and aid in selecting replacement beef females

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promise of genomic selection is accurate prediction of animals' genetic potential from their genotypes. Simple DNA tests might replace low accuracy predictions for expensive or lowly heritable measures of puberty and fertility based on performance and pedigree. Knowing which DNA variants affec...

  2. Influence of GnRH analogue on body mass index in girls with precocious puberty: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat Moaieri

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa therapy in central precocious puberty (CPP is safe for BMI and increasing of BMI is not significant, long- term follow-up study is required to elucidate whether GnRHa treatment affects adult obesity. Using growth hormone concomitantly, the effect on increasing height is significant.

  3. Role of basal and provocative serum prolactin in differentiating idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and constitutional delayed puberty--a diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaqat; Adeel, Afrose

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (IHH) is approximately 1 in 10,000 men. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the role of basal and stimulated serum prolactin in differentiating Constitutional Delayed Puberty (CDP) from IHH. This cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi. A total of 20 male patients presenting with provisional diagnosis of IHH/CDP were enrolled in the study. Patients with known diseases were excluded from the study. Baseline FSH, LH, testosterone, and prolactin were estimated and the patients were subjected to provocative prolactin stimulation by Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation (TRH) test and chlorpromazine challenge. At each 6 monthly follow-up visit for 4 years, the patients were evaluated for adrenarche, pubarche and other secondary sexual characters. Tanner scale was taken as standards for comparing stage of puberty at a particular age. No treatment was given to both groups for 2 years. At the end of 2 years IHH patients with failed puberty or progression of puberty and CDP who lagged behind by more than 2 years by Tanner scale or 4 years per bone age with compelling psychosocial or psychosexual reasons at school or at home were given short courses of 50 mg injection testosterone in an attempt to expedite the onset or progression of puberty. Patients from either group with failed puberty after low dose testosterone were managed with high dose testosterone therapy to induce secondary sexual characters. Twenty patients enrolled in the study were provisionally divided into 2 groups called IHH (n = 9), and CDP (n = 11) based on high basal and provocative serum prolactin levels in CDP group. Two patients from CDP group were lost in the follow-up leaving 9 patients in each group. A total of 10 (56%) patients, 3 (17%) from IHH group and 7 (39%) from CDP group achieved grade 4 puberty without any treatment. Remaining 8 (44%) patients, 6

  4. Improved final predicted height with the injection of leuprolide in children with earlier puberty: A retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Lin

    Full Text Available The adult height of children with early onset puberty is limited by the premature maturation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. To evaluate the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa treatment on the final height (FH and bone maturation rate (BMR in girls with early puberty (EP or idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP, we examined data from girls who were diagnosed with EP or ICPP and underwent GnRHa (Leuplin Depot: 3.75 mg/month at China Medical University Hospital, in Taiwan, between 2006 and 2015. Patients were observed until the achievement of FH and divided into an "EP group" (T-ep and "ICPP group" (T-icpp according to the age of onset of puberty. Eighty-seven patients were enrolled (T-ep, N = 44, puberty onset at 8-10 years; T-icpp, N = 43, puberty onset before 8 years. The demographic data of girls with EP or IPP was characterized. BMR, change in predicted final height (PFH after GnRHa treatment, target height (TH and FH were measured. After GnRHa treatment, the study groups (T-ep: 160.24±6.18 cm, T-icpp: 158.99±5.92 cm both had higher PFH than at initiation (T-ep: 159.83±7.19 cm, T-icpp: 158.58±5.93 cm. There was deceleration of BMR in both groups (T-ep: 0.57±0.39; T-icpp: 0.97±0.97 and a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.027. The gap in FH standard deviation scores (SDS and TH SDS had a significant difference in T-ep (p = 0.045 but not in T-icpp. Moreover, there was no difference in the gap of PFH SDS between the 1st and final treatment in both groups. We concluded that GnRHa decelerated BMR in girls with earlier puberty. Further prospective clinical studies are warranted.

  5. Gitelman syndrome manifesting in early childhood and leading to delayed puberty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Farhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gitelman syndrome is an inherited autosomal recessive renal salt-wasting disorder. It presents with variable clinical symptoms including muscle weakness and fatigue, and the diagnosis is based on metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is usually diagnosed incidentally in early adulthood. There are rare cases of Gitelman syndrome presenting in early childhood; however, to the best of our knowledge it has not previously been associated with delayed puberty. Case presentation A 17-year-old South Asian man with recurrent episodes of generalized muscle weakness, fatigue and cramps from the age of two years was admitted for further workup. Before the age of 12 years, the episodes had been mild, but they then got progressively worse. Other symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, nocturia, paresthesia and occasional watery diarrhea. He also had a history of short stature, poor weight gain and delayed developmental landmarks. His family history was unremarkable except for the consanguineous marriage of his parents. An examination revealed a thin and lean man with blood pressure of 95/60mmHg. His height and weight were below the third percentile and his sexual development was at Tanner Stage II. Laboratory work revealed serum sodium of 124mmol/L, potassium 2.4mmol/L, calcium 6.5mmol/L and magnesium of 1.2mg/dL. His testosterone level was low (0.85ng/mL, normal for his age 2.67 to 10.12ng/mL with normal levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The sex hormone findings were attributed to delayed puberty. A 24-hour urinary analysis revealed decreased excretion of calcium (25.9mg/24 hours. Based on the findings of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis without hypertension, severe hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria, a diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome was made. Treatment was started with oral supplementation of potassium, magnesium and calcium along with spironolactone and liberal salt intake

  6. Puberty in perinatal HIV-1 infection: a multicentre longitudinal study of 212 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, M; Tovo, P A; Galli, L; Gabiano, C; Chiarelli, F; Zappa, M; Gattinara, G C; Bassetti, D; Giacomet, V; Chiappini, E; Duse, M; Garetto, S; Caselli, D

    2001-08-17

    To define age at entry into Tanner stages in children with perinatal HIV-1 infection. Multicentre longitudinal study including 212 perinatally HIV-1-infected children (107 girls and 105 boys) followed-up during puberty (from 8 and 9 years onwards in girls and boys, respectively). Healthy children (843 girls and 821 boys) provided reference percentiles. P2 or B2 stages in girls and P2 or G2 stages in boys defined onset of puberty. The cumulative probability [95% confidence limit (CI)] of entry into each stage at different ages was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method; differences were evaluated by log rank test. Relationships were tested using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Ages of girls [years (95%CI)] at P2 [12.9 (12.6-13.2)], P3 [13.4 (13.0-13.8)], P4 [14.6 (14.0-15.2)], B2 [12.7 (12.2-13.2)], B3 [13.3 (12.8-14.0)] and B4 [14.6 (14.0-15.2)] stages were > 97th percentile (> or = 21 month delay) of controls. Ages of boys [years (95%CI)] at P2 [12.6 (12.1-13.1)], P3 [13.9 (13.4-14.4)], P4 [14.9 (14.2-15.6)], G2 [12.1 (11.5-12.7)], G3 [13.6 (13.1-14.1)] and G4 [14.9 (14.1-15.7)] stages were at the 75-97th percentiles (< or = 15 month delay). Age at onset of puberty was not related to clinical and immunological condition, antiretroviral treatment, weigh for height and age at onset of severe disease or immune suppression. Perinatal HIV-1 infection interferes with sexual maturation. The mechanisms by which this occurs should be elucidated and intervention strategies designed. Intervention could save much psychological distress, since associated linear growth failure can exacerbate adolescents' feelings of being different and unwell.

  7. Gitelman syndrome manifesting in early childhood and leading to delayed puberty: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Farhan; Sultan, Mubashar; Qamar, Khola; Jawad, Ali; Jawa, Ali

    2012-10-02

    Gitelman syndrome is an inherited autosomal recessive renal salt-wasting disorder. It presents with variable clinical symptoms including muscle weakness and fatigue, and the diagnosis is based on metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is usually diagnosed incidentally in early adulthood. There are rare cases of Gitelman syndrome presenting in early childhood; however, to the best of our knowledge it has not previously been associated with delayed puberty. A 17-year-old South Asian man with recurrent episodes of generalized muscle weakness, fatigue and cramps from the age of two years was admitted for further workup. Before the age of 12 years, the episodes had been mild, but they then got progressively worse. Other symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, nocturia, paresthesia and occasional watery diarrhea. He also had a history of short stature, poor weight gain and delayed developmental landmarks. His family history was unremarkable except for the consanguineous marriage of his parents. An examination revealed a thin and lean man with blood pressure of 95/60mmHg. His height and weight were below the third percentile and his sexual development was at Tanner Stage II. Laboratory work revealed serum sodium of 124mmol/L, potassium 2.4mmol/L, calcium 6.5mmol/L and magnesium of 1.2mg/dL. His testosterone level was low (0.85ng/mL, normal for his age 2.67 to 10.12ng/mL) with normal levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The sex hormone findings were attributed to delayed puberty. A 24-hour urinary analysis revealed decreased excretion of calcium (25.9mg/24 hours). Based on the findings of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis without hypertension, severe hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria, a diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome was made. Treatment was started with oral supplementation of potassium, magnesium and calcium along with spironolactone and liberal salt intake. Diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome is usually made incidentally

  8. Changes in dendritic architecture: not your "usual suspect" in control of the onset of puberty in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemond, Peter J; O'Boyle, Michael P; Hemond, Zoe; Gay, Vernon L; Suter, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Until the recent past, the search for the underlying drive for the pubertal increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) hormone from the GnRH-containing neurons in the hypothalamus was largely focused on extrinsic factors. The most recent evidence however indicates changes in the structure of GnRH neurons themselves may contribute to this fundamental event in development. Based on our studies in males, dendritic architecture is not static from birth until adulthood. Instead, dendrites undergo a dramatic remodeling during the postnatal period which is independent of testosterone and occurs before the pubertal increase in GnRH release. First, the number of dendrites emanating from somata is reduced between infancy and adulthood. Moreover, a dendrite of adult GnRH neurons invariability arises at angle of 180°from the axon as opposed to the extraordinary variability in location during infancy. In fact, in some neurons from infants, no dendrite even resides in the adult location. Thus, there is a spatially selective remodeling of primary dendrites. Secondly, dendrites of GnRH neurons from infants were highly branched prior to assuming the compact morphology of adults. Finally, other morphological aspects of GnRH neurons such as total dendritic length, the numbers of dendrite branches and the lengths of higher order branches were significantly greater in infants than adults, indicating a consolidation of dendritic arbors. Activity in multi-compartment models of GnRH neurons, suggest the impact of structure on neuronal activity is exerted with both active and passive dendrites. Thus, passive properties make a defining contribution to function. Accordingly, changes in morphology alone are likely to have functional consequences for the pattern of activity in GnRH neurons. Our findings suggest structural remodeling of dendrites during the postnatal period likely facilitates repetitive action potentials and thus, GnRH release at the time of puberty.

  9. Change in body mass index and insulin resistance after 1-year treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in girls with central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jina; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) is used as a therapeutic agent for central precocious puberty (CPP); however, increased obesity may subsequently occur. This study compared body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance during the first year of GnRHa treatment for CPP. Patient group included 83 girls (aged 7.0-8.9 years) with developed breasts and a peak luteinizing hormone level of ≥5 IU/L after GnRH stimulation. Control group included 48 prepubertal girls. BMI and insulin resistance-related indices (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI]) were used to compare the groups before treatment, and among the patient group before and after GnRHa treatment. No statistical difference in BMI z -score was detected between the 2 groups before treatment. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were increased in the patient group; fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio and QUICKI were increased in the control group (all P resistance compared to the control group. During GnRHa treatment, normal-weight individuals showed increased BMI z -scores without increased insulin resistance; the overweight group demonstrated increased insulin resistance without significantly altered BMI z -scores. Long-term follow-up of BMI and insulin resistance changes in patients with CPP is required.

  10. Induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl--practices and attitudes of pediatric endocrinologists in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Conway, G; Ritzen, M

    2002-01-01

    of the results of the questionnaires and discussions of that session to further the discussion on and knowledge of current concepts of induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl in Europe. It became clear from the data accumulated here that the start of treatment, the aims of therapy and the modalities of how...... to treat the hypogonadal girl vary amongst pediatric endocrinologists in Europe. For example, a chronological age > or =11 years was considered appropriate for the start of estrogen therapy by 40.4% (out of 188 answers), while 47.8 and 7.5% felt that a chronological age > or =13 and > or =15 years...... respectively was appropriate. In respect to the form and route of estrogen administration, the audience was asked for their common estrogen replacement practice: 31.9% used oral 17beta-estradiol treatment, while 10% would prescribe 17beta-estradiol transdermal patches. Another 12.2% would recommend conjugated...

  11. Leuprolide Acetate 1-Month Depot for Central Precocious Puberty: Hormonal Suppression and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neely EKirk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods. This prospective US multicenter trial of leuprolide acetate 1-month depot (7.5–15 mg for central precocious puberty utilized an open-label treatment period, long-term follow-up, and adult callback. Forty-nine females Results. Subjects were treated for years. Mean peak GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH were prepubertal after the first dose and remained suppressed throughout treatment. During treatment, mean estradiol decreased to the limit of detection and mean testosterone decreased but remained above prepubertal norms. During posttreatment follow-up ( years, all patients achieved a pubertal hormonal response within 1 year and menses were reported in all females ≥12 years old. No impairment of reproductive function was observed at adulthood (mean age: 24.8 years.

  12. Boy with central precocious puberty probably due to a peripheral cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahana, Pranab Kumar; Gopal Sankar, Krishna Shankar; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Chattopadhyay, Kaustubh

    2016-06-02

    A 6½ years Indian boy was brought by his parents, who were anxious about the excessive increase in the size of the boy's phallus, from the age of 2 years. On physical examination, the child had a penis length greater than the 97th centile for age, a sexual maturity rating of gonads at stage 2 and pubic hair at stage 3, with height in the high normal range (90-97th centile). The bone age was 12 years. Laboratory evaluation showed pubertal levels of testosterone and pubertal gonadotropin response to stimulation, confirming central precocious puberty (CPP). Incidentally, the hormonal profile also suggested congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This case report depicts a case of CPP probably caused by CAH in boys, which is rare. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Rathke's cyst with ectopic neurohypophysis presenting as severe short stature with delayed puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Deep; Roy, Ajitesh; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Dasgupta, Ranen; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2012-12-01

    Ectopic neurohypophysis (EN) is found in nearly half of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Rathke's cyst (RC) is uncommon in children and when present, hypopituitarism is found in nearly half of them. We present a fourteen and half-year-old girl with severe short stature and delayed puberty who on evaluation was found to have GHD, secondary hypocortisolism, and hypogonadism. Imaging revealed hypoplastic anterior pituitary, stalk agenesis, EN at tuber cinereum and intrapituitary RC. This is perhaps the first report of simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC, which was seen in a girl with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. A primary defect in pituitary development may explain this simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC and hence this severe anterior pituitary function deficit.

  14. Managing ethically questionable parental requests: growth suppression and manipulation of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, David; Tobin, Bernadette; Hamblin, Julie; Slaytor, Emma; Donaghue, Kim C; Munns, Craig; Kilham, Henry A

    2011-09-01

    Doctors sometimes struggle with ethically challenging requests for treatment from children's parents. For instance, we have recently had two requests by parents of children, a girl and a boy, each with a severe developmental disability, for hormonal therapy to suppress growth and puberty: the girl's parents requested, in addition, hysterectomy and mastectomy. We propose a reliable approach to assessing the ethical and legal aspects of these and other requests for 'non-therapeutic' treatment of a minor who lacks the capacity to give informed consent. We argue that a doctor should first assess whether the request is one that he or she can, in conscience, accede to, and then, if it is, seek the authorisation of a court. We outline considerations relevant to the doctor's assessment of both the ethical issues and to the need for court authorisation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Herbal medicine for idiopathic central precocious puberty: A protocol for a systematic review of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Lim; Lee, Yoo Been; Choi, Jun-Yong; Lee, Ju Ah

    2018-03-01

    Herbal medicine is widely used in East Asia to treat idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Most of the available clinical trials that investigated herbal medicine for ICPP have been included in this review. This systematic review will assess the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine for ICPP. Eleven databases, including Asian databases, will be searched for studies conducted through 2018. We will include randomized controlled trials assessing herbal medicine for ICPP. The risk of bias will be evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool, and confidence in the cumulative evidence will be evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation instrument. This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated both electronically and in print. The review will be updated to inform and guide health care practices. PROSPER 2018 CRD42018087988.

  16. Rathke′s cyst with ectopic neurohypophysis presenting as severe short stature with delayed puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic neurohypophysis (EN is found in nearly half of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Rathke′s cyst (RC is uncommon in children and when present, hypopituitarism is found in nearly half of them. We present a fourteen and half-year-old girl with severe short stature and delayed puberty who on evaluation was found to have GHD, secondary hypocortisolism, and hypogonadism. Imaging revealed hypoplastic anterior pituitary, stalk agenesis, EN at tuber cinereum and intrapituitary RC. This is perhaps the first report of simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC, which was seen in a girl with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. A primary defect in pituitary development may explain this simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC and hence this severe anterior pituitary function deficit.

  17. Associations between neuromuscular function and levels of physical activity differ for boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kelsey, Megan M; Melanson, Edward L; McQueen, Matthew B; Enoka, Roger M

    2013-08-01

    To compare the associations between neuromuscular performance and anthropometric characteristics with habitual levels of physical activity in boys and girls during the initial stages of puberty. In a cross-sectional study of 72 healthy children (39 boys and 33 girls) ranging in age from 8 to 14 years, sex differences in anthropometric and motor performance characteristics were compared at 3 Tanner stages (T1-T3). Outcome variables included dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of body composition, assessments of neuromuscular function, and levels of physical activity (steps/day) measured by accelerometry. Physical activity was lower in girls than boys at T2 and T3, but there was no sex difference at T1. Physical activity increased with Tanner stage for boys but did not differ between Tanner stages in girls. Physical activity at each Tanner stage was strongly associated (R(2) > 0.85) with neuromuscular characteristics for both boys and girls, but percentage of body fat also was associated with physical activity for T3 girls. The attenuated gains in neuromuscular function experienced by girls in early stages of puberty were strongly associated with lower levels of physical activity, whereas the increase in physical activity exhibited by boys was mostly related to increases in the strength and endurance of leg muscles. Because sedentary activity is a known contributor to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth, this study helps to identify possible contributors to decreases in physical activity in young girls and provides potential targets for early intervention. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin?) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean d...

  19. Hydroxysteroid (17β)-dehydrogenase 1-deficient female mice present with normal puberty onset but are severely subfertile due to a defect in luteinization and progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Janne; Jokela, Heli; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Heikelä, Hanna; Kätkänaho, Laura; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Ohlsson, Claes; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Poutanen, Matti

    2015-09-01

    Hydroxysteroid (17β)-dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD17B1) catalyzes the conversion of low active 17-ketosteroids, androstenedione (A-dione) and estrone (E1) to highly active 17-hydroxysteroids, testosterone (T) and E2, respectively. In this study, the importance of HSD17B1 in ovarian estrogen production was determined using Hsd17b1 knockout (HSD17B1KO) mice. In these mice, the ovarian HSD17B enzyme activity was markedly reduced, indicating a central role of HSD17B1 in ovarian physiology. The lack of Hsd17b activity resulted in increased ovarian E1:E2 and A-dione:T ratios, but we also observed reduced progesterone concentration in HSD17B1KO ovaries. Accordingly with the altered steroid production, altered expression of Star, Cyp11a1, Lhcgr, Hsd17b7, and especially Cyp17a1 was observed. The ovaries of HSD17B1KO mice presented with all stages of folliculogenesis, while the corpus luteum structure was less defined and number reduced. Surprisingly, bundles of large granular cells of unknown origin appeared in the stroma of the KO ovaries. The HSD17B1KO mice presented with severe subfertility and failed to initiate pseudopregnancy. However, the HSD17B1KO females presented with normal estrous cycle defined by vaginal smears and normal puberty appearance. This study indicates that HSD17B1 is a key enzyme in ovarian steroidogenesis and has a novel function in initiation and stabilization of pregnancy. © FASEB.

  20. Bone mineral density and body composition before and during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in children with central precocious and early puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractMajor changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition occur during puberty. In the present longitudinal study, we evaluated BMD and calculated volumetric BMD [bone mineral apparent density (BMAD)], bone metabolism, and body composition of children

  1. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in central precocious puberty before and during treatment with GnRH agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Andersson, A M; Müller, J

    2000-01-01

    both gonadotropins and estradiol levels become suppressed. We therefore investigated serum levels of inhibin A and inhibin B in girls with CPP at diagnosis and during treatment in order to test the hypothesis that inhibin secretion would increase and decrease in parallel with the activation......Serum levels of the gonadal hormones inhibin A and inhibin B are undetectable or low in prepubertal girls, and rise during puberty. In girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is prematurely activated, if the girl is thereafter treated with GnRH agonists...... and suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Serum levels of inhibin A and inhibin B were significantly (p 0.0005) elevated in 42 girls at diagnosis of CPP (inhibin A: 7 pg/ml (...

  2. GnRH-dependent precocious puberty manifested at the age of 14 months in a girl with 47,XXX karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordis, Nicos; Ferrari, Eleana; Antoniadou, Aria; Phylactou, Leonidas A; Fanis, Pavlos; Neocleous, Vassos

    2017-07-01

    This case report describes a 47,XXX girl who presented very early, at the age of 14 months, with signs of sexual precocity (breast and pubic hair development, menarche) and was finally diagnosed with GnRH dependent precocious puberty with no evidence of underlying central nervous system pathology. Molecular testing did not identify any genetic defect in any of the genes tested (KISS1, KISS1R, DLK1 and the intronless MKRN3). Though previous studies have shown a link between karyotype 47,XXX and precocious puberty, this is the youngest patient reported so far. Treatment with GnRH analog was commenced and proved to be effective, indicating a successful suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis.

  3. Start of puberty on heifers of Ecuadorian highlands by determination of progesterone hormone by radio-immuno analysis (RIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Patricio; Alarcon, Mariana; Utreras, Gina; Vazconez, L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the beginning of the puberty in Heifers of two Ecuadorian highland farms, observing the weight, age and height in which appeared levels of progesterone hormone that were significant, the samples were analyzed throughout the radioimmunoassay technique (RIA). The experiment was performed with twenty-eight Heifers Holstein Friesan half-breed of 6 to 9 months old, fourteen each farm. The blood samples were collected each eight days, additional data as weight and height were compiled each fifteen days and fecal samples were taken each thirty days. The Heifers were separate the trial when showed levels of progesterone equal or superior 0,5 ng/ml blood serum as an indicative that the ovarian physiology has begun. The age was highly significant in the groups, showing the puberty the Heifers of the farm ''A'' 5.47 months before that the farm B, for the parameters weight and height that was not significant

  4. Altered Gene Expression by Low-Dose Arsenic Exposure in Humans and Cultured Cardiomyocytes: Assessment by Real-Time PCR Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Mumford

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic exposure results in higher risk of skin, lung, and bladder cancer, as well as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on expression of selected genes in the blood lymphocytes from 159 people exposed chronically to arsenic in their drinking water using a novel RT-PCR TaqMan low-density array (TLDA. We found that expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, which activates both inflammation and NF-κB-dependent survival pathways, was strongly associated with water and urinary arsenic levels. Expression of KCNA5, which encodes a potassium ion channel protein, was positively associated with water and toe nail arsenic levels. Expression of 2 and 11 genes were positively associated with nail and urinary arsenic, respectively. Because arsenic exposure has been reported to be associated with long QT intervals and vascular disease in humans, we also used this TLDA for analysis of gene expression in human cardiomyocytes exposed to arsenic in vitro. Expression of the ion-channel genes CACNA1, KCNH2, KCNQ1 and KCNE1 were down-regulated by 1-mM arsenic. Alteration of some common pathways, including those involved in oxidative stress, inflammatory signaling, and ion-channel function, may underlay the seemingly disparate array of arsenic-associated diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.

  5. The effects of educating mothers and girls on the girls' attitudes toward puberty health: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsari, Atousa; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Valizadeh, Sousan; Abbasnezhadeh, Massomeh; Galshi, Mina; Fatahi, Samira

    2017-04-01

    The attitude of a girl toward her menstruation and puberty has a considerable impact on her role during motherhood, social adjustment, and future marital life. This study was conducted in 2014 with the aim of comparing the effects of educating mothers and girls on the attitudes of adolescent girls of Tabriz City, Iran, towards puberty health. This randomized control clinical trial was conducted on 364 adolescent girls who experienced menstruation. Twelve schools were selected randomly among 107 secondary schools for girls. One-third of the students of each school were selected randomly using a table of random numbers and socio-demographic and each participant was asked to answer the attitude questionnaires. The schools were randomly allocated to the groups of mother's education, girl's education, and no-intervention. The attitude questionnaire was filled out by the participants again 2 months after intervention. The general linear model, in which the baseline values were controlled, was employed to compare the scores of the three groups after the intervention. No significant differences were observed among the three groups in terms of the attitude score before intervention (p>0.05). Attitude score improvement after intervention in the girl's education group was significantly higher than the one of both mother's education (adjusted mean difference [AMD]: 1.8; [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4-1.3]) and no-intervention groups (AMD: 1.3; [95% CI: 0.0-2.6]) by controlling the attitude score before intervention. Based on the findings, it is more effective to educate girls directly about puberty health to improve adolescent girls' attitudes than educating mothers and asking them to transfer information to the girls. Nevertheless, studies with longer training period and follow-up are proposed to determine the effects of educating girls (through their mothers) on their attitudes about puberty health.

  6. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhai

    Full Text Available To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls.Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups.Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years than normal girls (9.2 years and lean girls (9.3 years. The prevalence (% of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8-60.1. None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5% and lean girls (8.1%. The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05.Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls.

  7. Age and sex-specific relationships between phthalate exposures and obesity in Chinese children at puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zhang

    Full Text Available To examine the age and sex-specific associations of urine levels of six mono-phthalates with body size and fat distribution in Chinese children at puberty.Four hundred and ninety-three school-aged children (247 boys, 246 girls were recruited. Obesity related anthropometric indices were measured and body fat proportion (BF% was calculated. Spot urine samples were collected and phthalate monoesters were detected by an API 2000 electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS. Associations between phthalate exposure and overweight/obesity measures and their trends were examined by multiple linear regression and Logistic regression analyses, respectively.Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolites and monobutyl phthalate (MBP were found to be the most detectable chemicals. In 8-10 years (yrs group, concentrations of MEHP and MBP were significantly higher in girls than those in boys. However, concentrations of all phthalate monoesters, except for MEP and MEHP, in 11-13 yrs boys were significantly higher than those in girls. After adjusting for confounders including puberty onset, urinary concentrations of MBP and sum of low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (∑LMP were positively associated with boys' obesity in a concentration-effect manner, while concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP and sum of DEHP metabolites (∑MEHP were negatively associated with girls' obesity. Associations between phthalate exposure levels and BMI z-score changes were age- and sex-specific in school-age children.There are age and sex-specific concentration-effect associations between phthalate exposure and fat distribution in Chinese children. Urinary phthalate levels in 11-13 yrs boys were about 30 percent higher than those in girls, and ∑MEHP levels in younger boys (10 yrs. Associations were positive for MBP and ∑LMP with both BMI z-score and fat distribution in boys >10 years of age, and negative for ∑MEHP with fat distribution in girls <10 years of age.

  8. [Primary glucocorticoid resistance syndrome presenting as pseudo-precocious puberty and galactorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shu-lin; He, Li-ping; Ran, Xing-wu; Tian, Hao-ming; Li, Xiu-jun; Liang, Jin-zhong

    2008-09-01

    Primary glucocorticoid resistance syndrome (PGRS) is a rare condition characterized by hypercortisolism without Cushing's syndrome. This report describes a 7-year-old boy of PGRS with pseudo-precocious puberty and galactorrhea as the main manifestation. His height was 135 cm and body weight was 31 kg. Pigmentation could be seen in the skin, mammary areola and penis. He had hirsutism, low hair line, coarse voice, Tanner stage 3 pubic hair, penis in adult form, accelerated linear growth, and advanced bone age (13 yr.), but normal (for age) testes. Furthermore, he had mammoplasia and galactorrhea. There were no features of glucocorticoid (GC) excess. Hepatic function was impaired (ALT 1426 IU/L, AST 611 IU/L) with no definite causes. Serum cortisol concentration was 1294 nmol/L, 777 nmol/L, 199.3 nmol/L at 8:00, 16:00 and 24:00 respectively. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was normal or a little higher (43.9-80 ng/L). Urinary-free cortisol (UFC) was normal (55.5-62.4 microg/24 h). Serum estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were normal. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, 60 microg/dL) and serum prolactin (PRL, 58.7-183.9 ng/mL) level were high, urinary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) level was also elevated (0.96-3.2 mg/mL). Gonadotrophin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test was negative. Serum cortisol responded normally to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. However, serum cortisol and plasma ACTH concentration was suppressed to more than 50% by 0.5 mg dexamethasone (DEX). The diagnosis of PGRS was made. TREATMENT AND FOLLOW-UP: The patient received a treatment of 0.75-1.0 mg/d DEX. Because of galactorrhea, bromocriptine was given by 1.25-3.75 mg/d. After 24 months follow-up, the pigmentation was relieved and galactorrhea disappeared. No advanced development of the external genitalia and breast was found. The acceleration of the bone age was also slowed down. But

  9. [Diagnostic value of baseline serum luteinizing hormone level for central precocious puberty in girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Li-Xue; Yang, Fan

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of baseline serum luteinizing hormone (LH) level for central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls. A total of 279 girls with precocious puberty were subjected to assessment of growth and development, bone age determination, baseline LH test, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) test, gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test, and other related examinations. Of the 279 patients, 175 were diagnosed with CPP and 104 with premature thelarche (PT). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of baseline LH and FSH levels and their peak levels for CPP, and the correlation between the baseline LH level and the peak LH level was analyzed. The CPP group had significantly higher bone age, baseline LH and FSH levels, peak LH and FSH levels, and ratio of peak LH level to peak FSH level than the PT group (Pbaseline LH level and peak LH level had good diagnostic values for CPP. Among the three bone age subgroups in the CPP group (7.0-9.0 years, 9.0-11.0 years, and >11.0 years), baseline LH level showed the best diagnostic value in the >11.0 years subgroup, with the largest area under the ROC curve. At a baseline LH level of 0.45 IU/L, the Youden index reached the peak value, and the sensitivity and specificity were 66.7% and 80% respectively, for the diagnosis of CPP. At a peak LH level of 9.935 IU/L, the Youden index reached the peak value, and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.8% and 100% respectively, for the diagnosis of CPP. The baseline LH level was positively correlated with the peak LH level (r=0.440, PBaseline LH level can be used as an primary screening index for the diagnosis of CPP. It has a certain diagnostic value for CPP at different bone ages, and may be used as a monitoring index during the treatment and follow-uP.

  10. Experience with the once-yearly histrelin (GnRHa subcutaneous implant in the treatment of central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Lewis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Katherine A Lewis, Erica A EugsterDepartment of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, USAAbstract: In 2007, a hydrogel histrelin implant was approved for the treatment of children with central precocious puberty (CPP. Children with CPP commonly have reduced height potential due to premature closure of the epiphyseal growth plates from exposure to sex steroids. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa treatment halts puberty and allows for improvement of adult height. A hydrogel implant delivery system utilizing the potent GnRHa, histrelin, was first developed for use in men with prostate cancer. A once yearly histrelin subcutaneous implant was subsequently developed for the treatment of children with CPP. Studies to date have demonstrated safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of this treatment option in patients treated up to 2 years. The most common adverse effects of the implant relate to implant site pain or bruising. Cost of this treatment seems comparable to somewhat higher than the commonly used GnRHa treatment option, depot leuprolide. While long term studies are needed to establish continued efficacy and safety beyond 2 years of treatment, the histrelin implant appears to be an attractive option for GnRHa treatment in patients with CPP.Keywords: central precocious puberty, histrelin, implant, gonadotropin-releasing-hormone analogs

  11. Delayed puberty, eroticism, and sense of smell: A psychological study of hypogonadotropinism, osmatic and anosmatic (Kallmann's syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrow, N A; Money, J; Lewis, V G

    1971-12-01

    In 13 male patients with a diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, associated in five cases with verified hyposmia (Kallmann's syndrome), social development and participation were delayed. The patients associated the lack of visible signs of male puberty with their delayed sociosexual maturation. However, the evidence of physical maturation after treatment did not have the ameliorative effect on their social behavior one would have liked to predict. Dating behavior was limited before and after treatment for all the patients, and sexual interest was low even for the three married ones. The experience of falling in love was notably absent in the relationships described. Two characteristic social reaction patterns were social introversion and hostile rejection of agemates. Intellectual functioning and the incidence of personality pathology were not diagnostically noteworthy. None of the patients had any problems with gender identity except for erotic apathy which extended to masturbation. There was an absence of homosexuality. Possibly hypogonadotropic patients have a primary defect of the hypothalamus, manifesting itself as a dysfunction of the behavioral concomitants of puberty as well as a failure of hormonal puberty.

  12. Evidence that obesity and androgens have independent and opposing effects on gonadotropin production from puberty to maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Bordini, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Optimal fat mass is necessary for normal gonadotropin levels in adults, and both undernutrition and overnutrition suppress gonadotropins: thus, the gonadotropin response to relative adipose mass is biphasic. Adult obesity is associated with blunted luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse amplitude that is partially attributable to increased LH clearance rate. Testosterone appears to have a biphasic effect on gonadotropin production in females. Moderate elevations of testosterone appear to stimulate LH production at both the hypothalamic and pituitary level, while very high levels of testosterone suppress LH. Thus, obesity per se appears to suppress gonadotropin production, and moderate hyperandrogenemia in women appears to stimulate LH. The ordinary hypergonadotropic hyperandrogenism of obese women appears to be an exception to this model because it is usually due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition in which intrinsic functional ovarian hyperandrogenism and excess adiposity share a common origin that involves insulin-resistant hyperinsulinemia. LH elevation seems to be secondary to hyperandrogenemia and is absent in the most obese cases. Overweight early pubertal girls have significant blunting of sleep-related LH production, which is the first hormonal change of puberty. The data are compatible with the possibility that excess adiposity may paradoxically subtly suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in early puberty although it is known to contribute to the early onset of puberty. PMID:20816944

  13. Toxicological assessment of drugs that affect the endocrine system in puberty-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranghi, Francesca; Tassinari, Roberta; Mantovani, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Toxicologists must ensure that clinical risk-to-benefit analysis should be made both for genders and age groups, with any treatment. Puberty concerns physiological changes leading to organism's maturation. Pubertal growth disorders are increasing in last decades: besides causing physical and psychological distress, they may signal underlying endocrine-metabolic abnormalities with serious health consequences later on. Therapeutic approaches for some health conditions in childhood and adolescence are considered. The authors discuss how some diseases and treatments can impact pubertal growth. The authors look at particular immunological disorders such as asthma and how both the disease and treatment affects pubertal growth. They also discuss how the provision of available data can help to assess the dose-response of the drug, in these cases, and minimize the chance of side effects. The authors also discuss pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and how both the disease and treatment can mitigate the growth delay. Last, but not least, the authors discuss how the effects of the drugs used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders may accentuate endocrine issues in juvenile patients. Hyperprolactinemia induction by some antipsychotics is highlighted as an example. Appropriate risk-benefit analysis of drugs prescribed during childhood and adolescence and intended to be used in the long term is required. Furthermore, future treatment strategies and safer compounds development should be supported by the knowledge of mechanisms underlying adverse side effects in pubertal growth and development.

  14. An 11-month-old girl with central precocious puberty caused by hypothalamic hamartoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Young Yoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Central precocious puberty (CPP is caused by premature activation of the hypothalamic-gonadal axis, and must be treated adequately. In particular, CPP that occurs at a relatively young age or in boys is likely to be caused by an organic lesion. Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH is the most common organic cause of CPP. The present case report describes an 11-month-old female infant who presented with vaginal bleeding and rapidly progressive secondary sex characteristics from the age of 6 months. She was diagnosed with CPP following the detection of HH via magnetic resonance imaging. The infant girl was successfully treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. After 6 months, her breast had regressed and clinical and radiological follow-up demonstrated stable findings with no evidence of tumor growth or secondary sexual characteristics until the fourth year after the initiation of treatment. This patient is the one of the youngest infants presenting with CPP and HH in Korea; treatment was successful over a relatively long follow-up period.

  15. Studies on the age of puberty of male camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rahim, S E

    1997-07-01

    Aspects of sexual development and attainment of sexual and breeding maturity were studied in two groups of Najdi camels (Mojaheem and Wadah), maintained in stalls under good nutritional conditions. Body weight, testes diameter and degree of penile freedom were recorded weekly. Sexual maturity was assessed by the examination of semen collected by an artificial vagina. Puberty was defined as the stage when the animal was able to produce viable sperms. Mating, followed by strong jerks and ejaculation of mature sperms, was taken to indicate onset of breeding maturity. Mojaheem camels reached sexual maturity at a significantly younger age and heavier weight (164 weeks and 360 kg) than Wadah camels (182 weeks and 336.5 kg) (P penis from preputial adhesions occurred at an average age of 138.6 weeks in both breeds. At the point of sexual maturity, the mean percentage of live spermatozoa was 65.1 +/- 5.2 while percentage of abnormal sperms was 17.6 +/- 2.2; total motility was 40 +/- 16% and progressive motility (48 +/- 2.2% (semen pH range 7.8-8.2). The percentage of live sperm was 65 +/- 1.5 (normal sperms 82 +/- 4). It is suggested that the encouragement of rapid growth during the pubertal period in camels managed under good nutritional and environmental conditions could assist early sexual development and breeding maturity.

  16. Experience of office hysteroscopy for diagnostics of abnormal uterine bleeding causes in puberty girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezhanishvili Е.М.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to prove the role of office hysteroscopy as an important additional method in diagnostics of puberty abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB. Material and methods. The study involved 68 patients with AUB. The average age was 13.4 years (10-17 years. The main complaint of patients concerned bleeding from genital tract during 10-45 days (on an average 28.4 days. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the type of AUB determined based on the level of serum estradiol, physical and sexual development, internal genitalia ultrasound data: 35 hypo estrogenic girls, 24 girls with normal estrogenic and 9 girls with hyper estrogenic type of AUB. All of the girls took the office hysteroscopy. Results. When performing hysteroscopy it was revealed that there were a clear relationship between the degree of estrogenic saturation and visual picture obtained in the course of the study. Conclusion. Hysteroscopy enables maximum visualization of uterine cavity, which allows to verify the diagnosis, to reduce the "over diagnosis" rate of organic pathology, perform a differentiated approach to treatment of diseases, based on determination of estradiol level in serum and data obtained in the study.

  17. A boy with Prader-Willi syndrome: unmasking precocious puberty during growth hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Natasha G; Radaeli, Rafael F; Silva, Mariana M X; Romero, Camila M; Carrilho, Alexandre J F; Bessa, Danielle; Macedo, Delanie B; Oliveira, Maria L; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Mazzuco, Tânia L

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder frequently characterized by obesity, growth hormone deficiency, genital abnormalities, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Incomplete or delayed pubertal development as well as premature adrenarche are usually found in PWS, whereas central precocious puberty (CPP) is very rare. This study aimed to report the clinical and biochemical follow-up of a PWS boy with CPP and to discuss the management of pubertal growth. By the age of 6, he had obesity, short stature, and many clinical criteria of PWS diagnosis, which was confirmed by DNA methylation test. Therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement (0.15 IU/kg/day) was started. Later, he presented psychomotor agitation, aggressive behavior, and increased testicular volume. Laboratory analyses were consistent with the diagnosis of CPP (gonadorelin-stimulated LH peak 15.8 IU/L, testosterone 54.7 ng/dL). The patient was then treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa). Hypothalamic dysfunctions have been implicated in hormonal disturbances related to pubertal development, but no morphologic abnormalities were detected in the present case. Additional methylation analysis (MS-MLPA) of the chromosome 15q11 locus confirmed PWS diagnosis. We presented the fifth case of CPP in a genetically-confirmed PWS male. Combined therapy with GnRHa and rhGH may be beneficial in this rare condition of precocious pubertal development in PWS.

  18. Effect of feeding level pre- and post-puberty and body weight at first calving on growth, milk production, and fertility in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Penno, J W; Bryant, A M; Roche, J R

    2005-09-01

    The effect of feeding to achieve differential growth rates in Holstein-Friesian (HF; n = 259) and Jersey (n = 430) heifers on time to puberty and first lactation milk production was investigated in a 3 x 2 factorial design. Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves were reared to achieve a BW of 100 and 80 kg, respectively, at 100 d. At target weight, all calves were randomly allocated to one of 3 feeding treatments to achieve different growth rates. Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves were fed fresh pasture to achieve average daily growth rates of 0.77, 0.53, or 0.37 kg of BW/d (HF) and 0.61, 0.48, or 0.30 kg of BW/d (Jersey), respectively. Period 1 (prepubertal) was imposed until HF and Jersey treatment groups averaged 200 and 165 kg of BW, respectively. Following period 1, HF and Jersey calves from each treatment group were randomly allocated to one of 2 feeding treatments to achieve average daily growth rates of 0.69 or 0.49 kg of BW/d (HF) and 0.58 and 0.43 kg of BW/d (Jersey), respectively. Period 2 (postpubertal) was imposed until 22 mo, when heifers were returned to their farms of origin. Body weight, body condition score, height, heart girth circumference (HGC), milk production, and fertility-related data were collected until the end of the third lactation. Time to reach puberty was negatively associated with level of feeding, and heifers attained puberty at the same BW (251 +/- 25.4 and 180 +/- 24.0 kg for HF and Jersey heifers, respectively). Heifers on high feed allowances during periods 1 and 2 were heavier, taller, and had greater HGC than their slower grown counterparts until 39 mo of age when height and HGC measurements stopped. Body weight differences remained until 51 mo, when measurements ceased. High feed allowance during period 1 (prepubertal) did not affect milk production during the first 2 lactations, but did reduce milk production in lactation 3. It is possible that the expected negative effect of accelerated pre-pubertal growth was masked by

  19. The Timing of Multiple Retrieval Events Can Alter GluR1 Phosphorylation and the Requirement for Protein Synthesis in Fear Memory Reconsolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarome, Timothy J.; Kwapis, Janine L.; Werner, Craig T.; Parsons, Ryan G.; Gafford, Georgette M.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that maintaining a fear memory after retrieval requires de novo protein synthesis. However, no study to date has examined how the temporal dynamics of repeated retrieval events affect this protein synthesis requirement. The present study varied the timing of a second retrieval of an established auditory fear memory…

  20. Multiway real-time PCR gene expression profiling in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals altered transcriptional response of ADH-genes to glucose stimuli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahlberg, A.; Elbing, K.; Andrade-Garda, J.M.; Sjögreen, B.; Forootan, A.; Kubista, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 170 (2008), s. 1-41 ISSN 1471-2164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Expression Profiling * Real-time PCR * Yeast Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2008