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Sample records for altered protein phosphorylation

  1. Phosphorylation states of cell cycle and DNA repair proteins can be altered by the nsSNPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savas, Sevtap; Ozcelik, Hilmi

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational modification that affects the intrinsic properties of proteins, such as structure and function. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) result in the substitution of the encoded amino acids and thus are likely to alter the phosphorylation motifs in the proteins. In this study, we used the web-based NetPhos tool to predict candidate nsSNPs that either introduce or remove putative phosphorylation sites in proteins that act in DNA repair and cell cycle pathways. Our results demonstrated that a total of 15 nsSNPs (16.9%) were likely to alter the putative phosphorylation patterns of 14 proteins. Three of these SNPs (CDKN1A-S31R, OGG1-S326C, and XRCC3-T241M) have already found to be associated with altered cancer risk. We believe that this set of nsSNPs constitutes an excellent resource for further molecular and genetic analyses. The novel systematic approach used in this study will accelerate the understanding of how naturally occurring human SNPs may alter protein function through the modification of phosphorylation mechanisms and contribute to disease susceptibility

  2. Microgravity alters protein phosphorylation changes during initiation of sea urchin sperm motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, J. S.; Bracho, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) studies demonstrated that bull sperm swim with higher velocity in microgravity (microG) than at 1 G. Coupling between protein phosphorylation and sperm motility during activation in microG and at 1 G was examined in the ESA Biorack on two space shuttle missions. Immotile sperm were activated to swim (86-90% motility) at launch +20 h by dilution into artificial seawater (ASW). Parallel ground controls were performed 2 h after the flight experiment. Activation after 0, 30, and 60 s was terminated with electrophoresis sample buffer and samples analyzed for phosphoamino acids by Western blotting. Phosphorylation of a 130-kDa phosphothreonine-containing protein (FP130) occurred three to four times faster in microG than at 1 G. A 32-kDa phosphoserine-containing protein was significantly stimulated at 30 s but returned to 1 G control levels at 60 s. The rate of FP130 phosphorylation in microG was attenuated by D2O, suggesting that changes in water properties participate in altering signal transduction. Changes in FP130 phosphorylation triggered by the egg peptide speract were delayed in microG. These results demonstrate that previously observed effects of microG on sperm motility are coupled to changes in phosphorylation of specific flagellar proteins and that early events of sperm activation and fertilization are altered in microG.

  3. Protein phosphorylation in isolated hepatocytes of septic and endotoxemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaciuc, I.V.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible alterations induced by sepsis and endotoxicosis in the late phase of Ca2+-dependent signaling in rat liver. Hepatocytes isolated from septic or chronically endotoxin (ET)-treated rats were labeled with [32P]H3PO4 and stimulated with various agents. Proteins were resolved by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiographed. Vasopressin (VP)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced responses were attenuated in both septic and ET-treated rats for cytosolic and membrane proteins compared with their respective controls. Glucagon and 12-O-myristate phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) affected only the phosphorylation of membrane proteins. Glucagon-induced changes in the phosphorylation of membrane proteins were affected by both sepsis and endotoxicosis, whereas TPA-stimulated phosphorylation was lowered only in endotoxicosis. Response to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was depressed in septic rats for cytosolic proteins. The phosphorylation of two cytosolic proteins, i.e., 93 and 61 kDa (previously identified as glycogen phosphorylase and pyruvate kinase, respectively), in response to VP, PE, and A23187 was severely impaired by endotoxicosis and sepsis. TPA did not affect the phosphorylation state of these two proteins. The results show that sepsis and endotoxicosis produce perturbations of the phosphorylation step in Ca2+ transmembrane signaling. Such changes can explain alterations of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis associated with sepsis and endotoxicosis

  4. Calcium channel agonists and antagonists regulate protein phosphorylation in intact synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.J.; Lovenberg, Walter

    1986-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation in intact synaptosomes is highly sensitive to alterations in calcium fluxes and was used to probe the possible mechanism of action of the calcium channel agonist BAY K 8644 and antagonists verapamil and nifedipine. These agents (at 1μM) all increased the basal phosphorylation of a specific set of 4 synaptosomal phosphoproteins termed P139, P124, P96 and P60, but did not alter depolarization-dependent protein phosphorylation. The increases could not be explained by a direct stimulation of protein kinases and appears unrelated to the known effects of these + drugs on K + -stimulated neuro-transmitter release. This finding may reveal a possible new mechanism of action for drugs which interact with calcium channels. (Author)

  5. Altered protein phosphorylation in sciatic nerve from rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrama, L.H.; Berti-Mattera, L.N.; Eichberg, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of experimental diabetes on the phosphorylation of proteins in the rat sciatic nerve was studied. Nerves from animals made diabetic with streptozocin were incubated in vitro with [ 32 P]orthophosphate and divided into segments from the proximal to the distal end, and proteins from each segment were then separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The principal labeled species were the major myelin proteins, P0, and the basic proteins. After 6 wk of diabetes, the incorporation of isotope into these proteins rose as a function of distance along the nerve in a proximal to distal direction and was significantly higher at the distal end compared with incorporation into nerves from age-matched controls. The overall level of isotope uptake was similar in nerves from diabetic animals and weight-matched controls. The distribution of 32 P among proteins also differed in diabetic nerve compared with both control groups in that P0 and the small basic protein accounted for a greater proportion of total label incorporated along the entire length of nerve. In contrast to intact nerve, there was no significant difference in protein phosphorylation when homogenates from normal and diabetic nerve were incubated with [ 32 P]-gamma-ATP. The results suggest that abnormal protein phosphorylation, particularly of myelin proteins, is a feature of experimental diabetic neuropathy and that the changes are most pronounced in the distal portion of the nerve

  6. Methods for the Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation-Mediated Cellular Signaling Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Forest M.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Protein phosphorylation-mediated cellular signaling networks regulate almost all aspects of cell biology, including the responses to cellular stimulation and environmental alterations. These networks are highly complex and comprise hundreds of proteins and potentially thousands of phosphorylation sites. Multiple analytical methods have been developed over the past several decades to identify proteins and protein phosphorylation sites regulating cellular signaling, and to quantify the dynamic response of these sites to different cellular stimulation. Here we provide an overview of these methods, including the fundamental principles governing each method, their relative strengths and weaknesses, and some examples of how each method has been applied to the analysis of complex signaling networks. When applied correctly, each of these techniques can provide insight into the topology, dynamics, and regulation of protein phosphorylation signaling networks.

  7. Calcium-regulated in vivo protein phosphorylation in Zea mays L. root tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghothama, K. G.; Reddy, A. S.; Friedmann, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium dependent protein phosphorylation was studied in corn (Zea mays L.) root tips. Prior to in vivo protein phosphorylation experiments, the effect of calcium, ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N-N' -tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and calcium ionophore (A-23187) on phosphorus uptake was studied. Calcium increased phosphorus uptake, whereas EGTA and A-23187 decreased it. Consequently, phosphorus concentration in the media was adjusted so as to attain similar uptake in different treatments. Phosphoproteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Distinct changes in phosphorylation were observed following altered calcium levels. Calcium depletion in root tips with EGTA and A-23187 decreased protein phosphorylation. However, replenishment of calcium following EGTA and ionophore pretreatment enhanced phosphorylation of proteins. Preloading of the root tips with 32P in the presence of EGTA and A-23187 followed by a ten minute calcium treatment, resulted in increased phosphorylation indicating the involvement of calcium, calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinases. Calmodulin antagonist W-7 was effective in inhibiting calcium-promoted phosphorylation. These studies suggest a physiological role for calcium-dependent phosphorylation in calcium-mediated processes in plants.

  8. Diazinon alters sperm chromatin structure in mice by phosphorylating nuclear protamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina-Guzman, B.; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, widely used in agriculture and pest control, are associated with male reproductive effects, including sperm chromatin alterations, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. The main toxic action of OP is related to phosphorylation of proteins. Chemical alterations in sperm nuclear proteins (protamines), which pack DNA during the last steps of spermatogenesis, contribute to male reproductive toxicity. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the ability of diazinon (DZN), an OP compound, to alter sperm chromatin by phosphorylating nuclear protamines. Mice were injected with a single dose of DZN (8.12 mg/kg, i.p.), and killed 8 and 15 days after treatment. Quality of sperm from epididymis and vas deferens was evaluated through standard methods and chromatin condensation by flow cytometry (DNA Fragmented Index parameters: DFI and DFI%) and fluorescence microscopy using chromomycin-A 3 (CMA 3 ). Increases in DFI (15%), DFI% (4.5-fold), and CMA 3 (2-fold) were observed only at 8 days post-treatment, indicating an alteration in sperm chromatin condensation and DNA damage during late spermatid differentiation. In addition, an increase of phosphorous content (approximately 50%) in protamines, especially in the phosphoserine content (approximately 73%), was found at 8 days post-treatment. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology showed significant alterations at this time. These data strongly suggest that spermatozoa exposed during the late steps of maturation were the targets of DZN exposure. The correlation observed between the phosphorous content in nuclear protamines with DFI%, DFI, and CMA 3 provides evidence that phosphorylation of nuclear protamines is involved in the OP effects on sperm chromatin

  9. Alterations in protein phosphorylation in the amygdala of the 5XFamilial Alzheimer's disease animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Jeong; Mahmood, Usman; Kim, Hyunju; Choi, Moonseok; Choi, Yunjung; Lee, Jean-Pyo; Chang, Moon-Jeong; Kim, Hye-Sun

    2017-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common disease underlying dementia in humans. Two major neuropathological hallmarks of AD are neuritic plaques primarily composed of amyloid beta peptide and neurofibrillary tangles primarily composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. In addition to impaired memory function, AD patients often display neuropsychiatric symptoms and abnormal emotional states such as confusion, delusion, manic/depressive episodes and altered fear status. Brains from AD patients show atrophy of the amygdala which is involved in fear expression and emotional processing as well as hippocampal atrophy. However, which molecular changes are responsible for the altered emotional states observed in AD remains to be elucidated. Here, we observed that the fear response as assessed by evaluating fear memory via a cued fear conditioning test was impaired in 5XFamilial AD (5XFAD) mice, an animal model of AD. Compared to wild-type mice, 5XFAD mice showed changes in the phosphorylation of twelve proteins in the amygdala. Thus, our study provides twelve potential protein targets in the amygdala that may be responsible for the impairment in fear memory in AD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fibronectin phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Sumi; Sugiyama, Yayoi; Imada, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    The presence of membrane-associated, extracellular protein kinase (ecto-protein kinase) and its substrate proteins was examined with serum-free cultures of Swiss 3T3 fibroblast. When cells were incubated with [γ- 32 ]ATP for 10 min at 37 degree C, four proteins with apparent molecular weights between 150 and 220 kDa were prominently phosphorylated. These proteins were also radiolabeled by lactoperoxidase catalyzed iodination and were sensitive to mild tryptic digestion, suggesting that they localized on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. Phosphorylation of extracellular proteins with [γ- 32 P]ATP in intact cell culture is consistent with the existence of ecto-protein kinase. Anti-fibronectin antibody immunoprecipitated one of the phosphoproteins which comigrated with a monomer and a dimer form of fibronectin under reducing and nonreducing conditions of electrophoresis, respectively. The protein had affinity for gelatin as demonstrated by retention with gelatin-conjugated agarose. This protein substrate of ecto-protein kinase was thus concluded to be fibronectin. The sites of phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase were compared with those of intracellularly phosphorylated fibronectin by the analysis of radiolabeled amino acids and peptides. Ecto-protein kinase phosphorylated fibronectin at serine and threonine residues which were distinct from the sites of intracellular fibronectin phosphorylation

  11. Altered phosphorylation of rhodopsin in retinal dystrophic Irish Setters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunnick, J.; Takemoto, D.J.; Takemoto, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The carboxyl-terminus of rhodopsin in retinal dystrophic (rd) Irish Setters is altered near a possible phosphorylation site. To determine if this alteration affects ATP-mediated phosphorylation they compared the phosphorylation of rhodopsin from rd affected Irish Setters and normal unaffected dogs. Retinas from 8-week-old Irish Setters were phosphorylated with γ- 32 P-ATP and separated on SDS-PAGE. Compared to unaffected normal retinas, equalized for rhodopsin content, phosphorylation of rd rhodopsin was drastically reduced. When rd retinas were mixed with normal dog retinas, phosphorylation of the latter was inhibited. Inhibition also occurred when bovine retinas were mixed with rd retinas. The rd-mediated inhibition of phosphorylation was prevented by including 1mM NaF in the reaction mixture. Likewise, 1mM NaF restored phosphorylation of rd rhodopsin to normal levels. Phosphopeptide maps of rd and normal rhodopsin were identical and indicated 5 phosphopeptides present in each. Results suggest that one cause of the depressed rd rhodopsin phosphorylation is an increased phosphatase activity

  12. SYMPOSIUM ON PLANT PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHN C WALKER

    2011-11-01

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play key roles in many aspects of plant biology, including control of cell division, pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, pattern formation, hormonal responses, and abiotic and biotic responses to environmental signals. A Symposium on Plant Protein Phosphorylation was hosted on the Columbia campus of the University of Missouri from May 26-28, 2010. The symposium provided an interdisciplinary venue at which scholars studying protein modification, as it relates to a broad range of biological questions and using a variety of plant species, presented their research. It also provided a forum where current international challenges in studies related to protein phosphorylation could be examined. The symposium also stimulated research collaborations through interactions and networking among those in the research community and engaged students and early career investigators in studying issues in plant biology from an interdisciplinary perspective. The proposed symposium, which drew 165 researchers from 13 countries and 21 States, facilitated a rapid dissemination of acquired knowledge and technical expertise regarding protein phosphorylation in plants to a broad range of plant biologists worldwide.

  13. Rapid changes in plasma membrane protein phosphorylation during initiation of cell wall digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, D.P.; Boss, W.F.; Trewavas, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with [γ- 32 P]ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of M r 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of M r 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at M r 22,000. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic 32 P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselas preparation was required for the observed responses

  14. Protein phosphorylation systems in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walaas, S.I.; Perdahl-Wallace, E.; Winblad, B.; Greengard, P.

    1989-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation systems regulated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), or calcium in conjunction with calmodulin or phospholipid/diacylglycerol, have been studied by phosphorylation in vitro of particulate and soluble fractions from human postmortem brain samples. One-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein separations were used for analysis. Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was found to be highly active in both particulate and soluble preparations throughout the human CNS, with groups of both widely distributed and region-specific substrates being observed in different brain nuclei. Dopamine-innervated parts of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex contained the phosphoproteins previously observed in rodent basal ganglia. In contrast, calcium/phospholipid-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation systems were less prominent in human postmortem brain than in rodent brain, and only a few widely distributed substrates for these protein kinases were found. Protein staining indicated that postmortem proteolysis, particularly of high-molecular-mass proteins, was prominent in deeply located, subcortical regions in the human brain. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use human postmortem brain samples, when obtained under carefully controlled conditions, for qualitative studies on brain protein phosphorylation. Such studies should be of value in studies on human neurological and/or psychiatric disorders

  15. Poliovirus-associated protein kinase: Destabilization of the virus capsid and stimulation of the phosphorylation reaction by Zn2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratka, M.; Lackmann, M.; Ueckermann, C.; Karlins, U.; Koch, G.

    1989-01-01

    The previously described poliovirus-associated protein kinase activity phosphorylates viral proteins VP0 and VP2 as well as exogenous proteins in the presence of Mg 2+ . In this paper, the effect of Zn 2+ on the phosphorylation reaction and the stability of the poliovirus capsid has been studied in detail and compared to that of Mg 2+ . In the presence of Zn 2+ , phosphorylation of capsid proteins VP2 and VP4 is significantly higher while phosphorylation of VP0 and exogenous phosphate acceptor proteins is not detected. The results indicate the activation of more than one virus-associated protein kinase by Zn 2+ . The ion-dependent behavior of the enzyme activities is observed independently of whether the virus was obtained from HeLa or green monkey kidney cells. The poliovirus capsid is destabilized by Zn 2+ . This alteration of the poliovirus capsid structure is a prerequisite for effective phosphorylation of viral capsid proteins. The increased level of phosphorylation of viral capsid proteins results in further destabilization of the viral capsid. As a result of the conformational changes, poliovirus-associated protein kinase activities dissociate from the virus particle. The authors suggest that the destabilizing effect of phosphorylation on the viral capsid plays a role in uncoating of poliovirus

  16. Identification of Mitosis-Specific Phosphorylation in Mitotic Chromosome-Associated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shinya; Kimura, Michiko; Takagi, Shunsuke; Toramoto, Iyo; Ishihama, Yasushi

    2016-09-02

    During mitosis, phosphorylation of chromosome-associated proteins is a key regulatory mechanism. Mass spectrometry has been successfully applied to determine the complete protein composition of mitotic chromosomes, but not to identify post-translational modifications. Here, we quantitatively compared the phosphoproteome of isolated mitotic chromosomes with that of chromosomes in nonsynchronized cells. We identified 4274 total phosphorylation sites and 350 mitosis-specific phosphorylation sites in mitotic chromosome-associated proteins. Significant mitosis-specific phosphorylation in centromere/kinetochore proteins was detected, although the chromosomal association of these proteins did not change throughout the cell cycle. This mitosis-specific phosphorylation might play a key role in regulation of mitosis. Further analysis revealed strong dependency of phosphorylation dynamics on kinase consensus patterns, thus linking the identified phosphorylation sites to known key mitotic kinases. Remarkably, chromosomal axial proteins such as non-SMC subunits of condensin, TopoIIα, and Kif4A, together with the chromosomal periphery protein Ki67 involved in the establishment of the mitotic chromosomal structure, demonstrated high phosphorylation during mitosis. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for regulation of chromosome restructuring in mitosis via protein phosphorylation. Our study generated a large quantitative database on protein phosphorylation in mitotic and nonmitotic chromosomes, thus providing insights into the dynamics of chromatin protein phosphorylation at mitosis onset.

  17. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in oat mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, C.; Kopeck, K.; Sceppa, E.

    1989-01-01

    We sought to identify phosphorylated proteins in isolated oat mitocchondria and to characterize the enzymatic and regulatory properties of the protein kinase(s). Mitochondria from oats (Avena sativa L. cv. Garry) were purified on Percoll gradients. Mitochondria were incubated with 32 P-γ-ATP; proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. A small number of bands was detected on autoradiograms, most prominently at 70 kD and 42 kD; the latter band has been tentatively identified as a subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, a well-known phosphoprotein. The protein kinase(s) could also phosphorylate casein, but not histone. Spermine enhanced the phosphorylation of casein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the 42 kD band. These studies were carried out on both intact and burst mitochondria. Control by calcium and other ions was investigated. The question of the action of regulators on protein kinase or protein phosphatase was studied by the use of 35 S-adenosine thiotriphosphate

  18. The Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein in Lemna minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewavas, A.

    1973-01-01

    Sterile cultures of Lemna minor have been labeled with 32P1, and the ribosomal proteins have been examined for radioactivity. In relatively short term labeling a radioactive protein was found which ran as a single component in both urea/acetic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Acid hydrolysis of the labeled protein permitted the isolation of serine phosphate. After labeling to equilibrium with 32P1, calculation indicated only 0.6 to 0.75 atom of this protein phosphorus per ribosome. The phosphorylated protein is found in both polysomes and “derived” monomers and appears to be located in the ribosomal small subunit. Its apparent molecular weight is 42,000. Addition of growth-inhibiting concentrations of abscisic acid does not alter the apparent degree of labeling of this protein in 5 hours, but after 24 hours of treatment the total protein phosphorus was reduced from 0.75 atom of phosphorus per ribosome to 0.36 atom of phosphorus per ribosome. PMID:16658405

  19. Large-scale analysis of phosphorylation site occupancy in eukaryotic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Møller, Ian Max

    2012-01-01

    in proteins is currently lacking. We have therefore analyzed the occurrence and occupancy of phosphorylated sites (~ 100,281) in a large set of eukaryotic proteins (~ 22,995). Phosphorylation probability was found to be much higher in both the  termini of protein sequences and this is much pronounced...... maximum randomness. An analysis of phosphorylation motifs indicated that just 40 motifs and a much lower number of associated kinases might account for nearly 50% of the known phosphorylations in eukaryotic proteins. Our results provide a broad picture of the phosphorylation sites in eukaryotic proteins.......Many recent high throughput technologies have enabled large-scale discoveries of new phosphorylation sites and phosphoproteins. Although they have provided a number of insights into protein phosphorylation and the related processes, an inclusive analysis on the nature of phosphorylated sites...

  20. Protein phosphorylation during coconut zygotic embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islas-Flores, I.; Oropeza, C.; Hernandez-Sotomayor, S.M.T.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence was obtained on the occurrence of protein threonine, serine, and tyrosine (Tyr) kinases in developing coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos, based on in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, alkaline treatment, and thin-layer chromatography analysis, which showed the presence of [32P]phosphoserine, [32P]phosphothreonine, and [32P]phosphotyrosine in [32P]-labeled protein hydrolyzates. Tyr kinase activity was further confirmed in extracts of embryos at different stages of development using antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies and the synthetic peptide derived from the amino acid sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site in pp60src (RR-SRC), which is specific for Tyr kinases. Anti-phosphotyrosine western blotting revealed a changing profile of Tyr-phosphorylated proteins during embryo development. Tyr kinase activity, as assayed using RR-SRC, also changed during embryo development, showing two peaks of activity, one during early and another during late embryo development. In addition, the use of genistein, a Tyr kinase inhibitor, diminished the ability of extracts to phosphorylate RR-SRC. Results presented here show the occurrence of threonine, serine, and Tyr kinases in developing coconut zygotic embryos, and suggest that protein phosphorylation, and the possible inference of Tyr phosphorylation in particular, may play a role in the coordination of the development of embryos in this species

  1. Protein phosphorylation in isolated human adipocytes - Adrenergic control of the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, R.M.; Paul, S.; Browning, M.D.; Leibel, R.L.; Hirsch, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of adrenergic agents on protein phosphorylation in human adipocytes was examined. Freshly isolated human fat cells were incubated with 32 PO 4 in order to label intracellular ATP, then treated with a variety of adrenergic and other pharmacologic agents. Treatment with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol led to a significant increase in phosphate content of at least five protein bands (M r 52, 53, 63, 67, 84 kDa). The increase in phosphorylation was partially inhibited by the α-2 agonist clonidine. Epinephrine, a combined α and β agonist, was less effective at increasing phosphate content of the proteins than was isoproterenol. Neither insulin nor the α-1 agonist phenylephrine had any discernible effect on the pattern of protein phosphorylation. The 84 kDa phosphorylated peptide band appears to contain hormone-sensitive lipase, a key enzyme in the lipolytic pathway which is activated by phosphorylation. These results are somewhat different than previously reported results for rat adipocytes, and represent the first report of overall pattern and adrenergic modulation of protein phosphorylation in human adipocytes

  2. Phosphorylation of proteins in Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londesborough, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cell extracts of the thermophile Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum catalyzed the phosphorylation by (γ- 32 P)ATP of several endogenous proteins with M/sub r/s between 13,000 and 100,000. Serine and tyrosine were the main acceptors. Distinct substrate proteins were found in the soluble (e.g., proteins p66, p63, and p53 of M/sub r/s 66,000, 63,000, and 53,000, respectively) and particulate (p76 and p30) fractions, both of which contained protein kinase and phosphatase activity. The soluble fraction suppressed the phosphorylation of particulate proteins and contained a protein kinase inhibitor. Phosphorylation of p53 was promoted by 10μM fructose 1,6-bisphosphate or glucose 1,6-bisphosphate and suppressed by hexose monophosphates, whereas p30 and p13 were suppressed by 5 μM brain (but not spinach) calmodulin. Polyamines, including the odd polyamines characteristic of thermophiles, modulated the labeling of most of the phosphoproteins. Apart from p66, all the proteins labeled in vitro were also rapidly labeled in intact cells by 32 P/sub i/. Several proteins strongly labeled in vivo were labeled slowly or not at all in vitro

  3. Identification of the protein kinase C phosphorylation site in neuromodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, E.D.; Byford, M.F.; Au, D.; Walsh, K.A.; Storm, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Neuromodulin (P-57, GAP-43, B-50, F-1) is a neurospecific calmodulin binding protein that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C has been shown to abolish the affinity of neuromodulin for calmodulin and the authors have proposed that the concentration of free CaM in neurons may be regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of neuromodulin. The purpose of this study was to identify the protein kinase C phosphorylation site(s) in neuromodulin using recombinant neuromodulin as a substrate. Toward this end, it was demonstrated that recombinant neuromodulin purified from Escherichia coli and bovine neuromodulin were phosphorylated with similar K m values and stoichiometries and that protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation of both proteins abolished binding to calmodulin-Sepharose. Recombinant neuromodulin was phosphorylated by using protein kinase C and [γ- 32 P]ATP and digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were separated by HPLC. Only one 32 P-labeled tryptic peptide was generated from phosphorylated neuromodulin. They conclude that serine-41 is the protein kinase C phosphorylation site of neuromodulin and that phosphorylation of this amino acid residue blocks binding of calmoculin to neuromodulin. The proximity of serine-41 to the calmodulin binding domain in neuromodulin very likely explains the effect of phosphorylation on the affinity of neuromodulin for calmodulin

  4. Protein phosphorylation and its role in archaeal signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Dominik; Hoffmann, Lena; Pham, Trong Khoa; Bräsen, Christopher; Qiu, Wen; Wright, Phillip C.; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Siebers, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is the main mechanism of signal transduction that enables cells to rapidly respond to environmental changes by controlling the functional properties of proteins in response to external stimuli. However, whereas signal transduction is well studied in Eukaryotes and Bacteria, the knowledge in Archaea is still rather scarce. Archaea are special with regard to protein phosphorylation, due to the fact that the two best studied phyla, the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeaota, seem to exhibit fundamental differences in regulatory systems. Euryarchaeota (e.g. halophiles, methanogens, thermophiles), like Bacteria and Eukaryotes, rely on bacterial-type two-component signal transduction systems (phosphorylation on His and Asp), as well as on the protein phosphorylation on Ser, Thr and Tyr by Hanks-type protein kinases. Instead, Crenarchaeota (e.g. acidophiles and (hyper)thermophiles) only depend on Hanks-type protein phosphorylation. In this review, the current knowledge of reversible protein phosphorylation in Archaea is presented. It combines results from identified phosphoproteins, biochemical characterization of protein kinases and protein phosphatases as well as target enzymes and first insights into archaeal signal transduction by biochemical, genetic and polyomic studies. PMID:27476079

  5. Single-well monitoring of protein-protein interaction and phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, Mathieu; Roby, Philippe; Bossé, Roger; Lipari, Francesco; Padrós, Jaime; Beaudet, Lucille; Marcil, Alexandre; Dahan, Sophie

    2010-04-20

    We combined oxygen channeling assays with two distinct chemiluminescent beads to detect simultaneously protein phosphorylation and interaction events that are usually monitored separately. This novel method was tested in the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway. It was first used to directly monitor dissociation of MAP kinase ERK2 from MEK1 upon phosphorylation and to evaluate MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) selectivity and mechanism of action. In addition, MEK1 and ERK2 were probed with an ATP competitor and an allosteric MEK1 inhibitor, which generated distinct phosphorylation-interaction patterns. Simultaneous monitoring of protein-protein interactions and substrate phosphorylation can provide significant mechanistic insight into enzyme activity and small molecule action.

  6. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bigeard, Jean; Rayapuram, Naganand; Pflieger, Delphine; Hirt, Heribert

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is located in the nucleus where it is organized with histone proteins in a higher order structure as chromatin. Chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins contribute to DNA-related processes such as replication and transcription as well as epigenetic regulation. Protein functions are often regulated by PTMs among which phosphorylation is one of the most abundant PTM. Phosphorylation of proteins affects important properties, such as enzyme activity, protein stability, or subcellular localization. We here describe the main specificities of protein phosphorylation in plants and review the current knowledge on phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins. We also outline some future challenges to further elucidate protein phosphorylation and chromatin regulation.

  7. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bigeard, Jean

    2014-07-10

    In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is located in the nucleus where it is organized with histone proteins in a higher order structure as chromatin. Chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins contribute to DNA-related processes such as replication and transcription as well as epigenetic regulation. Protein functions are often regulated by PTMs among which phosphorylation is one of the most abundant PTM. Phosphorylation of proteins affects important properties, such as enzyme activity, protein stability, or subcellular localization. We here describe the main specificities of protein phosphorylation in plants and review the current knowledge on phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins. We also outline some future challenges to further elucidate protein phosphorylation and chromatin regulation.

  8. Green tea polyphenols alter lipid metabolism in the livers of broiler chickens through increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Huang

    Full Text Available Our previous results showed that green tea polyphenols (GTPs significantly altered the expression of lipid-metabolizing genes in the liver of chickens. However, the underlying mechanism was not elucidated. In this study, we further characterized how GTPs influence AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in the regulation of hepatic fat metabolism. Thirty-six male chickens were fed GTPs at a daily dose of 0, 80 or 160 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks. The results demonstrated that oral administration of GTPs significantly reduced hepatic lipid content and abdominal fat mass, enhanced the phosphorylation levels of AMPKα and ACACA, and altered the mRNA levels and enzymatic activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. These results suggested that the activation of AMPK is a potential mechanism by which GTPs regulate hepatic lipid metabolism in such a way that lipid synthesis is reduced and fat oxidation is stimulated.

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 alter connexin 43 phosphorylation in MC3T3-E1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudkin George H

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs are important regulators of bone repair and regeneration. BMP-2 and TGF-β1 have been shown to inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC in MC3T3-E1 cells. Connexin 43 (Cx43 has been shown to mediate GJIC in osteoblasts and it is the predominant gap junctional protein expressed in these murine osteoblast-like cells. We examined the expression, phosphorylation, and subcellular localization of Cx43 after treatment with BMP-2 or TGF-β1 to investigate a possible mechanism for the inhibition of GJIC. Results Northern blot analysis revealed no detectable change in the expression of Cx43 mRNA. Western blot analysis demonstrated no significant change in the expression of total Cx43 protein. However, significantly higher ratios of unphosphorylated vs. phosphorylated forms of Cx43 were detected after BMP-2 or TGF-β1 treatment. Immunofluorescence and cell protein fractionation revealed no detectable change in the localization of Cx43 between the cytosol and plasma membrane. Conclusions BMP-2 and TGF-β1 do not alter expression of Cx43 at the mRNA or protein level. BMP-2 and TGF-β1 may inhibit GJIC by decreasing the phosphorylated form of Cx43 in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  10. Changes in protein composition and protein phosphorylation during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in protein profiles and protein phosphorylation were studied in various stages of germinating somatic and zygotic embryos. Many proteins, which were expressed in cotyledonary stage somatic embryos, were also present in the zygotic embryos obtained from mature dry seed. The intensity of 22 kDa protein was ...

  11. Phototropism and Protein Phosphorylation in Higher Plants: Unilateral Blue Light Irradiation Generates a Directional Gradient of Protein Phosphorylation Across the Oat Coleoptile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Zacherl, M.; Rüdiger, W.

    1997-01-01

    Blue light induces the phosphorylation of a 116 kDa oat protein found in plasma membrane preparations from coleoptile tips. We developed a very sensitive in vitro method that allowed us to determine the tissue distribution of protein phosphorylation after applying unilateral and bilateral blue light pulses in vivo. We found that following unilateral in vivo irradiation the degree in phosphorylation of the 116 kDa protein is significantly higher at the irradiated than at the shaded side of the coleoptile tip. This asymmetry can be considered as previously missing criterion that protein phosphorylation represents an early event within the transduction chain for phototropism. (author)

  12. Cholinergic regulation of protein phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haycock, J.W.; Browning, M.D.; Greengard, P.

    1988-01-01

    Chromaffin cells were isolated from bovine adrenal medullae and maintained in primary culture. After prelabeling with 32 PO 4 , exposure of the chromaffin cells to acetylcholine increased the phosphorylation of a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein and a M/sub r/ ≅ 60,000 protein (tyrosine hydroxylase), visualized after separation of total cellular proteins in NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gels. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies to three known phosphoproteins (100-kDa, 87-kDa, and protein III) revealed an acetylcholine-dependent phosphorylation of these proteins. These three proteins were also shown to be present in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by immunolabeling techniques. 100-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III, 87-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 87,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and protein III is a phosphoprotein doublet of M/sub r/ ≅ 74,000 (IIIa) and M/sub r/ ≅ 55,000 (IIIb) phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. The data demonstrate that cholinergic activation of chromaffin cells increases the phosphorylation of several proteins and that several protein kinase systems may be involved in these effects

  13. Effects of protein phosphorylation on color stability of ground meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Li, Xin; Xin, Jianzeng; Li, Zheng; Li, Guixia; Zhang, Yan; Du, Manting; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2017-03-15

    The influence of protein phosphorylation on meat color stability was investigated in this study. Phosphatase and protein kinase inhibitors were added to minced ovine Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle to manipulate the global phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins. The data obtained show that the rate and extent of pH decline, along with lactate accumulation in postmortem muscle, were related to protein phosphorylation. Analysis of meat color and the relative content of myoglobin redox forms revealed that meat color stability was inversely related to the phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins. Thus, this study suggests that protein phosphorylation may be involved in meat color development by regulating glycolysis and the redox stability of myoglobin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Myosin Binding Protein-C Slow Phosphorylation is Altered in Duchenne Dystrophy and Arthrogryposis Myopathy in Fast-Twitch Skeletal Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Maegen A; Ward, Christopher W; Gurnett, Christina; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Aikaterini

    2015-08-19

    Myosin Binding Protein-C slow (sMyBP-C), encoded by MYBPC1, comprises a family of regulatory proteins of skeletal muscles that are phosphorylated by PKA and PKC. MYBPC1 missense mutations are linked to the development of Distal Arthrogryposis-1 (DA-1). Although structure-function details for this myopathy are evolving, function is undoubtedly driven by sequence variations and post-translational modifications in sMyBP-C. Herein, we examined the phosphorylation profile of sMyBP-C in mouse and human fast-twitch skeletal muscles. We used Flexor Digitorum Brevis (FDB) isolated from young (~2-months old) and old (~14-months old) wild type and mdx mice, and human Abductor Hallucis (AH) and gastrocnemious muscles carrying the DA-1 mutations. Our results indicate both constitutive and differential phosphorylation of sMyBP-C in aged and diseased muscles. We report a 7-35% reduction in the phosphorylation levels of select sites in old wild type and young or old mdx FDB mouse muscles, compared to young wild type tissue. Similarly, we observe a 30-70% decrease in the phosphorylation levels of all PKA and PKC phospho-sites in the DA-1 AH, but not gastrocnemius, muscle. Overall, our studies show that the phosphorylation pattern of sMyBP-C is differentially regulated in response to age and disease, suggesting that phosphorylation plays important roles in these processes.

  15. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  16. Independence of protein kinase C-delta activity from activation loop phosphorylation: structural basis and altered functions in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Belkina, Natalya V; Graham, Caroline; Shaw, Stephen

    2006-04-28

    Activation loop phosphorylation plays critical regulatory roles for many kinases. Unlike other protein kinase Cs (PKC), PKC-delta does not require phosphorylation of its activation loop (Thr-507) for in vitro activity. We investigated the structural basis for this unusual capacity and its relevance to PKC-delta function in intact cells. Mutational analysis demonstrated that activity without Thr-507 phosphorylation depends on 20 residues N-terminal to the kinase domain and a pair of phenylalanines (Phe-500/Phe-527) unique to PKC-delta in/near the activation loop. Molecular modeling demonstrated that these elements stabilize the activation loop by forming a hydrophobic chain of interactions from the C-lobe to activation loop to N-terminal (helical) extension. In cells PKC-delta mediates both apoptosis and transcription regulation. We found that the T507A mutant of the PKC-delta kinase domain resembled the corresponding wild type in mediating apoptosis in transfected HEK293T cells. But the T507A mutant was completely defective in AP-1 and NF-kappaB reporter assays. A novel assay in which the kinase domain of PKC-delta and its substrate (a fusion protein of PKC substrate peptide with green fluorescent protein) were co-targeted to lipid rafts revealed a major substrate-selective defect of the T507A mutant in phosphorylating the substrate in cells. In vitro analysis showed strong product inhibition on the T507A mutant with particular substrates whose characteristics suggest it contributes to the substrate selective defect of the PKC-delta T507A mutant in cells. Thus, activation loop phosphorylation of PKC-delta may regulate its function in cells in a novel way.

  17. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. II. Activation of a protein kinase that phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    As an initial attempt to identify early steps in insulin action that may be involved in the growth responses of neurons to insulin, we investigated whether insulin receptor activation increases the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in cultured fetal neurons and whether activation of a protein kinase is involved in this process. When neurons were incubated for 2 h with 32Pi, the addition of insulin (100 ng/ml) for the final 30 min increased the incorporation of 32Pi into a 32K microsomal protein. The incorporation of 32Pi into the majority of other neuronal proteins was unaltered by the 30-min exposure to insulin. Cytosolic extracts from insulin-treated neurons incubated in the presence of exogenous rat liver 40S ribosomes and [gamma-32P]ATP displayed a 3- to 8-fold increase in the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 compared to extracts from untreated cells. Inclusion of cycloheximide during exposure of the neurons to insulin did not inhibit the increased cytosolic kinase activity. Activation of S6 kinase activity by insulin was dose dependent (seen at insulin concentration as low as 0.1 ng/ml) and reached a maximum after 20 min of incubation. Addition of phosphatidylserine, diolein, and Ca2+ to the in vitro kinase reaction had no effect on the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. Likewise, treatment of neurons with (Bu)2cAMP did not alter the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 by neuronal cytosolic extracts. We conclude that insulin activates a cytosolic protein kinase that phosphorylates ribosomal S6 in neurons and is distinct from protein kinase-C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Stimulation of this kinase may play a role in insulin signal transduction in neurons

  18. Age-related changes in the synthesis and phosphorylation of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.A.; Heydari, A.; Richardson, A.

    1986-01-01

    It is well documented that the protein synthetic activity of liver tissue decreases significantly with age. However, very little information is available on the effect of age on the synthesis or phosphorylation of individual proteins. Hepatocytes were isolated from 5- to 30-month-old male Fischer F344 rats, and proteins were labeled with either [ 3 H]-valine or [ 32 P]-phosphate. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to monitor the synthesis and phosphorylation of a wide variety of proteins. A dramatic increase or decrease in the synthesis of approximately 2 to 3% of the proteins was observed. Most of the proteins whose synthesis increased with age were found to be plasma proteins, e.g., acute phase proteins, synthesized by the liver. In general, the synthesis of most proteins decreased 20 to 40% with age. The phosphorylation of most proteins (over 200) did not appear to change with age. However the phosphorylation of two acidic proteins (molecular weights of 148 Kd and 130 Kd and pIs of 5.4 and 5.36, respectively) decreased with age while the phosphorylation of a basic protein (molecular weight of 57 Kd and pI of 8.09) increased with age

  19. Tyrosine phosphorylation switching of a G protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Tunc-Ozdemir, Meral; Urano, Daisuke; Jia, Haiyan; Werth, Emily G; Mowrey, David D; Hicks, Leslie M; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Torres, Matthew P; Jones, Alan M

    2018-03-30

    Heterotrimeric G protein complexes are molecular switches relaying extracellular signals sensed by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to downstream targets in the cytoplasm, which effect cellular responses. In the plant heterotrimeric GTPase cycle, GTP hydrolysis, rather than nucleotide exchange, is the rate-limiting reaction and is accelerated by a receptor-like regulator of G signaling (RGS) protein. We hypothesized that posttranslational modification of the Gα subunit in the G protein complex regulates the RGS-dependent GTPase cycle. Our structural analyses identified an invariant phosphorylated tyrosine residue (Tyr 166 in the Arabidopsis Gα subunit AtGPA1) located in the intramolecular domain interface where nucleotide binding and hydrolysis occur. We also identified a receptor-like kinase that phosphorylates AtGPA1 in a Tyr 166 -dependent manner. Discrete molecular dynamics simulations predicted that phosphorylated Tyr 166 forms a salt bridge in this interface and potentially affects the RGS protein-accelerated GTPase cycle. Using a Tyr 166 phosphomimetic substitution, we found that the cognate RGS protein binds more tightly to the GDP-bound Gα substrate, consequently reducing its ability to accelerate GTPase activity. In conclusion, we propose that phosphorylation of Tyr 166 in AtGPA1 changes the binding pattern with AtRGS1 and thereby attenuates the steady-state rate of the GTPase cycle. We coin this newly identified mechanism "substrate phosphoswitching." © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Differential effects of vasopressin and phenylephrine on protein kinase C-mediated protein phosphorylations in isolated hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H.; Johanson, R.A.; Wiliamson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Receptor-mediated breakdown of inositol lipids produces two intracellular signals, diacylglycerol, which activates protein kinase C, and inositol trisphosphate, which causes release of intracellular vesicular Ca 2+ . This study examined the effects of Ca 2+ -ionophores, vasopressin, phenylephrine, and phorbol ester (PMA) on hepatocyte protein phosphorylations. [ 32 P] Phosphoproteins from hepatocytes prelabeled with 32 P were resolved by 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE and corresponding autoradiographs were quantitated by densitometric analysis. The phosphorylation of five proteins, a plasma membrane bound 16 kDa protein with pI 6.4, a cytosolic 16 kDa protein with pI 5.8, and proteins with Mr's of 36 kDa, 52 kDa, and 68 kDa, could be attributed to phosphorylation by protein kinase C since the phosphorylation was stimulated by PMA. When the vasopressin concentration was varied, low vasopressin stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein of the above set of proteins, while higher vasopressin concentrations were required to stimulate the phosphorylation of all five proteins. Phenylephrine, even at supramaximal concentrations, stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein. These results suggest that phenylephrine is a less potent activator of protein kinase C than vasopressin by virtue of limited or localized diacylglycerol production

  1. Protein-Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Bottini, N.

    2005-01-01

    phosphorylation, indicating that this post-translational modifi cation could regulate physiological processes ranging from stress response and exopolysaccharide synthesis to DNA metabolism. Some interesting work in this fi eld was done in Bacillus subtilis , and we here present the current state of knowledge...... on protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in this gram-positive model organism. With its two kinases, two kinase modulators, three phosphatases and at least four different tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates, B. subtilis is the bacterium with the highest number of presently known participants in the global network...

  2. Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of islet secretory granule proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of Ca2+ and calmodulin on phosphorylation of islet secretory granule proteins was studied. Secretory granules were incubated in a phosphorylation reaction mixture containing [32P]ATP and test reagents. The 32P-labeled proteins were resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the 32P content was visualized by autoradiography, and the relative intensities of specific bands were quantitated. When the reaction mixture contained EGTA and no added Ca2+, 32P was incorporated into two proteins with molecular weights of 45,000 and 13,000. When 10(-4) M Ca2+ was added without EGTA, two additional proteins (58,000 and 48,000 Mr) were phosphorylated, and the 13,000-Mr protein was absent. The addition of 2.4 microM calmodulin markedly enhanced the phosphorylation of the 58,000- and 48,000-Mr proteins and resulted in the phosphorylation of a major protein whose molecular weight (64,000 Mr) is identical to that of one of the calmodulin binding proteins located on the granule surface. Calmodulin had no effect on phosphorylation in the absence of Ca2+ but was effective in the presence of calcium between 10 nM and 50 microM. Trifluoperazine and calmidazolium, calmodulin antagonists, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the calmodulin effect. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, a phorbol ester that activates protein kinase C, produced no increase in phosphorylation, and 1-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methyl piperazine dihydrochloride, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, had no effect. These results indicate that Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and endogenous substrates are present in islet secretory granules

  3. Tyrosine phosphorylation of WW proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuven, Nina; Shanzer, Matan

    2015-01-01

    A number of key regulatory proteins contain one or two copies of the WW domain known to mediate protein–protein interaction via proline-rich motifs, such as PPxY. The Hippo pathway components take advantage of this module to transduce tumor suppressor signaling. It is becoming evident that tyrosine phosphorylation is a critical regulator of the WW proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on the involved tyrosine kinases and their roles in regulating the WW proteins. PMID:25627656

  4. Akt regulates the subcellular localization of the Rab27a-binding protein JFC1 by phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer L; Pacquelet, Sandrine; Lane, William S; Eam, Boreth; Catz, Sergio D

    2005-08-01

    Here, we show that the Rab27a-binding protein JFC1/Slp1 (synaptotagmin-like protein) is regulated by Akt-mediated phosphorylation. Using the phosphatase and tensin homolog-null LNCaP cells and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, we show that the phosphorylation of endogenous JFC1 is dependent on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. JFC1 was phosphorylated in cells expressing a constitutively active Akt, confirming that it is an Akt substrate in vivo. Direct phosphorylation of JFC1 by Akt was confirmed in vitro. Using microcapillary high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we identified five Akt-phosphorylation sites in JFC1. By mutagenesis analysis and subsequent immunoprecipitation (IP), we established that Akt phosphorylates JFC1 at serine 241. JFC1 and Rab27a colocalize in the proximity of the plasma membrane in LNCaP cells. The interaction was confirmed by IP analysis and was abolished by the point mutation W83S in JFC1. Phosphorylation did not alter the ability of JFC1 to bind to Rab27a. Instead, phosphorylation by Akt dramatically decreased when JFC1 was bound to Rab27a. Finally, we show that as a consequence of in vivo phosphorylation, JFC1 dissociates from the membrane, promoting JFC1 redistribution to the cytosol. Our results suggest that Akt regulates JFC1/Slp1 function by phosphorylation and may have implications on Rab27a-containing vesicle secretion.

  5. Phosphorylation of human link proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oester, D.A.; Caterson, B.; Schwartz, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Three link proteins of 48, 44 and 40 kDa were purified from human articular cartilage and identified with monoclonal anti-link protein antibody 8-A-4. Two sets of lower molecular weight proteins of 30-31 kDa and 24-26 kDa also contained link protein epitopes recognized by the monoclonal antibody and were most likely degradative products of the intact link proteins. The link proteins of 48 and 40 kDa were identified as phosphoproteins while the 44 kDa link protein did not contain 32 P. The phosphorylated 48 and 40 kDa link proteins contained approximately 2 moles PO 4 /mole link protein

  6. Regulation of cardiac C-protein phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic responses were addressed by studying subcellular changes in protein phosphorylation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity and protein phosphatase activity in frog hearts. B-adrenergic agonists increased and muscarinic cholinergic agonists decreased [ 32 P]phosphate incorporation into C-protein, a thick filament component. Regulation of protein phosphatase activity by Iso and methacholine (MCh) was assayed using extracts of drug treated frog hearts and [ 32 P]phospho-C-protein as substrate. Total phosphatase activity decreased 21% in extracts from hearts perfused with 0.1 μM Iso and 17% in hearts exposed to Iso plus 1 μM methacholine. This decrease reflected decreased phosphatase-2A activity. No changes in total phosphatase activity were measurable in broken cells treated with Iso or MCh. The results suggest adrenergic stimulation changes contractile activity in frog hearts by activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase associated with particulate cellular elements and inactivating soluble protein phosphatase-2A. This is the first demonstration of coordinated regulation of these enzymes by B-adrenergic agonists favoring phosphorylation of effector proteins. Coordinated regulation by methacholine in the presence of Iso was not observed

  7. Unraveling a phosphorylation event in a folded protein by NMR spectroscopy: phosphorylation of the Pin1 WW domain by PKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smet-Nocca, Caroline; Launay, Hélène; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy; Landrieu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The Pin1 protein plays a critical role in the functional regulation of the hyperphosphorylated neuronal Tau protein in Alzheimer’s disease and is by itself regulated by phosphorylation. We have used Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to both identify the PKA phosphorylation site in the Pin1 WW domain and investigate the functional consequences of this phosphorylation. Detection and identification of phosphorylation on serine/threonine residues in a globular protein, while mostly occurring in solvent-exposed flexible loops, does not lead to chemical shift changes as obvious as in disordered proteins and hence does not necessarily shift the resonances outside the spectrum of the folded protein. Other complications were encountered to characterize the extent of the phosphorylation, as part of the 1 H, 15 N amide resonances around the phosphorylation site are specifically broadened in the unphosphorylated state. Despite these obstacles, NMR spectroscopy was an efficient tool to confirm phosphorylation on S16 of the WW domain and to quantify the level of phosphorylation. Based on this analytical characterization, we show that WW phosphorylation on S16 abolishes its binding capacity to a phosphorylated Tau peptide. A reduced conformational heterogeneity and flexibility of the phospho-binding loop upon S16 phosphorylation could account for part of the decreased affinity for its phosphorylated partner. Additionally, a structural model of the phospho-WW obtained by molecular dynamics simulation and energy minimization suggests that the phosphate moiety of phospho-S16 could compete with the phospho-substrate.

  8. PrkC-mediated phosphorylation of overexpressed YvcK protein regulates PBP1 protein localization in Bacillus subtilis mreB mutant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulquier, Elodie; Pompeo, Frédérique; Freton, Céline; Cordier, Baptiste; Grangeasse, Christophe; Galinier, Anne

    2014-08-22

    The YvcK protein has been shown to be necessary for growth under gluconeogenic conditions in Bacillus subtilis. Amazingly, its overproduction rescues growth and morphology defects of the actin-like protein MreB deletion mutant by restoration of PBP1 localization. In this work, we observed that YvcK was phosphorylated at Thr-304 by the protein kinase PrkC and that phosphorylated YvcK was dephosphorylated by the cognate phosphatase PrpC. We show that neither substitution of this threonine with a constitutively phosphorylated mimicking glutamic acid residue or a phosphorylation-dead mimicking alanine residue nor deletion of prkC or prpC altered the ability of B. subtilis to grow under gluconeogenic conditions. However, we observed that a prpC mutant and a yvcK mutant were more sensitive to bacitracin compared with the WT strain. In addition, the bacitracin sensitivity of strains in which YvcK Thr-304 was replaced with either an alanine or a glutamic acid residue was also affected. We also analyzed rescue of the mreB mutant strain by overproduction of YvcK in which the phosphorylation site was substituted. We show that YvcK T304A overproduction did not rescue the mreB mutant aberrant morphology due to PBP1 mislocalization. The same observation was made in an mreB prkC double mutant overproducing YvcK. Altogether, these data show that YvcK may have two distinct functions: 1) in carbon source utilization independent of its phosphorylation level and 2) in cell wall biosynthesis and morphogenesis through its phosphorylation state. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Alterations in vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation: associations with asthmatic phenotype, airway inflammation and β2-agonist use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Annette T; Wu, Min; Foster, Gayle C; Hawkins, Gregory A; Batra, Vikas; Rybinski, Katherine A; Cirelli, Rosemary; Zangrilli, James G; Peters, Stephen P

    2006-01-01

    Background Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) mediates focal adhesion, actin filament binding and polymerization in a variety of cells, thereby inhibiting cell movement. Phosphorylation of VASP via cAMP and cGMP dependent protein kinases releases this "brake" on cell motility. Thus, phosphorylation of VASP may be necessary for epithelial cell repair of damage from allergen-induced inflammation. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) injury from segmental allergen challenge increases VASP phosphorylation in airway epithelium in asthmatic but not nonasthmatic normal subjects, (2) regular in vivo β2-agonist use increases VASP phosphorylation in asthmatic epithelium, altering cell adhesion. Methods Bronchial epithelium was obtained from asthmatic and non-asthmatic normal subjects before and after segmental allergen challenge, and after regularly inhaled albuterol, in three separate protocols. VASP phosphorylation was examined in Western blots of epithelial samples. DNA was obtained for β2-adrenergic receptor haplotype determination. Results Although VASP phosphorylation increased, it was not significantly greater after allergen challenge in asthmatics or normals. However, VASP phosphorylation in epithelium of nonasthmatic normal subjects was double that observed in asthmatic subjects, both at baseline and after challenge. Regularly inhaled albuterol significantly increased VASP phosphorylation in asthmatic subjects in both unchallenged and antigen challenged lung segment epithelium. There was also a significant increase in epithelial cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage of the unchallenged lung segment after regular inhalation of albuterol but not of placebo. The haplotypes of the β2-adrenergic receptor did not appear to associate with increased or decreased phosphorylation of VASP. Conclusion Decreased VASP phosphorylation was observed in epithelial cells of asthmatics compared to nonasthmatic normals, despite response to β-agonist. The decreased

  10. Alterations in vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP phosphorylation: associations with asthmatic phenotype, airway inflammation and β2-agonist use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirelli Rosemary

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP mediates focal adhesion, actin filament binding and polymerization in a variety of cells, thereby inhibiting cell movement. Phosphorylation of VASP via cAMP and cGMP dependent protein kinases releases this "brake" on cell motility. Thus, phosphorylation of VASP may be necessary for epithelial cell repair of damage from allergen-induced inflammation. Two hypotheses were examined: (1 injury from segmental allergen challenge increases VASP phosphorylation in airway epithelium in asthmatic but not nonasthmatic normal subjects, (2 regular in vivo β2-agonist use increases VASP phosphorylation in asthmatic epithelium, altering cell adhesion. Methods Bronchial epithelium was obtained from asthmatic and non-asthmatic normal subjects before and after segmental allergen challenge, and after regularly inhaled albuterol, in three separate protocols. VASP phosphorylation was examined in Western blots of epithelial samples. DNA was obtained for β2-adrenergic receptor haplotype determination. Results Although VASP phosphorylation increased, it was not significantly greater after allergen challenge in asthmatics or normals. However, VASP phosphorylation in epithelium of nonasthmatic normal subjects was double that observed in asthmatic subjects, both at baseline and after challenge. Regularly inhaled albuterol significantly increased VASP phosphorylation in asthmatic subjects in both unchallenged and antigen challenged lung segment epithelium. There was also a significant increase in epithelial cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage of the unchallenged lung segment after regular inhalation of albuterol but not of placebo. The haplotypes of the β2-adrenergic receptor did not appear to associate with increased or decreased phosphorylation of VASP. Conclusion Decreased VASP phosphorylation was observed in epithelial cells of asthmatics compared to nonasthmatic normals, despite response to

  11. Identifying protein phosphorylation sites with kinase substrate specificity on human viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Arvin Bretaña

    Full Text Available Viruses infect humans and progress inside the body leading to various diseases and complications. The phosphorylation of viral proteins catalyzed by host kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in enhancing replication and inhibition of normal host-cell functions. Due to its biological importance, there is a desire to identify the protein phosphorylation sites on human viruses. However, the use of mass spectrometry-based experiments is proven to be expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, previous studies which have identified phosphorylation sites in human viruses do not include the investigation of the responsible kinases. Thus, we are motivated to propose a new method to identify protein phosphorylation sites with its kinase substrate specificity on human viruses. The experimentally verified phosphorylation data were extracted from virPTM--a database containing 301 experimentally verified phosphorylation data on 104 human kinase-phosphorylated virus proteins. In an attempt to investigate kinase substrate specificities in viral protein phosphorylation sites, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD is employed to cluster a large set of phosphorylation data into subgroups containing significantly conserved motifs. The experimental human phosphorylation sites are collected from Phospho.ELM, grouped according to its kinase annotation, and compared with the virus MDD clusters. This investigation identifies human kinases such as CK2, PKB, CDK, and MAPK as potential kinases for catalyzing virus protein substrates as confirmed by published literature. Profile hidden Markov model is then applied to learn a predictive model for each subgroup. A five-fold cross validation evaluation on the MDD-clustered HMMs yields an average accuracy of 84.93% for Serine, and 78.05% for Threonine. Furthermore, an independent testing data collected from UniProtKB and Phospho.ELM is used to make a comparison of predictive performance on three popular kinase

  12. Identifying protein phosphorylation sites with kinase substrate specificity on human viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretaña, Neil Arvin; Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Chiang, Chiu-Yun; Su, Min-Gang; Huang, Kai-Yao; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Weng, Shun-Long

    2012-01-01

    Viruses infect humans and progress inside the body leading to various diseases and complications. The phosphorylation of viral proteins catalyzed by host kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in enhancing replication and inhibition of normal host-cell functions. Due to its biological importance, there is a desire to identify the protein phosphorylation sites on human viruses. However, the use of mass spectrometry-based experiments is proven to be expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, previous studies which have identified phosphorylation sites in human viruses do not include the investigation of the responsible kinases. Thus, we are motivated to propose a new method to identify protein phosphorylation sites with its kinase substrate specificity on human viruses. The experimentally verified phosphorylation data were extracted from virPTM--a database containing 301 experimentally verified phosphorylation data on 104 human kinase-phosphorylated virus proteins. In an attempt to investigate kinase substrate specificities in viral protein phosphorylation sites, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD) is employed to cluster a large set of phosphorylation data into subgroups containing significantly conserved motifs. The experimental human phosphorylation sites are collected from Phospho.ELM, grouped according to its kinase annotation, and compared with the virus MDD clusters. This investigation identifies human kinases such as CK2, PKB, CDK, and MAPK as potential kinases for catalyzing virus protein substrates as confirmed by published literature. Profile hidden Markov model is then applied to learn a predictive model for each subgroup. A five-fold cross validation evaluation on the MDD-clustered HMMs yields an average accuracy of 84.93% for Serine, and 78.05% for Threonine. Furthermore, an independent testing data collected from UniProtKB and Phospho.ELM is used to make a comparison of predictive performance on three popular kinase-specific phosphorylation site

  13. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of early alterations in protein phosphorylation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Melanie; Brandner, Stefanie; Eberhagen, Carola

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive quantitative analysis of changes in protein phosphorylation preceding or accompanying transcriptional activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in 5L rat hepatoma cells was performed using the SILAC approach. Following exposure of the cells to DMSO or 1 nM TCDD for 0......-induced gene activation, regulators of small GTPases of the Ras superfamily, UBX domain-containing proteins and the oncogenic protein LYRIC. The results open up new directions for research on the molecular mechanisms of dioxin action and toxicity....

  14. Unraveling a phosphorylation event in a folded protein by NMR spectroscopy: phosphorylation of the Pin1 WW domain by PKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet-Nocca, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.smet@univ-lille1.fr; Launay, Helene; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy; Landrieu, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.landrieu@univ-lille1.fr [Universite de Lille-Nord de France, Institut Federatif de Recherches 147, CNRS UMR 8576 (France)

    2013-04-15

    The Pin1 protein plays a critical role in the functional regulation of the hyperphosphorylated neuronal Tau protein in Alzheimer's disease and is by itself regulated by phosphorylation. We have used Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to both identify the PKA phosphorylation site in the Pin1 WW domain and investigate the functional consequences of this phosphorylation. Detection and identification of phosphorylation on serine/threonine residues in a globular protein, while mostly occurring in solvent-exposed flexible loops, does not lead to chemical shift changes as obvious as in disordered proteins and hence does not necessarily shift the resonances outside the spectrum of the folded protein. Other complications were encountered to characterize the extent of the phosphorylation, as part of the {sup 1}H,{sup 15}N amide resonances around the phosphorylation site are specifically broadened in the unphosphorylated state. Despite these obstacles, NMR spectroscopy was an efficient tool to confirm phosphorylation on S16 of the WW domain and to quantify the level of phosphorylation. Based on this analytical characterization, we show that WW phosphorylation on S16 abolishes its binding capacity to a phosphorylated Tau peptide. A reduced conformational heterogeneity and flexibility of the phospho-binding loop upon S16 phosphorylation could account for part of the decreased affinity for its phosphorylated partner. Additionally, a structural model of the phospho-WW obtained by molecular dynamics simulation and energy minimization suggests that the phosphate moiety of phospho-S16 could compete with the phospho-substrate.

  15. Identification and quantitation of signal molecule-dependent protein phosphorylation

    KAUST Repository

    Groen, Arnoud J.

    2013-09-03

    Phosphoproteomics is a fast-growing field that aims at characterizing phosphorylated proteins in a cell or a tissue at a given time. Phosphorylation of proteins is an important regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes. Gel-free phosphoproteome technique involving enrichment of phosphopeptide coupled with mass spectrometry has proven to be invaluable to detect and characterize phosphorylated proteins. In this chapter, a gel-free quantitative approach involving 15N metabolic labelling in combination with phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium dioxide (TiO2) and their identification by MS is described. This workflow can be used to gain insights into the role of signalling molecules such as cyclic nucleotides on regulatory networks through the identification and quantification of responsive phospho(proteins). © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  16. Monitoring protein phosphorylation by acrylamide pendant Phos-Tag™ in various plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavka eBekesova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to rationalize acrylamide pendant Phos-Tag™ in-gel discrimination of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated plant protein species with standard immunoblot analysis, and optimize sample preparation, efficient electrophoretic separation and transfer. We tested variants of the method including extraction buffers suitable for preservation of phosphorylated protein species in crude extracts from plants and we addressed the importance of the cation (Mn2+ or Zn2+ used in the gel recipe for efficient transfer to PVDF membranes for further immunoblot analysis. We demonstrate the monitoring of Medicago sativa stress-induced mitogen activated protein kinase (SIMK in stress-treated wild type plants and transgenic SIMKK RNAi line. We further show the hyperosmotically-induced phosphorylation of the previously uncharacterized HvMPK4 of barley. The method is validated using inducible phosphorylation of barley and wheat α-tubulin and of Arabidopsis MPK6. Acrylamide pendant Phos-Tag™ offers a flexible tool for studying protein phosphorylation in crops and Arabidopsis circumventing radioactive labeling and the use of phosphorylation specific antibodies.

  17. Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation and Its Functional Impact on Protein-Protein Interactions via Text Mining of the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Ross, Karen E; Huang, Hongzhan; Ren, Jia; Li, Gang; Vijay-Shanker, K; Wu, Cathy H; Arighi, Cecilia N

    2017-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are one of the main contributors to the diversity of proteoforms in the proteomic landscape. In particular, protein phosphorylation represents an essential regulatory mechanism that plays a role in many biological processes. Protein kinases, the enzymes catalyzing this reaction, are key participants in metabolic and signaling pathways. Their activation or inactivation dictate downstream events: what substrates are modified and their subsequent impact (e.g., activation state, localization, protein-protein interactions (PPIs)). The biomedical literature continues to be the main source of evidence for experimental information about protein phosphorylation. Automatic methods to bring together phosphorylation events and phosphorylation-dependent PPIs can help to summarize the current knowledge and to expose hidden connections. In this chapter, we demonstrate two text mining tools, RLIMS-P and eFIP, for the retrieval and extraction of kinase-substrate-site data and phosphorylation-dependent PPIs from the literature. These tools offer several advantages over a literature search in PubMed as their results are specific for phosphorylation. RLIMS-P and eFIP results can be sorted, organized, and viewed in multiple ways to answer relevant biological questions, and the protein mentions are linked to UniProt identifiers.

  18. Phosphorylation of acidic ribosomal proteins from rabbit reticulocytes by a ribosome-associated casein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacryl......Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate...

  19. Bacterial single-stranded DNA-binding proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Macek, B

    2006-01-01

    for phosphotyrosine-containing proteins in Streptomyces griseus by immunoaffinity chromatography identified bacterial SSBs as a novel target of bacterial tyrosine kinases. Since genes encoding protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) have not been recognized in streptomycetes, and SSBs from Streptomyces coelicolor (Sc......SSB) and Bacillus subtilis (BsSSB) share 38.7% identity, we used a B.subtilis protein-tyrosine kinase YwqD to phosphorylate two cognate SSBs (BsSSB and YwpH) in vitro. We demonstrate that in vivo phosphorylation of B.subtilis SSB occurs on tyrosine residue 82, and this reaction is affected antagonistically...... by kinase YwqD and phosphatase YwqE. Phosphorylation of B.subtilis SSB increased binding almost 200-fold to single-stranded DNA in vitro. Tyrosine phosphorylation of B.subtilis, S.coelicolor and Escherichia coli SSBs occured while they were expressed in E.coli, indicating that tyrosine phosphorylation...

  20. Phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins induced by auxins in maize embryonic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.; Aguilar, R.; Mendez, A.P.; de Jimenez, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of auxin on ribosomal protein phosphorylation of germinating maize (Zea mays) tissues was investigated. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of [ 32 P] ribosomal protein patterns for natural and synthetic auxin-treated tissues were performed. Both the rate of 32 P incorporation and the electrophoretic patterns were dependent on 32 P pulse length, suggesting that active protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation occurred in small and large subunit proteins, in control as well as in auxin-treated tissues. The effect of ribosomal protein phosphorylation on in vitro translation was tested. Measurements of poly(U) translation rates as a function of ribosome concentration provided apparent K m values significantly different for auxin-treated and nontreated tissues. These findings suggest that auxin might exert some kind of translational control by regulating the phosphorylated status of ribosomal proteins

  1. Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein (ORP) 9 is a PDK-2 substrate and regulates Akt phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Eva; Ngo, Mike; Leitges, Michael; Minguet, Susana; Ridgway, Neale D; Huber, Michael

    2007-02-01

    The oxysterol-binding protein and oxysterol-binding protein-related protein family has been implicated in lipid transport and metabolism, vesicle trafficking and cell signaling. While investigating the phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B in stimulated bone marrow-derived mast cells, we observed that a monoclonal antibody directed against phospho-S473 Akt cross-reacted with oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 9 (ORP9). Further analysis revealed that mast cells exclusively express ORP9S, an N-terminal truncated version of full-length ORP9L. A PDK-2 consensus phosphorylation site in ORP9L and OPR9S at S287 (VPEFS(287)Y) was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. In contrast to Akt, increased phosphorylation of ORP9S S287 in stimulated mast cells was independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase but sensitive to inhibition of conventional PKC isotypes. PKC-beta dependence was confirmed by lack of ORP9S phosphorylation at S287 in PKC-beta-deficient, but not PKC-alpha-deficient, mast cells. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation of PKC-beta and ORP9S, and in vitro phosphorylation of ORP9S in this complex, argued for direct phosphorylation of ORP9S by PKC-beta, introducing ORP9S as a novel PKC-beta substrate. Akt was also detected in a PKC-beta/ORP9S immune complex and phosphorylation of Akt on S473 was delayed in PKC-deficient mast cells. In HEK293 cells, RNAi experiments showed that depletion of ORP9L increased Akt S473 phosphorylation 3-fold without affecting T308 phosphorylation in the activation loop. Furthermore, mammalian target of rapamycin was implicated in ORP9L phosphorylation in HEK293 cells. These studies identify ORP9 as a PDK-2 substrate and negative regulator of Akt phosphorylation at the PDK-2 site.

  2. In vivo phosphorylation of a peptide tag for protein purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goux, Marine; Fateh, Amina; Defontaine, Alain; Cinier, Mathieu; Tellier, Charles

    2016-05-01

    To design a new system for the in vivo phosphorylation of proteins in Escherichia coli using the co-expression of the α-subunit of casein kinase II (CKIIα) and a target protein, (Nanofitin) fused with a phosphorylatable tag. The level of the co-expressed CKIIα was controlled by the arabinose promoter and optimal phosphorylation was obtained with 2 % (w/v) arabinose as inductor. The effectiveness of the phosphorylation system was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (NUT-PAGE) and staining with a specific phosphoprotein-staining gel. The resulting phosphorylated tag was also used to purify the phosphoprotein by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, which relies on the specific interaction of phosphate moieties with Fe(III). The use of a single tag for both the purification and protein array anchoring provides a simple and straightforward system for protein analysis.

  3. An unusual protein kinase phosphorylates the chemotactic receptor of Dictystelium discoideum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.; Klein, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of the chemotactic receptor of Dictyostelium discoideum in partially purified plasma membranes. The protein kinase responsible for receptor phosphorylation is associated with this fraction and preferentially phosphorylates the ligand-occupied form of the receptor. 8-Azido[ 32 P]cAMP labeling of the cell surface has shown that the cAMP receptor exists in two forms. A 45-kDa protein is predominant on unstimulated cells. cAMP stimulation results in an increased receptor phosphorylation such that the receptor migrates on NaDodSO 4 /PAGE as a 47-kDa protein. Phosphorylation of the chemotactic receptor is not detected in membrane preparations unless cAMP is added to the incubation mixture. Only under those conditions is the phosphorylated 47-kDa form observed. The requirement for cAMP reflects the fact that the kinase involved preferentially uses the ligand-occupied receptor as a substrate. In vitro phosphorylation of the receptor does not involve tyrosine residues. The enzyme does not appear to be a cAMP- or cGMP-dependent protein kinase nor is it sensitive to guanine nucleotides, Ca 2+ /calmodulin, Ca 2+ /phospholipid, or EGTA. Similarities with the β-adrenergic receptor protein kinase are discussed

  4. The selective phosphorylation of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Receptor-activated signal transduction pathways regulate the responsiveness of cells to external stimuli. These transduction pathways themselves are subject to regulation, most commonly by phosphorylation. Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G Proteins), as requisite signal transducing elements for many plasma membrane receptors, are considered likely targets for regulation by phosphorylation. Protein kinase C (PKC) has been shown to phosphorylate the α subunit of G i and other G proteins in solution. However, the occurrence of the phosphorylation of G 1 within intact cells in response to activation of PKC has not been rigorously demonstrated. In this thesis, the extent to which the α subunits of G i undergo phosphorylation within human platelets in response to activation of PKC was examined by means of radiolabeling and immunoprecipitation. Incubation of platelets with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a potent activator of PKC, promoted the phosphorylation of several proteins within saponin-permeabilized and intact platelets incubated with [γ 32 P]ATP and [ 32 P]H 3 PO 4 , respectively. None of the phosphoproteins, however, were precipitated by either of two antisera containing antibodies differing in specificities for epitopes within G iα -despite precipitation of a substantial fraction of the subunit itself. In contrast, other antisera, containing antibodies specific for the recently describe G zα , or antibodies for both G zα and G iα , precipitated a 40-kDa phosphoprotein

  5. Solid-phase assay for the phosphorylation of proteins blotted on nitrocellulose membrane filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtorta, F.; Schiebler, W.; Jahn, R.; Ceccarelli, B.; Greengard, P.

    1986-01-01

    A new procedure for the phosphorylation and assay of phosphoproteins is described. Proteins are solubilized from tissue samples, separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane filters, and the blotted polypeptides are phyosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate)-dependent protein kinase. The method was developed for the assay of dephosphosynapsin I, but it has also proven suitable for the phosphorylation of other proteins. The patterns of phosphorylation of tissue samples phosphorylated using the new method are similar to those obtained using the conventional test tube assay. Once phosphorylated, the adsorbed proteins can be digested with proteases and subjected to phosphopeptide mapping. The phosphorylated blotted proteins can also be analyzed by overlay techniques for the immunological detection of polypeptides

  6. Rapid changes in protein phosphorylation associated with gravity perception in corn roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, J.J.; Poovaiah, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    A previous paper from this laboratory showed calcium- and calmodulin-dependent in vivo protein phosphorylation in corn root tips. The authors show that rapid changes in calcium-dependent protein phosphorylation are involved in light-dependent graviperception in corn root tips. Corn seedlings (Zea mays L, cv Merit) were grown in the dark for 3 d, then apical root segments were harvested in dim green light to measure in vivo protein phosphorylation. Segments were incubated with 0.5 mCi 32 P for 1 h, then immediately frozen in liquid N 2 or first treated with either 7 min light, or 7 min light plus 1 mM EGTA and 10 μM A23187. Labeled proteins were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis and detected by autoradiography. Light caused rapid and specific promotion of phosphorylation of 5 polypeptides. The increases in protein phosphorylation were reversed by treating with EGTA and A23187. The authors postulate that these changes in protein phosphorylation are an essential part of the light-dependent gravity response in Merit roots

  7. Obesity does not Lead to Imbalance Between Myocardial Phospholamban Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Paula Paccielli, E-mail: freirepp@hotmail.com; Alves, Carlos Augusto Barnabe; Deus, Adriana Fernandes de [Departamento de Clínica Médica - Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Leopoldo, Ana Paula Lima; Leopoldo, André Soares [Centro de Educação Física e Desportos - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Silva, Danielle Cristina Tomaz da; Tomasi, Loreta Casquel de; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos [Departamento de Clínica Médica - Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    The activation of the beta-adrenergic system promotes G protein stimulation that, via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), alters the structure of protein kinase A (PKA) and leads to phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation. This protein participates in the system that controls intracellular calcium in muscle cells, and it is the primary regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump activity. In obesity, the beta-adrenergic system is activated by the influence of increased leptin, therefore, resulting in higher myocardial phospholamban phosphorylation via cAMP-PKA. To investigate the involvement of proteins which regulate the degree of PLB phosphorylation due to beta-adrenergic activation in obesity. In the present study, we hypothesized that there is an imbalance between phospholamban phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, with prevalence of protein phosphorylation. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: control (n = 14), fed with normocaloric diet; and obese (n = 13), fed with a cycle of four unsaturated high-fat diets. Obesity was determined by the adiposity index, and protein expressions of phosphatase 1 (PP-1), PKA, PLB, phosphorylated phospholamban at serine16 (PPLB-Ser16) were assessed by Western blot. Obesity caused glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperleptinemia and did not alter the protein expression of PKA, PP-1, PLB, PPLB-Ser16. Obesity does not promote an imbalance between myocardial PLB phosphorylation and dephosphorylation via beta-adrenergic system.

  8. Obesity does not Lead to Imbalance Between Myocardial Phospholamban Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Paula Paccielli; Alves, Carlos Augusto Barnabe; Deus, Adriana Fernandes de; Leopoldo, Ana Paula Lima; Leopoldo, André Soares; Silva, Danielle Cristina Tomaz da; Tomasi, Loreta Casquel de; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The activation of the beta-adrenergic system promotes G protein stimulation that, via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), alters the structure of protein kinase A (PKA) and leads to phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation. This protein participates in the system that controls intracellular calcium in muscle cells, and it is the primary regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump activity. In obesity, the beta-adrenergic system is activated by the influence of increased leptin, therefore, resulting in higher myocardial phospholamban phosphorylation via cAMP-PKA. To investigate the involvement of proteins which regulate the degree of PLB phosphorylation due to beta-adrenergic activation in obesity. In the present study, we hypothesized that there is an imbalance between phospholamban phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, with prevalence of protein phosphorylation. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: control (n = 14), fed with normocaloric diet; and obese (n = 13), fed with a cycle of four unsaturated high-fat diets. Obesity was determined by the adiposity index, and protein expressions of phosphatase 1 (PP-1), PKA, PLB, phosphorylated phospholamban at serine16 (PPLB-Ser16) were assessed by Western blot. Obesity caused glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperleptinemia and did not alter the protein expression of PKA, PP-1, PLB, PPLB-Ser16. Obesity does not promote an imbalance between myocardial PLB phosphorylation and dephosphorylation via beta-adrenergic system

  9. Obesity does not Lead to Imbalance Between Myocardial Phospholamban Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Paccielli Freire

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The activation of the beta-adrenergic system promotes G protein stimulation that, via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, alters the structure of protein kinase A (PKA and leads to phospholamban (PLB phosphorylation. This protein participates in the system that controls intracellular calcium in muscle cells, and it is the primary regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump activity. In obesity, the beta-adrenergic system is activated by the influence of increased leptin, therefore, resulting in higher myocardial phospholamban phosphorylation via cAMP-PKA. Objective: To investigate the involvement of proteins which regulate the degree of PLB phosphorylation due to beta-adrenergic activation in obesity. In the present study, we hypothesized that there is an imbalance between phospholamban phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, with prevalence of protein phosphorylation. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: control (n = 14, fed with normocaloric diet; and obese (n = 13, fed with a cycle of four unsaturated high-fat diets. Obesity was determined by the adiposity index, and protein expressions of phosphatase 1 (PP-1, PKA, PLB, phosphorylated phospholamban at serine16 (PPLB-Ser16 were assessed by Western blot. Results: Obesity caused glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperleptinemia and did not alter the protein expression of PKA, PP-1, PLB, PPLB-Ser16. Conclusion: Obesity does not promote an imbalance between myocardial PLB phosphorylation and dephosphorylation via beta-adrenergic system.

  10. Changes in phosphorylation of myofibrillar proteins during postmortem development of porcine muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Lametsch, Rene

    2012-01-01

    A gel-based phosphoproteomic study was performed to investigate the postmortem (PM) changes in protein phosphorylation of the myofibrillar proteins in three groups of pigs with different pH decline rates, from PM 1 h to 24 h. The global phosphorylation level in the group with a fast pH decline rate...... was higher than that in the slow and intermediate groups at early PM time, but became the lowest at 24 h. The protein phosphorylation level of seven individual protein bands was only significantly (ppH...... phosphorylated protein bands with the highest scores. The results indicate that the phosphorylation pattern of myofibrillar proteins in PM muscle is mainly changed with PM time, but only to a minor extent influenced by the rate of pH decline, suggesting that the phosphorylation of myofibrillar proteins may...

  11. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the highly purified aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex from rabbit reticulocytes was examined. The synthetase complex contained, in addition to eight aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, three unidentified proteins and was free of endogenous protein kinase activity. Incubation of the complex with casein kinase I in the presence of ATP resulted in the phosphorylation of four synthetases, the glutamyl-, isoleucyl-, methionyl-, and lysyl-tRNA synthetases. Phosphorylation by casein kinase I altered binding to tRNA-Sepharose such that the phosphorylated complex eluted at 190 mM NaCl instead of the 275 mM salt observed for the nonphosphorylated form. Phosphorylation by casein kinase I resulted in a significant inhibition of aminoacylation with the four synthetases; the activities of the nonphosphorylated synthetases were unchanged. One of the unidentified proteins in the complex (M/sub r/ 37,000) was also an excellent substrate for casein kinase I. A comparison of the properties and two-dimensional phosphopeptide pattern of this protein with that of casein kinase I suggest that the 37,000 dalton protein in the synthetase complex is an inactive form of casein kinase I. Two other protein kinases were shown to phosphorylate aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the complex. The phosphorylation of threonyl-tRNA synthetase was also investigated. Five aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in the high molecular weight complex were shown to be phosphorylated in rabbit reticulocytes following labeling with ( 32 P)orthophosphate

  12. Protein phosphorylation in bcterial signaling and regulation

    KAUST Repository

    Mijakovic, Ivan

    2016-01-26

    In 2003, it was demonstrated for the first time that bacteria possess protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases), capable of phosphorylating other cellular proteins and regulating their activity. It soon became apparent that these kinases phosphorylate a number of protein substrates, involved in different cellular processes. More recently, we found out that BY-kinases can be activated by several distinct protein interactants, and are capable of engaging in cross-phosphorylation with other kinases. Evolutionary studies based on genome comparison indicate that BY-kinases exist only in bacteria. They are non-essential (present in about 40% bacterial genomes), and their knockouts lead to pleiotropic phenotypes, since they phosphorylate many substrates. Surprisingly, BY-kinase genes accumulate mutations at an increased rate (non-synonymous substitution rate significantly higher than other bacterial genes). One direct consequence of this phenomenon is no detectable co-evolution between kinases and their substrates. Their promiscuity towards substrates thus seems to be “hard-wired”, but why would bacteria maintain such promiscuous regulatory devices? One explanation is the maintenance of BY-kinases as rapidly evolving regulators, which can readily adopt new substrates when environmental changes impose selective pressure for quick evolution of new regulatory modules. Their role is clearly not to act as master regulators, dedicated to triggering a single response, but they might rather be employed to contribute to fine-tuning and improving robustness of various cellular responses. This unique feature makes BY-kinases a potentially useful tool in synthetic biology. While other bacterial kinases are very specific and their signaling pathways insulated, BY-kinase can relatively easily be engineered to adopt new substrates and control new biosynthetic processes. Since they are absent in humans, and regulate some key functions in pathogenic bacteria, they are also very promising

  13. The roles of phosphorylation and SHAGGY-like protein kinases in geminivirus C4 protein induced hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Mills-Lujan

    Full Text Available Even though plant cells are highly plastic, plants only develop hyperplasia under very specific abiotic and biotic stresses, such as when exposed to pathogens like Beet curly top virus (BCTV. The C4 protein of BCTV is sufficient to induce hyperplasia and alter Arabidopsis development. It was previously shown that C4 interacts with two Arabidopsis Shaggy-like protein kinases, AtSK21 and 23, which are negative regulators of brassinosteroid (BR hormone signaling. Here we show that the C4 protein interacts with five additional AtSK family members. Bikinin, a competitive inhibitor of the seven AtSK family members that interact with C4, induced hyperplasia similar to that induced by the C4 protein. The Ser49 residue of C4 was found to be critical for C4 function, since: 1 mutagenesis of Ser49 to Ala abolished the C4-induced phenotype, abolished C4/AtSK interactions, and resulted in a mutant protein that failed to induce changes in the BR signaling pathway; 2 Ser49 is phosphorylated in planta; and 3 plant-encoded AtSKs must be catalytically active to interact with C4. A C4 N-myristoylation site mutant that does not localize to the plasma membrane and does not induce a phenotype, retained the ability to bind AtSKs. Taken together, these results suggest that plasma membrane associated C4 interacts with and co-opts multiple AtSKs to promote its own phosphorylation and activation to subsequently compromise cell cycle control.

  14. Postmortem Changes in Pork Muscle Protein Phosphorylation in Relation to the RN Genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lametsch, René; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    Postmortem changes in pork muscle protein phosphorylation in relation to the RN(-) genotype were investigated using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and a phosphor specific staining. The phosphorylation levels of several protein bands were found to be affected by the RN(-) genotype and to change...... of phosphorylation of these key enzymes during the postmortem metabolism. The results illustrate that the protein phosphorylation level of the muscle proteins could be interpreted as a global metabolic fingerprint containing information about the activity status of the enzymes in the postmortem metabolism....... during postmortem development. Glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase were found in protein bands affected by the RN(-) genotype, and the phosphorylation profile indicates that part of the increased rate and extended pH decline of the RN(-) genotype could be a consequence...

  15. Phosphorylation variation during the cell cycle scales with structural propensities of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefka Tyanova

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation at specific residues can activate a protein, lead to its localization to particular compartments, be a trigger for protein degradation and fulfill many other biological functions. Protein phosphorylation is increasingly being studied at a large scale and in a quantitative manner that includes a temporal dimension. By contrast, structural properties of identified phosphorylation sites have so far been investigated in a static, non-quantitative way. Here we combine for the first time dynamic properties of the phosphoproteome with protein structural features. At six time points of the cell division cycle we investigate how the variation of the amount of phosphorylation correlates with the protein structure in the vicinity of the modified site. We find two distinct phosphorylation site groups: intrinsically disordered regions tend to contain sites with dynamically varying levels, whereas regions with predominantly regular secondary structures retain more constant phosphorylation levels. The two groups show preferences for different amino acids in their kinase recognition motifs - proline and other disorder-associated residues are enriched in the former group and charged residues in the latter. Furthermore, these preferences scale with the degree of disorderedness, from regular to irregular and to disordered structures. Our results suggest that the structural organization of the region in which a phosphorylation site resides may serve as an additional control mechanism. They also imply that phosphorylation sites are associated with different time scales that serve different functional needs.

  16. Impact of SNPs on Protein Phosphorylation Status in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukai Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are widely used in functional genomics and genetics research work. The high-quality sequence of rice genome has provided a genome-wide SNP and proteome resource. However, the impact of SNPs on protein phosphorylation status in rice is not fully understood. In this paper, we firstly updated rice SNP resource based on the new rice genome Ver. 7.0, then systematically analyzed the potential impact of Non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs on the protein phosphorylation status. There were 3,897,312 SNPs in Ver. 7.0 rice genome, among which 9.9% was nsSNPs. Whilst, a total 2,508,261 phosphorylated sites were predicted in rice proteome. Interestingly, we observed that 150,197 (39.1% nsSNPs could influence protein phosphorylation status, among which 52.2% might induce changes of protein kinase (PK types for adjacent phosphorylation sites. We constructed a database, SNP_rice, to deposit the updated rice SNP resource and phosSNPs information. It was freely available to academic researchers at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn. As a case study, we detected five nsSNPs that potentially influenced heterotrimeric G proteins phosphorylation status in rice, indicating that genetic polymorphisms showed impact on the signal transduction by influencing the phosphorylation status of heterotrimeric G proteins. The results in this work could be a useful resource for future experimental identification and provide interesting information for better rice breeding.

  17. Xenobiotics that affect oxidative phosphorylation alter differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells at concentrations that are found in human blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Llobet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis is accompanied by differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells to adipocytes. As part of this differentiation, biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system occurs. Many chemical compounds used in medicine, agriculture or other human activities affect oxidative phosphorylation function. Therefore, these xenobiotics could alter adipogenesis. We have analyzed the effects on adipocyte differentiation of some xenobiotics that act on the oxidative phosphorylation system. The tested concentrations have been previously reported in human blood. Our results show that pharmaceutical drugs that decrease mitochondrial DNA replication, such as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis, such as ribosomal antibiotics, diminish adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion. By contrast, the environmental chemical pollutant tributyltin chloride, which inhibits the ATP synthase of the oxidative phosphorylation system, can promote adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion, leading to obesity and metabolic syndrome as postulated by the obesogen hypothesis.

  18. Lead induced changes in phosphorylation of PSII proteins in low light grown pea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wioleta, Wasilewska; Anna, Drożak; Ilona, Bacławska; Kamila, Kąkol; Elżbieta, Romanowska

    2015-02-01

    Light-intensity and redox-state induced thylakoid proteins phosphorylation involved in structural changes and in regulation of protein turnover. The presence of heavy metal ions triggers a wide range of cellular responses including changes in plant growth and photosynthesis. Plants have evolved a number of mechanisms to protect photosynthetic apparatus. We have characterized the effect of lead on PSII protein phosphorylation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants grown in low light conditions. Pb ions affected only slightly photochemical efficiency of PSII and had no effect on organization of thylakoid complexes. Lead activated strongly phosphorylation of PSII core D1 protein and dephosphorylation of this protein did not proceed in far red light. D1 protein was also not degraded in this conditions. However, phosphorylation of LHCII proteins was not affected by lead. These results indicate that Pb(2+) stimulate the phosphorylation of PSII core proteins and by disturbing the disassembly of supercomplexes play a role in PSII repair mechanism. LHCII phosphorylation could control the distribution of energy between the photosystems in low light conditions. This demonstrates that plants may respond to heavy metals by induction different pathways responsible for protein protection under stress conditions.

  19. Propofol reduced myocardial contraction of vertebrates partly by mediating the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaotong; Zhang, Xinyu; Bo, Qiyu; Meng, Tao; Lei, Zhen; Li, Jingxin; Hou, Yonghao; Yu, Xiaoqian; Yu, Jingui

    2016-01-01

    Propofol inhibits myocardial contraction in a dose dependent manner. The present study is designed to examine the effect of propofol on PKA mediated myocardial contraction in the absence of adrenoreceptor agonist. The contraction of isolated rat heart was measured in the presence or absence of PKA inhibitor H89 or propofol, using a pressure transducer. The levels of cAMP and PKA kinase activity were detected by ELISA. The mRNA and total protein or phosphorylation level of PKA and downstream proteins were tested in the presence or absence of PKA inhibitor H89 or propofol, using RT-PCR, QPCR and western blotting. The phosphorylation level of PKA was examined thoroughly using immunofluorescence and PKA activity non-radioactive detection kit. Propofol induced a dose-dependent negative contractile response on the rat heart. The inhibitory effect of high concentration propofol (50 μM) with 45% decease of control could be partly reversed by the PKA inhibitor H89 (10 μM) and the depressant effect of propofol decreased from 45% to 10%. PKA kinase activity was inhibited by propofol in a dose-dependent manner. Propofol also induced a decrease in phosphorylation of PKA, which was also inhibited by H89, but did not alter the production of cAMP and the mRNA levels of PKA. The downstream proteins of PKA, PLN and RyR2 were phosphorylated to a lesser extent with propofol or H89 than control. These results demonstrated that propofol induced a negative myocardial contractile response partly by mediating the PKA phosphorylation pathway.

  20. Muscarinic agonists and phorbol esters increase tyrosine phosphorylation of a 40-kilodalton protein in hippocampal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, K.R.; Worley, P.F.; Huganir, R.L.; Baraban, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have used the hippocampal slice preparation to investigate the regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in brain. After pharmacological treatment of intact slices, proteins were separated by electrophoresis, and levels of protein tyrosine phosphorylation were assessed by immunoblotting with specific anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Phorbol esters, activators of the serine- and threonine-phosphorylating enzyme protein kinase C, selectively increase tyrosine phosphorylation of a soluble protein with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 40 kilodaltons. Muscarinic agonists such as carbachol and oxotremorine M that strongly activate the inositol phospholipid system also increase tyrosine phosphorylation of this protein. Neurotransmitter activation of the inositol phospholipid system and protein kinase C appears to trigger a cascade leading to increased tyrosine phosphorylation

  1. Characterization of mitosis-specific phosphorylation of tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-11-30

    Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2), has been recently shown to be involved in the assembly and maintenance of mitotic spindle and also plays an essential role in maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation during mitosis. We have previously reported that TMAP is phosphorylated at multiple residues specifically during mitosis, and characterized the mechanism and functional importance of phosphorylation at one of the mitosis-specific phosphorylation residues (i.e., Thr-622). However, the phosphorylation events at the remaining mitotic phosphorylation sites of TMAP have not been fully characterized in detail. Here, we report on generation and characterization of phosphorylated Thr-578- and phosphorylated Thr-596-specific antibodies. Using the antibodies, we show that phosphorylation of TMAP at Thr-578 and Thr-596 indeed occurs specifically during mitosis. Immunofluorescent staining using the antibodies shows that these residues become phosphorylated starting at prophase and then become rapidly dephosphorylated soon after initiation of anaphase. Subtle differences in the kinetics of phosphorylation between Thr-578 and Thr-596 imply that they may be under different mechanisms of phosphorylation during mitosis. Unlike the phosphorylation-deficient mutant form for Thr-622, the mutant in which both Thr-578 and Thr-596 had been mutated to alanines did not induce significant delay in progression of mitosis. These results show that the majority of mitosis-specific phosphorylation of TMAP is limited to pre-anaphase stages and suggest that the multiple phosphorylation may not act in concert but serve diverse functions.

  2. Tampering with springs: phosphorylation of titin affecting the mechanical function of cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Nazha; Herwig, Melissa; Linke, Wolfgang A

    2017-06-01

    Reversible post-translational modifications of various cardiac proteins regulate the mechanical properties of the cardiomyocytes and thus modulate the contractile performance of the heart. The giant protein titin forms a continuous filament network in the sarcomeres of striated muscle cells, where it determines passive tension development and modulates active contraction. These mechanical properties of titin are altered through post-translational modifications, particularly phosphorylation. Titin contains hundreds of potential phosphorylation sites, the functional relevance of which is only beginning to emerge. Here, we provide a state-of-the-art summary of the phosphorylation sites in titin, with a particular focus on the elastic titin spring segment. We discuss how phosphorylation at specific amino acids can reduce or increase the stretch-induced spring force of titin, depending on where the spring region is phosphorylated. We also review which protein kinases phosphorylate titin and how this phosphorylation affects titin-based passive tension in cardiomyocytes. A comprehensive overview is provided of studies that have measured altered titin phosphorylation and titin-based passive tension in myocardial samples from human heart failure patients and animal models of heart disease. As our understanding of the broader implications of phosphorylation in titin progresses, this knowledge could be used to design targeted interventions aimed at reducing pathologically increased titin stiffness in patients with stiff hearts.

  3. Phospho.ELM: A database of experimentally verified phosphorylation sites in eukaryotic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diella, F.; Cameron, S.; Gemund, C.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Post-translational phosphorylation is one of the most common protein modifications. Phosphoserine, threonine and tyrosine residues play critical roles in the regulation of many cellular processes. The fast growing number of research reports on protein phosphorylation points to a gener...

  4. Multiplexed Imaging of Protein Phosphorylation on Membranes Based on Ti(IV) Functionalized Nanopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliuk, Anton; Li, Li; Melesse, Michael; Hall, Mark C; Tao, W Andy

    2016-05-17

    Accurate protein phosphorylation analysis reveals dynamic cellular signaling events not evident from protein expression levels. The most dominant biochemical assay, western blotting, suffers from the inadequate availability and poor quality of phospho-specific antibodies for phosphorylated proteins. Furthermore, multiplexed assays based on antibodies are limited by steric interference between the antibodies. Here we introduce a multifunctionalized nanopolymer for the universal detection of phosphoproteins that, in combination with regular antibodies, allows multiplexed imaging and accurate determination of protein phosphorylation on membranes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Phosphorylation of Human Metapneumovirus M2-1 Protein Upregulates Viral Replication and Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Mijia; Liang, Xueya; Jennings, Ryan; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2016-08-15

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major causative agent of upper- and lower-respiratory-tract infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals worldwide. Like all pneumoviruses, hMPV encodes the zinc binding protein M2-1, which plays important regulatory roles in RNA synthesis. The M2-1 protein is phosphorylated, but the specific role(s) of the phosphorylation in viral replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we found that hMPV M2-1 is phosphorylated at amino acid residues S57 and S60. Subsequent mutagenesis found that phosphorylation is not essential for zinc binding activity and oligomerization, whereas inhibition of zinc binding activity abolished the phosphorylation and oligomerization of the M2-1 protein. Using a reverse genetics system, recombinant hMPVs (rhMPVs) lacking either one or both phosphorylation sites in the M2-1 protein were recovered. These recombinant viruses had a significant decrease in both genomic RNA replication and mRNA transcription. In addition, these recombinant viruses were highly attenuated in cell culture and cotton rats. Importantly, rhMPVs lacking phosphorylation in the M2-1 protein triggered high levels of neutralizing antibody and provided complete protection against challenge with wild-type hMPV. Collectively, these data demonstrated that phosphorylation of the M2-1 protein upregulates hMPV RNA synthesis, replication, and pathogenesis in vivo The pneumoviruses include many important human and animal pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), hMPV, bovine RSV, and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV). Among these viruses, hRSV and hMPV are the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infection in infants and children. Currently, there is no antiviral or vaccine to combat these diseases. All known pneumoviruses encode a zinc binding protein, M2-1, which is a transcriptional antitermination factor. In this work, we found that phosphorylation of M2-1 is essential for virus

  6. Characterization and Prediction of Protein Phosphorylation Hotspots in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Jan-Ole; Braginets, Rostyslav; Schulze, Waltraud X; Walther, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of protein function by modulating the surface charge status via sequence-locally enriched phosphorylation sites (P-sites) in so called phosphorylation "hotspots" has gained increased attention in recent years. We set out to identify P-hotspots in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We analyzed the spacing of experimentally detected P-sites within peptide-covered regions along Arabidopsis protein sequences as available from the PhosPhAt database. Confirming earlier reports (Schweiger and Linial, 2010), we found that, indeed, P-sites tend to cluster and that distributions between serine and threonine P-sites to their respected closest next P-site differ significantly from those for tyrosine P-sites. The ability to predict P-hotspots by applying available computational P-site prediction programs that focus on identifying single P-sites was observed to be severely compromised by the inevitable interference of nearby P-sites. We devised a new approach, named HotSPotter, for the prediction of phosphorylation hotspots. HotSPotter is based primarily on local amino acid compositional preferences rather than sequence position-specific motifs and uses support vector machines as the underlying classification engine. HotSPotter correctly identified experimentally determined phosphorylation hotspots in A. thaliana with high accuracy. Applied to the Arabidopsis proteome, HotSPotter-predicted 13,677 candidate P-hotspots in 9,599 proteins corresponding to 7,847 unique genes. Hotspot containing proteins are involved predominantly in signaling processes confirming the surmised modulating role of hotspots in signaling and interaction events. Our study provides new bioinformatics means to identify phosphorylation hotspots and lays the basis for further investigating novel candidate P-hotspots. All phosphorylation hotspot annotations and predictions have been made available as part of the PhosPhAt database at http://phosphat.mpimp-golm.mpg.de.

  7. Exploring the diversity of protein modifications: special bacterial phosphorylation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Grangeasse, Christophe; Turgay, Kürşad

    2016-01-01

    Protein modifications not only affect protein homeostasis but can also establish new cellular protein functions and are important components of complex cellular signal sensing and transduction networks. Among these post-translational modifications, protein phosphorylation represents the one that ...

  8. The physiological link between metabolic rate depression and tau phosphorylation in mammalian hibernation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens T Stieler

    Full Text Available Abnormal phosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein are hallmarks of a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. Increased tau phosphorylation is assumed to represent an early event in pathogenesis and a pivotal aspect for aggregation and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. However, the regulation of tau phosphorylation in vivo and the causes for its increased stage of phosphorylation in AD are still not well understood, a fact that is primarily based on the lack of adequate animal models. Recently we described the reversible formation of highly phosphorylated tau protein in hibernating European ground squirrels. Hence, mammalian hibernation represents a model system very well suited to study molecular mechanisms of both tau phosphorylation and dephosphorylation under in vivo physiological conditions. Here, we analysed the extent and kinetics of hibernation-state dependent tau phosphorylation in various brain regions of three species of hibernating mammals: arctic ground squirrels, Syrian hamsters and black bears. Overall, tau protein was highly phosphorylated in torpor states and phosphorylation levels decreased after arousal in all species. Differences between brain regions, hibernation-states and phosphosites were observed with respect to degree and kinetics of tau phosphorylation. Furthermore, we tested the phosphate net turnover of tau protein to analyse potential alterations in kinase and/or phosphatase activities during hibernation. Our results demonstrate that the hibernation-state dependent phosphorylation of tau protein is specifically regulated but involves, in addition, passive, temperature driven regulatory mechanisms. By determining the activity-state profile for key enzymes of tau phosphorylation we could identify kinases potentially involved in the differentially regulated, reversible tau phosphorylation that occurs during hibernation. We show that in black bears hibernation is associated with

  9. Protein phosphorylation in pancreatic islets induced by 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pek, S.B.; Usami, Masaru; Bilir, N.; Fischer-Bovenkerk, C.; Ueda, Tetsufumi

    1990-01-01

    The authors have shown previously that 3-phosphoglycerate, which is a glycolytic metabolite of glucose, induces protein phosphorylation in bovine and rat brain and in rat heart, kidney, liver, lung, and whole pancreas. Since glycolytic metabolism of glucose is of paramount importance in insulin release, they considered the possibility that 3-phosphoglycerate may act as a coupling factor, and they searched for evidence for the existence of 3-phosphoglycerate-dependent protein phosphorylation systems in freshly isolated normal rat pancreatic islets. Membrane and cytosol fractions were incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP and appropriate test substances and were subjected to NaDodSO 4 /PAGE and autoradiography. As little as 0.005 mM 3-phosphoglycerate or 2-phosphoglycerate stimulated the phosphorylation of 65-kDa cytosol protein by as early as 0.25 min. The phosphate bond of the 65-kDa phosphoprotein was sufficiently stable to withstand dialysis; the radioactivity could not be chased out by subsequent exposure to ATP, ADP, 3-phosphoglycerate, or 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate. Moreover, cAMP, cGMP, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, or calcium failed to stimulate the phosphorylation of the 65-kDa protein. Phosphoglycerate-dependent protein phosphorylation in islets may have relevance to stimulation of insulin secretion

  10. UV light-induced DNA synthesis arrest in HeLa cells is associated with changes in phosphorylation of human single-stranded DNA-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, M.P.; Zernik-Kobak, M.; McGrath, S.; Dixon, K.

    1994-01-01

    We show that DNA replication activity in extracts of human HeLa cells decreases following UV irradiation. Alterations in replication activity in vitro parallel the UV-induced block in cell cycle progression of these cells in culture. UV irradiation also induces specific changes in the pattern of phosphorylation of the 34 kDa subunit of a DNA replication protein, human single-stranded DNA-binding protein (hSSB). The appearance of a hyperphosphorylated form of hSSB correlates with reduced in vitro DNA replication activity in extracts of UV-irradiated cells. Replication activity can be restored to these extracts in vitro by addition of purified hSSB. These results suggest that UV-induced DNA synthesis arrest may be mediated in part through phosphorylation-related alterations in the activity of hSSB, an essential component of the DNA replication apparatus. (Author)

  11. P³DB 3.0: From plant phosphorylation sites to protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiuming; Ge, Huangyi; Wu, Shangquan; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Wei; Xu, Chunhui; Gao, Jianjiong; Thelen, Jay J; Xu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, the Plant Protein Phosphorylation Database (P(3)DB, http://p3db.org) has become one of the most significant in vivo data resources for studying plant phosphoproteomics. We have substantially updated P(3)DB with respect to format, new datasets and analytic tools. In the P(3)DB 3.0, there are altogether 47 923 phosphosites in 16 477 phosphoproteins curated across nine plant organisms from 32 studies, which have met our multiple quality standards for acquisition of in vivo phosphorylation site data. Centralized by these phosphorylation data, multiple related data and annotations are provided, including protein-protein interaction (PPI), gene ontology, protein tertiary structures, orthologous sequences, kinase/phosphatase classification and Kinase Client Assay (KiC Assay) data--all of which provides context for the phosphorylation event. In addition, P(3)DB 3.0 incorporates multiple network viewers for the above features, such as PPI network, kinase-substrate network, phosphatase-substrate network, and domain co-occurrence network to help study phosphorylation from a systems point of view. Furthermore, the new P(3)DB reflects a community-based design through which users can share datasets and automate data depository processes for publication purposes. Each of these new features supports the goal of making P(3)DB a comprehensive, systematic and interactive platform for phosphoproteomics research.

  12. G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinases of the GRK4 Protein Subfamily Phosphorylate Inactive G Protein-coupled Receptors (GPCRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyong; Homan, Kristoff T; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Manglik, Aashish; Tesmer, John J G; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Gurevich, Eugenia V

    2015-04-24

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) play a key role in homologous desensitization of GPCRs. It is widely assumed that most GRKs selectively phosphorylate only active GPCRs. Here, we show that although this seems to be the case for the GRK2/3 subfamily, GRK5/6 effectively phosphorylate inactive forms of several GPCRs, including β2-adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors, which are commonly used as representative models for GPCRs. Agonist-independent GPCR phosphorylation cannot be explained by constitutive activity of the receptor or membrane association of the GRK, suggesting that it is an inherent ability of GRK5/6. Importantly, phosphorylation of the inactive β2-adrenergic receptor enhanced its interactions with arrestins. Arrestin-3 was able to discriminate between phosphorylation of the same receptor by GRK2 and GRK5, demonstrating preference for the latter. Arrestin recruitment to inactive phosphorylated GPCRs suggests that not only agonist activation but also the complement of GRKs in the cell regulate formation of the arrestin-receptor complex and thereby G protein-independent signaling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. beta2-adaptin is constitutively de-phosphorylated by serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A and phosphorylated by a staurosporine-sensitive kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Menné, C; Kastrup, J

    2000-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis includes cycles of assembly and disassembly of the clathrin-coated vesicle constituents. How these cycles are regulated is still not fully known but previous studies have indicated that phosphorylation of coat subunits may play a role. Here we describe that beta2-ada...... the hypothesis that phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation of coat proteins plays a regulatory role in the assembly/disassembly cycle of clathrin-coated vesicles.......Clathrin-mediated endocytosis includes cycles of assembly and disassembly of the clathrin-coated vesicle constituents. How these cycles are regulated is still not fully known but previous studies have indicated that phosphorylation of coat subunits may play a role. Here we describe that beta2......-adaptin undergoes cycles of phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation in intact cells. Thus, beta2-adaptin was constitutively de-phosphorylated by serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A and phosphorylated by a staurosporine-sensitive kinase in vivo. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated...

  14. Conserved salt-bridge competition triggered by phosphorylation regulates the protein interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, John J.

    2017-12-05

    Phosphorylation is a major regulator of protein interactions; however, the mechanisms by which regulation occurs are not well understood. Here we identify a salt-bridge competition or “theft” mechanism that enables a phospho-triggered swap of protein partners by Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP). RKIP transitions from inhibiting Raf-1 to inhibiting G-protein–coupled receptor kinase 2 upon phosphorylation, thereby bridging MAP kinase and G-Protein–Coupled Receptor signaling. NMR and crystallography indicate that a phosphoserine, but not a phosphomimetic, competes for a lysine from a preexisting salt bridge, initiating a partial unfolding event and promoting new protein interactions. Structural elements underlying the theft occurred early in evolution and are found in 10% of homo-oligomers and 30% of hetero-oligomers including Bax, Troponin C, and Early Endosome Antigen 1. In contrast to a direct recognition of phosphorylated residues by binding partners, the salt-bridge theft mechanism represents a facile strategy for promoting or disrupting protein interactions using solvent-accessible residues, and it can provide additional specificity at protein interfaces through local unfolding or conformational change.

  15. Conserved salt-bridge competition triggered by phosphorylation regulates the protein interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, John J.; Wang, Sheng; Lee, Jiyoung; Ong, Colin; Sommese, Ruth; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Koelmel, Wolfgang; Hirschbeck, Maria; Schindelin, Hermann; Kisker, Caroline; Lorenz, Kristina; Sosnick, Tobin R.; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorylation is a major regulator of protein interactions; however, the mechanisms by which regulation occurs are not well understood. Here we identify a salt-bridge competition or “theft” mechanism that enables a phospho-triggered swap of protein partners by Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP). RKIP transitions from inhibiting Raf-1 to inhibiting G-protein–coupled receptor kinase 2 upon phosphorylation, thereby bridging MAP kinase and G-Protein–Coupled Receptor signaling. NMR and crystallography indicate that a phosphoserine, but not a phosphomimetic, competes for a lysine from a preexisting salt bridge, initiating a partial unfolding event and promoting new protein interactions. Structural elements underlying the theft occurred early in evolution and are found in 10% of homo-oligomers and 30% of hetero-oligomers including Bax, Troponin C, and Early Endosome Antigen 1. In contrast to a direct recognition of phosphorylated residues by binding partners, the salt-bridge theft mechanism represents a facile strategy for promoting or disrupting protein interactions using solvent-accessible residues, and it can provide additional specificity at protein interfaces through local unfolding or conformational change.

  16. Phosphoproteome analysis of streptomyces development reveals extensive protein phosphorylation accompanying bacterial differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Ye, Juanying; Sánchez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Streptomycetes are bacterial species that undergo a complex developmental cycle that includes programmed cell death (PCD) events and sporulation. They are widely used in biotechnology because they produce most clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Although Streptomyces coelicolor is one...... events were detected during the presporulation and sporulation stages (80%). Most of these phosphorylations were not reported before in Streptomyces, and included sporulation factors, transcriptional regulators, protein kinases and other regulatory proteins. Several of the identified phosphorylated...... proteins, FtsZ, DivIVA, and FtsH2, were previously demonstrated to be involved in the sporulation process. We thus established for the first time the widespread occurrence and dynamic features of Ser/Thr/Tyr protein phosphorylation in a bacteria species and also revealed a previously unrecognized...

  17. Nuclear phosphoproteome analysis of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation reveals system-wide phosphorylation of transcriptional regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabiee, Atefeh; Schwämmle, Veit; Sidoli, Simone

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS: Mass spectrometry (MS) based quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics applied to monitor the alteration of nuclear proteins during the early stages (4 hours) of preadipocyte differentiation. A total of 4072 proteins including 2434 phosphorylated proteins identified, a majority....... New insights into phosphorylation-dependent signaling networks that impact on nuclear proteins and controls adipocyte differentiation and cell fate. Adipocytes (fat cells) are important endocrine and metabolic cells critical for systemic insulin sensitivity. Both adipose excess and insufficiency......), in particular phosphorylation, play a major role in activating and propagating signals within TR networks upon induction of adipogenesis by extracellular stimulus. We applied mass spectrometry (MS) based quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics to monitor the alteration of nuclear proteins during the early...

  18. Emerging roles for protein histidine phosphorylation in cellular signal transduction: lessons from the islet ?-cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2008-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation represents one of the key regulatory events in physiological insulin secretion from the islet ?-cell. In this context, several classes of protein kinases (e.g. calcium-, cyclic nucleotide- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinases and tyrosine kinases) have been characterized in the ?-cell. The majority of phosphorylated amino acids identified include phosphoserine, phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine. Protein histidine phosphorylation has been implicated in the prok...

  19. Insulin rapidly stimulates phosphorylation of a 46-kDa membrane protein on tyrosine residues as well as phosphorylation of several soluble proteins in intact fat cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haering, H.U.; White, M.F.; Machicao, F.; Ermel, B.; Schleicher, E.; Obermaier, B.

    1987-01-01

    It is speculated that the transmission of an insulin signal across the plasma membrane of cells occurs through activation of the tyrosine-specific receptor kinase, autophosphorylation of the receptor, and subsequent phosphorylation of unidentified substrates in the cell. In an attempt to identify possible substrates, the authors labeled intact rat fat cells with [ 32 P]orthophosphate and used an antiphosphotyrosine antibody to identify proteins that become phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in an insulin-stimulated way. In the membrane fraction of the fat cells, they found, in addition to the 95-kDa β-subunit of the receptor, a 46-kDa phosphoprotein that is phosphorylated exclusively on tyrosine residues. This protein is not immunoprecipitated by antibodies against different regions of the insulin receptor and its HPLC tryptic peptide map is different from the tryptic peptide map of the insulin receptor, suggesting that it is not derived from the receptor β-subunit. Insulin stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of the 46-kDa protein within 150 sec in the intact cell 3- to 4-fold in a dose-dependent way at insulin concentrations between 0.5 nM and 100 nM. Insulin (0.5 nM, 100 nM) stimulated within 2 min the 32 P incorporation into a 116-kDa band, a 62 kDa band, and three bands between 45 kDa and 50 kDa 2- to 10-fold. They suggest that the 46-kDa membrane protein and possibly also the soluble proteins are endogenous substrates of the receptor tyrosine kinase in fat cells and that their phosphorylation is an early step in insulin signal transmission

  20. Role of Protein Phosphorylation in the Regulation of Cell Cycle and DNA-Related Processes in Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Garcia, Transito; Poncet, Sandrine; Derouiche, Abderahmane

    2016-01-01

    In all living organisms, the phosphorylation of proteins modulates various aspects of their functionalities. In eukaryotes, protein phosphorylation plays a key role in cell signaling, gene expression, and differentiation. Protein phosphorylation is also involved in the global control of DNA repli...

  1. Modulation of P1798 lymphosarcoma proliferation by protein phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michnoff, C.A.H.

    1983-01-01

    The role of protein kinases in modulating cell proliferation was examined. Studies characterized the regulation of cell proliferation by adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (cA-Pk). Calcium/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) was isolated and examined as a potential substrate regulated by cA-PK in the rapidly proliferating P1798 lymphosarcoma. Modulation of cell proliferation by cA-PK was characterized by quantitating cell division by [methyl- 3 H] thymidine ([ 3 H]-dT) incorporation into DNA, cAMP accumulations, and activation of cA-PK using P1798 lymphosarcoma cells. Epinephrine and prostaglandin E 1 (PGE 1 ) were demonstrated to suppress [ 3 H]-dT incorporation into DNA, to stimulate cAMP accumulation, and to activate cA-PK with dose-dependency. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent MLCK was partially purified from P1798 lymphosarcoma. P1798 MLCK phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chains (P-LC) from thymus, cardiac and skeletal muscles. One mol [ 32 Pi] was transferred into one mol cardiac or skeletal P-LC by P1798 MLCK. Apparent Km values of 65 μM and 51 μM were determined for ATP and cardiac P-LC, respectively. The apparent molecular weight of P1798 MLCK was 135,000. P1798 MLCK was phosphorylated by cA-PK. Phosphorylated MLCK showed a 41% decrease in calcium-dependent activity. Two additional protein kinases from P1798 lymphosarcoma phosphorylated cardiac and skeletal light chains

  2. Characterization of mitosis-specific phosphorylation of tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-01-01

    Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2), has been recently shown to be involved in the assembly and maintenance of mitotic spindle and also plays an essential role in maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation during mitosis. We have previously reported that TMAP is phosphorylated at multiple residues specifically during mitosis, and characterized the mechanism and functional importance of phosphorylation at one o...

  3. Haloperidol Regulates the State of Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 via Activation of PKA and Phosphorylation of DARPP-32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valjent, Emmanuel; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Bowling, Heather; Lopez, Sébastien; Santini, Emanuela; Matamales, Miriam; Bonito-Oliva, Alessandra; Hervé, Denis; Hoeffer, Charles; Klann, Eric; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Fisone, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Administration of typical antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol, promotes cAMP-dependent signaling in the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum. In this study, we have examined the effect of haloperidol on the state of phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the small 40S ribosomal subunit. We found that haloperidol increases the phosphorylation of rpS6 at the dual site Ser235/236, which is involved in the regulation of mRNA translation. This effect was exerted in the MSNs of the indirect pathway, which express specifically dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) and adenosine A2 receptors (A2ARs). The effect of haloperidol was decreased by blockade of A2ARs or by genetic attenuation of the Gαolf protein, which couples A2ARs to activation of adenylyl cyclase. Moreover, stimulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) increased Ser235/236 phosphorylation in cultured striatal neurons. The ability of haloperidol to promote rpS6 phosphorylation was abolished in knock-in mice deficient for PKA activation of the protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa. In contrast, pharmacological or genetic inactivation of p70 rpS6 kinase 1, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases did not affect haloperidol-induced rpS6 phosphorylation. These results identify PKA as a major rpS6 kinase in neuronal cells and suggest that regulation of protein synthesis through rpS6 may be a potential target of antipsychotic drugs. PMID:21814187

  4. Comparison of phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins from HeLa and Krebs II ascites-tumour cells by cyclic AMP-dependent and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Beier, H; Speichermann, N

    1980-01-01

    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic ribosomal proteins in vitro by essentially homogeneous preparations of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase was compared. Each protein kinase was added at a concentration of 30nM. Ribosomal proteins were...... by the cyclic AMP-dependent enzyme. Between 0.1 and 0.2 mol of phosphate was incorporated/mol of these phosphorylated proteins. With the exception of protein S7, the same proteins were also major substrates for the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase. Time courses of the phosphorylation of individual proteins...... from the small and large ribosomal subunits in the presence of either protein kinase suggested four types of phosphorylation reactions: (1) proteins S2, S10 and L5 were preferably phosphorylated by the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase; (2) proteins S3 and L6 were phosphorylated at very similar rates...

  5. Growth hormone-promoted tyrosyl phosphorylation of SHC proteins and SHC association with Grb2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanderKuur, J; Allevato, G; Billestrup, Nils

    1995-01-01

    . To gain insight into pathways coupling GH receptor (GHR) to MAP kinase activation and signaling molecules that might interact with GHR and its associated tyrosine kinase JAK2, we examined whether SHC and Grb2 proteins serve as signaling molecules for GH. Human GH was shown to promote the rapid tyrosyl...... phosphorylation of 66-, 52-, and 46-kDa SHC proteins in 3T3-F442A fibroblasts. GH also promoted binding of GHR and JAK2 to the SH2 domain of 46/52-kDa SHC protein fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST). Constitutively phosphorylated JAK2, from COS-7 cells transiently transfected with murine JAK2 cDNA, bound......-638 and GHR1-638(Y333,338F), GH stimulated phosphorylation of all 3 SHC proteins whereas GH stimulated phosphorylation of only the 66- and 52-kDa SHC proteins in cells expressing GHR1-454. GH had no effect on SHC phosphorylation in cells expressing GHR1-294 or GHR delta P, the latter lacking amino acids 297...

  6. Rice early flowering1, a CKI, phosphorylates DELLA protein SLR1 to negatively regulate gibberellin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cheng; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2010-06-02

    The plant hormone gibberellin (GA) is crucial for multiple aspects of plant growth and development. To study the relevant regulatory mechanisms, we isolated a rice mutant earlier flowering1, el1, which is deficient in a casein kinase I that has critical roles in both plants and animals. el1 had an enhanced GA response, consistent with the suppression of EL1 expression by exogenous GA(3). Biochemical characterization showed that EL1 specifically phosphorylates the rice DELLA protein SLR1, proving a direct evidence for SLR1 phosphorylation. Overexpression of SLR1 in wild-type plants caused a severe dwarf phenotype, which was significantly suppressed by EL1 deficiency, indicating the negative effect of SLR1 on GA signalling requires the EL1 function. Further studies showed that the phosphorylation of SLR1 is important for maintaining its activity and stability, and mutation of the candidate phosphorylation site of SLR1 results in the altered GA signalling. This study shows EL1 a novel and key regulator of the GA response and provided important clues on casein kinase I activities in GA signalling and plant development.

  7. PTEN gene and phosphorylation of Akt protein expression in the LPS-induced lung fibroblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-lin HUANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate PTEN gene expression and the Akt phosphorylation of protein expression in the LPS-induced lung fibroblast, to initially reveal the relation between PTEN gene and the Akt phosphorylated proteins to LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation mechanism. Methods: BrdU experiments was performed to evaluate the LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation,  RT-PCR and Western Blot analysis were used to analyze the PTEN gene expression and Western blot was performed to analyze Akt phosphorylated protein expression. Results: PTEN mRNA level of the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05 with LPS simulation for 24h and 72h , and there were no significant difference between the experimental group and control group the experimental group and control group (P>0.05 . PTEN protein expression levels of the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05 , at 72h, and PTEN mRNA levels had no significant differences between these of the experimental and control group at 6h,12h and 24h(p>0.05. Phosphorylation Akt protein level (relative to total Akt protein was significantly higer than the control group (P<0.05 at 24h and 72h, and phosphorylation Akt protein levels had no significant differences between these of the experimental and control group at 6h and 12h (P>0.05 .Conclusion: PTEN gene and phosphorylation Akt protein involve in LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation signal transduction pathway.

  8. Trehalose Alters Subcellular Trafficking and the Metabolism of the Alzheimer-associated Amyloid Precursor Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Nguyen T; Karaca, Ilker; Tamboli, Irfan Y; Walter, Jochen

    2016-05-13

    The disaccharide trehalose is commonly considered to stimulate autophagy. Cell treatment with trehalose could decrease cytosolic aggregates of potentially pathogenic proteins, including mutant huntingtin, α-synuclein, and phosphorylated tau that are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we demonstrate that trehalose also alters the metabolism of the Alzheimer disease-related amyloid precursor protein (APP). Cell treatment with trehalose decreased the degradation of full-length APP and its C-terminal fragments. Trehalose also reduced the secretion of the amyloid-β peptide. Biochemical and cell biological experiments revealed that trehalose alters the subcellular distribution and decreases the degradation of APP C-terminal fragments in endolysosomal compartments. Trehalose also led to strong accumulation of the autophagic marker proteins LC3-II and p62, and decreased the proteolytic activation of the lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin D. The combined data indicate that trehalose decreases the lysosomal metabolism of APP by altering its endocytic vesicular transport. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. In vitro phosphorylation of the movement protein of tomato mosaic tobamovirus by a cellular kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Y; Hanazawa, K; Yoshioka, K; Oguchi, T; Kawakami, S; Watanabe, Y; Nishiguchi, M; Nyunoya, H

    2000-08-01

    The movement protein (MP) of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was produced in E. coli as a soluble fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase. When immobilized on glutathione affinity beads, the recombinant protein was phosphorylated in vitro by incubating with cell extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and tobacco suspension culture cells (BY-2) in the presence of [gamma-(32)P]ATP. Phosphorylation occurred even after washing the beads with a detergent-containing buffer, indicating that the recombinant MP formed a stable complex with some protein kinase(s) during incubation with the cell extract. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that the MP was phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues. Phosphorylation of the MP was decreased by addition of kinase inhibitors such as heparin, suramin and quercetin, which are known to be effective for casein kinase II (CK II). The phosphorylation level was not changed by other types of inhibitor. In addition, as shown for animal and plant CK II, [gamma-(32)P]GTP was efficiently used as a phosphoryl donor. Phosphorylation was not affected by amino acid replacements at serine-37 and serine-238, but was completely inhibited by deletion of the carboxy-terminal 9 amino acids, including threonine-256, serine-257, serine-261 and serine-263. These results suggest that the MP of ToMV could be phosphorylated in plant cells by a host protein kinase that is closely related to CK II.

  10. Structural Modulation of Phosducin by Phosphorylation and 14-3-3 Protein Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezabkova, Lenka; Kacirova, Miroslava; Sulc, Miroslav; Herman, Petr; Vecer, Jaroslav; Stepanek, Miroslav; Obsilova, Veronika; Obsil, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Phosducin (Pdc), a highly conserved phosphoprotein, plays an important role in the regulation of G protein signaling, transcriptional control, and modulation of blood pressure. Pdc is negatively regulated by phosphorylation followed by binding to the 14-3-3 protein, whose role is still unclear. To gain insight into the role of 14-3-3 in the regulation of Pdc function, we studied structural changes of Pdc induced by phosphorylation and 14-3-3 protein binding using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Our data show that the phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain of Pdc at Ser-54 and Ser-73 affects the structure of the whole Pdc molecule. Complex formation with 14-3-3 reduces the flexibility of both the N- and C-terminal domains of phosphorylated Pdc, as determined by time-resolved tryptophan and dansyl fluorescence. Therefore, our data suggest that phosphorylated Pdc undergoes a conformational change when binding to 14-3-3. These changes involve the Gtβγ binding surface within the N-terminal domain of Pdc, and thus could explain the inhibitory effect of 14-3-3 on Pdc function. PMID:23199924

  11. Detection and characterization of 3D-signature phosphorylation site motifs and their contribution towards improved phosphorylation site prediction in proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selbig Joachim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorylation of proteins plays a crucial role in the regulation and activation of metabolic and signaling pathways and constitutes an important target for pharmaceutical intervention. Central to the phosphorylation process is the recognition of specific target sites by protein kinases followed by the covalent attachment of phosphate groups to the amino acids serine, threonine, or tyrosine. The experimental identification as well as computational prediction of phosphorylation sites (P-sites has proved to be a challenging problem. Computational methods have focused primarily on extracting predictive features from the local, one-dimensional sequence information surrounding phosphorylation sites. Results We characterized the spatial context of phosphorylation sites and assessed its usability for improved phosphorylation site predictions. We identified 750 non-redundant, experimentally verified sites with three-dimensional (3D structural information available in the protein data bank (PDB and grouped them according to their respective kinase family. We studied the spatial distribution of amino acids around phosphorserines, phosphothreonines, and phosphotyrosines to extract signature 3D-profiles. Characteristic spatial distributions of amino acid residue types around phosphorylation sites were indeed discernable, especially when kinase-family-specific target sites were analyzed. To test the added value of using spatial information for the computational prediction of phosphorylation sites, Support Vector Machines were applied using both sequence as well as structural information. When compared to sequence-only based prediction methods, a small but consistent performance improvement was obtained when the prediction was informed by 3D-context information. Conclusion While local one-dimensional amino acid sequence information was observed to harbor most of the discriminatory power, spatial context information was identified as

  12. Endogenous phosphorylation of basic protein in myelin of varying degrees of compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, P.; Moscarello, M.A.; Cruz, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    Fractions containing myelin of varying degrees of compaction were prepared from human white matter. Protein kinase activity in these fractions was measured by using both endogenous and exogenous myelin basic protein (MBP) as substrates. In both cases, less compact myelin fractions possessed higher levels of protein kinase activity than the compact myelin fraction. In addition, the specific activity of phosphorylated basic protein was greater in the loosely compacted fractions than in compact multilamellar myelin. When basic protein in compact myelin or the myelin fractions was phosphorylated by the endogenous kinase, approximately 70% of the [ 32 P]phosphate was incorporated at a single site, identified as Ser-102. The remaining 30% was found in three other minor sites. Electron microscopy of less compact myelin showed it was composed of fewer lamellae which correlated with a relative decrease in the proportion of cationic charge isomers (microheteromers) when MBP was subjected to gel electrophoresis at alkaline pH. The shift in charge microheterogeneity of basic protein to the less cationic isomers in the less compact myelin fractions correlated with an increase in protein kinase activity and a greater specific activity of phosphorylated basic protein

  13. Regulation of the autophagy protein LC3 by phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherra, Salvatore J.; Kulich, Scott M.; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Mountzouris, John; Day, Billy W.

    2010-01-01

    Macroautophagy is a major catabolic pathway that impacts cell survival, differentiation, tumorigenesis, and neurodegeneration. Although bulk degradation sustains carbon sources during starvation, autophagy contributes to shrinkage of differentiated neuronal processes. Identification of autophagy-related genes has spurred rapid advances in understanding the recruitment of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in autophagy induction, although braking mechanisms remain less understood. Using mass spectrometry, we identified a direct protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site on LC3 that regulates its participation in autophagy. Both metabolic (rapamycin) and pathological (MPP+) inducers of autophagy caused dephosphorylation of endogenous LC3. The pseudophosphorylated LC3 mutant showed reduced recruitment to autophagosomes, whereas the nonphosphorylatable mutant exhibited enhanced puncta formation. Finally, autophagy-dependent neurite shortening induced by expression of a Parkinson disease–associated G2019S mutation in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 was inhibited by dibutyryl–cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cytoplasmic expression of the PKA catalytic subunit, or the LC3 phosphorylation mimic. These data demonstrate a role for phosphorylation in regulating LC3 activity. PMID:20713600

  14. Platelet-derived growth factor induces phosphorylation of a 64-kDa nuclear protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawver, L.K.; Pierce, G.F.; Kawahara, R.S.; Deuel, T.F.

    1989-01-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulated the phosphorylation of a nuclear protein of 64 kDa (pp64) in nuclei of nontransformed normal rat kidney (NRK) cells. Low levels of phosphorylation of pp64 were observed in nuclei of serum-starved NRK cells. Fetal calf serum (FCS), PDGF, and homodimeric v-sis and PDGF A-chain protein enhanced the incorporation of 32P into pp64 over 4-fold within 30 min and over 8-fold within 2 h of exposure of NRK cells to the growth factors. In contrast, constitutive phosphorylation of 32P-labeled pp64 in nuclei of NRK cells transformed by the simian sarcoma virus (SSV) was high and only minimally stimulated by PDGF and FCS. 32P-Labeled pp64 was isolated from nuclei of PDGF-stimulated nontransformed NRK cells; the 32P of pp64 was labile in 1 M KOH, and pp64 was not significantly recognized by anti-phosphotyrosine antisera, suggesting that the PDGF-induced phosphorylation of pp64 occurred on serine or on threonine residues. However, pp64 from SSV-transformed NRK cell nuclei was significantly stable to base hydrolysis and was immunoprecipitated with anti-phosphotyrosine antisera, suggesting that pp64 from SSV-transformed cell nuclei is phosphorylated also on tyrosine. FCS, PDGF, and PDGF A- and B-chain homodimers thus stimulate the rapid time-dependent phosphorylation of a 64-kDa nuclear protein shortly after stimulation of responsive cells. The growth factor-stimulated phosphorylation of pp64 and the constitutive high levels of pp64 phosphorylation in cells transformed by SSV suggest important roles for pp64 and perhaps regulated nuclear protein kinases and phosphatases in cell division and proliferation

  15. Genistein suppresses adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and invasion of B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, C; Han, R

    1998-07-03

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation occurs as one of the earlier events in cancer cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction. With immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy, genistein was found to suppress the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins located at the cell periphery, including a 125 kDa protein, when B16-BL6 melanoma cells attached to and interacted with ECM. When accompanied by the suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation, the invasive potential of B16-BL6 cells through reconstituted basement membrane was decreased significantly. However, neither adhesive capability nor cell growth was significantly affected by genistein. Therefore, the interruption of cancer cell-ECM interaction by suppression of protein tyrosine phosphorylation may contribute to invasion prevention of genistein.

  16. dbPAF: an integrative database of protein phosphorylation in animals and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Shahid; Lin, Shaofeng; Xu, Yang; Deng, Wankun; Ma, Lili; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zexian; Xue, Yu

    2016-03-24

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications (PTMs) and regulates a broad spectrum of biological processes. Recent progresses in phosphoproteomic identifications have generated a flood of phosphorylation sites, while the integration of these sites is an urgent need. In this work, we developed a curated database of dbPAF, containing known phosphorylation sites in H. sapiens, M. musculus, R. norvegicus, D. melanogaster, C. elegans, S. pombe and S. cerevisiae. From the scientific literature and public databases, we totally collected and integrated 54,148 phosphoproteins with 483,001 phosphorylation sites. Multiple options were provided for accessing the data, while original references and other annotations were also present for each phosphoprotein. Based on the new data set, we computationally detected significantly over-represented sequence motifs around phosphorylation sites, predicted potential kinases that are responsible for the modification of collected phospho-sites, and evolutionarily analyzed phosphorylation conservation states across different species. Besides to be largely consistent with previous reports, our results also proposed new features of phospho-regulation. Taken together, our database can be useful for further analyses of protein phosphorylation in human and other model organisms. The dbPAF database was implemented in PHP + MySQL and freely available at http://dbpaf.biocuckoo.org.

  17. Kinase-loaded magnetic beads for sequential in vitro phosphorylation of peptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromadkova, Lenka; Kupcik, Rudolf; Vajrychova, Marie; Prikryl, Petr; Charvatova, Andrea; Jankovicova, Barbora; Ripova, Daniela; Bilkova, Zuzana; Slovakova, Marcela

    2018-01-15

    Post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, greatly impact the physiological function of proteins, especially those that are natively unfolded and implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, structural and functional studies of such proteins require fully defined phosphorylation, including those that are not physiological. Thus, the kinases ERK2 and GSK-3β were immobilized to various superparamagnetic beads with carboxylic, aldehyde, Ni 2+ , or Co 3+ functional groups, with a view to efficiently phosphorylate peptides and proteins in vitro. Full phosphorylation of specific synthetic peptides confirmed that beads were successfully loaded with kinases. Remarkably, enzymes covalently immobilized on carboxylated SeraMag beads remained active upon reuse, with residual activity after 10 uses 99.5 ± 0.34% for GSK-3β and 36.2 ± 2.01% for ERK2. The beads were also used to sequentially phosphorylate recombinant tau, which in vivo is a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, a system consisting of two fully active kinases immobilized to magnetic beads is demonstrated for the first time. In comparison to soluble enzymes, the beads are easier to handle, reusable, and thus low-cost. Importantly, these beads are also convenient to remove from reactions to minimize contamination of phosphorylated products or to exchange with other kinases.

  18. Protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of the nuclear egress core complex of human cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Eric; Milbradt, Jens; Svrlanska, Adriana; Strojan, Hanife; Häge, Sigrun; Kraut, Alexandra; Hesse, Anne-Marie; Amin, Bushra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Couté, Yohann; Marschall, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear egress of herpesvirus capsids is mediated by a multi-component nuclear egress complex (NEC) assembled by a heterodimer of two essential viral core egress proteins. In the case of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), this core NEC is defined by the interaction between the membrane-anchored pUL50 and its nuclear cofactor, pUL53. NEC protein phosphorylation is considered to be an important regulatory step, so this study focused on the respective role of viral and cellular protein kinases. Multiply phosphorylated pUL50 varieties were detected by Western blot and Phos-tag analyses as resulting from both viral and cellular kinase activities. In vitro kinase analyses demonstrated that pUL50 is a substrate of both PKCα and CDK1, while pUL53 can also be moderately phosphorylated by CDK1. The use of kinase inhibitors further illustrated the importance of distinct kinases for core NEC phosphorylation. Importantly, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses identified five major and nine minor sites of pUL50 phosphorylation. The functional relevance of core NEC phosphorylation was confirmed by various experimental settings, including kinase knock-down/knock-out and confocal imaging, in which it was found that (i) HCMV core NEC proteins are not phosphorylated solely by viral pUL97, but also by cellular kinases; (ii) both PKC and CDK1 phosphorylation are detectable for pUL50; (iii) no impact of PKC phosphorylation on NEC functionality has been identified so far; (iv) nonetheless, CDK1-specific phosphorylation appears to be required for functional core NEC interaction. In summary, our findings provide the first evidence that the HCMV core NEC is phosphorylated by cellular kinases, and that the complex pattern of NEC phosphorylation has functional relevance.

  19. Insulin increases phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xiaolu; Bak, Steffen; Pedersen, Andreas James Thestrup

    2014-01-01

    , we investigated the effect of insulin on the phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle in vivo. Using a combination of TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment, HILIC fractionation, and LC−MS/MS, we compared the phosphoproteomes of isolated mitochondria from skeletal muscle samples...... obtained from healthy individuals before and after 4 h of insulin infusion. In total, we identified 207 phosphorylation sites in 95 mitochondrial proteins. Of these phosphorylation sites, 45% were identified in both basal and insulin-stimulated samples. Insulin caused a 2-fold increase in the number...... of different mitochondrial phosphopeptides (87 ± 7 vs 40 ± 7, p = 0.015) and phosphoproteins (46 ± 2 vs 26 ± 3, p = 0.005) identified in each mitochondrial preparation. Almost half of the mitochondrial phosphorylation sites (n = 94) were exclusively identified in the insulin-stimulated state and included...

  20. Chronic restraint stress induces sperm acrosome reaction and changes in testicular tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatcharee Arun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress is a cause of male infertility. Although sex hormones and sperm quality have been shown to be low in stress, sperm physiology and testicular functional proteins, such as phosphotyrosine proteins, have not been documented. Objective: To investigate the acrosome status and alterations of testicular proteins involved in spermatogenesis and testosterone synthesis in chronic stress in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, male rats were divided into 2 groups (control and chronic stress (CS, n=7. CS rats were immobilized (4 hr/day for 42 consecutive days. The blood glucose level (BGL, corticosterone, testosterone, acrosome status, and histopathology were examined. The expressions of testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR, cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A1, and phosphorylated proteins were analyzed. Results: Results showed that BGL (71.25±2.22 vs. 95.60±3.36 mg/dl, corticosterone level (24.33±4.23 vs. 36.9±2.01 ng/ml, acrosome reacted sperm (3.25±1.55 vs. 17.71±5.03%, and sperm head abnormality (3.29±0.71 vs. 6.21±1.18% were significantly higher in CS group in comparison with control. In contrast, seminal vesicle (0.41±0.05 vs. 0.24±0.07 g/100g, testosterone level (3.37±0.79 vs. 0.61±0.29 ng/ml, and sperm concentration (115.33±7.70 vs. 79.13±3.65×106 cells/ml of CS were significantly lower (p<0.05 than controls. Some atrophic seminiferous tubules and low sperm mass were apparent in CS rats. The expression of CYP11A1 except StAR protein was markedly decreased in CS rats. In contrast, a 55 kDa phosphorylated protein was higher in CS testes. Conclusion: CS decreased the expression of CYP11A, resulting in decreased testosterone, and increased acrosome-reacted sperm, assumed to be the result of an increase of 55 kDa phosphorylated protein.

  1. Flux control through protein phosphorylation in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms regulating metabolism as it can directly modify metabolic enzymes by the addition of phosphate groups. Attributed to such a rapid and reversible mechanism, cells can adjust metabolism rapidly in response to temporal changes. The yeast...... as well as identify mechanisms underlying human metabolic diseases. Here we collect functional phosphorylation events of 41 enzymes involved in yeast metabolism and demonstrate functional mechanisms and the application of this information in metabolic engineering. From a systems biology perspective, we...... describe the development of phosphoproteomics in yeast as well as approaches to analysing the phosphoproteomics data. Finally, we focus on integrated analyses with other omics data sets and genome-scale metabolic models. Despite the advances, future studies improving both experimental technologies...

  2. The virion N protein of infectious bronchitis virus is more phosphorylated than the N protein from infected cell lysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaram, Jyothi; Youn, Soonjeon; Collisson, Ellen W.

    2005-01-01

    Because phosphorylation of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) nucleocapsid protein (N) may regulate its multiple roles in viral replication, the dynamics of N phosphorylation were examined. 32 P-orthophosphate labeling and Western blot analyses confirmed that N was the only viral protein that was phosphorylated. Pulse labeling with 32 P-orthophosphate indicated that the IBV N protein was phosphorylated in the virion, as well as at all times during infection in either chicken embryo kidney cells or Vero cells. Pulse-chase analyses followed by immunoprecipitation of IBV N proteins using rabbit anti-IBV N polyclonal antibody demonstrated that the phosphate on the N protein was stable for at least 1 h. Simultaneous labeling with 32 P-orthophosphate and 3 H-leucine identified a 3.5-fold increase in the 32 P: 3 H counts per minute (cpm) ratio of N in the virion as compared to the 32 P: 3 H cpm ratio of N in the cell lysates from chicken embryo kidney cells, whereas in Vero cells the 32 P: 3 H cpm ratio of N from the virion was 10.5-fold greater than the 32 P: 3 H cpm ratio of N from the cell lysates. These studies are consistent with the phosphorylation of the IBV N playing a role in assembly or maturation of the viral particle

  3. A rapid and cost-effective fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT) method to analyze protein phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Gou, Jin-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications catalyzed by protein kinases in living organisms. The advance of genome sequencing provided the information of protein kinase families in many organisms, including both model and non-model plants. The development of proteomics technologies also enabled scientists to efficiently reveal a large number of protein phosphorylations of an organism. However, kinases and phosphorylation targets are still to be connected to illustrate the complicated network in life. Here we adapted Pro-Q ® Diamond (Pro-Q ® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain), a widely used phosphoprotein gel-staining fluorescence dye, to establish a rapid, economical and non-radioactive fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT) method to analyze phosphorylated proteins. Taking advantages of high sensitivity and specificity of Pro-Q ® diamond, the FDIT method is also demonstrated to be rapid and reliable, with a suitable linear range for in vitro protein phosphorylation. A significant and satisfactory protein kinase reaction was detected as fast as 15 min from Wheat Kinase START 1.1 (WKS1.1) on a thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX), an established phosphorylation target in our earlier study. The FDIT method saves up to 95% of the dye consumed in a gel staining method. The FDIT method is remarkably quick, highly reproducible, unambiguous and capable to be scaled up to dozens of samples. The FDIT method could serve as a simple and sensitive alternative procedure to determine protein kinase reactions with zero radiation exposure, as a supplementation to other widely used radioactive and in-gel assays.

  4. A rapid and cost-effective fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT method to analyze protein phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications catalyzed by protein kinases in living organisms. The advance of genome sequencing provided the information of protein kinase families in many organisms, including both model and non-model plants. The development of proteomics technologies also enabled scientists to efficiently reveal a large number of protein phosphorylations of an organism. However, kinases and phosphorylation targets are still to be connected to illustrate the complicated network in life. Results Here we adapted Pro-Q® Diamond (Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain, a widely used phosphoprotein gel-staining fluorescence dye, to establish a rapid, economical and non-radioactive fluorescence detection in tube (FDIT method to analyze phosphorylated proteins. Taking advantages of high sensitivity and specificity of Pro-Q® diamond, the FDIT method is also demonstrated to be rapid and reliable, with a suitable linear range for in vitro protein phosphorylation. A significant and satisfactory protein kinase reaction was detected as fast as 15 min from Wheat Kinase START 1.1 (WKS1.1 on a thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX, an established phosphorylation target in our earlier study. Conclusion The FDIT method saves up to 95% of the dye consumed in a gel staining method. The FDIT method is remarkably quick, highly reproducible, unambiguous and capable to be scaled up to dozens of samples. The FDIT method could serve as a simple and sensitive alternative procedure to determine protein kinase reactions with zero radiation exposure, as a supplementation to other widely used radioactive and in-gel assays.

  5. Replication Protein A (RPA) Phosphorylation Prevents RPA Association with Replication Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Vassin, Vitaly M.; Wold, Marc S.; Borowiec, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian replication protein A (RPA) undergoes DNA damage-dependent phosphorylation at numerous sites on the N terminus of the RPA2 subunit. To understand the functional significance of RPA phosphorylation, we expressed RPA2 variants in which the phosphorylation sites were converted to aspartate (RPA2D) or alanine (RPA2A). Although RPA2D was incorporated into RPA heterotrimers and supported simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro, the RPA2D mutant was selectively unable to associate with re...

  6. Nuclear localization of phosphorylated c-Myc protein in human tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Soldani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Using immunocytochemical techniques at light and electron microscopy, we analysed the distribution of phosphorylated c-Myc in actively proliferating human HeLa cells. The distribution pattern of c-Myc was also compared with those of other ribonucleoprotein (RNP-containing components (PANA, hnRNP-core proteins, fibrillarin or RNP-associated nuclear proteins (SC-35 splicing factor. Our results provide the first evidence that phosphorylated c-Myc accumulates in the nucleus of tumor cells, where it colocalizes with fibrillarin, both in the nucleolus and in extranucleolar structures.

  7. Petri net-based prediction of therapeutic targets that recover abnormally phosphorylated proteins in muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jinmyung; Kwon, Mijin; Bae, Sunghwa; Yim, Soorin; Lee, Doheon

    2018-03-05

    Muscle atrophy, an involuntary loss of muscle mass, is involved in various diseases and sometimes leads to mortality. However, therapeutics for muscle atrophy thus far have had limited effects. Here, we present a new approach for therapeutic target prediction using Petri net simulation of the status of phosphorylation, with a reasonable assumption that the recovery of abnormally phosphorylated proteins can be a treatment for muscle atrophy. The Petri net model was employed to simulate phosphorylation status in three states, i.e. reference, atrophic and each gene-inhibited state based on the myocyte-specific phosphorylation network. Here, we newly devised a phosphorylation specific Petri net that involves two types of transitions (phosphorylation or de-phosphorylation) and two types of places (activation with or without phosphorylation). Before predicting therapeutic targets, the simulation results in reference and atrophic states were validated by Western blotting experiments detecting five marker proteins, i.e. RELA, SMAD2, SMAD3, FOXO1 and FOXO3. Finally, we determined 37 potential therapeutic targets whose inhibition recovers the phosphorylation status from an atrophic state as indicated by the five validated marker proteins. In the evaluation, we confirmed that the 37 potential targets were enriched for muscle atrophy-related terms such as actin and muscle contraction processes, and they were also significantly overlapping with the genes associated with muscle atrophy reported in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (p-value net. We generated a list of the potential therapeutic targets whose inhibition recovers abnormally phosphorylated proteins in an atrophic state. They were evaluated by various approaches, such as Western blotting, GO terms, literature, known muscle atrophy-related genes and shortest path analysis. We expect the new proposed strategy to provide an understanding of phosphorylation status in muscle atrophy and to provide assistance towards

  8. Heat shock protein 27 phosphorylation state is associated with cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eKatsogiannou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that control stress-induced survival is critical to explain how tumors frequently resist to treatment and to improve current anti-cancer therapies. Cancer cells are able to cope with stress and escape drug toxicity by regulating heat shock proteins (Hsps expression and function. Hsp27 (HSPB1, a member of the small Hsp family, represents one of the key players of many signaling pathways contributing to tumorigenicity, treatment resistance and apoptosis inhibition. Hsp27 is overexpressed in many types of cancer and its functions are regulated by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation. Protein phosphorylation is the most widespread signaling mechanism in eukaryotic cells, and it is involved in all fundamental cellular processes. Aberrant phosphorylation of Hsp27 has been associated with several diseases such as cancer but the molecular mechanisms by which it is implicated in cancer development and progression remain undefined. This review focuses on the role of phosphorylation in Hsp27 functions in cancer cells and its potential usefulness as therapeutic target in cancer.

  9. Insulin-induced decrease in protein phosphorylation in rat adipocytes not explained by decreased A-kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.J.; Greenberg, A.S.; Chang, M.K.; Londos, C.

    1987-01-01

    In isolated rat adipocytes, insulin inhibits lipolysis to a greater extent than would be predicted by the decrease in (-/+)cAMP activity ratio of cAMP-dependent protein kinase [A-kinase], from which it was speculated that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. They have examined the phosphorylation state of cellular proteins under conditions of varying A-kinase activities in the presence and absence of insulin. Protein phosphorylation was determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of extracts from 32 P-loaded cells; glycerol and A-kinase activity ratios were measured in the cytosolic extracts from control, non-radioactive cells. Increased protein phosphorylation in general occurred over the same range of A-kinase activity ratios, 0.1-0.3, associated with increased glycerol release. The insulin-induced decrease in lipolysis was associated with a decrease in the 32 P content of several proteins, an effect not explained by the modest reduction in A-kinase activity by insulin. This effect of insulin on protein phosphorylation was lost as the A-kinase activity ratios exceeded 0.5. The results suggest that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of those adipocyte proteins which are subject to phosphorylation by A-kinase

  10. Proteome analysis reveals phosphorylation of ATP synthase beta -subunit in human skeletal muscle and proteins with potential roles in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Larsen, Peter Mose

    2003-01-01

    quantitate a large number of proteins and their post-translational modifications simultaneously and is a powerful tool to study polygenic diseases like type 2 diabetes. Using this approach on human skeletal muscle biopsies, we have identified eight potential protein markers for type 2 diabetes in the fasting...... synthase beta-subunit phosphoisoform in diabetic muscle correlated inversely with fasting plasma glucose levels. These data suggest a role for phosphorylation of ATP synthase beta-subunit in the regulation of ATP synthesis and that alterations in the regulation of ATP synthesis and cellular stress proteins...

  11. Trichinella spiralis infection enhances protein kinase C phosphorylation in guinea pig alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, J M; Zieliński, Z; Cieśla, J; Wałajtys-Rode, E

    2010-03-01

    To learn more about the signalling pathways involved in superoxide anion production in guinea pig alveolar macrophages, triggered by Trichinella spiralis infection, protein level and phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases and protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated. Infection with T. spiralis, the nematode having 'lung phase' during colonization of the host, enhances PKC phosphorylation in guinea pig alveolar macrophages. Isoenzymes beta and delta of PKC have been found significantly phosphorylated, although their location was not changed as a consequence of T. spiralis infection. Neither in macrophages from T. spiralis-infected guinea pig nor in platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated macrophages from uninfected animals, participation of MAP kinases in respiratory burst activation was statistically significant. The parasite antigens seem to act through macrophage PAF receptors, transducing a signal for enhanced NADPH oxidase activity, as stimulating effect of newborn larvae homogenate on respiratory burst was abolished by specific PAF receptor antagonist CV 6209. A suppressive action of T. spiralis larvae on host alveolar macrophage innate immunological response was reflected by diminished protein level of ERK2 kinase and suppressed superoxide anion production, in spite of high level of PKC phosphorylation.

  12. Constitutive phosphorylation of Shc proteins in human tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelicci, G; Lanfrancone, L; Salcini, A E

    1995-01-01

    The Shc gene encodes three overlapping proteins which all contain a carboxy-terminal SH2 domain. Shc proteins are ubiquitously expressed and are downstream targets and effectors of activated tyrosine kinases (TK). We investigated tyrosine-phosphorylation of Shc proteins in normal and transformed...... of the Shc-associated phosphoproteins (EGFR, PDGFR, erbB-2, Met, bcr-abl, H4-ret) bound both the Shc- and Grb2-SH2 domains in vitro; others (p175; p70-p80) only the Shc-SH2 domain and yet others (p140) only the Grb2-SH3 domains. These results indicate that Shc proteins are common substrates of constitutively...

  13. Phosphorylation Variation during the Cell Cycle Scales with Structural Propensities of Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyanova, S.; Frishman, D.; Cox, J.

    2013-01-01

    of the cell division cycle we investigate how the variation of the amount of phosphorylation correlates with the protein structure in the vicinity of the modified site. We find two distinct phosphorylation site groups: intrinsically disordered regions tend to contain sites with dynamically varying levels...

  14. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals the role of protein arginine phosphorylation in the bacterial stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas; Trentini, Débora Broch; Spiess, Silvia; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Ammerer, Gustav; Mechtler, Karl; Clausen, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Arginine phosphorylation is an emerging protein modification implicated in the general stress response of Gram-positive bacteria. The modification is mediated by the arginine kinase McsB, which phosphorylates and inactivates the heat shock repressor CtsR. In this study, we developed a mass spectrometric approach accounting for the peculiar chemical properties of phosphoarginine. The improved methodology was used to analyze the dynamic changes in the Bacillus subtilis arginine phosphoproteome in response to different stress situations. Quantitative analysis showed that a B. subtilis mutant lacking the YwlE arginine phosphatase accumulated a strikingly large number of arginine phosphorylations (217 sites in 134 proteins), however only a minor fraction of these sites was increasingly modified during heat shock or oxidative stress. The main targets of McsB-mediated arginine phosphorylation comprise central factors of the stress response system including the CtsR and HrcA heat shock repressors, as well as major components of the protein quality control system such as the ClpCP protease and the GroEL chaperonine. These findings highlight the impact of arginine phosphorylation in orchestrating the bacterial stress response.

  15. Phosphorylation coexists with O-GlcNAcylation in a plant virus protein and influences viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; Pérez, José De Jesús; Hervás, Marta; Navajas, Rosana; Ciordia, Sergio; Udeshi, Namrata D; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; García, Juan Antonio

    2018-06-01

    Phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation are two widespread post-translational modifications (PTMs), often affecting the same eukaryotic target protein. Plum pox virus (PPV) is a member of the genus Potyvirus which infects a wide range of plant species. O-GlcNAcylation of the capsid protein (CP) of PPV has been studied extensively, and some evidence of CP phosphorylation has also been reported. Here, we use proteomics analyses to demonstrate that PPV CP is phosphorylated in vivo at the N-terminus and the beginning of the core region. In contrast with the 'yin-yang' mechanism that applies to some mammalian proteins, PPV CP phosphorylation affects residues different from those that are O-GlcNAcylated (serines Ser-25, Ser-81, Ser-101 and Ser-118). Our findings show that PPV CP can be concurrently phosphorylated and O-GlcNAcylated at nearby residues. However, an analysis using a differential proteomics strategy based on iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) showed a significant enhancement of phosphorylation at Ser-25 in virions recovered from O-GlcNAcylation-deficient plants, suggesting that crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation in PPV CP takes place. Although the preclusion of phosphorylation at the four identified phosphotarget sites only had a limited impact on viral infection, the mimicking of phosphorylation prevents PPV infection in Prunus persica and weakens infection in Nicotiana benthamiana and other herbaceous hosts, prompting the emergence of potentially compensatory second mutations. We postulate that the joint action of phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation in the N-proximal segment of CP allows a fine-tuning of protein stability, providing the amount of CP required in each step of viral infection. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. Phosphorylation-dependent trafficking of plasma membrane proteins in animal and plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, Remko; Huang, Fang

    2013-09-01

    In both unicellular and multicellular organisms, transmembrane (TM) proteins are sorted to and retained at specific membrane domains by endomembrane trafficking mechanisms that recognize sorting signals in the these proteins. The trafficking and distribution of plasma membrane (PM)-localized TM proteins (PM proteins), especially of those PM proteins that show an asymmetric distribution over the PM, has received much attention, as their proper PM localization is crucial for elementary signaling and transport processes, and defects in their localization often lead to severe disease symptoms or developmental defects. The subcellular localization of PM proteins is dynamically regulated by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination. These modificaitons mostly occur on sorting signals that are located in the larger cytosolic domains of the cargo proteins. Here we review the effects of phosphorylation of PM proteins on their trafficking, and present the key examples from the animal field that have been subject to studies for already several decades, such as that of aquaporin 2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor. Our knowledge on cargo trafficking in plants is largely based on studies of the family of PIN FORMED (PIN) carriers that mediate the efflux of the plant hormone auxin. We will review what is known on the subcellular distribution and trafficking of PIN proteins, with a focus on how this is modulated by phosphorylation, and identify and discuss analogies and differences in trafficking with the well-studied animal examples. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Endothelial mechanotransduction proteins and vascular function are altered by dietary sucrose supplementation in healthy young male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Rytter, Nicolai; Lindskrog, Mads; Slingsby, Martina H Lundberg; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Sylow, Lykke; Richter, Erik A; Hellsten, Ylva

    2017-08-15

    Mechanotransduction in endothelial cells is a central mechanism in the regulation of vascular tone and vascular remodelling Mechanotransduction and vascular function may be affected by high sugar levels in plasma because of a resulting increase in oxidative stress and increased levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGE). In healthy young subjects, 2 weeks of daily supplementation with 3 × 75 g of sucrose was found to reduce blood flow in response to passive lower leg movement and in response to 12 W of knee extensor exercise. This vascular impairment was paralleled by up-regulation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and Rho family GTPase Rac1 protein expression, an increased basal phosphorylation status of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and a reduced phosphorylation status of PECAM-1. There were no measurable changes in AGE levels. The findings of the present study demonstrate that daily high sucrose intake markedly affects mechanotransduction proteins and has a detrimental effect on vascular function. Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular function in humans, 12 young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day -1 for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperaemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined by ultrasound doppler. A muscle biopsy was obtained from the thigh muscle before and after acute passive leg movement to allow assessment of protein amounts and the phosphorylation status of mechanosensory proteins and NADPH oxidase. The sucrose intervention led to a reduced flow

  18. Activation of purified calcium channels by stoichiometric protein phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunoki, K.; Florio, V.; Catterall, W.A. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Purified dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels from rabbit skeletal muscle were reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine vesicles to evaluate the effect of phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) on their function. Both the rate and extent of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into vesicles containing reconstituted calcium channels were increased severalfold after incubation with ATP and PK-A. The degree of stimulation of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake was linearly proportional to the extent of phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the calcium channel up to a stoichiometry of approximately 1 mol of phosphate incorporated into each subunit. The calcium channels activated by phosphorylation were determined to be incorporated into the reconstituted vesicles in the inside-out orientation and were completely inhibited by low concentrations of dihydropyridines, phenylalkylamines, Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}. The results demonstrate a direct relationship between PK-A-catalyzed phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the purified calcium channel and activation of the ion conductance activity of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels.

  19. Activation of purified calcium channels by stoichiometric protein phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunoki, K.; Florio, V.; Catterall, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    Purified dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels from rabbit skeletal muscle were reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine vesicles to evaluate the effect of phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) on their function. Both the rate and extent of 45 Ca 2+ uptake into vesicles containing reconstituted calcium channels were increased severalfold after incubation with ATP and PK-A. The degree of stimulation of 45 Ca 2+ uptake was linearly proportional to the extent of phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the calcium channel up to a stoichiometry of approximately 1 mol of phosphate incorporated into each subunit. The calcium channels activated by phosphorylation were determined to be incorporated into the reconstituted vesicles in the inside-out orientation and were completely inhibited by low concentrations of dihydropyridines, phenylalkylamines, Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Mg 2+ . The results demonstrate a direct relationship between PK-A-catalyzed phosphorylation of the alpha 1 and beta subunits of the purified calcium channel and activation of the ion conductance activity of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels

  20. Effects of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene and Mercury Ion Stress on Ca2+ Fluxion and Protein Phosphorylation in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-lin GE

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 5 mg/L 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB and 0.1 mmol/L mercury ion (Hg2+ stresses on Ca2+ fluxion and protein phosphorylation in rice seedlings were investigated by isotope exchange kinetics and in vitro phosphorylation assay. The Ca2+ absorption in rice leaves and Ca2+ transportation from roots to leaves were promoted significantly in response to Hg2+ and TCB treatments for 4-48 h. The Ca2+ absorption peaks presented in the leaves when the rice seedlings were exposed to Hg2+ for 8-12 h or to TCB for 12-24 h. Several Ca2+ absorption peaks presented in the roots during rice seedlings being exposed to Hg2+ and TCB, and the first Ca2+ absorption peak was at 8 h after being exposed to Hg2+ and TCB. The result of isotope exchange kinetic analysis confirmed that short-term (8 h Hg2+ and TCB stresses caused Ca2+ channels or pumps located on plasmalemma to open transiently. The phosphorylation assay showed that short-term TCB stress enhanced protein phosphorylation in rice roots (TCB treatment for 4-8 h and leaves (TCB treatment for 4-24 h, and short-term (4-8 h Hg2+ stress also enhanced protein phosphorylation in rice leaves. The enhancement of protein phosphorylation in both roots and leaves corresponded with the first Ca2+ absorption peak, which confirmed that the enhancement of protein phosphorylation caused by TCB or Hg2+ stress might be partly triggered by the increases of cytosolic calcium. TCB treatment over 12 h inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice roots, which might be partly due to that TCB stress suppressed the protein kinase activity. Whereas, Hg2+ treatment inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice roots, and Hg2+ treatment over 12 h inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice leaves. This might be attributed to that not only the protein kinase activity, but also the expressions of phosphorylation proteins were restrained by Hg2+ stress.

  1. Gestational diabetes is characterized by reduced mitochondrial protein expression and altered calcium signaling proteins in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen E Boyle

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM affects up to 18% of pregnant women with immediate and long-term metabolic consequences for both mother and infant. Abnormal glucose uptake and lipid oxidation are hallmark features of GDM prompting us to use an exploratory proteomics approach to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying differences in skeletal muscle metabolism between obese pregnant women with GDM (OGDM and obese pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (ONGT. Functional validation was performed in a second cohort of obese OGDM and ONGT pregnant women. Quantitative proteomic analysis in rectus abdominus skeletal muscle tissue collected at delivery revealed reduced protein content of mitochondrial complex I (C-I subunits (NDUFS3, NDUFV2 and altered content of proteins involved in calcium homeostasis/signaling (calcineurin A, α1-syntrophin, annexin A4 in OGDM (n = 6 vs. ONGT (n = 6. Follow-up analyses showed reduced enzymatic activity of mitochondrial complexes C-I, C-III, and C-IV (-60-75% in the OGDM (n = 8 compared with ONGT (n = 10 subjects, though no differences were observed for mitochondrial complex protein content. Upstream regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation were not different between groups. However, AMPK phosphorylation was dramatically reduced by 75% in the OGDM women. These data suggest that GDM is associated with reduced skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation and disordered calcium homeostasis. These relationships deserve further attention as they may represent novel risk factors for development of GDM and may have implications on the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on both treatment strategies for GDM and for prevention of type 2 diabetes postpartum.

  2. Calcium ion binding properties and the effect of phosphorylation on the intrinsically disordered Starmaker protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, Magdalena; Hołubowicz, Rafał; Poznar, Monika; Maciejewska, Marta; Ożyhar, Andrzej; Dobryszycki, Piotr

    2015-10-27

    Starmaker (Stm) is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) involved in otolith biomineralization in Danio rerio. Stm controls calcium carbonate crystal formation in vivo and in vitro. Phosphorylation of Stm affects its biomineralization properties. This study examined the effects of calcium ions and phosphorylation on the structure of Stm. We have shown that CK2 kinase phosphorylates 25 or 26 residues in Stm. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that Stm's affinity for calcium binding is dependent on its phosphorylation state. Phosphorylated Stm (StmP) has an estimated 30 ± 1 calcium binding sites per protein molecule with a dissociation constant (KD) of 61 ± 4 μM, while the unphosphorylated protein has 28 ± 3 sites and a KD of 210 ± 22 μM. Calcium ion binding induces a compaction of the Stm molecule, causing a significant decrease in its hydrodynamic radius and the formation of a secondary structure. The screening effect of Na(+) ions on calcium binding was also observed. Analysis of the hydrodynamic properties of Stm and StmP showed that Stm and StmP molecules adopt the structure of native coil-like proteins.

  3. Identification of a novel phosphorylation site in c-jun directly targeted in vitro by protein kinase D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, Richard T.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Faull, Kym F.; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylates the c-jun amino-terminal in vitro at site(s) distinct from JNK [C. Hurd, R.T. Waldron, E. Rozengurt, Protein kinase D complexes with c-jun N-terminal kinase via activation loop phosphorylation and phosphorylates the c-jun N-terminus, Oncogene 21 (2002) 2154-2160], but the sites have not been identified. Here, metabolic 32 P-labeling of c-jun protein in COS-7 cells indicated that PKD phosphorylates c-jun in vivo at a site(s) between aa 43-93, a region containing important functional elements. On this basis, the PKD-mediated phosphorylation site(s) was further characterized in vitro using GST-c-jun fusion proteins. PKD did not incorporate phosphate into Ser63 and Ser73, the JNK sites in GST-c-jun(1-89). Rather, PKD and JNK could sequentially phosphorylate distinct site(s) simultaneously. By mass spectrometry of tryptic phosphopeptides, Ser58 interposed between the JNK-binding portion of the delta domain and the adjacent TAD1 was identified as a prominent site phosphorylated in vitro by PKD. These data were further supported by kinase reactions using truncations or point-mutations of GST-c-jun. Together, these data suggest that PKD-mediated phosphorylation modulates c-jun at the level of its N-terminal functional domains

  4. Juvenile Hormone Prevents 20-Hydroxyecdysone-induced Metamorphosis by Regulating the Phosphorylation of a Newly Identified Broad Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5′-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. PMID:25096576

  5. Phosphorylation of the human respiratory syncytial virus P protein mediates M2-2 regulation of viral RNA synthesis, a process that involves two P proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo, Ana; Villanueva, Nieves

    2016-01-04

    The M2-2 protein regulates the balance between human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) transcription and replication. Here it is shown that M2-2 mediated transcriptional inhibition is managed through P protein phosphorylation. Transcription inhibition by M2-2 of the HRSV based minigenome pRSVluc, required P protein phosphorylation at serines (S) in positions 116, 117, 119 and increased inhibition is observed if S232 or S237 is also phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of these residues is required for viral particle egression from infected cells. Viral RNA synthesis complementation assays between P protein variants, suggest that two types of P proteins participate in the process as components of RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Type I is only functional when, as a homotetramer, it is bound to N and L proteins through residues 203-241. Type II is functionally independent of these interactions and binds to N protein at a region outside residues 232-241. P protein type I phosphorylation at S116, S117 and S119, did not affect the activity of RdRp but this phosphorylation in type II avoids its interaction with N protein and impairs RdRp functionality for transcription and replication. Structural changes in the RdRp, mediated by phosphorylation turnover at the indicated residues, in the two types of P proteins, may result in a fine adjustment, late in the infectious cycle, of transcription, replication and progression in the morphogenetic process that ends in egression of the viral particles from infected cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered gravity causes the changes in the proteins NoA100 in plant cell nucleoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Margarita A.; Gonzalez-Camacho, Fernando; Kordyum, Elizabeth L.; Medina, Francisco Javier

    2005-08-01

    A nucleolar protein homologous to the mammalian nucleolin and to the onion nucleolin-like protein NopA100 was detected in nuclear soluble protein fraction from Lepidium sativum root meristematic cells, using the specific silver staining method and the cross-reaction with the anti-NopA100 antibody. In 2D Western blots of soluble nuclear fraction, NopA100 was revealed as a smear extending through a certain range of pI. In extracts obtained from seedlings grown under clinorotation, the extension of the pI range was shorter than in the stationary control indicating a lower phosphorylation of the protein. This suggests that altered gravity causes a decrease in the rate of nucleolar activity.

  7. Phosphorylation of human respiratory syncytial virus P protein at serine 54 regulates viral uncoating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Ana; Gonzalez-Armas, Juan C.; Villanueva, Nieves

    2008-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) structural P protein, phosphorylated at serine (S) and threonine (T) residues, is a co-factor of viral RNA polymerase. The phosphorylation of S54 is controlled by the coordinated action of two cellular enzymes: a lithium-sensitive kinase, probably glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3) β and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of lithium-sensitive kinase, soon after infection, blocks the viral growth cycle by inhibiting synthesis and/or accumulation of viral RNAs, proteins and extracellular particles. P protein phosphorylation at S54 is required to liberate viral ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) from M protein, during the uncoating process. Kinase inhibition, late in infection, produces a decrease in genomic RNA and infectious viral particles. LiCl, intranasally applied to mice infected with HRSV A2 strain, reduces the number of mice with virus in their lungs and the virus titre. Administration of LiCl to humans via aerosol should prevent HRSV infection, without secondary effects

  8. ROS-activated ATM-dependent phosphorylation of cytoplasmic substrates identified by large scale phosphoproteomics screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Waardenberg, Ashley J; Engholm-Keller, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signalling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoi......ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signalling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle...... checkpoints, initiating DNA repair and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach...... to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and A-T (ataxia-telangiectasia) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites...

  9. Phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit RIα by protein kinase G (PKG) primes PKA for catalytic activity in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushalter, Kristofer J; Casteel, Darren E; Raffeiner, Andrea; Stefan, Eduard; Patel, Hemal H; Taylor, Susan S

    2018-03-23

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKAc) is a pivotal signaling protein in eukaryotic cells. PKAc has two well-characterized regulatory subunit proteins, RI and RII (each having α and β isoforms), which keep the PKAc catalytic subunit in a catalytically inactive state until activation by cAMP. Previous reports showed that the RIα regulatory subunit is phosphorylated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in vitro , whereupon phosphorylated RIα no longer inhibits PKAc at normal (1:1) stoichiometric ratios. However, the significance of this phosphorylation as a mechanism for activating type I PKA holoenzymes has not been fully explored, especially in cellular systems. In this study, we further examined the potential of RIα phosphorylation to regulate physiologically relevant "desensitization" of PKAc activity. First, the serine 101 site of RIα was validated as a target of PKGIα phosphorylation both in vitro and in cells. Analysis of a phosphomimetic substitution in RIα (S101E) showed that modification of this site increases PKAc activity in vitro and in cells, even without cAMP stimulation. Numerous techniques were used to show that although Ser 101 variants of RIα can bind PKAc, the modified linker region of the S101E mutant has a significantly reduced affinity for the PKAc active site. These findings suggest that RIα phosphorylation may be a novel mechanism to circumvent the requirement of cAMP stimulus to activate type I PKA in cells. We have thus proposed a model to explain how PKG phosphorylation of RIα creates a "sensitized intermediate" state that is in effect primed to trigger PKAc activity.

  10. Pea DNA topoisomerase I is phosphorylated and stimulated by casein kinase 2 and protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Malireddy Kodandarami; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Yadav, Badam Singh; Chandok, Meena Rani; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar

    2003-08-01

    DNA topoisomerase I catalyzes the relaxation of superhelical DNA tension and is vital for DNA metabolism; therefore, it is essential for growth and development of plants. Here, we have studied the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of topoisomerase I from pea (Pisum sativum). The purified enzyme did not show autophosphorylation but was phosphorylated in an Mg(2+)-dependent manner by endogenous protein kinases present in pea nuclear extracts. This phosphorylation was abolished with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase and lambda phosphatase. It was also phosphorylated by exogenous casein kinase 2 (CK2), protein kinase C (PKC; from animal sources), and an endogenous pea protein, which was purified using a novel phorbol myristate acetate affinity chromatography method. All of these phosphorylations were inhibited by heparin (inhibitor of CK2) and calphostin (inhibitor of PKC), suggesting that pea topoisomerase I is a bona fide substrate for these kinases. Spermine and spermidine had no effect on the CK2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting that it is polyamine independent. Phospho-amino acid analysis showed that only serine residues were phosphorylated, which was further confirmed using antiphosphoserine antibody. The topoisomerase I activity increased after phosphorylation with exogenous CK2 and PKC. This study shows that these kinases may contribute to the physiological regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity and overall DNA metabolism in plants.

  11. Protein Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation in the Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Peter J

    2014-04-04

    The third domain of life, the Archaea (formerly Archaebacteria), is populated by a physiologically diverse set of microorganisms, many of which reside at the ecological extremes of our global environment. Although ostensibly prokaryotic in morphology, the Archaea share much closer evolutionary ties with the Eukarya than with the superficially more similar Bacteria. Initial genomic, proteomic, and biochemical analyses have revealed the presence of "eukaryotic" protein kinases and phosphatases and an intriguing set of serine-, threonine-, and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in the Archaea that may offer new insights into this important regulatory mechanism.

  12. Nuclear localization signal regulates porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein nuclear export through phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qiang; Hou, Shaohua; Chen, Qing; Jia, Hong; Xin, Ting; Jiang, Yitong; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Hongfei

    2018-02-15

    The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encodes the major Capsid (Cap) protein, which self-assembles into virus-like particle (VLP) of similar morphology to the PCV2 virion and accumulates in the nucleus through the N-terminal arginine-rich nuclear localization signal (NLS). In this study, PCV2 Cap protein and its derivates were expressed via the baculovirus expression system, and the cellular localization of the recombinant proteins were investigated using anti-Cap mAb by imaging flow cytometry. Analysis of subcellular localization of Cap protein and its variants demonstrated that NLS mediated Cap protein nuclear export as well as nuclear import, and a phosphorylation site (S17) was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the NLS domain to regulate Cap protein nuclear export. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating the PCV2 Cap protein nuclear export was also demonstrated in PK15 cells by fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the influence of Rep and Rep' protein on Cap protein subcellular localization was investigated in PK15 cells. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating Cap protein nuclear export provides more detailed knowledge of the PCV2 viral life cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical interaction between replication protein A (RPA) and MRN: involvement of RPA2 phosphorylation and the N-terminus of RPA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Greg G; Tillison, Kristin; Opiyo, Stephen A; Glanzer, Jason G; Horn, Jeffrey M; Patrick, Steve M

    2009-08-11

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein consisting of RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3 subunits that binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with high affinity. The response to replication stress requires the recruitment of RPA and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex. RPA bound to ssDNA stabilizes stalled replication forks by recruiting checkpoint proteins involved in fork stabilization. MRN can bind DNA structures encountered at stalled or collapsed replication forks, such as ssDNA-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) junctions or breaks, and promote the restart of DNA replication. Here, we demonstrate that RPA2 phosphorylation regulates the assembly of DNA damage-induced RPA and MRN foci. Using purified proteins, we observe a direct interaction between RPA with both NBS1 and MRE11. By utilizing RPA bound to ssDNA, we demonstrate that substituting RPA with phosphorylated RPA or a phosphomimetic weakens the interaction with the MRN complex. Also, the N-terminus of RPA1 is a critical component of the RPA-MRN protein-protein interaction. Deletion of the N-terminal oligonucleotide-oligosaccharide binding fold (OB-fold) of RPA1 abrogates interactions of RPA with MRN and individual proteins of the MRN complex. Further identification of residues critical for MRN binding in the N-terminus of RPA1 shows that substitution of Arg31 and Arg41 with alanines disrupts the RPA-MRN interaction and alters cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Thus, the N-terminus of RPA1 and phosphorylation of RPA2 regulate RPA-MRN interactions and are important in the response to DNA damage.

  14. Phosphorylation in vitro of eukaryotic initiation factors IF-E2 and IF-E3 by protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Benne, R; Hershey, J W

    1976-01-01

    Purified protein synthesis initiation factors IF-E2 and IF-E3 from rabbit reticulocytes were phosphorylated in vitro with protein kinases isolated from the same source. The highest levels of phosphorylation resulted from incubation of the factors with a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase...

  15. Identification of ATM Protein Kinase Phosphorylation Sites by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark E; Lavin, Martin F; Kozlov, Sergei V

    2017-01-01

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) protein kinase is a key regulator of cellular responses to DNA damage and oxidative stress. DNA damage triggers complex cascade of signaling events leading to numerous posttranslational modification on multitude of proteins. Understanding the regulation of ATM kinase is therefore critical not only for understanding the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia and potential treatment strategies, but essential for deciphering physiological responses of cells to stress. These responses play an important role in carcinogenesis, neurodegeneration, and aging. We focus here on the identification of DNA damage inducible ATM phosphorylation sites to understand the importance of autophosphorylation in the mechanism of ATM kinase activation. We demonstrate the utility of using immunoprecipitated ATM in quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow with stable isotope dimethyl labeling of ATM peptides for identification of phosphorylation sites.

  16. Combining metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC and selective mass spectrometry for robust identification of in vivo protein phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weckwerth Wolfram

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphorylation is accepted as a major regulatory pathway in plants. More than 1000 protein kinases are predicted in the Arabidopsis proteome, however, only a few studies look systematically for in vivo protein phosphorylation sites. Owing to the low stoichiometry and low abundance of phosphorylated proteins, phosphorylation site identification using mass spectrometry imposes difficulties. Moreover, the often observed poor quality of mass spectra derived from phosphopeptides results frequently in uncertain database hits. Thus, several lines of evidence have to be combined for a precise phosphorylation site identification strategy. Results Here, a strategy is presented that combines enrichment of phosphoproteins using a technique termed metaloxide affinity chromatography (MOAC and selective ion trap mass spectrometry. The complete approach involves (i enrichment of proteins with low phosphorylation stoichiometry out of complex mixtures using MOAC, (ii gel separation and detection of phosphorylation using specific fluorescence staining (confirmation of enrichment, (iii identification of phosphoprotein candidates out of the SDS-PAGE using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and (iv identification of phosphorylation sites of these enriched proteins using automatic detection of H3PO4 neutral loss peaks and data-dependent MS3-fragmentation of the corresponding MS2-fragment. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by the identification of phosphorylation sites in Arabidopsis thaliana seed proteins. Regulatory importance of the identified sites is indicated by conservation of the detected sites in gene families such as ribosomal proteins and sterol dehydrogenases. To demonstrate further the wide applicability of MOAC, phosphoproteins were enriched from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell cultures. Conclusion A novel phosphoprotein enrichment procedure MOAC was applied to seed proteins of A. thaliana and to

  17. Juvenile hormone prevents 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced metamorphosis by regulating the phosphorylation of a newly identified broad protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-09-19

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5'-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. The Serine/threonine kinase Stk33 exhibits autophosphorylation and phosphorylates the intermediate filament protein Vimentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrmann Harald

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colocalization of Stk33 with vimentin by double immunofluorescence in certain cells indicated that vimentin might be a target for phosphorylation by the novel kinase Stk33. We therefore tested in vitro the ability of Stk33 to phosphorylate recombinant full length vimentin and amino-terminal truncated versions thereof. In order to prove that Stk33 and vimentin are also in vivo associated proteins co-immunoprecipitation experiments were carried out. For testing the enzymatic activity of immunoprecipitated Stk33 we incubated precipitated Stk33 with recombinant vimentin proteins. To investigate whether Stk33 binds directly to vimentin, an in vitro co-sedimentation assay was performed. Results The results of the kinase assays demonstrate that Stk33 is able to specifically phosphorylate the non-α-helical amino-terminal domain of vimentin in vitro. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments employing cultured cell extracts indicate that Stk33 and vimentin are associated in vivo. Immunoprecipitated Stk33 has enzymatic activity as shown by successful phosphorylation of recombinant vimentin proteins. The results of the co-sedimentation assay suggest that vimentin binds directly to Stk33 and that no additional protein mediates the association. Conclusion We hypothesize that Stk33 is involved in the in vivo dynamics of the intermediate filament cytoskeleton by phosphorylating vimentin.

  19. A Proteomic Screen Identified Stress-Induced Chaperone Proteins as Targets of Akt Phosphorylation in Mesangial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Barati, Michelle T.; Rane, Madhavi J.; Klein, Jon B.; McLeish, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    The serine-threonine kinase Akt regulates mesangial cell apoptosis, proliferation, and hypertrophy. To define Akt signaling pathways in mesangial cells, we performed a functional proteomic screen for rat mesangial cell proteins phosphorylated by Akt. A group of chaperone proteins, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, Hsp90α, Hsp90β, Glucose-regulated protein (Grp) Grp78, Grp94, and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) were identified as potential Akt substrates by two techniques: (a) in vitro phosphoryl...

  20. Age- and brain region-dependent α-synuclein oligomerization is attributed to alterations in intrinsic enzymes regulating α-synuclein phosphorylation in aging monkey brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Yang, Weiwei; Li, Xin; Li, Xuran; Wang, Peng; Yue, Feng; Yang, Hui; Chan, Piu; Yu, Shun

    2016-02-23

    We previously reported that the levels of α-syn oligomers, which play pivotal pathogenic roles in age-related Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies, increase heterogeneously in the aging brain. Here, we show that exogenous α-syn incubated with brain extracts from older cynomolgus monkeys and in Lewy body pathology (LBP)-susceptible brain regions (striatum and hippocampus) forms higher amounts of phosphorylated and oligomeric α-syn than that in extracts from younger monkeys and LBP-insusceptible brain regions (cerebellum and occipital cortex). The increased α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization in the brain extracts from older monkeys and in LBP-susceptible brain regions were associated with higher levels of polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2), an enzyme promoting α-syn phosphorylation, and lower activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), an enzyme inhibiting α-syn phosphorylation, in these brain extracts. Further, the extent of the age- and brain-dependent increase in α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization was reduced by inhibition of PLK2 and activation of PP2A. Inversely, phosphorylated α-syn oligomers reduced the activity of PP2A and showed potent cytotoxicity. In addition, the activity of GCase and the levels of ceramide, a product of GCase shown to activate PP2A, were lower in brain extracts from older monkeys and in LBP-susceptible brain regions. Our results suggest a role for altered intrinsic metabolic enzymes in age- and brain region-dependent α-syn oligomerization in aging brains.

  1. Identification of phosphorylation sites in protein kinase A substrates using artificial neural networks and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerrild, M.; Stensballe, A.; Rasmussen, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays a key role in cell regulation and identification of phosphorylation sites is important for understanding their functional significance. Here, we present an artificial neural network algorithm: NetPhosK (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetPhosK/) that predicts protein...

  2. Identification of phosphorylation sites in protein kinase A substrates using artificial neural networks and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerrild, Majbrit; Stensballe, Allan; Rasmussen, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays a key role in cell regulation and identification of phosphorylation sites is important for understanding their functional significance. Here, we present an artificial neural network algorithm: NetPhosK (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetPhosK/) that predicts protein...

  3. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK1 regulates SHB phosphorylation and its binding with a range of signaling proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dergai O. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate an effect of the Focal adhesion kinase 1 (FAK1 expression on the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of an adaptor protein SHB and to find functional consequences of this posttranslational modification. Methods. Recombinant DNA construction, protein expression and purification, human cell transfection, western blot. Results. The expression of FAK1 induces the massive tyrosine phosphorylation of SHB adaptor and enhances its interaction in vitro with SH2 domains of a range of the signaling proteins such as PI3K, ABL, CRK and PLCG1. Additionally we have found that Epstein-Barr virus protein LMP2A can partially mimic the FAK1-mediated effect strongly elevating the efficiency and SHB interaction with the mentioned above proteins. While the expression of individual proteins elevated SHB phosphorylation level, the co-expression of LMP2A and FAK1 did not display a synergetic effect. Conclusions. FAK1 as well as LMP2A induce the SHB tyrosine phosphorylation and enhance its interaction with a set of the signaling proteins.

  4. Phosphorylation of protein synthesis initiation factor 2 (elF-2) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Initiation Factor 2 (elF-2) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is comprised of 3 subunits. The control of protein synthesis in mammalian cells have been shown to involve the phosphorylation of the small (alpha) subunit by a specific protein kinase. Phosphorylation results in an inhibition of protein synthesis. In order to determine whether or not an analogous system is operative in yeast, the phosphorylation state of the alpha subunit of elF-2 in Saccharomyces was determined during various growth and nongrowth conditions. Cells were radiolabelled with 32 P and 35 S, and the whole cell lysates were analyzed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis. These experiments revealed that the smallest subunit (alpha, M/sub r/ = 31,000) is a phosphoprotein in vivo under a variety of growth and nongrowth conditions. This is in direct contrast to the pattern exhibited in mammalian cells. The fact that the small subunit of elF-2 in yeast is phosphorylated under a variety of physiological conditions indicates that such a covalent modification is important for some aspects of elF-2 function. In order to investigate this problem further, a protein kinase that specifically labels the alpha subunit of elF-2 in vitro was isolated. The kinase is not autophosphorylating, utilizes ATP as a phosphate donor, phosphorylates an exogenous protein, casein, modifies serine residues in elF-2, is cyclic nucleotide-independent, and is strongly inhibited by heparin

  5. High-accuracy identification and bioinformatic analysis of in vivo protein phosphorylation sites in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Florian; de Godoy, Lyris M F; Cox, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism that affects many cell signaling processes. Using high-accuracy MS and stable isotope labeling in cell culture-labeling, we provide a global view of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoproteome, containing 3620 phosphorylation sites ma...

  6. Monitoring the native phosphorylation state of plasma membrane proteins from a single mouse cerebellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, J.; Ye, J. Y.; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal processing in the cerebellum involves the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of various plasma membrane proteins such as AMPA or NMDA receptors. Despite the importance of changes in phosphorylation pattern, no global phospho-proteome analysis has yet been performed. As plasma membrane...

  7. Proteotoxic stress induces phosphorylation of p62/SQSTM1 by ULK1 to regulate selective autophagic clearance of protein aggregates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Lim

    Full Text Available Disruption of proteostasis, or protein homeostasis, is often associated with aberrant accumulation of misfolded proteins or protein aggregates. Autophagy offers protection to cells by removing toxic protein aggregates and injured organelles in response to proteotoxic stress. However, the exact mechanism whereby autophagy recognizes and degrades misfolded or aggregated proteins has yet to be elucidated. Mounting evidence demonstrates the selectivity of autophagy, which is mediated through autophagy receptor proteins (e.g. p62/SQSTM1 linking autophagy cargos and autophagosomes. Here we report that proteotoxic stress imposed by the proteasome inhibition or expression of polyglutamine expanded huntingtin (polyQ-Htt induces p62 phosphorylation at its ubiquitin-association (UBA domain that regulates its binding to ubiquitinated proteins. We find that autophagy-related kinase ULK1 phosphorylates p62 at a novel phosphorylation site S409 in UBA domain. Interestingly, phosphorylation of p62 by ULK1 does not occur upon nutrient starvation, in spite of its role in canonical autophagy signaling. ULK1 also phosphorylates S405, while S409 phosphorylation critically regulates S405 phosphorylation. We find that S409 phosphorylation destabilizes the UBA dimer interface, and increases binding affinity of p62 to ubiquitin. Furthermore, lack of S409 phosphorylation causes accumulation of p62, aberrant localization of autophagy proteins and inhibition of the clearance of ubiquitinated proteins or polyQ-Htt. Therefore, our data provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of selective autophagy by ULK1 and p62 upon proteotoxic stress. Our study suggests a potential novel drug target in developing autophagy-based therapeutics for the treatment of proteinopathies including Huntington's disease.

  8. Phosphorylation of human aquaporin 2 (AQP2) allosterically controls its interaction with the lysosomal trafficking protein LIP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jennifer Virginia; Survery, Sabeen; Kreida, Stefan; Nesverova, Veronika; Ampah-Korsah, Henry; Gourdon, Maria; Deen, Peter M T; Törnroth-Horsefield, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    The interaction between the renal water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and the lysosomal trafficking regulator-interacting protein LIP5 targets AQP2 to multivesicular bodies and facilitates lysosomal degradation. This interaction is part of a process that controls AQP2 apical membrane abundance in a vasopressin-dependent manner, allowing for urine volume adjustment. Vasopressin regulates phosphorylation at four sites within the AQP2 C terminus (Ser 256 , Ser 261 , Ser 264 , and Thr 269 ), of which Ser 256 is crucial and sufficient for AQP2 translocation from storage vesicles to the apical membrane. However, whether AQP2 phosphorylation modulates AQP2-LIP5 complex affinity is unknown. Here we used far-Western blot analysis and microscale thermophoresis to show that the AQP2 binds LIP5 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We constructed five phospho-mimicking mutants (S256E, S261E, S264E, T269E, and S256E/T269E) and a C-terminal truncation mutant (ΔP242) that lacked all phosphorylation sites but retained a previously suggested LIP5-binding site. CD spectroscopy indicated that wild-type AQP2 and the phospho-mimicking mutants had similar overall structure but displayed differences in melting temperatures possibly arising from C-terminal conformational changes. Non-phosphorylated AQP2 bound LIP5 with the highest affinity, whereas AQP2-ΔP242 had 20-fold lower affinity as determined by microscale thermophoresis. AQP2-S256E, S261E, T269E, and S256E/T269E all had reduced affinity. This effect was most prominent for AQP2-S256E, which fits well with its role in apical membrane targeting. AQP2-S264E had affinity similar to non-phosphorylated AQP2, possibly indicating a role in exosome excretion. Our data suggest that AQP2 phosphorylation allosterically controls its interaction with LIP5, illustrating how altered affinities to interacting proteins form the basis for regulation of AQP2 trafficking by post-translational modifications. © 2017 by The American Society for

  9. Detection of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase in the developing spinal cord of the mouse embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Miura, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We detected physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in developing spinal cord. → We detected physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs by an improved method. → p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 were detected in the marginal layer and the dorsal horn. → p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 might play critical roles in the developing spinal cord. → Constructing phosphoprotein atlases will be possible if expanding this work. -- Abstract: Global understanding of the proteome is a major research topic. The comprehensive visualization of the distribution of proteins in vivo or the construction of in situ protein atlases may be a valuable strategy for proteomic researchers. Information about the distribution of various proteins under physiological and pathological conditions should be extremely valuable for the basic and clinical sciences. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays an essential role in intracellular signaling in organisms. This cascade also regulates biological processes involving development, differentiation, and proliferation. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are integral reactions in regulating the activity of MAPKs. Changes in the phosphorylation state of MAPKs are rapid and reversible; therefore, the localizations of physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in vivo are difficult to accurately detect. Furthermore, phosphorylated MAPKs are likely to change phosphorylated states through commonly used experimental manipulations. In the present study, as a step toward the construction of in situ phosphoprotein atlases, we attempted to detect physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in vivo in developing spinal cords of mice. We previously reported an improved immunohistochemical method for detecting unstable phosphorylated MAPKs. The distribution patterns of phosphorylated MAPKs in the spinal cords of embryonic mice from embryonic day 13 (E13) to E17 were observed with an improved immunohistochemical method. Phosphorylated extracellular signal

  10. Global protein phosphorylation dynamics during deoxynivalenol-induced ribotoxic stress response in the macrophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xiao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Whitten, Douglas A. [Research Technology Support Facility, Proteomics Core, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wu, Ming [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Chan, Christina [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wilkerson, Curtis G. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Research Technology Support Facility, Proteomics Core, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates food, is capable of activating mononuclear phagocytes of the innate immune system via a process termed the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). To encapture global signaling events mediating RSR, we quantified the early temporal (≤ 30 min) phosphoproteome changes that occurred in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage during exposure to a toxicologically relevant concentration of DON (250 ng/mL). Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis employing stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with titanium dioxide chromatography revealed that DON significantly upregulated or downregulated phosphorylation of 188 proteins at both known and yet-to-be functionally characterized phosphosites. DON-induced RSR is extremely complex and goes far beyond its prior known capacity to inhibit translation and activate MAPKs. Transcriptional regulation was the main target during early DON-induced RSR, covering over 20% of the altered phosphoproteins as indicated by Gene Ontology annotation and including transcription factors/cofactors and epigenetic modulators. Other biological processes impacted included cell cycle, RNA processing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, monocyte differentiation and cytoskeleton organization. Some of these processes could be mediated by signaling networks involving MAPK-, NFκB-, AKT- and AMPK-linked pathways. Fuzzy c-means clustering revealed that DON-regulated phosphosites could be discretely classified with regard to the kinetics of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The cellular response networks identified provide a template for further exploration of the mechanisms of trichothecenemycotoxins and other ribotoxins, and ultimately, could contribute to improved mechanism-based human health risk assessment. - Highlights: ► Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces immunotoxicity via ribotoxic stress response. ► SILAC phosphoproteomics using

  11. Global protein phosphorylation dynamics during deoxynivalenol-induced ribotoxic stress response in the macrophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Xiao; Whitten, Douglas A.; Wu, Ming; Chan, Christina; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Pestka, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates food, is capable of activating mononuclear phagocytes of the innate immune system via a process termed the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). To encapture global signaling events mediating RSR, we quantified the early temporal (≤ 30 min) phosphoproteome changes that occurred in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage during exposure to a toxicologically relevant concentration of DON (250 ng/mL). Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis employing stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with titanium dioxide chromatography revealed that DON significantly upregulated or downregulated phosphorylation of 188 proteins at both known and yet-to-be functionally characterized phosphosites. DON-induced RSR is extremely complex and goes far beyond its prior known capacity to inhibit translation and activate MAPKs. Transcriptional regulation was the main target during early DON-induced RSR, covering over 20% of the altered phosphoproteins as indicated by Gene Ontology annotation and including transcription factors/cofactors and epigenetic modulators. Other biological processes impacted included cell cycle, RNA processing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, monocyte differentiation and cytoskeleton organization. Some of these processes could be mediated by signaling networks involving MAPK-, NFκB-, AKT- and AMPK-linked pathways. Fuzzy c-means clustering revealed that DON-regulated phosphosites could be discretely classified with regard to the kinetics of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The cellular response networks identified provide a template for further exploration of the mechanisms of trichothecenemycotoxins and other ribotoxins, and ultimately, could contribute to improved mechanism-based human health risk assessment. - Highlights: ► Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces immunotoxicity via ribotoxic stress response. ► SILAC phosphoproteomics using

  12. Site-Specific Phosphorylation of PSD-95 PDZ Domains Reveals Fine-Tuned Regulation of Protein-Protein Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren W; Albertsen, Louise; Moran, Griffin E

    2017-01-01

    The postsynaptic density protein of 95 kDa (PSD-95) is a key scaffolding protein that controls signaling at synapses in the brain through interactions of its PDZ domains with the C-termini of receptors, ion channels, and enzymes. PSD-95 is highly regulated by phosphorylation. To explore the effec...

  13. Identification and functional analysis of novel phosphorylation sites in the RNA surveillance protein Upf1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasalde, Clarivel; Rivera, Andrea V; León, Alfredo J; González-Feliciano, José A; Estrella, Luis A; Rodríguez-Cruz, Eva N; Correa, María E; Cajigas, Iván J; Bracho, Dina P; Vega, Irving E; Wilkinson, Miles F; González, Carlos I

    2014-02-01

    One third of inherited genetic diseases are caused by mRNAs harboring premature termination codons as a result of nonsense mutations. These aberrant mRNAs are degraded by the Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay (NMD) pathway. A central component of the NMD pathway is Upf1, an RNA-dependent ATPase and helicase. Upf1 is a known phosphorylated protein, but only portions of this large protein have been examined for phosphorylation sites and the functional relevance of its phosphorylation has not been elucidated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using tandem mass spectrometry analyses, we report the identification of 11 putative phosphorylated sites in S. cerevisiae Upf1. Five of these phosphorylated residues are located within the ATPase and helicase domains and are conserved in higher eukaryotes, suggesting a biological significance for their phosphorylation. Indeed, functional analysis demonstrated that a small carboxy-terminal motif harboring at least three phosphorylated amino acids is important for three Upf1 functions: ATPase activity, NMD activity and the ability to promote translation termination efficiency. We provide evidence that two tyrosines within this phospho-motif (Y-738 and Y-742) act redundantly to promote ATP hydrolysis, NMD efficiency and translation termination fidelity.

  14. Phosphorylation of myelin basic proteins and its relevance to myelin biogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Age-related differences in the in vivo incorporation of (32-P) into mouse myelin basic proteins (MBPs) of the central nervous system were observed. The resulting specific radioactivity (S.A.) of the MBPs appeared to be related to the S.A. of the acid-soluble pool of phosphates of myelin. In development, MBPs were phosphorylated in vivo prior to the onset of myelination in the brain, indicating that MBPs are phosphorylated prior to their deposition in the myelin sheath. The incorporation of (32-P) into MBPs and the turnover rates of MBP phosphates were studied in vivo in developmentally-related myelin compartments. The results suggest that there are two separate events in MBP phosphorylation and that the turnover rates of the MBP phosphates derived from these two events are different. A model for MBP phosphorylation, that could explain in these observations, is postulated and discussed in the light of existing information.

  15. Effects of caffeine on protein phosphorylation and cell cycle progression in X-irradiated two-cell mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Th.; Streffer, C.

    1992-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of the caffeine-induced uncoupling of mitosis and the cellular reactions to DNA-damaging agents, the authors studied the effects of caffeine treatment on cell cycle progression and protein phosphorylation in two-cell mouse embryos after X-irradiation. Caffeine alone had no effect on timing of and changes in phosphorylation associated with the embryonic cell cycle. In combination with X-rays, caffeine was able to override the radiation induced G 2 block and restored normal timing of these phosphorylation changes after X-irradiation. New additional changes in protein phosphorylation appeared after the combined treatment. Isobutyl-methylxanthine (IBMX), a substance chemically related to caffeine but a more specific inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase that breaks down cyclic AMP, reduced radiation induced G 2 block from 4 to 5 h to about 1 h and restored the cell cycle associated changes in protein phosphorylation. (author)

  16. Effects of caffeine on protein phosphorylation and cell cycle progression in X-irradiated two-cell mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Th. (AFRC Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics Research, Babraham (United Kingdom)); Streffer, C. (Essen Univ (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiolgie)

    1992-08-01

    To understand the mechanism of the caffeine-induced uncoupling of mitosis and the cellular reactions to DNA-damaging agents, the authors studied the effects of caffeine treatment on cell cycle progression and protein phosphorylation in two-cell mouse embryos after X-irradiation. Caffeine alone had no effect on timing of and changes in phosphorylation associated with the embryonic cell cycle. In combination with X-rays, caffeine was able to override the radiation induced G[sub 2] block and restored normal timing of these phosphorylation changes after X-irradiation. New additional changes in protein phosphorylation appeared after the combined treatment. Isobutyl-methylxanthine (IBMX), a substance chemically related to caffeine but a more specific inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase that breaks down cyclic AMP, reduced radiation induced G[sub 2] block from 4 to 5 h to about 1 h and restored the cell cycle associated changes in protein phosphorylation. (author).

  17. Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein/cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyung Uk; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hyo-Sil; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-06-12

    During mitosis, establishment of structurally and functionally sound bipolar spindles is necessary for maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose level is frequently up-regulated in various malignancies. Previous reports have suggested that TMAP is a potential regulator of mitotic spindle assembly and dynamics and that it is required for chromosome segregation to occur properly. So far, there have been no reports on how its mitosis-related functions are regulated. Here, we report that TMAP is hyper-phosphorylated at the C terminus specifically during mitosis. At least four different residues (Thr-578, Thr-596, Thr-622, and Ser-627) were responsible for the mitosis-specific phosphorylation of TMAP. Among these, Thr-622 was specifically phosphorylated by Cdk1-cyclin B1 both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, compared with the wild type, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant form of TMAP, in which Thr-622 had been replaced with an alanine (T622A), induced a significant increase in the frequency of metaphase cells with abnormal bipolar spindles, which often displayed disorganized, asymmetrical, or narrow and elongated morphologies. Formation of these abnormal bipolar spindles subsequently resulted in misalignment of metaphase chromosomes and ultimately caused a delay in the entry into anaphase. Moreover, such defects resulting from the T622A mutation were associated with a decrease in the rate of protein turnover at spindle microtubules. These findings suggest that Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of TMAP is important for and contributes to proper regulation of microtubule dynamics and establishment of functional bipolar spindles during mitosis.

  18. Cdk1-Cyclin B1-mediated Phosphorylation of Tumor-associated Microtubule-associated Protein/Cytoskeleton-associated Protein 2 in Mitosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uk Hong, Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hyo-Sil; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae

    2009-01-01

    During mitosis, establishment of structurally and functionally sound bipolar spindles is necessary for maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose level is frequently up-regulated in various malignancies. Previous reports have suggested that TMAP is a potential regulator of mitotic spindle assembly and dynamics and that it is required for chromosome segregation to occur properly. So far, there have been no reports on how its mitosis-related functions are regulated. Here, we report that TMAP is hyper-phosphorylated at the C terminus specifically during mitosis. At least four different residues (Thr-578, Thr-596, Thr-622, and Ser-627) were responsible for the mitosis-specific phosphorylation of TMAP. Among these, Thr-622 was specifically phosphorylated by Cdk1-cyclin B1 both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, compared with the wild type, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant form of TMAP, in which Thr-622 had been replaced with an alanine (T622A), induced a significant increase in the frequency of metaphase cells with abnormal bipolar spindles, which often displayed disorganized, asymmetrical, or narrow and elongated morphologies. Formation of these abnormal bipolar spindles subsequently resulted in misalignment of metaphase chromosomes and ultimately caused a delay in the entry into anaphase. Moreover, such defects resulting from the T622A mutation were associated with a decrease in the rate of protein turnover at spindle microtubules. These findings suggest that Cdk1-cyclin B1-mediated phosphorylation of TMAP is important for and contributes to proper regulation of microtubule dynamics and establishment of functional bipolar spindles during mitosis. PMID:19369249

  19. Raf kinase inhibitory protein function is regulated via a flexible pocket and novel phosphorylation-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Alexey E; Clark, Matthew C; McElheny, Dan; Heil, Gary; Hong, Jia; Liu, Xuedong; Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Koide, Shohei; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-03-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP/PEBP1), a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein family that possesses a conserved ligand-binding pocket, negatively regulates the mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Mutation of a conserved site (P74L) within the pocket leads to a loss or switch in the function of yeast or plant RKIP homologues. However, the mechanism by which the pocket influences RKIP function is unknown. Here we show that the pocket integrates two regulatory signals, phosphorylation and ligand binding, to control RKIP inhibition of Raf-1. RKIP association with Raf-1 is prevented by RKIP phosphorylation at S153. The P74L mutation increases kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation, enhancing Raf-1/MAPK signaling. Conversely, ligand binding to the RKIP pocket inhibits kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation by a noncompetitive mechanism. Additionally, ligand binding blocks RKIP association with Raf-1. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies reveal that the pocket is highly dynamic, rationalizing its capacity to interact with distinct partners and be involved in allosteric regulation. Our results show that RKIP uses a flexible pocket to integrate ligand binding- and phosphorylation-dependent interactions and to modulate the MAPK signaling pathway. This mechanism is an example of an emerging theme involving the regulation of signaling proteins and their interaction with effectors at the level of protein dynamics.

  20. PAK6 Phosphorylates 14-3-3γ to Regulate Steady State Phosphorylation of LRRK2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Civiero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD and, as such, LRRK2 is considered a promising therapeutic target for age-related neurodegeneration. Although the cellular functions of LRRK2 in health and disease are incompletely understood, robust evidence indicates that PD-associated mutations alter LRRK2 kinase and GTPase activities with consequent deregulation of the downstream signaling pathways. We have previously demonstrated that one LRRK2 binding partner is P21 (RAC1 Activated Kinase 6 (PAK6. Here, we interrogate the PAK6 interactome and find that PAK6 binds a subset of 14-3-3 proteins in a kinase dependent manner. Furthermore, PAK6 efficiently phosphorylates 14-3-3γ at Ser59 and this phosphorylation serves as a switch to dissociate the chaperone from client proteins including LRRK2, a well-established 14-3-3 binding partner. We found that 14-3-3γ phosphorylated by PAK6 is no longer competent to bind LRRK2 at phospho-Ser935, causing LRRK2 dephosphorylation. To address whether these interactions are relevant in a neuronal context, we demonstrate that a constitutively active form of PAK6 rescues the G2019S LRRK2-associated neurite shortening through phosphorylation of 14-3-3γ. Our results identify PAK6 as the kinase for 14-3-3γ and reveal a novel regulatory mechanism of 14-3-3/LRRK2 complex in the brain.

  1. Protein Kinase B/Akt Binds and Phosphorylates PED/PEA-15, Stabilizing Its Antiapoptotic Action

    OpenAIRE

    Trencia, Alessandra; Perfetti, Anna; Cassese, Angela; Vigliotta, Giovanni; Miele, Claudia; Oriente, Francesco; Santopietro, Stefania; Giacco, Ferdinando; Condorelli, Gerolama; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    The antiapoptotic protein PED/PEA-15 features an Akt phosphorylation motif upstream from Ser116. In vitro, recombinant PED/PEA-15 was phosphorylated by Akt with a stoichiometry close to 1. Based on Western blotting with specific phospho-Ser116 PED/PEA-15 antibodies, Akt phosphorylation of PED/PEA-15 occurred mainly at Ser116. In addition, a mutant of PED/PEA-15 featuring the substitution of Ser116→Gly (PEDS116→G) showed 10-fold-decreased phosphorylation by Akt. In intact 293 cells, Akt also i...

  2. Lipotoxicity induces hepatic protein inclusions through TBK1-mediated p62/SQSTM1 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chun-Seok; Park, Hwan-Woo; Ho, Allison; Semple, Ian A; Kim, Boyoung; Jang, Insook; Park, Haeli; Reilly, Shannon; Saltiel, Alan R; Lee, Jun Hee

    2017-12-18

    Obesity commonly leads to hepatic steatosis, which often provokes lipotoxic injuries to hepatocytes that cause non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH in turn is associated with the accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates that are composed of ubiquitinated proteins and ubiquitin adaptor p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1). The formation of p62 inclusions in hepatocytes is the critical marker that distinguishes simple fatty liver from NASH and predicts a poor prognostic outcome for subsequent liver carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism by which lipotoxicity induces protein aggregation is currently unknown. Here we show that upon saturated fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity, Tank-binding protein kinase 1 (TBK1) is activated and phosphorylates p62. The TBK1-mediated p62 phosphorylation is important for lipotoxicity-induced aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins and the formation of large protein inclusions in hepatocytes. In addition, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING), upstream regulators of TBK1, are involved in the lipotoxic activation of TBK1 and subsequent p62 phosphorylation in hepatocytes. Furthermore, TBK1 inhibition prevented formation of the ubiquitin-p62 aggregates, not only in cultured hepatocytes, but also in mouse models of obesity and NASH. These results suggest that lipotoxic activation of TBK1 and subsequent p62 phosphorylation are critical steps in the NASH pathology of protein inclusion accumulation in hepatocytes. This mechanism can provide an explanation for how hypernutrition and obesity promote the development of severe liver pathologies, such as steatohepatitis and liver cancer, by facilitating the formation of p62 inclusions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Phosphorylated α-Synuclein-Copper Complex Formation in the Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Castillo-Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease is the second most important neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. It is characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies, which are mainly composed of α-synuclein and ubiquitin-bound proteins. Both the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS and autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALS are altered in Parkinson’s disease, leading to aggregation of proteins, particularly α-synuclein. Interestingly, it has been observed that copper promotes the protein aggregation process. Additionally, phosphorylation of α-synuclein along with copper also affects the protein aggregation process. The interrelation among α-synuclein phosphorylation and its capability to interact with copper, with the subsequent disruption of the protein degradation systems in the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson’s disease, will be analyzed in detail in this review.

  4. Development of a phosphorylated Momordica charantia protein system for inhibiting susceptible dose-dependent C. albicans to available antimycotics: An allosteric regulation of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuanbiao; Song, Li; Zhu, Chenchen; Wang, Qian; Guo, Tianyan; Yan, Yanhua; Li, Qingshan

    2017-11-15

    A regulatory Momordica charantia protein system was constructed allosterically by in vitro protein phosphorylation, in an attempt to evaluate antimycological pluripotency against dose-dependent susceptibilities in C. albicans. Fungal strain lineages susceptible to ketoconazole, econazole, miconazole, 5-flucytosine, nystatin and amphotericin B were prepared in laboratory, followed by identification via antifungal susceptibility testing. Protein phosphorylation was carried out in reactions with 5'-adenylic, guanidylic, cytidylic and uridylic acids and cyclic adenosine triphosphate, through catalysis of cyclin-dependent kinase 1, protein kinase A and protein kinase C respectively. Biochemical analysis of enzymatic reactions indicated the apparent Michaelis-Menten constants and maximal velocity values of 16.57-91.97mM and 55.56-208.33μM·min -1 , together with an approximate 1:1 reactant stoichiometric ratio. Three major protein phosphorylation sites were theoretically predicted at Thr255, Thr102 and Thr24 by a KinasePhos tool. Additionally, circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that upon phosphorylation, protein folding structures were decreased in random coil, β6-sheet and α1-helix partial regions. McFarland equivalence standard testing yielded the concentration-dependent inhibition patterns, while fungus was grown in Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.16-0.51μM (at 50% response) were obtained for free protein and phosphorylated counterparts. With respect to the 3-cycling susceptibility testing regimen, individuals of total protein forms were administrated in-turn at 0.14μM/cycle. Relative inhibition ratios were retained to 66.13-81.04% of initial ones regarding the ketoconazole-susceptible C. albicans growth. An inhibitory protein system, with an advantage of decreasing antifungal susceptibilities to diverse antimycotics, was proposed because of regulatory pluripotency whereas little contribution to susceptibility in

  5. Phosphorylation of G Protein-Coupled Receptors: From the Barcode Hypothesis to the Flute Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Daolai; Liu, Zhixin; Lin, Amy; Liu, Chuan; Xiao, Peng; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2017-09-01

    Seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are often phosphorylated at the C terminus and on intracellular loops in response to various extracellular stimuli. Phosphorylation of GPCRs by GPCR kinases and certain other kinases can promote the recruitment of arrestin molecules. The arrestins critically regulate GPCR functions not only by mediating receptor desensitization and internalization, but also by redirecting signaling to G protein-independent pathways via interactions with numerous downstream effector molecules. Accumulating evidence over the past decade has given rise to the phospho-barcode hypothesis, which states that ligand-specific phosphorylation patterns of a receptor direct its distinct functional outcomes. Our recent work using unnatural amino acid incorporation and fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 19 F-NMR) spectroscopy led to the flute model, which provides preliminary insight into the receptor phospho-coding mechanism, by which receptor phosphorylation patterns are recognized by an array of phosphate-binding pockets on arrestin and are translated into distinct conformations. These selective conformations are recognized by various effector molecules downstream of arrestin. The phospho-barcoding mechanism enables arrestin to recognize a wide range of phosphorylation patterns of GPCRs, contributing to their diverse functions. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  6. Fasting and Systemic Insulin Signaling Regulate Phosphorylation of Brain Proteins That Modulate Cell Morphology and Link to Neurological Disorders*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Quan, Chao; Toth, Rachel; Campbell, David G.; MacKintosh, Carol; Wang, Hong Yu; Chen, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with cognitive decline, but the molecular reasons are unknown. We found that fasting and peripheral insulin promote phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively, of specific residues on brain proteins including cytoskeletal regulators such as slit-robo GTPase-activating protein 3 (srGAP3) and microtubule affinity-regulating protein kinases (MARKs), in which deficiency or dysregulation is linked to neurological disorders. Fasting activates protein kinase A (PKA) but not PKB/Akt signaling in the brain, and PKA can phosphorylate the purified srGAP3. The phosphorylation of srGAP3 and MARKs were increased when PKA signaling was activated in primary neurons. Knockdown of PKA decreased the phosphorylation of srGAP3. Furthermore, WAVE1, a protein kinase A-anchoring protein, formed a complex with srGAP3 and PKA in the brain of fasted mice to facilitate the phosphorylation of srGAP3 by PKA. Although brain cells have insulin receptors, our findings are inconsistent with the down-regulation of phosphorylation of target proteins being mediated by insulin signaling within the brain. Rather, our findings infer that systemic insulin, through a yet unknown mechanism, inhibits PKA or protein kinase(s) with similar specificity and/or activates an unknown phosphatase in the brain. Ser858 of srGAP3 was identified as a key regulatory residue in which phosphorylation by PKA enhanced the GAP activity of srGAP3 toward its substrate, Rac1, in cells, thereby inhibiting the action of this GTPase in cytoskeletal regulation. Our findings reveal novel mechanisms linking peripheral insulin sensitivity with cytoskeletal remodeling in neurons, which may help to explain the association of diabetes with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease. PMID:26499801

  7. The Contribution of Serine 194 Phosphorylation to Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Function

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Goro; Zubair, Mohamad; Ishii, Tomohiro; Mitsui, Toshikatsu; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Auchus, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates the delivery of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme catalyzes the initial step of steroid hormone biosynthesis. StAR was initially identified in adrenocortical cells as a phosphoprotein, the expression and phosphorylation of which were stimulated by corticotropin. A number of in vitro studies have implicated cAMP-dependent phosphorylation at serine 194 (S194, S195 in hum...

  8. Distinct Phosphorylation Clusters Determine the Signaling Outcome of Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4/G Protein-Coupled Receptor 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prihandoko, Rudi; Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Hudson, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    of these phosphoacceptor sites to alanine completely prevented phosphorylation of mFFA4 but did not limit receptor coupling to extracellular signal regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation. Rather, an inhibitor of Gq/11proteins completely prevented receptor signaling to ERK1/2. By contrast, the recruitment...... activation. These unique observations define differential effects on signaling mediated by phosphorylation at distinct locations. This hallmark feature supports the possibility that the signaling outcome of mFFA4 activation can be determined by the pattern of phosphorylation (phosphorylation barcode...

  9. Synthesis and phosphorylation of histones and nonhistone proteins in the cycloheximide-synchronized hepatocytes after the effect of radiation and serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslamova, L.I.; Blyum, Ya.B.; Tsudzevich, B.A.; Kucherenko, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorylation and synthesis of histones and nonhistone proteins were studied after the inhibition of translation by sublethal cycloheximide doses. Activation of the chromatin protein phosphorylation was noted: (1) at the stage of recovery and stimulation of the protein synthesis (18-24 h), and (2) at the stage of activation of the replicative DNA synthesis (30-60 h). Phosphorylation and synthesis of the chromatin poteins depended upon the individual or combined effect of X-radiation and serotonin. The possible role of the chromatin protein phosphorylation in the response of the nuclear apparatus to the effect of radiation and serotonin the latter being used as a radioprotective agent is discussed

  10. A mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach for identification of serine/threonine-phosphorylated proteins by enrichment with phospho-specific antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Mads; Kristiansen, Troels Zakarias; Stensballe, Allan

    2002-01-01

    /threonine-phosphorylated proteins including drebrin 1, alpha-actinin 4, and filamin-1. We also identified a protein, poly(A)-binding protein 2, which was previously not known to be phosphorylated, in addition to a novel protein without any obvious domains that we designate as Frigg. Frigg is widely expressed and was demonstrated...

  11. Phosphorylation of the Na+,K+-ATPase and the H+,K+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne; Morth, Jens Preben; Jensen, Jan Egebjerg

    2010-01-01

    pumps are very homologous, and at least one of the phosphorylation sites is conserved, namely a cAMP activated protein kinase (PKA) site, which is important for regulating pumping activity, either by changing the cellular distribution of the ATPases or by directly altering the kinetic properties...

  12. The effects of threonine phosphorylation on the stability and dynamics of the central molecular switch region of 18.5-kDa myelin basic protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenrick A Vassall

    Full Text Available The classic isoforms of myelin basic protein (MBP are essential for the formation and maintenance of myelin in the central nervous system of higher vertebrates. The protein is involved in all facets of the development, compaction, and stabilization of the multilamellar myelin sheath, and also interacts with cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. The predominant 18.5-kDa isoform of MBP is an intrinsically-disordered protein that is a candidate auto-antigen in the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. A highly-conserved central segment within classic MBP consists of a proline-rich region (murine 18.5-kDa sequence -T92-P93-R94-T95-P96-P97-P98-S99- containing a putative SH3-ligand, adjacent to a region that forms an amphipathic α-helix (P82-I90 upon interaction with membranes, or under membrane-mimetic conditions. The T92 and T95 residues within the proline-rich region can be post-translationally modified through phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases. Here, we have investigated the structure of the α-helical and proline-rich regions in dilute aqueous buffer, and have evaluated the effects of phosphorylation at T92 and T95 on the stability and dynamics of the α-helical region, by utilizing four 36-residue peptides (S72-S107 with differing phosphorylation status. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that both the α-helical as well as the proline-rich regions are disordered in aqueous buffer, whereas they are both structured in a lipid environment (cf., Ahmed et al., Biochemistry 51, 7475-9487, 2012. Thermodynamic analysis of trifluoroethanol-titration curves monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that phosphorylation, especially at residue T92, impedes formation of the amphipathic α-helix. This conclusion is supported by molecular dynamics simulations, which further illustrate that phosphorylation reduces the folding reversibility of the α-helix upon temperature perturbation and affect the

  13. Protein phosphatases active on acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylated by casein kinase I, casein kinase II and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witters, L.A.; Bacon, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    The protein phosphatases in rat liver cytosol, active on rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylated by casein kinase I, casein kinase II and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, have been partially purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The major phosphatase activities against all three substrates copurify through fractionation and appear to be identical to protein phosphatases 2A1 and 2A2. No unique protein phosphatase active on 32 P-ACC phosphorylated by the casein kinases was identified

  14. Phosphorylation of Staphylococcus aureus Protein-Tyrosine Kinase Affects the Function of Glucokinase and Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, Dudipeta; Kumar, Pasupuleti Santhosh; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Swarupa, Vimjam; Yeswanth, Sthanikam; Srikanth, Lokanathan; Sunitha, Manne Mudhu; Choudhary, Abhijith; Sarma, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna

    2017-03-01

    When Staphylococcus aureus is grown in the presence of high concentration of external glucose, this sugar is phosphorylated by glucokinase (glkA) to form glucose-6-phosphate. This product subsequently enters into anabolic phase, which favors biofilm formation. The presence of ROK (repressor protein, open reading frame, sugar kinase) motif, phosphate-1 and -2 sites, and tyrosine kinase sites in glkA of S. aureus indicates that phosphorylation must regulate the glkA activity. The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of phosphorylation on the function of S. aureus glkA and biofilm formation. Pure glkA and protein-tyrosine kinase (BYK) of S. aureus ATCC 12600 were obtained by fractionating the cytosolic fractions of glkA1 and BYK-1 expressing recombinant clones through nickel metal chelate column. The pure glkA was used as a substrate for BYK and the phosphorylation of glkA was confirmed by treating with reagent A and resolving in SDS-PAGE, as well as staining with reagent A. The kinetic parameters of glkA and phosphorylated glkA were determined spectrophotometrically, and in silico tools were used for validation. S. aureus was grown in brain heart infusion broth, which was supplemented with glucose, and then biofilm units were calculated. Fourfold elevated glkA activity was observed upon the phosphorylation by BYK. Protein-protein docking analysis revealed that glkA structure docked close to the adenosine triphosphate-binding site of BYK structure corroborating the kinetic results. Further, S. aureus grown in the presence of elevated glucose concentration exhibited an increase in the rate of biofilm formation. The elevated function of glkA is an essential requirement for increased biofilm units in S. aureus, a key pathogenic factor that helps its survival and spread the infection.

  15. Synaptic protein changes after a chronic period of sensorimotor perturbation in adult rats: a potential role of phosphorylation/O-GlcNAcylation interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourneau, Julie; Canu, Marie-Hélène; Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Bastide, Bruno; Dupont, Erwan

    2018-05-28

    In human, a chronic sensorimotor perturbation (SMP) through prolonged body immobilization alters motor task performance through a combination of peripheral and central factors. Studies performed on a rat model of SMP have shown biomolecular changes and a reorganization of sensorimotor cortex through events such as morphological modifications of dendritic spines (number, length, functionality). However, underlying mechanisms are still unclear. It is well known that phosphorylation regulates a wide field of synaptic activity leading to neuroplasticity. Another post-translational modification that interplays with phosphorylation is O-GlcNAcylation. This atypical glycosylation, reversible and dynamic, is involved in essential cellular and physiological processes such as synaptic activity, neuronal morphogenesis, learning and memory. We examined potential roles of phosphorylation/O-GlcNAcylation interplay in synaptic plasticity within rat sensorimotor cortex after a SMP period. For this purpose, sensorimotor cortex synaptosomes were separated by sucrose gradient, in order to isolate a subcellular compartment enriched in proteins involved in synaptic functions. A period of SMP induced plastic changes at the pre- and postsynaptic levels, characterized by a reduction of phosphorylation (synapsin1, AMPAR GluA2) and expression (synaptophysin, PSD-95, AMPAR GluA2) of synaptic proteins, as well as a decrease in MAPK/ERK42 activation. Expression levels of OGT/OGA enzymes was unchanged but we observed a specific reduction of synapsin1 O-GlcNAcylation in sensorimotor cortex synaptosomes. The synergistic regulation of synapsin1 phosphorylation/O-GlcNAcylation could affect presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Associated with other pre- and postsynaptic changes, synaptic efficacy could be impaired in somatosensory cortex of SMP rat. Thus, synapsin1 O-GlcNAcylation/phosphorylation interplay also appears to be involved in this synaptic plasticity by finely regulating neural activity

  16. Phosphorylation Regulates the Bound Structure of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein: The p53-TAZ2 Case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Esteban Ithuralde

    Full Text Available Disordered regions and Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs are involved in critical cellular processes and may acquire a stable three-dimensional structure only upon binding to their partners. IDPs may follow a folding-after-binding process, known as induced folding, or a folding-before-binding process, known as conformational selection. The transcription factor p53 is involved in the regulation of cellular events that arise upon stress or DNA damage. The p53 domain structure is composed of an N-terminal transactivation domain (p53TAD, a DNA Binding Domain and a tetramerization domain. The activity of TAD is tightly regulated by interactions with cofactors, inhibitors and phosphorylation. To initiate transcription, p53TAD binds to the TAZ2 domain of CBP, a co-transcription factor, and undergoes a folding and binding process, as revealed by the recent NMR structure of the complex. The activity of p53 is regulated by phosphorylation at multiple sites on the TAD domain and recent studies have shown that modifications at three residues affect the binding towards TAZ2. However, we still do not know how these phosphorylations affect the structure of the bound state and, therefore, how they regulate the p53 function. In this work, we have used computational simulations to understand how phosphorylation affects the structure of the p53TAD:TAZ2 complex and regulates the recognition mechanism. Phosphorylation has been proposed to enhance binding by direct interaction with the folded protein or by changing the unbound conformation of IDPs, for example by pre-folding the protein favoring the recognition mechanism. Here, we show an interesting turn in the p53 case: phosphorylation mainly affects the bound structure of p53TAD, highlighting the complexity of IDP protein-protein interactions. Our results are in agreement with previous experimental studies, allowing a clear picture of how p53 is regulated by phosphorylation and giving new insights into how

  17. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein Function Is Regulated via a Flexible Pocket and Novel Phosphorylation-Dependent Mechanism▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Alexey E.; Clark, Matthew C.; McElheny, Dan; Heil, Gary; Hong, Jia; Liu, Xuedong; Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Koide, Shohei; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-01-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP/PEBP1), a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein family that possesses a conserved ligand-binding pocket, negatively regulates the mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Mutation of a conserved site (P74L) within the pocket leads to a loss or switch in the function of yeast or plant RKIP homologues. However, the mechanism by which the pocket influences RKIP function is unknown. Here we show that the pocket integrates two regulatory signals, phosphorylation and ligand binding, to control RKIP inhibition of Raf-1. RKIP association with Raf-1 is prevented by RKIP phosphorylation at S153. The P74L mutation increases kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation, enhancing Raf-1/MAPK signaling. Conversely, ligand binding to the RKIP pocket inhibits kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation by a noncompetitive mechanism. Additionally, ligand binding blocks RKIP association with Raf-1. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies reveal that the pocket is highly dynamic, rationalizing its capacity to interact with distinct partners and be involved in allosteric regulation. Our results show that RKIP uses a flexible pocket to integrate ligand binding- and phosphorylation-dependent interactions and to modulate the MAPK signaling pathway. This mechanism is an example of an emerging theme involving the regulation of signaling proteins and their interaction with effectors at the level of protein dynamics. PMID:19103740

  18. Expression of Human CTP Synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveals Phosphorylation by Protein Kinase A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gil-Soo; Sreenivas, Avula; Choi, Mal-Gi; Chang, Yu-Fang; Martin, Shelley S.; Baldwin, Enoch P.; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    CTP synthetase (EC 6.3.4.2, UTP: ammonia ligase (ADP-forming)) is an essential enzyme in all organisms; it generates the CTP required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and membrane phospholipids. In this work we showed that the human CTP synthetase genes, CTPS1 and CTPS2, were functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and complemented the lethal phenotype of the ura7Δ ura8Δ mutant lacking CTP synthetase activity. The expression of the CTPS1-and CTPS2-encoded human CTP synthetase enzymes in the ura7Δ ura8Δ mutant was shown by immunoblot analysis of CTP synthetase proteins, the measurement of CTP synthetase activity, and the synthesis of CTP in vivo. Phosphoamino acid and phosphopeptide mapping analyses of human CTP synthetase 1 isolated from 32Pi-labeled cells revealed that the enzyme was phosphorylated on multiple serine residues in vivo. Activation of protein kinase A activity in yeast resulted in transient increases (2-fold) in the phosphorylation of human CTP synthetase 1 and the cellular level of CTP. Human CTP synthetase 1 was also phosphorylated by mammalian protein kinase A in vitro. Using human CTP synthetase 1 purified from Escherichia coli as a substrate, protein kinase A activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of CTP synthetase1 and ATP. These studies showed that S. cerevisiae was useful for the analysis of human CTP synthetase phosphorylation. PMID:16179339

  19. Phosphorylation of sites 3 and 2 in rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase by a multifunctional protein kinase (ATP-citrate lyase kinase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheorain, V.S.; Ramakrishna, S.; Benjamin, W.B.; Soderling, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    A multifunctional protein kinase, purified from rat liver as ATP-citrate lyase kinase, has been identified as a glycogen synthase kinase. This kinase catalyzed incorporation of up to 1.5 mol of and]2number 2 PO 4 /mol of synthase subunit associated with a decrease in the glycogen synthase activity ratio from 0.85 to a value of 0.15. Approximately 65-70% of the 34 PO 4 was incorporated into site 3 and 30-35% into site 2 as determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. This multifunctional kinase was distinguished from glycogen synthase kinase-3 on the basis of nucleotide and protein substrate specificities. Since the phosphate contents in glycogen synthase of sites 3 and 2 are altered in diabetes and by insulin administration, the possible involvement of the multifunctional kinase was explored. Glycogen synthase purified from diabetic rabbits was phosphorylated in vitro by this multifunctional kinase at only 10% of the rate compared to synthase purified from control rabbits. Treatment of the diabetics with insulin restored the synthase to a form that was readily phosphorylated in vitro

  20. Intracerebroventricular administration of okadaic acid induces hippocampal glucose uptake dysfunction and tau phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broetto, Núbia; Hansen, Fernanda; Brolese, Giovana; Batassini, Cristiane; Lirio, Franciane; Galland, Fabiana; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Intraneuronal aggregates of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), together with beta-amyloid plaques and astrogliosis, are histological markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying mechanism of sporadic AD remains poorly understood, but abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau protein is suggested to have a role in NFTs genesis, which leads to neuronal dysfunction and death. Okadaic acid (OKA), a strong inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, has been used to induce dementia similar to AD in rats. We herein investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of OKA (100 and 200ng) on hippocampal tau phosphorylation at Ser396, which is considered an important fibrillogenic tau protein site, and on glucose uptake, which is reduced early in AD. ICV infusion of OKA (at 200ng) induced a spatial cognitive deficit, hippocampal astrogliosis (based on GFAP increment) and increase in tau phosphorylation at site 396 in this model. Moreover, we observed a decreased glucose uptake in the hippocampal slices of OKA-treated rats. In vitro exposure of hippocampal slices to OKA altered tau phosphorylation at site 396, without any associated change in glucose uptake activity. Taken together, these findings further our understanding of OKA neurotoxicity, in vivo and vitro, particularly with regard to the role of tau phosphorylation, and reinforce the importance of the OKA dementia model for studying the neurochemical alterations that may occur in AD, such as NFTs and glucose hypometabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fasting and Systemic Insulin Signaling Regulate Phosphorylation of Brain Proteins That Modulate Cell Morphology and Link to Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Quan, Chao; Toth, Rachel; Campbell, David G; MacKintosh, Carol; Wang, Hong Yu; Chen, Shuai

    2015-12-11

    Diabetes is strongly associated with cognitive decline, but the molecular reasons are unknown. We found that fasting and peripheral insulin promote phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively, of specific residues on brain proteins including cytoskeletal regulators such as slit-robo GTPase-activating protein 3 (srGAP3) and microtubule affinity-regulating protein kinases (MARKs), in which deficiency or dysregulation is linked to neurological disorders. Fasting activates protein kinase A (PKA) but not PKB/Akt signaling in the brain, and PKA can phosphorylate the purified srGAP3. The phosphorylation of srGAP3 and MARKs were increased when PKA signaling was activated in primary neurons. Knockdown of PKA decreased the phosphorylation of srGAP3. Furthermore, WAVE1, a protein kinase A-anchoring protein, formed a complex with srGAP3 and PKA in the brain of fasted mice to facilitate the phosphorylation of srGAP3 by PKA. Although brain cells have insulin receptors, our findings are inconsistent with the down-regulation of phosphorylation of target proteins being mediated by insulin signaling within the brain. Rather, our findings infer that systemic insulin, through a yet unknown mechanism, inhibits PKA or protein kinase(s) with similar specificity and/or activates an unknown phosphatase in the brain. Ser(858) of srGAP3 was identified as a key regulatory residue in which phosphorylation by PKA enhanced the GAP activity of srGAP3 toward its substrate, Rac1, in cells, thereby inhibiting the action of this GTPase in cytoskeletal regulation. Our findings reveal novel mechanisms linking peripheral insulin sensitivity with cytoskeletal remodeling in neurons, which may help to explain the association of diabetes with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Protein kinases mediate increment of the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP -responsive element binding protein in spinal cord of rats following capsaicin injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Junfa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong noxious stimuli cause plastic changes in spinal nociceptive neurons. Intracellular signal transduction pathways from cellular membrane to nucleus, which may further regulate gene expression by critical transcription factors, convey peripheral stimulation. Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB is a well-characterized stimulus-induced transcription factor whose activation requires phosphorylation of the Serine-133 residue. Phospho-CREB can further induce gene transcription and strengthen synaptic transmission by the activation of the protein kinase cascades. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which CREB phosphorylation is regulated by protein kinases during nociception. This study was designed to use Western blot analysis to investigate the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK kinase (MEK 1/2, PKA and PKC in regulating the phosphorylation of CREB in the spinal cord of rats following intraplantar capsaicin injection. Results We found that capsaicin injection significantly increased the phosphorylation level of CREB in the ipsilateral side of the spinal cord. Pharmacological manipulation of MEK 1/2, PKA and PKC with their inhibitors (U0126, H89 and NPC 15473, respectively significantly blocked this increment of CREB phosphorylation. However, the expression of CREB itself showed no change in any group. Conclusion These findings suggest that the activation of intracellular MAP kinase, PKA and PKC cascades may contribute to the regulation of phospho-CREB in central nociceptive neurons following peripheral painful stimuli.

  3. An improved method to unravel phosphoacceptors in Ser/Thr protein kinase-phosphorylated substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Virginie; Leiba, Jade; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Kremer, Laurent

    2010-11-01

    Identification of the phosphorylated residues of bacterial Ser/Thr protein kinase (STPK) substrates still represents a challenging task. Herein, we present a new strategy allowing the rapid determination of phosphoacceptors in kinase substrates, essentially based on the dual expression of the kinase with its substrate in the surrogate E. coli, followed by MS analysis in a single-step procedure. The performance of this strategy is illustrated using two distinct proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis as model substrates, the GroEL2 and HspX chaperones. A comparative analysis with a standard method that includes mass spectrometry analysis of in vitro phosphorylated substrates is also addressed.

  4. Identification of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins associated with metastasis and functional analysis of FER in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haiyu; Ren, Zhenggang; Kang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Lan; Li, Xuefei; Wang, Yan; Xue, Tongchun; Shen, Yuefang; Liu, Yinkun

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant activity of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins is commonly associated with HCC metastasis. Cell signaling events driven by these proteins are implicated in numerous processes that alter cancer cell behavior. Exploring the activities and signaling pathways of these proteins in HCC metastasis may help in identifying new candidate molecules for HCC-targeted therapy. Hep3B (a nonmetastatic HCC cell line) and MHCC97H (a highly metastatic HCC cell line) were used in this study, and the tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins expressed in these cell lines were profiled by a phosphoproteomics technique based on LC-MS/MS. Protein-protein interaction and functional clustering analyses were performed to determine the activities of the identified proteins and the signaling pathways closely related to HCC metastasis. In both cell lines, a total of 247 phosphotyrosine (pTyr) proteins containing 281 pTyr sites were identified without any stimulation. The involvement of almost 30% of these in liver or liver cancer has not been reported previously. Biological process clustering analysis indicated that pTyr proteins involved in cell motility, migration, protein autophosphorylation, cell-cell communication, and antiapoptosis functions were overexpressed during metastasis. Pathway clustering analysis revealed that signaling pathways such as those involved in EGFR signaling, cytokine- and chemokine-mediated signal transduction, and the PI3K and JAK-STAT cascades were significantly activated during HCC metastasis. Moreover, noncanonical regulation of the JNK cascade might also provide new targets for HCC metastasis. After comparing the pTyr proteins that were differentially expressed during HCC cell metastasis, we selected FER, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, and validated its role in terms of both expression and function. The data confirmed that FER might play a critical role in the invasion and metastasis of HCC. The identification of pTyr proteins and signaling pathways associated

  5. Organic conjugated small molecule materials based optical probe for rapid, colorimetric and UV-vis spectral detection of phosphorylated protein in placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Yang, Na; Liu, Yi

    2018-04-05

    A novel organic small molecule with D-Pi-A structure was prepared, which was found to be a promising colorimetric and ratiometric UV-vis spetral probe for detection of phosphorylated proteins with the help of tetravalent zirconium ion. Such optical probe based on chromophore WYF-1 shows a rapid response (within 10s) and high selectivity and sensitivity for phosphorylated proteins, giving distinct colorimetric and ratiometric UV-vis changes at 720 and 560nm. The detection limit for phosphorylated proteins was estimated to be 100nM. In addition, detection of phosphorylated proteins in placental tissue samples with this probe was successfully applied, which indicates that this probe holds great potential for phosphorylated proteins detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The ATM homologue MEC1 is required for phosphorylation of replication protein A in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, G.S.; Morrow, D.M.; Hieter, P.; Kelly, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved single-stranded DNA-binding protein, required for cellular DNA replication, repair, and recombination. In human cells, RPA is phosphorylated during the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle and also in response to ionizing or ultraviolet radiation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a similar pattern of cell cycle-regulated RPA phosphorylation, and our studies indicate that the radiation-induced reactions occur in yeast as well. We have examined yeast RPA phosphorylation during the normal cell cycle and in response to environmental insult, and have demonstrated that the checkpoint gene MEC1 is required for the reaction under all conditions tested. Through examination of several checkpoint mutants, we have placed RPA phosphorylation in a novel pathway of the DNA damage response. MEC1 is similar in sequence to human ATM, the gene mutated in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). A-T cells are deficient in multiple checkpoint pathways and are hypersensitive to killing by ionizing radiation. Because A-T cells exhibit a delay in ionizing radiation-induced RPA phosphorylation, our results indicate a functional similarity between MEC1 and ATM, and suggest that RPA phosphorylation is involved in a conserved eukaryotic DNA damage-response pathway defective in A-T

  7. Methylmercury disrupts the balance between phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated cofilin in primary cultures of mice cerebellar granule cells A proteomic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendrell, Iolanda; Carrascal, Montserrat; Campos, Francisco; Abian, Joaquin; Sunol, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury is an environmental contaminant that is particularly toxic to the developing central nervous system; cerebellar granule neurons are especially vulnerable. Here, primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) were continuously exposed to methylmercury for up to 16 days in vitro (div). LC50 values were 508 ± 199, 345 ± 47, and 243 ± 45 nM after exposure for 6, 11, and 16 div, respectively. Proteins from cultured mouse CGCs were separated by 2DE. Seventy-one protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF PMF and MALDI-TOF/TOF sequencing. Prolonged exposure to a subcytotoxic concentration of methylmercury significantly increased non-phosphorylated cofilin both in cell protein extracts (1.4-fold; p < 0.01) and in mitochondrial-enriched fractions (1.7-fold; p < 0.01). The decrease in P-cofilin induced by methylmercury was concentration-dependent and occurred after different exposure times. The percentage of P-cofilin relative to total cofilin significantly decreased to 49 ± 13% vs. control cells after exposure to 300 nM methylmercury for 5 div. The balance between the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated form of cofilin regulates actin dynamics and facilitates actin filament turnover. Filamentous actin dynamics and reorganization are responsible of neuron shape change, migration, polarity formation, regulation of synaptic structures and function, and cell apoptosis. An alteration of the complex regulation of the cofilin phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway could be envisaged as an underlying mechanism compatible with reported signs of methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity.

  8. Protein kinase A phosphorylates serine 267 in the homeodomain of engrailed-2 leading to decreased DNA binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerrild, Majbrit; Stensballe, Allan; Jensen, Ole N

    2004-01-01

    Engrailed-2 (En-2) belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of DNA binding homeodomain-containing proteins that are expressed in mammalian brain during development. Here, we demonstrate that serine 267 in the homeodomain of En-2 is phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) in forskolin......-treated COS-7 cells. Furthermore, we analyze the physiological function of En-2 phosphorylation by PKA. The nuclear localization of En-2 is not influenced by the phosphorylation of serine 267. However, substitution of serine 267 with alanine resulted in increased binding of En-2 to DNA, while replacing serine...

  9. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of SLP-76 by the lymphoma-associated ITK-SYK fusion-protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Alamdar; Faryal, Rani; Nore, Beston F.; Mohamed, Abdalla J.; Smith, C.I. Edvard

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent chromosomal translocations have long been implicated in various types of lymphomas and other malignancies. Novel recurrent t(5;9)(q33;q22) has been recently discovered in un-specified peripheral T-cell lymphoma. To elucidate the role of this translocation, the corresponding fusion construct encoding the N-terminal portion of the ITK kinase and the C-terminal catalytic region of the SYK kinase was generated. We herein show that the ITK-SYK fusion-protein is constitutively active. Moreover, we demonstrate that ITK-SYK is phosphorylated on key tyrosine residues and is capable of potently phosphorylating the related adapter proteins BLNK and SLP-76. In transiently transfected cells, SYK was phosphorylated at Y352 but not detectably at the activation-loop tyrosines Y525/Y526. In contrast, ITK-SYK was phosphorylated both at Y212 and the activation-loop tyrosines Y385/Y386, corresponding to Y352 and Y525/Y526 in SYK, respectively. In resting primary lymphocytes, ITK-SYK predominantly localizes to the cell surface. In addition, we demonstrate that following stimulation, the ITK-SYK fusion-protein in cell lines translocates to the cell membrane and, moreover, that this phenomenon as well as SLP-76 phosphorylation are blocked upon phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibition.

  10. Characterization of protein phosphatase 2A acting on phosphorylated plasma membrane aquaporin of tulip petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2004-05-01

    A protein phosphatase holo-type enzyme (38, 65, and 75 kDa) preparation and a free catalytic subunit (38 kDa) purified from tulip petals were characterized as protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) by immunological and biochemical approaches. The plasma membrane containing the putative plasma membrane aquaporin (PM-AQP) was prepared from tulip petals, phosphorylated in vitro, and used as the substrate for both of the purified PP2A preparations. Although both preparations dephosphorylated the phosphorylated PM-AQP at 20 degrees C, only the holo-type enzyme preparation acted at 5 degrees C on the phosphorylated PM-AQP with higher substrate specificity, suggesting that regulatory subunits are required for low temperature-dependent dephosphorylation of PM-AQP in tulip petals.

  11. Rapid alterations of cell cycle control proteins in human T lymphocytes in microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiel Cora S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In our study we aimed to identify rapidly reacting gravity-responsive mechanisms in mammalian cells in order to understand if and how altered gravity is translated into a cellular response. In a combination of experiments using "functional weightlessness" provided by 2D-clinostats and real microgravity provided by several parabolic flight campaigns and compared to in-flight-1g-controls, we identified rapid gravity-responsive reactions inside the cell cycle regulatory machinery of human T lymphocytes. In response to 2D clinorotation, we detected an enhanced expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 protein within minutes, less cdc25C protein expression and enhanced Ser147-phosphorylation of cyclinB1 after CD3/CD28 stimulation. Additionally, during 2D clinorotation, Tyr-15-phosphorylation occurred later and was shorter than in the 1 g controls. In CD3/CD28-stimulated primary human T cells, mRNA expression of the cell cycle arrest protein p21 increased 4.1-fold after 20s real microgravity in primary CD4+ T cells and 2.9-fold in Jurkat T cells, compared to 1 g in-flight controls after CD3/CD28 stimulation. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT inhibitor curcumin was able to abrogate microgravity-induced p21 mRNA expression, whereas expression was enhanced by a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor. Therefore, we suppose that cell cycle progression in human T lymphocytes requires Earth gravity and that the disturbed expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins could contribute to the breakdown of the human immune system in space.

  12. Suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation decreases invasive and metastatic potentials of B16-BL6 melanoma cells by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, C; Han, R

    1997-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) appears to be involved in the activation of signaling during cell attachment to and spreading on extracellular matrix (ECM) in the metastatic cascade. To verify the assumption that PTK inhibitors might impair ECM signaling and prevent cancer metastasis, the highly metastatic B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells were exposed to the PTK inhibitor genistein for 3 days. The ability of the cells to invade through reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) and to establish experimental pulmonary metastatic foci in C57BL/6 mice decreased after genistein exposure. The genistein-treated cells were also prevented from attaching to Matrigel and spread extremely poorly on the ECM substratum. Immunoblot analysis showed that tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kD protein in response to cell spreading on Matrigel was suppressed in the genistein-treated cells. Adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation represents the earlier and specific event in the activation of ECM signaling, so this result implied ECM signaling was impaired in the treated cells. With immunofluorescence microscopy, the adhesion-induced tyrosine phosphorylated proteins were located at the pericytoplasms of well-spread cells, but not at the periphery of poorly spread genistein-treated cells. Therefore, this paper suggests that genistein might impair ECM signaling and subsequently prevent cancer cells from spreading well and invading or establishing metastasis through the suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation. PTKs and adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation might play a role in the control of invasion and metastasis.

  13. Band 3 Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Acts as Redox Stress Sensor Leading to Its Phosphorylation by p72 Syk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pantaleo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In erythrocytes, the regulation of the redox sensitive Tyr phosphorylation of band 3 and its functions are still partially defined. A role of band 3 oxidation in regulating its own phosphorylation has been previously suggested. The current study provides evidences to support this hypothesis: (i in intact erythrocytes, at 2 mM concentration of GSH, band 3 oxidation, and phosphorylation, Syk translocation to the membrane and Syk phosphorylation responded to the same micromolar concentrations of oxidants showing identical temporal variations; (ii the Cys residues located in the band 3 cytoplasmic domain are 20-fold more reactive than GSH; (iii disulfide linked band 3 cytoplasmic domain docks Syk kinase; (iv protein Tyr phosphatases are poorly inhibited at oxidant concentrations leading to massive band 3 oxidation and phosphorylation. We also observed that hemichromes binding to band 3 determined its irreversible oxidation and phosphorylation, progressive hemolysis, and serine hyperphosphorylation of different cytoskeleton proteins. Syk inhibitor suppressed the phosphorylation of band 3 also preventing serine phosphorylation changes and hemolysis. Our data suggest that band 3 acts as redox sensor regulating its own phosphorylation and that hemichromes leading to the protracted phosphorylation of band 3 may trigger a cascade of events finally leading to hemolysis.

  14. Mechanism of phosphoryl transfer and protein-protein interaction in the PTS system-an NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, P.; Klevit, R.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    HPr and Enzyme IIA{sup Glc} are two of the components of the bacterial PTS (phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotranferase system) and are involved in the phosphorylation and concomitant translocation of sugars across the membrane. These PTS protein complexes also regulate sugar transport. HPr, phosphorylated at a histidine N1 site by Enzyme I and phosphoenol pyruvate, transfers the phosphoryl group to a histidine N3 position in Enzyme IIA{sup Glc}. HPrs from Gram-positive bacteria undergo regulatory phosphorylation at Ser{sup 46}, whereby phosphorylation of the histidine residue is inhibited. Conversely, histidine phosphorylation inhibits phosphorylation at Ser{sup 46}. HPrs from Gram-negative bacteria possess a serine residue at position 46, but do not undergo regulatory phosphorylation. HPr forms an open-faced sandwich structure with a four-strand S-sheet and 2 to 3 helices lying on top of the sheet. The active-site histidine and Ser{sup 46} occur in conformationally flexible regions. P-His-HPr from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilus has been investigated by both homonuclear and heteronuclear two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR experiments using an in-situ enzymatic regeneration system to maintain a constant level of P-His-HPr. The results show that localized conformational changes occur in the vicinity of the active-site histidine and also near Ser{sup 46}. HPr-Enzyme IIA{sup Glc} complexes from both Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli were also studied by a variety of {sup 15}N-edited two-dimensional NMR experiments, which were performed on uniformly {sup 15}N-labeled HPr complexed to unlabeled Enzyme IIA{sup Glc}. The complex is in fast exchange with a molecular weight of about 27 kDa. The focus of our work is to assess the changes undergone by HPr (the smaller of the two components), and so all the experiments were performed with excess Enzyme IIA present in the system.

  15. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) regulate DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pauline; Ye, Ruiqiong; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Neal, Jessica A; De Wever, Veerle; Morrice, Nick A; Meek, Katheryn; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2014-06-25

    The protein kinase activity of the DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) and its autophosphorylation are critical for DBS (DNA double-strand break) repair via NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining). Recent studies have shown that depletion or inactivation of DNA-PKcs kinase activity also results in mitotic defects. DNA-PKcs is autophosphorylated on Ser2056, Thr2647 and Thr2609 in mitosis and phosphorylated DNA-PKcs localize to centrosomes, mitotic spindles and the midbody. DNA-PKcs also interacts with PP6 (protein phosphatase 6), and PP6 has been shown to dephosphorylate Aurora A kinase in mitosis. Here we report that DNA-PKcs is phosphorylated on Ser3205 and Thr3950 in mitosis. Phosphorylation of Thr3950 is DNA-PK-dependent, whereas phosphorylation of Ser3205 requires PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1). Moreover, PLK1 phosphorylates DNA-PKcs on Ser3205 in vitro and interacts with DNA-PKcs in mitosis. In addition, PP6 dephosphorylates DNA-PKcs at Ser3205 in mitosis and after IR (ionizing radiation). DNA-PKcs also phosphorylates Chk2 on Thr68 in mitosis and both phosphorylation of Chk2 and autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs in mitosis occur in the apparent absence of Ku and DNA damage. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into the roles of DNA-PKcs and PP6 in mitosis and suggest that DNA-PKcs' role in mitosis may be mechanistically distinct from its well-established role in NHEJ.

  16. Ethylene glycol assisted preparation of Ti(4+)-modified polydopamine coated magnetic particles with rough surface for capture of phosphorylated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiangdong; Ding, Chun; Yao, Xin; Jia, Li

    2016-07-27

    The reversible protein phosphorylation is very important in regulating almost all aspects of cell life, while the enrichment of phosphorylated proteins still remains a technical challenge. In this work, polydopamine (PDA) modified magnetic particles with rough surface (rPDA@Fe3O4) were synthesized by introduction of ethylene glycol in aqueous solution. The PDA coating possessing a wealth of catechol hydroxyl groups could serve as an active medium to immobilize titanium ions through the metal-catechol chelation, which makes the fabrication of titanium ions modified rPDA@Fe3O4 particles (Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4) simple and very convenient. The spherical Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4 particles have a surface area of 37.7 m(2) g(-1) and superparamagnetism with a saturation magnetization value of 38.4 emu g(-1). The amount of Ti element in the particle was measured to be 3.93%. And the particles demonstrated good water dispersibility. The particles were used as adsorbents for capture of phosphorylated proteins and they demonstrated affinity and specificity for phosphorylated proteins due to the specific binding sites (Ti(4+)). Factors affecting the adsorption of phosphorylated proteins on Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4 particles were investigated. The adsorption capacity of Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4 particles for κ-casein was 1105.6 mg g(-1). Furthermore, the particles were successfully applied to isolate phosphorylated proteins in milk samples, which demonstrated that Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4 particles had potential application in selective separation of phosphorylated proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuronal phosphorylated RNA-dependent protein kinase in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Paquet, Claire

    2009-02-01

    The mechanisms of neuronal apoptosis in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and their relationship to accumulated prion protein (PrP) are unclear. A recent cell culture study showed that intracytoplasmic PrP may induce phosphorylated RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR(p))-mediated cell stress. The double-stranded RNA protein kinase PKR is a proapoptotic and stress kinase that accumulates in degenerating neurons in Alzheimer disease. To determine whether neuronal apoptosis in human CJD is associated with activation of the PKR(p) signaling pathway, we assessed in situ end labeling and immunocytochemistry for PrP, glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD68, activated caspase 3, and phosphorylated PKR (Thr451) in samples of frontal, occipital, and temporal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum from 6 patients with sporadic CJD and 5 controls. Neuronal immunostaining for activated PKR was found in all CJD cases. The most staining was in nuclei and, in contrast to findings in Alzheimer disease, cytoplasmic labeling was not detected. Both the number and distribution of PKR(p)-positive neurons correlated closely with the extent of neuronal apoptosis, spongiosis, astrocytosis, and microglial activation and with the phenotype and disease severity. There was no correlation with the type, topography, or amount of extracellular PrP deposits. These findings suggest that neuronal apoptosis in human CJD may result from PKR(p)-mediated cell stress and are consistent with recent studies supporting a pathogenic role for intracellular or transmembrane PrP.

  18. Disruption of genes encoding eIF4E binding proteins-1 and -2 does not alter basal or sepsis-induced changes in skeletal muscle protein synthesis in male or female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Pruznak, Anne M; Deiter, Gina; Navaratnarajah, Maithili; Kutzler, Lydia; Kimball, Scot R; Lang, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis decreases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in part by impairing mTOR activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 thereby controlling translation initiation; however, the relative importance of changes in these two downstream substrates is unknown. The role of 4E-BP1 (and -BP2) in regulating muscle protein synthesis was assessed in wild-type (WT) and 4E-BP1/BP2 double knockout (DKO) male mice under basal conditions and in response to sepsis. At 12 months of age, body weight, lean body mass and energy expenditure did not differ between WT and DKO mice. Moreover, in vivo rates of protein synthesis in gastrocnemius, heart and liver did not differ between DKO and WT mice. Sepsis decreased skeletal muscle protein synthesis and S6K1 phosphorylation in WT and DKO male mice to a similar extent. Sepsis only decreased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in WT mice as no 4E-BP1/BP2 protein was detected in muscle from DKO mice. Sepsis decreased the binding of eIF4G to eIF4E in WT mice; however, eIF4E•eIF4G binding was not altered in DKO mice under either basal or septic conditions. A comparable sepsis-induced increase in eIF4B phosphorylation was seen in both WT and DKO mice. eEF2 phosphorylation was similarly increased in muscle from WT septic mice and both control and septic DKO mice, compared to WT control values. The sepsis-induced increase in muscle MuRF1 and atrogin-1 (markers of proteolysis) as well as TNFα and IL-6 (inflammatory cytokines) mRNA was greater in DKO than WT mice. The sepsis-induced decrease in myocardial and hepatic protein synthesis did not differ between WT and DKO mice. These data suggest overall basal protein balance and synthesis is maintained in muscle of mice lacking both 4E-BP1/BP2 and that sepsis-induced changes in mTOR signaling may be mediated by a down-stream mechanism independent of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and eIF4E•eIF4G binding.

  19. Cytochrome C is tyrosine 97 phosphorylated by neuroprotective insulin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H Sanderson

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in isolation techniques for cytochrome c (Cytc have allowed us to discover post-translational modifications of this protein. We previously identified two distinct tyrosine phosphorylated residues on Cytc in mammalian liver and heart that alter its electron transfer kinetics and the ability to induce apoptosis. Here we investigated the phosphorylation status of Cytc in ischemic brain and sought to determine if insulin-induced neuroprotection and inhibition of Cytc release was associated with phosphorylation of Cytc. Using an animal model of global brain ischemia, we found a ∼50% decrease in neuronal death in the CA1 hippocampal region with post-ischemic insulin administration. This insulin-mediated increase in neuronal survival was associated with inhibition of Cytc release at 24 hours of reperfusion. To investigate possible changes in the phosphorylation state of Cytc we first isolated the protein from ischemic pig brain and brain that was treated with insulin. Ischemic brains demonstrated no detectable tyrosine phosphorylation. In contrast Cytc isolated from brains treated with insulin showed robust phosphorylation of Cytc, and the phosphorylation site was unambiguously identified as Tyr97 by immobilized metal affinity chromatography/nano-liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We next confirmed these results in rats by in vivo application of insulin in the absence or presence of global brain ischemia and determined that Cytc Tyr97-phosphorylation is strongly induced under both conditions but cannot be detected in untreated controls. These data suggest a mechanism whereby Cytc is targeted for phosphorylation by insulin signaling, which may prevent its release from the mitochondria and the induction of apoptosis.

  20. Phosphorylation of a splice variant of collapsin response mediator protein 2 in the nucleus of tumour cells links cyclin dependent kinase-5 to oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Nicola J; Coates, Philip J; Woods, Yvonne L; Bray, Susan E; Morrice, Nicholas A; Hastie, C James; Lamont, Douglas J; Carey, Francis A; Sutherland, Calum

    2015-11-10

    Cyclin-dependent protein kinase-5 (CDK5) is an unusual member of the CDK family as it is not cell cycle regulated. However many of its substrates have roles in cell growth and oncogenesis, raising the possibility that CDK5 modulation could have therapeutic benefit. In order to establish whether changes in CDK5 activity are associated with oncogenesis one could quantify phosphorylation of CDK5 targets in disease tissue in comparison to appropriate controls. However the identity of physiological and pathophysiological CDK5 substrates remains the subject of debate, making the choice of CDK5 activity biomarkers difficult. Here we use in vitro and in cell phosphorylation assays to identify novel features of CDK5 target sequence determinants that confer enhanced CDK5 selectivity, providing means to select substrate biomarkers of CDK5 activity with more confidence. We then characterize tools for the best CDK5 substrate we identified to monitor its phosphorylation in human tissue and use these to interrogate human tumour arrays. The close proximity of Arg/Lys amino acids and a proline two residues N-terminal to the phosphorylated residue both improve recognition of the substrate by CDK5. In contrast the presence of a proline two residues C-terminal to the target residue dramatically reduces phosphorylation rate. Serine-522 of Collapsin Response Mediator-2 (CRMP2) is a validated CDK5 substrate with many of these structural criteria. We generate and characterise phosphospecific antibodies to Ser522 and show that phosphorylation appears in human tumours (lung, breast, and lymphoma) in stark contrast to surrounding non-neoplastic tissue. In lung cancer the anti-phospho-Ser522 signal is positive in squamous cell carcinoma more frequently than adenocarcinoma. Finally we demonstrate that it is a specific and unusual splice variant of CRMP2 (CRMP2A) that is phosphorylated in tumour cells. For the first time this data associates altered CDK5 substrate phosphorylation with

  1. Contribution of Post-translational Phosphorylation to Sarcomere-linked Cardiomyopathy Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret V Westfall

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary shifts develop in post-translational phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins in multi¬ple animal models of inherited cardiomyopathy. These signaling alterations together with the primary mutation are predicted to contribute to the overall cardiac phenotype. As a result, identification and integration of post-translational myofilament signaling responses are identified as priorities for gaining insights into sarcomeric cardiomyopathies. However, significant questions remain about the nature and contribution of post-translational phosphorylation to structural remodeling and cardiac dysfunction in animal models and human patients. This perspective essay discusses specific goals for filling critical gaps about post-translational signaling in response to these inherited mutations, especially within sarcomeric proteins. The discussion focuses primarily on pre-clinical analysis of animal models and defines challenges and future directions in this field.

  2. Endothelial mechanotransduction proteins and vascular function are altered by dietary sucrose supplementation in healthy young male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Rytter, Nicolai; Lindskrog, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular...... by ultrasound doppler. A muscle biopsy was obtained from the thigh muscle before and after acute passive leg movement, to asses the protein amount and phosphorylation status of mechanosensory proteins and NADPH oxidase. The sucrose intervention led to a reduced flow response to passive movement (by 17 ± 2...... %) and to 12 watts of active exercise (by 9 ± 1 %), indicating impaired vascular function. Reduced flow response to passive and active exercise was paralleled by a significant upregulation of Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and the Rho...

  3. Cross-phosphorylation of bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases on key regulatory residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eShi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria possess protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases which resemble eukaryal kinases in their capacity to phosphorylate multiple substrates. We hypothesized that the analogy might extend further, and bacterial kinases may also undergo mutual phosphorylation and activation, which is currently considered as a hallmark of eukaryal kinase networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the capacity of all members of four different classes of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases present in the firmicute model organism Bacillus subtilis to phosphorylate each other in vitro and interact with each other in vivo. The interactomics data suggested a high degree of connectivity among all types of kinases, while phosphorylation assays revealed equally wide-spread cross-phosphorylation events. Our findings suggest that the Hanks-type kinases PrkC, PrkD and YabT exhibit the highest capacity to phosphorylate other B. subtilis kinases, while the BY-kinase PtkA and the two-component-like kinases RsbW and SpoIIAB show the highest propensity to be phosphorylated by other kinases. Analysis of phosphorylated residues on several selected recipient kinases suggests that most cross-phosphorylation events concern key regulatory residues. Therefore, cross-phosphorylation events are very likely to influence the capacity of recipient kinases to phosphorylate substrates downstream in the signal transduction cascade. We therefore conclude that bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases probably engage in a network-type behavior previously described only in eukaryal cells.

  4. iPhos-PseEvo: Identifying Human Phosphorylated Proteins by Incorporating Evolutionary Information into General PseAAC via Grey System Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wang-Ren; Sun, Bi-Qian; Xiao, Xuan; Xu, Dong; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-05-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays a critical role in human body by altering the structural conformation of a protein, causing it to become activated/deactivated, or functional modification. Given an uncharacterized protein sequence, can we predict whether it may be phosphorylated or may not? This is no doubt a very meaningful problem for both basic research and drug development. Unfortunately, to our best knowledge, so far no high throughput bioinformatics tool whatsoever has been developed to address such a very basic but important problem due to its extremely complexity and lacking sufficient training data. Here we proposed a predictor called iPhos-PseEvo by (1) incorporating the protein sequence evolutionary information into the general pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) via the grey system theory, (2) balancing out the skewed training datasets by the asymmetric bootstrap approach, and (3) constructing an ensemble predictor by fusing an array of individual random forest classifiers thru a voting system. Rigorous jackknife tests have indicated that very promising success rates have been achieved by iPhos-PseEvo even for such a difficult problem. A user-friendly web-server for iPhos-PseEvo has been established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iPhos-PseEvo, by which users can easily obtain their desired results without the need to go through the complicated mathematical equations involved. It has not escaped our notice that the formulation and approach presented here can be used to analyze many other problems in protein science as well. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Coulomb interactions between cytoplasmic electric fields and phosphorylated messenger proteins optimize information flow in cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Gatenby

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal cell function requires timely and accurate transmission of information from receptors on the cell membrane (CM to the nucleus. Movement of messenger proteins in the cytoplasm is thought to be dependent on random walk. However, Brownian motion will disperse messenger proteins throughout the cytosol resulting in slow and highly variable transit times. We propose that a critical component of information transfer is an intracellular electric field generated by distribution of charge on the nuclear membrane (NM. While the latter has been demonstrated experimentally for decades, the role of the consequent electric field has been assumed to be minimal due to a Debye length of about 1 nanometer that results from screening by intracellular Cl- and K+. We propose inclusion of these inorganic ions in the Debye-Huckel equation is incorrect because nuclear pores allow transit through the membrane at a rate far faster than the time to thermodynamic equilibrium. In our model, only the charged, mobile messenger proteins contribute to the Debye length.Using this revised model and published data, we estimate the NM possesses a Debye-Huckel length of a few microns and find this is consistent with recent measurement using intracellular nano-voltmeters. We demonstrate the field will accelerate isolated messenger proteins toward the nucleus through Coulomb interactions with negative charges added by phosphorylation. We calculate transit times as short as 0.01 sec. When large numbers of phosphorylated messenger proteins are generated by increasing concentrations of extracellular ligands, we demonstrate they generate a self-screening environment that regionally attenuates the cytoplasmic field, slowing movement but permitting greater cross talk among pathways. Preliminary experimental results with phosphorylated RAF are consistent with model predictions.This work demonstrates that previously unrecognized Coulomb interactions between phosphorylated messenger

  6. Identification of Phosphorylated Proteins on a Global Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliuk, Anton

    2018-05-31

    Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has enabled researchers to analyze complex biological samples with unprecedented depth. It facilitates the identification and quantification of modifications within thousands of proteins in a single large-scale proteomic experiment. Analysis of phosphorylation, one of the most common and important post-translational modifications, has particularly benefited from such progress in the field. Here, detailed protocols are provided for a few well-regarded, common sample preparation methods for an effective phosphoproteomic experiment. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein promotes post-transcriptional downregulation of protein kinase PKR and inhibits eIF2alpha phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Narayanan, Krishna; Won, Sungyong; Kamitani, Wataru; Peters, C J; Makino, Shinji

    2009-02-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is a negative-stranded RNA virus with a tripartite genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes fever and severe hemorrhagic illness among humans, and fever and high rates of abortions in livestock. A nonstructural RVFV NSs protein inhibits the transcription of host mRNAs, including interferon-beta mRNA, and is a major virulence factor. The present study explored a novel function of the RVFV NSs protein by testing the replication of RVFV lacking the NSs gene in the presence of actinomycin D (ActD) or alpha-amanitin, both of which served as a surrogate of the host mRNA synthesis suppression function of the NSs. In the presence of the host-transcriptional inhibitors, the replication of RVFV lacking the NSs protein, but not that carrying NSs, induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-mediated eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2alpha phosphorylation, leading to the suppression of host and viral protein translation. RVFV NSs promoted post-transcriptional downregulation of PKR early in the course of the infection and suppressed the phosphorylated eIF2alpha accumulation. These data suggested that a combination of RVFV replication and NSs-induced host transcriptional suppression induces PKR-mediated eIF2alpha phosphorylation, while the NSs facilitates efficient viral translation by downregulating PKR and inhibiting PKR-mediated eIF2alpha phosphorylation. Thus, the two distinct functions of the NSs, i.e., the suppression of host transcription, including that of type I interferon mRNAs, and the downregulation of PKR, work together to prevent host innate antiviral functions, allowing efficient replication and survival of RVFV in infected mammalian hosts.

  8. Prediction of post-translational glycosylation and phosphorylation of proteins from the amino acid sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Nikolaj; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Gupta, Ramneek

    2004-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occur on almost all proteins analyzed to date. The function of a modified protein is often strongly affected by these modifications and therefore increased knowledge about the potential PTMs of a target protein may increase our understanding of the molecular...... steps by integrating computational approaches into the validation procedures. Many advanced methods for the prediction of PTMs exist and many are made publicly available. We describe our experiences with the development of prediction methods for phosphorylation and glycosylation sites...... and the development of PTM-specific databases. In addition, we discuss novel ideas for PTM visualization (exemplified by kinase landscapes) and improvements for prediction specificity (by using ESS-evolutionary stable sites). As an example, we present a new method for kinase-specific prediction of phosphorylation...

  9. The Fic protein Doc uses an inverted substrate to phosphorylate and inactivate EF-Tu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Roa, Daniel; Garcia-Pino, Abel; De Gieter, Steven; van Nuland, Nico A J; Loris, Remy; Zenkin, Nikolay

    2013-12-01

    Fic proteins are ubiquitous in all of the domains of life and have critical roles in multiple cellular processes through AMPylation of (transfer of AMP to) target proteins. Doc from the doc-phd toxin-antitoxin module is a member of the Fic family and inhibits bacterial translation by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that, in contrast to having AMPylating activity, Doc is a new type of kinase that inhibits bacterial translation by phosphorylating the conserved threonine (Thr382) of the translation elongation factor EF-Tu, rendering EF-Tu unable to bind aminoacylated tRNAs. We provide evidence that EF-Tu phosphorylation diverged from AMPylation by antiparallel binding of the NTP relative to the catalytic residues of the conserved Fic catalytic core of Doc. The results bring insights into the mechanism and role of phosphorylation of EF-Tu in bacterial physiology as well as represent an example of the catalytic plasticity of enzymes and a mechanism for the evolution of new enzymatic activities.

  10. The Golgi localization of phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta requires the protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of serine 262 and is essential for maintaining plasma membrane sphingomyelin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tiel, Claudia M.; Westerman, Jan; Paasman, Marten A.; Hoebens, Martha M.; Wirtz, Karel W. A.; Snoek, Gerry T.

    2002-01-01

    Recombinant mouse phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PI-TP)beta is a substrate for protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation in vitro. Based on site-directed mutagenesis and two-dimensional tryptic peptide mapping, Ser(262) was identified as the major site of phosphorylation and Ser(165)

  11. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin LecA triggers host cell signalling by glycosphingolipid-dependent phosphorylation of the adaptor protein CrkII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuangshuang; Eierhoff, Thorsten; Aigal, Sahaja; Brandel, Annette; Thuenauer, Roland; de Bentzmann, Sophie; Imberty, Anne; Römer, Winfried

    2017-07-01

    The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces phosphorylation of the adaptor protein CrkII by activating the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abl to promote its uptake into host cells. So far, specific factors of P. aeruginosa, which induce Abl/CrkII signalling, are entirely unknown. In this research, we employed human lung epithelial cells H1299, Chinese hamster ovary cells and P. aeruginosa wild type strain PAO1 to study the invasion process of P. aeruginosa into host cells by using microbiological, biochemical and cell biological approaches such as Western Blot, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Here, we demonstrate that the host glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide, also termed Gb3, represents a signalling receptor for the P. aeruginosa lectin LecA to induce CrkII phosphorylation at tyrosine 221. Alterations in Gb3 expression and LecA function correlate with CrkII phosphorylation. Interestingly, phosphorylation of CrkII Y221 occurs independently of Abl kinase. We further show that Src family kinases transduce the signal induced by LecA binding to Gb3, leading to Crk Y221 phosphorylation. In summary, we identified LecA as a bacterial factor, which utilizes a so far unrecognized mechanism for phospho-CrkII Y221 induction by binding to the host glycosphingolipid receptor Gb3. The LecA/Gb3 interaction highlights the potential of glycolipids to mediate signalling processes across the plasma membrane and should be further elucidated to gain deeper insights into this non-canonical mechanism of activating host cell processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tissue specific phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins isolated from rat liver, heart muscle, and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Steffen; León, Ileana R; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    -specific phosphorylation sites were identified in tissue-specific enzymes such as those encoded by HMGCS2, BDH1, PCK2, CPS1, and OTC in liver mitochondria, and CKMT2 and CPT1B in heart and skeletal muscle. Kinase prediction showed an important role for PKA and PKC in all tissues but also for proline-directed kinases......Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in a variety of biological processes is increasingly being recognized and may contribute to the differences in function and energy demands observed in mitochondria from different tissues such as liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. Here, we used a combination...... of TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment, HILIC fractionation, and LC-MS/MS on isolated mitochondria to investigate the tissue-specific mitochondrial phosphoproteomes of rat liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. In total, we identified 899 phosphorylation sites in 354 different mitochondrial proteins including...

  13. Insulin treatment promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR and inhibits polyIC induced PKR threonine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetha, Medchalmi; Ramaiah, Kolluru V A

    2015-11-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta (IRβ) in insulin treated HepG2 cells is inversely correlated to ser(51) phosphorylation in the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) that regulates protein synthesis. Insulin stimulates interaction between IRβ and PKR, double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, also known as EIF2AK2, and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in PKR, as analyzed by immunoprecipitation and pull down assays using anti-IRβ and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, recombinant IRβ and immunopurified PKR. Further polyIC or synthetic double stranded RNA-induced threonine phosphorylation or activation of immunopurified and cellular PKR is suppressed in the presence of insulin treated purified IRβ and cell extracts. Acute, but not chronic, insulin treatment enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of IRβ, its interaction with PKR and tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide that stimulates threonine phosphorylation of PKR and eIF2α phosphorylation and AG 1024, an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of IRβ, reduces PKR association with the receptor, IRβ in HepG2 cells. These findings therefore may suggest that tyrosine phosphorylated PKR plays a role in the regulation of insulin induced protein synthesis and in maintaining insulin sensitivity, whereas, suppression of polyIC-mediated threonine phosphorylation of PKR by insulin compromises its ability to fight against virus infection in host cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Awake intranasal insulin delivery modifies protein complexes and alters memory, anxiety, and olfactory behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David R; Tucker, Kristal; Cavallin, Melissa A; Mast, Thomas G; Fadool, Debra A

    2009-05-20

    The role of insulin pathways in olfaction is of significant interest with the widespread pathology of diabetes mellitus and its associated metabolic and neuronal comorbidities. The insulin receptor (IR) kinase is expressed at high levels in the olfactory bulb, in which it suppresses a dominant Shaker ion channel (Kv1.3) via tyrosine phosphorylation of critical N- and C-terminal residues. We optimized a 7 d intranasal insulin delivery (IND) in awake mice to ascertain the biochemical and behavioral effects of insulin to this brain region, given that nasal sprays for insulin have been marketed notwithstanding our knowledge of the role of Kv1.3 in olfaction, metabolism, and axon targeting. IND evoked robust phosphorylation of Kv1.3, as well as increased channel protein-protein interactions with IR and postsynaptic density 95. IND-treated mice had an increased short- and long-term object memory recognition, increased anxiolytic behavior, and an increased odor discrimination using an odor habituation protocol but only moderate change in odor threshold using a two-choice paradigm. Unlike Kv1.3 gene-targeted deletion that alters metabolism, adiposity, and axonal targeting to defined olfactory glomeruli, suppression of Kv1.3 via IND had no effect on body weight nor the size and number of M72 glomeruli or the route of its sensory axon projections. There was no evidence of altered expression of sensory neurons in the epithelium. In mice made prediabetic via diet-induced obesity, IND was no longer effective in increasing long-term object memory recognition nor increasing anxiolytic behavior, suggesting state dependency or a degree of insulin resistance related to these behaviors.

  15. Transient phosphorylation of tumor associated microtubule associated protein (TMAP)/cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2) at Thr-596 during early phases of mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyung Uk; Choi, Yong-Bock; Lee, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kwon, Hye-Rim; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Kim, Heung Tae; Park, Joobae; Bae, Chang-Dae; Hong, Kyeong-Man

    2008-08-31

    Tumor associated microtubule associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2) is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose expression is cell cycle-regulated and also frequently deregulated in cancer cells. Two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against TMAP/CKAP2 were produced: B-1-13 and D-12-3. Interestingly, the reactivity of mAb D-12-3 to TMAP/CKAP2 was markedly decreased specifically in mitotic cell lysate. The epitope mapping study showed that mAb D-12-3 recognizes the amino acid sequence between 569 and 625 and that phosphorylation at T596 completely abolishes the reactivity of the antibody, suggesting that the differential reactivity originates from the phosphorylation status at T596. Immunofluorescence staining showed that mAb D-12-3 fails to detect TMAP/CKAP2 in mitotic cells between prophase and metaphase, but the staining becomes evident again in anaphase, suggesting that phosphorylation at T596 occurs transiently during early phases of mitosis. These results suggest that the cellular functions of TMAP/CKAP2 might be regulated by timely phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during the course of mitosis.

  16. Pro-Tumorigenic Phosphorylation of p120 Catenin in Renal and Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis Kourtidis

    Full Text Available Altered protein expression and phosphorylation are common events during malignant transformation. These perturbations have been widely explored in the context of E-cadherin cell-cell adhesion complexes, which are central in the maintenance of the normal epithelial phenotype. A major component of these complexes is p120 catenin (p120, which binds and stabilizes E-cadherin to promote its adhesive and tumor suppressing function. However, p120 is also an essential mediator of pro-tumorigenic signals driven by oncogenes, such as Src, and can be phosphorylated at multiple sites. Although alterations in p120 expression have been extensively studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC in the context of tumor progression, little is known about the status and role of p120 phosphorylation in cancer. Here we show that tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation of p120 in two sites, Y228 and T916, is elevated in renal and breast tumor tissue samples. We also show that tyrosine phosphorylation of p120 at its N-terminus, including at the Y228 site is required for its pro-tumorigenic potential. In contrast, phosphorylation of p120 at T916 does not affect this p120 function. However, phosphorylation of p120 at T916 interferes with epitope recognition of the most commonly used p120 antibody, namely pp120. As a result, this antibody selectively underrepresents p120 levels in tumor tissues, where p120 is phosphorylated. Overall, our data support a role of p120 phosphorylation as a marker and mediator of tumor transformation. Importantly, they also argue that the level and localization of p120 in human cancer tissues immunostained with pp120 needs to be re-evaluated.

  17. Novel protein phosphorylation site identification in spinach stroma membranes by titanium dioxide microcolumns and tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinalducci, Sara; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2006-01-01

    In this work, spinach stroma membrane, instead of thylakoid, has been investigated for the presence of phosphorylated proteins. We identified seven previously unknown phosphorylation sites by taking advantage of TiO(2) phosphopeptides enrichment coupled to mass spectrometric analysis. Upon...

  18. Bacillus subtilis single-stranded DNA-binding protein SsbA is phosphorylated at threonine 38 by the serine/threonine kinase YabT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derouiche, Abderahmane; Petranovic, Dina; Macek, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins participate in all stages of DNA metabolism that involve single-stranded DNA, from replication, recombination, repair of DNA damage, to natural competence in species such as Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis single-stranded DNA......-binding proteins have previously been found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine and arginine residues. While tyrosine phosphorylation was shown to enhance the DNA-binding properties of SsbA, arginine phosphorylation was not functionally characterized.Materials and methods: We used mass spectrometry analysis to detect...... phosphorylation of SsbA purified from B. subtilis cells. The detected phosphorylation site was assessed for its influence on DNA-binding in vitro, using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The ability of B. subtilis serine/threonine kinases to phosphorylate SsbA was assessed using in vitro phosphorylation...

  19. Cell cycle-specific UNG2 phosphorylations regulate protein turnover, activity and association with RPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Lars; Kavli, Bodil; Sousa, Mirta M L

    2008-01-01

    -catalytic domain that confer distinct functional properties to UNG2. These are apparently generated by cyclin-dependent kinases through stepwise phosphorylation of S23, T60 and S64 in the cell cycle. Phosphorylation of S23 in late G1/early S confers increased association with replication protein A (RPA......) and replicating chromatin and markedly increases the catalytic turnover of UNG2. Conversely, progressive phosphorylation of T60 and S64 throughout S phase mediates reduced binding to RPA and flag UNG2 for breakdown in G2 by forming a cyclin E/c-myc-like phosphodegron. The enhanced catalytic turnover of UNG2 p-S23...

  20. Destabilization of Heterologous Proteins Mediated by the GSK3β Phosphorylation Domain of the β-Catenin Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Kong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays important roles in development and cellular processes. The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling activation is the stabilization of β-catenin protein in cytoplasm and/or nucleus. The stability of β-catenin is the key to its biological functions and is controlled by the phosphorylation of its amino-terminal degradation domain. Aberrant activation of β-catenin signaling has been implicated in the development of human cancers. It has been recently suggested that GSK3βmay play an essential role in regulating global protein turnover. Here, we investigate if the GSK3β phosphorylation site-containing degradation domain of β-catenin is sufficient to destabilize heterologous proteins. Methods and Results: We engineer chimeric proteins by fusing β-catenin degradation domain at the N- and/or C-termini of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP. In both transient and stable expression experiments, the chimeric GFP proteins exhibit a significantly decreased stability, which can be effectively antagonized by lithium and Wnt1. An activating mutation in the destruction domain significantly stabilizes the fusion protein. Furthermore, GSK3 inhibitor SB-216763 effectively increases the GFP signal of the fusion protein. Conversely, the inhibition of Wnt signaling with tankyrase inhibitor XAV939 results in a decrease in GFP signal of the fusion proteins, while these small molecules have no significant effects on the mutant destruction domain-GFP fusion protein. Conclusion: Our findings strongly suggest that the β-catenin degradation domain may be sufficient to destabilize heterologous proteins in Wnt signaling-dependent manner. It is conceivable that the chimeric GFP proteins may be used as a functional reporter to measure the dynamic status of β-catenin signaling, and to identify potential anticancer drugs that target β-catenin signaling.

  1. Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein promotes post-transcriptional downregulation of protein kinase PKR and inhibits eIF2alpha phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Ikegami

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is a negative-stranded RNA virus with a tripartite genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes fever and severe hemorrhagic illness among humans, and fever and high rates of abortions in livestock. A nonstructural RVFV NSs protein inhibits the transcription of host mRNAs, including interferon-beta mRNA, and is a major virulence factor. The present study explored a novel function of the RVFV NSs protein by testing the replication of RVFV lacking the NSs gene in the presence of actinomycin D (ActD or alpha-amanitin, both of which served as a surrogate of the host mRNA synthesis suppression function of the NSs. In the presence of the host-transcriptional inhibitors, the replication of RVFV lacking the NSs protein, but not that carrying NSs, induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR-mediated eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF2alpha phosphorylation, leading to the suppression of host and viral protein translation. RVFV NSs promoted post-transcriptional downregulation of PKR early in the course of the infection and suppressed the phosphorylated eIF2alpha accumulation. These data suggested that a combination of RVFV replication and NSs-induced host transcriptional suppression induces PKR-mediated eIF2alpha phosphorylation, while the NSs facilitates efficient viral translation by downregulating PKR and inhibiting PKR-mediated eIF2alpha phosphorylation. Thus, the two distinct functions of the NSs, i.e., the suppression of host transcription, including that of type I interferon mRNAs, and the downregulation of PKR, work together to prevent host innate antiviral functions, allowing efficient replication and survival of RVFV in infected mammalian hosts.

  2. Changes in tau phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following chronic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Guo, X. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, G.H. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wuhan University, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Wuhan, China, Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, H.L.; Liu, Z.C.; Liu, H.; Zhu, Z.X.; Li, Y. [Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Wuhan, China, Department of Psychiatry, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-03-03

    Studies have indicated that early-life or early-onset depression is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). In AD, aggregation of an abnormally phosphorylated form of the tau protein may be a key pathological event. Tau is known to play a major role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization, and in maintaining the normal morphology of neurons. Several studies have reported that stress may induce tau phosphorylation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the tau protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and then re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression, respectively, in humans. We evaluated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine, and CUMS re-exposure on tau and phospho-tau. Our results showed that a single exposure to CUMS caused a significant reduction in sucrose preference, indicating a state of anhedonia. The change in behavior was accompanied by specific alterations in phospho-tau protein levels, but fluoxetine treatment reversed the CUMS-induced impairments. Moreover, changes in sucrose preference and phospho-tau were more pronounced in rats re-exposed to CUMS than in those subjected to a single exposure. Our results suggest that changes in tau phosphorylation may contribute to the link between depression and AD.

  3. Changes in tau phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following chronic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Guo, X.; Wang, G.H.; Wang, H.L.; Liu, Z.C.; Liu, H.; Zhu, Z.X.; Li, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have indicated that early-life or early-onset depression is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease (AD). In AD, aggregation of an abnormally phosphorylated form of the tau protein may be a key pathological event. Tau is known to play a major role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization, and in maintaining the normal morphology of neurons. Several studies have reported that stress may induce tau phosphorylation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the tau protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and then re-exposed to CUMS to mimic depression and the recurrence of depression, respectively, in humans. We evaluated the effects of CUMS, fluoxetine, and CUMS re-exposure on tau and phospho-tau. Our results showed that a single exposure to CUMS caused a significant reduction in sucrose preference, indicating a state of anhedonia. The change in behavior was accompanied by specific alterations in phospho-tau protein levels, but fluoxetine treatment reversed the CUMS-induced impairments. Moreover, changes in sucrose preference and phospho-tau were more pronounced in rats re-exposed to CUMS than in those subjected to a single exposure. Our results suggest that changes in tau phosphorylation may contribute to the link between depression and AD

  4. Myofilament Calcium Sensitivity: Mechanistic Insight into TnI Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 Phosphorylation Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam E Salhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Troponin I (TnI is a major regulator of cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation. During physiological and pathological stress, TnI is differentially phosphorylated at multiple residues through different signaling pathways to match cardiac function to demand. The combination of these TnI phosphorylations can exhibit an expected or unexpected functional integration, whereby the function of two phosphorylations are different than that predicted from the combined function of each individual phosphorylation alone. We have shown that TnI Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 phosphorylation exhibit functional integration and are simultaneously increased in response to cardiac stress. In the current study, we investigated the functional integration of TnI Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 to alter cardiac contraction. We hypothesized that Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 phosphorylation each utilize distinct molecular mechanisms to alter the TnI binding affinity within the thin filament. Mathematical modeling predicts that Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 phosphorylation affect different TnI affinities within the thin filament to distinctly alter the Ca2+-binding properties of troponin. Protein binding experiments validate this assertion by demonstrating pseudo-phosphorylated Ser-150 decreases the affinity of isolated TnI for actin, whereas Ser-23/24 pseudo-phosphorylation is not different from unphosphorylated. Thus, our data supports that TnI Ser-23/24 affects TnI-TnC binding, while Ser-150 phosphorylation alters TnI-actin binding. By measuring force development in troponin-exchanged skinned myocytes, we demonstrate that the Ca2+ sensitivity of force is directly related to the amount of phosphate present on TnI. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ser-150 pseudo-phosphorylation blunts Ser-23/24-mediated decreased Ca2+-sensitive force development whether on the same or different TnI molecule. Therefore, TnI phosphorylations can integrate across troponins along the myofilament. These data demonstrate

  5. Sorbitol Can Fuel Mouse Sperm Motility and Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation via Sorbitol Dehydrogenase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenlei; Aghajanian, Haig K.; Haig-Ladewig, Lisa A.; Gerton, George L.

    2008-01-01

    Energy sources that can be metabolized to yield ATP are essential for normal sperm functions such as motility. Two major monosaccharides, sorbitol and fructose, are present in semen. Furthermore, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) can convert sorbitol to fructose, which can then be metabolized via the glycolytic pathway in sperm to make ATP. Here we characterize Sord mRNA and SORD expression during mouse spermatogenesis and examine the ability of sorbitol to support epididymal sperm motility and tyrosine phosphorylation. Sord mRNA levels increased during the course of spermatogenic differentiation. SORD protein, however, was first detected at the condensing spermatid stage. By indirect immunofluorescence, SORD was present along the length of the flagella of caudal epididymal sperm. Furthermore, immunoelectron microscopy showed that SORD was associated with mitochondria and the plasma membranes of sperm. Sperm incubated with sorbitol maintained motility, indicating that sorbitol was utilized as an energy source. Sorbitol, as well as glucose and fructose, were not essential to induce hyperactive motility. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation increased in a similar manner when sorbitol was substituted for glucose in the incubation medium used for sperm capacitation. These results indicate that sorbitol can serve as an alternative energy source for sperm motility and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:18799757

  6. On studying protein phosphorylation patterns using bottom-up LC-MS/MS: the case of human alpha-casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Savitski, Mikhail M; Nielsen, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    -LC-MS/MS. The occupancy rates of phosphosites in proteins may differ by orders of magnitude, and thus the occupancy rate must be reported for each occupied phosphosite. To highlight potential pitfalls in quantifying the occupancy rates, alpha(s1)-casein from human milk was selected as a model molecule representing...... moderately phosphorylated proteins. For this purpose, human milk from one Caucasian woman in the eighth month of lactation was used. The phosphorylation level of caseins is believed to have major implications for the formation of micelles that are involved in delivering valuable calcium phosphate and other...... minerals to the new-born. Human alpha(s1)-casein has been reported to be much less phosphorylated than ruminant caseins, which may indicate a different function of caseins in humans. Revealing the phosphorylation pattern in human casein can thus shed light on its function. The current study found...

  7. A phosphorylation-motif for tuneable helix stabilisation in intrinsically disordered proteins - Lessons from the sodium proton exchanger 1 (NHE1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendus-Altenburger, Ruth; Lambrughi, Matteo; Terkelsen, Thilde Bagger

    2017-01-01

    ). Using NMR spectroscopy, we found that two out of those six phosphorylation sites had a stabilizing effect on transient helices. One of these was further investigated by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy as well as by molecular dynamic simulations, which confirmed the stabilizing effect......-spread role in phosphorylation-mediated regulation of intrinsically disordered proteins. The identification of such motifs is important for understanding the molecular mechanism of cellular signalling, and is crucial for the development of predictors for the structural effect of phosphorylation; a tool......Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are involved in many pivotal cellular processes including phosphorylation and signalling. The structural and functional effects of phosphorylation of IDPs remain poorly understood and difficult to predict. Thus, a need exists to identify motifs that confer...

  8. Dinitrosopiperazine-Mediated Phosphorylated-Proteins Are Involved in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongjun Tan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine (DNP with organ specificity for nasopharyngeal epithelium, is involved in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC metastasis, though its mechanism is unclear. To reveal the pathogenesis of DNP-induced metastasis, immunoprecipitation was used to identify DNP-mediated phosphoproteins. DNP-mediated NPC cell line (6-10B motility and invasion was confirmed. Twenty-six phosphoproteins were increased at least 1.5-fold following DNP exposure. Changes in the expression levels of selected phosphoproteins were verified by Western-blotting analysis. DNP treatment altered the phosphorylation of ezrin (threonine 567, vimentin (serine 55, stathmin (serine 25 and STAT3 (serine 727. Furthermore, it was shown that DNP-dependent metastasis is mediated in part through ezrin at threonine 567, as DNP-mediated metastasis was decreased when threonine 567 of ezrin was mutated. Strikingly, NPC metastatic tumors exhibited a higher expression of phosphorylated-ezrin at threonine 567 than the primary tumors. These findings provide novel insight into DNP-induced NPC metastasis and may contribute to a better understanding of the metastatic mechanisms of NPC tumors.

  9. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Activated ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of Cytoplasmic Substrates Identified by Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Screen*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Sergei V.; Waardenberg, Ashley J.; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Arthur, Jonathan W.; Graham, Mark E.; Lavin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signaling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoints, initiating DNA repair, and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here, we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites, including 6,686 high-confidence sites mapping to 2,536 unique proteins. A total of 62 differentially phosphorylated peptides were identified; of these, 43 were phosphorylated in control but not in A-T cells, and 19 varied in their level of phosphorylation. Motif enrichment analysis of phosphopeptides revealed that consensus ATM serine glutamine sites were overrepresented. When considering phosphorylation events, only observed in control cells (not observed in A-T cells), with predicted ATM sites phosphoSerine/phosphoThreonine glutamine, we narrowed this list to 11 candidate ATM-dependent cytoplasmic proteins. Two of these 11 were previously described as ATM substrates (HMGA1 and UIMCI/RAP80), another five were identified in a whole cell extract phosphoproteomic screens, and the remaining four proteins had not been identified previously in DNA damage response screens. We validated the phosphorylation of three of these proteins (oxidative stress responsive 1 (OSR1), HDGF, and ccdc82) as ATM dependent after H2O2 exposure, and another protein (S100A11) demonstrated ATM

  10. Phosphorylation of a splice variant of collapsin response mediator protein 2 in the nucleus of tumour cells links cyclin dependent kinase-5 to oncogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Nicola J.; Coates, Philip J.; Woods, Yvonne L.; Bray, Susan E.; Morrice, Nicholas A.; Hastie, C. James; Lamont, Douglas J.; Carey, Francis A.; Sutherland, Calum

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent protein kinase-5 (CDK5) is an unusual member of the CDK family as it is not cell cycle regulated. However many of its substrates have roles in cell growth and oncogenesis, raising the possibility that CDK5 modulation could have therapeutic benefit. In order to establish whether changes in CDK5 activity are associated with oncogenesis one could quantify phosphorylation of CDK5 targets in disease tissue in comparison to appropriate controls. However the identity of physiological and pathophysiological CDK5 substrates remains the subject of debate, making the choice of CDK5 activity biomarkers difficult. Here we use in vitro and in cell phosphorylation assays to identify novel features of CDK5 target sequence determinants that confer enhanced CDK5 selectivity, providing means to select substrate biomarkers of CDK5 activity with more confidence. We then characterize tools for the best CDK5 substrate we identified to monitor its phosphorylation in human tissue and use these to interrogate human tumour arrays. The close proximity of Arg/Lys amino acids and a proline two residues N-terminal to the phosphorylated residue both improve recognition of the substrate by CDK5. In contrast the presence of a proline two residues C-terminal to the target residue dramatically reduces phosphorylation rate. Serine-522 of Collapsin Response Mediator-2 (CRMP2) is a validated CDK5 substrate with many of these structural criteria. We generate and characterise phosphospecific antibodies to Ser522 and show that phosphorylation appears in human tumours (lung, breast, and lymphoma) in stark contrast to surrounding non-neoplastic tissue. In lung cancer the anti-phospho-Ser522 signal is positive in squamous cell carcinoma more frequently than adenocarcinoma. Finally we demonstrate that it is a specific and unusual splice variant of CRMP2 (CRMP2A) that is phosphorylated in tumour cells. For the first time this data associates altered CDK5 substrate phosphorylation with

  11. Phosphorylation of paxillin via the ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in EL4 thymoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, H; Meier, K E

    2000-04-14

    Intracellular signals can regulate cell adhesion via several mechanisms in a process referred to as "inside-out" signaling. In phorbol ester-sensitive EL4 thymoma cells, phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induces activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinases and promotes cell adhesion. In this study, clonal EL4 cell lines with varying abilities to activate ERKs in response to PMA were used to examine signaling events occurring downstream of ERK activation. Paxillin, a multifunctional docking protein involved in cell adhesion, was phosphorylated on serine/threonine residues in response to PMA treatment. This response was correlated with the extent and time course of ERK activation. PMA-induced phosphorylation of paxillin was inhibited by compounds that block the ERK activation pathway in EL4 cells, primary murine thymocytes, and primary murine splenocytes. Paxillin was phosphorylated in vitro by purified active ERK2. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that PMA treatment generated a complex pattern of phosphorylated paxillin species in intact cells, some of which were generated by ERK-mediated phosphorylation in vitro. An ERK pathway inhibitor interfered with PMA-induced adhesion of sensitive EL4 cells to substrate. These findings describe a novel inside-out signaling pathway by which the ERK cascade may regulate events involved in adhesion.

  12. Phosphorylation of dynamin I on Ser-795 by protein kinase C blocks its association with phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, K A; Valova, V A; Malladi, C S

    2000-01-01

    Dynamin I is phosphorylated in nerve terminals exclusively in the cytosolic compartment and in vitro by protein kinase C (PKC). Dephosphorylation is required for synaptic vesicle retrieval, suggesting that its phosphorylation affects its subcellular localization. An in vitro phospholipid binding ...... assay was established that prevents lipid vesiculation and dynamin lipid insertion into the lipid. Dynamin I bound the phospholipid in a concentration-dependent and saturable manner, with an apparent affinity of 230 +/- 51 nM. Optimal binding occurred with mixtures of phosphatidylserine...... the phosphorylation site in PKCalpha-phosphorylated dynamin I as a single site at Ser-795, located near a binding site for the SH3 domain of p85, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, phosphorylation had no effect on dynamin binding to a bacterially expressed p85-SH3 domain. Thus...

  13. Identification of Tyrosine Phosphorylated Proteins by SH2 Domain Affinity Purification and Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Sophia; Gerull, Helwe; Nollau, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Phosphotyrosine signaling plays a major role in the control of many important biological functions such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. Deciphering of phosphotyrosine-dependent signaling is therefore of great interest paving the way for the understanding of physiological and pathological processes of signal transduction. On the basis of the specific binding of SH2 domains to phosphotyrosine residues, we here present an experimental workflow for affinity purification and subsequent identification of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins by mass spectrometry. In combination with SH2 profiling, a broadly applicable platform for the characterization of phosphotyrosine profiles in cell extracts, our pull down strategy enables researchers by now to identify proteins in signaling cascades which are differentially phosphorylated and selectively recognized by distinct SH2 domains.

  14. Circles within circles: crosstalk between protein Ser/Thr/Tyr-phosphorylation and Met oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Reversible posttranslational protein modifications such as phosphorylation of Ser/Thr/Tyr and Met oxidation are critical for both metabolic regulation and cellular signalling. Although these modifications are typically studied individually, herein we describe the potential for cross-talk...

  15. Enhanced phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein in Brain of mice following repetitive hypoxic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yanan; Gao Ge; Long Caixia; Han Song; Zu Pengyu; Fang Li; Li Junfa

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning (I/HPC) is a phenomenon of endogenous protection that renders Brain tolerant to sustained ischemia/hypoxia. This profound protection induced by I/HPC makes it an attractive target for developing potential clinical therapeutic approaches. However, the molecular mechanism of I/HPC is unclear. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB), a selective nuclear transcriptional factor, plays a key role in the neuronal functions. Phosphorylation of CREB on Ser-133 may facilitate its transcriptional activity in response to various stresses. In the current study, we observed the changes in CREB phosphorylation (Ser-133) and protein expression in Brain of auto-hypoxia-induced HPC mice by using Western blot analysis. We found that the levels of phosphorylated CREB (Ser-133), but not protein expression of CREB, increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex of mice after repetitive hypoxic exposure (H2-H4, n = 6 for each group), when compared to that of the normoxic (H0, n = 6) or hypoxic exposure once group (H1, n = 6). In addition, a significant enhancement (p < 0.05) of CREB phosphorylation (Ser-133) could also be found in the nuclear extracts from the whole hippocampus of hypoxic preconditioned mice (H2-H4, n = 6 for each group). These results suggest that the phosphorylation of CREB might be involved in the development of cerebral hypoxic preconditioning

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates CtBP1 and down-regulates its activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Youn; Kang, Byung-Hee; Lee, Soon-Min [National Creative Research Center for Epigenome Reprogramming Network, Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ischemic/Hypoxic Disease Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Soon; Kang, Gum-Yong; Bang, Joo Young [Center for Biomedical Mass Spectrometry, Diatech Korea Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Jung [National Research Laboratory for Chromatin Dynamics, College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Hong-Duk, E-mail: hdyoun@snu.ac.kr [National Creative Research Center for Epigenome Reprogramming Network, Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ischemic/Hypoxic Disease Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); WCU Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► AMPK phosphorylates CtBP1 on serine 158. ► AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 causes the ubiquitination and nuclear export of CtBP1. ► AMPK downregulates the CtBP1-mediated repression of Bax transcription. -- Abstract: CtBP is a transcriptional repressor which plays a significant role in the regulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression. It was reported that glucose withdrawal causes induction of Bax due to the dissociation of CtBP from the Bax promoter. However, the precise mechanism involved in the regulation of CtBP still remains unclear. In this study, we found that an activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates CtBP1 on Ser-158 upon metabolic stresses. Moreover, AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 (S158) attenuates the repressive function of CtBP1. We also confirmed that triggering activation of AMPK by various factors resulted in an increase of Bax gene expression. These findings provide connections of AMPK with CtBP1-mediated regulation of Bax expression for cell death under metabolic stresses.

  17. Molecular mechanisms for the regulation of histone mRNA stem-loop-binding protein by phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Tan, Dazhi; DeRose, Eugene F.; Perera, Lalith; Dominski, Zbigniew; Marzluff, William F.; Tong, Liang; Tanaka Hall, Traci M. [NIH; (UNC); (Columbia)

    2014-08-06

    Replication-dependent histone mRNAs end with a conserved stem loop that is recognized by stem-loop–binding protein (SLBP). The minimal RNA-processing domain of SLBP is phosphorylated at an internal threonine, and Drosophila SLBP (dSLBP) also is phosphorylated at four serines in its 18-aa C-terminal tail. We show that phosphorylation of dSLBP increases RNA-binding affinity dramatically, and we use structural and biophysical analyses of dSLBP and a crystal structure of human SLBP phosphorylated on the internal threonine to understand the striking improvement in RNA binding. Together these results suggest that, although the C-terminal tail of dSLBP does not contact the RNA, phosphorylation of the tail promotes SLBP conformations competent for RNA binding and thereby appears to reduce the entropic penalty for the association. Increased negative charge in this C-terminal tail balances positively charged residues, allowing a more compact ensemble of structures in the absence of RNA.

  18. Ionizing radiation-dependent and independent phosphorylation of the 32-kDa subunit of replication protein A during mitosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stephan, Holger

    2009-10-01

    The human single-stranded DNA-binding protein, replication protein A (RPA), is regulated by the N-terminal phosphorylation of its 32-kDa subunit, RPA2. RPA2 is hyperphosphorylated in response to various DNA-damaging agents and also phosphorylated in a cell-cycle-dependent manner during S- and M-phase, primarily at two CDK consensus sites, S23 and S29. Here we generated two monoclonal phospho-specific antibodies directed against these CDK sites. These phospho-specific RPA2-(P)-S23 and RPA2-(P)-S29 antibodies recognized mitotically phosphorylated RPA2 with high specificity. In addition, the RPA2-(P)-S23 antibody recognized the S-phase-specific phosphorylation of RPA2, suggesting that during S-phase only S23 is phosphorylated, whereas during M-phase both CDK sites, S23 and S29, are phosphorylated. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the mitotic phosphorylation of RPA2 starts at the onset of mitosis, and dephosphorylation occurs during late cytokinesis. In mitotic cells treated with ionizing radiation (IR), we observed a rapid hyperphosphorylation of RPA2 in addition to its mitotic phosphorylation at S23 and S29, associated with a significant change in the subcellular localization of RPA. Our data also indicate that the RPA2 hyperphosphorylation in response to IR is facilitated by the activity of both ATM and DNA-PK, and is associated with activation of the Chk2 pathway.

  19. Quantitative maps of protein phosphorylation sites across 14 different rat organs and tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Secher, Anna; Lage, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Deregulated cellular signalling is a common hallmark of disease, and delineating tissue phosphoproteomes is key to unravelling the underlying mechanisms. Here we present the broadest tissue catalogue of phosphoproteins to date, covering 31,480 phosphorylation sites on 7,280 proteins quantified ac...

  20. O-GlcNAc modification: why so intimately associated with phosphorylation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ande Sudharsana R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modification of proteins at serine and threonine side chains by β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc mediated by the enzyme β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase has been emerging as a fundamental regulatory mechanism encompassing a wide range of proteins involved in cell division, metabolism, transcription and cell signaling. Furthermore, an extensive interplay between O-GlcNAc modification and serine/threonine phosphorylation in a variety of proteins has been reported to exist. However, our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in O-GlcNAc modification and its interplay with serine/threonine phosphorylation in proteins is still elusive. Recent success in the mapping of O-GlcNAc modification sites in proteins as a result of technological advancement in mass spectrometry have revealed two important clues which may be inherently connected to the regulation of O-GlcNAc modification and its interplay with phosphorylation in proteins. First, almost all O-GlcNAc modified proteins are known phospho proteins. Second, the prevalence of tyrosine phosphorylation among O-GlcNAc modified proteins is exceptionally higher (~68% than its normal occurrence (~2% alone. We hypothesize that phosphorylation may be a requisite for O-GlcNAc modification and tyrosine phosphorylation plays a role in the interplay between O-GlcNAc modification and serine/threonine phosphorylation in proteins. In other words, the interplay between O-GlcNAc modification and phosphorylation is not limited to serine/threonine phosphorylation but also includes tyrosine phosphorylation. Our hypothesis provides an opportunity to understand the underlying mechanism involved in O-GlcNAc modification and its interplay with serine/threonine phosphorylation in proteins. Furthermore, implication of our hypothesis extends to tyrosine kinase signaling.

  1. Does phosphorylation of cofilin affect the progression of human bladder cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong Sup; Kim, Bokyung; Jung, Seung-Hyo; Won, Kyung-Jong; Jiang, Xiaowen; Lee, Chang-Kwon; Lim, So Dug; Yang, Sang-Kuk; Song, Ki Hak

    2013-01-01

    We determined the differently expressed protein profiles and their functions in bladder cancer tissues with the aim of identifying possible target proteins and underlying molecular mechanisms for taking part in their progression. We examined the expression of proteins by proteomic analysis and western blot in normal urothelium, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs), and muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs). The function of cofilin was analyzed using T24 human bladder cancer cells. The expression levels of 12 proteins were altered between bladder cancers and normal bladder tissues. Of these proteins, 14-3-3σ was upregulated in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with controls. On the other hand, myosin regulatory light chain 2, galectin-1, lipid-binding AI, annexin V, transthyretin, CARD-inhibitor of NF-κB-activating ligand, and actin prepeptide were downregulated in cancer samples. Cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing factor, was prominent in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with normal bladder tissues. Furthermore, we confirmed that cofilin phosphorylation was more prominent in MIBCs than in NMIBCs using immunoblotting and immunohistochemcal analyses. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) increased the phosphorylation of cofilin and elevated the migration in T24 cells. Knockdown of cofilin expression with small interfering RNA attenuated the T24 cell migration in response to EGF. These results demonstrate that the increased expression and phosphorylation of cofilin might play a role in the occurrence and invasiveness of bladder cancer. We suspected that changes in cofilin expression may participate in the progression of the bladder cancer

  2. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Directly Phosphorylates and Destabilizes Hedgehog Pathway Transcription Factor GLI1 in Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsing Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog (Hh pathway regulates cell differentiation and proliferation during development by controlling the Gli transcription factors. Cell fate decisions and progression toward organ and tissue maturity must be coordinated, and how an energy sensor regulates the Hh pathway is not clear. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an important sensor of energy stores and controls protein synthesis and other energy-intensive processes. AMPK is directly responsive to intracellular AMP levels, inhibiting a wide range of cell activities if ATP is low and AMP is high. Thus, AMPK can affect development by influencing protein synthesis and other processes needed for growth and differentiation. Activation of AMPK reduces GLI1 protein levels and stability, thus blocking Sonic-hedgehog-induced transcriptional activity. AMPK phosphorylates GLI1 at serines 102 and 408 and threonine 1074. Mutation of these three sites into alanine prevents phosphorylation by AMPK. This leads to increased GLI1 protein stability, transcriptional activity, and oncogenic potency.

  3. Far-infrared radiation acutely increases nitric oxide production by increasing Ca2+ mobilization and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1179

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sangmi; Cho, Du-Hyong; Park, Young Mi; Kang, Duk-Hee; Jo, Inho

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Far-infrared (FIR) radiation increases eNOS-Ser 1179 phosphorylation and NO production in BAEC. •CaMKII and PKA mediate FIR-stimulated increases in eNOS-Ser 1179 phosphorylation. •FIR increases intracellular Ca 2+ levels. •Thermo-sensitive TRPV Ca 2+ channels are unlikely to be involved in the FIR-mediated eNOS-Ser 1179 phosphorylation pathway. -- Abstract: Repeated thermal therapy manifested by far-infrared (FIR) radiation improves vascular function in both patients and mouse model with coronary heart disease, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using FIR as a thermal therapy agent, we investigate the molecular mechanism of its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. FIR increased the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1179 (eNOS-Ser 1179 ) in a time-dependent manner (up to 40 min of FIR radiation) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) without alterations in eNOS expression. This increase was accompanied by increases in NO production and intracellular Ca 2+ levels. Treatment with KN-93, a selective inhibitor of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser 1179 phosphorylation. FIR radiation itself also increased the temperature of culture medium. As transient receptors potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels are known to be temperature-sensitive calcium channels, we explore whether TRPV channels mediate these observed effects. Reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed two TRPV isoforms in BAEC, TRPV2 and TRPV4. Although ruthenium red, a pan-TRPV inhibitor, completely reversed the observed effect of FIR radiation, a partial attenuation (∼20%) was found in cells treated with Tranilast, TRPV2 inhibitor. However, ectopic expression of siRNA of TRPV2 showed no significant alteration in FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser 1179 phosphorylation. This study suggests that FIR radiation increases NO

  4. In vivo phosphorylation of axonal proteins in goldfish optic nerve during regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrivee, D.C.; Grafstein, B.

    1987-01-01

    In vivo phosphorylation of axonal proteins was investigated in normal and regenerating optic nerves of goldfish by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. By 6-24 h after intraocular injection of H/sub 3/(32)PO/sub 4/, approximately 20 optic nerve proteins ranging in size from 19 to 180 kilodaltons and in pI from 4.4 to 6.8 were seen to have incorporated radiolabel. Five of these proteins showed a robust increase in incorporation of phosphate during regeneration. Among the latter was an acidic (pI 4.5) 45-kilodalton protein, which has previously been shown to be conveyed by fast axonal transport and to increase dramatically in its rate of synthesis during regeneration of goldfish optic axons.

  5. A stable aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4 analog blocks phosphorylation of leukocyte-specific protein 1 in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Taisuke; Bannenberg, Gerard; Arita, Makoto; Takahashi, Minoru; Ge, Qingyuan; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Stahl, Gregory L; Serhan, Charles N; Badwey, John A

    2004-08-01

    Lipoxins and their aspirin-triggered 15-epimers are endogenous anti-inflammatory agents that block neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro and inhibit neutrophil influx in several models of acute inflammation. In this study, we examined the effects of 15-epi-16-(p-fluoro)-phenoxy-lipoxin A(4) methyl ester, an aspirin-triggered lipoxin A(4)-stable analog (ATLa), on the protein phosphorylation pattern of human neutrophils. Neutrophils stimulated with the chemoattractant fMLP were found to exhibit intense phosphorylation of a 55-kDa protein that was blocked by ATLa (10-50 nM). This 55-kDa protein was identified as leukocyte-specific protein 1, a downstream component of the p38-MAPK cascade in neutrophils, by mass spectrometry, Western blotting, and immunoprecipitation experiments. ATLa (50 nM) also reduced phosphorylation/activation of several components of the p38-MAPK pathway in these cells (MAPK kinase 3/MAPK kinase 6, p38-MAPK, MAPK-activated protein kinase-2). These results indicate that ATLa exerts its anti-inflammatory effects, at least in part, by blocking activation of the p38-MAPK cascade in neutrophils, which is known to promote chemotaxis and other proinflammatory responses by these cells.

  6. Calcineurin B homologous protein 3 negatively regulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Soushi; Nakamura, Tomoe Y; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a leading cause of serious heart diseases. Although many signaling molecules are involved in hypertrophy, the functions of some proteins in this process are still unknown. Calcineurin B homologous protein 3 (CHP3)/tescalcin is an EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein that is abundantly expressed in the heart; however, the function of CHP3 is unclear. Here, we aimed to identify the cardiac functions of CHP3. CHP3 was expressed in hearts at a wide range of developmental stages and was specifically detected in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) but not in cardiac fibroblasts in culture. Moreover, knockdown of CHP3 expression using adenoviral-based RNA interference in NRVMs resulted in enlargement of cardiomyocyte size, concomitant with increased expression of a pathological hypertrophy marker ANP. This same treatment elevated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3α/β) phosphorylation, which is known to inhibit GSK3 function. In contrast, CHP3 overexpression blocked the insulin-induced phosphorylation of GSK3α/β without affecting the phosphorylation of Akt, which is an upstream kinase of GSK3α/β, in HEK293 cells, and it inhibited both IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in NRVMs. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that GSK3β interacted with CHP3. However, a Ca(2+)-binding-defective mutation of CHP3 (CHP3-D123A) also interacted with GSK3β and had the same inhibitory effect on GSK3α/β phosphorylation, suggesting that the action of CHP3 was independent of Ca(2+). These findings suggest that CHP3 functions as a novel negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of GSK3α/β phosphorylation and subsequent enzymatic activation of GSK3α/β. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of microwave exposure on motor learning and GluR2 phosphorylation in rabbit cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Wang Denggao; Zhang Guangbin; Zhou Wen; Yang Xuesen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of microwave exposure on motor learning and Glutamate receptor 2(GluR2) phosphorylation in rat cerebellum. Methods: The rabbits were trained for seven days to form eye-blink conditioning, and then divided randomly into control and microwave exposure group (at hours 0,3,24 and 72 subgroups after exposure, respectively). The rabbits were accepted 90 mW/cm 2 microwave exposure for 30 minutes, and the rectal temperature were detected immediately after exposure and specific absorption rate (SAR) value were calculated. Eye-blink conditioning were detected immediately after exposure, and cerebellar GluR2 protein and GluR2 phosphorylation were detected with Western blotting. Results: Rectal temperature of rabbits were increased by 3.02 degree C after exposure, and SAR value was 8.74 W/kg. The eye-blink conditioning decreased significantly after exposure, and cerebellar GluR2 protein expression had no significant alteration but phosphorylation reduced significantly after exposure. Conclusions: 90 mW/cm 2 microwave exposure has injurious effects on cerebellar GluR2 phosphorylation and motor learning. (authors)

  8. C75, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, modulates AMP-activated protein kinase to alter neuronal energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landree, Leslie E; Hanlon, Andrea L; Strong, David W; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Miller, Ian M; Thupari, Jagan N; Connolly, Erin C; Huganir, Richard L; Richardson, Christine; Witters, Lee A; Kuhajda, Francis P; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2004-01-30

    C75, a synthetic inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), is hypothesized to alter the metabolism of neurons in the hypothalamus that regulate feeding behavior to contribute to the decreased food intake and profound weight loss seen with C75 treatment. In the present study, we characterize the suitability of primary cultures of cortical neurons for studies designed to investigate the consequences of C75 treatment and the alteration of fatty acid metabolism in neurons. We demonstrate that in primary cortical neurons, C75 inhibits FAS activity and stimulates carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), consistent with its effects in peripheral tissues. C75 alters neuronal ATP levels and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. Neuronal ATP levels are affected in a biphasic manner with C75 treatment, decreasing initially, followed by a prolonged increase above control levels. Cerulenin, a FAS inhibitor, causes a similar biphasic change in ATP levels, although levels do not exceed control. C75 and cerulenin modulate AMPK phosphorylation and activity. TOFA, an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, increases ATP levels, but does not affect AMPK activity. Several downstream pathways are affected by C75 treatment, including glucose metabolism and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation. These data demonstrate that C75 modulates the levels of energy intermediates, thus, affecting the energy sensor AMPK. Similar effects in hypothalamic neurons could form the basis for the effects of C75 on feeding behavior.

  9. Protein kinase C {alpha} activity is important for contraction-induced FXYD1 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Rose, Adam John; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt

    2011-01-01

    Exercise induced phosphorylation of FXYD1 is a potential important regulator of Na(+), K(+) pump activity. It was investigated if skeletal muscle contractions induce phosphorylation of FXYD1 and if Protein Kinase C a (PKCa) activity is a prerequisite for this possible mechanism. In part 1, human...... muscle biopsies were obtained at rest, after 30 s of high intensity exercise (166±31% of VO(2max)) and after a subsequent 20 min of moderate intensity exercise (79±8% of VO(2max)). In general, FXYD1 phosphorylation was increased compared to rest both after 30 s (P...

  10. Protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates the Fas-associated factor FAF1 in vivo and influences its transport into the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte B; Jessen, Vibeke; Højrup, Peter

    2003-01-01

    We previously identified the Fas-associated factor FAF1 as an in vitro substrate of protein kinase CK2 and determined Ser289 and Ser291 as phosphorylation sites. Here we demonstrate that these two serine residues are the only sites phosphorylated by CK2 in vitro, and that at least one site...... is phosphorylated in vivo. Furthermore, we analyzed putative physiological functions of FAF1 phosphorylation. The ability of FAF1 to potentiate Fas-induced apoptosis is not influenced by the FAF1 phosphorylation status; however, the nuclear import of a phosphorylation-deficient FAF1 mutant was delayed in comparison...

  11. Phosphorylation state of a Tob/BTG protein, FOG-3, regulates initiation and maintenance of the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm fate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myon-Hee; Kim, Kyung Won; Morgan, Clinton T; Morgan, Dyan E; Kimble, Judith

    2011-05-31

    FOG-3, the single Caenorhabditis elegans Tob/BTG protein, directs germ cells to adopt the sperm fate at the expense of oogenesis. Importantly, FOG-3 activity must be maintained for the continued production of sperm that is typical of the male sex. Vertebrate Tob proteins have antiproliferative activity and ERK phosphorylation of Tob proteins has been proposed to abrogate "antiproliferative" activity. Here we investigate FOG-3 phosphorylation and its effect on sperm fate specification. We found both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of FOG-3 in nematodes. We then interrogated the role of FOG-3 phosphorylation in sperm fate specification. Specifically, we assayed FOG-3 transgenes for rescue of a fog-3 null mutant. Wild-type FOG-3 rescued both initiation and maintenance of sperm fate specification. A FOG-3 mutant with its four consensus ERK phosphorylation sites substituted to alanines, called FOG-3(4A), rescued partially: sperm were made transiently but not continuously in both sexes. A different FOG-3 mutant with its sites substituted to glutamates, called FOG-3(4E), had no rescuing activity on its own, but together with FOG-3(4A) rescue was complete. Thus, when FOG-3(4A) and FOG-3(4E) were both introduced into the same animals, sperm fate specification was not only initiated but also maintained, resulting in continuous spermatogenesis in males. Our findings suggest that unphosphorylated FOG-3 initiates the sperm fate program and that phosphorylated FOG-3 maintains that program for continued sperm production typical of males. We discuss implications of our results for Tob/BTG proteins in vertebrates.

  12. Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Sen, Ganes C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a wealth of knowledge about how different Ser/Thr protein kinases participate in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. In many cases, we know the identities of the Ser/Thr residues of various components of the TLR-signaling pathways that are phosphorylated, the functional consequences of the phosphorylation and the responsible protein kinases. In contrast, the analysis of Tyr-phosphorylation of TLRs and their signaling proteins is currently incomplete, because several existing analyses are not systematic or they do not rely on robust experimental data. Nevertheless, it is clear that many TLRs require, for signaling, ligand-dependent phosphorylation of specific Tyr residues in their cytoplasmic domains; the list includes TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR8 and TLR9. In this article, we discuss the current status of knowledge on the effect of Tyr-phosphorylation of TLRs and their signaling proteins on their biochemical and biological functions, the possible identities of the relevant protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and the nature of regulations of PTK-mediated activation of TLR signaling pathways. PMID:25022196

  13. [Protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 blocks polyploidization of SP600125-induced CMK cells by regulating phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Yang, Jingang; Li, Changling; Xing, Sining; Yu, Ying; Liu, Shuo; Pu, Feifei; Ma, Dongchu

    2016-10-01

    Objective To investigate the regulatory effect of post-translation modification of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) on the polyploidization of megakaryocytes. Methods SP600125, a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, and H-89, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, were used to treat CMK cells separately or in combination. With propidium iodide (PI) to dye DNA in the treated cells, the relative DNA content was detected by flow cytometry, and then the DNA polyploidy was analyzed. The change of expression and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), an important mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) downstream target molecule, was analyzed by Western blotting. Molecular docking study and kinase activity assay were performed to analyze the combination of H-89 with S6K1 and the effect of H-89 on the activity of S6K1 kinase. Results SP600125 induced CMK cell polyploidization in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. At the same time, it increased the phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr421/Ser424 and decreased the phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr389. H-89 not only blocked polyploidization, but also decreased the phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr421/Ser424 and increased the phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr389. Molecular docking and kinase activity assay showed that H-89 occupied the ATP binding sites of S6K1 and inhibited its activity. Noticeably, both H-89 and SP600125 inhibited the activity of PKA. Moreover, the two drugs further inhibited the activity of PKA when used together. Therefore, these data indicated that H-89 blocked the SP600125-induced polyploidization of CMK cells mainly by changing S6K1 phosphorylation state, rather than its inhibitory effect on PKA. Conclusion H-89 can block the polyploidization of SP600125-induced CMK cells by regulating S6K1 phosphorylation state.

  14. Spasmolytic Mechanism of Aqueous Licorice Extract on Oxytocin-Induced Uterine Contraction through Inhibiting the Phosphorylation of Heat Shock Protein 27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Licorice derived from the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (Fabaceae, is one of the most widely-used traditional herbal medicines in China. It has been reported to possess significant analgesic activity for treating spastic pain. The aim of this study is to investigate the spasmolytic molecular mechanism of licorice on oxytocin-induced uterine contractions and predict the relevant bioactive constituents in the aqueous extract. The aqueous extraction from licorice inhibited the amplitude and frequency of uterine contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. A morphological examination showed that myometrial smooth muscle cells of oxytocin-stimulated group were oval-shaped and arranged irregularly, while those with a single centrally located nucleus of control and licorice-treated groups were fusiform and arranged orderly. The percentage of phosphorylation of HSP27 at Ser-15 residue increased up to 50.33% at 60 min after oxytocin stimulation. Furthermore, this increase was significantly suppressed by licorice treatment at the concentration of 0.2 and 0.4 mg/mL. Colocalization between HSP27 and α-SMA was observed in the myometrial tissues, especially along the actin bundles in the oxytocin-stimulated group. On the contrary, the colocalization was no longer shown after treatment with licorice. Additionally, employing ChemGPS-NP provided support for a preliminary assignment of liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin as protein kinase C (PKC inhibitors in addition to liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritin and isoliquiritin as MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2 inhibitors. These assigned compounds were docked with corresponding crystal structures of respective proteins with negative and low binding energy, which indicated a high affinity and tight binding capacity for the active site of the kinases. These results suggest that licorice exerts its spasmolytic effect through inhibiting the phosphorylation of HSP27 to alter the

  15. SCGB3A2 Inhibits Acrolein-Induced Apoptosis through Decreased p53 Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Reiko; Shima, Reika; Miyano, Yuki; Sakahara, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Yoshie; Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Shioko

    2015-04-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a major global health problem with increasing morbidity and mortality rates, is anticipated to become the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2020. COPD arises from exposure to cigarette smoke. Acrolein, which is contained in cigarette smoke, is the most important risk factor for COPD. It causes lung injury through altering apoptosis and causes inflammation by augmenting p53 phosphorylation and producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2, a secretory protein predominantly present in the epithelial cells of the lungs and trachea, is a cytokine-like small molecule having anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and growth factor activities. In this study, the effect of SCGB3A2 on acrolein-related apoptosis was investigated using the mouse fibroblast cell line MLg as the first step in determining the possible therapeutic value of SCGB3A2 in COPD. Acrolein increased the production of ROS and phosphorylation of p53 and induced apoptosis in MLg cells. While the extent of ROS production induced by acrolein was not affected by SCGB3A2, p53 phosphorylation was significantly decreased by SCGB3A2. These results demonstrate that SCGB3A2 inhibited acrolein-induced apoptosis through decreased p53 phosphorylation, not altered ROS levels.

  16. SCGB3A2 Inhibits Acrolein-Induced Apoptosis through Decreased p53 Phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurotani, Reiko; Shima, Reika; Miyano, Yuki; Sakahara, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Yoshie; Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Shioko

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a major global health problem with increasing morbidity and mortality rates, is anticipated to become the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2020. COPD arises from exposure to cigarette smoke. Acrolein, which is contained in cigarette smoke, is the most important risk factor for COPD. It causes lung injury through altering apoptosis and causes inflammation by augmenting p53 phosphorylation and producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2, a secretory protein predominantly present in the epithelial cells of the lungs and trachea, is a cytokine-like small molecule having anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and growth factor activities. In this study, the effect of SCGB3A2 on acrolein-related apoptosis was investigated using the mouse fibroblast cell line MLg as the first step in determining the possible therapeutic value of SCGB3A2 in COPD. Acrolein increased the production of ROS and phosphorylation of p53 and induced apoptosis in MLg cells. While the extent of ROS production induced by acrolein was not affected by SCGB3A2, p53 phosphorylation was significantly decreased by SCGB3A2. These results demonstrate that SCGB3A2 inhibited acrolein-induced apoptosis through decreased p53 phosphorylation, not altered ROS levels

  17. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak2 in the JH2 domain inhibits cytokine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feener, Edward P; Rosario, Felicia; Dunn, Sarah L; Stancheva, Zlatina; Myers, Martin G

    2004-06-01

    Jak family tyrosine kinases mediate signaling by cytokine receptors to regulate diverse biological processes. Although Jak2 and other Jak kinase family members are phosphorylated on numerous sites during cytokine signaling, the identity and function of most of these sites remains unknown. Using tandem mass spectroscopic analysis of activated Jak2 protein from intact cells, we identified Tyr(221) and Tyr(570) as novel sites of Jak2 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of both sites was stimulated by cytokine treatment of cultured cells, and this stimulation required Jak2 kinase activity. While we observed no gross alteration of signaling upon mutation of Tyr(221), Tyr(570) lies within the inhibitory JH2 domain of Jak2, and mutation of this site (Jak2(Y570F)) results in constitutive Jak2-dependent signaling in the absence of cytokine stimulation and enhances and prolongs Jak2 activation during cytokine stimulation. Mutation of Tyr(570) does not alter the ability of SOCS3 to bind or inhibit Jak2, however. Thus, the phosphorylation of Tyr(570) in vivo inhibits Jak2-dependent signaling independently of SOCS3-mediated inhibition. This Tyr(570)-dependent mechanism of Jak2 inhibition likely represents an important mechanism by which cytokine function is regulated.

  18. Phosphorylation and interactions associated with the control of the Leishmania Poly-A Binding Protein 1 (PABP1) function during translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Neto, Osvaldo P; da Costa Lima, Tamara D C; Merlo, Kleison C; Romão, Tatiany P; Rocha, Pollyanna O; Assis, Ludmila A; Nascimento, Larissa M; Xavier, Camila C; Rezende, Antonio M; Reis, Christian R S; Papadopoulou, Barbara

    2018-03-23

    The Poly-A Binding Protein (PABP) is a conserved eukaryotic polypeptide involved in many aspects of mRNA metabolism. During translation initiation, PABP interacts with the translation initiation complex eIF4F and enhances the translation of polyadenylated mRNAs. Schematically, most PABPs can be divided into an N-terminal RNA-binding region, a non-conserved linker segment and the C-terminal MLLE domain. In pathogenic Leishmania protozoans, three PABP homologues have been identified, with the first one (PABP1) targeted by phosphorylation and shown to co-immunoprecipitate with an eIF4F-like complex (EIF4E4/EIF4G3) implicated in translation initiation. Here, PABP1 phosphorylation was shown to be linked to logarithmic cell growth, reminiscent of EIF4E4 phosphorylation, and coincides with polysomal association. Phosphorylation targets multiple serine-proline (SP) or threonine-proline (TP) residues within the PABP1 linker region. This is an essential protein, but phosphorylation is not needed for its association with polysomes or cell viability. Mutations which do impair PABP1 polysomal association and are required for viability do not prevent phosphorylation, although further mutations lead to a presumed inactive protein largely lacking phosphorylated isoforms. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments were carried out to investigate PABP1 function further, identifying several novel protein partners and the EIF4E4/EIF4G3 complex, but no other eIF4F-like complex or subunit. A novel, direct interaction between PABP1 and EIF4E4 was also investigated and found to be mediated by the PABP1 MLLE binding to PABP Interacting Motifs (PAM2) within the EIF4E4 N-terminus. The results shown here are consistent with phosphorylation of PABP1 being part of a novel pathway controlling its function and possibly translation in Leishmania.

  19. Phosphorylation of the Synaptonemal Complex Protein Zip1 Regulates the Crossover/Noncrossover Decision during Yeast Meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interhomolog crossovers promote proper chromosome segregation during meiosis and are formed by the regulated repair of programmed double-strand breaks. This regulation requires components of the synaptonemal complex (SC, a proteinaceous structure formed between homologous chromosomes. In yeast, SC formation requires the "ZMM" genes, which encode a functionally diverse set of proteins, including the transverse filament protein, Zip1. In wild-type meiosis, Zmm proteins promote the biased resolution of recombination intermediates into crossovers that are distributed throughout the genome by interference. In contrast, noncrossovers are formed primarily through synthesis-dependent strand annealing mediated by the Sgs1 helicase. This work identifies a conserved region on the C terminus of Zip1 (called Zip1 4S, whose phosphorylation is required for the ZMM pathway of crossover formation. Zip1 4S phosphorylation is promoted both by double-strand breaks (DSBs and the meiosis-specific kinase, MEK1/MRE4, demonstrating a role for MEK1 in the regulation of interhomolog crossover formation, as well as interhomolog bias. Failure to phosphorylate Zip1 4S results in meiotic prophase arrest, specifically in the absence of SGS1. This gain of function meiotic arrest phenotype is suppressed by spo11Δ, suggesting that it is due to unrepaired breaks triggering the meiotic recombination checkpoint. Epistasis experiments combining deletions of individual ZMM genes with sgs1-md zip1-4A indicate that Zip1 4S phosphorylation functions prior to the other ZMMs. These results suggest that phosphorylation of Zip1 at DSBs commits those breaks to repair via the ZMM pathway and provides a mechanism by which the crossover/noncrossover decision can be dynamically regulated during yeast meiosis.

  20. A Ser/Thr protein kinase phosphorylates MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 1) during banana fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis during ripening. ACS isozymes are regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. However, in banana, an important climacteric fruit, little is known about post-translational regulation of ACS. Here, we report the post-translational modification of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACS1), a ripening inducible isozyme in the ACS family, which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis during banana fruit ripening. Immunoprecipitation analyses of phospholabeled protein extracts from banana fruit using affinity-purified anti-MA-ACS1 antibody have revealed phosphorylation of MA-ACS1, particularly in ripe fruit tissue. We have identified the induction of a 41-kDa protein kinase activity in pulp at the onset of ripening. The 41-kDa protein kinase has been identified as a putative protein kinase by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Biochemical analyses using partially purified protein kinase fraction from banana fruit have identified the protein kinase as a Ser/Thr family of protein kinase and its possible involvement in MA-ACS1 phosphorylation during ripening. In vitro phosphorylation analyses using synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenized recombinant MA-ACS1 have revealed that serine 476 and 479 residues at the C-terminal region of MA-ACS1 are phosphorylated. Overall, this study provides important novel evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of MA-ACS1 at the molecular level as a possible mechanism of post-translational regulation of this key regulatory protein in ethylene signaling pathway in banana fruit during ripening.

  1. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, P.G.; Allen, O.B.; Bettger, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on patterns of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane proteins and erythrocyte filterability was examined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing less than 1.1 mg zinc/kg diet ad libitum for 3 wk. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg diet. Net phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins were carried out by an in vitro assay utilizing [gamma- 32 P]ATP. The membrane proteins were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the 32 P content of gel slices was counted by Cerenkov counting. Erythrocyte filterability was measured as the filtration time of suspensions of erythrocytes, both untreated and preincubated with diamide, under constant pressure. Erythrocyte ghosts from zinc-deficient rats demonstrated greater dephosphorylation of protein bands R1 plus R2 and R7 than pair-fed rats and greater net phosphorylation of band R2.2 than pair-fed or ad libitum-fed control rats (P less than 0.05). Erythrocytes from ad libitum-fed control rats showed significantly longer filtration times than those from zinc-deficient or pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, dietary zinc deficiency alters in vitro patterns of erythrocyte membrane protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas the depression in food intake associated with the zinc deficiency increases erythrocyte filterability. 71 references

  2. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Dephosphorylation Occurs during Pregenomic RNA Encapsidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiong; Hu, Zhanying; Cheng, Junjun; Wu, Shuo; Luo, Yue; Chang, Jinhong; Hu, Jianming; Guo, Ju-Tao

    2018-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein consists of an N-terminal assembly domain and a C-terminal domain (CTD) with seven conserved serines or threonines that are dynamically phosphorylated/dephosphorylated during the viral replication cycle. Sulfamoylbenzamide derivatives are small molecular core protein allosteric modulators (CpAMs) that bind to the heteroaryldihydropyrimidine (HAP) pocket between the core protein dimer-dimer interfaces. CpAM binding alters the kinetics and pathway of capsid assembly and can result in the formation of morphologically "normal" capsids devoid of viral pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and DNA polymerase. In order to investigate the mechanism underlying CpAM inhibition of pgRNA encapsidation, we developed an immunoblotting assay that can resolve core protein based on its phosphorylation status and demonstrated, for the first time, that core protein is hyperphosphorylated in free dimers and empty capsids from both mock-treated and CpAM-treated cells but is hypophosphorylated in pgRNA- and DNA-containing nucleocapsids. Interestingly, inhibition of pgRNA encapsidation by a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor prevented core protein dephosphorylation. Moreover, core proteins with point mutations at the wall of the HAP pocket, V124A and V124W, assembled empty capsids and nucleocapsids with altered phosphorylation status. The results thus suggest that core protein dephosphorylation occurs in the assembly of pgRNA and that interference with the interaction between core protein subunits at dimer-dimer interfaces during nucleocapsid assembly alters not only capsid structure, but also core protein dephosphorylation. Hence, inhibition of pgRNA encapsidation by CpAMs might be due to disruption of core protein dephosphorylation during nucleocapsid assembly. IMPORTANCE Dynamic phosphorylation of HBV core protein regulates multiple steps of viral replication. However, the regulatory function was mainly investigated by phosphomimetic mutagenesis, which

  3. Role of p70S6K1-mediated phosphorylation of eIF4B and PDCD4 proteins in the regulation of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Michael D; Jefferson, Leonard S; Kimball, Scot R

    2012-12-14

    Modulation of mRNA binding to the 40 S ribosomal subunit during translation initiation controls not only global rates of protein synthesis but also regulates the pattern of protein expression by allowing for selective inclusion, or exclusion, of mRNAs encoding particular proteins from polysomes. The mRNA binding step is modulated by signaling through a protein kinase known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 directly phosphorylates the translational repressors eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BP) 1 and 2, releasing them from the mRNA cap binding protein eIF4E, thereby promoting assembly of the eIF4E·eIF4G complex. mTORC1 also phosphorylates the 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), which subsequently phosphorylates eIF4B, and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), which sequesters eIF4A from the eIF4E·eIF4G complex, resulting in repressed translation of mRNAs with highly structured 5'-untranslated regions. In the present study, we compared the role of the 4E-BPs in the regulation of global rates of protein synthesis to that of eIF4B and PDCD4. We found that maintenance of eIF4E interaction with eIF4G was not by itself sufficient to sustain global rates of protein synthesis in the absence of mTORC1 signaling to p70S6K1; phosphorylation of both eIF4B and PDCD4 was additionally required. We also found that the interaction of eIF4E with eIF4G was maintained in the liver of fasted rats as well as in serum-deprived mouse embryo fibroblasts lacking both 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2, suggesting that the interaction of eIF4G with eIF4E is controlled primarily through the 4E-BPs.

  4. Phosphorylation of NS5A Serine-235 is essential to hepatitis C virus RNA replication and normal replication compartment formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyre, Nicholas S., E-mail: nicholas.eyre@adelaide.edu.au [School of Biological Sciences and Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide (Australia); Hampton-Smith, Rachel J.; Aloia, Amanda L. [School of Biological Sciences and Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide (Australia); Eddes, James S. [Adelaide Proteomics Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Simpson, Kaylene J. [Victorian Centre for Functional Genomics, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); Hoffmann, Peter [Adelaide Proteomics Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Institute for Photonics and Advanced Sensing (IPAS), University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Beard, Michael R. [School of Biological Sciences and Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A protein is essential for HCV RNA replication and virus assembly. Here we report the identification of NS5A phosphorylation sites Ser-222, Ser-235 and Thr-348 during an infectious HCV replication cycle and demonstrate that Ser-235 phosphorylation is essential for HCV RNA replication. Confocal microscopy revealed that both phosphoablatant (S235A) and phosphomimetic (S235D) mutants redistribute NS5A to large juxta-nuclear foci that display altered colocalization with known replication complex components. Using electron microscopy (EM) we found that S235D alters virus-induced membrane rearrangements while EM using ‘APEX2’-tagged viruses demonstrated S235D-mediated enrichment of NS5A in irregular membranous foci. Finally, using a customized siRNA screen of candidate NS5A kinases and subsequent analysis using a phospho-specific antibody, we show that phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase III alpha (PI4KIIIα) is important for Ser-235 phosphorylation. We conclude that Ser-235 phosphorylation of NS5A is essential for HCV RNA replication and normal replication complex formation and is regulated by PI4KIIIα. - Highlights: • NS5A residues Ser-222, Ser-235 and Thr-348 are phosphorylated during HCV infection. • Phosphorylation of Ser-235 is essential to HCV RNA replication. • Mutation of Ser-235 alters replication compartment localization and morphology. • Phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase III alpha is important for Ser-235 phosphorylation.

  5. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase R-PTP-alpha is tyrosine-phosphorylated and associated with the adaptor protein Grb2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, J; Batzer, A; Sap, J

    1994-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine phosphatases (R-PTPases) have generated interest because of their suspected involvement in cellular signal transduction. The adaptor protein Grb2 has been implicated in coupling receptor tyrosine kinases to Ras. We report that a ubiquitous R-PTPase, R-PTP-alpha, is tyrosine......-phosphorylated and associated in vivo with the Grb2 protein. This association can be reproduced in stably and transiently transfected cells, as well as in vitro using recombinant Grb2 protein. Association requires the presence of an intact SH2 domain in Grb2, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of R-PTP-alpha. This observation...... links a receptor tyrosine phosphatase with a key component of a central cellular signalling pathway and provides a basis for addressing R-PTP-alpha function....

  6. The mitosis-regulating and protein-protein interaction activities of astrin are controlled by aurora-A-induced phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-Chih; Chen, Jo-Mei Maureen; Wei, Tong-You Wade; Cheng, Tai-Shan; Wang, Ya-Hui Candice; Ku, Chia-Feng; Lian, Chiao-Hsuan; Liu, Chun-Chih Jared; Kuo, Yi-Chun; Yu, Chang-Tze Ricky

    2014-09-01

    Cells display dramatic morphological changes in mitosis, where numerous factors form regulatory networks to orchestrate the complicated process, resulting in extreme fidelity of the segregation of duplicated chromosomes into two daughter cells. Astrin regulates several aspects of mitosis, such as maintaining the cohesion of sister chromatids by inactivating Separase and stabilizing spindle, aligning and segregating chromosomes, and silencing spindle assembly checkpoint by interacting with Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein (SKAP) and cytoplasmic linker-associated protein-1α (CLASP-1α). To understand how Astrin is regulated in mitosis, we report here that Astrin acts as a mitotic phosphoprotein, and Aurora-A phosphorylates Astrin at Ser(115). The phosphorylation-deficient mutant Astrin S115A abnormally activates spindle assembly checkpoint and delays mitosis progression, decreases spindle stability, and induces chromosome misalignment. Mechanistic analyses reveal that Astrin phosphorylation mimicking mutant S115D, instead of S115A, binds and induces ubiquitination and degradation of securin, which sequentially activates Separase, an enzyme required for the separation of sister chromatids. Moreover, S115A fails to bind mitosis regulators, including SKAP and CLASP-1α, which results in the mitotic defects observed in Astrin S115A-transfected cells. In conclusion, Aurora-A phosphorylates Astrin and guides the binding of Astrin to its cellular partners, which ensures proper progression of mitosis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Far-infrared radiation acutely increases nitric oxide production by increasing Ca(2+) mobilization and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1179.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sangmi; Cho, Du-Hyong; Park, Young Mi; Kang, Duk-Hee; Jo, Inho

    2013-07-12

    Repeated thermal therapy manifested by far-infrared (FIR) radiation improves vascular function in both patients and mouse model with coronary heart disease, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using FIR as a thermal therapy agent, we investigate the molecular mechanism of its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. FIR increased the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1179 (eNOS-Ser(1179)) in a time-dependent manner (up to 40min of FIR radiation) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) without alterations in eNOS expression. This increase was accompanied by increases in NO production and intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Treatment with KN-93, a selective inhibitor of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1179) phosphorylation. FIR radiation itself also increased the temperature of culture medium. As transient receptors potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels are known to be temperature-sensitive calcium channels, we explore whether TRPV channels mediate these observed effects. Reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed two TRPV isoforms in BAEC, TRPV2 and TRPV4. Although ruthenium red, a pan-TRPV inhibitor, completely reversed the observed effect of FIR radiation, a partial attenuation (∼20%) was found in cells treated with Tranilast, TRPV2 inhibitor. However, ectopic expression of siRNA of TRPV2 showed no significant alteration in FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1179) phosphorylation. This study suggests that FIR radiation increases NO production via increasing CaMKII-mediated eNOS-Ser(1179) phosphorylation but TRPV channels may not be involved in this pathway. Our results may provide the molecular mechanism by which FIR radiation improves endothelial function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hematological alterations in protein malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ed W; Oliveira, Dalila C; Silva, Graziela B; Tsujita, Maristela; Beltran, Jackeline O; Hastreiter, Araceli; Fock, Ricardo A; Borelli, Primavera

    2017-11-01

    Protein malnutrition is one of the most serious nutritional problems worldwide, affecting 794 million people and costing up to $3.5 trillion annually in the global economy. Protein malnutrition primarily affects children, the elderly, and hospitalized patients. Different degrees of protein deficiency lead to a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms of protein malnutrition, especially in organs in which the hematopoietic system is characterized by a high rate of protein turnover and, consequently, a high rate of protein renewal and cellular proliferation. Here, the current scientific information about protein malnutrition and its effects on the hematopoietic process is reviewed. The production of hematopoietic cells is described, with special attention given to the hematopoietic microenvironment and the development of stem cells. Advances in the study of hematopoiesis in protein malnutrition are also summarized. Studies of protein malnutrition in vitro, in animal models, and in humans demonstrate several alterations that impair hematopoiesis, such as structural changes in the extracellular matrix, the hematopoietic stem cell niche, the spleen, the thymus, and bone marrow stromal cells; changes in mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells; increased autophagy; G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest of progenitor hematopoietic cells; and functional alterations in leukocytes. Structural and cellular changes of the hematopoietic microenvironment in protein malnutrition contribute to bone marrow atrophy and nonestablishment of hematopoietic stem cells, resulting in impaired homeostasis and an impaired immune response. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Recruitment of phosphorylated small heat shock protein Hsp27 to nuclear speckles without stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryantsev, A.L.; Chechenova, M.B.; Shelden, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    During stress, the mammalian small heat shock protein Hsp27 enters cell nuclei. The present study examines the requirements for entry of Hsp27 into nuclei of normal rat kidney (NRK) renal epithelial cells, and for its interactions with specific nuclear structures. We find that phosphorylation of Hsp27 is necessary for the efficient entry into nuclei during heat shock but not sufficient for efficient nuclear entry under control conditions. We further report that Hsp27 is recruited to an RNAse sensitive fraction of SC35 positive nuclear speckles, but not other intranuclear structures, in response to heat shock. Intriguingly, Hsp27 phosphorylation, in the absence of stress, is sufficient for recruitment to speckles found in post-anaphase stage mitotic cells. Additionally, pseudophosphorylated Hsp27 fused to a nuclear localization peptide (NLS) is recruited to nuclear speckles in unstressed interphase cells, but wildtype and nonphosphorylatable Hsp27 NLS fusion proteins are not. The expression of NLS-Hsp27 mutants does not enhance colony forming abilities of cells subjected to severe heat shock, but does regulate nuclear speckle morphology. These data demonstrate that phosphorylation, but not stress, mediates Hsp27 recruitment to an RNAse soluble fraction of nuclear speckles and support a site-specific role for Hsp27 within the nucleus

  10. Far-infrared radiation acutely increases nitric oxide production by increasing Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sangmi [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Du-Hyong [Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Mi [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Duk-Hee [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Inho, E-mail: inhojo@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine and Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Medical School, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Far-infrared (FIR) radiation increases eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation and NO production in BAEC. •CaMKII and PKA mediate FIR-stimulated increases in eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. •FIR increases intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. •Thermo-sensitive TRPV Ca{sup 2+} channels are unlikely to be involved in the FIR-mediated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation pathway. -- Abstract: Repeated thermal therapy manifested by far-infrared (FIR) radiation improves vascular function in both patients and mouse model with coronary heart disease, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using FIR as a thermal therapy agent, we investigate the molecular mechanism of its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. FIR increased the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1179 (eNOS-Ser{sup 1179}) in a time-dependent manner (up to 40 min of FIR radiation) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) without alterations in eNOS expression. This increase was accompanied by increases in NO production and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. Treatment with KN-93, a selective inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. FIR radiation itself also increased the temperature of culture medium. As transient receptors potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels are known to be temperature-sensitive calcium channels, we explore whether TRPV channels mediate these observed effects. Reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed two TRPV isoforms in BAEC, TRPV2 and TRPV4. Although ruthenium red, a pan-TRPV inhibitor, completely reversed the observed effect of FIR radiation, a partial attenuation (∼20%) was found in cells treated with Tranilast, TRPV2 inhibitor. However, ectopic expression of siRNA of TRPV2 showed no significant alteration in FIR radiation-stimulated eNOS-Ser{sup 1179} phosphorylation. This

  11. Organoselenium compounds prevent hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins induced by the neurotoxic agent diphenyl ditelluride in cerebral cortex of young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, M.B.; Funchal, C.; Zeni, G.; Rocha, J.B.T.; Pessoa-Pureur, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigated the protective ability of the selenium compounds ebselen and diphenyl diselenide against the effect of diphenyl ditelluride on the in vitro incorporation of 32 P into intermediate filament (IF) proteins from slices of cerebral cortex of 17-day-old rats. We observed that ditelluride in the concentrations of 1, 15 and 50 μM induced hyperphosphorylation of the high-salt Triton insoluble neurofilament subunits (NF-M and NF-L), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, without altering the immunocontent of these proteins. Concerning the selenium compounds, diselenide (1, 15 and 50 μM) did not induce alteration of the in vitro phosphorylation of the IF proteins. Otherwise, ebselen induced an altered in vitro phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal proteins in a dose-dependent manner. At intermediate concentrations (15 and 30 μM) it increased the in vitro phosphorylation even though, at low (5 μM) or high (50 and 100 μM) concentrations this compound was ineffective in altering the activity of the cytoskeletal-associated phosphorylating system. In addition, 15 μM diselenide and 5 μM ebselen, presented a protective effect against the action of ditelluride, on the phosphorylation of the proteins studied. Considering that hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins is associated with neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration, it is probable that the effects of ditelluride could be related to the remarkable neurotoxicity of this organic form of tellurium. Furthermore the neuroprotective action of selenium compounds against tellurium effects could be a promising route to be exploited for a possible treatment of organic tellurium poisoning

  12. ATM phosphorylation of Mdm2 Ser394 regulates the amplitude and duration of the DNA damage response in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Hugh S.; Woda, Bruce A.; Jones, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR) activates the ATM kinase, which subsequently stabilizes and activates the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Although phosphorylation of p53 by ATM was found previously to modulate p53 levels and transcriptional activities in vivo, it does not appear to be a major regulator of p53 stability. We have utilized mice bearing altered Mdm2 alleles to demonstrate that ATM phosphorylation of Mdm2 serine 394 is required for robust p53 stabilization and activation after DNA damage. In addition, we demonstrate that dephosphorylation of Mdm2 Ser394 regulates attenuation of the p53-mediated response to DNA damage. Therefore, the phosphorylation status of Mdm2 Ser394 governs p53 protein levels and functions in cells undergoing DNA damage. PMID:22624716

  13. PKA regulates calcineurin function through the phosphorylation of RCAN1: Identification of a novel phosphorylation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Kooyeon; Jo, Su-Hyun; Seo, Su Ryeon

    2015-01-01

    Calcineurin is a calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase that has been implicated in T cell activation through the induction of nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT). We have previously suggested that endogenous regulator of calcineurin (RCAN1, also known as DSCR1) is targeted by protein kinase A (PKA) for the control of calcineurin activity. In the present study, we characterized the PKA-mediated phosphorylation site in RCAN1 by mass spectrometric analysis and revealed that PKA directly phosphorylated RCAN1 at the Ser 93. PKA-induced phosphorylation and the increase in the half-life of the RCAN1 protein were prevented by the substitution of Ser 93 with Ala (S93A). Furthermore, the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Ser 93 potentiated the inhibition of calcineurin-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression by RCAN1. Our results suggest the presence of a novel phosphorylation site in RCAN1 and that its phosphorylation influences calcineurin-dependent inflammatory target gene expression. - Highlights: • We identify novel phosphorylation sites in RCAN1 by LC-MS/MS analysis. • PKA-dependent phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Ser 93 inhibits calcineurin-mediated intracellular signaling. • We show the immunosuppressive function of RCAN1 phosphorylation at Ser 93 in suppressing cytokine expression

  14. The calcium-dependent protein kinase RcCDPK2 phosphorylates sucrose synthase at Ser11 in developing castor oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosejevs, Eric T; Gerdis, Suzanne A; Ying, Sheng; Pyc, Michal; Anderson, Erin M; Snedden, Wayne A; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2016-10-15

    Imported sucrose is cleaved by sucrose synthase (SUS) as a critical initial reaction in the biosynthesis of storage end-products by developing seeds. Although SUS is phosphorylated at a conserved seryl residue by an apparent CDPK (Ca 2+ -dependent protein kinase) in diverse plant tissues, the functions and mechanistic details of this process remain obscure. Thus, the native CDPK that phosphorylates RcSUS1 (Ricinus communis SUS1) at Ser 11 in developing COS (castor oil seeds) was highly purified and identified as RcCDPK2 by MS/MS. Purified RcSUS1-K (-kinase) and heterologously expressed RcCDPK2 catalyzed Ca 2+ -dependent Ser 11 phosphorylation of RcSUS1 and its corresponding dephosphopeptide, while exhibiting a high affinity for free Ca 2+ ions [K 0.5 (Ca 2+ ) < 0.4 µM]. RcSUS1-K activity, RcCDPK2 expression, and RcSUS1 Ser 11 phosphorylation peaked during early COS development and then declined in parallel. The elimination of sucrose import via fruit excision triggered RcSUS1 dephosphorylation but did not alter RcSUS1-K activity, suggesting a link between sucrose signaling and posttranslational RcCDPK2 control. Both RcCDPK2-mCherry and RcSUS1-EYFP co-localized throughout the cytosol when transiently co-expressed in tobacco suspension cells, although RcCDPK2-mCherry was also partially localized to the nucleus. Subcellular fractionation revealed that ∼20% of RcSUS1-K activity associates with microsomal membranes in developing COS, as does RcSUS1. In contrast with RcCDPK1, which catalyzes inhibitory phosphorylation of COS bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase at Ser 451 , RcCDPK2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, a wide pH-activity profile centered at pH 8.5, and insensitivity to metabolite effectors or thiol redox status. Our combined results indicate a possible link between cytosolic Ca 2+ -signaling and the control of photosynthate partitioning during COS development. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the

  15. Src kinase regulation by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Src and Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases are regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell differentiation, motility, proliferation, and survival. The initially described phosphorylation sites of Src include an activating phosphotyrosine 416 that results from autophosphorylation, and an inhibiting phosphotyrosine 527 that results from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk homologous kinase. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 527 increases Src kinase activity. Candidate phosphotyrosine 527 phosphatases include cytoplasmic PTP1B, Shp1 and Shp2, and transmembrane enzymes include CD45, PTPα, PTPε, and PTPλ. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 416 decreases Src kinase activity. Thus far PTP-BL, the mouse homologue of human PTP-BAS, has been shown to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine 416 in a regulatory fashion. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase mediates the phosphorylation of Src Tyr138; this phosphorylation has no direct effect on Src kinase activity. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor and the ErbB2/HER2 growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinases mediate the phosphorylation of Src Tyr213 and activation of Src kinase activity. Src kinase is also a substrate for protein-serine/threonine kinases including protein kinase C (Ser12), protein kinase A (Ser17), and CDK1/cdc2 (Thr34, Thr46, and Ser72). Of the three protein-serine/threonine kinases, only phosphorylation by CDK1/cdc2 has been demonstrated to increase Src kinase activity. Although considerable information on the phosphoprotein phosphatases that catalyze the hydrolysis of Src phosphotyrosine 527 is at hand, the nature of the phosphatases that mediate the hydrolysis of phosphotyrosine 138 and 213, and phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues has not been determined

  16. Phosphorylation of intracellular proteins related to the multihormonal regulation of prolactin: comparison of normal anterior pituitary cells in culture with the tumor-derived GH cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, L.; Boutterin, M.C.; Sobel, A.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously identified a group of cytoplasmic phosphoproteins (proteins 1-11) whose phosphorylation could be related, on a pharmacological basis, to the multihormonal regulation of PRL synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary tumor-derived GH cell lines. Phosphoproteins with identical migration properties on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels were also detectable in normal rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. We designed appropriate culture and [ 32 P] phosphate-labeling conditions allowing to analyze the regulation of the phosphorylation of these proteins in normal pituitary cells. TRH, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and vasoactive intestinal peptide induced the same qualitative changes in phosphorylation of proteins 1-11 in normal as in GH cells. Quantitative differences observed are most likely due to the heterogeneity of primary pituitary cultures. Phosphorylation changes affecting proteins 14-16, not previously detected in GH cells, were also observed with normal anterior pituitary cells. GH cell lines have lost the sensitivity of pituitary lactotrophs for dopamine, an important physiological inhibitor of PRL synthesis and release. In normal anterior pituitary cells in culture, dopamine inhibited also the TRH-stimulated phosphorylation of proteins 1-10, thus strengthening the correlation between phosphorylation of these proteins and multihormonal regulation of pituitary cell functions. Our results indicate: 1) that the same phosphoproteins as in GH cells are related to the multihormonal regulation of nontumoral, normal anterior pituitary cells in culture; 2) that dopamine acts by interfering with the phosphorylation of these proteins

  17. Myosin light chain kinase phosphorylation in tracheal smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stull, J.T.; Hsu, L.C.; Tansey, M.G.; Kamm, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    Purified myosin light chain kinase from smooth muscle is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and the multifunctional calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Because phosphorylation in a specific site (site A) by any one of these kinases desensitizes myosin light chain kinase to activation by Ca2+/calmodulin, kinase phosphorylation could play an important role in regulating smooth muscle contractility. This possibility was investigated in 32 P-labeled bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Treatment of tissues with carbachol, KCl, isoproterenol, or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate increased the extent of kinase phosphorylation. Six primary phosphopeptides (A-F) of myosin light chain kinase were identified. Site A was phosphorylated to an appreciable extent only with carbachol or KCl, agents which contract tracheal smooth muscle. The extent of site A phosphorylation correlated to increases in the concentration of Ca2+/calmodulin required for activation. These results show that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C do not affect smooth muscle contractility by phosphorylating site A in myosin light chain kinase. It is proposed that phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase in site A in contracting tracheal smooth muscle may play a role in the reported desensitization of contractile elements to activation by Ca2+

  18. Nuclear translocation of doublecortin-like protein kinase and phosphorylation of a transcription factor JDP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamine, Tadashi; Nomada, Shohgo; Onouchi, Takashi; Kameshita, Isamu; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki, E-mail: sueyoshi@ag.kagawa-u.ac.jp

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase. • In living cells, DCLK was cleaved into two functional fragments. • zDCLK(kinase) was translocated into the nucleus by osmotic stresses. • Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. • JDP2 was efficiently phosphorylated by zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. - Abstract: Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase predominantly expressed in brain. In a previous paper, we reported that zebrafish DCLK2 (zDCLK) was cleaved into two functional fragments; the N-terminal zDCLK(DC + SP) with microtubule-binding activity and the C-terminal zDCLK(kinase) with a Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. In this study, we demonstrated that zDCLK(kinase) was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and translocated into the nucleus when the cells were treated under hyperosmotic conditions with NaCl or mannitol. By two-hybrid screening using the C-terminal domain of DCLK, Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), a nuclear transcription factor, was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. Furthermore, JDP2 served as an efficient substrate for zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. These results suggest that the kinase fragment of DCLK is translocated into the nucleus upon hyperosmotic stresses and that the kinase efficiently phosphorylates JDP2, a possible target in the nucleus, with the aid of histones.

  19. A Novel Mode of Regulation of the Staphylococcus aureus Catabolite Control Protein A (CcpA) Mediated by Stk1 Protein Phosphorylation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiba, Jade; Hartmann, Torsten; Cluzel, Marie-Eve; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Delolme, Frédéric; Bischoff, Markus; Molle, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus serine/threonine protein kinase Stk1 (also known as PknB) affects different key pathways such as cell wall metabolism, antibiotic susceptibility, and regulation of virulence. Here we report that the catabolite control protein A (CcpA), a highly conserved regulator of carbon catabolite repression and virulence in a number of Gram-positive pathogens, was efficiently phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by Stk1 in S. aureus, whereas the CcpA homologues of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus anthracis were not affected by the Stk1 orthologue PrkC. Mass spectrometry and mutational analyses identified Thr-18 and Thr-33 as the phosphoacceptors; both are located in the DNA binding domain of this protein. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that the CcpA DNA binding activity was completely abrogated for the phosphorylated CcpA. The physiological relevance of CcpA phosphorylation was assessed by generating CcpA phosphoablative (T18A/T33A) or phosphomimetic (T18D/T33D) mutants. In contrast to the wild-type and phosphoablative ccpA alleles, introduction of the phosphomimetic ccpA allele in a ΔccpA mutant failed to restore the parental biofilm formation profile and the transcription of citZ and hla to levels seen with the wild type. The strong up regulation of ccpA transcripts and CcpA level in the ccpA mutant trans-complemented with the phosphomimetic CcpA variant suggest furthermore that CcpA acts as a negative regulator of its own expression. Together, these findings demonstrate that Stk1-driven phosphorylation of CcpA inhibits its DNA binding activity toward its regulon in S. aureus, representing a novel regulatory mechanism of CcpA activity in addition to the well known regulation via HprKP/Hpr in this clinically important pathogen. PMID:23132867

  20. A novel mode of regulation of the Staphylococcus aureus catabolite control protein A (CcpA) mediated by Stk1 protein phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiba, Jade; Hartmann, Torsten; Cluzel, Marie-Eve; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Delolme, Frédéric; Bischoff, Markus; Molle, Virginie

    2012-12-21

    The Staphylococcus aureus serine/threonine protein kinase Stk1 (also known as PknB) affects different key pathways such as cell wall metabolism, antibiotic susceptibility, and regulation of virulence. Here we report that the catabolite control protein A (CcpA), a highly conserved regulator of carbon catabolite repression and virulence in a number of gram-positive pathogens, was efficiently phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by Stk1 in S. aureus, whereas the CcpA homologues of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus anthracis were not affected by the Stk1 orthologue PrkC. Mass spectrometry and mutational analyses identified Thr-18 and Thr-33 as the phosphoacceptors; both are located in the DNA binding domain of this protein. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that the CcpA DNA binding activity was completely abrogated for the phosphorylated CcpA. The physiological relevance of CcpA phosphorylation was assessed by generating CcpA phosphoablative (T18A/T33A) or phosphomimetic (T18D/T33D) mutants. In contrast to the wild-type and phosphoablative ccpA alleles, introduction of the phosphomimetic ccpA allele in a ΔccpA mutant failed to restore the parental biofilm formation profile and the transcription of citZ and hla to levels seen with the wild type. The strong up regulation of ccpA transcripts and CcpA level in the ccpA mutant trans-complemented with the phosphomimetic CcpA variant suggest furthermore that CcpA acts as a negative regulator of its own expression. Together, these findings demonstrate that Stk1-driven phosphorylation of CcpA inhibits its DNA binding activity toward its regulon in S. aureus, representing a novel regulatory mechanism of CcpA activity in addition to the well known regulation via HprKP/Hpr in this clinically important pathogen.

  1. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) enhances cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein phosphorylation and phospho-CREB interaction with the mouse steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Brian F; Hudson, Elizabeth A; Clark, Barbara J

    2005-03-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transcription is regulated through cAMP-protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms that involve multiple transcription factors including the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) family members. Classically, binding of phosphorylated CREB to cis-acting cAMP-responsive elements (5'-TGACGTCA-3') within target gene promoters leads to recruitment of the coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP). Herein we examined the extent of CREB family member phosphorylation on protein-DNA interactions and CBP recruitment with the StAR promoter. Immunoblot analysis revealed that CREB, cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM), and activating transcription factor (ATF)-1 are expressed in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells, yet only CREB and ATF-1 are phosphorylated. (Bu)2cAMP treatment of MA-10 cells increased CREB phosphorylation approximately 2.3-fold within 30 min but did not change total nuclear CREB expression levels. Using DNA-affinity chromatography, we now show that CREB and ATF-1, but not CREM, interact with the StAR promoter, and this interaction is dependent on the activator protein-1 (AP-1) cis-acting element within the cAMP-responsive region. In addition, (Bu)2cAMP-treatment increased phosphorylated CREB (P-CREB) association with the StAR promoter but did not influence total CREB interaction. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated CREB binding to the StAR proximal promoter is independent of (Bu)2cAMP-treatment, confirming our in vitro analysis. However, (Bu)2cAMP-treatment increased P-CREB and CBP interaction with the StAR promoter, demonstrating for the first time the physical role of P-CREB:DNA interactions in CBP recruitment to the StAR proximal promoter.

  2. Discrete nuclear structures in actively growing neuroblastoma cells are revealed by antibodies raised against phosphorylated neurofilament proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raabe Timothy D

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear objects that have in common the property of being recognized by monoclonal antibodies specific for phosphoprotein epitopes and cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (in particular, SMI-31 and RT-97 have been reported in glial and neuronal cells, in situ and in vitro. Since neurofilament and glial filaments are generally considered to be restricted to the cytoplasm, we were interested in exploring the identity of the structures labeled in the nucleus as well as the conditions under which they could be found there. Results Using confocal microscopy and western analysis techniques, we determined 1 the immunolabeled structures are truly within the nucleus; 2 the phosphoepitope labeled by SMI-31 and RT-97 is not specific to neurofilaments (NFs and it can be identified on other intermediate filament proteins (IFs in other cell types; and 3 there is a close relationship between DNA synthesis and the amount of nuclear staining by these antibodies thought to be specific for cytoplasmic proteins. Searches of protein data bases for putative phosphorylation motifs revealed that lamins, NF-H, and GFAP each contain a single tyrosine phosphorylation motif with nearly identical amino acid sequence. Conclusion We therefore suggest that this sequence may be the epitope recognized by SMI-31 and RT-97 mABs, and that the nuclear structures previously reported and shown here are likely phosphorylated lamin intermediate filaments, while the cytoplasmic labeling revealed by the same mABs indicates phosphorylated NFs in neurons or GFAP in glia.

  3. Phosphorylation of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grässer, F A; Göttel, S; Haiss, P

    1992-01-01

    A major in vivo phosphorylation site of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) was found to be localized at the C-terminus of the protein. In vitro phosphorylation studies using casein kinase 1 (CK-1) and casein kinase 2 (CK-2) revealed that EBNA-2 is a substrate for CK-2, but not for CK......-1. The CK-2 specific phosphorylation site was localized in the 140 C-terminal amino acids using a recombinant trpE-C-terminal fusion protein. In a similar experiment, the 58 N-terminal amino acids expressed as a recombinant trpE-fusion protein were not phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of a synthetic...

  4. MST4 kinase phosphorylates ACAP4 protein to orchestrate apical membrane remodeling during gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao; Yao, Phil Y; Jiang, Jiying; Zhang, Yin; Su, Zeqi; Yao, Wendy; Wang, Xueying; Gui, Ping; Mullen, McKay; Henry, Calmour; Ward, Tarsha; Wang, Wenwen; Brako, Larry; Tian, Ruijun; Zhao, Xuannv; Wang, Fengsong; Cao, Xinwang; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Xing; Ding, Xia; Yao, Xuebiao

    2017-09-29

    Digestion in the stomach depends on acidification of the lumen. Histamine-elicited acid secretion is triggered by activation of the PKA cascade, which ultimately results in the insertion of gastric H,K-ATPases into the apical plasma membranes of parietal cells. Our recent study revealed the functional role of PKA-MST4-ezrin signaling axis in histamine-elicited acid secretion. However, it remains uncharacterized how the PKA-MST4-ezrin signaling axis operates the insertion of H,K-ATPases into the apical plasma membranes of gastric parietal cells. Here we show that MST4 phosphorylates ACAP4, an ARF6 GTPase-activating protein, at Thr 545 Histamine stimulation activates MST4 and promotes MST4 interaction with ACAP4. ACAP4 physically interacts with MST4 and is a cognate substrate of MST4 during parietal cell activation. The phosphorylation site of ACAP4 by MST4 was mapped to Thr 545 by mass spectrometric analyses. Importantly, phosphorylation of Thr 545 is essential for acid secretion in parietal cells because either suppression of ACAP4 or overexpression of non-phosphorylatable ACAP4 prevents the apical membrane reorganization and proton pump translocation elicited by histamine stimulation. In addition, persistent overexpression of MST4 phosphorylation-deficient ACAP4 results in inhibition of gastric acid secretion and blockage of tubulovesicle fusion to the apical membranes. Significantly, phosphorylation of Thr 545 enables ACAP4 to interact with ezrin. Given the location of Thr 545 between the GTPase-activating protein domain and the first ankyrin repeat, we reason that MST4 phosphorylation elicits a conformational change that enables ezrin-ACAP4 interaction. Taken together, these results define a novel molecular mechanism linking the PKA-MST4-ACAP4 signaling cascade to polarized acid secretion in gastric parietal cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Proteomic analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation during human liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Tarek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R causes a dramatic reprogramming of cell metabolism during liver transplantation and can be linked to an alteration of the phosphorylation level of several cellular proteins. Over the past two decades, it became clear that tyrosine phosphorylation plays a pivotal role in a variety of important signalling pathways and was linked to a wide spectrum of diseases. Functional profiling of the tyrosine phosphoproteome during liver transplantation is therefore of great biological significance and is likely to lead to the identification of novel targets for drug discovery and provide a basis for novel therapeutic strategies. Results Using liver biopsies collected during the early phases of organ procurement and transplantation, we aimed at characterizing the global patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation during hepatic I/R. A proteomic approach, based on the purification of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins followed by their identification using mass spectrometry, allowed us to identify Nck-1, a SH2/SH3 adaptor, as a potential regulator of I/R injury. Using immunoblot, cell fractionation and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that Nck-1 phosphorylation, expression and localization were affected in liver tissue upon I/R. In addition, mass spectrometry identification of Nck-1 binding partners during the course of the transplantation also suggested a dynamic interaction between Nck-1 and actin during I/R. Conclusion Taken together, our data suggest that Nck-1 may play a role in I/R-induced actin reorganization, which was previously reported to be detrimental for the hepatocytes of the transplanted graft. Nck-1 could therefore represent a target of choice for the design of new organ preservation strategies, which could consequently help to reduce post-reperfusion liver damages and improve transplantation outcomes.

  6. Endocytosis of G protein-coupled receptors is regulated by clathrin light chain phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Filipe; Foley, Matthew; Cooke, Alex; Cunningham, Margaret; Smith, Gemma; Woolley, Robert; Henderson, Graeme; Kelly, Eamonn; Mundell, Stuart; Smythe, Elizabeth

    2012-08-07

    Signaling by transmembrane receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) occurs at the cell surface and throughout the endocytic pathway, and signaling from the cell surface may differ in magnitude and downstream output from intracellular signaling. As a result, the rate at which signaling molecules traverse the endocytic pathway makes a significant contribution to downstream output. Modulation of the core endocytic machinery facilitates differential uptake of individual cargoes. Clathrin-coated pits are a major entry portal where assembled clathrin forms a lattice around invaginating buds that have captured endocytic cargo. Clathrin assembles into triskelia composed of three clathrin heavy chains and associated clathrin light chains (CLCs). Despite the identification of clathrin-coated pits at the cell surface over 30 years ago, the functions of CLCs in endocytosis have been elusive. In this work, we identify a novel role for CLCs in the regulated endocytosis of specific cargoes. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either CLCa or CLCb inhibits the uptake of GPCRs. Moreover, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of Ser204 in CLCb is required for efficient endocytosis of a subset of GPCRs and identify G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) as a kinase that can phosphorylate CLCb on Ser204. Overexpression of CLCb(S204A) specifically inhibits the endocytosis of those GPCRs whose endocytosis is GRK2-dependent. Together, these results indicate that CLCb phosphorylation acts as a discriminator for the endocytosis of specific GPCRs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SOS2-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE5, an SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE3-Type Protein Kinase, Is Important for Abscisic Acid Responses in Arabidopsis through Phosphorylation of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE51[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaona; Hao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuguo; Bai, Yili; Zhu, Wenbo; Qin, Yunxia; Yuan, Feifei; Zhao, Feiyi; Wang, Mengyao; Hu, Jingjiang; Xu, Hong; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Zhao, Yang; Cao, Cuiling; Yang, Yongqing; Schumaker, Karen S.; Guo, Yan; Xie, Chang Gen

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential role in seed germination. In this study, we demonstrate that one SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE3-type protein kinase, SOS2-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE5 (PKS5), is involved in ABA signal transduction via the phosphorylation of an interacting protein, ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5). We found that pks5-3 and pks5-4, two previously identified PKS5 superactive kinase mutants with point mutations in the PKS5 FISL/NAF (a conserved peptide that is necessary for interaction with SOS3 or SOS3-LIKE CALCIUM BINDING PROTEINs) motif and the kinase domain, respectively, are hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination. PKS5 was found to interact with ABI5 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and this interaction was further confirmed in planta using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Genetic studies revealed that ABI5 is epistatic to PKS5. PKS5 phosphorylates a serine (Ser) residue at position 42 in ABI5 and regulates ABA-responsive gene expression. This phosphorylation was induced by ABA in vivo and transactivated ABI5. Expression of ABI5, in which Ser-42 was mutated to alanine, could not fully rescue the ABA-insensitive phenotypes of the abi5-8 and pks5-4abi5-8 mutants. In contrast, mutating Ser-42 to aspartate rescued the ABA insensitivity of these mutants. These data demonstrate that PKS5-mediated phosphorylation of ABI5 at Ser-42 is critical for the ABA regulation of seed germination and gene expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PMID:25858916

  8. Understanding Alzheimer's disease by global quantification of protein phosphorylation and sialylated N-linked glycosylation profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille S.; Thygesen, Camilla; Larsen, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    elucidated them in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Here, we comprehensively review Alzheimer's pathology in relation to protein phosphorylation and glycosylation on synaptic plasticity from neuroproteomics data. Moreover, we highlight several mass spectrometry-based sample processing...

  9. In vitro phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 by protein kinase C-zeta: functional analysis and identification of novel phosphorylation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Mark R; Metzger, Sabine; Stosik, Magdalene; Tennagels, Norbert; Eckel, Jürgen

    2004-05-18

    Protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) participates both in downstream insulin signaling and in the negative feedback control of insulin action. Here we used an in vitro approach to identify PKC-zeta phosphorylation sites within insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and to characterize the functional implications. A recombinant IRS-1 fragment (rIRS-1(449)(-)(664)) containing major tyrosine motifs for interaction with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase strongly associated to the p85alpha subunit of PI 3-kinase after Tyr phosphorylation by the insulin receptor. Phosphorylation of rIRS-1(449)(-)(664) by PKC-zeta induced a prominent inhibition of this process with a mixture of classical PKC isoforms being less effective. Both PKC-zeta and the classical isoforms phosphorylated rIRS-1(449)(-)(664) on Ser(612). However, modification of this residue did not reduce the affinity of p85alpha binding to pTyr-containing peptides (amino acids 605-615 of rat IRS-1), as determined by surface plasmon resonance. rIRS-1(449)(-)(664) was then phosphorylated by PKC-zeta using [(32)P]ATP and subjected to tryptic phosphopeptide mapping based on two-dimensional HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. Ser(498) and Ser(570) were identified as novel phosphoserine sites targeted by PKC-zeta. Both sites were additionally confirmed by phosphopeptide mapping of the corresponding Ser --> Ala mutants of rIRS-1(449)(-)(664). Ser(570) was specifically targeted by PKC-zeta, as shown by immunoblotting with a phosphospecific antiserum against Ser(570) of IRS-1. Binding of p85alpha to the S570A mutant was less susceptible to inhibition by PKC-zeta, when compared to the S612A mutant. In conclusion, our in vitro data demonstrate a strong inhibitory action of PKC-zeta at the level of IRS-1/PI 3-kinase interaction involving multiple serine phosphorylation sites. Whereas Ser(612) appears not to participate in the negative control of insulin signaling, Ser(570) may at least partly contribute to this process.

  10. Phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic tail of the 300-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor is required for the interaction with a cytosolic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosorius, O; Issinger, O G; Braulke, T

    1993-01-01

    The cytoplasmic tail of the human 300-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR 300-CT) is an excellent substrate for casein kinase II in vitro. The phosphorylated MPR 300-CT was cross-linked by means of bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate mainly to a cytosolic protein of 35 kDa (referred to as TIP 35...... with TIP 35 is phosphorylation-specific. Furthermore, TIP 35 was only cross-linked to the MPR 300-CT phosphorylated by casein kinase II whereas the MPR 300-CT phosphorylated by protein kinase A failed to cross-link to TIP 35. These results indicate that the cytoplasmic tail of the MPR 300 interacts...

  11. Effects of chronic portal hypertension on small heat-shock proteins in mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuesong; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Pavlish, Kristin; Benoit, Joseph N

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that impaired vasoconstrictor function in chronic portal hypertension is mediated via cAMP-dependent events. Recent data have implicated two small heat-shock proteins (HSP), namely HSP20 and HSP27, in the regulation of vascular tone. Phosphorylation of HSP20 is associated with vasorelaxation, whereas phosphorylation of HSP27 is associated with vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that alterations in the expression and/or phosphorylation of small HSPs may play a role in impaired vasoconstriction in portal hypertension. A rat model of prehepatic chronic portal hypertension was used. Studies were conducted in small mesenteric arteries isolated from normal and portal hypertensive rats. Protein levels of HSP20 and HSP27 were detected by Western blot analysis. Protein phosphorylation was analyzed by isoelectric focusing. HSP20 mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR. To examine the role of cAMP in the regulation of small HSP phosphorylation and expression, we treated both normal and portal hypertensive vessels with a PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMPS. We found both an increased HSP20 phosphorylation and a decreased HPS20 protein level in portal hypertension, both of which were restored to normal by PKA inhibition. However, PKA did not change HSP20 mRNA expression. We conclude that decreased HSP20 protein level is mediated by cAMP-dependent pathway and that impaired vasoconstrictor function in portal hypertension may be partially explained by decreased expression of HSP20. We also suggest that the phosphorylation of HSP20 by PKA may alter HSP20 turnover.

  12. Internalisation and multiple phosphorylation of γ-Conglutin, the lupin seed glycaemia-lowering protein, in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Faoro, Franco; Maffi, Dario; Scarafoni, Alessio; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Maffioli, Elisa; Parolari, Anna; Manzoni, Cristina; Lovati, Maria Rosa; Duranti, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A glycaemia-reducing lupin seed protein is internalized by HepG2 cells. •The protein accumulates in the cytosol in an intact form. •The internalized protein is multiply phosphorylated. -- Abstract: Lupin seed γ-Conglutin is a protein capable of reducing glycaemia in mammalians and increasing glucose uptake by model cells. This work investigated whether γ-Conglutin is internalised into the target cells and undergoes any covalent change during the process, as a first step to understanding its mechanism of action. To this purpose, γ-Conglutin-treated and untreated HepG2 cells were submitted to confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Immune-revelation of γ-Conglutin at various intervals revealed its accumulation inside the cytosol. In parallel, 2D-electrophoresis of the cell lysates and antibody reaction of the blotted maps showed the presence of the protein intact subunits inside the treated cells, whilest no trace of the protein was found in the control cells. However, γ-Conglutin-related spots with an unexpectedly low pI were also observed in the maps. These spots were excised, trypsin-treated and submitted to MS/MS spectrometric analysis. The presence of phosphorylated amino acids was detected. These findings, by showing that γ-Conglutin is internalised by HepG2 cells in an intact form and is modified by multiple phosphorylation, open the way to the understanding of the lupin γ-Conglutin insulin-mimetic activity

  13. Phosphorylation of zona occludens-2 by protein kinase C epsilon regulates its nuclear exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, David; Alarcón, Lourdes; Ponce, Arturo; Tapia, Rocio; González-Aguilar, Héctor; Robles-Flores, Martha; Mejía-Castillo, Teresa; Segovia, José; Bandala, Yamir; Juaristi, Eusebio; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2009-09-01

    Here, we have analyzed the subcellular destiny of newly synthesized tight junction protein zona occludens (ZO)-2. After transfection in sparse cells, 74% of cells exhibit ZO-2 at the nucleus, and after 18 h the value decreases to 17%. The mutation S369A located within the nuclear exportation signal 1 of ZO-2 impairs the nuclear export of the protein. Because Ser369 represents a putative protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site, we tested the effect of PKC inhibition and stimulation on the nuclear export of ZO-2. Our results strongly suggest that the departure of ZO-2 from the nucleus is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser369 by novel PKCepsilon. To test the route taken by ZO-2 from synthesis to the plasma membrane, we devised a novel nuclear microinjection assay in which the nucleus served as a reservoir for anti-ZO-2 antibody. Through this assay, we demonstrate that a significant amount of newly synthesized ZO-2 goes into the nucleus and is later relocated to the plasma membrane. These results constitute novel information for understanding the mechanisms that regulate the intracellular fate of ZO-2.

  14. BRD4 Phosphorylation Regulates HPV E2-Mediated Viral Transcription, Origin Replication, and Cellular MMP-9 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwu-Yuan Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modification can modulate protein conformation and alter binding partner recruitment within gene regulatory regions. Here, we report that bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4, a transcription co-factor and chromatin regulator, uses a phosphorylation-induced switch mechanism to recruit E2 protein encoded by cancer-associated human papillomavirus (HPV to viral early gene and cellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 promoters. Enhanced MMP-9 expression, induced upon keratinocyte differentiation, occurs via BRD4-dependent recruitment of active AP-1 and NF-κB to their target sequences. This is triggered by replacement of AP-1 family members JunB and JunD by c-Jun and by re-localization of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In addition, BRD4 phosphorylation is critical for E2- and origin-dependent HPV DNA replication. A class of phospho-BRD4-targeting compounds, distinct from the BET bromodomain inhibitors, effectively blocks BRD4 phosphorylation-specific functions in transcription and factor recruitment.

  15. Postsynaptic density protein 95-regulated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in levodopa-induced dyskinesia rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ba M

    2014-12-01

    administration twice daily for 22 days to parkinsonian rats shortened the rotational duration and increased the peak turning responses. The altered rotational responses were attenuated by PSD-95 ASO pretreatment. Meanwhile, PSD-95 ASO pretreatment decreased the level of PSD-95 protein expression and reduced both the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B triggered during the levodopa administration in the lesioned striatum of PD rats. However, the protein levels of Fyn and NR2B showed no difference under the above conditions. Conclusion: The data demonstrate that the inhibition of PSD-95 protein expression suppressed the interactions of Fyn with NR2B and NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequently downregulated NMDA receptor overactivation, thus providing benefit for the therapy of LID. Therefore, PSD-95 is important for overactivity of NMDA receptor function due to facilitating NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation dependent on Fyn kinase by regulating interactions of Fyn with NR2B under the pathological conditions of LID. Keywords: PSD-95 ASO, NMDA, rotational response

  16. Protein kinase C activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation in 32P-labeled arterial smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments using 32P-labeled strips of swine carotid artery medial smooth muscle were performed to define the relative contribution of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation as an activation mechanism mediating contractile responses stimulated by phorbol dibutyrate (PDB). Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of phosphorylated MLC indicated that near-maximal force responses were associated with increases in functional MLC phosphorylation of less than 10% of the total MLC content following tonic (45 min) stimulation by PDB. Significant phosphorylation of MLC residues, consistent with the specificity of protein kinase C, occurred in response to high concentrations of PDB (greater than 0.1 microM). Histamine (10 microM)-induced MLC phosphorylation after 2 min (72.5% of total MLC) or 45 min (61.7%) was restricted to serine residues on peptides thought to contain serine19. Although agonist (histamine)-induced responses were eliminated under conditions of Ca2+ depletion, near-maximal force in response to 10 microM PDB (89.4% of a standard KCl response) was associated with monophosphorylation of less than 9% of the total MLC on peptides interpreted as containing serine19. A substantial fraction of this was localized to threonine residues. The quantitative analysis of the relation between PDB-stimulated force and the residues in MLC phosphorylated supports the concept that PDB stimulation results in activation of arterial smooth muscle cross bridges by MLC-phosphorylation-independent mechanisms

  17. Phosphorylation of TET proteins is regulated via O-GlcNAcylation by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christina; Göbel, Klaus; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Colantuoni, Christian; Wang, Mengxi; Müller, Udo; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Rottach, Andrea; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2015-02-20

    TET proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine and thus provide a possible means for active DNA demethylation in mammals. Although their catalytic mechanism is well characterized and the catalytic dioxygenase domain is highly conserved, the function of the regulatory regions (the N terminus and the low-complexity insert between the two parts of the dioxygenase domains) is only poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that TET proteins are subject to a variety of post-translational modifications that mostly occur at these regulatory regions. We mapped TET modification sites at amino acid resolution and show for the first time that TET1, TET2, and TET3 are highly phosphorylated. The O-linked GlcNAc transferase, which we identified as a strong interactor with all three TET proteins, catalyzes the addition of a GlcNAc group to serine and threonine residues of TET proteins and thereby decreases both the number of phosphorylation sites and site occupancy. Interestingly, the different TET proteins display unique post-translational modification patterns, and some modifications occur in distinct combinations. In summary, our results provide a novel potential mechanism for TET protein regulation based on a dynamic interplay of phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation at the N terminus and the low-complexity insert region. Our data suggest strong cross-talk between the modification sites that could allow rapid adaption of TET protein localization, activity, or targeting due to changing environmental conditions as well as in response to external stimuli. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Simultaneous quantification of protein phosphorylation sites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics: a linear algebra approach for isobaric phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Yang, Ting; Sheng, Yuan; Zhong, Ting; Yang, Mi; Chen, Yun

    2014-12-05

    As one of the most studied post-translational modifications (PTM), protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in almost all cellular processes. Current methods are able to predict and determine thousands of phosphorylation sites, whereas stoichiometric quantification of these sites is still challenging. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted proteomics is emerging as a promising technique for site-specific quantification of protein phosphorylation using proteolytic peptides as surrogates of proteins. However, several issues may limit its application, one of which relates to the phosphopeptides with different phosphorylation sites and the same mass (i.e., isobaric phosphopeptides). While employment of site-specific product ions allows for these isobaric phosphopeptides to be distinguished and quantified, site-specific product ions are often absent or weak in tandem mass spectra. In this study, linear algebra algorithms were employed as an add-on to targeted proteomics to retrieve information on individual phosphopeptides from their common spectra. To achieve this simultaneous quantification, a LC-MS/MS-based targeted proteomics assay was first developed and validated for each phosphopeptide. Given the slope and intercept of calibration curves of phosphopeptides in each transition, linear algebraic equations were developed. Using a series of mock mixtures prepared with varying concentrations of each phosphopeptide, the reliability of the approach to quantify isobaric phosphopeptides containing multiple phosphorylation sites (≥ 2) was discussed. Finally, we applied this approach to determine the phosphorylation stoichiometry of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) at Ser78 and Ser82 in breast cancer cells and tissue samples.

  19. Phosphorylation of the Usher syndrome 1G protein SANS controls Magi2-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauß, Katharina; Knapp, Barbara; Jores, Pia; Roepman, Ronald; Kremer, Hannie; Wijk, Erwin V; Märker, Tina; Wolfrum, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The human Usher syndrome (USH) is a complex ciliopathy with at least 12 chromosomal loci assigned to three clinical subtypes, USH1-3. The heterogeneous USH proteins are organized into protein networks. Here, we identified Magi2 (membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted-2) as a new component of the USH protein interactome, binding to the multifunctional scaffold protein SANS (USH1G). We showed that the SANS-Magi2 complex assembly is regulated by the phosphorylation of an internal PDZ-binding motif in the sterile alpha motif domain of SANS by the protein kinase CK2. We affirmed Magi2's role in receptor-mediated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis and showed that phosphorylated SANS tightly regulates Magi2-mediated endocytosis. Specific depletions by RNAi revealed that SANS and Magi2-mediated endocytosis regulates aspects of ciliogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrated the localization of the SANS-Magi2 complex in the periciliary membrane complex facing the ciliary pocket of retinal photoreceptor cells in situ. Our data suggest that endocytotic processes may not only contribute to photoreceptor cell homeostasis but also counterbalance the periciliary membrane delivery accompanying the exocytosis processes for the cargo vesicle delivery. In USH1G patients, mutations in SANS eliminate Magi2 binding and thereby deregulate endocytosis, lead to defective ciliary transport modules and ultimately disrupt photoreceptor cell function inducing retinal degeneration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Phosphorylation of actin-binding protein (ABP-280; filamin) by tyrosine kinase p56lck modulates actin filament cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal Sharma, C; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2004-01-01

    Actin-binding protein (ABP-280; filamin) is a phosphoprotein present in the periphery of the cytoplasm where it can cross-link actin filaments, associate with lipid membranes, and bind to membrane surface receptors. Given its function and localization in the cell, we decided to investigate the possibility of whether it serves as substrate for p56lck, a lymphocyte-specific member of the src family of protein tyrosine kinases associated with cell surface glycoproteins. The interaction of p56lck with membrane glycoproteins is important for cell development and functional activation. Here, we show that purified p56lck interacts and catalyzes in vitro kinase reactions. Tyrosine phosphorylation by p56lck is restricted to a single peptide of labeled ABP-280 shown by protease digest. The addition of phorbol ester to cells results in the inhibition of phosphorylation of ABP-280 by p56lck. These results show a decrease in phosphorylation suggesting conformationally induced regulation. Dynamic light scattering confirmed increased actin filament cross-linking due to phosphorylation of ABP-280 by p56lck.

  1. L-Arginine Enhances Protein Synthesis by Phosphorylating mTOR (Thr 2446 in a Nitric Oxide-Dependent Manner in C2C12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxia Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle atrophy may arise from many factors such as inactivity, malnutrition, and inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the stimulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO on muscle protein synthesis. Primarily, C2C12 cells were supplied with extra L-arginine (L-Arg in the culture media. L-Arg supplementation increased the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, the rate of protein synthesis, and the phosphorylation of mTOR (Thr 2446 and p70S6K (Thr 389. L-NAME, an NOS inhibitor, decreased NO concentrations within cells and abolished the stimulatory effect of L-Arg on protein synthesis and the phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K. In contrast, SNP (sodium nitroprusside, an NO donor, increased NO concentrations, enhanced protein synthesis, and upregulated mTOR and p70S6K phosphorylation, regardless of L-NAME treatment. Blocking mTOR with rapamycin abolished the stimulatory effect of both L-Arg and SNP on protein synthesis and p70S6K phosphorylation. These results indicate that L-Arg stimulates protein synthesis via the activation of the mTOR (Thr 2446/p70S6K signaling pathway in an NO-dependent manner.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation during uptake by HeLa cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Johnsen, H; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    . By use of a monoclonal antibody against phosphotyrosine, we showed that three classes of proteins are tyrosine phosphorylated: a triple band of 68, 66, and 64 kDa, a 97-kDa band, and a 140-kDa band. The phosphorylation could be detected by immunoblotting from 15 min after infection of HeLa cells. We...... inactive. Attachment of EBs to host cells is medicated by a heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycan. Following attachment, the EB is internalized within a membrane-bound vesicle, and during the first 8 h of infection the vesicles are transported to a perinuclear location where they aggregate and fuse...

  3. Acute fluoride poisoning alters myocardial cytoskeletal and AMPK signaling proteins in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-15

    Our previous findings revealed that increased oxidative stress, apoptosis and necrosis were implicated in acute fluoride (F - ) induced cardiac dysfunction apart from hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia. Cardiac intermediate filaments (desmin and vimentin) and cytoskeleton linker molecule vinculin plays an imperative role in maintaining the architecture of cardiac cytoskeleton. In addition, AMPK is a stress activated kinase that regulates the energy homeostasis during stressed state. The present study was aimed to examine the role of cytoskeletal proteins and AMPK signaling molecules in acute F - induced cardiotoxicity in rats. In order to study this, male Wistar rats were treated with single oral doses of 45 and 90mg/kgF - for 24h. Acute F - intoxicated rats showed declined cytoskeletal protein expression of desmin, vimentin and vinculin in a dose dependent manner compared to control. A significant increase in phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr172), AMPKß1 (Ser108) and Acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC) (Ser79) in the myocardium and associated ATP deprivation were found in acute F - intoxicated rats. Further, ultra-structural studies confirmed myofibril lysis with interruption of Z lines, dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and damaged mitochondrion were observed in both the groups of F - intoxicated rats. Taken together, these findings reveal that acute F - exposure causes sudden heart failure by altering the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and AMPK signaling molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stabilization and activation of p53 are regulated independently by different phosphorylation events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Mikhail V.; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Adler, Victor V.; Stark, George R.

    1998-01-01

    Treatment of mouse or human cells with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors H7 or bisindolylmaleimide I induced an increase in the lifetime of p53, leading to its accumulation. In inhibitor-treated cells, p53 translocated to the nuclei and bound to DNA but was not competent to induce transcription. However, transactivation could be induced by subsequent DNA damage. Phorbol ester, a potent activator of PKC, significantly inhibited the accumulation of p53 after DNA damage. Therefore, constitutive PKC-dependent phosphorylation of p53 itself, or of a protein that interacts with p53, is required for the rapid degradation of p53 in untreated cells. Furthermore, an increase in the lifetime of p53 is not accompanied necessarily by its activation. Treatment with the PKC inhibitors decreased the overall level of p53 phosphorylation but led to the appearance of a phosphopeptide not seen in tryptic digests of p53 from untreated cells. Therefore, the lifetime and activities of p53 are likely to be regulated by distinct alterations of the phosphorylation pattern of p53, probably caused by the actions of different kinases. PMID:9482877

  5. The carboxy terminus of p53 mimics the polylysine effect of protein kinase CK2-catalyzed MDM2 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Götz, C; Wagner, P

    1997-01-01

    The oncogene product MDM2 can be phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 in vitro 0.5-1 mol of phosphate were incorporated per mol MDM2 protein. The catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 (alpha-subunit) catalyzed the incorporation of twice as much phosphate into the MDM2 protein as it was obtained...

  6. LmxMPK4, an essential mitogen-activated protein kinase of Leishmania mexicana is phosphorylated and activated by the STE7-like protein kinase LmxMKK5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John von Freyend, Simona; Rosenqvist, Heidi; Fink, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The essential mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), LmxMPK4, of Leishmania mexicana is minimally active when purified following recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and was therefore unsuitable for drug screening until now. Using an E. coli protein co-expression system we identified...... LmxMKK5, a STE7-like protein kinase from L. mexicana, which phosphorylates and activates recombinant LmxMPK4 in vitro. LmxMKK5 is comprised of 525 amino acids and has a calculated molecular mass of 55.9kDa. The co-expressed, purified LmxMPK4 showed strong phosphotransferase activity in radiometric...... kinase assays and was confirmed by immunoblot and tandem mass spectrometry analyses to be phosphorylated on threonine 190 and tyrosine 192 of the typical TXY MAP kinase activation motif. The universal protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine reduced the phosphotransferase activity of co...

  7. Separation Options for Phosphorylated Osteopontin from Transgenic Microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayswarya Ravi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Correct folding and post-translational modifications are vital for therapeutic proteins to elicit their biological functions. Osteopontin (OPN, a bone regenerative protein present in a range of mammalian cells, is an acidic phosphoprotein with multiple potential phosphorylation sites. In this study, the ability of unicellular microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to produce phosphorylated recombinant OPN in its chloroplast is investigated. This study further explores the impact of phosphorylation and expression from a “plant-like” algae on separation of OPN. Chromatography resins ceramic hydroxyapatite (CHT and Gallium-immobilized metal affinity chromatography (Ga-IMAC were assessed for their binding specificity to phosphoproteins. Non-phosphorylated recombinant OPN expressed in E. coli was used to compare the specificity of interaction of the resins to phosphorylated OPN. We observed that CHT binds OPN by multimodal interactions and was better able to distinguish phosphorylated proteins in the presence of 250 mM NaCl. Ga-IMAC interaction with OPN was not selective to phosphorylation, irrespective of salt, as the resin bound OPN from both algal and bacterial sources. Anion exchange chromatography proved an efficient capture method to partially separate major phosphorylated host cell protein impurities such as Rubisco from OPN.

  8. Phosphorylation of protein kinase C sites Ser42/44 decreases Ca2+-sensitivity and blunts enhanced length-dependent activation in response to protein kinase A in human cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, P.J.M.; Sequeira Oliveira, V.; Witjas-Paalberends, E.R.; Foster, D.B.; dos Remedios, C.G.; Murphy, A.M.; Stienen, G.J.M.; van der Velden, J.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of troponin I (cTnI) at Ser42/44 is increased in heart failure. While studies in rodents demonstrated that PKC-mediated Ser42/44 phosphorylation decreases maximal force and ATPase activity, PKC incubation of human cardiomyocytes did not affect maximal

  9. The binding site for regulatory 14-3-3 protein in plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase: Involvement of a region promoting phosphorylation-independent interaction in addition to the phosphorylation-dependent C-terminal end

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anja T; Borch, Jonas; Bych, Katrine

    2003-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of well conserved proteins interacting with a large number of phosphorylated binding partners in eukaryotic cells. The plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase is an unusual target in that a unique phosphothreonine motif (946YpTV, where pT represents phosphothreonine...... of the Arabidopsis plasma membrane H+-ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2). Following site-directed mutagenesis within the 45 C-terminal residues of AHA2, we conclude that, in addition to the 946YpTV motif, a number of residues located further upstream are required for phosphorylation-independent binding of 14-3-3. Among these...

  10. Properties of phosphorylated thymidylate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frączyk, Tomasz; Ruman, Tomasz; Wilk, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    by (31)P NMR to be modified only on histidine residues, like potassium phosphoramidate (KPA)-phosphorylated TS proteins. NanoLC-MS/MS, enabling the use of CID and ETD peptide fragmentation methods, identified several phosphohistidine residues, but certain phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues were...... also implicated. Molecular dynamics studies, based on the mouse TS crystal structure, allowed one to assess potential of several phosphorylated histidine residues to affect catalytic activity, the effect being phosphorylation site dependent....

  11. Halogenated benzimidazole inhibitors of phosphorylation, ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'', of the surface acidic proteins of the yeast ribosomal 60S subunit by endogenous protein kinases CK-II and PK60S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szyszka, Ryszard; Boguszewska, Aleksandra; Grankowski, Nikodem; Shugar, David

    1996-01-01

    Several halogeno benzimidazoles and 2-azabenzimidazoles, previously shown to be relatively selective inhibitors of protein kinases CK-I and/or CK-II from various sources, including CK-II from yeast [Szyszka et al. (1995) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 208, 418-424] inhibit also the yeast ribosomal protein kinase PK60S. The most effective inhibitor of CK-II and PK60S was tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole (TetraBr-2-azaBz), which was competitive with respect to ATP (and GTP in the case of CK-II) with K i values of 0.7 μM for CK-II, and 0.1 μM for PK60S. PK60S phosphorylates only three (YP1β, YB1β', YP2α) out of five polypeptides of pp13 kDa acidic proteins of 60S subunit phosphorylated by CK-II [Szyszka et al. (1995) Acta Biochim. Polon. 42, 357-362]. Accordingly, TetraBr-azaBz inhibits phosphorylation only of these polypeptides, catalysed by PK60S. Addition of TetraBr-2Bz to cultures of yeast cells, at concentrations which were without effect on cell growth, led to inhibition of intracellular phosphorylation of ribosomal acidic proteins, paralleling that observed ''in vitro''. TetraBr-2-azaBz is shown to be a useful tool for studies on the intracellular regulation of phosphorylation of the ribosomal 60S acidic proteins, which are involved in formation of active ribosomes. (author). 36 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  12. A grammar inference approach for predicting kinase specific phosphorylation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Kinase mediated phosphorylation site detection is the key mechanism of post translational mechanism that plays an important role in regulating various cellular processes and phenotypes. Many diseases, like cancer are related with the signaling defects which are associated with protein phosphorylation. Characterizing the protein kinases and their substrates enhances our ability to understand the mechanism of protein phosphorylation and extends our knowledge of signaling network; thereby helping us to treat such diseases. Experimental methods for predicting phosphorylation sites are labour intensive and expensive. Also, manifold increase of protein sequences in the databanks over the years necessitates the improvement of high speed and accurate computational methods for predicting phosphorylation sites in protein sequences. Till date, a number of computational methods have been proposed by various researchers in predicting phosphorylation sites, but there remains much scope of improvement. In this communication, we present a simple and novel method based on Grammatical Inference (GI) approach to automate the prediction of kinase specific phosphorylation sites. In this regard, we have used a popular GI algorithm Alergia to infer Deterministic Stochastic Finite State Automata (DSFA) which equally represents the regular grammar corresponding to the phosphorylation sites. Extensive experiments on several datasets generated by us reveal that, our inferred grammar successfully predicts phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. It performs significantly better when compared with the other existing phosphorylation site prediction methods. We have also compared our inferred DSFA with two other GI inference algorithms. The DSFA generated by our method performs superior which indicates that our method is robust and has a potential for predicting the phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner.

  13. A Grammar Inference Approach for Predicting Kinase Specific Phosphorylation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Kinase mediated phosphorylation site detection is the key mechanism of post translational mechanism that plays an important role in regulating various cellular processes and phenotypes. Many diseases, like cancer are related with the signaling defects which are associated with protein phosphorylation. Characterizing the protein kinases and their substrates enhances our ability to understand the mechanism of protein phosphorylation and extends our knowledge of signaling network; thereby helping us to treat such diseases. Experimental methods for predicting phosphorylation sites are labour intensive and expensive. Also, manifold increase of protein sequences in the databanks over the years necessitates the improvement of high speed and accurate computational methods for predicting phosphorylation sites in protein sequences. Till date, a number of computational methods have been proposed by various researchers in predicting phosphorylation sites, but there remains much scope of improvement. In this communication, we present a simple and novel method based on Grammatical Inference (GI) approach to automate the prediction of kinase specific phosphorylation sites. In this regard, we have used a popular GI algorithm Alergia to infer Deterministic Stochastic Finite State Automata (DSFA) which equally represents the regular grammar corresponding to the phosphorylation sites. Extensive experiments on several datasets generated by us reveal that, our inferred grammar successfully predicts phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. It performs significantly better when compared with the other existing phosphorylation site prediction methods. We have also compared our inferred DSFA with two other GI inference algorithms. The DSFA generated by our method performs superior which indicates that our method is robust and has a potential for predicting the phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. PMID:25886273

  14. Abscisic acid-activated SNRK2 protein kinases function in the gene-regulation pathway of ABA signal transduction by phosphorylating ABA response element-binding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuhko; Murata, Michiharu; Minami, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kagaya, Yasuaki; Hobo, Tokunori; Yamamoto, Akiko; Hattori, Tsukaho

    2005-12-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces gene expression via the ABA-response element (ABRE) present in the promoters of ABA-regulated genes. A group of bZIP proteins have been identified as ABRE-binding factors (ABFs) that activate transcription through this cis element. A rice ABF, TRAB1, has been shown to be activated via ABA-dependent phosphorylation. While a large number of signalling factors have been identified that are involved in stomatal regulation by ABA, relatively less is known about the ABA-signalling pathway that leads to gene expression. We have shown recently that three members of the rice SnRK2 protein kinase family, SAPK8, SAPK9 and SAPK10, are activated by ABA signal as well as by hyperosmotic stress. Here we show that transient overexpression in cultured cell protoplasts of these ABA-activated SnRK2 protein kinases leads to the activation of an ABRE-regulated promoter, suggesting that these kinases are involved in the gene-regulation pathway of ABA signalling. We further show several lines of evidence that these ABA-activated SnRK2 protein kinases directly phosphorylate TRAB1 in response to ABA. Kinetic analysis of SAPK10 activation and TRAB1 phosphorylation indicated that the latter immediately followed the former. TRAB1 was found to be phosphorylated not only in response to ABA, but also in response to hyperosmotic stress, which was interpreted as the consequence of phosphorylation of TRAB1 by hyperosmotically activated SAPKs. Physical interaction between TRAB1 and SAPK10 in vivo was demonstrated by a co-immunoprecipitation experiment. Finally, TRAB1 was phosphorylated in vitro by the ABA-activated SnRK2 protein kinases at Ser102, which is phosphorylated in vivo in response to ABA and is critical for the activation function.

  15. The in vivo phosphorylation sites of rat brain dynamin I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark E; Anggono, Victor; Bache, Nicolai

    2007-01-01

    -824). To resolve the discrepancy and to better understand the biological roles of dynI phosphorylation, we undertook a systematic identification of all phosphorylation sites in rat brain nerve terminal dynI. Using phosphoamino acid analysis, exclusively phospho-serine residues were found. Thr(780) phosphorylation...... of their relative abundance and relative responses to depolarization. The multiple phospho-sites suggest subtle regulation of synaptic vesicle endocytosis by new protein kinases and new protein-protein interactions. The homologous dynI and dynIII phosphorylation indicates a high mechanistic similarity. The results...

  16. LRRK2 phosphorylates pre-synaptic N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion (NSF) protein enhancing its ATPase activity and SNARE complex disassembling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluzzi, Elisa; Gonnelli, Adriano; Cirnaru, Maria-Daniela; Marte, Antonella; Plotegher, Nicoletta; Russo, Isabella; Civiero, Laura; Cogo, Susanna; Carrion, Maria Perèz; Franchin, Cinzia; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Beltramini, Mariano; Bubacco, Luigi; Onofri, Franco; Piccoli, Giovanni; Greggio, Elisa

    2016-01-13

    Lrrk2, a gene linked to Parkinson's disease, encodes a large scaffolding protein with kinase and GTPase activities implicated in vesicle and cytoskeletal-related processes. At the presynaptic site, LRRK2 associates with synaptic vesicles through interaction with a panel of presynaptic proteins. Here, we show that LRRK2 kinase activity influences the dynamics of synaptic vesicle fusion. We therefore investigated whether LRRK2 phosphorylates component(s) of the exo/endocytosis machinery. We have previously observed that LRRK2 interacts with NSF, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase that couples ATP hydrolysis to the disassembling of SNARE proteins allowing them to enter another fusion cycle during synaptic exocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that NSF is a substrate of LRRK2 kinase activity. LRRK2 phosphorylates full-length NSF at threonine 645 in the ATP binding pocket of D2 domain. Functionally, NSF phosphorylated by LRRK2 displays enhanced ATPase activity and increased rate of SNARE complex disassembling. Substitution of threonine 645 with alanine abrogates LRRK2-mediated increased ATPase activity. Given that the most common Parkinson's disease LRRK2 G2019S mutation displays increased kinase activity, our results suggest that mutant LRRK2 may impair synaptic vesicle dynamics via aberrant phosphorylation of NSF.

  17. Phosphorylation of αB-crystallin: Role in stress, aging and patho-physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakthisaran, Raman; Akula, Kranthi Kiran; Tangirala, Ramakrishna; Rao, Ch Mohan

    2016-01-01

    αB-crystallin, once thought to be a lenticular protein, is ubiquitous and has critical roles in several cellular processes that are modulated by phosphorylation. Serine residues 19, 45 and 59 of αB-crystallin undergo phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of S45 is mediated by p44/42 MAP kinase, whereas S59 phosphorylation is mediated by MAPKAP kinase-2. Pathway involved in S19 phosphorylation is not known. The review highlights the role of phosphorylation in (i) oligomeric structure, stability and chaperone activity, (ii) cellular processes such as apoptosis, myogenic differentiation, cell cycle regulation and angiogenesis, and (iii) aging, stress, cardiomyopathy-causing αB-crystallin mutants, and in other diseases. Depending on the context and extent of phosphorylation, αB-crystallin seems to confer beneficial or deleterious effects. Phosphorylation alters structure, stability, size distribution and dynamics of the oligomeric assembly, thus modulating chaperone activity and various cellular processes. Phosphorylated αB-crystallin has a tendency to partition to the cytoskeleton and hence to the insoluble fraction. Low levels of phosphorylation appear to be protective, while hyperphosphorylation has negative implications. Mutations in αB-crystallin, such as R120G, Q151X and 464delCT, associated with inherited myofibrillar myopathy lead to hyperphosphorylation and intracellular inclusions. An ongoing study in our laboratory with phosphorylation-mimicking mutants indicates that phosphorylation of R120GαB-crystallin increases its propensity to aggregate. Phosphorylation of αB-crystallin has dual role that manifests either beneficial or deleterious consequences depending on the extent of phosphorylation and interaction with cytoskeleton. Considering that disease-causing mutants of αB-crystallin are hyperphosphorylated, moderation of phosphorylation may be a useful strategy in disease management. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Crystallin

  18. Coarse-grained molecular simulation of epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase multi-site self-phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Koland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon the ligand-dependent dimerization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK activity of one receptor monomer is activated, and the dimeric receptor undergoes self-phosphorylation at any of eight candidate phosphorylation sites (P-sites in either of the two C-terminal (CT domains. While the structures of the extracellular ligand binding and intracellular PTK domains are known, that of the ∼225-amino acid CT domain is not, presumably because it is disordered. Receptor phosphorylation on CT domain P-sites is critical in signaling because of the binding of specific signaling effector molecules to individual phosphorylated P-sites. To investigate how the combination of conventional substrate recognition and the unique topological factors involved in the CT domain self-phosphorylation reaction lead to selectivity in P-site phosphorylation, we performed coarse-grained molecular simulations of the P-site/catalytic site binding reactions that precede EGFR self-phosphorylation events. Our results indicate that self-phosphorylation of the dimeric EGFR, although generally believed to occur in trans, may well occur with a similar efficiency in cis, with the P-sites of both receptor monomers being phosphorylated to a similar extent. An exception was the case of the most kinase-proximal P-site-992, the catalytic site binding of which occurred exclusively in cis via an intramolecular reaction. We discovered that the in cis interaction of P-site-992 with the catalytic site was facilitated by a cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the PTK domain that allows the short CT domain sequence tethering P-site-992 to the PTK core to reach the catalytic site. Our work provides several new mechanistic insights into the EGFR self-phosphorylation reaction, and demonstrates the potential of coarse-grained molecular simulation approaches for investigating the complexities of self-phosphorylation in

  19. Threonine phosphorylation of rat liver glycogen synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arino, J.; Arro, M.; Guinovart, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    32 P-labeled glycogen synthase specifically immunoprecipitated from 32 P-phosphate incubated rat hepatocytes contains, in addition to [ 32 P] phosphoserine, significant levels of [ 32 P] phosphothreonine. When the 32 P-immunoprecipitate was cleaved with CNBr, the [ 32 P] phosphothreonine was recovered in the large CNBr fragment (CB-2, Mapp 28 Kd). Homogeneous rat liver glycogen synthase was phosphorylated by all the protein kinases able to phosphorylate CB-2 in vitro. After analysis of the immunoprecipitated enzyme for phosphoaminoacids, it was observed that only casein kinase II was able to phosphorylate on threonine and 32 P-phosphate was only found in CB-2. These results demonstrate that rat liver glycogen synthase is phosphorylated at threonine site(s) contained in CB-2 and strongly indicate that casein kinase II may play a role in the ''in vivo'' phosphorylation of liver glycogen synthase. This is the first protein kinase reported to phosphorylate threonine residues in liver glycogen synthase

  20. Tyrosine phosphorylation of a 66KD soluble protein and augmentation of lectin induced mitogenesis by DMSO in human T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedner, H.J.; Bass, G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated that induction of mitogenesis in human T lymphocytes is associated with the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 66KD soluble substrate-TPP 66. Since DMSO has been shown to be a non-specific stimulator of tyrosine protein kinases they have examined the effect of DMSO on both activation and tyrosine phosphorylation in human T cells. Human peripheral blood T lymphocytes were isolated by dextran sedimentation, Ficol/Paque centrifugation and nylon wool filtration. Phosphorylation was performed in cells incubated with [ 32 P] orthophosphate followed by DMSO for 30 min. TPP 66 was identified by 2-D PAGE, autoradiography, and HV electrophoresis of the hydrolyzed protein. Concentrations of DMSO from 1% to 50% induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of TPP 66 with maximal stimulation seen at 20%. DMSO alone did not activate the T cells (measured by [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation) when tested at high concentrations for 30 sec to 10 min. (longer incubations were markedly toxic) or low concentrations for 12 to 48 hrs. Low concentrations of DMSO 0.1%-0.5% did however, markedly augment [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation induced by PHA or Con A. These data suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of TPP 66 alone may not constitute sufficient signal for the activation sequence to begin but the phosphorylation of this soluble substrate may be a critical factor in the propagation of the activation sequence

  1. Structure and Pathology of Tau Protein in Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michala Kolarova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common type of dementia. In connection with the global trend of prolonging human life and the increasing number of elderly in the population, the AD becomes one of the most serious health and socioeconomic problems of the present. Tau protein promotes assembly and stabilizes microtubules, which contributes to the proper function of neuron. Alterations in the amount or the structure of tau protein can affect its role as a stabilizer of microtubules as well as some of the processes in which it is implicated. The molecular mechanisms governing tau aggregation are mainly represented by several posttranslational modifications that alter its structure and conformational state. Hence, abnormal phosphorylation and truncation of tau protein have gained attention as key mechanisms that become tau protein in a pathological entity. Evidences about the clinicopathological significance of phosphorylated and truncated tau have been documented during the progression of AD as well as their capacity to exert cytotoxicity when expressed in cell and animal models. This paper describes the normal structure and function of tau protein and its major alterations during its pathological aggregation in AD.

  2. PhosphoBase: a database of phosphorylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Nikolaj; Kreegipuu, Andres; Brunak, Søren

    1998-01-01

    PhosphoBase is a database of experimentally verified phosphorylation sites. Version 1.0 contains 156 entries and 398 experimentally determined phosphorylation sites. Entries are compiled and revised from the literature and from major protein sequence databases such as SwissProt and PIR. The entries...... provide information about the phosphoprotein and the exact position of its phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, part of the entries contain information about kinetic data obtained from enzyme assays on specific peptides. To illustrate the use of data extracted from PhosphoBase we present a sequence logo...... displaying the overall conservation of positions around serines phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA). PhosphoBase is available on the WWW at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/databases/PhosphoBase/....

  3. Mimic Phosphorylation of a βC1 Protein Encoded by TYLCCNB Impairs Its Functions as a Viral Suppressor of RNA Silencing and a Symptom Determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xueting; Wang, Zhan Qi; Xiao, Ruyuan; Cao, Linge; Wang, Yaqin; Xie, Yan; Zhou, Xueping

    2017-08-15

    Phosphorylation of the βC1 protein encoded by the betasatellite of tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNB-βC1) by SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) plays a critical role in defense of host plants against geminivirus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana However, how phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 impacts its pathogenic functions during viral infection remains elusive. In this study, we identified two additional tyrosine residues in TYLCCNB-βC1 that are phosphorylated by SnRK1. The effects of TYLCCNB-βC1 phosphorylation on its functions as a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) and a symptom determinant were investigated via phosphorylation mimic mutants in N. benthamiana plants. Mutations that mimic phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 at tyrosine 5 and tyrosine 110 attenuated disease symptoms during viral infection. The phosphorylation mimics weakened the ability of TYLCCNB-βC1 to reverse transcriptional gene silencing and to suppress posttranscriptional gene silencing and abolished its interaction with N. benthamiana ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 1 in N. benthamiana leaves. The mimic phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 had no impact on its protein stability, subcellular localization, or self-association. Our data establish an inhibitory effect of phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 on its pathogenic functions as a VSR and a symptom determinant and provide a mechanistic explanation of how SnRK1 functions as a host defense factor. IMPORTANCE Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), which causes a severe yellow leaf curl disease in China, is a monopartite geminivirus associated with the betasatellite (TYLCCNB). TYLCCNB encodes a single pathogenicity protein, βC1 (TYLCCNB-βC1), which functions as both a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) and a symptom determinant. Here, we show that mimicking phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 weakens its ability to reverse transcriptional gene silencing, to suppress posttranscriptional gene silencing, and to interact with N

  4. KSR1 is a functional protein kinase capable of serine autophosphorylation and direct phosphorylation of MEK1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettel, Jeremy A.; Liang, Dongchun; Hilliard, Valda C.; Edelblum, Karen L.; Broadus, Matthew R.; Gould, Kathleen L.; Hanks, Steven K.; Polk, D. Brent

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) pathway is a highly conserved signaling pathway that regulates diverse cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Kinase suppressor of Ras-1 (KSR1) binds each of the three ERK cascade components to facilitate pathway activation. Even though KSR1 contains a C-terminal kinase domain, evidence supporting the catalytic function of KSR1 remains controversial. In this study, we produced recombinant wild-type or kinase-inactive (D683A/D700A) KSR1 proteins in Escherichia coli to test the hypothesis that KSR1 is a functional protein kinase. Recombinant wild-type KSR1, but not recombinant kinase-inactive KSR1, underwent autophosphorylation on serine residue(s), phosphorylated myelin basic protein (MBP) as a generic substrate, and phosphorylated recombinant kinase-inactive MAPK/ERK kinase-1 (MEK1). Furthermore, FLAG immunoprecipitates from KSR1 -/- colon epithelial cells stably expressing FLAG-tagged wild-type KSR1 (+KSR1), but not vector (+vector) or FLAG-tagged kinase-inactive KSR1 (+D683A/D700A), were able to phosphorylate kinase-inactive MEK1. Since TNF activates the ERK pathway in colon epithelial cells, we tested the biological effects of KSR1 in the survival response downstream of TNF. We found that +vector and +D683A/D700A cells underwent apoptosis when treated with TNF, whereas +KSR1 cells were resistant. However, +KSR1 cells were sensitized to TNF-induced cell loss in the absence of MEK kinase activity. These data provide clear evidence that KSR1 is a functional protein kinase, MEK1 is an in vitro substrate of KSR1, and the catalytic activities of both proteins are required for eliciting cell survival responses downstream of TNF.

  5. Rat vas deferens SERCA2 is modulated by Ca2+/calmodulin protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.B.R.; Muzi-Filho, H.; Valverde, R.H.F.; Quintas, L.E.M.; Noel, F.; Einicker-Lamas, M.; Cunha, V.M.N.

    2013-01-01

    Ca 2+ pumps are important players in smooth muscle contraction. Nevertheless, little information is available about these pumps in the vas deferens. We have determined which subtype of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase isoform (SERCA) is expressed in rat vas deferens (RVD) and its modulation by calmodulin (CaM)-dependent mechanisms. The thapsigargin-sensitive Ca 2+ -ATPase from a membrane fraction containing the highest SERCA levels in the RVD homogenate has the same molecular mass (∼115 kDa) as that of SERCA2 from the rat cerebellum. It has a very high affinity for Ca 2+ (Ca 0.5 = 780 nM) and a low sensitivity to vanadate (IC 50 = 41 µM). These facts indicate that SERCA2 is present in the RVD. Immunoblotting for CaM and Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) showed the expression of these two regulatory proteins. Ca 2+ and CaM increased serine-phosphorylated residues of the 115-kDa protein, indicating the involvement of CaMKII in the regulatory phosphorylation of SERCA2. Phosphorylation is accompanied by an 8-fold increase of thapsigargin-sensitive Ca 2+ accumulation in the lumen of vesicles derived from these membranes. These data establish that SERCA2 in the RVD is modulated by Ca 2+ and CaM, possibly via CaMKII, in a process that results in stimulation of Ca 2+ pumping activity

  6. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Minhee; Shin, Nara; Kim, Gamin; Kim, Yun Gi; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Kim, Hoguen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. ► Inhibition of PKC-ζ leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. ► Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. ► Activation of PKC-ζ in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequent secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ, λ, and ι) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-ζ by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-ζ in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-ζ is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.

  7. Membrane phosphorylation and nerve cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with the phosphorylation of membrane components. In part I a series of experiments is described using the hippocampal slice as a model system. In part II a different model system - cultured hybrid cells - is used to study protein and lipid phosphorylation, influenced by incubation with neuropeptides. In part III in vivo and in vitro studies are combined to study protein phosphorylation after neuroanatomical lesions. In a section of part II (Page 81-90) labelling experiments of the membrane inositol-phospholipids are described. 32 P-ATP was used to label phospholipids in intact hybrid cells, and short incubations were found to be the most favourable. (C.F.)

  8. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  9. The Golgi localization of phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta requires the protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of serine 262 and is essential for maintaining plasma membrane sphingomyelin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tiel, Claudia M; Westerman, Jan; Paasman, Marten A; Hoebens, Martha M; Wirtz, Karel W A; Snoek, Gerry T

    2002-06-21

    Recombinant mouse phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PI-TP)beta is a substrate for protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation in vitro. Based on site-directed mutagenesis and two-dimensional tryptic peptide mapping, Ser(262) was identified as the major site of phosphorylation and Ser(165) as a minor phosphorylation site. The phospholipid transfer activities of wild-type PI-TP beta and PI-TP beta(S262A) were identical, whereas PI-TP beta(S165A) was completely inactive. PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Ser(262) also had no effect on the transfer activity of PI-TP beta. To investigate the role of Ser(262) in the functioning of PI-TP beta, wtPI-TP beta and PI-TP beta(S262A) were overexpressed in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. Two-dimensional PAGE analysis of cell lysates was used to separate PI-TP beta from its phosphorylated form. After Western blotting, wtPI-TP beta was found to be 85% phosphorylated, whereas PI-TP beta(S262A) was not phosphorylated. In the presence of the PKC inhibitor GF 109203X, the phosphorylated form of wtPI-TP beta was strongly reduced. Immunolocalization showed that wtPI-TP beta was predominantly associated with the Golgi membranes. In the presence of the PKC inhibitor, wtPI-TP beta was distributed throughout the cell similar to what was observed for PI-TP beta(S262A). In contrast to wtPI-TP beta overexpressors, cells overexpressing PI-TP beta(S262A) were unable to rapidly replenish sphingomyelin in the plasma membrane upon degradation by sphingomyelinase. This implies that PKC-dependent association with the Golgi complex is a prerequisite for PI-TP beta to express its effect on sphingomyelin metabolism.

  10. Interleukin 1β induces rapid phosphorylation and redistribution of talin: A possible mechanism for modulation of fibroblast focal adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qwarnstroem, E.E.; MacFarlane, S.A.; Page, R.C.; Dower, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The majority of interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptors in human fibroblasts has been shown to be localized at focal adhesions. This study describes rapid alterations caused by IL-1β/IL-1-receptor interaction at these sites. Fibroblast monolayers, incubated with IL-1β and prepared for electron microscopy, showed successive loss of cell-substratum contact and fewer and less-pronounced processes. Immunocytochemistry revealed loss and redistribution of the talin staining initially observed after 5-15 min of IL-1β incubation. Similarly, the cytoskeleton showed a decrease in staining and a disorganization starting from 15 to 30 min after IL-1 addition, whereas extracellular fibronectin appeared largely unaffected. Prelabeling with [ 32 P]phosphate showed a 2- to 3-fold increase in the level of talin phosphorylation, peaking at 15 min. Phospho amino acid analyses revealed a higher level of serine and threonine phosphorylation. The data suggest that the action of IL-1β on fibroblasts may be partially mediated by direct phosphorylation of talin via activation of a protein serine/threonine kinase, leading to changes in transmembrane linkage proteins and the cytoskeleton. Such alterations at focal adhesions may provide a mechanism by which IL-1 can rapidly modulate cell-matrix interactions during inflammation and wound healing

  11. Insulin receptor substrate proteins create a link between the tyrosine phosphorylation cascade and the Ca2+-ATPases in muscle and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algenstaedt, P; Antonetti, D A; Yaffe, M B; Kahn, C R

    1997-09-19

    Following phosphorylation by the insulin receptor kinase, the insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 bind to and activate several Src homology 2 (SH2) domain proteins. To identify novel proteins that interact with IRS proteins in muscle, a human skeletal muscle cDNA expression library was created in the lambdaEXlox system and probed with baculovirus-produced and tyrosine-phosphorylated human IRS-1. One clone of the 10 clones which was positive through three rounds of screening represented the C terminus of the human homologue of the adult fast twitch skeletal muscle Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1) including the cytoplasmic tail and part of transmembrane region 10. Western blot analysis of extracts of rat muscle demonstrated co-immunoprecipitation of both IRS-1 and IRS-2 with the skeletal muscle Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1) and the cardiac muscle isoform (SERCA2). In both cases, injection of insulin stimulated a 2- to 6-fold increase in association of which was maximal within 5 min. In primary cultures of aortic smooth muscle cells and C2C12 cells, the insulin-stimulated interaction between IRS proteins and SERCA1 and -2 was dose-dependent with a maximum induction at 100 nM insulin. This interaction was confirmed in a "pull down" experiment using a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the C terminus of the human SERCA isoform and phosphorylated IRS-1 in vitro and could be blocked by a FLVRES-like domain peptide present in the human SERCA sequence. Affinity chromatography of phosphopeptide libraries using the glutathione S-transferase fusion protein of the C terminus of SERCA1 indicated a consensus sequence for binding of XpYGSS; this is identical to potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites at position 431 of human IRS-1 and at position 500 of human IRS-2. In streptozotocin diabetic rats the interaction between IRS proteins and SERCA1 in skeletal muscle and SERCA2 in cardiac muscle was significantly reduced. Taken together, these results indicate that the IRS

  12. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb14 by Tie2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumont Daniel J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth factor receptor bound (Grb proteins 7, 10 and 14 are a family of structurally related multi-domain adaptor proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. Grb7, 10 and 14 are known to become serine and/or threonine phosphorylated in response to growth factor (GF stimulation. Grb7 and 10 have also been shown to become tyrosine phosphorylated under certain conditions. Under experimental conditions Grb7 is tyrosine phosphorylated by the Tie2/Tie-2/Tek angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK. Furthermore, Grb14 has also been shown to interact with Tie2, however tyrosine phosphorylation of this Grb family member has yet to be reported. Results Here we report for the first time tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb14. This phosphorylation requires a kinase competent Tie2 as well as intact tyrosines 1100 and 1106 (Y1100 and Y1106 on the receptor. Furthermore, a complete SH2 domain on Grb14 is required for Grb14 tyrosine phosphorylation by Tie2. Grb14 was also able to become tyrosine phosphorylated in primary endothelial cells when treated with a soluble and potent variant of the Tie2 ligand, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP Ang1. Conclusion Our results show that Grb14, like its family members Grb7 and Grb10, is able to be tyrosine phosphorylated. Furthermore, our data indicate a role for Grb14 in endothelial signaling downstream of the Tie2 receptor.

  13. Phosphorylation of stress protein pp80 is related to promotion of transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.M.; Gindhart, T.D.; Hirano, K.; Colburn, N.H.

    1986-01-01

    The JB6 mouse epidermal cell system is an in vitro model of late stage promotion, and includes cell lines sensitive (P+) or resistant (P-) to phorbol ester-induced anchorage independent transformation, and transformed (T/sub x/) lines. Certain promoter-induced changes in phosphoproteins, identified by gel electrophoresis, are unique to cells of one phenotype, and occur only with specific promoters. An 80Kd protein is inversely correlated with phenotype: P- cells have a constitutively higher level (p 35 S-methionine. pp80 shares properties with the 80Kd heat stress protein: molecular weight relative abundance, and isoelectric point (4.5). Pharmacological analogs of calcium, the lanthanides, promote transformation of JB6 cells, but have no effect on phosphorylation of the 80Kd protein. If pp80 is on the promotion pathway, it is limited to a specific subset of transformation promoters

  14. Serine 77 in the PDZ domain of PICK1 is a protein kinase Cα phosphorylation site regulated by lipid membrane binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Thorsen, Thor Seneca; Gether, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) contains an N-terminal protein binding PDZ domain and a C-terminal lipid binding BAR domain. PICK1 plays a key role in several physiological processes, including synaptic plasticity. However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms governing the a...... lipid binding and/or polymerization capacity. We propose that PICK1 is phosphorylated at Ser77 by PKCα preferentially when bound to membrane vesicles and that this phosphorylation in turn modulates its cellular distribution....

  15. Phosphorylation and disassembly of intermediate filaments in mitotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yinghao; Rosevear, E.; Goldman, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    As baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells enter mitosis, networks of intermediate filaments (IFs) are transformed into cytoplasmic aggregates of protofilaments. Coincident with this morphological change, the phosphate content of vimentin increases from 0.3 mol of P i per mol of protein in interphase to 1.9 mol of P i per mol of protein in mitosis. A similar increase in phosphate content is observed with desmin, from 0.5 mol of P i per mol of protein to 1.5 mol of P i per mol of protein. Fractionation of mitotic cell lysates by hydroxylapatite column chromatography reveals the presence of two IF protein kinase activities, designated as IF protein kinase I and IF protein kinase II. Comparison of two-dimensional 32 P-labeled phosphopeptide maps of vimentin and desmin phosphorylated in vivo in mitosis, and in vitro using partially purified kinase fractions, reveals extensive similarity in the two sets of phosphorylation sites. Phosphorylation of in vitro polymerized IFs by IF protein kinase II induces complete disassembly as determined by negative-stain electron microscopy. The results support the idea that the disassembly of IFs in mitosis is regulated by the phosphorylation of its subunit proteins

  16. Receptor-type Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase β Regulates Met Phosphorylation and Function in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiru Xu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is the sixth most common cancer and has a high rate of mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that hepatocyte growth factor receptor (or Met pathway plays a pivotal role in HNSCC metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Met function is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation that is under direct control by receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase β (RPTP-β. We report here that RPTP-β expression is significantly downregulated in HNSCC cells derived from metastatic tumors compared to subject-matched cells from primary tumors. Knockdown of endogenous RPTP-β in HNSCC cells from primary tumor potentiated Met tyrosine phosphorylation, downstream mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase pathway activation, cell migration, and invasion. Conversely, restoration of RPTP-β expression in cells from matched metastatic tumor decreased Met tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream functions. Furthermore, we observed that six of eight HNSCC tumors had reduced levels of RPTP-β protein in comparison with normal oral tissues. Collectively, the results demonstrate the importance of RPTP-β in tumor biology of HNSCC through direct dephosphorylation of Met and regulation of downstream signal transduction pathways. Reduced RPTP-β levels, with or without Met overexpression, could promote Met activation in HNSCC tumors.

  17. Protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of Na+/K+-ATPase opens intracellular C-terminal water pathway leading to third Na+-binding site in molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne; Nissen, Poul; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2012-01-01

    -atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the structural consequences of phosphorylating the Na+/K+- ATPase (NKA) residue S936, which is the best characterized phosphorylation site in NKA, targeted in vivo by Protein Kinase A (PKA) (1-3). The MD simulations suggest that S936 phosphorylation opens......Phosphorylation is one of the major mechanisms for posttranscriptional modification of proteins. The addition of a compact, negatively charged moiety to a protein can significantly change its function and localization by affecting its structure and interaction network. We have used all...... a C-terminal hydrated pathway leading to D926, a transmembrane residue proposed to form part of the third sodium ion-binding site (4). Simulations of a S936E mutant form, for which only subtle effects are observed when expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied with electrophysiology, does not mimic...

  18. Phosphorylation of translation factors in response to anoxia in turtles, Trachemys scripta elegans: role of the AMP-activated protein kinase and target of rapamycin signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Mark H; Hussain, Nusrat; Dilworth, Stephen M; Storey, Kenneth B

    2009-12-01

    Long-term survival of oxygen deprivation by animals with well-developed anoxia tolerance depends on multiple biochemical adaptations including strong metabolic rate depression. We investigated whether the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) could play a regulatory role in the suppression of protein synthesis that occurs when turtles experience anoxic conditions. AMPK activity and the phosphorylation state of ribosomal translation factors were measured in liver, heart, red muscle and white muscle of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) subjected to 20 h of anoxic submergence. AMPK activity increased twofold in white muscle of anoxic turtles compared with aerobic controls but remained unchanged in liver and red muscle, whereas in heart AMPK activity decreased by 40%. Immunoblotting with phospho-specific antibodies revealed that eukaryotic elongation factor-2 phosphorylation at the inactivating Thr56 site increased six- and eightfold in red and white muscles from anoxic animals, respectively, but was unchanged in liver and heart. The phosphorylation state of the activating Thr389 site of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase was reduced under anoxia in red muscle and heart but was unaffected in liver and white muscle. Exposure to anoxia decreased 40S ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in heart and promoted eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) dephosphorylation in red muscle, but surprisingly increased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in white muscle. The changes in phosphorylation state of translation factors suggest that organ-specific patterns of signalling and response are involved in achieving the anoxia-induced suppression of protein synthesis in turtles.

  19. Altered protein glycosylation predicts Alzheimer's disease and modulates its pathology in disease model Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel-Pinter, Moran; Stempler, Shiri; Tal-Mazaki, Sharon; Losev, Yelena; Singh-Anand, Avnika; Escobar-Álvarez, Daniela; Lezmy, Jonathan; Gazit, Ehud; Ruppin, Eytan; Segal, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are pathogenic oligomers and fibrils of misfolded amyloidogenic proteins (e.g., β-amyloid and hyper-phosphorylated tau in AD), which cause progressive loss of neurons in the brain and nervous system. Although deviations from normal protein glycosylation have been documented in AD, their role in disease pathology has been barely explored. Here our analysis of available expression data sets indicates that many glycosylation-related genes are differentially expressed in brains of AD patients compared with healthy controls. The robust differences found enabled us to predict the occurrence of AD with remarkable accuracy in a test cohort and identify a set of key genes whose expression determines this classification. We then studied in vivo the effect of reducing expression of homologs of 6 of these genes in transgenic Drosophila overexpressing human tau, a well-established invertebrate AD model. These experiments have led to the identification of glycosylation genes that may augment or ameliorate tauopathy phenotypes. Our results indicate that OstDelta, l(2)not and beta4GalT7 are tauopathy suppressors, whereas pgnat5 and CG33303 are enhancers, of tauopathy. These results suggest that specific alterations in protein glycosylation may play a causal role in AD etiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Phosphorylated 4E binding protein 1: a hallmark of cell signaling that correlates with survival in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellvi, Josep; Garcia, Angel; Rojo, Federico; Ruiz-Marcellan, Carmen; Gil, Antonio; Baselga, Jose; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago

    2006-10-15

    Growth factor receptors and cell signaling factors play a crucial role in human carcinomas and have been studied in ovarian tumors with varying results. Cell signaling involves multiple pathways and a myriad of factors that can be mutated or amplified. Cell signaling is driven through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathways and by some downstream molecules, such as 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K). The objectives of this study were to analyze the real role that these pathways play in ovarian cancer, to correlate them with clinicopathologic characteristics, and to identify the factors that transmit individual proliferation signals and are associated with pathologic grade and prognosis, regardless specific oncogenic alterations upstream. One hundred twenty-nine ovarian epithelial tumors were studied, including 20 serous cystadenomas, 7 mucinous cystadenomas, 11 serous borderline tumors, 16 mucinous borderline tumors, 29 serous carcinomas, 16 endometrioid carcinomas, 15 clear cell carcinomas, and 15 mucinous carcinomas. Tissue microarrays were constructed, and immunohistochemistry for the receptors epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-erb-B2 was performed and with phosphorylated antibodies for protein kinase B (AKT), 4EBP1, p70S6K, S6, and ERK. Among 129 ovarian neoplasms, 17.8% were positive for c-erb-B2, 9.3% were positive for EGFR, 47.3% were positive for phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), 58.9% were positive for p-ERK, 41.1% were positive for p-4EBP1, 26.4% were positive for p70S6K, and 15.5% were positive for p-S6. Although EGFR, p-AKT, and p-ERK expression did not differ between benign, borderline, or malignant tumors, c-erb-B2, p-4EBP1, p-p70S6K, and p-S6 were expressed significantly more often in malignant tumors. Only p-4EBP1 expression demonstrated prognostic significance (P = .005), and only surgical stage and p-4EBP1 expression

  1. Interleukin-18 alters protein expressions of neurodegenerative diseases-linked proteins in human SH-SY5Y neuron-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina M Sutinen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress (OS are present in Alzheimer´s disease (AD brains in addition to neuronal loss, Amyloid-β (Aβ plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-protein neurofibrillary tangles. Previously we showed that levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-18 (IL-18, are elevated in post-mortem AD brains. IL-18 can modulate the tau kinases, Cdk5 and GSK3β, as well as Aβ-production. IL-18 levels are also increased in AD risk diseases, including type-2 diabetes and obesity. Here, we explored other IL-18 regulated proteins in neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells. Differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, incubated with IL-18 for 24, 48 or 72h, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE. Specific altered protein spots were chosen and identified with mass spectrometry and verified by western immunoblotting. IL-18 had time-dependent effects on the SH-SY5Y proteome, modulating numerous protein levels/modifications. We concentrated on those related to OS (DDAH2, peroxiredoxins 2, 3 and 6, DJ-1, BLVRA, Aβ-degradation (MMP14, TIMP2, Aβ-aggregation (Septin-2 and modifications of axon growth and guidance associated, collapsing response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2. IL-18 significantly increased antioxidative enzymes, indicative of OS, and altered levels of glycolytic α- and γ-enolase and multifunctional 14-3-3γ and -ε, commonly affected in neurodegenerative diseases. MMP14, TIMP2, α-enolase and 14-3-3ε, indirectly involved in Aβ metabolism, as well as Septin-2 showed changes that increase Aβ levels. Increased 14-3-3γ may contribute to GSK3β driven tau hyperphosphorylation and CRMP2 Thr514 and Ser522 phosphorylation with the Thr555-site, a target for Rho kinase, showing time-dependent changes. IL-18 also increased caspase-1 levels and vacuolization of the cells. Although our SH-SY5Y cells were not aged, as neurons in AD, our work suggests that heightened or prolonged IL-18 levels can drive protein changes of known

  2. Tungstate-targeting of BKαβ1 channels tunes ERK phosphorylation and cell proliferation in human vascular smooth muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Fernández-Mariño

    Full Text Available Despite the substantial knowledge on the antidiabetic, antiobesity and antihypertensive actions of tungstate, information on its primary target/s is scarce. Tungstate activates both the ERK1/2 pathway and the vascular voltage- and Ca2+-dependent large-conductance BKαβ1 potassium channel, which modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation and function, respectively. Here, we have assessed the possible involvement of BKαβ1 channels in the tungstate-induced ERK phosphorylation and its relevance for VSMC proliferation. Western blot analysis in HEK cell lines showed that expression of vascular BKαβ1 channels potentiates the tungstate-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a Gi/o protein-dependent manner. Tungstate activated BKαβ1 channels upstream of G proteins as channel activation was not altered by the inhibition of G proteins with GDPβS or pertussis toxin. Moreover, analysis of Gi/o protein activation measuring the FRET among heterologously expressed Gi protein subunits suggested that tungstate-targeting of BKαβ1 channels promotes G protein activation. Single channel recordings on VSMCs from wild-type and β1-knockout mice indicated that the presence of the regulatory β1 subunit was essential for the tungstate-mediated activation of BK channels in VSMCs. Moreover, the specific BK channel blocker iberiotoxin lowered tungstate-induced ERK phosphorylation by 55% and partially reverted (by 51% the tungstate-produced reduction of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-induced proliferation in human VSMCs. Our observations indicate that tungstate-targeting of BKαβ1 channels promotes activation of PTX-sensitive Gi proteins to enhance the tungstate-induced phosphorylation of ERK, and inhibits PDGF-stimulated cell proliferation in human vascular smooth muscle.

  3. Multi-iPPseEvo: A Multi-label Classifier for Identifying Human Phosphorylated Proteins by Incorporating Evolutionary Information into Chou's General PseAAC via Grey System Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wang-Ren; Zheng, Quan-Shu; Sun, Bi-Qian; Xiao, Xuan

    2017-03-01

    Predicting phosphorylation protein is a challenging problem, particularly when query proteins have multi-label features meaning that they may be phosphorylated at two or more different type amino acids. In fact, human protein usually be phosphorylated at serine, threonine and tyrosine. By introducing the "multi-label learning" approach, a novel predictor has been developed that can be used to deal with the systems containing both single- and multi-label phosphorylation protein. Here we proposed a predictor called Multi-iPPseEvo by (1) incorporating the protein sequence evolutionary information into the general pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) via the grey system theory, (2) balancing out the skewed training datasets by the asymmetric bootstrap approach, and (3) constructing an ensemble predictor by fusing an array of individual random forest classifiers thru a voting system. Rigorous cross-validations via a set of multi-label metrics indicate that the multi-label phosphorylation predictor is very promising and encouraging. The current approach represents a new strategy to deal with the multi-label biological problems, and the software is freely available for academic use at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/Multi-iPPseEvo. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA controls enzyme activity and localization of its protein substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Pedersen, Malene Mejer; Paspaliari, Dafni Katerina

    2010-01-01

    -phosphorylated proteins in B. subtilis. We found that the majority of these proteins could be phosphorylated by PtkA in vitro. Among these new substrates, single-stranded DNA exonuclease YorK, and aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase Asd were activated by PtkA-dependent phosphorylation. Because enzyme activity......A was dramatically altered in Delta ptkA background. Our results confirm that PtkA can control enzyme activity of its substrates in some cases, but also reveal a new mode of action for PtkA, namely ensuring correct cellular localization of its targets.......P>Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA was previously shown to phosphorylate, and thereby regulate the activity of two classes of protein substrates: UDP-glucose dehydrogenases and single-stranded DNA-binding proteins. Our recent phosphoproteome study identified nine new tyrosine...

  5. Quantifying Kinase-Specific Phosphorylation Stoichiometry Using Stable Isotope Labeling In a Reverse In-Gel Kinase Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang; Cox, Jonathan T.; Huang, Weiliang; Kane, Maureen; Tang, Keqi; Bieberich, Charles J.

    2016-12-06

    Reversible protein phosphorylation regulates essentially all cellular activities. Aberrant protein phosphorylation is an etiological factor in a wide array of diseases, including cancer1, diabetes2, and Alzheimer’s3. Given the broad impact of protein phosphorylation on cellular biology and organismal health, understanding how protein phosphorylation is regulated and the consequences of gain and loss of phosphoryl moieties from proteins is of primary importance. Advances in instrumentation, particularly in mass spectrometry, coupled with high throughput approaches have recently yielded large datasets cataloging tens of thousands of protein phosphorylation sites in multiple organisms4-6. While these studies are seminal in term of data collection, our understanding of protein phosphorylation regulation remains largely one-dimensional.

  6. Bub1 autophosphorylation feeds back to regulate kinetochore docking and promote localized substrate phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Adeel; Lajeunesse, Audrey; Dulla, Kalyan; Combes, Guillaume; Thebault, Philippe; Nigg, Erich A; Elowe, Sabine

    2015-09-24

    During mitosis, Bub1 kinase phosphorylates histone H2A-T120 to promote centromere sister chromatid cohesion through recruitment of shugoshin (Sgo) proteins. The regulation and dynamics of H2A-T120 phosphorylation are poorly understood. Using quantitative phosphoproteomics we show that Bub1 is autophosphorylated at numerous sites. We confirm mitosis-specific autophosphorylation of a several residues and show that Bub1 activation is primed in interphase but fully achieved only in mitosis. Mutation of a single autophosphorylation site T589 alters kinetochore turnover of Bub1 and results in uniform H2A-T120 phosphorylation and Sgo recruitment along chromosome arms. Consequently, improper sister chromatid resolution and chromosome segregation errors are observed. Kinetochore tethering of Bub1-T589A refocuses H2A-T120 phosphorylation and Sgo1 to centromeres. Recruitment of the Bub1-Bub3-BubR1 axis to kinetochores has recently been extensively studied. Our data provide novel insight into the regulation and kinetochore residency of Bub1 and indicate that its localization is dynamic and tightly controlled through feedback autophosphorylation.

  7. Protein Profiling of Preeclampsia Placental Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Chang; Liu, Zitao; Cui, Lifeng; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Shuwen; Tang, Jian Jenny; Cui, Miao; Lian, Guodong; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiufen; Xu, Hongmei; Jiang, Jing; Lee, Peng; Zhang, David Y.; He, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder involved in pregnancy without an effective treatment except delivery. The precise pathogenesis of this complicated disorder is still not completely understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alterations of protein expression and phosphorylations that are important in regulating placental cell function in preterm and term preeclampsia. Using the Protein Pathway Array, 38 proteins in placental tissues were found to be differentially expres...

  8. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Minhee; Shin, Nara; Kim, Gamin [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Gi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jeon-Soo [Department of Microbiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoguen, E-mail: hkyonsei@yuhs.ac [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of PKC-{zeta} leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of PKC-{zeta} in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequent secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-{zeta}, {lambda}, and {iota}) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-{zeta} by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-{zeta} in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-{zeta} is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.

  9. Correlation between phosphorylation level of a hippocampal 86kDa protein and extinction of a behaviour in a model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Rita G W; Pereira, Sílvia R C; Carvalho, Fabiana M; Oliveira-Silva, Ieda F; Ferraz, Vany P; Ribeiro, Angela M

    2007-06-04

    The effects of chronic ethanol and thiamine deficiency, alone or associated, on hippocampal protein phosphorylation profiles ranging in molecular weight from 30 to 250kDa molecular weight, in stimulated (high K(+) concentration) and unstimulated (basal) conditions were investigated. These treatments significantly changed the phosphorylation level of an 86kDa phosphoprotein. Thiamine deficiency, but not chronic ethanol, induced a decrease in a behavioural extinction index, which is significantly correlated to the phosphorylation level of the p86 protein. These data add to and extend previous findings by our laboratory implicating the involvement of hippocampal neurotransmission components in extinction of a behaviour which involves learning of environmental spatial cues.

  10. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is required for cytokinesis and progression of cell cycle in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhaowu; Yu, Guanghui

    2010-02-15

    The role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in plant cytokinesis remains largely uncharacterized. To elucidate its role, tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells have been synchronized using a two-step procedure, and the different phases of the cell cycle identified by Histone 4 gene expression and the mitotic index. MAPK expression was analyzed by semi-quantitative (SQ) RT-PCR and protein gel blot analysis for phosphorylated MAPK during cell cycle progression. The SQ RT-PCR analysis indicated that MAPK expression is lower in mitosis than in interphase (G1, G2 and S). However, the amount of phosphorylated MAPK remained stable throughout the cell cycle, indicating that MAPK activity is predominantly regulated at the post-translational level and that phosphorylation of MAPK plays an important role in mitosis. Application of the specific MAPK phosphorylation inhibitor U0126 revealed that while U0126 treatment decreases the phosphorylation of MAPK and the progression from telophase to early cytokinesis is significantly inhibited. The formation of the phragmoplast is also negatively affected at this stage. These results demonstrate that MAPK phosphorylation is involved in the formation of the cell plate within the phragmoplast during cytokinesis and that MAPK predominantly functions during the cytokinesis stage of the cell cycle in tobacco BY-2 cells. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term effects of rapamycin treatment on insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and glycogen synthase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Shailly; Shrivastav, Anuraag; Changela, Sheena; Khandelwal, Ramji L.

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) is a Ser/Thr kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation/survival through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the regulation of glycogen metabolism through glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and glycogen synthase (GS). Rapamycin is an inhibitor of mTOR. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin pretreatment on the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB phosphorylation and GS activity in parental HepG2 and HepG2 cells with overexpression of constitutively active Akt1/PKB-α (HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB). Rapamycin pretreatment resulted in a decrease (20-30%) in the insulin mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 (Ser 473) in parental HepG2 cells but showed an upregulation of phosphorylation in HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Rictor levels were decreased (20-50%) in parental HepG2 cells but were not significantly altered in the HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells. Furthermore, rictor knockdown decreased the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473) by 40-60% upon rapamycin pretreatment. GS activity followed similar trends as that of phosphorylated Akt and so with rictor levels in these cells pretreated with rapamycin; parental HepG2 cells showed a decrease in GS activity, whereas as HepG2-CA-Akt/PKB cells showed an increase in GS activity. The changes in the levels of phosphorylated Akt/PKB (Ser 473) correlated with GS and protein phoshatase-1 activity

  12. Protein Synthesis Elongation Factor Tu Present in Spores of Streptomyces coelicolor Can Be Phosphorylated in Vitro by the Spore Protein Kinase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Martin; Bezoušková, Silvia; Kalachová, Ladislava; Weiser, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2007), s. 471-478 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/1014; GA AV ČR IAA600200702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : phosphorylation * s. coelicolor * protein kinase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  13. Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity by in vitro phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. Differential phosphorylation of NDP kinases in HeLa cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, R M; Engel, M; Sauane, M

    1996-01-01

    that in vitro protein kinase CK2 catalyzed phosphorylation of human NDPK A inhibits its enzymatic activity by inhibiting the first step of its ping-pong mechanism of catalysis: its autophosphorylation. Upon in vivo 32P labeling of HeLa cells, we observed that both human NDPKs, A and B, were autophosphorylated...

  14. Phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase by protein kinase A in vitro promotes an increase in its hydrophobic surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krintel, Christian; Mörgelin, Matthias; Logan, Derek T

    2009-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (EC 3.1.1.79; HSL) is a key enzyme in the mobilization of fatty acids from stored triacylglycerols. HSL activity is controlled by phosphorylation of at least four serines. In rat HSL, Ser563, Ser659 and Ser660 are phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) in vitro as well......, the hydrophobic fluorescent probe 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) was found to inhibit the hydrolysis of triolein by purified recombinant rat adipocyte HSL, with a decrease in the effect of bis-ANS upon PKA phosphorylation of HSL. The interaction of HSL with bis-ANS was found to have...... a Kd of 1 microM in binding assays. Upon PKA phosphorylation, the interactions of HSL with both bis-ANS and the alternative probe SYPRO Orange were increased. By negative stain transmission electron microscopy, phosphorylated HSL was found to have a closer interaction with phospholipid vesicles than...

  15. In vitro analysis of the role of replication protein A (RPA) and RPA phosphorylation in ATR-mediated checkpoint signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A; Reardon, Joyce T; Wold, Marc S; Sancar, Aziz

    2012-10-19

    Replication protein A (RPA) plays essential roles in DNA metabolism, including replication, checkpoint, and repair. Recently, we described an in vitro system in which the phosphorylation of human Chk1 kinase by ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related) is dependent on RPA bound to single-stranded DNA. Here, we report that phosphorylation of other ATR targets, p53 and Rad17, has the same requirements and that RPA is also phosphorylated in this system. At high p53 or Rad17 concentrations, RPA phosphorylation is inhibited and, in this system, RPA with phosphomimetic mutations cannot support ATR kinase function, whereas a non-phosphorylatable RPA mutant exhibits full activity. Phosphorylation of these ATR substrates depends on the recruitment of ATR and the substrates by RPA to the RPA-ssDNA complex. Finally, mutant RPAs lacking checkpoint function exhibit essentially normal activity in nucleotide excision repair, revealing RPA separation of function for checkpoint and excision repair.

  16. In Vitro Analysis of the Role of Replication Protein A (RPA) and RPA Phosphorylation in ATR-mediated Checkpoint Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A.; Reardon, Joyce T.; Wold, Marc S.; Sancar, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) plays essential roles in DNA metabolism, including replication, checkpoint, and repair. Recently, we described an in vitro system in which the phosphorylation of human Chk1 kinase by ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related) is dependent on RPA bound to single-stranded DNA. Here, we report that phosphorylation of other ATR targets, p53 and Rad17, has the same requirements and that RPA is also phosphorylated in this system. At high p53 or Rad17 concentrations, RPA phosphorylation is inhibited and, in this system, RPA with phosphomimetic mutations cannot support ATR kinase function, whereas a non-phosphorylatable RPA mutant exhibits full activity. Phosphorylation of these ATR substrates depends on the recruitment of ATR and the substrates by RPA to the RPA-ssDNA complex. Finally, mutant RPAs lacking checkpoint function exhibit essentially normal activity in nucleotide excision repair, revealing RPA separation of function for checkpoint and excision repair. PMID:22948311

  17. Plk1 phosphorylation of IRS2 prevents premature mitotic exit via AKT inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Li, Zhiguo; Ahmad, Nihal; Liu, Xiaoqi

    2016-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins play important roles by acting as a platform in transducing signals from transmembrane receptors upon growth factor stimulation. Although tyrosine phosphorylation on IRS proteins plays critical roles in signal transduction, phosphorylation of IRS proteins on serine/threonine residues are believed to play various regulatory roles on IRS protein function. However, studies on serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS proteins are very limited, especially for insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), one member of the IRS protein family. In this study, we identify Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) as the responsible kinase for phosphorylation of IRS2 on two serine residues, Ser 556 and Ser 1098. Phosphorylation of IRS2 on these two serine residues by Plk1 prevents the activation of the PI3K pathway upon growth factor stimulation by inhibiting the binding between IRS2 and the PI3K pathway components and increasing IRS2 protein degradation. Of significance, we show that IRS2 phosphorylation is cell cycle regulated and that Plk1 phosphorylation of IRS2 prevents premature mitotic exit via AKT inactivation. PMID:25830382

  18. Rat vas deferens SERCA2 is modulated by Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.B.R.; Muzi-Filho, H. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, R.H.F. [Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Quintas, L.E.M. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Noel, F. [Programa de Desenvolvimento de Fármacos, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Einicker-Lamas, M. [Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Biologia Estrutural e Bioimagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, V.M.N. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-03-19

    Ca{sup 2+} pumps are important players in smooth muscle contraction. Nevertheless, little information is available about these pumps in the vas deferens. We have determined which subtype of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase isoform (SERCA) is expressed in rat vas deferens (RVD) and its modulation by calmodulin (CaM)-dependent mechanisms. The thapsigargin-sensitive Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase from a membrane fraction containing the highest SERCA levels in the RVD homogenate has the same molecular mass (∼115 kDa) as that of SERCA2 from the rat cerebellum. It has a very high affinity for Ca{sup 2+} (Ca{sub 0.5} = 780 nM) and a low sensitivity to vanadate (IC{sub 50} = 41 µM). These facts indicate that SERCA2 is present in the RVD. Immunoblotting for CaM and Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) showed the expression of these two regulatory proteins. Ca{sup 2+} and CaM increased serine-phosphorylated residues of the 115-kDa protein, indicating the involvement of CaMKII in the regulatory phosphorylation of SERCA2. Phosphorylation is accompanied by an 8-fold increase of thapsigargin-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} accumulation in the lumen of vesicles derived from these membranes. These data establish that SERCA2 in the RVD is modulated by Ca{sup 2+} and CaM, possibly via CaMKII, in a process that results in stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} pumping activity.

  19. Rif1 controls DNA replication by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 to reverse Cdc7-mediated phosphorylation of the MCM complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Alvino, Gina M; Chang, Fujung; Lian, Hui-Yong; Sridhar, Akila; Kubota, Takashi; Brewer, Bonita J; Weinreich, Michael; Raghuraman, M K; Donaldson, Anne D

    2014-02-15

    Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication requires phosphorylation of the MCM complex by Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), composed of Cdc7 kinase and its activator, Dbf4. We report here that budding yeast Rif1 (Rap1-interacting factor 1) controls DNA replication genome-wide and describe how Rif1 opposes DDK function by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1)-mediated dephosphorylation of the MCM complex. Deleting RIF1 partially compensates for the limited DDK activity in a cdc7-1 mutant strain by allowing increased, premature phosphorylation of Mcm4. PP1 interaction motifs within the Rif1 N-terminal domain are critical for its repressive effect on replication. We confirm that Rif1 interacts with PP1 and that PP1 prevents premature Mcm4 phosphorylation. Remarkably, our results suggest that replication repression by Rif1 is itself also DDK-regulated through phosphorylation near the PP1-interacting motifs. Based on our findings, we propose that Rif1 is a novel PP1 substrate targeting subunit that counteracts DDK-mediated phosphorylation during replication. Fission yeast and mammalian Rif1 proteins have also been implicated in regulating DNA replication. Since PP1 interaction sites are evolutionarily conserved within the Rif1 sequence, it is likely that replication control by Rif1 through PP1 is a conserved mechanism.

  20. Ribosome-dependent ATPase interacts with conserved membrane protein in Escherichia coli to modulate protein synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Babu

    Full Text Available Elongation factor RbbA is required for ATP-dependent deacyl-tRNA release presumably after each peptide bond formation; however, there is no information about the cellular role. Proteomic analysis in Escherichia coli revealed that RbbA reciprocally co-purified with a conserved inner membrane protein of unknown function, YhjD. Both proteins are also physically associated with the 30S ribosome and with members of the lipopolysaccharide transport machinery. Genome-wide genetic screens of rbbA and yhjD deletion mutants revealed aggravating genetic interactions with mutants deficient in the electron transport chain. Cells lacking both rbbA and yhjD exhibited reduced cell division, respiration and global protein synthesis as well as increased sensitivity to antibiotics targeting the ETC and the accuracy of protein synthesis. Our results suggest that RbbA appears to function together with YhjD as part of a regulatory network that impacts bacterial oxidative phosphorylation and translation efficiency.

  1. Specific mixing facilitates the comparative quantification of phosphorylation sites with significant dysregulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic R& A Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Bo [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic R& A Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dalian 116023 (China); Liu, Zheyi; Dong, Mingming; Mao, Jiawei; Zhou, Ye; Chen, Jin [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic R& A Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Fangjun, E-mail: wangfj@dicp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic R& A Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dalian 116023 (China); Zou, Hanfa [Key Laboratory of Separation Sciences for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic R& A Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dalian 116023 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Mass spectrometry (MS) based quantitative analyses of proteome and proteome post-translational modifications (PTMs) play more and more important roles in biological, pharmaceutical and clinical studies. However, it is still a big challenge to accurately quantify the proteins or proteins PTM sites with extreme relative abundances in comparative protein samples, such as the significantly dysregulated ones. Herein, a novel quantification strategy, Mixing at Specific Ratio (MaSR) before isotope labeling, had been developed to improve the quantification accuracy and coverage of extreme proteins and protein phosphorylation sites. Briefly, the comparative protein samples were firstly mixed together at specific ratios of 9:1 and 1:9 (w/w), followed with mass differentiate light and heavy isotope labeling, respectively. The extreme proteins and protein phosphorylation sites, even if the newly expressed or disappeared ones, could be accurately quantified due to all of the proteins' relative abundances had been adjusted to 2 orders of magnitude (1/9-9) by this strategy. The number of quantified phosphorylation sites with more than 20 folds changes was improved about 10 times in comparative quantification of pervanadate stimulated phosphoproteome of HeLa cells, and 134 newly generated and 21 disappeared phosphorylation sites were solely quantified by the MaSR strategy. The significantly up-regulated phosphorylation sites were mainly involved in the key phosphoproteins regulating the insulin-related pathways, such as PI3K-AKT and RAS-MAPK pathways. Therefore, the MaSR strategy exhibits as a promising way in elucidating the biological processes with significant dysregulations. - Highlights: • All the proteins' relative abundances were adjusted into 2 orders of magnitude (1/9-9). • The quantification accuracy and coverage of extreme proteins and protein phosphorylation sites had been improved. • The newly expressed or disappeared proteins and protein

  2. Assigning Quantitative Function to Post-Translational Modifications Reveals Multiple Sites of Phosphorylation That Tune Yeast Pheromone Signaling Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincus, David; Ryan, Christopher J.; Smith, Richard D.; Brent, Roger; Resnekov, Orna; Hakimi, Mohamed Ali

    2013-03-12

    Cell signaling systems transmit information by post-­translationally modifying signaling proteins, often via phosphorylation. While thousands of sites of phosphorylation have been identified in proteomic studies, the vast majority of sites have no known function. Assigning functional roles to the catalog of uncharacterized phosphorylation sites is a key research challenge. Here we present a general approach to address this challenge and apply it to a prototypical signaling pathway, the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The pheromone pathway includes a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade activated by a G-­protein coupled receptor (GPCR). We used mass spectrometry-based proteomics to identify sites whose phosphorylation changed when the system was active, and evolutionary conservation to assign priority to a list of candidate MAPK regulatory sites. We made targeted alterations in those sites, and measured the effects of the mutations on pheromone pathway output in single cells. Our work identified six new sites that quantitatively tuned system output. We developed simple computational models to find system architectures that recapitulated the quantitative phenotypes of the mutants. Our results identify a number of regulated phosphorylation events that contribute to adjust the input-­output relationship of this model eukaryotic signaling system. We believe this combined approach constitutes a general means not only to reveal modification sites required to turn a pathway on and off, but also those required for more subtle quantitative effects that tune pathway output. Our results further suggest that relatively small quantitative influences from individual regulatory phosphorylation events endow signaling systems with plasticity that evolution may exploit to quantitatively tailor signaling outcomes.

  3. LOK is a major ERM kinase in resting lymphocytes and regulates cytoskeletal rearrangement through ERM phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, Natalya V; Liu, Yin; Hao, Jian-Jiang; Karasuyama, Hajime; Shaw, Stephen

    2009-03-24

    ERM (ezrin-radixin-moesin) proteins mediate linkage of actin cytoskeleton to plasma membrane in many cells. ERM activity is regulated in part by phosphorylation at a C-terminal threonine, but the identity of ERM kinases is unknown in lymphocytes and incompletely defined in other mammalian cells. Our studies show that lymphocyte-oriented kinase (LOK) is an ERM kinase in vitro and in vivo. Mass spectrometric analysis indicates LOK is abundant at the lymphocyte plasma membrane and immunofluorescence studies show LOK enrichment at the plasma membrane near ERM. In vitro peptide specificity analyses characterize LOK as a basophilic kinase whose optimal substrate sequence resembles the ERM site, including unusual preference for tyrosine at P-2. LOK's activity on moesin peptide and protein was comparable to reported ERM kinases ROCK and PKC but unlike them LOK displayed preferential specificity for moesin compared to traditional basophilic kinase substrates. Two genetic approaches demonstrate a role for LOK in ERM phosphorylation: cell transfection with LOK kinase domain augments ERM phosphorylation and lymphocytes from LOK knockout mice have >50% reduction in ERM phosphorylation. The findings on localization and specificity argue that LOK is a direct ERM kinase. The knockout mice have normal hematopoietic cell development but notably lymphocyte migration and polarization in response to chemokine are enhanced. These functional alterations fit the current understanding of the role of ERM phosphorylation in regulating cortical reorganization. Thus, these studies identify a new ERM kinase of importance in lymphocytes and confirm the role of ERM phosphorylation in regulating cell shape and motility.

  4. Integration of protein phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation data sets to outline lung cancer signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Mark; Hall, Benjamin; Foltz, Lauren; Levy, Tyler; Rikova, Klarisa; Gaiser, Jeremiah; Cook, William; Smirnova, Ekaterina; Wheeler, Travis; Clark, Neil R; Lachmann, Alexander; Zhang, Bin; Hornbeck, Peter; Ma'ayan, Avi; Comb, Michael

    2018-05-22

    Protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs) have typically been studied independently, yet many proteins are modified by more than one PTM type, and cell signaling pathways somehow integrate this information. We coupled immunoprecipitation using PTM-specific antibodies with tandem mass tag (TMT) mass spectrometry to simultaneously examine phosphorylation, methylation, and acetylation in 45 lung cancer cell lines compared to normal lung tissue and to cell lines treated with anticancer drugs. This simultaneous, large-scale, integrative analysis of these PTMs using a cluster-filtered network (CFN) approach revealed that cell signaling pathways were outlined by clustering patterns in PTMs. We used the t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) method to identify PTM clusters and then integrated each with known protein-protein interactions (PPIs) to elucidate functional cell signaling pathways. The CFN identified known and previously unknown cell signaling pathways in lung cancer cells that were not present in normal lung epithelial tissue. In various proteins modified by more than one type of PTM, the incidence of those PTMs exhibited inverse relationships, suggesting that molecular exclusive "OR" gates determine a large number of signal transduction events. We also showed that the acetyltransferase EP300 appears to be a hub in the network of pathways involving different PTMs. In addition, the data shed light on the mechanism of action of geldanamycin, an HSP90 inhibitor. Together, the findings reveal that cell signaling pathways mediated by acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation regulate the cytoskeleton, membrane traffic, and RNA binding protein-mediated control of gene expression. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. CmRBP50 protein phosphorylation is essential for assembly of a stable phloem-mobile high-affinity ribonucleoprotein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingfang; Ham, Byung-Kook; Lucas, William J

    2011-07-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that play crucial roles in RNA processing for gene regulation. The angiosperm sieve tube system contains a unique population of transcripts, some of which function as long-distance signaling agents involved in regulating organ development. These phloem-mobile mRNAs are translocated as RNP complexes. One such complex is based on a phloem RBP named Cucurbita maxima RNA-binding protein 50 (CmRBP50), a member of the polypyrimidine track binding protein family. The core of this RNP complex contains six additional phloem proteins. Here, requirements for assembly of this CmRBP50 RNP complex are reported. Phosphorylation sites on CmRBP50 were mapped, and then coimmunoprecipitation and protein overlay studies established that the phosphoserine residues, located at the C terminus of CmRBP50, are critical for RNP complex assembly. In vitro pull-down experiments revealed that three phloem proteins, C. maxima phloem protein 16, C. maxima GTP-binding protein, and C. maxima phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase-like protein, bind directly with CmRBP50. This interaction required CmRBP50 phosphorylation. Gel mobility-shift assays demonstrated that assembly of the CmRBP50-based protein complex results in a system having enhanced binding affinity for phloem-mobile mRNAs carrying polypyrimidine track binding motifs. This property would be essential for effective long-distance translocation of bound mRNA to the target tissues.

  6. Leader protein of encephalomyocarditis virus binds zinc, is phosphorylated during viral infection, and affects the efficiency of genome translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, C M; Hall, D J; Hill, M; Riddle, M; Pranter, A; Dillman, J; Deibel, M; Palmenberg, A C

    2001-11-25

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is the prototype member of the cardiovirus genus of picornaviruses. For cardioviruses and the related aphthoviruses, the first protein segment translated from the plus-strand RNA genome is the Leader protein. The aphthovirus Leader (173-201 amino acids) is an autocatalytic papain-like protease that cleaves translation factor eIF-4G to shut off cap-dependent host protein synthesis during infection. The less characterized cardioviral Leader is a shorter protein (67-76 amino acids) and does not contain recognizable proteolytic motifs. Instead, these Leaders have sequences consistent with N-terminal zinc-binding motifs, centrally located tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites, and C-terminal, acid-rich domains. Deletion mutations, removing the zinc motif, the acid domain, or both domains, were engineered into EMCV cDNAs. In all cases, the mutations gave rise to viable viruses, but the plaque phenotypes in HeLa cells were significantly smaller than for wild-type virus. RNA transcripts containing the Leader deletions had reduced capacity to direct protein synthesis in cell-free extracts and the products with deletions in the acid-rich domains were less effective substrates at the L/P1 site, for viral proteinase 3Cpro. Recombinant EMCV Leader (rL) was expressed in bacteria and purified to homogeneity. This protein bound zinc stoichiometrically, whereas protein with a deletion in the zinc motif was inactive. Polyclonal mouse sera, raised against rL, immunoprecipitated Leader-containing precursors from infected HeLa cell extracts, but did not detect significant pools of the mature Leader. However, additional reactions with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies show that the mature Leader, but not its precursors, is phosphorylated during viral infection. The data suggest the natural Leader may play a role in regulation of viral genome translation, perhaps through a triggering phosphorylation event.

  7. Phosphorylation of SLP-76 by the ZAP-70 protein-tyrosine kinase is required for T-cell receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck Wardenburg, J; Fu, C; Jackman, J K; Flotow, H; Wilkinson, S E; Williams, D H; Johnson, R; Kong, G; Chan, A C; Findell, P R

    1996-08-16

    Two families of tyrosine kinases, the Src and Syk families, are required for T-cell receptor activation. While the Src kinases are responsible for phosphorylation of receptor-encoded signaling motifs and for up-regulation of ZAP-70 activity, the downstream substrates of ZAP-70 are unknown. Evidence is presented herein that the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP-76) is a substrate of ZAP-70. Phosphorylation of SLP-76 is diminished in T cells that express a catalytically inactive ZAP-70. Moreover, SLP-76 is preferentially phosphorylated by ZAP-70 in vitro and in heterologous cellular systems. In T cells, overexpression of wild-type SLP-76 results in a hyperactive receptor, while expression of a SLP-76 molecule that is unable to be tyrosine-phosphorylated attenuates receptor function. In addition, the SH2 domain of SLP-76 is required for T-cell receptor function, although its role is independent of the ability of SLP-76 to undergo tyrosine phosphorylation. As SLP-76 interacts with both Grb2 and phospholipase C-gamma1, these data indicate that phosphorylation of SLP-76 by ZAP-70 provides an important functional link between the T-cell receptor and activation of ras and calcium pathways.

  8. Regional differences in endothelial cell cytoskeleton, junctional proteins and phosphorylated tyrosine labeling in the porcine vortex vein system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Priscilla Ern Zhi; Yu, Paula K; Yang, Hongfang; Cringle, Stephen J; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2018-07-01

    We previously demonstrated endothelial phenotype heterogeneity in the vortex vein system. This study is to further determine whether regional differences are present in the cytoskeleton, junctional proteins and phosphorylated tyrosine labeling within the system. The vortex vein system of twenty porcine eyes was perfused with labels for f-actin, claudin-5, VE-Cadherin, phosphorylated tyrosine and nucleic acid. The endothelial cells of eight different regions (choroidal veins, pre-ampulla, anterior ampulla, mid-ampulla, posterior ampulla, post-ampulla, intra-scleral canal and the extra-ocular vortex vein) were studied using confocal microscopy. There were regional differences in the endothelial cell structures. Cytoskeleton labeling was relatively even in intensity throughout Regions 1 to 6. Overall VE-Cadherin had a non-uniform distribution and thicker width endothelial cell border staining than claudin-5. Progressing downstream there was an increased variation in thickness of VE-cadherin labeling. There was an overlap in phosphorylated tyrosine and VE-Cadherin labeling in the post-ampulla, intra-scleral canal and extra-ocular vortex vein. Intramural cells were observed that were immune-positive for VE-Cadherin and phosphorylated tyrosine. There were significant differences in the number of intramural cells in different regions. Significant regional differences with endothelial cell labeling of cytoskeleton, junction proteins, and phosphorylated tyrosine were found within the vortex vein system. These findings support existing data on endothelial cell phenotype heterogeneity, and may aid in the knowledge of venous pathologies by understanding regions of vulnerability to endothelial damage within the vortex vein system. It could be valuable to further investigate and characterize the VE-cadherin and phosphotyrosine immune-positive intramural cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A comparison of pine and spruce in recovery from winter stress; changes in recovery kinetics, and the abundance and phosphorylation status of photosynthetic proteins during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Ryan; Jerrard, Jacob; Frebault, Julia; Verhoeven, Amy

    2017-09-01

    During winter evergreens maintain a sustained form of thermal energy dissipation that results in reduced photochemical efficiency measured using the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm. Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] have been shown to differ in their rate of recovery of Fv/Fm from winter stress. The goal of this study was to monitor changes in photosynthetic protein abundance and phosphorylation status during winter recovery that accompany these functional changes. An additional goal was to determine whether light-dependent changes in light harvesting complex II (LHCII) phosphorylation occur during winter conditions. We used a combination of field measurements and recovery experiments to monitor chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic protein content and phosphorylation status. We found that pine recovered three times more slowly than spruce, and that the kinetics of recovery in spruce included a rapid and slow component, while in pine there was only a rapid component to recovery. Both species retained relatively high amounts of the light harvesting protein Lhcb5 (CP26) and the PsbS protein during winter, suggesting a role for these proteins in sustained thermal dissipation. Both species maintained high phosphorylation of LHCII and the D1 protein in darkness during winter. Pine and spruce differed in the kinetics of the dephosphorylation of LHCII and D1 upon warming, suggesting the rate of dephosphorylation of LHCII and D1 may be important in the rapid component of recovery from winter stress. Finally, we demonstrated that light-dependent changes in LHII phosphorylation do not continue to occur on subzero winter days and that needles are maintained in a phosphorylation pattern consistent with the high light conditions to which those needles are exposed. Our results suggest a role for retained phosphorylation of both LHCII and D1 in maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery in a winter conformation

  10. Insulin stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of a Mr = 160,000 glycoprotein in adipocyte plasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.T.; Khalaf, N.; Czech, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to identify putative substrates for the insulin receptor kinase, adipocyte plasma membranes were incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP in the presence and absence of insulin. Insulin stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of its receptor β subunit but does not detectably alter the phosphorylation of other membrane proteins. In contrast, when plasma membranes from insulin-treated adipocytes are phosphorylated, the 32 P-labeling of a Mr=160,000 species (p160) and insulin receptor β subunit are markedly increased when compared to controls. p160 exhibits a rapid response (max. at 1 min) and high sensitivity (ED 50 = 2 x 10 -10 M) to insulin. The stimulatory effect of insulin on the phosphorylation of p160 is rapidly reversed following the addition of anti-insulin serum. Cold chase experiments indicate that insulin promotes the phosphorylation of p160 rather than inhibiting its dephosphorylation. p160 is a glycoprotein as evidenced by its adsorption to immobilized lectins and does not represent the insulin receptor precursor. The action of insulin on p160 tyrosine phosphorylation is mimicked by concanavalin A but not by EGF and other insulin-like agents such as hydrogen peroxide and vanadate. These results suggest that p160 tyrosine phosphorylation is an insulin receptor-mediated event and may participate in signalling by the insulin receptor

  11. Phosphorylation of inhibitor-2 and activation of MgATP-dependent protein phosphatase by rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, M.G.; Reimann, E.M.; Thysseril, T.J.; Schlender, K.K.

    1986-01-01

    Rat skeletal muscle contains a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-M) which is not stimulated by Ca 2+ or cAMP. This kinase has an apparent Mr of 62,000 and uses ATP but not GTP as a phosphoryl donor. GSK-M phosphorylated glycogen synthase at sites 2 and 3. It phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase and activated MgATP-dependent phosphatase in the presence of ATP but not GTP. As expected, the kinase also phosphorylated phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2). Phosphatase incorporation reached approximately 0.3 mol/mol of I-2. Phosphopeptide maps were obtained by digesting 32 P-labeled I-2 with trypsin and separating the peptides by reversed phase HPLC. Two partially separated 32 P-labeled peaks were obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with either GSK-M or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and these peptides were different from those obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CSU) or casein kinase II (CK-II). When I-2 was phosphorylated with GSK-M or GSK-3 and cleaved by CNBr, a single radioactive peak was obtained. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that I-2 was phosphorylated by GSK-M or GSK-3 predominately in Thr whereas CSU and CK-II phosphorylated I-2 exclusively in Ser. These results indicate that GSK-M is similar to GSK-3 and to ATP-citrate lyase kinase. However, it appears to differ in Mr from ATP-citrate lyase kinase and it differs from GSK-3 in that it phosphorylates glycogen synthase at site 2 and it does not use GTP as a phosphoryl donor

  12. Disease-Causing Mutations in BEST1 Gene Are Associated with Altered Sorting of Bestrophin-1 Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumanov, Jordan A.; Zeitz, Christina; Gimenez, Paloma Dominguez; Audo, Isabelle; Krishna, Abhay; Alfano, Giovanna; Diaz, Maria Luz Bellido; Moskova-Doumanova, Veselina; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Sahel, José-Alain; Nandrot, Emeline F.; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in BEST1 gene, encoding the bestrophin-1 (Best1) protein are associated with macular dystrophies. Best1 is predominantly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and is inserted in its basolateral membrane. We investigated the cellular localization in polarized MDCKII cells of disease-associated Best1 mutant proteins to study specific sorting motifs of Best1. Real-time PCR and western blots for endogenous expression of BEST1 in MDCK cells were performed. Best1 mutant constructs were generated using site-directed mutagenesis and transfected in MDCK cells. For protein sorting, confocal microscopy studies, biotinylation assays and statistical methods for quantification of mislocalization were used. Analysis of endogenous expression of BEST1 in MDCK cells revealed the presence of BEST1 transcript but no protein. Confocal microscopy and quantitative analyses indicate that transfected normal human Best1 displays a basolateral localization in MDCK cells, while cell sorting of several Best1 mutants (Y85H, Q96R, L100R, Y227N, Y227E) was altered. In contrast to constitutively active Y227E, constitutively inactive Y227F Best1 mutant localized basolaterally similar to the normal Best1 protein. Our data suggest that at least three basolateral sorting motifs might be implicated in proper Best1 basolateral localization. In addition, non-phosphorylated tyrosine 227 could play a role for basolateral delivery. PMID:23880862

  13. Protein kinase a dependent phosphorylation of apical membrane antigen 1 plays an important role in erythrocyte invasion by the malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Leykauf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a variety of hosts, causing significant diseases in livestock and humans. The invasive forms of the parasites invade their host cells by gliding motility, an active process driven by parasite adhesion proteins and molecular motors. A crucial point during host cell invasion is the formation of a ring-shaped area of intimate contact between the parasite and the host known as a tight junction. As the invasive zoite propels itself into the host-cell, the junction moves down the length of the parasite. This process must be tightly regulated and signalling is likely to play a role in this event. One crucial protein for tight-junction formation is the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1. Here we have investigated the phosphorylation status of this key player in the invasion process in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We show that the cytoplasmic tail of P. falciparum AMA1 is phosphorylated at serine 610. We provide evidence that the enzyme responsible for serine 610 phosphorylation is the cAMP regulated protein kinase A (PfPKA. Importantly, mutation of AMA1 serine 610 to alanine abrogates phosphorylation of AMA1 in vivo and dramatically impedes invasion. In addition to shedding unexpected new light on AMA1 function, this work represents the first time PKA has been implicated in merozoite invasion.

  14. Active inhibitor-1 maintains protein hyper-phosphorylation in aging hearts and halts remodeling in failing hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Tracy J; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Haghighi, Kobra; Anjak, Ahmad; Cai, Wenfeng; Jiang, Min; Nicolaou, Persoulla; Pylar, George; Karakikes, Ioannis; Rapti, Kleopatra; Rubinstein, Jack; Hajjar, Roger J; Kranias, Evangelia G

    2013-01-01

    Impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium cycling and depressed contractility are key characteristics in heart failure. Defects in sarcoplasmic reticulum function are characterized by decreased SERCA2a Ca-transport that is partially attributable to dephosphorylation of its regulator phospholamban by increased protein phosphatase 1 activity. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 through activation of its endogenous inhibitor-1 has been shown to enhance cardiac Ca-handling and contractility as well as protect from pathological stress remodeling in young mice. In this study, we assessed the long-term effects of inducible expression of constitutively active inhibitor-1 in the adult heart and followed function and remodeling through the aging process, up to 20 months. Mice with inhibitor-1 had normal survival and similar function to WTs. There was no overt remodeling as evidenced by measures of left ventricular end-systolic and diastolic diameters and posterior wall dimensions, heart weight to tibia length ratio, and histology. Higher phosphorylation of phospholamban at both Ser16 and Thr17 was maintained in aged hearts with active inhibitor-1, potentially offsetting the effects of elevated Ser2815-phosphorylation in ryanodine receptor, as there were no increases in arrhythmias under stress conditions in 20-month old mice. Furthermore, long-term expression of active inhibitor-1 via recombinant adeno-associated virus type 9 gene transfer in rats with pressure-overload induced heart failure improved function and prevented remodeling, associated with increased phosphorylation of phospholamban at Ser16 and Thr17. Thus, chronic inhibition of protein phosphatase 1, through increases in active inhibitor-1, does not accelerate age-related cardiomyopathy and gene transfer of this molecule in vivo improves function and halts remodeling in the long term.

  15. Hypergravity signal transduction in HeLa cells with concomitant phosphorylation of proteins immunoprecipitated with anti-microtubule-associated protein antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumei, Yasuhiro; Whitson, Peggy A.; Sato, Atsushige; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that hypergravity (35g) stimulates the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and decreases adenosine 3-prime,5-prime-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels in HeLa cells. It is proposed that IP3 and cAMP may act as second messengers in hypergravity signal transduction. Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins in both the detergent-soluble and -insoluble fractions suggests that cytoskeletal structures may be influenced by gravity.

  16. Multisite tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-terminus of Mint1/X11α by Src kinase regulates the trafficking of amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Christopher J R; Black, Hannah L; Andrews, Katie L; Davenport, Elizabeth C; Conboy, Michael; Chawla, Sangeeta; Dowle, Adam A; Ashford, David; Thomas, Jerry R; Evans, Gareth J O

    2016-05-01

    Mint/X11 is one of the four neuronal trafficking adaptors that interact with amyloid precursor protein (APP) and are linked with its cleavage to generate β-amyloid peptide, a key player in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. How APP switches between adaptors at different stages of the secretory pathway is poorly understood. Here, we show that tyrosine phosphorylation of Mint1 regulates the destination of APP. A canonical SH2-binding motif ((202) YEEI) was identified in the N-terminus of Mint1 that is phosphorylated on tyrosine by C-Src and recruits the active kinase for sequential phosphorylation of further tyrosines (Y191 and Y187). A single Y202F mutation in the Mint1 N-terminus inhibits C-Src binding and tyrosine phosphorylation. Previous studies observed that co-expression of wild-type Mint1 and APP causes accumulation of APP in the trans-Golgi. Unphosphorylatable Mint1 (Y202F) or pharmacological inhibition of Src reduced the accumulation of APP in the trans-Golgi of heterologous cells. A similar result was observed in cultured rat hippocampal neurons where Mint1(Y202F) permitted the trafficking of APP to more distal neurites than the wild-type protein. These data underline the importance of the tyrosine phosphorylation of Mint1 as a critical switch for determining the destination of APP. The regulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking is poorly understood. We have discovered that the APP adapter, Mint1, is phosphorylated by C-Src kinase. Mint1 causes APP accumulation in the trans-Golgi network, whereas inhibition of Src or mutation of Mint1-Y202 permits APP recycling. The phosphorylation status of Mint1 could impact on the pathological trafficking of APP in Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Phorbol ester-induced serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor decreases its tyrosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, S; White, M F; Kahn, C R

    1988-03-05

    The effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the function of the insulin receptor was examined in intact hepatoma cells (Fao) and in solubilized extracts purified by wheat germ agglutinin chromatography. Incubation of ortho[32P]phosphate-labeled Fao cells with TPA increased the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor 2-fold after 30 min. Analysis of tryptic phosphopeptides from the beta-subunit of the receptor by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and determination of their phosphoamino acid composition suggested that TPA predominantly stimulated phosphorylation of serine residues in a single tryptic peptide. Incubation of the Fao cells with insulin (100 nM) for 1 min stimulated 4-fold the phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor. Prior treatment of the cells with TPA inhibited the insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation by 50%. The receptors extracted with Triton X-100 from TPA-treated Fao cells and purified on immobilized wheat germ agglutinin retained the alteration in kinase activity and exhibited a 50% decrease in insulin-stimulated tyrosine autophosphorylation and phosphotransferase activity toward exogenous substrates. This was due primarily to a decrease in the Vmax for these reactions. TPA treatment also decreased the Km of the insulin receptor for ATP. Incubation of the insulin receptor purified from TPA-treated cells with alkaline phosphatase decreased the phosphate content of the beta-subunit to the control level and reversed the inhibition, suggesting that the serine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit was responsible for the decreased tyrosine kinase activity. Our results support the notion that the insulin receptor is a substrate for protein kinase C in the Fao cell and that the increase in serine phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of the receptor produced by TPA treatment inhibited tyrosine kinase activity in vivo and in vitro. These data suggest that protein kinase C may regulate the function

  18. Formation and characterization of iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen as a potential iron supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Jianjun; Chen, Fei; Fan, Daidi; Zhu, Chenhui; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Xue, Wenjiao

    2013-01-01

    Iron incorporated into food can induce precipitation and unwanted interaction with other components in food. Iron-binding proteins represent a possibility to avoid these problems and other side effects, as the iron is protected. However, there are several technical problems associated with protein–iron complex formation. In this paper, the iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen (Fe-G6P-HLC) was prepared under physiological conditions through phosphorylated modification. One molecule of Fe-G6P-HLC possesses about 24 atoms of Fe. Spectroscopy analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and equilibrium dialysis techniques were employed to investigate the characteristics of the Fe-G6P-HLC. The binding sites (n b ) and apparent association constant (K app ) between iron and phosphorylated HLC were measured at n b = 23.7 and log K app = 4.57, respectively. The amount of iron (Fe 2+ sulfate) binding to phosphorylated HLC was found to be a function of pH and phosphate content. In addition, the solubility and thermal stability of HLC were not significantly affected. The results should facilitate the utilization of HLC as a bioactive iron supplement in the food and medical industry and provide an important theoretical evidence for the application of HLC chelates. - Highlights: • The iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen (Fe-G6P-HLC) was prepared. • One molecule of Fe-G6P-HLC possesses about 24 atoms of Fe. • The binding properties could be modulated through alterations in pH and phosphate content presented in HLC. • A novel strategy for preparing iron-binding proteins was provided

  19. Thermodynamic study of the native and phosphorylated regulatory domain of the CFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasini, Carlotta, E-mail: marasini@ge.ibf.cnr.it [Istituto di Biofisica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy); Galeno, Lauretta; Moran, Oscar [Istituto di Biofisica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFTR mutations produce cystic fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloride transport depends on the regulatory domain phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regulatory domain is intrinsically disordered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary structure and protein stability change upon phosphorylation. -- Abstract: The regulatory domain (RD) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the defective protein in cystic fibrosis, is the region of the channel that regulates the CFTR activity with multiple phosphorylation sites. This domain is an intrinsically disordered protein, characterized by lack of stable or unique tertiary structure. The disordered character of a protein is directly correlated with its function. The flexibility of RD may be important for its regulatory role: the continuous conformational change may be necessary for the progressive phosphorylation, and thus activation, of the channel. However, the lack of a defined and stable structure results in a considerable limitation when trying to in build a unique molecular model for the RD. Moreover, several evidences indicate significant structural differences between the native, non-phosphorylated state, and the multiple phosphorylated state of the protein. The aim of our work is to provide data to describe the conformations and the thermodynamic properties in these two functional states of RD. We have done the circular dichroism (CD) spectra in samples with a different degree of phosphorylation, from the non-phosphorylated state to a bona fide completely phosphorylated state. Analysis of CD spectra showed that the random coil and {beta}-sheets secondary structure decreased with the polypeptide phosphorylation, at expenses of an increase of {alpha}-helix. This observation lead to interpret phosphorylation as a mechanism favoring a more structured state. We also studied the thermal denaturation curves of the protein in the two

  20. Thermodynamic study of the native and phosphorylated regulatory domain of the CFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasini, Carlotta; Galeno, Lauretta; Moran, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CFTR mutations produce cystic fibrosis. ► Chloride transport depends on the regulatory domain phosphorylation. ► Regulatory domain is intrinsically disordered. ► Secondary structure and protein stability change upon phosphorylation. -- Abstract: The regulatory domain (RD) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the defective protein in cystic fibrosis, is the region of the channel that regulates the CFTR activity with multiple phosphorylation sites. This domain is an intrinsically disordered protein, characterized by lack of stable or unique tertiary structure. The disordered character of a protein is directly correlated with its function. The flexibility of RD may be important for its regulatory role: the continuous conformational change may be necessary for the progressive phosphorylation, and thus activation, of the channel. However, the lack of a defined and stable structure results in a considerable limitation when trying to in build a unique molecular model for the RD. Moreover, several evidences indicate significant structural differences between the native, non-phosphorylated state, and the multiple phosphorylated state of the protein. The aim of our work is to provide data to describe the conformations and the thermodynamic properties in these two functional states of RD. We have done the circular dichroism (CD) spectra in samples with a different degree of phosphorylation, from the non-phosphorylated state to a bona fide completely phosphorylated state. Analysis of CD spectra showed that the random coil and β-sheets secondary structure decreased with the polypeptide phosphorylation, at expenses of an increase of α-helix. This observation lead to interpret phosphorylation as a mechanism favoring a more structured state. We also studied the thermal denaturation curves of the protein in the two conditions, monitoring the changes of the mean residue ellipticity measured at 222 nm as a function of temperature

  1. Variability of protein level and phosphorylation status caused by biopsy protocol design in human skeletal muscle analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Marc-André

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bergström needle biopsy is widely used to sample skeletal muscle in order to study cell signaling directly in human tissue. Consequences of the biopsy protocol design on muscle protein quantity and quality remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of different events surrounding biopsy protocol on the stability of the Western blot signal of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, muscle RING finger protein 1 (MuRF1 and p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K. Six healthy subjects underwent four biopsies of the vastus lateralis, distributed into two distinct visits spaced by 48 hrs. At visit 1, a basal biopsy in the right leg was performed in the morning (R1 followed by a second in the left leg in the afternoon (AF. At visit 2, a second basal biopsy (R2 was collected from the right leg. Low intensity mobilization (3 × 20 right leg extensions was performed and a final biopsy (Mob was collected using the same incision site as R2. Results Akt and p70 S6K phosphorylation levels were increased by 83% when AF biopsy was compared to R1. Mob condition induced important phosphorylation of p70 S6K when compared to R2. Comparison of R1 and R2 biopsies revealed a relative stability of the signal for both total and phosphorylated proteins. Conclusions This study highlights the importance to standardize muscle biopsy protocols in order to minimize the method-induced variation when analyzing Western blot signals.

  2. Purification and sequencing of radish seed calmodulin antagonists phosphorylated by calcium-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polya, G M; Chandra, S; Condron, R

    1993-02-01

    A family of radish (Raphanus sativus) calmodulin antagonists (RCAs) was purified from seeds by extraction, centrifugation, batch-wise elution from carboxymethyl-cellulose, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on an SP5PW cation-exchange column. This RCA fraction was further resolved into three calmodulin antagonist polypeptides (RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3) by denaturation in the presence of guanidinium HCl and mercaptoethanol and subsequent reverse-phase HPLC on a C8 column eluted with an acetonitrile gradient in the presence of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. The RCA preparation, RCA1, RCA2, RCA3, and other radish seed proteins are phosphorylated by wheat embryo Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase (CDPK). The RCA preparation contains other CDPK substrates in addition to RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3. The RCA preparation, RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3 inhibit chicken gizzard calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase assayed with a myosin-light chain-based synthetic peptide substrate (fifty percent inhibitory concentrations of RCA2 and RCA3 are about 7 and 2 microM, respectively). N-terminal sequencing by sequential Edman degradation of RCA1, RCA2, and RCA3 revealed sequences having a high homology with the small subunit of the storage protein napin from Brassica napus and with related proteins. The deduced amino acid sequences of RCA1, RCA2, RCA3, and RCA3' (a subform of RCA3) have agreement with average molecular masses from electrospray mass spectrometry of 4537, 4543, 4532, and 4560 kD, respectively. The only sites for serine phosphorylation are near or at the C termini and hence adjacent to the sites of proteolytic precursor cleavage.

  3. Increased CDK5 expression in HIV encephalitis contributes to neurodegeneration via tau phosphorylation and is reversed with Roscovitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christina; Crews, Leslie; Desplats, Paula; Dumaop, Wilmar; Rockenstein, Edward; Achim, Cristian L; Everall, Ian P; Masliah, Eliezer

    2011-04-01

    Recent treatments with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens have been shown to improve general clinical status in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; however, the prevalence of cognitive alterations and neurodegeneration has remained the same or has increased. These deficits are more pronounced in the subset of HIV patients with the inflammatory condition known as HIV encephalitis (HIVE). Activation of signaling pathways such as GSK3β and CDK5 has been implicated in the mechanisms of HIV neurotoxicity; however, the downstream mediators of these effects are unclear. The present study investigated the involvement of CDK5 and tau phosphorylation in the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in HIVE. In the frontal cortex of patients with HIVE, increased levels of CDK5 and p35 expression were associated with abnormal tau phosphorylation. Similarly, transgenic mice engineered to express the HIV protein gp120 exhibited increased brain levels of CDK5 and p35, alterations in tau phosphorylation, and dendritic degeneration. In contrast, genetic knockdown of CDK5 or treatment with the CDK5 inhibitor roscovitine improved behavioral performance in the water maze test and reduced neurodegeneration, abnormal tau phosphorylation, and astrogliosis in gp120 transgenic mice. These findings indicate that abnormal CDK5 activation contributes to the neurodegenerative process in HIVE via abnormal tau phosphorylation; thus, reducing CDK5 might ameliorate the cognitive impairments associated with HIVE. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Calcium- and Phosphorylation-dependentCalmodulin Complexes in Mammalian Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Deok-Jin; Wang, Daojing

    2006-05-26

    Protein conformational changes due to cofactor binding (e.g. metal ions, heme) and/or posttranslational modifications (e.g. phosphorylation) modulate dynamic protein complexes. Calmodulin (CaM) plays an essential role in regulating calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) signaling and homeostasis. No systematic approach on the identification of phosphorylation-dependent Ca{sup 2+}/CaM binding proteins has been published. Herein, we report a proteome-wide study of phosphorylation-dependent CaM binding proteins from mammalian cells. This method, termed 'Dynamic Phosphoprotein Complex Trapping', 'DPPC Trapping' for short, utilizes a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays. The basic strategy is to drastically shift the equilibrium towards endogenous phosphorylation of Ser, Thr, and Tyr at the global scale by inhibiting corresponding phosphatases in vivo. The phosphorylation-dependent calmodulin-binding proteins are then trapped in vitro in a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent manner by CaM-Sepharose chromatography. Finally, the isolated calmodulin-binding proteins are separated by SDS-PAGE and identified by LC/MS/MS. In parallel, the phosphorylation-dependent binding is visualized by silver staining and/or Western blotting. Using this method, we selectively identified over 120 CaM-associated proteins including many previously uncharacterized. We verified ubiquitin-protein ligase EDD1, inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor type 1 (IP{sub 3}R1), and ATP-dependent RNA helicase DEAD box protein 3 (DDX3), as phosphorylation-dependent CaM binding proteins. To demonstrate the utilities of our method in understanding biological pathways, we showed that pSer/Thr of IP{sub 3}R1 in vivo by staurosporine-sensitive kinase(s), but not by PKA/PKG/PKC, significantly reduced the affinity of its Ca{sup 2+}-dependent CaM binding. However, pSer/Thr of IP{sub 3}R1 did not substantially affect its Ca{sup 2+}-independent CaM binding. We further showed that phosphatase PP1, but not PP2A or PP2B

  5. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L.; Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G.; Berghman, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and γ- 32 P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32 P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32 P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  6. Lithium blocks ethanol-induced modulation of protein kinases in the developing brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Goutam; Saito, Mitsuo; Mao, Rui-Fen; Wang, Ray; Vadasz, Csaba; Saito, Mariko

    2008-01-01

    Lithium has been shown to be neuroprotective against various insults including ethanol exposure. We previously reported that ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the postnatal day 7 (P7) mice is associated with decreases in phosphorylation levels of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and alteration in lipid profiles in the brain. Here, P7 mice were injected with ethanol and lithium, and the effects of lithium on ethanol-induced alterations in phosphorylation levels of protein kinases and lipid profiles in the brain were examined. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that lithium significantly blocked ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation and reduction in phosphorylation levels of Akt, GSK-3β, and AMPK. Further, lithium inhibited accumulation of cholesterol ester (ChE) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) triggered by ethanol in the brain. These results suggest that Akt, GSK-3β, and AMPK are involved in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration and the neuroprotective effects of lithium by modulating both apoptotic and survival pathways

  7. Construction and Deciphering of Human Phosphorylation-Mediated Signaling Transduction Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Menghuan; Li, Hong; He, Ying; Sun, Han; Xia, Li; Wang, Lishun; Sun, Bo; Ma, Liangxiao; Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Jing; Li, Yixue; Xie, Lu

    2015-07-02

    Protein phosphorylation is the most abundant reversible covalent modification. Human protein kinases participate in almost all biological pathways, and approximately half of the kinases are associated with disease. PhoSigNet was designed to store and display human phosphorylation-mediated signal transduction networks, with additional information related to cancer. It contains 11 976 experimentally validated directed edges and 216 871 phosphorylation sites. Moreover, 3491 differentially expressed proteins in human cancer from dbDEPC, 18 907 human cancer variation sites from CanProVar, and 388 hyperphosphorylation sites from PhosphoSitePlus were collected as annotation information. Compared with other phosphorylation-related databases, PhoSigNet not only takes the kinase-substrate regulatory relationship pairs into account, but also extends regulatory relationships up- and downstream (e.g., from ligand to receptor, from G protein to kinase, and from transcription factor to targets). Furthermore, PhoSigNet allows the user to investigate the impact of phosphorylation modifications on cancer. By using one set of in-house time series phosphoproteomics data, the reconstruction of a conditional and dynamic phosphorylation-mediated signaling network was exemplified. We expect PhoSigNet to be a useful database and analysis platform benefiting both proteomics and cancer studies.

  8. Selective Sensing of Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Peptides Using Terbium(III Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Sumaoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins, as well as their dephosphorylation, is closely related to various diseases. However, this phosphorylation is usually accompanied by more abundant phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues in the proteins and covers only 0.05% of the total phosphorylation. Accordingly, highly selective detection of phosphorylated tyrosine in proteins is an urgent subject. In this review, recent developments in this field are described. Monomeric and binuclear TbIII complexes, which emit notable luminescence only in the presence of phosphotyrosine (pTyr, have been developed. There, the benzene ring of pTyr functions as an antenna and transfers its photoexcitation energy to the TbIII ion as the emission center. Even in the coexistence of phosphoserine (pSer and phosphothreonine (pThr, pTyr can be efficintly detected with high selectivity. Simply by adding these TbIII complexes to the solutions, phosphorylation of tyrosine in peptides by protein tyrosine kinases and dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases can be successfully visualized in a real-time fashion. Furthermore, the activities of various inhibitors on these enzymes are quantitatively evaluated, indicating a strong potential of the method for efficient screening of eminent inhibitors from a number of candidates.

  9. Cortactin Tyrosine Phosphorylation Promotes Its Deacetylation and Inhibits Cell Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiler, Eugenia; Nieto-Pelegrín, Elvira; Martinez-Quiles, Narcisa

    2012-01-01

    Background Cortactin is a classical Src kinase substrate that participates in actin cytoskeletal dynamics by activating the Arp2/3 complex and interacting with other regulatory proteins, including FAK. Cortactin has various domains that may contribute to the assembly of different protein platforms to achieve process specificity. Though the protein is known to be regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation, how tyrosine phosphorylation regulates cortactin activity is poorly understood. Since the basal level of tyrosine phosphorylation is low, this question must be studied using stimulated cell cultures, which are physiologically relevant but unreliable and difficult to work with. In fact, their unreliability may be the cause of some contradictory findings about the dynamics of tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin in different processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we try to overcome these problems by using a Functional Interaction Trap (FIT) system, which involves cotransfecting cells with a kinase (Src) and a target protein (cortactin), both of which are fused to complementary leucine-zipper domains. The FIT system allowed us to control precisely the tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin and explore its relationship with cortactin acetylation. Conclusions/Significance Using this system, we provide definitive evidence that a competition exists between acetylation and tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin and that phosphorylation inhibits cell spreading. We confirmed the results from the FIT system by examining endogenous cortactin in different cell types. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cell spreading promotes the association of cortactin and FAK and that tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin disrupts this interaction, which may explain how it inhibits cell spreading. PMID:22479425

  10. A novel post-translational modification in nerve terminals: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark E; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Bache, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation and glycosylation are the most common post-translational modifications observed in biology, frequently on the same protein. Assembly protein AP180 is a synapse-specific phosphoprotein and O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modified glycoprotein. AP180 is involved......NAc-P to a Thr residue was confirmed by electron transfer dissociation MS. A second AP180 tryptic peptide was also glycosyl phosphorylated, but the site of modification was not assigned. Sequence similarities suggest there may be a common motif within AP180 involving glycosyl phosphorylation and dual flanking...... phosphorylation sites within 4 amino acid residues. This novel type of protein glycosyl phosphorylation adds a new signaling mechanism to the regulation of neurotransmission and more complexity to the study of O-GlcNAc modification....

  11. Analysis of cardiac myosin binding protein-C phosphorylation in human heart muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, O'Neal; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Messer, Andrew E; Steinen, Ger J M; van der Velden, Jolanda; Marston, Steven B

    2010-12-01

    A unique feature of MyBP-C in cardiac muscle is that it has multiple phosphorylation sites. MyBP-C phosphorylation, predominantly by PKA, plays an essential role in modulating contractility as part of the cellular response to β-adrenergic stimulation. In vitro studies indicate MyBP-C can be phosphorylated at Serine 273, 282, 302 and 307 (mouse sequence) but little is known about the level of MyBP-C phosphorylation or the sites phosphorylated in heart muscle. Since current methodologies are limited in specificity and are not quantitative we have investigated the use of phosphate affinity SDS-PAGE together with a total anti MyBP-C antibody and a range of phosphorylation site-specific antibodies for the main sites (Ser-273, -282 and -302). With these newly developed methods we have been able to make a detailed quantitative analysis of MyBP-C phosphorylation in heart tissue in situ. We have found that MyBP-C is highly phosphorylated in non-failing human (donor) heart or mouse heart; tris and tetra-phosphorylated species predominate and less than 10% of MyBP-C is unphosphorylated (0, 9.3 ± 1%: 1P, 13.4 ± 2.7%: 2P, 10.5 ± 3.3%: 3P, 28.7 ± 3.7%: 4P, 36.4 ± 2.7%, n=21). Total phosphorylation was 2.7 ± 0.07 mol Pi/mol MyBP-C. In contrast in failing heart and in myectomy samples from HCM patients the majority of MyBP-C was unphosphorylated. Total phosphorylation levels were 23% of normal in failing heart myofibrils (0, 60.1 ± 2.8%: 1P, 27.8 ± 2.8%: 2P, 4.8 ± 2.0%: 3P, 3.7 ± 1.2%: 4P, 2.8 ± 1.3%, n=19) and 39% of normal in myectomy samples. The site-specific antibodies showed a distinctive distribution pattern of phosphorylation sites in the multiple phosphorylation level species. We found that phosphorylated Ser-273, Ser-282 and Ser-302 were all present in the 4P band of MyBP-C but none of them were significant in the 1P band, indicating that there must be at least one other site of MyBP-C phosphorylation in human heart. The pattern of phosphorylation at the

  12. Assessment of current mass spectrometric workflows for the quantification of low abundant proteins and phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Bauer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The data described here provide a systematic performance evaluation of popular data-dependent (DDA and independent (DIA mass spectrometric (MS workflows currently used in quantitative proteomics. We assessed the limits of identification, quantification and detection for each method by analyzing a dilution series of 20 unmodified and 10 phosphorylated synthetic heavy labeled reference peptides, respectively, covering six orders of magnitude in peptide concentration with and without a complex human cell digest background. We found that all methods performed very similarly in the absence of background proteins, however, when analyzing whole cell lysates, targeted methods were at least 5–10 times more sensitive than directed or DDA methods. In particular, higher stage fragmentation (MS3 of the neutral loss peak using a linear ion trap increased dynamic quantification range of some phosphopeptides up to 100-fold. We illustrate the power of this targeted MS3 approach for phosphopeptide monitoring by successfully quantifying 9 phosphorylation sites of the kinetochore and spindle assembly checkpoint component Mad1 over different cell cycle states from non-enriched pull-down samples. The data are associated to the research article ‘Evaluation of data-dependent and data-independent mass spectrometric workflows for sensitive quantification of proteins and phosphorylation sites׳ (Bauer et al., 2014 [1]. The mass spectrometry and the analysis dataset have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000964.

  13. Sorafenib enhances proteasome inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity via inhibition of unfolded protein response and keratin phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly resistant to conventional systemic therapies and prognosis for advanced HCC patients remains poor. Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumor initiation and progression have identified several potential molecular targets in HCC. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor shown to have survival benefits in advanced HCC. It acts by inhibiting the serine/threonine kinases and the receptor type tyrosine kinases. In preclinical experiments sorafenib had anti-proliferative activity in hepatoma cells and it reduced tumor angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib include its inhibitory effects on protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response (UPR) and keratin phosphorylation in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, we show that combined treatment with sorafenib and proteasome inhibitors (PIs) synergistically induced a marked increase in cell death in hepatoma- and hepatocyte-derived cells. These observations may open the way to potentially interesting treatment combinations that may augment the effect of sorafenib, possibly including drugs that promote ER stress. Because sorafenib blocked the cellular defense mechanisms against hepatotoxic injury not only in hepatoma cells but also in hepatocyte-derived cells, we must be careful to avoid severe liver injury. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •We examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib in hepatoma cells. •Sorafenib induces cell death via apoptotic and necrotic fashion. •Sorafenib inhibits protein ubiquitination and unfolded protein response. •Autophagy induced by sorafenib may affect its cytotoxicity. •Sorafenib inhibits keratin phosphorylation and cytoplasmic inclusion formation

  14. Positional effect of phosphorylation sites 266 and 267 in the cytoplasmic domain of the E2 protein of hepatitis C virus 3a genotype: Interferon Resistance analysis via Sequence Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ur Rehman Irshad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon is well thought-out as the key defence against all infections including HCV. The only treatment for HCV infection is pegylated interferon alpha (IFN-α but unluckily more than half of the infected individuals do not act in response to the cure and become chronic HCV carriers. The mechanism how HCV induce interferon resistance is still elusive. It is recently reported that HCV envelope protein 2 interacts with PKR which is the interferon-inducible protein kinase and which in turn blocks the activity of its target molecule called eukaryotic initiation factor elF2. Sequence analysis of Envelope protein reveals it contains a domain homologous to phosphorylation sites of PKR andthe translation initiation factor eIF2alpha. Envelope protein competes for phosphorylation with PKR. Inhibition of kinase activity of PKR is postulated as a mechanism of to interferon (IFN resistance. Results Present study involves the insilico investigation of possible role of potential phosphorylation in envelope 2 protein of 3a genotype in interferon resistance. Envelope protein coding genes were isolated from local HCV isolates, cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was done and tertiary structure of envelope gene was predicted. Visualization of phosphorylation in tertiary structure reveals that residue 266 and 267 of envelope gene 2 are surface exposed and their phosphorylation may compete with the phosphorylation of PKR protein and possibly involved in mediating Interferon Resistance. Conclusion A hybrid in-silico and wet laboratory approach of motif prediction, evolutionary and structural analysis has pointed out serine 266 and 267 of the HCV E2 gene as a hopeful claimant for the serine phosphorylation. Recognition of these nucleotide variations may assist to propose genotype precise therapy to avoid and resolve HCV infections.

  15. Atorvastatin reduces lipid accumulation in the liver by activating protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of perilipin 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xing; Nan, Yang; Zhao, Yuanlin; Yuan, Yuan; Ren, Bincheng; Sun, Chao; Cao, Kaiyu; Yu, Ming; Feng, Xuyang; Ye, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Statins have been proven to be effective in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, it was reported that statins decreased the hepatic expression of perilipin 5 (Plin5), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, which plays critical roles in regulating lipid accumulation and lipolysis in liver. However, the function and regulation mechanism of Plin5 have not yet been well-established in NAFLD treatment with statins. In this study, we observed that atorvastatin moderately reduced the expression of Plin5 in livers without changing the protein level of Plin5 in the hepatic LD fraction of mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Intriguingly, atorvastatin stimulated the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Plin5 and reduced the triglyceride (TG) accumulation in hepatocytes with overexpression of wide type (Plin5-WT) compared to serine-155 mutant Plin5 (Plin5-S155A). Moreover, PKA-stimulated FA release of purified LDs carrying Plin5-WT but not Plin5-S155A. Glucagon, a PKA activator, stimulated the phosphorylation of Plin5-WT and inhibited its interaction with CGI-58. The results indicated that atorvastatin promoted lipolysis and reduced TG accumulation in the liver by increasing PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Plin5. This new mechanism of lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin might provide a new strategy for NAFLD treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The function of the inner nuclear envelope protein SUN1 in mRNA export is regulated by phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Stumpf, Maria; Müller, Rolf; Eichinger, Ludwig; Glöckner, Gernot; Noegel, Angelika A

    2017-08-22

    SUN1, a component of the LINC (Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton) complex, functions in mammalian mRNA export through the NXF1-dependent pathway. It associates with mRNP complexes by direct interaction with NXF1. It also binds to the NPC through association with the nuclear pore component Nup153, which is involved in mRNA export. The SUN1-NXF1 association is at least partly regulated by a protein kinase C (PKC) which phosphorylates serine 113 (S113) in the N-terminal domain leading to reduced interaction. The phosphorylation appears to be important for the SUN1 function in nuclear mRNA export since GFP-SUN1 carrying a S113A mutation was less efficient in restoring mRNA export after SUN1 knockdown as compared to the wild type protein. By contrast, GFP-SUN1-S113D resembling the phosphorylated state allowed very efficient export of poly(A)+RNA. Furthermore, probing a possible role of the LINC complex component Nesprin-2 in this process we observed impaired mRNA export in Nesprin-2 knockdown cells. This effect might be independent of SUN1 as expression of a GFP tagged SUN-domain deficient SUN1, which no longer can interact with Nesprin-2, did not affect mRNA export.

  17. Protein phosphorylation in bcterial signaling and regulation

    KAUST Repository

    Mijakovic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    . Evolutionary studies based on genome comparison indicate that BY-kinases exist only in bacteria. They are non-essential (present in about 40% bacterial genomes), and their knockouts lead to pleiotropic phenotypes, since they phosphorylate many substrates

  18. Altered hypothalamic protein expression in a rat model of Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-na Cong

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by progressive motor impairment and cognitive alterations. Changes in energy metabolism, neuroendocrine function, body weight, euglycemia, appetite function, and circadian rhythm can also occur. It is likely that the locus of these alterations is the hypothalamus. We used the HD transgenic (tg rat model bearing 51 CAG repeats, which exhibits similar HD symptomology as HD patients to investigate hypothalamic function. We conducted detailed hypothalamic proteome analyses and also measured circulating levels of various metabolic hormones and lipids in pre-symptomatic and symptomatic animals. Our results demonstrate that there are significant alterations in HD rat hypothalamic protein expression such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, heat shock protein-70, the oxidative damage protein glutathione peroxidase (Gpx4, glycogen synthase1 (Gys1 and the lipid synthesis enzyme acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1 (Agpat1. In addition, there are significant alterations in various circulating metabolic hormones and lipids in pre-symptomatic animals including, insulin, leptin, triglycerides and HDL, before any motor or cognitive alterations are apparent. These early metabolic and lipid alterations are likely prodromal signs of hypothalamic dysfunction. Gaining a greater understanding of the hypothalamic and metabolic alterations that occur in HD, could lead to the development of novel therapeutics for early interventional treatment of HD.

  19. Rab11 is phosphorylated by classical and novel protein kinase C isoenzymes upon sustained phorbol ester activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarotti, Martín; Capmany, Anahí; Vitale, Nicolas; Colombo, María Isabel; Damiani, María Teresa

    2012-02-01

    Rab11 is a small GTPase that controls diverse intracellular trafficking pathways. However, the molecular machinery that regulates the participation of Rab11 in those different transport events is poorly understood. In resting cells, Rab11 localizes at the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), whereas the different protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms display a cytosolic distribution. Sustained phorbol ester stimulation induces the translocation of the classical PKCα and PKCβII isoenzymes to the ERC enriched in Rab11, and results in transferrin recycling inhibition. In contrast, novel PKCε and atypical PKCζ isoenzymes neither redistribute to the perinucleus nor modify transferrin recycling transport after phorbol ester stimulation. Although several Rabs have been shown to be phosphorylated, there is to date no evidence indicating Rab11 as a kinase substrate. In this report, we show that Rab11 appears phosphorylated in vivo in phorbol ester-stimulated cells. A bioinformatic analysis of Rab11 allowed us to identify several high-probability Ser/Thr kinase phosphorylation sites. Our results demonstrate that classical PKC (PKCα and PKCβII but not PKCβI) directly phosphorylate Rab11 in vitro. In addition, novel PKCε and PKCη but not PKCδ isoenzymes also phosphorylate Rab11. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that Ser 177 is the Rab11 residue to be phosphorylated in vitro by either PKCβII or PKCε. In agreement, the phosphomimetic mutant, Rab11 S177D, retains transferrin at the ERC in the absence of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate stimulus. This report shows for the first time that Rab11 is differentially phosphorylated by distinct PKC isoenzymes and that this post-translational modification might be a regulatory mechanism of intracellular trafficking. Copyright © 2012 Soçiété Francaise des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France.

  20. Novel Tyrosine Phosphorylation Sites in Rat Skeletal Muscle Revealed by Phosphopeptide Enrichment and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Højlund, Kurt; Luo, Moulun; Meyer, Christian; Thangiah, Geetha; Yi, Zhengping

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a fundamental role in many cellular processes including differentiation, growth and insulin signaling. In insulin resistant muscle, aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins has been detected. However, due to the low abundance of tyrosine phosphorylation (tyrosine phosphorylation sites have been identified in mammalian skeletal muscle to date. Here, we used immunoprecipitation of phosphotyrosine peptides prior to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis to improve the discovery of tyrosine phosphorylation in relatively small skeletal muscle biopsies from rats. This resulted in the identification of 87 distinctly localized tyrosine phosphorylation sites in 46 muscle proteins. Among them, 31 appear to be novel. The tyrosine phosphorylated proteins included major enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and glycogen metabolism, sarcomeric proteins, and proteins involved in Ca2+ homeostasis and phosphocreatine resynthesis. Among proteins regulated by insulin, we found tyrosine phosphorylation sites in glycogen synthase, and two of its inhibitors, GSK-3α and DYRK1A. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation sites were identified in several MAP kinases and a protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHPTP2. These results provide the largest catalogue of mammalian skeletal muscle tyrosine phosphorylation sites to date and provide novel targets for the investigation of human skeletal muscle phosphoproteins in various disease states. PMID:22609512

  1. Nuclear localization of CPI-17, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, affects histone H3 phosphorylation and corresponds to proliferation of cancer and smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Masumi, E-mail: masumi.eto@jefferson.edu [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, PA 19107 (United States); Kirkbride, Jason A.; Chugh, Rishika; Karikari, Nana Kofi [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, PA 19107 (United States); Kim, Jee In [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, PA 19107 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Non-canonical roles of the myosin phosphatase inhibitor (CPI-17) were studied. •CPI-17 is localized in the nucleus of hyperplastic cancer and smooth muscle cells. •CPI-17 Ser12 phosphorylation may regulate the nuclear import. •CPI-17 regulates histone H3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation. •The nuclear CPI-17-PP1 axis plays a proliferative role in cells. -- Abstract: CPI-17 (C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor, 17 kDa) is a cytoplasmic protein predominantly expressed in mature smooth muscle (SM) that regulates the myosin-associated PP1 holoenzyme (MLCP). Here, we show CPI-17 expression in proliferating cells, such as pancreatic cancer and hyperplastic SM cells. Immunofluorescence showed that CPI-17 was concentrated in nuclei of human pancreatic cancer (Panc1) cells. Nuclear accumulation of CPI-17 was also detected in the proliferating vascular SM cell culture and cells at neointima of rat vascular injury model. The N-terminal 21-residue tail domain of CPI-17 was necessary for the nuclear localization. Phospho-mimetic Asp-substitution of CPI-17 at Ser12 attenuated the nuclear import. CPI-17 phosphorylated at Ser12 was not localized at nuclei, suggesting a suppressive role of Ser12 phosphorylation in the nuclear import. Activated CPI-17 bound to all three isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in Panc1 nuclear extracts. CPI-17 knockdown in Panc1 resulted in dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3, Ser10 and Thr11, whereas it had no effects on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and merlin, the known targets of MLCP. In parallel, CPI-17 knockdown suppressed Panc1 proliferation. We propose that CPI-17 accumulated in the nucleus through the N-terminal tail targets multiple PP1 signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation.

  2. Phosphorylation site dynamics of early T-cell receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chylek, Lily A; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Dengjel, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    In adaptive immune responses, T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling impacts multiple cellular processes and results in T-cell differentiation, proliferation, and cytokine production. Although individual protein-protein interactions and phosphorylation events have been studied extensively, we lack...... that diverse dynamic patterns emerge within seconds. We detected phosphorylation dynamics as early as 5 s and observed widespread regulation of key TCR signaling proteins by 30 s. Development of a computational model pointed to the presence of novel regulatory mechanisms controlling phosphorylation of sites...... a systems-level understanding of how these components cooperate to control signaling dynamics, especially during the crucial first seconds of stimulation. Here, we used quantitative proteomics to characterize reshaping of the T-cell phosphoproteome in response to TCR/CD28 co-stimulation, and found...

  3. Cold and Heat Stress Diversely Alter Both Cauliflower Respiration and Distinct Mitochondrial Proteins Including OXPHOS Components and Matrix Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurek, Michał; Czołpińska, Magdalena; Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej; Krzesiński, Włodzimierz; Spiżewski, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Complex proteomic and physiological approaches for studying cold and heat stress responses in plant mitochondria are still limited. Variations in the mitochondrial proteome of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) curds after cold and heat and after stress recovery were assayed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) in relation to mRNA abundance and respiratory parameters. Quantitative analysis of the mitochondrial proteome revealed numerous stress-affected protein spots. In cold, major downregulations in the level of photorespiratory enzymes, porine isoforms, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and some low-abundant proteins were observed. In contrast, carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, heat-shock proteins, translation, protein import, and OXPHOS components were involved in heat response and recovery. Several transcriptomic and metabolic regulation mechanisms are also suggested. Cauliflower plants appeared less susceptible to heat; closed stomata in heat stress resulted in moderate photosynthetic, but only minor respiratory impairments, however, photosystem II performance was unaffected. Decreased photorespiration corresponded with proteomic alterations in cold. Our results show that cold and heat stress not only operate in diverse modes (exemplified by cold-specific accumulation of some heat shock proteins), but exert some associations at molecular and physiological levels. This implies a more complex model of action of investigated stresses on plant mitochondria. PMID:29547512

  4. ERK2-Mediated Phosphorylation of Transcriptional Coactivator Binding Protein PIMT/NCoA6IP at Ser298 Augments Hepatic Gluconeogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Kishore V. L.; Kain, Vasundhara; Behera, Soma; Suraj, Sashidhara Kaimal; Babu, Phanithi Prakash; Kar, Anand; Panda, Sunanda; Zhu, Yi-jun; Jia, Yuzhi; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Reddy, Janardan K.; Misra, Parimal

    2013-01-01

    PRIP-Interacting protein with methyl transferase domain (PIMT) serves as a molecular bridge between CREB-binding protein (CBP)/ E1A binding protein p300 (Ep300) -anchored histone acetyl transferase and the Mediator complex sub-unit1 (Med1) and modulates nuclear receptor transcription. Here, we report that ERK2 phosphorylates PIMT at Ser298 and enhances its ability to activate PEPCK promoter. We observed that PIMT is recruited to PEPCK promoter and adenoviral-mediated over-expression of PIMT in rat primary hepatocytes up-regulated expression of gluconeogenic genes including PEPCK. Reporter experiments with phosphomimetic PIMT mutant (PIMTS298D) suggested that conformational change may play an important role in PIMT-dependent PEPCK promoter activity. Overexpression of PIMT and Med1 together augmented hepatic glucose output in an additive manner. Importantly, expression of gluconeogenic genes and hepatic glucose output were suppressed in isolated liver specific PIMT knockout mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, consistent with reporter experiments, PIMTS298D but not PIMTS298A augmented hepatic glucose output via up-regulating the expression of gluconeogenic genes. Pharmacological blockade of MAPK/ERK pathway using U0126, abolished PIMT/Med1-dependent gluconeogenic program leading to reduced hepatic glucose output. Further, systemic administration of T4 hormone to rats activated ERK1/2 resulting in enhanced PIMT ser298 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of PIMT led to its increased binding to the PEPCK promoter, increased PEPCK expression and induction of gluconeogenesis in liver. Thus, ERK2-mediated phosphorylation of PIMT at Ser298 is essential in hepatic gluconeogenesis, demonstrating an important role of PIMT in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia. PMID:24358311

  5. Formation and characterization of iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen as a potential iron supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jianjun; Chen, Fei; Fan, Daidi, E-mail: fandaidi@nwu.edu.cn; Zhu, Chenhui; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Xue, Wenjiao

    2013-10-01

    Iron incorporated into food can induce precipitation and unwanted interaction with other components in food. Iron-binding proteins represent a possibility to avoid these problems and other side effects, as the iron is protected. However, there are several technical problems associated with protein–iron complex formation. In this paper, the iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen (Fe-G6P-HLC) was prepared under physiological conditions through phosphorylated modification. One molecule of Fe-G6P-HLC possesses about 24 atoms of Fe. Spectroscopy analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and equilibrium dialysis techniques were employed to investigate the characteristics of the Fe-G6P-HLC. The binding sites (n{sub b}) and apparent association constant (K{sub app}) between iron and phosphorylated HLC were measured at n{sub b} = 23.7 and log K{sub app} = 4.57, respectively. The amount of iron (Fe{sup 2+} sulfate) binding to phosphorylated HLC was found to be a function of pH and phosphate content. In addition, the solubility and thermal stability of HLC were not significantly affected. The results should facilitate the utilization of HLC as a bioactive iron supplement in the food and medical industry and provide an important theoretical evidence for the application of HLC chelates. - Highlights: • The iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen (Fe-G6P-HLC) was prepared. • One molecule of Fe-G6P-HLC possesses about 24 atoms of Fe. • The binding properties could be modulated through alterations in pH and phosphate content presented in HLC. • A novel strategy for preparing iron-binding proteins was provided.

  6. Construction of phosphorylation interaction networks by text mining of full-length articles using the eFIP system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Catalina O; Ross, Karen E; Li, Gang; Vijay-Shanker, K; Wu, Cathy H; Arighi, Cecilia N

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational modification where a protein kinase adds a phosphate group to a protein, potentially regulating its function, localization and/or activity. Phosphorylation can affect protein-protein interactions (PPIs), abolishing interaction with previous binding partners or enabling new interactions. Extracting phosphorylation information coupled with PPI information from the scientific literature will facilitate the creation of phosphorylation interaction networks of kinases, substrates and interacting partners, toward knowledge discovery of functional outcomes of protein phosphorylation. Increasingly, PPI databases are interested in capturing the phosphorylation state of interacting partners. We have previously developed the eFIP (Extracting Functional Impact of Phosphorylation) text mining system, which identifies phosphorylated proteins and phosphorylation-dependent PPIs. In this work, we present several enhancements for the eFIP system: (i) text mining for full-length articles from the PubMed Central open-access collection; (ii) the integration of the RLIMS-P 2.0 system for the extraction of phosphorylation events with kinase, substrate and site information; (iii) the extension of the PPI module with new trigger words/phrases describing interactions and (iv) the addition of the iSimp tool for sentence simplification to aid in the matching of syntactic patterns. We enhance the website functionality to: (i) support searches based on protein roles (kinases, substrates, interacting partners) or using keywords; (ii) link protein entities to their corresponding UniProt identifiers if mapped and (iii) support visual exploration of phosphorylation interaction networks using Cytoscape. The evaluation of eFIP on full-length articles achieved 92.4% precision, 76.5% recall and 83.7% F-measure on 100 article sections. To demonstrate eFIP for knowledge extraction and discovery, we constructed phosphorylation-dependent interaction

  7. C1qTNF-related protein 1 improve insulin resistance by reducing phosphorylation of serine 1101 in insulin receptor substrate 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yaping; Zhang, Dongming; Fu, Yanqin; Wang, Chongxian; Li, Qingju; Tian, Chenguang; Zhang, Suhe; Lyu, Xiaodong

    2017-08-30

    C1qTNF-related protein 1 (CTRP1) is independently associated with type 2 diabetes. However, the relationship between CTRP1 and insulin resistance is still not established. This study aimed to explore the role of CTRP1 under the situation of insulin resistance in adipose tissue. Plasma CTRP1 level was investigated in type 2 diabetic subjects (n = 35) and non-diabetic subjects (n = 35). The relationship between CTRP1 and phosphorylation of multi insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) serine (Ser) sites was further explored. Our data showed that Plasma CTRP1 was higher and negative correlation with insulin resistance in diabetic subjects (r = -0.283, p = 0.018). Glucose utilisation test revealed that the glucose utilisation rate of mature adipocytes was improved by CTRP1 in the presence of insulin. CTRP1 was not only related to IRS-1 protein, but also negatively correlated with IRS-1 Ser1101 phosphorylation (r = -0.398, p = 0.031). Furthermore, Phosphorylation levels of IRS-1 Ser1101 were significantly lower after incubation with 40 ng/mL CTRP1 in mature adipocytes than those with no intervention (p insulin resistance by reducing the phosphorylation of IRS-1 Ser1101, induced in the situation of insulin resistance as a feedback adipokine.

  8. Influence of hyperthermia on the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 from human skin fibroblasts and meningioma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Zang, K D; Issinger, O G

    1983-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts and meningioma cells, derived from primary cultures of the same patients have been used to study the influence of hyperthermia on (i) cell morphology and (ii) phosphorylation pattern of ribosomal and ribosome-associated proteins. Incubation of tumour cells and fibroblasts up to 7...

  9. SH3 domain tyrosine phosphorylation--sites, role and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Tatárová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SH3 domains are eukaryotic protein domains that participate in a plethora of cellular processes including signal transduction, proliferation, and cellular movement. Several studies indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation could play a significant role in the regulation of SH3 domains. RESULTS: To explore the incidence of the tyrosine phosphorylation within SH3 domains we queried the PhosphoSite Plus database of phosphorylation sites. Over 100 tyrosine phosphorylations occurring on 20 different SH3 domain positions were identified. The tyrosine corresponding to c-Src Tyr-90 was by far the most frequently identified SH3 domain phosphorylation site. A comparison of sequences around this tyrosine led to delineation of a preferred sequence motif ALYD(Y/F. This motif is present in about 15% of human SH3 domains and is structurally well conserved. We further observed that tyrosine phosphorylation is more abundant than serine or threonine phosphorylation within SH3 domains and other adaptor domains, such as SH2 or WW domains. Tyrosine phosphorylation could represent an important regulatory mechanism of adaptor domains. CONCLUSIONS: While tyrosine phosphorylation typically promotes signaling protein interactions via SH2 or PTB domains, its role in SH3 domains is the opposite - it blocks or prevents interactions. The regulatory function of tyrosine phosphorylation is most likely achieved by the phosphate moiety and its charge interfering with binding of polyproline helices of SH3 domain interacting partners.

  10. The role of Golgi reassembly and stacking protein 65 phosphorylation in H2O2-induced cell death and Golgi morphological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guang; Zhang, Weiwei; Quan, Moyuan; Chen, Yang; Qu, Hui; Hu, Zhiping

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress on cell viability and survival, as well as changes in the distribution of Golgi apparatus and in the level of Golgi reassembly and stacking protein 65 (GRASP65). Cell viability of cultured N2a cells treated with H 2 O 2 was measured by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry analyses. Cells labeled by indirect immunofluorescence were observed under confocal microscope to detect any Golgi morphological alterations; electron microscopy of Golgi apparatus was also done. Expression of GRASP65 and phospho-GRASP65 was examined by immunoblotting. H 2 O 2 treatment reduced the cell viability and raised the cell mortality of N2a cells in a time-dependent manner. Notable changes were only observed in the distribution and morphology of Golgi apparatus at 6 h after H 2 O 2 treatment. The expression of GRASP65 showed no significant changes at different time points; the phosphorylated GRASP65 level was significantly increased after H 2 O 2 treatment, peaked at 3 h, and finally dropped at 6 h. Taken together, GRASP65 phosphorylation may have a critical role in inducing cell death at the early stage after H 2 O 2 treatment, while its role in H 2 O 2 -induced Golgi morphological changes may be complex.

  11. PhosphoRice: a meta-predictor of rice-specific phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Que Shufu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the growing body of protein phosphorylation sites data, the number of phosphoprotein databases is constantly increasing, and dozens of tools are available for predicting protein phosphorylation sites to achieve fast automatic results. However, none of the existing tools has been developed to predict protein phosphorylation sites in rice. Results In this paper, the phosphorylation site predictors, NetPhos 2.0, NetPhosK, Kinasephos, Scansite, Disphos and Predphosphos, were integrated