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Sample records for altered lung functions

  1. Altered time structure of neuro-endocrine-immune system function in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carughi Stefano

    2010-06-01

    TcS1 was decreased in cancer patients. The melatonin/cortisol mean nocturnal level ratio was decreased in cancer patients. Conclusion The altered secretion and loss of circadian rhythmicity of many studied factors observed in the subjects suffering from neoplastic disease may be expression of gradual alteration of the integrated function of the neuro-immune-endocrine system

  2. Lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorichter, S.

    2009-01-01

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T LCO ), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI max , P 0.1 ) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [de

  3. Role of TNFR1 in lung injury and altered lung function induced by the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Shen, Jianliang; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2011-01-01

    Lung toxicity induced by sulfur mustard is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. To elucidate mechanisms mediating pulmonary damage, we used 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. Male mice (B6129) were treated intratracheally with CEES (3 or 6 mg/kg) or control. Animals were sacrificed 3, 7 or 14 days later and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue collected. Treatment of mice with CEES resulted in an increase in BAL protein, an indication of alveolar epithelial damage, within 3 days. Expression of Ym1, an oxidative stress marker also increased in the lung, along with inducible nitric oxide synthase, and at 14 days, cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, inflammatory proteins implicated in tissue injury. These responses were attenuated in mice lacking the p55 receptor for TNFα (TNFR1-/-), demonstrating that signaling via TNFR1 is key to CEES-induced injury, oxidative stress, and inflammation. CEES-induced upregulation of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and MnSOD was delayed or absent in TNFR1-/- mice, relative to WT mice, suggesting that TNFα mediates early antioxidant responses to lung toxicants. Treatment of WT mice with CEES also resulted in functional alterations in the lung including decreases in compliance and increases in elastance. Additionally, methacholine-induced alterations in total lung resistance and central airway resistance were dampened by CEES. Loss of TNFR1 resulted in blunted functional responses to CEES. These effects were most notable in the airways. These data suggest that targeting TNFα signaling may be useful in mitigating lung injury, inflammation and functional alterations induced by vesicants.

  4. Distinctive Regulatory T Cells and Altered Cytokine Profile Locally in the Airways of Young Smokers with Normal Lung Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadkarampour, Mahyar; Müller, Malin; Öckinger, Johan; Kullberg, Susanna; Lindén, Anders; Eklund, Anders; Grunewald, Johan; Wahlström, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Smoking influences the immune system in different ways and, hypothetically, effects on pulmonary effector and regulatory T cells emerge as potentially detrimental. Therefore, we characterized the frequencies and characteristics of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets in the blood and lungs of young tobacco smokers. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood were obtained from healthy moderate smokers (n = 18; 2-24 pack-years) and never-smokers (n = 15), all with normal lung function. Cells were stimulated ex vivo and key intracellular cytokines (IFNγ, IL-17, IL-10 and TNFα) and transcription factors (Foxp3, T-bet and Helios) were analyzed using flow cytometry. Our results indicate that smoking is associated with a decline in lung IL-17+ CD4+ T cells, increased IFNγ+ CD8+ T cells and these alterations relate to the history of daily cigarette consumption. There is an increased fraction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells being Helios- in the lungs of smokers. Cytokine production is mainly confined to the Helios- T cells, both in regulatory and effector subsets. Moreover, we detected a decline of Helios+Foxp3- postulated regulatory CD8+ T cells in smokers. These alterations in the immune system are likely to increase risk for infection and may have implications for autoimmune processes initiated in the lungs among tobacco smokers.

  5. Alterations of the beneficial effect of deep inspiration in scleroderma: relationships between lung function and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scichilone, Nicola; Reitano, Simona; Bellia, Maria; Riili, Maria; Togias, Alkis; Midiri, Massimo; Triolo, Giovanni; Bellia, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    It has been postulated that the beneficial effects of deep inspiration are dependent on the magnitude of airway distension by virtue of airway to parenchyma interdependence. This study was designed to examine whether the changes that occur in pulmonary fibrosis affect the beneficial effect of deep inspiration. Thirty-one subjects with scleroderma underwent lung volume and diffusion capacity assessment as well as high-resolution computed tomography. To assess the effect of deep inspiration, each subject underwent methacholine provocations in the absence of deep breaths. When the targeted change in lung function was achieved, subjects were asked to take 4 consecutive deep inspirations after which lung function measurements were repeated. The inspiratory vital capacity (IVC) was used as primary outcome. Only 19 subjects attained the desired reduction in IVC in the absence of deep breaths. In those subjects, deep inspiration reversed the effect of methacholine on IVC by 48 +/- 8.4%. The effect of deep inspiration correlated with DLCO% predicted (r = 0.55, p = 0.01), but not with high-resolution computed tomography abnormalities or baseline lung function measurements. When all subjects were considered, responsiveness to methacholine in the absence of deep inspiration was progressively lower with decreasing DLCO% predicted values (r = 0.51, p = 0.003). In systemic scleroderma, pulmonary abnormalities resulting in mild to moderate reduction in the diffusion capacity are associated with reduced ability of deep inspiration to reverse methacholine-induced early airway closure and bronchoconstriction. When diffusion capacity is severely affected, methacholine fails to produce obstructive airway changes. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Role of reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase in vesicant-induced lung injury, inflammation and altered lung functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R., E-mail: sunilvr@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States); Shen, Jianliang; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2012-05-15

    altered lung functioning.

  7. Role of reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase in vesicant-induced lung injury, inflammation and altered lung functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Shen, Jianliang; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    altered lung functioning

  8. Nonrespiratory lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo

  9. Indomethacin and cromolyn sodium alter ozone-induced changes in lung function and plasma eicosanoid concentrations in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.D.; Ainsworth, D.; Lam, H.F.; Amdur, M.O.

    1988-04-01

    Male Hartley guinea pigs were given either indomethacin (IN), cromolyn sodium (CS), or no drug (ND) and then exposed either to filtered air or to 1 ppm ozone (O3) for 1 hr. At 2 or 24 hr postexposure, ventilation, respiratory mechanics, lung volumes, carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity (DLCO), and alveolar volume (VA) were measured, and in separate groups of animals, plasma eicosanoids (EC) were measured. Both drugs blocked the increase in flow resistance noted at 2 hr after O3 and prevented O3-induced increases in the wet lung weight to body weight ratio seen at 2 and 24 hr in the ND group. In the ND animals O3 also decreased total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and residual volume (RV). IN as well as CS blocked reductions in FRC and RV at both 2 and 24 hr after O3. TLC was reduced by both drug treatments in air- and O3-exposed animals. CS treatment also decreased VC in all groups. IN blocked reductions in VA after O3 but did not prevent decreases in DLCO. CS blocked reductions in both VA and DLCO after O3, but the drug decreased DLCO in air-exposed animals. The prostaglandins PGF2 alpha and 6-keto PGF1 alpha were largely unaffected by O3 exposure or drug treatment. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) was not affected by O3, but both drugs significantly increased PGE1 in all exposure groups. Effects on plasma thromboxane B2 (TxB2) were variable although in most groups TxB2 was lower than in the O3-exposed ND groups. Although our findings suggest that both drugs block some effects of O3 exposure on the lungs and on plasma EC concentrations, the degree to which EC contribute to O3-induced pulmonary effects is not clearly apparent.

  10. Do Ergogenic Aids Alter Lower Extremity Joint Alignment During a Functional Movement Lunge Prior to and Following an Exercise Bout?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Chris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ergogenic aids have been used to alter joint kinematics in an attempt to minimise injury risk, yet the effectiveness of these aids may be compromised following a bout of exercise. This preliminary study aimed to measure the effect of compression garments and Kinesio Tape® on lower extremity joint alignment prior to and following an exercise bout. Eight male athletes (age = 24.1 ± 3.0 years, body height = 177.4 ± 5.2 cm, body mass = 72.3 ± 7.2 kg volunteered to participant in this study. Joint kinematics were recorded whilst all participants performed three rotational lunges, in three conditions (control, compression garment, Kinesio Tape®, prior to and following a 10 minute exercise bout. Frontal plane kinematics (lateral pelvic tilt, knee valgus, ankle inversion/eversion were used to assess ergogenic aid effectiveness during the lunge. Participants exhibited no significant differences in joint kinematics between ergogenic aid conditions prior to the exercise bout. Following exercise the only significant difference occurred within the Kinesio Tape® condition where maximum knee valgus angle significantly increased from 6.5° prior to exercise, to 7.7° following the exercise bout. The results of this study suggest joint kinematics are not affected by the ergogenic aids in this study prior to an exercise bout. However, there is evidence to suggest that the application of Kinesio Tape® may allow an increase in knee valgus angle following a bout of exercise, yet, compression garments are effective at maintaining joint alignment following a bout of exercise.

  11. Do Ergogenic Aids Alter Lower Extremity Joint Alignment During a Functional Movement Lunge Prior to and Following an Exercise Bout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Chris; Knight, James; Milligan, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    Ergogenic aids have been used to alter joint kinematics in an attempt to minimise injury risk, yet the effectiveness of these aids may be compromised following a bout of exercise. This preliminary study aimed to measure the effect of compression garments and Kinesio Tape® on lower extremity joint alignment prior to and following an exercise bout. Eight male athletes (age = 24.1 ± 3.0 years, body height = 177.4 ± 5.2 cm, body mass = 72.3 ± 7.2 kg) volunteered to participant in this study. Joint kinematics were recorded whilst all participants performed three rotational lunges, in three conditions (control, compression garment, Kinesio Tape®), prior to and following a 10 minute exercise bout. Frontal plane kinematics (lateral pelvic tilt, knee valgus, ankle inversion/eversion) were used to assess ergogenic aid effectiveness during the lunge. Participants exhibited no significant differences in joint kinematics between ergogenic aid conditions prior to the exercise bout. Following exercise the only significant difference occurred within the Kinesio Tape® condition where maximum knee valgus angle significantly increased from 6.5° prior to exercise, to 7.7° following the exercise bout. The results of this study suggest joint kinematics are not affected by the ergogenic aids in this study prior to an exercise bout. However, there is evidence to suggest that the application of Kinesio Tape® may allow an increase in knee valgus angle following a bout of exercise, yet, compression garments are effective at maintaining joint alignment following a bout of exercise. PMID:25964805

  12. 23 Lung Metastases Treated by Radiofrequency Ablation Over 10 Years in a Single Patient: Successful Oncological Outcome of a Metastatic Cancer Without Altered Respiratory Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crombé, Amandine, E-mail: amandine.crombe@ens-lyon.fr; Buy, Xavier [Institut Bergonié, Department of Radiology (France); Godbert, Yann [Institut Bergonié, Department of Nuclear Medicine (France); Alberti, Nicolas [Centre Hospitalier Alpes-Léman, Department of Radiology (France); Kind, Michèle [Institut Bergonié, Department of Radiology (France); Bonichon, Françoise [Institut Bergonié, Department of Nuclear Medicine (France); Palussière, Jean [Institut Bergonié, Department of Radiology (France)

    2016-12-15

    An 82-year-old man, who was diagnosed in 2002 with an oncocytic (Hürthle cell) thyroid carcinoma, was initially treated by local surgery and was refractory to radioiodine treatment. The patient had successive secondary recurrences from 2006 onwards. Metastases were suspected due to an elevation of thyroglobulin in serum. Hypermetabolic nodules were targeted using FDG PET as well as CT-guided radiofrequency ablations. Thyroglobulin levels decreased following each procedure. 10 years later, tolerance and efficacy are excellent; 23 lung metastases have been treated during 11 sessions without current relapse. Respiratory function and quality of life are not altered. This report illustrates how radiofrequency ablation can be efficiently integrated into the long-term management of poorly aggressive oligometastatic cancer, in combination with other local and/or systemic therapies.

  13. Lung function; Lungenfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorichter, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Abteilung Pneumologie, Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T{sub LCO}), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI{sub max}, P{sub 0.1}) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [German] Unter dem Begriff Lungenfunktion wird die Bestimmung der Lungenvolumina am Mund verstanden. Dabei werden die mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina mit den zugehoerigen Fluss-Volumen-Kurven mittels Spirometrie und Ganzkoerperplethysmographie (GKP) und die nicht (RV) und teilweise mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina (FRC, TLC) einschliesslich der Atemwegswiderstaende bestimmt. Die GKP ermoeglicht zusaetzlich die korrekte (Volumenachsen-)Positionierung der forcierten Atemmanoever. Dieses erlaubt eine uebersichtlichere graphische Darstellung z. B. vor und nach der Applikation pharmakologisch wirksamer Substanzen. Wird die GKP

  14. Lung volume quantified by MRI reflects extracellular-matrix deposition and altered pulmonary function in bleomycin models of fibrosis: effects of SOM230.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Christine; Gérard, Christelle; Vidotto, Nella; Accart, Nathalie; Cannet, Catherine; Dunbar, Andrew; Tigani, Bruno; Piaia, Alessandro; Jarai, Gabor; Jarman, Elizabeth; Schmid, Herbert A; Beckmann, Nicolau

    2014-06-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and lethal disease, characterized by loss of lung elasticity and alveolar surface area, secondary to alveolar epithelial cell injury, reactive inflammation, proliferation of fibroblasts, and deposition of extracellular matrix. The effects of oropharyngeal aspiration of bleomycin in Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice, as well as of intratracheal administration of ovalbumin to actively sensitized Brown Norway rats on total lung volume as assessed noninvasively by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were investigated here. Lung injury and volume were quantified by using nongated or respiratory-gated MRI acquisitions [ultrashort echo time (UTE) or gradient-echo techniques]. Lung function of bleomycin-challenged rats was examined additionally using a flexiVent system. Postmortem analyses included histology of collagen and hydroxyproline assays. Bleomycin induced an increase of MRI-assessed total lung volume, lung dry and wet weights, and hydroxyproline content as well as collagen amount. In bleomycin-treated rats, gated MRI showed an increased volume of the lung in the inspiratory and expiratory phases of the respiratory cycle and a temporary decrease of tidal volume. Decreased dynamic lung compliance was found in bleomycin-challenged rats. Bleomycin-induced increase of MRI-detected lung volume was consistent with tissue deposition during fibrotic processes resulting in decreased lung elasticity, whereas influences by edema or emphysema could be excluded. In ovalbumin-challenged rats, total lung volume quantified by MRI remained unchanged. The somatostatin analog, SOM230, was shown to have therapeutic effects on established bleomycin-induced fibrosis in rats. This work suggests MRI-detected total lung volume as readout for tissue-deposition in small rodent bleomycin models of pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. A lung function information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); J. de Vries (Julius); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); A. Versprille (Adrian)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract A lung function information system (LFIS) was developed for the data analysis of pulmonary function tests at different locations. This system was connected to the hospital information system (HIS) for the retrieval of patient data and the storage of the lung function

  16. LUNG FUNCTION TESTING IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Fležar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lung function testing in children above five years old is standardised similarly as is in adult population (1. Nevertheless bronchial provocation testing can be more hazardous since the calibre and reactivity of childhood airway is different. We analysed the frequency of different lung function testing procedures and addressed the safety issues of bronchial provocation testing in children.Methods. We analysed lung function testing results in 517 children, older than 5 years, tested in our laboratory in threeyear period. Spirometry was done in every patient, metacholine provocation test was used as a part of diagnostic work-up in suspected asthma. In case of airway obstruction, bronchodilator test with salbutamol was used instead of a metacholine provocation test.Results. The most common procedure in children was spirometry with bronchial provocation test as a part of diagnostic work-up of obstructive syndrome (mostly asthma. 291 children required metacholine test and 153 tests were interpreted as positive. The decline in expiratory flows (forced expiratory flow in first second – FEV1 in positive tests was greater than in adult population as was the dose of metacholine, needed to induce bronchoconstriction. The compliance of children was better than in adults.Conclusions. Lung function testing in children is reliable and safe and can be done in a well-standardised laboratory that follows the regulations of such testing in adults.

  17. Genomic Alteration During Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Tan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Recurrent gene mutation has been identified by the analysis of exonic DNA from lung adenocarcinoma, but its progression has not been extensively profiled. The investigation of the mutational landscape of tumors provides new insights into cancer genome evolution and further discovers the interplay of somatic mutation, adaptation of clones to their environment and natural selection. Cancer development involves cycles of genomic damage, epigenetic deregulation, and increased cellular proliferation that eventually culminate in the carcinoma phenotype. Methods: Comparative whole exome sequencing of both primary and metastatic tumor tissues from four patients of stage IV lung adenocarcinoma patients with chest wall metastasis was performed. Both primary and metastatic tumors were diagnosed through biopsy followed by surgical resection. All tumor specimens were cut into several pieces to assess potential heterogenic clones within the tumor tissue. Adjacent normal lung tissue was also obtained to provide germline mutation background. Results: By modeling and analyzing progression of the cancer metastasis based on non-synonymous variants, we defined the extent of heterogeneity of cancer genomes and identified similar cancer evolution pattern in the four patients: metastasis was an early event occurring right after the primary cancer formation and evolution in the metastatic tumor was continuously and simultaneously in progression with that in the primary tumor. By characterizing the clonal hierarchy of genetic lesions, we further charted a pathway of oncogenic events along which genes may drive lung adenocarcinoma metastasis, such as TAS2R31 and UMODL1, involving in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway. Conclusion: The candidate genes identified in this study may become targets for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.

  18. Histologic and biochemical alterations predict pulmonary mechanical dysfunction in aging mice with chronic lung inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Massa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Both aging and chronic inflammation produce complex structural and biochemical alterations to the lung known to impact work of breathing. Mice deficient in surfactant protein D (Sftpd develop progressive age-related lung pathology characterized by tissue destruction/remodeling, accumulation of foamy macrophages and alteration in surfactant composition. This study proposes to relate changes in tissue structure seen in normal aging and in chronic inflammation to altered lung mechanics using a computational model. Alterations in lung function in aging and Sftpd -/- mice have been inferred from fitting simple mechanical models to respiratory impedance data (Zrs, however interpretation has been confounded by the simultaneous presence of multiple coexisting pathophysiologic processes. In contrast to the inverse modeling approach, this study uses simulation from experimental measurements to recapitulate how aging and inflammation alter Zrs. Histologic and mechanical measurements were made in C57BL6/J mice and congenic Sftpd-/- mice at 8, 27 and 80 weeks of age (n = 8/group. An anatomic computational model based on published airway morphometry was developed and Zrs was simulated between 0.5 and 20 Hz. End expiratory pressure dependent changes in airway caliber and recruitment were estimated from mechanical measurements. Tissue elements were simulated using the constant phase model of viscoelasticity. Baseline elastance distribution was estimated in 8-week-old wild type mice, and stochastically varied for each condition based on experimentally measured alteration in elastic fiber composition, alveolar geometry and surfactant composition. Weighing reduction in model error against increasing model complexity allowed for identification of essential features underlying mechanical pathology and their contribution to Zrs. Using a maximum likelihood approach, alteration in lung recruitment and diminished elastic fiber density were shown predictive of mechanical

  19. Role of TNF-α in lung tight junction alteration in mouse model of acute lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuzzocrea Salvatore

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, we used tumor necrosis factor-R1 knock out mice (TNF-αR1KO to understand the roles of TNF-α on epithelial function in models of carrageenan-induced acute lung inflammation. In order to elucidate whether the observed anti-inflammatory status is related to the inhibition of TNF-α, we also investigated the effect of etanercept, a TNF-α soluble receptor construct, on lung TJ function. Pharmacological and genetic TNF-α inhibition significantly reduced the degree of (1 TNF-α production in pleural exudates and in the lung tissues, (2 the inflammatory cell infiltration in the pleural cavity as well as in the lung tissues (evaluated by MPO activity, (3 the alteration of ZO-1, Claudin-2, Claudin-4, Claudin-5 and β-catenin (immunohistochemistry and (4 apoptosis (TUNEL staining, Bax, Bcl-2 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of TNF-α reduces the tight junction permeability in the lung tissues associated with acute lung inflammation, suggesting a possible role of TNF-α on lung barrier dysfunction.

  20. Lung function measurements in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva

    2010-01-01

    The Ph.D. thesis is based on studies conducted at 6 pediatric departments in following hospitals: Naestved, Gentofte, Kolding, Skejby, Hvidovre and Rigshospitalet. Study I: Specific airway resistance (sRaw) measured by wholebody plethysmography in preschool children is increasingly used in research......, there was no effect of the child's history of atopy, parental atopy or smoking. We subsequently pooled these normative data (105 children) with previous data from 121 healthy young children; mean sRaw (SD) 1.27 kPa*s (0.25). Conclusion: Control using biological standards revealed errors in factory setting...... function and bronchial responsiveness. We found no differences within MZ twin pairs with respect to pulmonary function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, asthma prevalence, asthma medication use, or sensitization. Secondary aim was to compare prospectively the baseline lung function and bronchial...

  1. Exhaled CO, a predictor of lung function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Scharling, Henrik; Løkke, Anders

    2007-01-01

    and whether CO could provide additional information to usual measures of smoking regarding prediction of present lung function and decline in lung function over an extended period of time. METHOD: Cigarette smokers from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with valid measures of lung function and exhaled CO.......001). Increasing CO levels were correlated to a lower FEV(1)%pred and to an accelerated decline in lung function. However, in multiple linear regression analyses these correlations were not significant. CONCLUSION: Inhalation and type of cigarette affects exhaled CO levels. CO measures have no predictive value...

  2. Lung function measurements in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva

    2010-01-01

    was to expand normative sRaw values for non-asthmatic children in 5 centers. 105 healthy preschool children were recruited locally for sRaw measurements. Normative data was generated and was without significant difference between centers and independent of height, weight, age and gender. Furthermore...... and highlights the need for developing methods for verification of resistance measures to assure accuracy. Normative data were subsequently generated. Importantly other centers using such normative data should first consider proper calibration before applying reference values. Study II-III: Acute respiratory...... syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis may occur in otherwise healthy infants. It is not known whether viral bronchiolitis is causatively related to asthma or simply identifies infants at risk for subsequent wheezing from an atopic predisposition or pre-existing abnormal lung function. First aim...

  3. Changes in regional and overall lung function after bronchography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richez, M.; Ravez, P.; Godart, G.; Halloy, J.L.; Robience, Y.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation compares the effects of unilateral bronchography on classical pulmonary function paramerts (spirometry, CO transfer, flowvolume curve, and arterial blood gases)and radioisotopic measurements by means of 99 sup(m)Tc-labeled microspheres and 81 sup(m)Kr. The regional changes of ventilation and perfusion were quantified by a radioisotopic index, which was established for each zone of interest: explored lung and unexplored lung. The quantitative study of regional perfusion and ventilation reveals significant reduction of ventilation for lung bases, but not for lung apices. The radioisotopic measurements show a reduction of perfusion parallel to the reduction of ventilation. There is no significant correlation between traditional pulmonary function parameters and isotopic indices. Radioisotopy proved a sensitive tool for investigation of unilateral alterations. (orig.) [de

  4. Lung function is associated with arterial stiffness in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian G Ayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In older adults, an independent association exists between impaired lung function and cardiovascular disease. This interaction might be related to the effects of aging and/or smoking. In order to explore possible childhood antecedents to this association, we hypothesized that decreased lung function and vascular stiffness might be related, in early life. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between lung function and carotid augmentation index (AIx, a measure of vascular stiffness, in 8-year old children. METHODS: Data on brachial blood pressure, lung function (FEV(1, FVC, FEV(1/FVC, obtained by spirometry and carotid AIx75 (AIx standardised to an arbitrary heart rate of 75 beats per minute, obtained by applanation tonometry was available in 249 community-based 8-year old children. These healthy children had been subjects in a randomised controlled trial of two interventions (omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and house-dust mite avoidance to prevent asthma. Smoking in pregnancy and childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure was prospectively collected by questionnaire. The association between lung function and carotid AIx75 was assessed in multivariate models that included sex, height, smoking status during pregnancy, ETS exposure and randomisation groups (house dust mite avoidance and dietary intervention as covariates. RESULTS: In the fully adjusted models, Carotid AIx75 was independently associated with FEV1 (standardised β = -0.17,b = -6.72, partial R(2 = .02, p = 0.03, FVC (standardised β = -0.29, b = -9.31, partial R(2 = 0.04, p<0.001 and FEV1/FVC (standardised β = .13, b = 18.4, partial R(2 = 0.02, p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: Lower lung volumes are associated with increased vascular stiffness at an early age. The interaction between lung function and vascular stiffness may thus represent more than just age-related alterations in both the pulmonary and vascular systems.

  5. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K

    2016-01-01

    , was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development...... that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial...

  6. Functionalized synchrotron in-line phase-contrast computed tomography: a novel approach for simultaneous quantification of structural alterations and localization of barium-labelled alveolar macrophages within mouse lung samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullin, Christian; dal Monego, Simeone; Larsson, Emanuel; Mohammadi, Sara; Krenkel, Martin; Garrovo, Chiara; Biffi, Stefania; Lorenzon, Andrea; Markus, Andrea; Napp, Joanna; Salditt, Tim; Accardo, Agostino; Alves, Frauke; Tromba, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized computed tomography (CT) in combination with labelled cells is virtually non-existent due to the limited sensitivity of X-ray-absorption-based imaging, but would be highly desirable to realise cell tracking studies in entire organisms. In this study we applied in-line free propagation X-ray phase-contrast CT (XPCT) in an allergic asthma mouse model to assess structural changes as well as the biodistribution of barium-labelled macrophages in lung tissue. Alveolar macrophages that were barium-sulfate-loaded and fluorescent-labelled were instilled intratracheally into asthmatic and control mice. Mice were sacrificed after 24 h, lungs were kept in situ, inflated with air and scanned utilizing XPCT at the SYRMEP beamline (Elettra Synchrotron Light Source, Italy). Single-distance phase retrieval was used to generate data sets with ten times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than absorption-based CT (in our setup), thus allowing to depict and quantify structural hallmarks of asthmatic lungs such as reduced air volume, obstruction of airways and increased soft-tissue content. Furthermore, we found a higher concentration as well as a specific accumulation of the barium-labelled macrophages in asthmatic lung tissue. It is believe that XPCT will be beneficial in preclinical asthma research for both the assessment of therapeutic response as well as the analysis of the role of the recruitment of macrophages to inflammatory sites.

  7. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniard, Anne; Ballweg, Korbinian; Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase-like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging.

  8. Lung function and postural changes during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørregaard, O; Schultz, P; Ostergaard, A; Dahl, R

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of postural changes on lung function in pregnant women during the first, second, third trimester and post partum. A significant decrease in FRC, PEF and FEV1 was observed as a result of the postural changes. Arterial oxygenation, MVV and DLCO remained largely the same.

  9. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar, E-mail: edgar_olivascalderon@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Recio-Vega, Rogelio, E-mail: rrecio@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gandolfi, A. Jay, E-mail: gandolfi@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lantz, R. Clark, E-mail: lantz@email.arizona.edu [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); González-Cortes, Tania, E-mail: taniagc2201@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gonzalez-De Alba, Cesar, E-mail: cesargonzalezalba@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Froines, John R., E-mail: jfroines@ucla.edu [Center for Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A., E-mail: dr.jorge.espinosa@gmail.com [School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico)

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms or diseases in the adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that the exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero in children was associated with impairment in the lung function and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammation response to the metalloid. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their arsenic urinary levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products' (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsonic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. Arsenic-induced alterations in inflammatory biomarkers may contribute to the development of restrictive lung diseases. - Highlights: • First study in children evaluating lung inflammatory biomarkers and As levels

  10. Respiratory muscle function in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Schlager, Daniel; Walker, David J; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Windisch, Wolfram; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2013-07-01

    Interstitial lung diseases limit daily activities, impair quality of life and result in (exertional) dyspnoea. This has mainly been attributed to a decline in lung function and impaired gas exchange. However, the contribution of respiratory muscle dysfunction to these limitations remains to be conclusively investigated. Interstitial lung disease patients and matched controls performed body plethysmography, a standardised 6-min walk test, volitional tests (respiratory drive (P0.1), global maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure (PImax), sniff nasal pressure (SnPna) and inspiratory muscle load) and nonvolitional tests on respiratory muscle function and strength (twitch mouth and transdiaphragmatic pressure during bilateral magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation (TwPmo and TwPdi)). 25 patients and 24 controls were included in the study. PImax and SnPna remained unaltered (both p>0.05), whereas P0.1 and the load on the inspiratory muscles were higher (both prespiratory muscle strength remains preserved. Central respiratory drive and the load imposed on the inspiratory muscles are increased. Whether impaired respiratory muscle function impacts morbidity and mortality in interstitial lung disease patients needs to be investigated in future studies.

  11. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function

    OpenAIRE

    Azhar, Naheed

    2015-01-01

    The anaesthetic management of patients with pre-existing pulmonary disease is a challenging task. It is associated with increased morbidity in the form of post-operative pulmonary complications. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function helps in reducing these complications. Patients are advised to stop smoking for a period of 4–6 weeks. This reduces airway reactivity, improves mucociliary function and decreases carboxy-haemoglobin. The widely used incentive spirometry may be useful only wh...

  12. Electronic cigarette vapor alters the lateral structure but not tensiometric properties of calf lung surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Rebecca J; Wright, Jason; Parthiban, Rajan; Nazemidashtarjandi, Saeed; Kaya, Savas; Farnoud, Amir M

    2017-11-17

    Despite their growing popularity, the potential respiratory toxicity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) remains largely unknown. One potential aspect of e-cigarette toxicity is the effect of e-cigarette vapor on lung surfactant function. Lung surfactant is a mixture of lipids and proteins that lines the alveolar region. The surfactant layer reduces the surface tension of the alveolar fluid, thereby playing a crucial role in lung stability. Due to their small size, particulates in e-cigarette vapor can penetrate the deep lungs and come into contact with the lung surfactant. The current study sought to examine the potential adverse effects of e-cigarette vapor and conventional cigarette smoke on lung surfactant interfacial properties. Infasurf ® , a clinically used and commercially available calf lung surfactant extract, was used as lung surfactant model. Infasurf ® films were spread on top of an aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough with smoke particulates from conventional cigarettes or vapor from different flavors of e-cigarettes dispersed in the subphase. Surfactant interfacial properties were measured in real-time upon surface compression while surfactant lateral structure after exposure to smoke or vapor was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). E-cigarette vapor regardless of the dose and flavoring of the e-liquid did not affect surfactant interfacial properties. In contrast, smoke from conventional cigarettes had a drastic, dose-dependent effect on Infasurf ® interfacial properties reducing the maximum surface pressure from 65.1 ± 0.2 mN/m to 46.1 ± 1.3 mN/m at the highest dose. Cigarette smoke and e-cigarette vapor both altered surfactant microstructure resulting in an increase in the area of lipid multilayers. Studies with individual smoke components revealed that tar was the smoke component most disruptive to surfactant function. While both e-cigarette vapor and conventional cigarette smoke affect surfactant lateral structure

  13. Reduced lung function among sisal processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumba, Akwilina; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bråtveit, Magne; Eduard, Wijnand; Mashalla, Yohana

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine lung function and chronic respiratory symptoms among sisal workers in Tanzania and compare the results with a control group. A cross-sectional study on chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function was conducted in 2006 among male Tanzanian sisal processing workers from six sisal estates. Participants included 86 workers in decortication departments, 68 workers in brushing departments and 30 low exposed security guards. The response rate was 97%. Chronic respiratory symptoms and background information were obtained by structured interview. Forced ventilatory capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) were estimated before and after a work shift, and FEV(1)/FVC ratio calculated. Workers were aged 19-85, with the oldest in the brushing and security departments. Chronic cough and chest tightness were experienced by 38% and 68% of workers in brushing departments, 20% and 6% of workers in decortication and 7% and 0% of security workers, respectively. A reduced FEV(1)/FVC ratio related to years of work was found among workers in brushing departments when adjusting for age, smoking, previous respiratory illnesses and body mass index, using regression analyses. Work in decortication departments was not related to reduced lung function parameters. The prevalence of FEV(1)/FVC<70 was above 50 for all three groups. Lung function parameters were similar before and after work shifts, except that peak expiratory flow increased among workers in brushing departments after work shifts. The results indicate a relationship between work in sisal brushing departments and the development of obstructive lung disorders.

  14. Prenatal and postnatal genetic influence on lung function development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown to what extent adult lung function genes affect lung function development from birth to childhood. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the association of candidate genetic variants with neonatal lung function and lung function development until age 7 years. METHODS: Lung...... repeated at age 7 years. Genetic risk scores were calculated based on reported single nucleotide polymorphisms for adult lung function (FEV1/forced expiratory vital capacity [FVC] ratio and FEV1) as the number of risk alleles weighted on known effect size. These genetic risk scores were analyzed against...... lung function measures as z scores at birth (forced expiratory volume in 0.5 seconds [FEV0.5], forced expiratory flow at 50% of functional vital capacity [FEF50], and provocative dose of methacholine causing a 15% decrease in lung function [PD15]) and at age 7 years (FEV1, FEF50, and provocative dose...

  15. Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

    2011-10-01

    Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

  16. Functional exercise capacity, lung function and chest wall deformity in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction The adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS causes changes on the compliance of the chest. These changes may be associated with impaired lung function and reduced functional exercise capacity of these adolescents. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between functional exercise capacity, lung function and geometry of the chest at different stages of AIS.Materials and methods The study was carried out in a cross-sectional design which were evaluated 27 AIS patients at different stages of the disease. For chest wall evaluation, were created geometry angles/distances (A/D, which were quantified by Software Postural Assessment. The functional exercise capacity was assessed by a portable gas analyzer during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT. Besides that, manovacuometry and spirometry were also performed.Results Linear regressions showed that oxygen uptake (peak VO2 was correlated with distance travelled in the ISWT (R2 = 0.52, maximal respiratory pressures, cough peak flow (R2 = 0.59 and some thoracic deformity markers (D1, D2 and A6.Discussion We observed that the chest wall alterations, lung function and respiratory muscle strength are related to the functional exercise capacity and may impair the physical activity performance in AIS patients.Final considerations There is correlation between functional exercise capacity, lung function and geometry of the chest in AIS patients. Our results point to the possible impact of the AIS in the physical activities of these adolescents. Therefore, efforts to prevent the disease progression are extremely important.

  17. Effects of smoking in pregnancy on neonatal lung function

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, A.; Marsh, M.; Ingram, D.; Fox, G.; Susiva, C.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the effects of smoking during pregnancy on lung mechanics and lung volumes in the immediate neonatal period, before infants are exposed to passive smoking.
METHODS—Lung function tests were carried out within 72 hours of delivery in infants born to 100 non-smoking and 189 smoking mothers. Lung growth was assessed by plethysmography and lung mechanics using the single breath occlusion technique and oesophageal balloon/ pneumotachography. Antenatal maternal serum cotin...

  18. Gene alterations in radiation-induced F344 rat lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.; Hahn, F.F.

    1994-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is frequently altered in all major histopathologic types of human lung tumors. Reported p53 mutations include base substitutions, allelic loss, rearrangements, and deletions. Point mutations resulting in base substitutions are clustered within a highly conserved region of the gene encoding exons 508, and mutations in this region substantially extend the half-life of the p53 protein. In addition to its prominent importance in lung carcinogenesis, the p53 gene plays a critical role in the cellular response to genetic damage caused by radiation. Specifically, the protein product of p53 induces a pause or block at the G 1 to S boundary of the cell cycle following radiation-caused DNA damage. This G 1 block may allow the cell time to repair the damaged DNA prior to replication. Cells lacking a functional p53 protein fail to pause for repair and consequently accumulate mutations in the genome at an accelerated rate. p53 has also been implicated as a controlling factor in apoptosis or in programmed cell death induced by DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation. The p53 gene is mutated in approximately 50% of squamous cell carcinomas from uranium miners who inhaled high doses of radon daughters. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a similar percentage of squamous cell carcinomas with p53 mutations developed in the lungs of rats exposed to aerosols of 239 PuO 2

  19. Lung function evaluation in acute postradiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassem, E.; Zandwijk, N. van; Jassem, J.; Badzio, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was pulmonary function evaluation in patients with radiation pneumonitis (rp). Study group included 18 patients with symptomatic rp (8 with breast cancer, 6 with Hodgkin's disease and 4 with lung cancer) treated at the Netherland s Cancer inst. In Amsterdam between 1988 and 1994. The lung function tests were performed at the time of rp presentation and monthly thereafter and consisted of a standard spirometry: forced expiratory volume in 1 sec. (FEV1), vital capacity (VC) and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) performed with the use of a single breath technique. The mean values of DLCO, VC, FEV1 and TLC at the time of rp presentation were 72.2%, 91.0% and 85.8% of predicted value (pv), respectively. The results of the a bone tests at the last examination (66.4%, 85.6%, 77.2% and 76.2% of pv), respectively, were lower than those registered at the time of rp presentation. The highest degree of functional deterioration included diffusion capacity; the mean of the lowest values of DLCO was 56.4% of pv. Usually the lowest value of DLCO accompanied the exacerbation of clinical symptoms. The results of this study demonstrated pulmonary function deterioration in patients with rp. (author)

  20. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Azhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaesthetic management of patients with pre-existing pulmonary disease is a challenging task. It is associated with increased morbidity in the form of post-operative pulmonary complications. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function helps in reducing these complications. Patients are advised to stop smoking for a period of 4–6 weeks. This reduces airway reactivity, improves mucociliary function and decreases carboxy-haemoglobin. The widely used incentive spirometry may be useful only when combined with other respiratory muscle exercises. Volume-based inspiratory devices have the best results. Pharmacotherapy of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease must be optimised before considering the patient for elective surgery. Beta 2 agonists, inhaled corticosteroids and systemic corticosteroids, are the main drugs used for this and several drugs play an adjunctive role in medical therapy. A graded approach has been suggested to manage these patients for elective surgery with an aim to achieve optimal pulmonary function.

  1. Genetic Variation in GSTP1, Lung Function, Risk of Lung Cancer, and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marianne S.; Dahl, Morten; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    66,069 individuals from the white general population for two common functional variants in the glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene (GSTP1)—amino acid isoleucine 105 changed to a valine (Ile105Val) and amino acid alanine 114 changed to a valine (Ala114Val)—and recorded lung function, lung cancer......, tobacco-related cancer, and death as outcomes. Results Lung function was increased stepwise with the Ile105Val genotype overall (p smokers separately (p

  2. Systemic inflammation and lung function: A longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, Robert J; Gray, Andrew R; Sears, Malcolm R; Poulton, Richie

    2016-02-01

    Systemic inflammation is associated with impaired lung function in healthy adults as well as in patients with lung disease. The mechanism for this association is unknown and it is unclear if systemic inflammation leads to impaired lung function or if poor lung function leads to inflammation. We explored the temporal associations between blood C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and white blood cells, and lung function in young adults. Spirometry, plethysmography, and diffusion capacity were measured in a population-based cohort at ages 32 and 38 years. High-sensitivity CRP, fibrinogen, and white blood cells were measured at the same ages. Higher levels of CRP and, to a lesser extent, fibrinogen were associated with lower lung volumes in cross-sectional analyses at both ages 32 and 38 years. Higher CRP and fibrinogen at age 32 were associated with higher FEV1 and FEV1/FVC at age 38, but not other measures of lung function. Lower lung volumes (total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume) but not airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC) at age 32 were associated with higher CRP at age 38. Associations between age 32 lung function and fibrinogen at follow-up were weaker, but consistent. There were no longitudinal associations between white blood cells and lung function. We found no evidence that systemic inflammation causes a decline in lung function. However, lower lung volumes were associated with higher CRP and fibrinogen at follow-up indicating that pulmonary restriction may be a risk factor for systemic inflammation. The mechanism for this association remains unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is

  4. Early COPD patients with lung hyperinflation associated with poorer lung function but better bronchodilator responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunlan; Jian, Wenhua; Gao, Yi; Xie, Yanqing; Song, Yan; Zheng, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether aggressive medication strategies should be used for early COPD with or without lung hyperinflation. We aimed to explore the characteristics and bronchodilator responsiveness of early COPD patients (stages I and II) with/without lung hyperinflation. Methods Four hundred and six patients with COPD who performed both lung volume and bronchodilation tests were retrospectively analyzed. Residual volume to total lung capacity >120% of predicted values indicated lung hyperinflation. The characteristics and bronchodilator responsiveness were compared between the patients with and without lung hyperinflation across all stages of COPD. Results The percentages of patients with lung hyperinflation were 72.7% in the entire cohort, 19.4% in stage I, 68.5% in stage II, 95.3% in stage III, and 100.0% in stage IV. The patients with lung hyperinflation exhibited poorer lung function but better bronchodilator responsiveness of both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity than those without lung hyperinflation during early COPD (t=2.21–5.70, P=0.000–0.029), especially in stage I, while age, body mass index, smoking status, smoking history, and disease duration were similar between the two subgroups in the same stages. From stages I to IV of subgroups with lung hyperinflation, stage I patients had the best bronchodilator responsiveness. Use of bronchodilator responsiveness of forced vital capacity to detect the presence of lung hyperinflation in COPD patients showed relatively high sensitivities (69.5%–75.3%) and specificities (70.3%–75.7%). Conclusion We demonstrated the novel finding that early COPD patients with lung hyperinflation are associated with poorer lung function but better bronchodilator responsiveness and established a simple method for detecting lung hyperinflation. PMID:27785008

  5. [Assessment of differential lung function by electrical impedance tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lema, J Bruno; Serrano, Ernesto; Feixas, Teresa; Calaf, Núria; Camacho, María Valle; Riu, Pere J; Casan, Pere

    2008-08-01

    To compare unilateral lung function estimated by 2 methods: electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and ventilation-perfusion lung scintigraphy. This prospective clinical study was carried out in the pulmonary function laboratory of a general hospital. Twenty patients diagnosed with lung cancer (17 men and 3 women, ranging in age from 25 to 77 years) who were candidates for lung resection underwent ventilation-perfusion lung scanning breathing a radioactive gas. Differential lung function was estimated based on images taken at 2 intercostal spaces in which ventilation and perfusion were represented by changes in bioelectrical impedance. Each lung's contribution to overall respiratory function was also calculated based on scintigraphy. The right lung contributed a mean (SD) of 54% (9%) of ventilation (range, 32%-71%) according to EIT. Scintigraphy similarly estimated the right lung's contribution to be 52% (10%) of total ventilation (range, 31%-80%) and 50% (9%) of perfusion (range, 37%-71%). The difference between the 2 estimates was not significant (t test), and the correlation coefficients between them were r=0.90 for ventilation and r=0.72 for perfusion (P< .05 in both cases). The analysis of agreement showed that the mean difference between the methods was 1.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.5% to -6.8%) for ventilation and 3.4% (95% CI, 17.1% to -10.3%) for perfusion. EIT is able to estimate differential lung function as accurately as ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy.

  6. The effects of electronic cigarette aerosol exposure on inflammation and lung function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Janka, Maxine A; Mullins, Benjamin J; Berry, Luke J; Bredin, Arne; Franklin, Peter J

    2017-07-01

    Electronic cigarette usage is increasing worldwide, yet there is a paucity of information on the respiratory health effects of electronic cigarette aerosol exposure. This study aimed to assess whether exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) aerosol would alter lung function and pulmonary inflammation in mice and to compare the severity of any alterations with mice exposed to mainstream tobacco smoke. Female BALB/c mice were exposed for 8 wk to tobacco smoke, medical air (control), or one of four different types of e-cigarette aerosol. E-cigarette aerosols varied depending on nicotine content (0 or 12 mg/ml) and the main excipient (propylene glycol or glycerin). Twenty-four hours after the final exposure, we measured pulmonary inflammation, lung volume, lung mechanics, and responsiveness to methacholine. Mice exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke had increased pulmonary inflammation and responsiveness to methacholine compared with air controls. Mice exposed to e-cigarette aerosol did not have increased inflammation but did display decrements in parenchymal lung function at both functional residual capacity and high transrespiratory pressures. Mice exposed to glycerin-based e-cigarette aerosols were also hyperresponsive to methacholine regardless of the presence or absence of nicotine. This study shows, for the first time, that exposure to e-cigarette aerosol during adolescence and early adulthood is not harmless to the lungs and can result in significant impairments in lung function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Lung fibroblasts share mesenchymal stem cell features which are altered in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease via the overactivation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figeac, Florence; Dagouassat, Maylis; Mahrouf-Yorgov, Meriem; Le Gouvello, Sabine; Trébeau, Céline; Sayed, Angeliqua; Stern, Jean-Baptiste; Validire, Pierre; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Boczkowski, Jorge; Mus-Veteau, Isabelle; Rodriguez, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Alteration of functional regenerative properties of parenchymal lung fibroblasts is widely proposed as a pathogenic mechanism for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, what these functions are and how they are impaired in COPD remain poorly understood. Apart from the role of fibroblasts in producing extracellular matrix, recent studies in organs different from the lung suggest that such cells might contribute to repair processes by acting like mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, several reports sustain that the Hedgehog pathway is altered in COPD patients thus aggravating the disease. Nevertheless, whether this pathway is dysregulated in COPD fibroblasts remains unknown. We investigated the stem cell features and the expression of Hedgehog components in human lung fibroblasts isolated from histologically-normal parenchymal tissue from 25 patients--8 non-smokers/non-COPD, 8 smokers-non COPD and 9 smokers with COPD--who were undergoing surgery for lung tumor resection. We found that lung fibroblasts resemble mesenchymal stem cells in terms of cell surface marker expression, differentiation ability and immunosuppressive potential and that these properties were altered in lung fibroblasts from smokers and even more in COPD patients. Furthermore, we showed that some of these phenotypic changes can be explained by an over activation of the Hedgehog signaling in smoker and COPD fibroblasts. Our study reveals that lung fibroblasts possess mesenchymal stem cell-features which are impaired in COPD via the contribution of an abnormal Hedgehog signaling. These processes should constitute a novel pathomechanism accounting for disease occurrence and progression.

  8. Lung structure and function relation in systemic sclerosis: Application of lung densitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninaber, Maarten K., E-mail: m.k.ninaber@lumc.nl [Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Stolk, Jan; Smit, Jasper; Le Roy, Ernest J. [Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Kroft, Lucia J.M. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Els Bakker, M. [Division of Image Processing, Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Vries Bouwstra, Jeska K. de; Schouffoer, Anne A. [Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Staring, Marius; Stoel, Berend C. [Division of Image Processing, Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A quantitative CT parameter of lung parenchyma in systemic sclerosis is presented. • We examine the optimal percentage threshold for the percentile density. • The 85th percentile density threshold correlated significantly with lung function. • A lung structure–function relation is confirmed. • We report applicability of Perc85 in progression mapping of interstitial lung disease. - Abstract: Introduction: Interstitial lung disease occurs frequently in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Quantitative computed tomography (CT) densitometry using the percentile density method may provide a sensitive assessment of lung structure for monitoring parenchymal damage. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the optimal percentile density score in SSc by quantitative CT densitometry, against pulmonary function. Material and methods: We investigated 41 SSc patients by chest CT scan, spirometry and gas transfer tests. Lung volumes and the nth percentile density (between 1 and 99%) of the entire lungs were calculated from CT histograms. The nth percentile density is defined as the threshold value of densities expressed in Hounsfield units. A prerequisite for an optimal percentage was its correlation with baseline DLCO %predicted. Two patients showed distinct changes in lung function 2 years after baseline. We obtained CT scans from these patients and performed progression analysis. Results: Regression analysis for the relation between DLCO %predicted and the nth percentile density was optimal at 85% (Perc85). There was significant agreement between Perc85 and DLCO %predicted (R = −0.49, P = 0.001) and FVC %predicted (R = −0.64, P < 0.001). Two patients showed a marked change in Perc85 over a 2 year period, but the localization of change differed clearly. Conclusions: We identified Perc85 as optimal lung density parameter, which correlated significantly with DLCO and FVC, confirming a lung parenchymal structure–function relation in SSc. This provides

  9. IKKβ Activation in the Fetal Lung Mesenchyme Alters Lung Vascular Development but Not Airway Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Alyssa M; Herington, Jennifer L; Stouch, Ashley N; Mukherjee, Anamika B; Lakhdari, Omar; Blackwell, Timothy S; Prince, Lawrence S

    2017-12-01

    In the immature lung, inflammation and injury disrupt the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions required for normal development. Innate immune signaling and NF-κB activation disrupt the normal expression of multiple mesenchymal genes that play a key role in airway branching and alveolar formation. To test the role of the NF-κB pathway specifically in lung mesenchyme, we utilized the mesenchymal Twist2-Cre to drive expression of a constitutively active inhibitor of NF-κB kinase subunit β (IKKβca) mutant in developing mice. Embryonic Twist2-IKKβca mice were generated in expected numbers and appeared grossly normal. Airway branching also appeared normal in Twist2-IKKβca embryos, with airway morphometry, elastin staining, and saccular branching similar to those in control littermates. While Twist2-IKKβca lungs did not contain increased levels of Il1b, we did measure an increased expression of the chemokine-encoding gene Ccl2. Twist2-IKKβca lungs had increased staining for the vascular marker platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1. In addition, type I alveolar epithelial differentiation appeared to be diminished in Twist2-IKKβca lungs. The normal airway branching and lack of Il1b expression may have been due to the inability of the Twist2-IKKβca transgene to induce inflammasome activity. While Twist2-IKKβca lungs had an increased number of macrophages, inflammasome expression remained restricted to macrophages without evidence of spontaneous inflammasome activity. These results emphasize the importance of cellular niche in considering how inflammatory signaling influences fetal lung development. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of lung volume by lung perfusion scanning using SPECT and prediction of postoperative respiratory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andou, Akio; Shimizu, Nobuyosi; Maruyama, Shuichiro

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of lung volume by lung perfusion scanning using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and its usefulness for the prediction of respiratory function after lung resection were investigated. The lung volumes calculated in 5 patients by SPECT (threshold level 20%) using 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA), related very closely to the actually measured lung volumes. This results prompted us to calculate the total lung volume and the volume of the lobe to be resected in 18 patients with lung cancer by SPECT. Based on the data obtained, postoperative respiratory function was predicted. The predicted values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1.0 ), and maximum vital volume (MVV) showed closer correlations with the actually measured postoperative values (FVC, FEV 1.0 , MVV : r=0.944, r=0.917, r=0.795 respectively), than the values predicted by the ordinary lung perfusion scanning. This method facilitates more detailed evaluation of local lung function on a lobe-by-lobe basis, and can be applied clinically to predict postoperative respiratory function. (author)

  11. Lung function in South African children with cystic fibrosis | Zar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern of lung function in stable cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and to investigate the relationship of abnormal lung function to demographic variables, CF genotype and pulmonary colonisation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). Design: A descriptive study done at the CF clinic at Red Cross War ...

  12. Effect of low- intensity continuous training on lung function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The decline in cardiorespiratory fitness and lung function was higher in smokers. Training method could mitigate some of the negative consequences of smoking among smokers unable or unwilling to quit. Objective: To examine the effects of continuous training on lungs functional capability and ...

  13. Interaction between asthma and lung function growth in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Jensen, Signe Marie; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The causal direction between asthma and lung function deficit is unknown, but important for the focus of preventive measures and research into the origins of asthma.......The causal direction between asthma and lung function deficit is unknown, but important for the focus of preventive measures and research into the origins of asthma....

  14. Imaging of lung function using synchrotron radiation computed tomography: What's new?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayat, Sam [Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Departement de Physiologie, DMAG EA 3901, 3 Rue des Louvels, 80036 Amiens Cedex 1 (France)], E-mail: Bayat.Sam@chu-amiens.fr; Porra, Liisa [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Department of Physics, POB 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: porra@esrf.fr; Suhonen, Heikki [Department of Physics, POB 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: heikki.suhonen@helsinki.fi; Janosi, Tibor [Geneva Children' s Hospital, University Hospitals of Geneva and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: janosit@dmi.u-szeged.hu; Strengell, Satu [Department of Physics, POB 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: skstreng@mappi.helsinki.fi; Habre, Walid [Geneva Children' s Hospital, University Hospitals of Geneva and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: Walid.Habre@hcuge.ch; Petak, Ferenc [Department of Department of Medical Informatics and Engineering, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Koranyi fasor 9 (Hungary)], E-mail: petak@dmi.szote.u-szeged.hu; Hantos, Zoltan [Department of Department of Medical Informatics and Engineering, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Koranyi fasor 9 (Hungary)], E-mail: hantos@dmi.u-szeged.hu; Suortti, Pekka [Department of Physics, POB 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: Pekka.Suortti@helsinki.fi; Sovijaervi, Anssi [Departments of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340, FIN-00029 HUS, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: anssi.sovijarvi@hus.fi

    2008-12-15

    There is a growing interest in imaging techniques as non-invasive means of quantitatively measuring regional lung structure and function. Abnormalities in lung ventilation due to alterations in airway function such as those observed in asthma and COPD are highly heterogeneous, and experimental methods to study this heterogeneity are crucial for better understanding of disease mechanisms and drug targeting strategies. In severe obstructive diseases requiring mechanical ventilation, the optimal ventilatory strategy to achieve recruitment of poorly ventilated lung zones remains a matter of considerable debate. We have used synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) for the in vivo study of regional lung ventilation and airway function. This imaging technique allows direct quantification of stable Xenon (Xe) gas used as an inhaled contrast agent using K-edge subtraction imaging. Dynamics of Xe wash-in can be used to calculate quantitative maps of regional specific lung ventilation. More recently, the development of Spiral-CT has allowed the acquisition of 3D images of the pulmonary bronchial tree and airspaces. This technique gives access to quantitative measurements of regional lung volume, ventilation, and mechanical properties. Examples of application in an experimental model of allergic asthma and in imaging lung recruitment as a function of mechanical ventilation parameters will be presented. The future orientations of this tecnique will be discussed.

  15. A genetic approach to understanding asthma and lung function development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a common heritable disease of the airways with recurrent episodes of symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction that has increased dramatically in prevalence. The disease is highly heterogeneous with varying age at onset and clinical presentation and most likely represents several...... their effect. In paper I, we investigated the known effect of adult lung function loci on the development of lung function and bronchial responsiveness in children from birth until 7 years of age in the COPSAC2000 birth cohort of 411 children. We measured lung function and bronchial responsiveness at one month...... of age using the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique in sedated neonates and repeated the measurements at age 7 utilizing traditional spirometry assessments. Lung function genetic variants identified in adults were not associated with neonatal lung function or bronchial...

  16. Lung function in fragrance industry employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, G R

    2013-07-01

    Production employees in the UK fragrance industry are exposed to large numbers of chemical substances and mixtures. There is a lack of published literature describing the effects of occupational respiratory exposure in this industry. To investigate whether occupational respiratory exposure to chemicals in the UK fragrance industry is linked to a statistically significant change in lung function as measured using spirometry. A multi-site cross-sectional study in which five UK companies took part, comprising an exposed group (fragrance production and associated functions) and a control group (non-exposed industry employees, e.g. office staff). Spirometric measurements (forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow) were taken pre- and post-shift. Participants provided information on potential confounding factors (smoking, history of respiratory problems and body mass index). Post-shift measurements were compared between groups, using analysis of covariance to adjust for the baseline pre-shift measurements. A total of 112 subjects participated: 60 in the exposed group and 52 in control group (response rate 33 and 24%, respectively). Adjusted mean differences in post-shift spirometric measurements between exposed and control groups were not statistically significant. No significant effects were observed on the spirometric performance of the study population. This work is the first step in a novel area of research, and the industry would benefit from further such research.

  17. Alteration of rat lung vascular response to radiation with drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.L.; Graham, M.M.; Mahler, A.; Rasey, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Vascular permeability to albumin increases in the lung at one day after radiation to the thorax, returns to normal, and increases again at three weeks after exposure. To block different proposed pathways of permeability increase, several drugs were given to irradiated rats. Each drug was selected for its ability to act at a different point in the hypothesized pathway leading to elevated vascular permeability and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis. To obtain maximum effect, each was delivered continuously in drinking water from two days before 18 Gy whole thorax radiation to measurement of response at 1 or 21 days. Dexamethasone (a glucocorticoid) was most effective at 21 days, reducing vascular permeability to below control levels. Epsilonamino caproic acid (a protease inhibitor) and diethylcarbamazine (an anti-leukotriene) were also somewhat effective, reducing permeability by 26% and 37% respectively. Dapsone (a neutrophil migration inhibitor) and indomethacin (an anti-prostaglandin) had no effect. Suppression of vascular permeability with drugs, and observation of the effects of suppression on subsequent development of fibrosis should help clarify the role of vascular permeability in the development of radiation induced fibrosis

  18. Altered thalamic functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou; Liang, Peipeng; Duan, Yunyun; Huang, Jing; Ren, Zhuoqiong; Jia, Xiuqin [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Dong, Huiqing; Ye, Jing [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shi, Fu-Dong [Department of Neurology and Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We demonstrated decreased connectivity between thalamus and cortical regions in MS. •Increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity was also observed in MS. •The increased functional connectivity is attenuated by increasing disease duration. -- Abstract: Objective: To compare thalamic functional connectivity (FC) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HC), and correlate these connectivity measures with other MRI and clinical variables. Methods: We employed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine changes in thalamic connectivity by comparing thirty-five patients with MS and 35 age- and sex-matched HC. Thalamic FC was investigated by correlating low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in thalamic voxels with voxels in all other brain regions. Additionally thalamic volume fraction (TF), T2 lesion volume (T2LV), EDSS and disease duration were recorded and correlated with the FC changes. Results: MS patients were found to have a significantly lower TF than HC in bilateral thalami. Compared to HC, the MS group showed significantly decreased FC between thalamus and several brain regions including right middle frontal and parahippocampal gyri, and the left inferior parietal lobule. Increased intra- and inter-thalamic FC was observed in the MS group compared to HC. These FC alterations were not correlated with T2LV, thalamic volume or lesions. In the MS group, however, there was a negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity (r = −0.59, p < 0.001). Conclusion: We demonstrated decreased FC between thalamus and several cortical regions, while increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity in MS patients. These complex functional changes reflect impairments and/or adaptations that are independent of T2LV, thalamic volume or presence of thalamic lesions. The negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity could indicate an adaptive role of thalamus that is

  19. Atividade física regular preserva a função pulmonar em pacientes com espondilite anquilosante sem doença pulmonar prévia Regular physical activity preserves the lung function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis without previous lung alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin M. Goya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A espondilite anquilosante é uma doença inflamatória que influencia de maneira restritiva a mecânica respiratória por meio do acometimento das articulações da coluna, bem como das alterações posturais decorrentes desse processo como o aumento da cifose torácica. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a alteração pulmonar dos pacientes portadores de espondilite anquilosante e relacioná-la à atividade física, verificando a influência na capacidade respiratória. MÉTODOS:Foram recrutados para este estudo 104 pacientes. Apenas 15 preenchiam os critérios de inclusão e exclusão, sendo divididos em dois grupos: grupo I, composto por indivíduos sedentários, e o grupo II, composto por pacientes que praticam uma atividade física regular moderada. RESULTADOS:Os dois grupos não diferiram em relação à média da idade (49,6 ± 11,6 versus 43,3 ± 13,2 anos, p = 0,19, peso (70,9 ± 9,7 versus 74,1 ± 12,1 kg, p = 0,30 e a altura (164,6 ± 3,5 versus 167,6 ± 6,9 cm, p = 0,16. Entretanto, o tempo médio de doença foi significantemente maior no grupo I comparado ao grupo de ativos (20,1 ± 6,9 vs. 9,6 ± 3,4, p = 0,004. Como tema de interesse, observou-se que o volume minuto foi significativamente maior no grupo ativo que no inativo (4,83 ± 1,07 versus 6,1 ± 1,25, p = 0,035. Por outro lado, isso não foi demonstrado em relação à frequência respiratória (14,57 ± 1,76 versus 16,25 ± 3,53 ipm, p = 0,15, ao volume corrente (0,402 ± 0,07 versus 0,342 ± 0,10 L, p = 0,13, bem como às medidas de pressão PI máx (84,29 ± 24,99 versus 93,13 ± 16,76 cmH2O, p = 0,24 e PE máx (102,2 ± 29,26 versus 105 ± 17,32 cmH2O, p = 0,42. CONCLUSÃO:Este estudo pareceu demonstrar que os volumes pulmonares são mantidos em pacientes com espondilite anquilosante que realizam atividade física regular.Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory condition which causes restriction in the lung function due to column joint alterations leading

  20. The effect of irradiation on lung function and perfusion in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abratt, Raymond P.; Willcox, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively study the changes in lung function in patients with lung carcinoma treated with relatively high doses of irradiation. Methods and Materials: Lung function was assessed prior to and at 6 and 12 months following radiation therapy by a clinical dyspnea score, formal pulmonary function tests (lung volume spirometry and diffusion capacity) as well as an ipsilateral hemithorax lung perfusion scan. Changes in dyspnea score were evaluated by the chi-square and the Fishers exact test. Changes in formal lung function tests were compared with the t-test for dependent data and correlations with the t-test for independent data. Fifty-one patients were entered into the study. There were 42 evaluable patients at 6 months after irradiation and 22 evaluable patients at 12 months after irradiation. Results: A worsening of dyspnea score from 1 to 2, which is clinically acceptable, occurred in 50% or more of patients. However, a dyspnea score of 3, which is a serious complication, developed in only 5% of patients. The diffusion capacity (DLCO) decreased by 14% at 6 months and 12% at 12 months) (p < 0.0001). The forced vital capacity and total lung capacity decreased between 6% and 8% at 6 month and 12 months, which was statistically significant. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased between 2 and 3% at 6 month and 12 months, which was not statistically significant. The ipsilateral hemithorax perfusion decreased by 17 and 20% at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between the initial hemithorax perfusion, or its decrease at follow up and the decrease in DLCO. Conclusion: Lung irradiation results in some loss of lung function in patients with lung cancer with a projected survival of 6 months or more. The pretreatment DLCO assessment should be useful in predicting clinical tolerance to irradiation

  1. Relationship between radiation dose and lung function in patients with lung cancer receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsaker, V.; Dale, E.; Bruland, O.S.; Olsen, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    In patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radical radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. The dose is limited by consequential pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. Hence, a better understanding of the relationship between the dose-volume distributions and normal tissue side effects is needed. CT is a non-invasive method to monitor the development of fibrosis and pneumonitis, and spirometry is an established tool to measure lung function. NSCLC patients were included in a multicenter trial and treated with megavoltage conformal radiotherapy. In a subgroup comprising 16 patients, a total dose of 59-63 Gy with 1.8-1.9 Gy per fraction was given. Dose-volume histograms were calculated and corrected according to the linear-quadratic formula using alpha/beta=3 Gy. The patients underwent repetitive CT examinations (mean follow-up, 133 days) following radiotherapy, and pre and post treatment spirometry (mean follow-up, 240 days). A significant correlation was demonstrated between local lung dose and changes in CT numbers >30 days after treatment (p 40 Gy Gy there was a sudden increase in CT numbers at 70-90 days. Somewhat unexpectedly, the highest mean lung doses were found in patients with the least reductions in lung function (peak expiratory flow; p<0.001). The correlation between CT numbers, radiation dose and time after treatment show that CT may be used to monitor development of lung fibrosis/pneumonitis after radiotherapy for lung cancer. Paradoxically, the patients with the highest mean lung doses experienced the minimum deterioration of lung function. This may be explained by reduction in the volume of existing tumour masses obstructing the airways, leading to relief of symptoms. This finding stresses the role of radiotherapy for lung cancer, especially where the treatment aim is palliative

  2. Leptin receptor polymorphisms and lung function decline in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Hansel, N.N.; Gao, L.; Rafaels, N.M.; Mathias, R.A.; Neptune, E.R.; Tankersley, C.; Grant, A.V.; Connett, J.; Beaty, T.H.; Wise, R.A.; Barnes, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    Only a fraction of all smokers develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), suggesting a large role for genetic susceptibility. The leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in human lung tissue and may play a role in COPD pathogenesis. The present study examined the association between genetic variants in the LEPR gene and lung function decline in COPD.

  3. Lung Function Profiles among Individuals with Nonmalignant Asbestos-related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Kee Park

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Lung function measurement differs in individuals with different ARDs. Monitoring of lung function among asbestos-exposed populations is a simple means of facilitating earlier interventions.

  4. Prediction of postoperative lung function after pulmonary resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    Lung scintigraphy and ordinary lung function test as well as split lung function test by using bronchospirometry was performed in 78 patients with primary lung cancer and clinical significance of ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy was evaluated. Results obtained from this study are as follows. 1) The ratio of right VC to total VC obtained by preoperative bronchospirometry was well correlated to the ratio of right lung count to the total lung count obtained by ventiration and/or perfusion scintigraphy (r = 0.84, r = 0.69). 2) Evaluation of the data obtained from the patients undergoing pneumonectomy indicated that the right and left VC obtained preoperatively by bronchospirometry have their clinical significance only in the form of left to right ratio not in the form their absolure value. 3) As to the reliability of predicting the residual vital capacity after pneumonectomy on the basis of left-to-right of lung scintigraphy, ventilation scintigraphy is more reliable than perfusion scintigraphy. 4) Irrespective of using ventilation scintigraphy or perfusion scintigraphy, Ali's formular showed high reliability in predicting the residual vital capacity as well as FEV 1.0 after lobectomy. 5) Reduction of the perfusion rate in the operated side of the lung is more marked than of the ventilation rate, resulting in a significant elevation of ventilation/perfusion ratio of the operated side of the lung. From the results descrived above, it can be said that lung ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy are very useful method to predict the residual lung function as well as the change of ventilation/perfusion ratio after pulmonary resection. (author)

  5. Coexistent genetic alterations involving ALK, RET, ROS1 or MET in 15 cases of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenya; Zhang, Jianjun; Lu, Xinyan; Wang, Wei; Chen, Hui; Robinson, Melissa K; Cheng, Joanne; Tang, Guilin; Medeiros, L Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    In lung cancer, targetable activating alterations in cancer genes, such as EGFR, ALK, RET, ROS1 and MET, are usually mutually exclusive. Rare lung cancer cases with coexistent alterations of EGFR and ALK or EGFR mutations with RET or ROS1 rearrangements have been reported. In this study, we report 15 patients (3 men and 12 women; 14 Caucasians and 1 African American) with ages ranging from 43 to 81 years (median 60 years) with lung adenocarcinoma in which coexistent alterations of two cancer-associated genes, including ALK, ROS1, or RET rearrangement or MET amplification were present. The combination of alterations detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization included ALK combined with ROS1 (n=4), ALK with MET (n=3), ALK with RET (n=1); RET with MET (n=4), RET with ROS1 (n=2), and ROS1 combined with MET (n=1). The frequencies of involvement were similar for all 4 genes, 53% for both ALK and MET (n=8), 47% for both RET and ROS1 (n=7). Activating gene mutations were also detected by next-generation sequencing for TP53 (n=6), EGFR (n=5), KRAS (n=3) and STK11 (n=2). Nine patients reported a smoking history (8 heavy and 1 light) and 6 patients were non-smokers. These findings suggest the need for assessing a panel of genes in lung cancer. Since targetable agents are available for each of these activating alterations, treatment with more than one targeted agent may be beneficial for this rare group of patients.

  6. Early COPD patients with lung hyperinflation associated with poorer lung function but better bronchodilator responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chunlan Chen,* Wenhua Jian,* Yi Gao, Yanqing Xie, Yan Song, Jinping Zheng State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, China National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: It is unknown whether aggressive medication strategies should be used for early COPD with or without lung hyperinflation. We aimed to explore the characteristics and bronchodilator responsiveness of early COPD patients (stages I and II with/without lung hyperinflation.Methods: Four hundred and six patients with COPD who performed both lung volume and bronchodilation tests were retrospectively analyzed. Residual volume to total lung capacity >120% of predicted values indicated lung hyperinflation. The characteristics and bronchodilator responsiveness were compared between the patients with and without lung hyperinflation across all stages of COPD.Results: The percentages of patients with lung hyperinflation were 72.7% in the entire cohort, 19.4% in stage I, 68.5% in stage II, 95.3% in stage III, and 100.0% in stage IV. The patients with lung hyperinflation exhibited poorer lung function but better bronchodilator responsiveness of both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity than those without lung hyperinflation during early COPD (t=2.21–5.70, P=0.000–0.029, especially in stage I, while age, body mass index, smoking status, smoking history, and disease duration were similar between the two subgroups in the same stages. From stages I to IV of subgroups with lung hyperinflation, stage I patients had the best bronchodilator responsiveness. Use of bronchodilator responsiveness of forced vital capacity to detect the presence of lung hyperinflation in COPD patients showed relatively high sensitivities (69.5%–75.3% and specificities (70.3%

  7. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feed News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...

  8. Acute Lung Function Response to Dust in Street Sweepers

    OpenAIRE

    Johncy S., Smilee; G., Dhanyakumar; Samuel T., Vivian; K.T., Ajay; Bondade, Suresh Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sweepers are chronically exposed to dust raised during sweeping. Dust is regarded as the most influential agent and it is perceived as a frequent cause of respiratory system illness and may cause acute and chronic lung function impairment.

  9. Multiple image x-radiography for functional lung imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulakh, G. K.; Mann, A.; Belev, G.; Wiebe, S.; Kuebler, W. M.; Singh, B.; Chapman, D.

    2018-01-01

    Detection and visualization of lung tissue structures is impaired by predominance of air. However, by using synchrotron x-rays, refraction of x-rays at the interface of tissue and air can be utilized to generate contrast which may in turn enable quantification of lung optical properties. We utilized multiple image radiography, a variant of diffraction enhanced imaging, at the Canadian light source to quantify changes in unique x-ray optical properties of lungs, namely attenuation, refraction and ultra small-angle scatter (USAXS or width) contrast ratios as a function of lung orientation in free-breathing or respiratory-gated mice before and after intra-nasal bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) instillation. The lung ultra small-angle scatter and attenuation contrast ratios were significantly higher 9 h post lipopolysaccharide instillation compared to saline treatment whereas the refraction contrast decreased in magnitude. In ventilated mice, end-expiratory pressures result in an increase in ultra small-angle scatter contrast ratio when compared to end-inspiratory pressures. There were no detectable changes in lung attenuation or refraction contrast ratio with change in lung pressure alone. In effect, multiple image radiography can be applied towards following optical properties of lung air-tissue barrier over time during pathologies such as acute lung injury.

  10. Regional Lung Function Profiles of Stage I and III Lung Cancer Patients: An Evaluation for Functional Avoidance Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Waxweiller, Timothy; Koo, Phillip; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Rusthoven, Chad; Gaspar, Laurie; Kavanagh, Brian; Miften, Moyed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The development of clinical trials is underway to use 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging to preferentially spare functional lung in patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to generate data to aide with clinical trial design by retrospectively characterizing dosimetric and functional profiles for patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 118 lung cancer patients (36% stage I and 64% stage III) from 2 institutions were used for the study. A 4DCT-ventilation map was calculated using the patient's 4DCT imaging, deformable image registration, and a density-change–based algorithm. To assess each patient's spatial ventilation profile both quantitative and qualitative metrics were developed, including an observer-based defect observation and metrics based on the ventilation in each lung third. For each patient we used the clinical doses to calculate functionally weighted mean lung doses and metrics that assessed the interplay between the spatial location of the dose and high-functioning lung. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative metrics revealed a significant difference in functional profiles between the 2 stage groups (P<.01). We determined that 65% of stage III and 28% of stage I patients had ventilation defects. Average functionally weighted mean lung dose was 19.6 Gy and 5.4 Gy for stage III and I patients, respectively, with both groups containing patients with large spatial overlap between dose and high-function regions. Conclusion: Our 118-patient retrospective study found that 65% of stage III patients have regionally variant ventilation profiles that are suitable for functional avoidance. Our results suggest that regardless of disease stage, it is possible to have unique spatial interplay between dose and high-functional lung, highlighting the importance of evaluating the function of each patient and developing a personalized functional

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of respiratory movement and lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetzlaff, R.; Eichinger, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lung function measurements are the domain of spirometry or plethysmography. These methods have proven their value in clinical practice, nevertheless, being global measurements the functional indices only describe the sum of all functional units of the lung. Impairment of only a single component of the respiratory pump or of a small part of lung parenchyma can be compensated by unaffected lung tissue. Dynamic imaging can help to detect such local changes and lead to earlier adapted therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seems to be perfect for this application as it is not hampered by image distortion as is projection radiography and it does not expose the patient to potentially harmful radiation like computed tomography. Unfortunately, lung parenchyma is not easy to image using MRI due to its low signal intensity. For this reason first applications of MRI in lung function measurements concentrated on the movement of the thoracic wall and the diaphragm. Recent technical advances in MRI however might allow measurements of regional dynamics of the lungs. (orig.) [de

  12. Respiratory Disease following Viral Lung Infection Alters the Murine Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen T. Groves

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have profound effects on human health. Consequently, there is great interest in identifying, characterizing, and understanding factors that initiate these changes. Despite their high prevalence, studies have only recently begun to investigate how viral lung infections have an impact on the gut microbiota. There is also considerable interest in whether the gut microbiota could be manipulated during vaccination to improve efficacy. In this highly controlled study, we aimed to establish the effect of viral lung infection on gut microbiota composition and the gut environment using mouse models of common respiratory pathogens respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and influenza virus. This was then compared to the effect of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV vaccination. Both RSV and influenza virus infection resulted in significantly altered gut microbiota diversity, with an increase in Bacteroidetes and a concomitant decrease in Firmicutes phyla abundance. Although the increase in the Bacteroidetes phylum was consistent across several experiments, differences were observed at the family and operational taxonomic unit level. This suggests a change in gut conditions after viral lung infection that favors Bacteroidetes outgrowth but not individual families. No change in gut microbiota composition was observed after LAIV vaccination, suggesting that the driver of gut microbiota change is specific to live viral infection. Viral lung infections also resulted in an increase in fecal lipocalin-2, suggesting low-grade gut inflammation, and colonic Muc5ac levels. Owing to the important role that mucus plays in the gut environment, this may explain the changes in microbiota composition observed. This study demonstrates that the gut microbiota and the gut environment are altered following viral lung infections and that these changes are not observed during vaccination. Whether increased mucin levels and gut

  13. Respiratory Disease following Viral Lung Infection Alters the Murine Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Helen T.; Cuthbertson, Leah; James, Phillip; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Cox, Michael J.; Tregoning, John S.

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have profound effects on human health. Consequently, there is great interest in identifying, characterizing, and understanding factors that initiate these changes. Despite their high prevalence, studies have only recently begun to investigate how viral lung infections have an impact on the gut microbiota. There is also considerable interest in whether the gut microbiota could be manipulated during vaccination to improve efficacy. In this highly controlled study, we aimed to establish the effect of viral lung infection on gut microbiota composition and the gut environment using mouse models of common respiratory pathogens respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus. This was then compared to the effect of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccination. Both RSV and influenza virus infection resulted in significantly altered gut microbiota diversity, with an increase in Bacteroidetes and a concomitant decrease in Firmicutes phyla abundance. Although the increase in the Bacteroidetes phylum was consistent across several experiments, differences were observed at the family and operational taxonomic unit level. This suggests a change in gut conditions after viral lung infection that favors Bacteroidetes outgrowth but not individual families. No change in gut microbiota composition was observed after LAIV vaccination, suggesting that the driver of gut microbiota change is specific to live viral infection. Viral lung infections also resulted in an increase in fecal lipocalin-2, suggesting low-grade gut inflammation, and colonic Muc5ac levels. Owing to the important role that mucus plays in the gut environment, this may explain the changes in microbiota composition observed. This study demonstrates that the gut microbiota and the gut environment are altered following viral lung infections and that these changes are not observed during vaccination. Whether increased mucin levels and gut inflammation drive

  14. Alcohol Exposure Alters Mouse Lung Inflammation in Response to Inhaled Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Poole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC, elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2–4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability

  15. Shared Gene Expression Alterations in Nasal and Bronchial Epithelium for Lung Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We previously derived and validated a bronchial epithelial gene expression biomarker to detect lung cancer in current and former smokers. Given that bronchial and nasal epithelial gene expression are similarly altered by cigarette smoke exposure, we sought to determine if cancer-associated gene expression might also be detectable in the more readily accessible nasal epithelium. Nasal epithelial brushings were prospectively collected from current and former smokers undergoing diagnostic evaluation for pulmonary lesions suspicious for lung cancer in the AEGIS-1 (n = 375) and AEGIS-2 (n = 130) clinical trials and gene expression profiled using microarrays. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified 535 genes that were differentially expressed in the nasal epithelium of AEGIS-1 patients diagnosed with lung cancer vs those with benign disease after one year of follow-up ( P  cancer-associated gene expression alterations between the two airway sites ( P  lung cancer classifier derived in the AEGIS-1 cohort that combined clinical factors (age, smoking status, time since quit, mass size) and nasal gene expression (30 genes) had statistically significantly higher area under the curve (0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74 to 0.89, P  = .01) and sensitivity (0.91; 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.97, P  = .03) than a clinical-factor only model in independent samples from the AEGIS-2 cohort. These results support that the airway epithelial field of lung cancer-associated injury in ever smokers extends to the nose and demonstrates the potential of using nasal gene expression as a noninvasive biomarker for lung cancer detection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. PM2.5-induced alterations of cell cycle associated gene expression in lung cancer cells and rat lung tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Yang, Biao; Xu, Jia; Chen, Dong-Mei; Xiao, Chun-Ling

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression of cell cycle-associated genes induced by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in lung cancer cell line and tissues. The pulmonary lymph node metastasis cells (H292) were treated with PM 2.5 in vitro. Wistar rats were used to perform an in vivo study. Rats were randomly assigned to experiment and control groups and those in the experiment group were exposed to PM 2.5 once every 15 d, while those in the control group were exposed to normal saline. The cell cycle-associated genes expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Trachea and lung tissues of rats were processed for scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examinations. Exposure of H292 cells to PM 2.5 dramatically increased the expressions of p53 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) after 24h of exposure (pcell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) and cyclin B after 48h of exposure (p<0.01), while those genes expressions were significantly reduced after 72h of exposure, at which time the expression of p21 was predominant (p<0.01). In vivo studies further demonstrated these results. The results of SEM suggested that both of the trachea and lung tissues were damaged and the degree of damage was time-dependent. In conclusion, PM 2.5 can induce significantly alterations of p53 and CDK2 in the early phase, Cdc2 and cyclin B in mid-term and p21 in long-term exposure. The degree of PM 2.5 -induced damage to the trachea and lung tissue was time-dependent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Abnormal lung function at preschool age - asthma in adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, Katariina; Kalliola, Satu; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne; Sarna, Seppo; Malmberg, L Pekka; Pelkonen, Anna S; Mäkelä, Mika J

    2018-03-06

    Asthma often begins early in childhood. However, the risk for persistence is challenging to evaluate. This longitudinal study relates lung function assessed with impulse oscillometry (IOS) in preschool children to asthma in adolescence. Lung function was measured with IOS in 255 children with asthma-like symptoms aged 4-7 years. Baseline measurements were followed by exercise challenge and bronchodilation tests. At age 12-16 years, 121 children participated in the follow-up visit, when lung function was assessed with spirometry, followed by a bronchodilation test. Asthma symptoms and medication were recorded by a questionnaire and atopy defined by skin prick tests. Abnormal baseline values in preschool IOS were significantly associated with low lung function, the need for asthma medication, and asthma symptoms in adolescence. Preschool abnormal R5 at baseline (z-score ≥1.645 SD) showed 9.2 odds ratio (95%CI 2.7;31.7) for abnormal FEV1/FVC, use of asthma medication in adolescence, and 9.9 odds ratio (95%CI 2.9;34.4) for asthma symptoms. Positive exercise challenge and modified asthma-predictive index at preschool age predicted asthma symptoms and the need for asthma medication, but not abnormal lung function at teenage. Abnormal preschool IOS is associated with asthma and poor lung function in adolescence and might be utilised for identification of asthma persistence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function as predictors of mortality in the Lung Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Guzman Enrique

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is supposed to be classified on the basis of post-bronchodilator lung function. Most longitudinal studies of COPD, though, do not have post-bronchodilator lung function available. We used pre-and post bronchodilator lung function data from the Lung Health Study to determine whether these measures differ in their ability to predict mortality. Methods We limited our analysis to subjects who were of black or white race, on whom we had complete data, and who participated at either the 1 year or the 5 year follow-up visit. We classified subjects based on their baseline lung function, according to COPD Classification criteria using both pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function. We conducted a survival analysis and logistic regression predicting death and controlling for age, sex, race, treatment group, smoking status, and measures of lung function (either pre- or post-bronchodilator. We calculated hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI and also calculated area under the curve for the logistic regression models. Results By year 15 of the study, 721 of the original 5,887 study subjects had died. In the year 1 sample survival models, a higher FEV1 % predicted lower mortality in both the pre-bronchodilator (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81, 0.94 per 10% increase and post-bronchodilator (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77, 0.90 models. The area under the curve for the respective models was 69.2% and 69.4%. Similarly, using categories, when compared to people with "normal" lung function, subjects with Stage 3 or 4 disease had similar mortality in both the pre- (HR 1.51, 95% CI 0.75, 3.03 and post-bronchodilator (HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.41, 5.15 models. In the year 5 sample, when a larger proportion of subjects had Stage 3 or 4 disease (6.4% in the pre-bronchodilator group, mortality was significantly increased in both the pre- (HR 2.68, 95% CI 1.51, 4.75 and post-bronchodilator (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.63, 3

  19. Ablation of p120-Catenin Altering the Activity of Small GTPase in Human Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan LIU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective p120-catenin (p120ctn, a member of the Armadillo gene family, has emerged as an important modulator of small GTPase activities. Therefore, it plays novel roles in tumor malignant phenotype, such as invasion and metastasis, whose mechanism are not well clarified yet. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of p120ctn on the regulation of small GTP family members in lung cancer and the effects to lung cancer invasions andmetastasis. Methods After p120ctn was knocked down by siRNA, in vivo and in vitro analysis was applied to investigate the role and possible mechanism of p120ctn in lung cancer, such as Western Blot, pull-down analysis, and nude mice models. Results p120ctn depletion inactivated RhoA, with the the activity of Cdc42 and Rac1 increased, the invasiveness of lung cancer cells was promoted both in vitro and in vivo . Conclusion p120ctn gene knockdown enhances the metastasis of lung cancer cells, probably by altering expression of small GTPase, such as inactivation of RhoA and activation of Cdc42/Rac1.

  20. Genetic variants affecting cross-sectional lung function in adults show little or no effect on longitudinal lung function decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Catherine; Soler Artigas, María; Hui, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    across eight time points). A mixed model was fitted and weighted risk scores were calculated for the joint effect of 26 known regions on baseline and longitudinal changes in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Potential additional regions of interest were identified and followed up in two independent cohorts. RESULTS......: The 26 regions previously associated with cross-sectional lung function jointly showed a strong effect on baseline lung function (p=4.44×10-16 for FEV1/FVC) but no effect on longitudinal decline (p=0.160 for FEV1/FVC). This was replicated in an independent cohort. 39 additional regions of interest (48...... variants) were identified; these associations were not replicated in two further cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Previously identified genetic variants jointly have a strong effect on cross-sectional lung function in adults but little or no effect on the rate of decline of lung function. It is possible...

  1. Functional outcomes after lung transplant in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón Navarro, José; de Aguiar Quevedo, Karol; Ansótegui Barrera, Emilio; Jordá Aragón, Carlos; Peñalver Cuesta, Juan Carlos; Mancheño Franch, Nuria; Vera Sempere, Francisco José; Padilla Alarcón, Jose

    2015-03-01

    Lung transplantation (LT) is a therapeutic option with controversial results in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to analyze the outcomes of transplantation in terms of lung function and to identify prognostic factors. A retrospective analysis of 107 patients with COPD receiving lung transplants in the La Fe Hospital between 1991 and 2008 was performed. Preoperative variables, pulmonary function tests before and after LT, surgical procedure variables and long-term monitoring, expressed as mean or percentage, as applicable, were analyzed. Spirometric results before and after LT were analyzed. Linear or logistic regression were used for multivariate analysis depending on the variable. Ninety-four men (87.9%) and 13 women (12.1%) were transplanted, with a mean age±standard deviation of 52.58±8.05 years; 71% of LTs were double-lung transplantations. Spirometric values improved after LT: FVC: +1.22L (+34.9%), FEV1: +1.66L (+56.7%) and FEF25-75: +1.85L (+50.8%); P=.001. This functional improvement was maintained after 5 years only in the group with BODE score >7 (P=.001). Recipient height, type of LT, use of extracorporeal circulation during the surgical procedure, presence of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and the age and cause of death of the donor significantly influenced lung function over time. LT improves lung function in COPD patients. This improvement was maintained at 5years only in patients with BODE>7. Double lung transplantation provides better functional results than single-lung transplantation. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of ambient air particulate exposure on blood-gas barrier permeability and lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mortensen, Jann; Møller, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of pulmonary diseases and detrimental outcomes related to the cardiovascular system, including altered vessel functions. This study's objective was too evaluate the effects of ambient particle exposure on the blood-gas permeability, lung.......5-15.8 microg/m(3) PM(10-2.5)) or filtered (91-542 particles/cm(3)) air collected above a busy street. The clearance rate of aerosolized (99m)Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) was measured as an index for the alveolar epithelial membrane integrity and permeability of the lung blood......-gas barrier after rush-hour exposure. Lung function was assessed using body plethysmography, flow-volume curves, and measurements of the diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide. CC16 was measured in plasma and urine as another marker of alveolar integrity. Particulate matter exposure had no significant effect...

  3. Functional lung imaging during HFV in preterm rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Thurgood

    Full Text Available Although high frequency ventilation (HFV is an effective mode of ventilation, there is limited information available in regard to lung dynamics during HFV. To improve the knowledge of lung function during HFV we have developed a novel lung imaging and analysis technique. The technique can determine complex lung motion information in vivo with a temporal resolution capable of observing HFV dynamics. Using high-speed synchrotron based phase contrast X-ray imaging and cross-correlation analysis, this method is capable of recording data in more than 60 independent regions across a preterm rabbit lung in excess of 300 frames per second (fps. This technique is utilised to determine regional intra-breath lung mechanics of preterm rabbit pups during HFV. Whilst ventilated at fixed pressures, each animal was ventilated at frequencies of 1, 3, 5 and 10 Hz. A 50% decrease in delivered tidal volume was measured at 10 Hz compared to 1 Hz, yet at the higher frequency a 500% increase in minute activity was measured. Additionally, HFV induced greater homogeneity of lung expansion activity suggesting this ventilation strategy potentially minimizes tissue damage and improves gas mixing. The development of this technique permits greater insight and further research into lung mechanics and may have implications for the improvement of ventilation strategies used to support severe pulmonary trauma and disease.

  4. FGFR gene alterations in lung squamous cell carcinoma are potential targets for the multikinase inhibitor nintedanib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibi, Masaaki; Kaneda, Hiroyasu; Tanizaki, Junko; Sakai, Kazuko; Togashi, Yosuke; Terashima, Masato; De Velasco, Marco Antonio; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Banno, Eri; Nakamura, Yu; Takeda, Masayuki; Ito, Akihiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Okamoto, Isamu; Nishio, Kazuto

    2016-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene alterations are relatively frequent in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and are a potential targets for therapy with FGFR inhibitors. However, little is known regarding the clinicopathologic features associated with FGFR alterations. The angiokinase inhibitor nintedanib has shown promising activity in clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer. We have now applied next-generation sequencing (NGS) to characterize FGFR alterations in LSCC patients as well as examined the antitumor activity of nintedanib in LSCC cell lines positive for FGFR1 copy number gain (CNG). The effects of nintedanib on the proliferation of and FGFR signaling in LSCC cell lines were examined in vitro, and its effects on tumor formation were examined in vivo. A total of 75 clinical LSCC specimens were screened for FGFR alterations by NGS. Nintedanib inhibited the proliferation of FGFR1 CNG-positive LSCC cell lines in association with attenuation of the FGFR1-ERK signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. FGFR1 CNG (10.7%), FGFR1 mutation (2.7%), FGFR2 mutation (2.7%), FGFR4 mutation (5.3%), and FGFR3 fusion (1.3%) were detected in LSCC specimens by NGS. Clinicopathologic features did not differ between LSCC patients positive or negative for FGFR alterations. However, among the 36 patients with disease recurrence after surgery, prognosis was significantly worse for those harboring FGFR alterations. Screening for FGFR alterations by NGS warrants further study as a means to identify patients with LSCC recurrence after surgery who might benefit from nintedanib therapy. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  5. Enhanced Heme Function and Mitochondrial Respiration Promote the Progression of Lung Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Maksudul; Shah, Ajit; Cao, Thai M.; Sullivan, Laura A.; Brekken, Rolf; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, and about 85% of the cases are non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Importantly, recent advance in cancer research suggests that altering cancer cell bioenergetics can provide an effective way to target such advanced cancer cells that have acquired mutations in multiple cellular regulators. This study aims to identify bioenergetic alterations in lung cancer cells by directly measuring and comparing key metabolic activities in a pair of cell lines representing normal and NSCLC cells developed from the same patient. We found that the rates of oxygen consumption and heme biosynthesis were intensified in NSCLC cells. Additionally, the NSCLC cells exhibited substantially increased levels in an array of proteins promoting heme synthesis, uptake and function. These proteins include the rate-limiting heme biosynthetic enzyme ALAS, transporter proteins HRG1 and HCP1 that are involved in heme uptake, and various types of oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins such as cytoglobin and cytochromes. Several types of human tumor xenografts also displayed increased levels of such proteins. Furthermore, we found that lowering heme biosynthesis and uptake, like lowering mitochondrial respiration, effectively reduced oxygen consumption, cancer cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. In contrast, lowering heme degradation does not have an effect on lung cancer cells. These results show that increased heme flux and function are a key feature of NSCLC cells. Further, increased generation and supply of heme and oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins in cancer cells will lead to intensified oxygen consumption and cellular energy production by mitochondrial respiration, which would fuel cancer cell proliferation and progression. The results show that inhibiting heme and respiratory function can effectively arrest the progression of lung cancer cells. Hence, understanding heme function can positively impact on research in lung cancer

  6. Effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on the alterations in lung mechanics caused by endotoxemia in the unanesthetized sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Snapper, J R; Hutchison, A A; Ogletree, M L; Brigham, K L

    1983-01-01

    The effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin on lung mechanics, hemodynamics, gas exchange, and lung fluid and solute exchange were studied in 12 chronically instrumented unanesthetized sheep. A possible role for cyclooxygenase products of arachidonate metabolism as mediators of the endotoxin-induced alterations in lung mechanics was investigated by studying sheep before and after cyclooxygenase inhibition with sodium meclofenamate and ibuprofen. Sheep were studied three times in random order: (...

  7. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Avdalovic, M.V. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Hyde, D.M., E-mail: dmhyde@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  8. Cannabidiol improves lung function and inflammation in mice submitted to LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A; Almeida, V I; Costola-de-Souza, C; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Vitoretti, L B; Gimenes-Junior, J A; Akamine, A T; Crippa, J A; Tavares-de-Lima, W; Palermo-Neto, J

    2015-02-01

    We have previously shown that the prophylactic treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) reduces inflammation in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). In this work we analyzed the effects of the therapeutic treatment with CBD in mice subjected to the model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI on pulmonary mechanics and inflammation. CBD (20 and 80 mg/kg) was administered (i.p.) to mice 6 h after LPS-induced lung inflammation. One day (24 h) after the induction of inflammation the assessment of pulmonary mechanics and inflammation were analyzed. The results show that CBD decreased total lung resistance and elastance, leukocyte migration into the lungs, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue, protein concentration and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant. Thus, we conclude that CBD administered therapeutically, i.e. during an ongoing inflammatory process, has a potent anti-inflammatory effect and also improves the lung function in mice submitted to LPS-induced ALI. Therefore the present and previous data suggest that in the future cannabidiol might become a useful therapeutic tool for the attenuation and treatment of inflammatory lung diseases.

  9. Regional differences in prediction models of lung function in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäper Christoph

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the influencing potential of specific characteristics on lung function in different populations. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether lung function determinants differ between subpopulations within Germany and whether prediction equations developed for one subpopulation are also adequate for another subpopulation. Methods Within three studies (KORA C, SHIP-I, ECRHS-I in different areas of Germany 4059 adults performed lung function tests. The available data consisted of forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow rate. For each study multivariate regression models were developed to predict lung function and Bland-Altman plots were established to evaluate the agreement between predicted and measured values. Results The final regression equations for FEV1 and FVC showed adjusted r-square values between 0.65 and 0.75, and for PEF they were between 0.46 and 0.61. In all studies gender, age, height and pack-years were significant determinants, each with a similar effect size. Regarding other predictors there were some, although not statistically significant, differences between the studies. Bland-Altman plots indicated that the regression models for each individual study adequately predict medium (i.e. normal but not extremely high or low lung function values in the whole study population. Conclusions Simple models with gender, age and height explain a substantial part of lung function variance whereas further determinants add less than 5% to the total explained r-squared, at least for FEV1 and FVC. Thus, for different adult subpopulations of Germany one simple model for each lung function measures is still sufficient.

  10. Effects of effluents of coal combustion and gasification upon lung structure and function. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to correlate both structural and functional alterations in cells and tissues of the lung brought about by exposure to fluidized bed combustion and fixed bed gasification effluents and reagent grade oxides of metals known to be associated with coal combustion gasification. Projected milestones are described. Progress during the first year in setting up aerosol exposure facilities, intratracheal instillations, pulmonary mechanics, and morphometric examinations is reported. (DMC)

  11. Hormone and cytokine circadian alteration in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, G; Sothern, R B; Francavilla, M; Giuliani, F; Carughi, S; Muscarella, L A; Fazio, V M; Parrella, P; Vinciguerra, M; Tarquini, R

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in hormone secretion and cytokine levels have been evidenced in many neoplastic diseases. In this study we have evaluated the circadian profile of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), interleukin-2 (IL2), melatonin (MEL) and cortisol (COR) serum levels in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Blood was sampled every 4 h for 24 h in 11 healthy (H) men (ages 35-53 years) and 9 men with stage 2, 3 or 4 non-small cell lung cancer (C) (ages 43-63 years). Serum GH, total IGF1, IL2, MEL and COR were measured and examined for group differences, trends, and rhythm characteristics. 24-h means were significantly higher in C234 vs H for GH, GH/IGF1, IL2 and COR, and lower for IGF1, but IL2 and COR were not different for C23 vs H. A linear regression across 4 groups (H, C2, C3, C4) found a positive trend for COR, GH, GH/IGF1 and IL2, and a negative trend for IGF1. A linear regression run between the 24-h mean levels of GH, IGF1, COR, MEL and IL2 in healthy subjects evidenced a statistically significant positive trend between MEL and GH (R = 0.281, p = 0.022) and in cancer patients showed a statistically significant negative trend between GH and IGF1 (R = 0.332, p = 0.01), COR and IGF1 (R=0.430, p=0.001), and a statistically significant positive trend between the 24-h mean of COR and GH (R = 0.304, p = 0.02). Rhythms in MEL and COR (peaks near 01:00h and 08:00h, respectively) indicated identical synchronization to the light-dark cycle for both groups. A circadian rhythm was detected in GH and GH/IGF1 for C23 and H, with IGF1 and IL2 non-rhythmic in any group. In conclusion, an increasing trend and progressive loss of circadian rhythmicity in GH and GH/IGF1, an increasing trend in cortisol and IL2, and a decreasing trend in IGF1 in C, reflect a complex chain of events that could be involved in progression of neoplastic disease. A therapeutic strategy needs to take into account circadian patterns and complex interactions of the multiple functions

  12. Environmental exposure and altered menstrual function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keye, W.R. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of environmental agents and occupational factors on hypothalamic and pituitary function and menstruation are poorly understood. To date, most research related to environment, occupation, and reproduction has focused on pregnancy outcome, not menstrual function. It is imperative, however, that menstrual function be considered as an outcome variable in the study of reproduction and occupation.

  13. Genetic and Biochemical Alterations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie L. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in the detection and treatment of lung cancer, it causes the highest number of cancer-related mortality. Recent advances in the detection of genetic alterations in patient samples along with physiologically relevant animal models has yielded a new understanding of the molecular etiology of lung cancer. This has facilitated the development of potent and specific targeted therapies, based on the genetic and biochemical alterations present in the tumor, especially non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. It is now clear that heterogeneous cell signaling pathways are disrupted to promote NSCLC, including mutations in critical growth regulatory proteins (K-Ras, EGFR, B-RAF, MEK-1, HER2, MET, EML-4-ALK, KIF5B-RET, and NKX2.1 and inactivation of growth inhibitory pathways (TP53, PTEN, p16, and LKB-1. How these pathways differ between smokers and non-smokers is also important for clinical treatment strategies and development of targeted therapies. This paper describes these molecular targets in NSCLC, and describes the biological significance of each mutation and their potential to act as a therapeutic target.

  14. Computed Tomography Measure of Lung at Risk and Lung Function Decline in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Surya P; Bodduluri, Sandeep; Hoffman, Eric A; Newell, John D; Sieren, Jessica C; Dransfield, Mark T; Reinhardt, Joseph M

    2017-09-01

    The rate of decline of lung function is greater than age-related change in a substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, even after smoking cessation. Regions of the lung adjacent to emphysematous areas are subject to abnormal stretch during respiration, and this biomechanical stress likely influences emphysema initiation and progression. To assess whether quantifying this penumbra of lung at risk would predict FEV 1 decline. We analyzed paired inspiratory-expiratory computed tomography images at baseline of 680 subjects participating in a large multicenter study (COPDGene) over approximately 5 years. By matching inspiratory and expiratory images voxel by voxel using image registration, we calculated the Jacobian determinant, a measure of local lung expansion and contraction with respiration. We measured the distance between each normal voxel to the nearest emphysematous voxel, and quantified the percentage of normal voxels within each millimeter distance from emphysematous voxels as mechanically affected lung (MAL). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between the Jacobian determinant, MAL, and FEV 1 decline. The mean (SD) rate of decline in FEV 1 was 39.0 (58.6) ml/yr. There was a progressive decrease in the mean Jacobian determinant of both emphysematous and normal voxels with increasing disease stage (P < 0.001). On multivariable analyses, the mean Jacobian determinant of normal voxels within 2 mm of emphysematous voxels (MAL 2 ) was significantly associated with FEV 1 decline. In mild-moderate disease, for participants at or above the median MAL 2 (threshold, 36.9%), the mean decline in FEV 1 was 56.4 (68.0) ml/yr versus 43.2 (59.9) ml/yr for those below the median (P = 0.044). Areas of normal-appearing lung are mechanically influenced by emphysematous areas and this lung at risk is associated with lung function decline. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT

  15. Lung function imaging methods in Cystic Fibrosis pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, Magdalena; de Veer, Michael J; Cholewa, Marian; Egan, Gary F; Thompson, Bruce R

    2017-05-17

    Monitoring of pulmonary physiology is fundamental to the clinical management of patients with Cystic Fibrosis. The current standard clinical practise uses spirometry to assess lung function which delivers a clinically relevant functional readout of total lung function, however does not supply any visible or localised information. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is a well-established current 'gold standard' method for monitoring lung anatomical changes in Cystic Fibrosis patients. HRCT provides excellent morphological information, however, the X-ray radiation dose can become significant if multiple scans are required to monitor chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis. X-ray phase-contrast imaging is another emerging X-ray based methodology for Cystic Fibrosis lung assessment which provides dynamic morphological and functional information, albeit with even higher X-ray doses than HRCT. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-ionising radiation imaging method that is garnering growing interest among researchers and clinicians working with Cystic Fibrosis patients. Recent advances in MRI have opened up the possibilities to observe lung function in real time to potentially allow sensitive and accurate assessment of disease progression. The use of hyperpolarized gas or non-contrast enhanced MRI can be tailored to clinical needs. While MRI offers significant promise it still suffers from poor spatial resolution and the development of an objective scoring system especially for ventilation assessment.

  16. Role of lung perfusion scintigraphy in predicting post-operative lung function in lung cancer patients undergoing pneumonectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Sujith; Shah, S.; Purandare, N.C.; Pramesh, C.S.; George, K.; Rangarajan, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Surgery has been the mainstay of treatment for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer. There is an increased risk of postoperative complications, especially in patients with poor respiratory reserve, with pneumonectomy resulting in an unacceptable quality of life. The high risk of morbidity and mortality makes it mandatory to triage patients with anatomically resectable disease as suitable candidates for surgery. Aim: 1. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the role of lung perfusion scan in predicting postoperative lung function in lung cancer patients undergoing pneumonectomy based on the pre-operative Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1). 2. The predicted post-operative FEV1 will be compared with the patient's lung function clinically based on a) number of days patient was on ventilation post-operatively, b) post-op respiratory complications/lung collapse. Materials and Methods: Imaging was done on Infinia Hawkeye (GE) dual headed gamma camera on 30 patients of lung cancer undergoing Pneumonectomy. Patients were injected 5 mCi of 99m Tc-MAA and planar and tomographic images were obtained. A predicted postoperative value of FEV1 was calculated by the formula: postop predicted FEV1 = preop FEV1 - (FEV1 % contribution by affected lung/100). Patient's post-operative FEV1 was calculated for pneumonectomy. Patient was observed post-operatively and the following parameters were noted 1) Number of days patient was on ventilation post-operatively 2) Post-operative respiratory complications/lung collapse Pre-operative PFT's and 99m Tc-MAA lung perfusion scan was done on 30 patients (mean age 45 yrs, range 18-64 yrs) and lung function in 1st week post-pneumonectomy based on their number of days on ventilation post-operatively and respiratory complications/lung collapse was noted. Result: 1) 20 patients underwent left pneumonectomy, 10 patients underwent right Pneumonectomy. 2) Predicted FEV1 for pneumonectomy patients was (mean ± SD 1.49

  17. In Utero Cigarette Smoke Affects Allergic Airway Disease But Does Not Alter the Lung Methylome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Eyring

    Full Text Available Prenatal and postnatal cigarette smoke exposure enhances the risk of developing asthma. Despite this as well as other smoking related risks, 11% of women still smoke during pregnancy. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal development generates long lasting differential methylation altering transcriptional activity that correlates with disease. In a house dust mite (HDM model of allergic airway disease, we measured airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and airway inflammation between mice exposed prenatally to cigarette smoke (CS or filtered air (FA. DNA methylation and gene expression were then measured in lung tissue. We demonstrate that HDM-treated CS mice develop a more severe allergic airway disease compared to HDM-treated FA mice including increased AHR and airway inflammation. While DNA methylation changes between the two HDM-treated groups failed to reach genome-wide significance, 99 DMRs had an uncorrected p-value < 0.001. 6 of these 99 DMRs were selected for validation, based on the immune function of adjacent genes, and only 2 of the 6 DMRs confirmed the bisulfite sequencing data. Additionally, genes near these 6 DMRs (Lif, Il27ra, Tle4, Ptk7, Nfatc2, and Runx3 are differentially expressed between HDM-treated CS mice and HDM-treated FA mice. Our findings confirm that prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is sufficient to modify allergic airway disease; however, it is unlikely that specific methylation changes account for the exposure-response relationship. These findings highlight the important role in utero cigarette smoke exposure plays in the development of allergic airway disease.

  18. Regional lung function (133Xe-radiospirometry) in bronchial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arborelius, M.; Kristersson, S.; Lindell, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    In a prospective study of all patients with bronchial cancer in the city of Malmoe, all patients considered for surgery were examined with regard to overall function (conventional spirometry) and regional lung function (133-Xe-radiospirometry). Out of 116 consecutive cases examined with 133-Xe-radiospirometry before surgery,

  19. Leptin receptor polymorphisms and lung function decline in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, N N; Gao, L; Rafaels, N M; Mathias, R A; Neptune, E R; Tankersley, C; Grant, A V; Connett, J; Beaty, T H; Wise, R A; Barnes, K C

    2009-07-01

    Only a fraction of all smokers develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), suggesting a large role for genetic susceptibility. The leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in human lung tissue and may play a role in COPD pathogenesis. The present study examined the association between genetic variants in the LEPR gene and lung function decline in COPD. In total, 429 European Americans were randomly selected from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Lung Health Study. 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LEPR were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate platform (Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA). Mean annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s % predicted over the 5-yr period was calculated using linear regression. Linear regression models were also used to adjust for potential confounders. In addition, in vivo expression of the receptor gene was assessed with immunohistochemistry on lungs from smoke-exposed inbred mice. We identified significant associations (pCOPD pathogenesis. We identified genetic variants in the LEPR gene significantly associated with lung function decline in a population of smokers with COPD. Our results support a role for LEPR as a novel candidate gene for COPD.

  20. Altered pulmonary defense system in lung injury induced by didecyldimethylammonium chloride in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, Aya; Yoshida, Toshinori; Horiuchi, Haruka; Fukumori, Junko; Tomita, Mariko; Kojima, Sayuri; Takahashi, Naofumi; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Hayashi, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Ohtsuka, Ryoichi; Kashimoto, Yukiko; Kuwahara, Maki; Takeda, Makio; Kosaka, Tadashi; Nakashima, Nobuaki; Harada, Takanori

    2011-07-01

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), a representative dialkyl-quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), could contaminate working atmospheres when used in disinfectant operation and adversely affect human health. Furthermore, the development of bacteria resistant to DDAC might become public health concern. We postulated that DDAC instillation in the lungs alters pulmonary antioxidant and antimicrobial responses and increases susceptibility to systemic administration of a bacterial component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were intratracheally instilled with DDAC and sacrificed 1, 3, or 7 days after treatment. Pulmonary cytotoxicity in recovered bronchoalveolar lavage was evident on Days 1 and 7, and inflammatory cell influx and interleukin-6 expression peaked on Day 7, in association with altered antioxidant and antimicrobial responses, as demonstrated by measuring heme oxygenase-1, glutathione peroxidase 2, lactoferrin, and mouse β-defensin-2 and -3 mRNA in the lung samples. The impaired defense system tended to enhance the inflammatory reaction caused by a systemic administration of LPS; the effect was in association with increased expression of toll-like receptor-4 mRNA. The results suggest that DDAC alters pulmonary defense system, which may contribute to susceptibility to an exogenous infectious agent.

  1. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, lung function and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Lange, Peter; Bojesen, Stig Egil

    2014-01-01

    25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may be associated with lung function through modulation of pulmonary protease-antiprotease imbalance, airway inflammation, lung remodelling and oxidative stress. We examined the association of plasma 25(OH)D levels with lung function, lung function decline and risk o...

  2. Lidocaine Administration Controls MicroRNAs Alterations Observed After Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancan, Lisa; Simón, Carlos; Marchal-Duval, Emmeline; Casanova, Javier; Paredes, Sergio Damian; Calvo, Alberto; García, Cruz; Rincón, David; Turrero, Agustín; Garutti, Ignacio; Vara, Elena

    2016-12-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is associated with morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as regulators of IRI, and they are involved in the pathogenesis of organ rejection. Lidocaine has proven anti-inflammatory activity in several tissues but its modulation of miRNAs has not been investigated. This work aims to investigate the involvement of miRNAs in lung IRI in a lung auto-transplantation model and to investigate the effect of lidocaine. Three groups (sham, control, and Lidocaine), each comprising 6 pigs, underwent a lung autotransplantation. All groups received the same anesthesia. In addition, animals of lidocaine group received a continuous intravenous administration of lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg/h) during surgery. Lung biopsies were taken before pulmonary artery clamp, before reperfusion, 30 minutes postreperfusion (Rp-30), and 60 minutes postreperfusion (Rp-60). Samples were analyzed for different miRNAs (miR-122, miR-145, miR-146a, miR-182, miR-107, miR-192, miR-16, miR-21, miR-126, miR-127, miR142-5p, miR152, miR155, miR-223, and let7) via the use of reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results were normalized with miR-103. The expression of miR-127 and miR-16 did not increase after IRI. Let-7d, miR-21, miR-107, miR-126, miR-145, miR-146a, miR-182, and miR-192 significantly increased at the Rp-60 (control versus sham P lidocaine was able to attenuate these alterations in a significant way (control versus Lidocaine P lidocaine reduced significantly miRNAs alterations.

  3. Acute lung function response to dust in street sweepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johncy S, Smilee; G, Dhanyakumar; Samuel T, Vivian; K T, Ajay; Bondade, Suresh Y

    2013-10-01

    Sweepers are chronically exposed to dust raised during sweeping. Dust is regarded as the most influential agent and it is perceived as a frequent cause of respiratory system illness and may cause acute and chronic lung function impairment. The aim of this study was to determine the acute lung function changes in sweepers exposed to dust generated from street sweeping. This study was conducted in central Karnataka, India, on 25 female sweepers and 25 healthy female control subjects who were comparable in age, height and weight. The pulmonary function test was performed in controls, sweepers before and after sweeping, by using RMS medspiror and results were compared by Student's unpaired 't' test. The results showed a significant reduction in percent predicted values and mean values of FVC, FEV1, PEFR, FEF25-75% and FEF 200-1200 between sweepers and their matched controls. Pulmonary function after sweeping also showed a significant decrease. On comparing the pulmonary functions of sweepers before and after sweeping, it was concluded that inhalation of dust acutely affected the lung function of sweepers in India and that sweepers were at a risk of developing occupation related lung function impairment. We recommend that the workers should use protective face masks and do wet sweeping instead of dry sweeping during sweeping activity.

  4. Menopause Is Associated with Accelerated Lung Function Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebner, Kai; Matulonga, Bobette; Johannessen, Ane; Suske, Sandra; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Demoly, Pascal; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Franklin, Karl A; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gullón Blanco, José Antonio; Heinrich, Joachim; Holm, Mathias; Jarvis, Debbie; Jõgi, Rain; Lindberg, Eva; Moratalla Rovira, Jesús Martínez; Muniozguren Agirre, Nerea; Pin, Isabelle; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Puggini, Luca; Raherison, Chantal; Sánchez-Ramos, José Luis; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sunyer, Jordi; Svanes, Cecilie; Hustad, Steinar; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Gómez Real, Francisco

    2017-04-15

    Menopause is associated with changes in sex hormones, which affect immunity, inflammation, and osteoporosis and may impair lung function. Lung function decline has not previously been investigated in relation to menopause. To study whether lung function decline, assessed by FVC and FEV 1 , is accelerated in women who undergo menopause. The population-based longitudinal European Community Respiratory Health Survey provided serum samples, spirometry, and questionnaire data about respiratory and reproductive health from three study waves (n = 1,438). We measured follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and added information on menstrual patterns to determine menopausal status using latent class analysis. Associations with lung function decline were investigated using linear mixed effects models, adjusting for age, height, weight, pack-years, current smoking, age at completed full-time education, spirometer, and including study center as random effect. Menopausal status was associated with accelerated lung function decline. The adjusted mean FVC decline was increased by -10.2 ml/yr (95% confidence interval [CI], -13.1 to -7.2) in transitional women and -12.5 ml/yr (95% CI, -16.2 to -8.9) in post-menopausal women, compared with women menstruating regularly. The adjusted mean FEV 1 decline increased by -3.8 ml/yr (95% CI, -6.3 to -2.9) in transitional women and -5.2 ml/yr (95% CI, -8.3 to -2.0) in post-menopausal women. Lung function declined more rapidly among transitional and post-menopausal women, in particular for FVC, beyond the expected age change. Clinicians should be aware that respiratory health often deteriorates during reproductive aging.

  5. Updates on functional characterisation of bronchopulmonary dysplasia – the contribution of lung function testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eGreenough

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a chronic lung disease that predominantly affects prematurely born infants. Initially BPD was described in infants who had suffered severe respiratory failure and required high pressure, mechanical ventilation with high concentrations of supplementary oxygen. It now also occurs in very prematurely born infants who initially had minimal or even no signs of lung disease. These differences impact on the nature of the lung function abnormalities suffered by BPD infants, which is also influenced by the criteria used to diagnose BPD and the oxygen saturation level used to determine the supplementary oxygen requirement. Key also to interpreting lung function data in this population is whether appropriate lung function tests have been used and in an adequately sized population to make meaningful conclusions. It should also be emphasised that BPD is a poor predictor of long term respiratory morbidity. Bearing in mind those caveats, studies have consistently demonstrated that infants who develop BPD have low compliance and functional residual capacities and raised resistances in the neonatal period. There is, however, no agreement with regard to which early lung function measurement predicts the development of BPD, likely reflecting different techniques were used in different populations in often underpowered studies. During infancy, lung function generally improves, but importantly airflow limitation persists and small airway function appears to decline. Assessment of lung function has demonstrated that improvements in lung function following diuretics or bronchodilators have not translated into long term improvements in respiratory outcomes. In contrast, early differences in lung function related to different ventilation modes have led to investigation and demonstration that prophylactic, neonatal high frequency oscillation appears to protect small airway function.

  6. CBL is frequently altered in lung cancers: its relationship to mutations in MET and EGFR tyrosine kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Carol Tan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is a heterogeneous group of disorders with a number of genetic and proteomic alterations. c-CBL is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and adaptor molecule important in normal homeostasis and cancer. We determined the genetic variations of c-CBL, relationship to receptor tyrosine kinases (EGFR and MET, and functionality in NSCLC.Using archival formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE extracted genomic DNA, we show that c-CBL mutations occur in somatic fashion for lung cancers. c-CBL mutations were not mutually exclusive of MET or EGFR mutations; however they were independent of p53 and KRAS mutations. In normal/tumor pairwise analysis, there was significant loss of heterozygosity (LOH for the c-CBL locus (22%, n = 8/37 and none of these samples revealed any mutation in the remaining copy of c-CBL. The c-CBL LOH also positively correlated with EGFR and MET mutations observed in the same samples. Using select c-CBL somatic mutations such as S80N/H94Y, Q249E and W802* (obtained from Caucasian, Taiwanese and African-American samples, respectively transfected in NSCLC cell lines, there was increased cell viability and cell motility.Taking the overall mutation rate of c-CBL to be a combination as somatic missense mutation and LOH, it is clear that c-CBL is highly mutated in lung cancers and may play an essential role in lung tumorigenesis and metastasis.

  7. Effects of chemically modified nanostructured PLGA on functioning of lung and breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lijuan Zhang,1 Thomas J Webster21Department of Chemistry, 2School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USABackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanotopographies with alginate or chitosan protein preadsorption on the functioning of healthy and cancerous lung and breast cells, including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, and release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, which promotes tumor angiogenesis and secretion.Methods: We used a well established cast-mold technique to create nanoscale surface features on PLGA. Some of the nanomodified PLGA films were then exposed to alginate and chitosan. Surface roughness and the presence of protein was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Surface energy was quantified by contact angle measurement.Results: Nanostructured PLGA surfaces with 23 nm features decreased synthesis of VEGF in both lung and breast cancer cells compared with conventional PLGA. Preadsorbing alginate further decreased cancer cell function, with nanostructured PLGA preadsorbed with alginate achieving the greatest decrease in synthesis of VEGF in both lung and breast cancer cells. In contrast, compared with nonmodified smooth PLGA, healthy cell functions were either not altered (ie, breast or were enhanced (ie, lung by use of nanostructured features and alginate or chitosan protein preadsorption.Conclusion: Using this technique, we developed surface nanometric roughness and modification of surface chemistry that could selectively decrease breast and lung cancer cell functioning without the need for chemotherapeutics. This technique requires further study in a wide range of anticancer and regenerative medicine applications.Keywords: breast, lung, cancer, nanotechnology, alginate, chitosan

  8. Residential ozone and lung function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Frederiksen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Ground level ozone arises primarily from traffic, it is a powerful oxidant and its primary target organ is the lung. Most epidemiological studies reporting the health effects of ozone have estimated individual exposure from measurements obtained from outdoor monitors but surrogates of personal...... exposure may not adequately reflect personal exposures. Also, the main focus has been on infants and children. Our purpose was to assess associations between urban background ozone and indoor residential ozone levels as well as to investigate the effects of indoor residential ozone on lung function in 51...... elderly non-smokers. Indoor ozone was measured passively in homes, while urban background outdoor ozone was monitored continuously at a fixed monitoring station located on the roof of the 20-m high university H.C. Ørsteds campus building in a park area. Lung function was measured at baseline as well...

  9. Ambient air pollution and children's lung function in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhang, Jinliang

    2009-01-01

    To describe the correlations between ambient air pollutants (TSP, SO(2), NO(x)) and the level of children's lung function (FVC, FEV(1), MMEF) in China. We collected the research articles on ambient air pollution and children's lung function published from 1985 to 2006 and selected 11 articles finally according to the following criteria: (1) Children between the age of 7 and 15 as objects; (2) Local air quality monitoring results were reported; (3) Strict quality control was taken when testing children's lung function; (4) The results were expressed by the average of measured value. Then we analyzed the correlation relationship between the level of ambient air pollutants and children's lung function and compared the effects of ambient air pollutants on children's lung function of boy and girl. The selected articles included the results of 7 cities in China. Among them, the results of 6 cities' studies revealed that the levels of children's lung function were significantly lower in the areas with heavy ambient air pollution than those in the areas with light ambient air pollution. According to the articles, the average levels of TSP were at the range of 0.084 mg/m(3)-0.835 mg/m(3), SO(2) were 0.013 mg/m(3)-0.929 mg/m(3), NO(x) were 0.044 mg/m(3)-0.229 mg/m(3). Correlation analysis showed significant negative correlation between the levels of TSP and SO(2) and children's FVC and FEV(1), as well as the levels of NO(x) and children's MMEF. The correlation coefficient was -0.797 (t=-4.384, P=0.001) between TSP and FVC, -0.693 (t=-4.190, Pair pollution were significantly greater for boy. The levels of ambient air TSP and SO(2) correlated with the damage of the big airway function of children, while NO(x)NO(x) affected the small airway function chiefly. Furthermore, lung function of girl was more susceptible to ambient air pollutants than boy.

  10. Surfactant treatment before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, ME; Petersen, AH; Hofstede, G; Haagsman, HP; Oetomo, SB; Prop, J

    An impaired function of alveolar surfactant can cause lung transplant dysfunction early after reperfusion. In this study it was investigated whether treatment with surfactant before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants and whether an improved transplant function was

  11. Alterations in hypothalamic function following thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, D W; Orcutt, T W; Mason, A D; Pruitt, B A

    1975-08-01

    Nine burn patients with a mean burn size of 39% (range, 23-65%) and five normal individuals studied in an environmental chamber selected optimal comfort temperature by regulating a bedside temperature control unit. The normal individuals selected 27.8 degrees C plus or minus 0.6 (SE) as the comfort temperature and their mean skin temperature was 33.4 plus or minus 0.6 and core temperature 36.9 plus or minus 0.1 while in this environment. In contrast, the burn patients maintained a higher ambient comfort temperature (mean 30.4 plus or minus 0.7, p less than 0.05 when compared to controls) associated with an elevated core (38.4 plus or minus 0.3, p less than 0.01) and surface temperature (35.2 plus or minus 0.4, p less than 0.05). Human growth hormone response to insulin hypoglycemia and arginine infusion was measured in nine additional burn patients (mean burn size, 52%; range, 23-90%) and five normals. Fasting HGH was significantly elevated (1.7 plus or minus 0.2 ng/ml, n = 18, versus control of 0.9 plus or minus 0.1, n = 10, p less than 0.001), despite fasting hyperglycemia in the burn patients (123 plus or minus 5 mg/100 glycemia in the burn patients (123 plus or minus 5 mg/100 ml versus 91 plus or minus 2, p less than 0.001). HGH response to insulin hypoglycemia was diminished in the burn patients with peak HGH value in patients averaging 12.6 ng/ml compared to 27.8 in the recovered patients and 32.6 in the controls (p less than 0.01). Patients receiving an arginine infusion also demonstrated diminished HGH response following injury. The HGH response to known stimuli returned toward normal with time and recovery in the surviving patients. Alterations in comfort temperature, fasting blood glucose, and glucose-HGH interaction occur following thermal trauma. These changes taken together suggest that metabolic responses to injury may be the consequence of homeostatic readjustment within the hypothalamus.

  12. Altered Functional Performance in Patients with Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Isis da Silva; Gamundí, Antoni; Miranda, José G Vivas; França, Lucas G Souza; De Santana, Charles Novaes; Montoya, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a common chronic pain condition that exerts a considerable impact on patients' daily activities and quality of life. Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate kinematic parameters of gait, functional performance, and balance in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods: The study included 26 female patients with fibromyalgia (49.2 ± 8.0 years) according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, as well as 16 pain-free women (43.5 ± 8.5 years). Gait and balance parameters were extracted from video recordings of participants performing several motor tasks. Non-linear dynamic of body sway time series was also analyzed by computing the Hurst exponent. In addition, functional performance and clinical pain were obtained by using standardized motor tests (Berg's balance scale, 6-min walking test, timed up and go task, Romberg's balance test) and self-report questionnaires (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire). Results: Walking speed was significantly diminished ( p cycle frequency ( p assessment of both psychological responses to pain and physical impairments during postural control and gait.

  13. Prolonged recruitment manoeuvre improves lung function with less ultrastructural damage in experimental mild acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzezinski, Andréia F; Oliveira, Gisele P; Santiago, Viviane R; Santos, Raquel S; Ornellas, Debora S; Morales, Marcelo M; Capelozzi, Vera L; Amato, Marcelo B P; Conde, Marcus B; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2009-12-31

    The effects of prolonged recruitment manoeuvre (PRM) were compared with sustained inflation (SI) in paraquat-induced mild acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. Twenty-four hours after ALI induction, rats were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated with VT=6 ml/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)=5 cmH(2)O for 1h. SI was performed with an instantaneous pressure increase of 40 cmH(2)O that was sustained for 40s, while PRM was done by a step-wise increase in positive inspiratory pressure (PIP) of 15-20-25 cmH(2)O above a PEEP of 15 cm H(2)O (maximal PIP=40 cmH(2)O), with interposed periods of PIP=10 cmH(2)O above a PEEP=15 cmH(2)O. Lung static elastance and the amount of alveolar collapse were more reduced with PRM than SI, yielding improved oxygenation. Additionally, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, and type III procollagen mRNA expressions in lung tissue and lung epithelial cell apoptosis decreased more in PRM. In conclusion, PRM improved lung function, with less damage to alveolar epithelium, resulting in reduced pulmonary injury.

  14. Lung function, oxygen saturation and symptoms among street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic inhalation of dust impairs lung function and may cause respiratory symptoms. However, knowledge about the type of dust that can cause these problems is uncertain. Very little attention has been paid to the health of workers chronically exposed to dust raised by street sweeping without precautionary measures.

  15. Assessment of respiratory symptoms and lung function among textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The smokers among the exposed and unexposed workers had significantly lower lung function values than nonsmokers. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms were more prevalent among workers in most dusty sections of the factory. Use of protective mask should be enforced. Workers in the spinning and weaving sections of ...

  16. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training. ... All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity ...

  17. Enhanced Lung Function and Prevention of Peroxidative Damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the effects of vitamin E supplementation on the lung function and lipid peroxidation status of asthmatic children. Fifteen asthmatics (ten male and five female) aged between 6 and 13years, all in a stable state, were recruited from the paediatric out-patient respiratory clinic of the Lagos ...

  18. Lung Function Test in Asthmatics Patients in UBTH: Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-06-30

    This report describes the result of a study on lung function tests on 75 asthmatics seen within a 6-month period (January 1 to June 30, 2004) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria. There was a preponderance of females (60%) to males (40%); The result also showed that a large proportion ...

  19. A Correlation of Symptomatology with Lung Function in Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... How to cite this article: Ajiya A, Salisu AD, Nwaorgu O. A correlation of symptomatology with lung function in patients with allergic rhinosinusitis. Niger J Clin Pract 2017;20:647-51. Access this article online. Quick Response Code: Website: www.njcponline.com. DOI: 10.4103/1119-3077.187321. PMID: XXX.

  20. 79 lung function, oxygen saturation and symptoms among street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Summary: Chronic inhalation of dust impairs lung function and may cause respiratory symptoms. However, knowledge about the type of dust that can cause these problems is uncertain. Very little attention has been paid to the health of workers chronically exposed to dust raised by street sweeping without precautionary ...

  1. The frequency and clinical impact of HER2 alterations in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kyung Kim

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 or ErbB2 can be overexpressed, amplified and/or mutated in malignant tumors, and is a candidate for therapeutic targeting. However, molecular associations and clinical significances of these alterations were controversial in lung cancer. In this study, we investigated the frequency and clinicopathological significance of HER2 dysregulation in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. HER2 protein overexpression, gene amplification, and gene mutation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC, silver in situ hybridization, and direct sequencing, respectively. The H-scoring method and American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists breast cancer guidelines were used to interpret IHC results. Genetic analyses of EGFR and KRAS mutations, and of ALK and ROS1 rearrangements, were also performed. Of the 321 adenocarcinoma patients identified, HER2 overexpression (H-score ≥200 and gene amplification were found in 6 (1.9% and 46 (14.3%, respectively. HER2 overexpression was correlated with papillary predominant histology; furthermore, it indicated poor overall survival and was an independent prognostic factor. HER2 amplification was associated with pleural invasion and showed a tendency towards shorter overall and disease-free survival. High-level gene amplification (HER2/CEP17 ratio ≥5 or copy number ≥10 was a poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival. HER2 mutations were detected in 6.7% (7 of 104 of driver oncogene-negative adenocarcinomas. Our study suggests that HER2 overexpression or amplification is a poor prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma, although the frequency of such events is low. Since molecular targeted agents are being tested in clinical trials, awareness of the specific HER2 status can influence the prognostic stratification and treatment of patients with molecularly defined subsets of lung adenocarcinoma.

  2. Characterizing genomic alterations in cancer by complementary functional associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Botvinnik, Olga B; Abudayyeh, Omar; Birger, Chet; Rosenbluh, Joseph; Shrestha, Yashaswi; Abazeed, Mohamed E; Hammerman, Peter S; DiCara, Daniel; Konieczkowski, David J; Johannessen, Cory M; Liberzon, Arthur; Alizad-Rahvar, Amir Reza; Alexe, Gabriela; Aguirre, Andrew; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Greulich, Heidi; Vazquez, Francisca; Weir, Barbara A; Van Allen, Eliezer M; Tsherniak, Aviad; Shao, Diane D; Zack, Travis I; Noble, Michael; Getz, Gad; Beroukhim, Rameen; Garraway, Levi A; Ardakani, Masoud; Romualdi, Chiara; Sales, Gabriele; Barbie, David A; Boehm, Jesse S; Hahn, William C; Mesirov, Jill P; Tamayo, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Systematic efforts to sequence the cancer genome have identified large numbers of mutations and copy number alterations in human cancers. However, elucidating the functional consequences of these variants, and their interactions to drive or maintain oncogenic states, remains a challenge in cancer research. We developed REVEALER, a computational method that identifies combinations of mutually exclusive genomic alterations correlated with functional phenotypes, such as the activation or gene dependency of oncogenic pathways or sensitivity to a drug treatment. We used REVEALER to uncover complementary genomic alterations associated with the transcriptional activation of β-catenin and NRF2, MEK-inhibitor sensitivity, and KRAS dependency. REVEALER successfully identified both known and new associations, demonstrating the power of combining functional profiles with extensive characterization of genomic alterations in cancer genomes.

  3. Study of regional lung function with xenon 133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, D.; Wagner, R.; Germain, M.; Chardon, G.

    1975-01-01

    Exploration of regional lung function includes study of the closed circuit perfusion and ventilation respectively by injection and inhalation of xenon 133. The radiation is measured across the chest using 4 fixed scintillation counters, placed opposite the subject's back, 2 per lung field. Theoretical regional values using 15 normal young subjects are determined. Three cases justified the practical interest of this method. The percentage of variation for the parameters studied was about 10%. The method proved very useful for the clinician to whom it provides a numerical assessment of regional ventilation and perfusion [fr

  4. Lung perfusion SPECT in predicting postoperative pulmonary function in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yoshiaki; Imaeda, Takeyoshi; Doi, Hidetaka; Kokubo, Mitsuharu; Sakai, Satoshi; Hirose, Hajime

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the availability of preoperative perfusion SPECT in predicting postoperative pulmonary function following resection. Twenty-three patients with lung cancer who were candidates for lobectomy were investigated preoperatively with spirometry, x-ray computed tomography and 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin SPECT. Their postoperative pulmonary functions were predicted with these examinations. The forced vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume in one second were selected as parameters for overall pulmonary function. The postoperative pulmonary function was predicted by the following formula: Predicted postoperative value=observed preoperative value x precent perfusion of the lung not to be resected. The patients were reinvestigated with spirometry at 3 months and 6 months after lobectomy, and the values obtained were statistically compared with the predicted values. Close relationships were found between predicted and observed forced vital capacity (r=0.87, p<0.001), and predicted and observed forced expiratory volume in one second (r=0.90, p<0.001). The accurate prediction of pulmonary function after lobectomy could be achieved by means of lung perfusion SPECT. (author)

  5. Impact of airway obstruction on lung function in very preterm infants at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgendorff, Anne; Reiss, Irwin; Gortner, Ludwig; Schüler, Daniel; Weber, Katrin; Lindemann, Hermann

    2008-11-01

    Morbidity and mortality in preterm infants is significantly determined by the development of pulmonary complications. We thus investigated the impact of obstructive ventilatory disorders on lung function in very preterm infants with a history of respiratory distress syndrome and/or bronchopulmonary dysplasia using repeated body plethysmographic measurements before and after bronchodilation. Lung function, including effective airway resistance (Raw), specific conductance (SGaw), functional residual capacity (FRCbox), and total respiratory system compliance (Crs, multiple occlusion technique) was assessed in 27 preterm infants pound31 wks gestational age at a median postmenstrual age of 38 wks after mild oral sedation before and after inhalation of nebulized salbutamol (1.25 mg/2.5 mL; PARI JuniorBOY N) using the MasterScreen Baby Body (Jaeger, Hoechberg, Germany). In preterm infants median Raw was initially found to be within the normal range as determined for healthy term newborns, but decreased significantly after administration of salbutamol; SGaw changed accordingly. FRCbox was significantly reduced compared with healthy term newborns (16.6 vs. 19.6 mL/kg, mean) and decreased further after bronchodilation, whereas Crs was not significantly altered. This is the first report quantifying the important impact of obstructive ventilatory disorders on lung function in very preterm infants at term. Besides its important role in preterm lung function consecutive overinflation could furthermore be shown to mask reduction of lung volume in these infants. Thus, body plethysmographic measurements seem to be an important diagnostic tool in preterm infants at term before hospital discharge in order to quantify ventilation disorders and to define therapeutic strategies.

  6. A multivariate analysis of serum nutrient levels and lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriette A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting evidence that estimates of intakes of a range of dietary nutrients are related to both lung function level and rate of decline, but far less evidence on the relation between lung function and objective measures of serum levels of individual nutrients. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive examination of the independent associations of a wide range of serum markers of nutritional status with lung function, measured as the one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1. Methods Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US population-based cross-sectional study, we investigated the relation between 21 serum markers of potentially relevant nutrients and FEV1, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Systematic approaches were used to guide the analysis. Results In a mutually adjusted model, higher serum levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, normalized calcium, chloride, and iron were independently associated with higher levels of FEV1. Higher concentrations of potassium and sodium were associated with lower FEV1. Conclusion Maintaining higher serum concentrations of dietary antioxidant vitamins and selenium is potentially beneficial to lung health. In addition other novel associations found in this study merit further investigation.

  7. Deterioration in lung function following hemithorax irradiation for pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maasilta, P.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-four patients receiving high-dose hemithorax irradiation as part of the treatment for pleural mesothelioma were studied with regard to changes in lung function following irradiation, and these changes were correlated with the radiologically-assessed lung injury. The latter was scored from 0 to 500 and found to be severe by 6 months (mean score 360), very severe by 9 months (mean score 430), and nearly total by 12 months (mean score 480) after treatment. Forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity both showed a significant decline at 1.5-2 months following the end of radiotherapy and thereafter up to the end of the 1 year follow-up period. Neither of these variables could be correlated consistently with the radiologically-assessed changes. Hypoxemia and pathological physiological shunting increased transiently 1-2 months after irradiation in 2 of the 6 patients monitored. The observed radiologically-assessed final effects of high-dose hemithorax irradiation are compatible with a total loss of lung function on the irradiated side. Before this form of treatment is used, lung function should be evaluated as for pneumonectomy

  8. Functional residual capacity measurement by heptafluoropropane in ventilated newborn lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Kusztrich, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Heptafluoropropane is an inert gas commercially used as propellant for inhalers. Since heptafluoropropane can be detected in low concentrations, it could also be used as a tracer gas to measure functional residual capacity. The aim of the present study was to validate functional residual capacity measurements by heptafluoropropane wash-in/wash-out (0.8%) during mechanical ventilation in small, surfactant-depleted lungs using a newborn piglet model. Design: Prospective laborato...

  9. LUNG FUNCTION AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN OBESE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Furman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is known that obesity may influence the state of respiratory function and it is associated with a number of diseases of the respiratory system. Obesity in itself, even in the absence of other known causes, can cause a feeling of shortness of breath at rest. At the same time, the cardinal symptom of respiratory muscle weakness is shortness of breath, which promotes the reduction of exercise tolerance. At the moment the problem state of respiratory function and respiratory muscles in children with different degrees of obesity is relevant and understudied. Aim. Investigation of lung function and respiratory muscle strength in obese in children. Methods. 46 children with obesity were examined, with a prevalence of obesity of mixed origin with progressive, aged 7 to 16 years. We evaluated the lung function and strength of respiratory muscles in the form of maximum inspiratory pressure at the mouth (MIP, maximal expiratory pressure at the mouth (MEP and nasal inspiratory pressure in the sniff-test (SNIP. Results. The children with obesity complained of dyspnea. The respiratory muscle dysfunction observed in the form of reduction of its forces. Reduced respiratory muscle strength ( 80% of the norm was in 44% of patients on the MIP and 38% on the MEP and was increased with increasing body mass index. Conclusion. Children with obesity need to monitor the lung function and evaluate the strength of the respiratory muscles for early detection of functional disorders of the respiratory system. 

  10. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae challenge in swine: diagnostic of lung alterations by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Anne; Beyerbach, Martin; Siewert, Carsten; Gundlach, Melanie; Hoeltig, Doris; Graage, Robert; Seifert, Hermann; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Verspohl, Jutta; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel

    2014-09-16

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A.pp.) is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia leading to high economic losses in the pig industry. Infrared thermography (IRT) of the thorax might offer a new method to select swine with lung alterations for further diagnostics. In this study 50 german landrace pigs were infected with A.pp. in an established model for respiratory tract disease, while 10 healthy pigs served as control animals. To avoid drift errors during IR measurements absolute skin temperatures and temperature differences between a thoracal and an abdominal region were assessed for its diagnostic validity. IRT findings during the course of experimental A.pp.-infection were verified by computed tomography (CT) before and on days 4 and 21 after infection. Significant correlations were found between clinical scores, CT score and lung lesion score. Ambient temperature, body temperature and abdominal surface temperature were factors influencing the skin surface temperature of the thorax. On day 4 but not on day 21 after infection the right thoracal temperature was significantly higher and the difference between a thoracal region in the height of the left 10th vertebra and an abdominal region was significantly lower in infected pigs than in control pigs. At a cut off of 28°C of right thoracal temperature the specificity of the method was 100% (CI 95%: 69-100%) and the sensitivity 66% (CI 95%: 51-79%). At a cut off of 2°C temperature difference between thoracal and abdominal region on the left body site the specificity of the method was 100% (CI 95%: 69-100%) and the sensitivity 32% (CI 95%: 19-47%) with all control pigs detected negative. Orientation for lung biopsy by IRT resulted in 100% specificity and sensitivity (CI 95%: 69-100%) of bacteriological examination of tissue samples during the acute stage of infection. IRT might be a valuable tool for the detection of inflammatory lung alterations in pigs, especially during the acute stage of infection and

  11. Twist1 controls lung vascular permeability and endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema by altering Tie2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Elisabeth; Jiang, Amanda; Lu, Yongbo; Juan, Aimee M; Chen, Jing; Mammoto, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    Tight regulation of vascular permeability is necessary for normal development and deregulated vascular barrier function contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, cancer and inflammation. The angiopoietin (Ang)-Tie2 pathway is known to control vascular permeability. However, the mechanism by which the expression of Tie2 is regulated to control vascular permeability has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that transcription factor Twist1 modulates pulmonary vascular leakage by altering the expression of Tie2 in a context-dependent way. Twist1 knockdown in cultured human lung microvascular endothelial cells decreases Tie2 expression and phosphorylation and increases RhoA activity, which disrupts cell-cell junctional integrity and increases vascular permeability in vitro. In physiological conditions, where Ang1 is dominant, pulmonary vascular permeability is elevated in the Tie2-specific Twist1 knockout mice. However, depletion of Twist1 and resultant suppression of Tie2 expression prevent increase in vascular permeability in an endotoxin-induced lung injury model, where the balance of Angs shifts toward Ang2. These results suggest that Twist1-Tie2-Angs signaling is important for controlling vascular permeability and modulation of this mechanism may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches for pulmonary edema and other diseases caused by abnormal vascular permeability.

  12. Pouring Salt on a Wound: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Factors Alter Na+ and Cl− Flux in the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballok, Alicia E.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen with multiple niches in the human body, including the lung. P. aeruginosa infections are particularly damaging or fatal for patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis (CF). To establish an infection, P. aeruginosa relies on a suite of virulence factors, including lipopolysaccharide, phospholipases, exoproteases, phenazines, outer membrane vesicles, type III secreted effectors, flagella, and pili. These factors not only damage the epithelial cell lining but also induce changes in cell physiology and function such as cell shape, membrane permeability, and protein synthesis. While such virulence factors are important in initial infection, many become dysregulated or nonfunctional during the course of chronic infection. Recent work on the virulence factors alkaline protease (AprA) and CF transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitory factor (Cif) show that P. aeruginosa also perturbs epithelial ion transport and osmosis, which may be important for the long-term survival of this microbe in the lung. Here we discuss the literature regarding host physiology-altering virulence factors with a focus on Cif and AprA and their potential roles in chronic infection and immune evasion. PMID:23836869

  13. Changes in Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Alter the Distribution of Ventilation within the Lung Immediately after Birth in Newborn Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Siew, Melissa L.; Wallace, Megan J.; Fouras, Andreas; Lewis, Robert A.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro; te Pas, Arjan B.; Hooper, Stuart B.

    2014-01-01

    Current recommendations suggest the use of positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) to assist very preterm infants to develop a functional residual capacity (FRC) and establish gas exchange at birth. However, maintaining a consistent PEEP is difficult and so the lungs are exposed to changing distending pressures after birth, which can affect respiratory function. Our aim was to determine how changing PEEP levels alters the distribution of ventilation within the lung. Preterm rabbit pups (28 days gestation) were delivered and mechanically ventilated with one of three strategies, whereby PEEP was changed in sequence; 0-5-10-5-0 cmH2O, 5-10-0-5-0 cmH2O or 10-5-0-10-0 cmH2O. Phase contrast X-ray imaging was used to analyse the distribution of ventilation in the upper left (UL), upper right (UR), lower left (LL) and lower right (LR) quadrants of the lung. Initiating ventilation with 10PEEP resulted in a uniform increase in FRC throughout the lung whereas initiating ventilation with 5PEEP or 0PEEP preferentially aerated the UR than both lower quadrants (pventilation at 10PEEP, the distribution of air at end-inflation was uniform across all quadrants and remained so regardless of the PEEP level. Uniform distribution of ventilation can be achieved by initiating ventilation with a high PEEP. After the lungs have aerated, small and stepped reductions in PEEP result in more uniform changes in ventilation. PMID:24690890

  14. Serum carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, and lung function among Dutch elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L.; Waart, de F.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Antioxidant vitamins (provitamins) may protect against loss of lung function over time. We studied the association between serum carotenoids (-carotene, -carotene, lycopene, -cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein), -tocopherol, and lung function among noninstitutionalized Dutch elderly age 65 to 85

  15. Altered Resting Brain Function and Structure in Professional Badminton Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Zhu, Senhua; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuoer; Zhou, Ke; Zhuo, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Neuroimaging studies of professional athletic or musical training have demonstrated considerable practice-dependent plasticity in various brain structures, which may reflect distinct training demands. In the present study, structural and functional brain alterations were examined in professional badminton players and compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI. Gray matter concentration (GMC) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity. Results showed that the athlete group had greater GMC and ALFF in the right and medial cerebellar regions, respectively. The athlete group also demonstrated smaller ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and altered functional connectivity between the left superior parietal and frontal regions. These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills. PMID:22840241

  16. Usefulness of Bronchial Thermoplasty for Patients with a Deteriorating Lung Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Daisuke; Ando, Chihiro; Nakasuka, Takamasa; Iwamoto, Yoshitaka; Sato, Ken; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Shibayama, Takuo; Yonei, Toshiro; Sato, Toshio

    2018-01-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty is a novel procedure for patients with severe asthma showing a stable lung function. We herein report two cases with a deteriorating lung function. The lung function tended to improve in one case, while the other case discontinued mepolizumab medication after the procedure. Treatment was performed safely under general anesthesia in both cases. The use of bronchial thermoplasty may therefore be useful for the treatment of patients with a deteriorating lung function.

  17. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age.......Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  18. Alterations in the K-ras and p53 genes in rat lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Swafford, D.S.; Finch, G.L.; Mitchell, C.E. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Activation of the K-ras protooncogene and inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are events common to many types of human cancers. Molecular epidemiology studies have associated mutational profiles in these genes with specific exposures. The purpose of this paper is to review investigations that have examined the role of the K-ras and p53 genes in lung tumors induced in the F344 rat by mutagenic and nonmutagenic exposures. Mutation profiles within the K-ras and p53 genes, if present in rat lung tumors, would help to define some of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer induction by various environmental agents. Pulmonary adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas were induced by tetranitromethane (TNM), 4-methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), beryllium metal, plutonium-239, X-ray, diesel exhaust, or carbon black. These agents were chosen because the tumors they produced could arise via different types of DNA damage. Mutation of the K-ras gene was determined by approaches that included DNA transfection, direct sequencing, mismatch hybridization, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The frequency for mutation of the K-ras gene was exposure dependent. The transition mutations formed could have been derived from deamination of cytosine. Alteration in the p53 gene was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis for p53 protein and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of exons 4 to 9. None of the 93 adenocarinomas examined was immunoreactive toward the anti-p53 antibody CM1. In contrast, 14 of 71 squamous cell carcinomas exhibited nuclear p53 immunoreactivity with no correlation to type of exposure. However, SSCP analysis only detected mutations in 2 of 14 squamous cell tumors that were immunoreactive, suggesting that protein stabilization did not stem from mutations within the p53 gene. Thus, the p53 gene does not appear to be involved in the genesis of most rat lung tumors. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 48 refs.

  19. The relationship of lung function with ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaco, Joseph M; Appel, Lawrence J; McGready, John; Cutting, Garry R

    2018-01-01

    Lung function is complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to variation. It is unknown how geographic factors such as climate affect population respiratory health. To determine whether ambient air temperature is associated with lung function (FEV1) in the general population. Associations between spirometry data from two National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) periods representative of the U.S. non-institutionalized population and mean annual ambient temperature were assessed using survey-weighted multivariate regression. The NHANES III (1988-94) cohort included 14,088 individuals (55.6% female) and the NHANES 2007-12 cohort included 14,036 individuals (52.3% female), with mean ages of 37.4±23.4 and 34.4±21.8 years old and FEV1 percent predicted values of 99.8±15.8% and 99.2±14.5%, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, warmer ambient temperatures were associated with lower lung function in both cohorts (NHANES III p = 0.020; NHANES 2007-2012 p = 0.014). The effect was similar in both cohorts with a 0.71% and 0.59% predicted FEV1 decrease for every 10°F increase in mean temperature in the NHANES III and NHANES 2007-2012 cohorts, respectively. This corresponds to ~2 percent predicted difference in FEV1 between the warmest and coldest regions in the continental United States. In the general U.S. population, residing in regions with warmer ambient air temperatures was associated with lower lung function with an effect size similar to that of traffic pollution. Rising temperatures associated with climate change could have effects on pulmonary function in the general population.

  20. The relationship of lung function with ambient temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Collaco

    Full Text Available Lung function is complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to variation. It is unknown how geographic factors such as climate affect population respiratory health.To determine whether ambient air temperature is associated with lung function (FEV1 in the general population.Associations between spirometry data from two National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES periods representative of the U.S. non-institutionalized population and mean annual ambient temperature were assessed using survey-weighted multivariate regression.The NHANES III (1988-94 cohort included 14,088 individuals (55.6% female and the NHANES 2007-12 cohort included 14,036 individuals (52.3% female, with mean ages of 37.4±23.4 and 34.4±21.8 years old and FEV1 percent predicted values of 99.8±15.8% and 99.2±14.5%, respectively.After adjustment for confounders, warmer ambient temperatures were associated with lower lung function in both cohorts (NHANES III p = 0.020; NHANES 2007-2012 p = 0.014. The effect was similar in both cohorts with a 0.71% and 0.59% predicted FEV1 decrease for every 10°F increase in mean temperature in the NHANES III and NHANES 2007-2012 cohorts, respectively. This corresponds to ~2 percent predicted difference in FEV1 between the warmest and coldest regions in the continental United States.In the general U.S. population, residing in regions with warmer ambient air temperatures was associated with lower lung function with an effect size similar to that of traffic pollution. Rising temperatures associated with climate change could have effects on pulmonary function in the general population.

  1. Chorioamnionitis and subsequent lung function in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus H Jones

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between prematurity, gender and chorioamnionitis as determinants of early life lung function in premature infants. METHODS: Placenta and membranes were collected from preterm deliveries (<37 weeks gestational age and evaluated for histological chorioamnionitis (HCA. Patients were followed and lung function was performed in the first year of life by Raised Volume-Rapid Thoracic Compression Technique. RESULTS: Ninety-five infants (43 males born prematurely (median gestational age 34.2 weeks were recruited. HCA was detected in 66 (69% of the placentas, and of these 55(58% were scored HCA Grade 1, and 11(12% HCA Grade 2. Infants exposed to HCA Grade 1 and Grade 2, when compared to those not exposed, presented significantly lower gestational ages, higher prevalence of RDS, clinical early-onset sepsis, and the use of supplemental oxygen more than 28 days. Infants exposed to HCA also had significantly lower maximal flows. There was a significant negative trend for z-scores of lung function in relation to levels of HCA; infants had lower maximal expiratory flows with increasing level of HCA. (p = 0.012 for FEF50, p = 0.014 for FEF25-75 and p = 0.32 for FEV0.5. Two-way ANOVA adjusted for length and gestational age indicated a significant interaction between sex and HCA in determining expiratory flows (p<0.01 for FEF50, FEF25-75 and p<0.05 for FEV0.5. Post-hoc comparisons revealed that female preterm infants exposed to HCA Grade 1 and Grade 2 had significant lower lung function than those not exposed, and this effect was not observed among males. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a sex-specific negative effect of prenatal inflammation on lung function of female preterm infants. This study confirms and expands knowledge upon the known association between chorioamnionitis and early life chronic lung disease.

  2. Prospective longitudinal evaluation of lung function during the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, W.; Hanekamp, M.N.; Ijsselstijn, H.; Nieuwhof, E.M.; Hop, W.C.J.; Tibboel, D.; Jongste, J.C. de; Merkus, P.J.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and to evaluate relationships between lung function and perinatal factors. Longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane

  3. Lung Function Status of Workers Exposed to Welding Fume: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyana Mulyana

    2016-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Lung function parameters status were significantly lower in welder than non-welder, and working period was the most important indicator for lung function status evaluation among welder. KEYWORDS: vital capacity, VC, forced vital capacity, FCV, forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, lung function, ratio of FEV1/FVC, working period

  4. Respiratory and lower limb muscle function in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Marios; Polychronopoulos, Vlasis; Strange, Charlie

    2016-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests that respiratory and limb muscle function may be impaired in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Importantly, muscle dysfunction could promote dyspnoea, fatigue and functional limitation all of which are cardinal features of ILD. This article examines the risk factors for skeletal muscle dysfunction in ILD, reviews the current evidence on overall respiratory and limb muscle function and focuses on the occurrence and implications of skeletal muscle dysfunction in ILD. Research limitations and pathways to address the current knowledge gaps are highlighted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Lung function and long-term exposure to cement dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F V; Borchsenius, L; Holstein, B

    1977-01-01

    and one men were grouped as cement factory workers, 649 were grouped as blue collar workers, 218 as white collar workers and 102 men had predominantly been occupied in farming, forestry and fishing. On the average the investigated men had spent more than 75% of their total occupational life in their main......In a cross-sectional epidemiological survey a selected group of former and present cement factory workers and a random sample of the corresponding urban population underwent dynamic spirometry. Based upon life experience the subjects were grouped into four occupational categories. Three hundred...... throughout life had better ventilatory lung function than any of the other three occupational categories. No significant differences in lung function between cement factory workers and other blue collar workers with comparable smoking habits could be demonstrated by use of the maximal midexpiratory flow...

  6. Scavenger receptor AI/II truncation, lung function and COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M; Nordestgaard, B G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A

    2011-01-01

    The scavenger receptor A-I/II (SRA-I/II) on alveolar macrophages is involved in recognition and clearance of modified lipids and inhaled particulates. A rare variant of the SRA-I/II gene, Arg293X, truncates the distal collagen-like domain, which is essential for ligand recognition. We tested...... whether the Arg293X variant is associated with reduced lung function and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the general population....

  7. High free testosterone index increases lung function in adult males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Increasing age and decreased testosterone concentrations in males influence muscle strength and muscle mass, particularly in skeletal muscle. There have been few studies on decreased lung function resulting from reduced mass and strength of respiratory muscles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of an association between free testosterone index (FTI and lung function in males aged between 40 and 80 years. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 167 males aged between 40 and 80 years in Cilandak subdistrict, South Jakarta. Total serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA using Roche Elecsys Reagent Kit Cat 11776061 and Elecsys 2010 reagent (Cobas e601, respectively FTI was calculated using the formula free testosterone/SHBG x 100%. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (VEP1 was assessed by means of an AS 500 spirometer. Results Mean age of the subjects was 53.32 ± 8.26 years, mean total serum testosterone concentration was 532.59 ± 206.92 ng/dL, mean SHBG concentration 41.26 ± 21.14 nmol/L, mean FTI 48.22 ± 14.34 %, and mean VEP1 was 1.63 ± 0.54 L. There was a significant association between both SHBG and FTI on the one hand and VEP1 on the other, with Pearson correlation coefficients of -0.199 (p=0.010 and 0.271 (p=0.000, respectively. Linear multiple regression analysis indicated that FTI was the most influential variable on lung function (VEP1, higher FTI values indicating higher VEP1 (â=0.008: p=0.004. Conclusion In males aged 40-80 years, higher FTI values indicate better lung function as determined by means of VEP1.

  8. Ambient particulate matter and lung function growth in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ananya; Hu, Wei; Wei, Fusheng; Korn, Leo; Chapman, Robert S; Zhang, Junfeng Jim

    2012-05-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with deficits in lung function growth among children in Western countries. However, few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where PM levels are often substantially higher. Children (n = 3273) 6-12 years of age were recruited from 8 schools in 4 Chinese cities. The lung function parameters of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were measured using computerized spirometers twice a year for up to 3 years (1993-1996). Dichotomous samplers placed in each schoolyard were used to measure PM2.5 and PM10 (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm and ≤ 10 μm, respectively). Multivariable generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between the quarterly average PM levels and lung function growth during the period of follow-up. Annual average PM2.5 and PM10 levels in the 4 cities ranged from 57 to 158 μg/m and 95 to 268 μg/m, respectively. In multivariable models, an increase of 10 μg/m of PM2.5 was associated with decreases of 2.7 mL FEV1 (95% confidence interval = -3.5 to -2.0), 3.5 mL FVC (-4.3 to -2.7), 1.4 mL/year FEV1 growth (-1.8 to -0.9), and 1.5 mL/year FVC growth (-2.0 to -1.0). Similar results were seen with PM10 exposure. Exposure to ambient particulate matter was associated with decreased growth in lung function among Chinese children.

  9. Enforced mouth breathing decreases lung function in mild asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallani, Mervat; Wheatley, John R; Amis, Terence C

    2008-06-01

    Nasal breathing provides a protective influence against exercise-induced asthma. We hypothesized that enforced oral breathing in resting mild asthmatic subjects may lead to a reduction in lung function. Asymptomatic resting mild asthmatic volunteers (n = 8) were instructed to breathe either nasally only (N; tape over lips) or orally only (O; nose clip) for 1 h each, on separate days. Lung function (% predicted FEV(1)) was measured using standard spirometry at baseline and every 10 min for 1 h. 'Difficulty in breathing' was rated using a Borg scale at the conclusion of the N and O periods. Baseline FEV(1) on the N (101.2 +/- 3.8% predicted) and O (102.7 +/- 3.9% predicted) days was not significantly different (P > 0.3). At 60 min, FEV(1) on the O day (96.5 +/- 4.1% predicted) was significantly less than on the N day (101.0 +/- 3.5% predicted; P 0.3), whereas on the O day, FEV(1) fell progressively (slope = -0.06 +/- 0.01% FEV(1)/min, P breathing in' at the end of the O day (1.5 +/- 0.4 arbitrary units) than on the N day (0.4 +/- 0.3 arbitrary unit; P oral breathing causes a decrease in lung function in mild asthmatic subjects at rest, initiating asthma symptoms in some. Oral breathing may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute asthma exacerbations.

  10. The effects of second-hand and direct exposure to tobacco smoke on asthma and lung function in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tager, Ira B

    2008-03-01

    Cigarette smoking still is quite common in many parts of the world. In parallel, exposure to second-hand smoke continues to be common despite declines in smoking in developed countries and despite evidence of serious health effects in infants and children. This paper focuses on the effects of second-hand and direct exposure (personal smoking) on the respiratory health of adolescents, in particular effects on the occurrence of asthma and on lung function. Published data indicate that, in addition to whatever effects direct and postnatal second-hand tobacco smoke exposure have on the occurrence of asthma and impaired levels and growth of lung function in adolescents, there is an underlying alteration in the prenatal and early postnatal development of the structural and mechanical characteristics of the lung that contribute substantially to these deficits. These developmental effects may be important contributors to the future risks for impaired pulmonary function.

  11. Connectomics and neuroticism : an altered functional network organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Servaas, Michelle N; Geerligs, Linda; Renken, Remco J; Marsman, Jan-Bernard; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriëtte; Aleman, André

    The personality trait neuroticism is a potent risk marker for psychopathology. Although the neurobiological basis remains unclear, studies have suggested that alterations in connectivity may underlie it. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to shed more light on the functional network

  12. Phytochemicals Perturb Membranes and Promiscuously Alter Protein Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Kocer, Armagan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous

  13. Decrease in pulmonary function and oxygenation after lung resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cristina Brocki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory deficits are common following curative intent lung cancer surgery and may reduce the patient's ability to be physically active. We evaluated the influence of surgery on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and physical performance after lung resection. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure and 6-min walk test (6MWT were assessed pre-operatively, 2 weeks post-operatively and 6 months post-operatively in 80 patients (age 68±9 years. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed in 58% of cases. Two weeks post-operatively, we found a significant decline in pulmonary function (forced vital capacity −0.6±0.6 L and forced expiratory volume in 1 s −0.43±0.4 L; both p<0.0001, 6MWT (−37.6±74.8 m; p<0.0001 and oxygenation (−2.9±4.7 units; p<0.001, while maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressure were unaffected. At 6 months post-operatively, pulmonary function and oxygenation remained significantly decreased (p<0.001, whereas 6MWT was recovered. We conclude that lung resection has a significant short- and long-term impact on pulmonary function and oxygenation, but not on respiratory muscle strength. Future research should focus on mechanisms negatively influencing post-operative pulmonary function other than impaired respiratory muscle strength.

  14. Connectomics and Neuroticism: An Altered Functional Network Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Servaas, Michelle N; Geerligs, Linda; Renken, Remco J; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriëtte; Aleman, André

    2014-01-01

    The personality trait neuroticism is a potent risk marker for psychopathology. Although the neurobiological basis remains unclear, studies have suggested that alterations in connectivity may underlie it. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to shed more light on the functional network organization in neuroticism. To this end, we applied graph theory on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in 120 women selected based on their neuroticism score. Binary and weig...

  15. Lung function after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlving, Hilde Hylland; Larsen Bang, Cæcilie; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in pulmonary function (PF) has been reported in up to 85% of pediatric patients during the first year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Our understanding of the etiology for this decrease in lung function is, however, sparse. The aim of this study was to describe PF......-versus-host disease (GvHD). Other factors associated with PF decline were malignant diagnosis, busulfan-based conditioning, patient and donor age, female donor to male recipient, as well as chronic GvHD. Mild to moderate decline in PF is frequent and appears associated with acute GvHD and other parameters...

  16. Diesel exhaust particle exposure in vitro alters monocyte differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Chaudhuri

    Full Text Available Air pollution by diesel exhaust particles is associated with elevated mortality and increased hospital admissions in individuals with respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During active inflammation monocytes are recruited to the airways and can replace resident alveolar macrophages. We therefore investigated whether chronic fourteen day exposure to low concentrations of diesel exhaust particles can alter the phenotype and function of monocytes from healthy individuals and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocytes were purified from the blood of healthy individuals and people with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in the presence or absence of diesel exhaust particles and their phenotypes studied through investigation of their lifespan, cytokine generation in response to Toll like receptor agonists and heat killed bacteria, and expression of surface markers. Chronic fourteen day exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages to concentrations of diesel exhaust particles >10 µg/ml caused mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction, and a gradual loss of cells over time both in healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease individuals. Chronic exposure to lower concentrations of diesel exhaust particles impaired CXCL8 cytokine responses to lipopolysaccharide and heat killed E. coli, and this phenotype was associated with a reduction in CD14 and CD11b expression. Chronic diesel exhaust particle exposure may therefore alter both numbers and function of lung macrophages differentiating from locally recruited monocytes in the lungs of healthy people and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  17. Altered Neutrophil Function in Localized Juvenile Periodontitis: Intrinsic or Induced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sudha; Huang, Jian Ping; Piesco, Nicholas P; Suzuki, Jon B; Riccelli, Angelina E; Johns, Lee P

    1996-03-01

    Localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) is an aggressive periodontal disease of familial nature. Neutrophils from a majority of patients with this disease exhibit decreased Chemotaxis with increased adherence, oxidative burst, and degranulation in response to opsonized bacteria. It is proposed that the biological basis for these altered neutrophil functions in LJP may be due either to intrinsic cell abnormalities or to the effect of factors present in the sera of LJP patients, which can modulate neutrophil functions. LJP neutrophils exhibit a lower number of receptors for chemoattractants and GP-110 molecules which are known to facilitate Chemotaxis. Furthermore, these cells exhibit lower signal transduction in response to a biological stimulus. These observations suggest that intrinsic cellular defects may be responsible for altered neutrophil functions in LJP. However, healthy neutrophils, when treated with very low concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, also exhibit the characteristics of altered or "defective" LJP neutrophils. Additionally, healthy neutrophils, when treated with LJP serum, also exhibit many of the characteristics associated with LJP neutrophils. Attempts to identify these factors have shown that cytokines like TNF-α and/or IL1 β in LJP sera may be at least partially responsible for modulating neutrophil functions in LJP. These cytokines are primarily produced by activated macrophages, indicating a role for these cells in the etiology of LJP. The hyper-responsiveness of these cells to an immunologic challenge can result in local increases in cytokines leading to excessive bone loss and tissue damage at the site of infection, while systemic elevations in cytokines would lead to decreased neutrophil Chemotaxis, both of which are observed in LJP. Present evidence indicates that neutrophil functions are indeed altered in the majority of LJP patients. However, the biological basis for the alteration may not be due to the neutrophils themselves

  18. Modulation by metformin of molecular and histopathological alterations in the lung of cigarette smoke-exposed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzotti, Alberto; Balansky, Roumen; D'Agostini, Francesco; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Cartiglia, Cristina; Micale, Rosanna T; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Camoirano, Anna; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Steele, Vernon E; De Flora, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The anti-diabetic drug metformin is endowed with anti-cancer properties. Epidemiological and experimental studies, however, did not provide univocal results regarding its role in pulmonary carcinogenesis. We used Swiss H mice of both genders in order to detect early molecular alterations and tumors induced by mainstream cigarette smoke. Based on a subchronic toxicity study, oral metformin was used at a dose of 800 mg/kg diet, which is 3.2 times higher than the therapeutic dose in humans. Exposure of mice to smoke for 4 months, starting at birth, induced a systemic clastogenic damage, formation of DNA adducts, oxidative DNA damage, and extensive downregulation of microRNAs in lung after 10 weeks. Preneoplastic lesions were detectable after 7.5 months in both lung and urinary tract along with lung tumors, both benign and malignant. Modulation by metformin of 42 of 1281 pulmonary microRNAs in smoke-free mice highlighted a variety of mechanisms, including modulation of AMPK, stress response, inflammation, NFκB, Tlr9, Tgf, p53, cell cycle, apoptosis, antioxidant pathways, Ras, Myc, Dicer, angiogenesis, stem cell recruitment, and angiogenesis. In smoke-exposed mice, metformin considerably decreased DNA adduct levels and oxidative DNA damage, and normalized the expression of several microRNAs. It did not prevent smoke-induced lung tumors but inhibited preneoplastic lesions in both lung and kidney. In conclusion, metformin was able to protect the mouse lung from smoke-induced DNA and microRNA alterations and to inhibit preneoplastic lesions in lung and kidney but failed to prevent lung adenomas and malignant tumors induced by this complex mixture

  19. Scintigraphy at 3 months after single lung transplantation and observations of primary graft dysfunction and lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmaati, Esther Okeke; Iversen, Martin; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2012-01-01

    Scintigraphy has been used as a tool to detect dysfunction of the lung before and after transplantation. The aims of this study were to evaluate the development of the ventilation-perfusion relationships in single lung transplant recipients in the first year, at 3 months after transplantation......, and to investigate whether scintigraphic findings at 3 months were predictive for the outcome at 12 months in relation to primary graft dysfunction (PGD) and lung function. A retrospective study was carried out on all patients who prospectively and consecutively were referred for a routine lung scintigraphy...... abnormal. There was a significant difference in the normal versus abnormal perfusion and ventilation scintigraphic images evaluated from the same patients. Ventilation was distributed more homogenously in the transplanted lung than perfusion in the same lung. The relative distribution of perfusion...

  20. Airway hyperresponsiveness and development of lung function in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Lotte; Ulrik, Charlotte S; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term longitudinal studies of lung function from childhood to adulthood are important in linking our understanding of childhood risk factors to adult disease. Airway hyperresponsiveness has been shown to independently affect lung function growth in studies of adolescence. The obje......BACKGROUND: Long-term longitudinal studies of lung function from childhood to adulthood are important in linking our understanding of childhood risk factors to adult disease. Airway hyperresponsiveness has been shown to independently affect lung function growth in studies of adolescence...... attained level of lung function at age 18, which persisted throughout the follow-up until the last examination at age 27-37 years. CONCLUSION: Airway hyperresponsiveness has an independent deleterious effect on lung function development from 7 to 37 years resulting in a lower maximal attained lung function...

  1. Altered Volume and Functional Connectivity of the Habenula in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCH is associated with the dysfunction of monoamine neurotransmitters, the synthesis and release of which are mainly regulated by a key structure, the habenular (Hb nucleus. However, little is known regarding whether SCH is associated with structural or functional alterations in the Hb. In this study, we combined structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the changes in volume and functional connectivity of the Hb in 15 patients with SCH vs. 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs. Morphologically, the absolute volume of the bilateral Hb was significantly lower in the SCH patients than in the HCs. Functionally, the bilateral Hb showed significantly enhanced functional connectivity with the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in the SCH patients. Additionally, the SCH patients exhibited increased functional connectivity of the left Hb with the left lingual gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. A further exploratory analysis revealed that the SCH patients showed increased functional connectivity between the right Hb and several subcortical regions related to dopaminergic pathways, including the left ventral striatum, caudate and putamen. Finally, the increased functional connectivity of the right Hb with the mPFC was positively correlated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores in the patients. Together, these results suggest that the altered volume and functional connectivity of the Hb may be involved in the pathogenesis of SCH and thus that the Hb may serve as a potential target in developing new therapeutic strategies in SCH.

  2. Functional network connectivity alterations in schizophrenia and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Jie; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Yuan, Lin; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Dewen

    2017-05-30

    There is a high degree of overlap between the symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia, but it remains unclear whether the similar symptoms are derived from convergent alterations in functional network connectivity. In this study, we performed a group independent component analysis on resting-state functional MRI data from 20 MDD patients, 24 schizophrenia patients, and 43 matched healthy controls. The functional network connectivity analysis revealed that, compared to healthy controls, the MDD and schizophrenia patients exhibited convergent decreased positive connectivity between the left and right fronto-parietal control network and decreased negative connectivity between the left control and medial visual networks. Furthermore, the MDD patients showed decreased negative connectivity between the left control and auditory networks, and the schizophrenia patients showed decreased positive connectivity between the bilateral control and language networks and decreased negative connectivity between the right control and dorsal attention networks. The convergent network connectivity alterations may underlie the common primary control and regulation disorders, and the divergent connectivity alterations may enable the distinction between the two disorders. All of the convergent and divergent network connectivity alterations were relevant to the control network, suggesting an important role of the network in the pathophysiology of MDD and schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Unique prevalence of oncogenic genetic alterations in young patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Hida, Toyoaki; Oya, Yuko; Yoshida, Tatsuya; Shimizu, Junichi; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Sakakura, Noriaki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Horio, Yoshitsugu; Sakao, Yukinori; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2017-05-15

    Lung adenocarcinoma in the young is a rare entity, and the oncogenic genetic alterations (GAs) and clinical characteristics associated with this disease are poorly understood. Conversely, it has been demonstrated that young age at diagnosis defines unique biology in other cancers. For this report, the effects of young age on lung adenocarcinoma are reported. The authors retrospectively screened 1746 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with stage I through IV adenocarcinoma between 2009 and 2015 and identified 81 who were aged 40 years or younger at diagnosis. The clinical and genetic characteristics of this younger population were analyzed. Of the 81 younger patients identified, 36 (44%) were men, 36 (44%) were never smokers, and the median age was 36 years (range, 26-40 years). Thirty-three patients (41%) harbored anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations, 24 (30%) had epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, and 2 (2%) had v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations. Rare oncogenic GAs also were studied in patients who had wild-type ALK/EGFR/KRAS adenocarcinoma, including 4 patients with HER2 mutations, 2 with Ret proto-oncogene (RET) translocations, and 2 with ROS proto-oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) translocations. Notably, oncogenic GAs (P P P = .033) translocations, and HER2 mutations (P young age, and a similar trend was observed for RET translocations (P = .108). Younger patients who had adenocarcinoma without GAs had a significantly worse prognosis compared with older patients without GAs (overall survival, 8.9 vs 16.4 months; P P < .001). Younger patients with adenocarcinoma have a distinctly unique prevalence of oncogenic GAs. Comprehensive oncogenic GA screening is especially recommended for personalized medicine strategies in this population. Cancer 2017;123:1731-1740. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. Dealing with taste and smell alterations-A qualitative interview study of people treated for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belqaid, Kerstin; Tishelman, Carol; Orrevall, Ylva; Månsson-Brahme, Eva; Bernhardson, Britt-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Taste and smell alterations have been recognized as common symptoms in relation to various cancers. However, previous research suggests that patients do not receive sufficient support in managing taste and smell alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate how persons with experience from lung cancer-related taste and smell alterations reason about resources and strategies offered and used to manage these symptoms. Data from semi-structured individual interviews with 13 women and four men were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. We used Kleinman's now classic medical anthropological model of local health care systems, consisting of the personal, professional, and folk sector, to interpret and understand how people respond to sickness experiences in their daily lives. By presenting the findings using this model, we demonstrate that most strategies for dealing with taste and smell alterations were undertaken in the personal sector, i.e. in participants' daily lives, on an individual level and in interaction with family, social networks and communities. Taste and smell alterations implied two overarching challenges: 1) adjusting to no longer being able to trust information provided by one's own senses of taste and/or smell, and 2) coming to terms with taste and smell alterations as a part of having lung cancer. Health care professionals' involvement was described as limited, but appeared to fulfil most participants' expectations. However, through provision of normalizing information, practical advice, and to some extent, emotional support, health care professionals had potential to influence strategies and resources used for dealing with taste and smell alterations. With this study, we further the understanding of how people deal with lung cancer-related taste and smell alterations and discuss the role of health care professionals for this process.

  5. Dealing with taste and smell alterations-A qualitative interview study of people treated for lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Belqaid

    Full Text Available Taste and smell alterations have been recognized as common symptoms in relation to various cancers. However, previous research suggests that patients do not receive sufficient support in managing taste and smell alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate how persons with experience from lung cancer-related taste and smell alterations reason about resources and strategies offered and used to manage these symptoms. Data from semi-structured individual interviews with 13 women and four men were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. We used Kleinman's now classic medical anthropological model of local health care systems, consisting of the personal, professional, and folk sector, to interpret and understand how people respond to sickness experiences in their daily lives. By presenting the findings using this model, we demonstrate that most strategies for dealing with taste and smell alterations were undertaken in the personal sector, i.e. in participants' daily lives, on an individual level and in interaction with family, social networks and communities. Taste and smell alterations implied two overarching challenges: 1 adjusting to no longer being able to trust information provided by one's own senses of taste and/or smell, and 2 coming to terms with taste and smell alterations as a part of having lung cancer. Health care professionals' involvement was described as limited, but appeared to fulfil most participants' expectations. However, through provision of normalizing information, practical advice, and to some extent, emotional support, health care professionals had potential to influence strategies and resources used for dealing with taste and smell alterations. With this study, we further the understanding of how people deal with lung cancer-related taste and smell alterations and discuss the role of health care professionals for this process.

  6. Lung and respiratory muscle function in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübgen, Joerg-Patrick; Schultz, Cedric

    2009-06-01

    Pulmonary dysfunction is not a well-recognized feature of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and type of pulmonary and respiratory muscle dysfunction in FSHD. Sixteen patients with moderately advanced FSHD and 16 healthy controls were evaluated. Standard lung and respiratory muscle function tests were performed. Diaphragm muscle inspiratory action was evaluated with transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements. Lung function tests showed an increased residual volume in five patients. There was a significant difference in global respiratory muscle function in patients versus controls; weakness was mild, and it affected expiratory more than inspiratory muscles. There was no significant difference in the diaphragm inspiratory action of patients versus controls. The dystrophic process that underlies FSHD did not significantly involve the muscles of the diaphragm, but it caused mild global respiratory muscle weakness that affected expiratory more than inspiratory muscles. It is probably not necessary to routinely monitor respiratory muscle function in ambulant FSHD patients who lack symptoms or signs of respiratory impairment.

  7. Prediction of residual lung function after lung surgery, and examination of blood perfusion in the pre- and postoperative lung using three-dimensional SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimatani, Shinji [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-01-01

    In order to predict postoperative pulmonary function after lung surgery, preoperative {sup 99m}Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion scans with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed. Spirometry was also performed before and 4-6 months after surgery in 40 patients. In addition, changes in blood perfusion in the pre- and postoperative lung were examined by postoperative lung perfusion scans in 18 of the 40 patients. We measured the three-dimensional (3-D) imaging volume of the operative and contralateral lungs using the volumes rendering method at blood perfusion thresholds of 20, 50 and 75%, utilizing {sup 99m}Tc-MAA lung perfusion, and predicted pulmonary function by means of the measured volumes. We examined the correlation between predicted and the measured values of postoperative pulmonary function, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV{sub 1.0}). The correlation between FEV{sub 1.0} predicted by SPECT (threshold 50%) and measured postoperative lung function resembled that between lung function predicted by the standard planar method and measured FEV{sub 1.0} in the lobectomy group. We then examined the ratios of both pre- and postoperative blood perfusion volumes obtained using 3-D imaging at lung perfusion threshold ranges of 10% each (PV20-29, PV30-39) to pre- and postoperative total perfusion (PV20-100). In the lobectomy group, the postoperative PV20-29/PV20-100 value was significantly higher for the operative side lung than the preoperative PV20-29/PV20-100 value, and the postoperative PV50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and 90-100/PV20-100 values were significantly lower than the respective preoperative values. However, in the contralateral lung, the respective pre- and postoperative PV/PV20-100 values were almost identical. These findings suggest that the rate of low blood perfusion increased while the rate of middle to high perfusion decreased in the lobectomy group in the operative

  8. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  9. Podocalyxin regulates murine lung vascular permeability by altering endothelial cell adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J Debruin

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of CD34-family sialomucins (CD34, podocalyxin and endoglycan as vascular endothelial cell markers, there is remarkably little known of their vascular function. Podocalyxin (gene name Podxl, in particular, has been difficult to study in adult vasculature as germ-line deletion of podocalyxin in mice leads to kidney malformations and perinatal death. We generated mice that conditionally delete podocalyxin in vascular endothelial cells (Podxl(ΔEC mice to study the homeostatic role of podocalyxin in adult mouse vessels. Although Podxl(ΔEC adult mice are viable, their lungs display increased lung volume and changes to the matrix composition. Intriguingly, this was associated with increased basal and inflammation-induced pulmonary vascular permeability. To further investigate the etiology of these defects, we isolated mouse pulmonary endothelial cells. Podxl(ΔEC endothelial cells display mildly enhanced static adhesion to fibronectin but spread normally when plated on fibronectin-coated transwells. In contrast, Podxl(ΔEC endothelial cells exhibit a severely impaired ability to spread on laminin and, to a lesser extent, collagen I coated transwells. The data suggest that, in endothelial cells, podocalyxin plays a previously unrecognized role in maintaining vascular integrity, likely through orchestrating interactions with extracellular matrix components and basement membranes, and that this influences downstream epithelial architecture.

  10. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishawi, Muath [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kim, Bong [Division of Radiology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Moore, William H. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bilfinger, Thomas V., E-mail: Thomas.bilfinger@stonybrook.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and

  11. Alteration of canonical and non-canonical WNT-signaling by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Timothy N.; Dentener, Mieke A.; Stassen, Frank R.; Rohde, Gernot G.; Mossman, Brooke T.; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Reynaert, Niki L.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development of the mature lung is a complex process orchestrated by a number of intricate developmental signaling pathways. Wingless-type MMTV-integration site (WNT) signaling plays critical roles in controlling branching morphogenesis cell differentiation, and formation of the conducting and respiratory airways. In addition, WNT pathways are often re-activated in mature lungs during repair and regeneration. WNT- signaling has been elucidated as a crucial contributor to the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as other hyper-proliferative lung diseases. Silicosis, a detrimental occupational lung disease caused by excessive inhalation of crystalline silica dust, is hallmarked by repeated cycles of damaging inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and formation of dense, hyalinized nodules of whorled collagen. However, mechanisms of epithelial cell hyperplasia and matrix deposition are not well understood, as most research efforts have focused on the pronounced inflammatory response. Microarray data from our previous studies has revealed a number of WNT-signaling and WNT-target genes altered by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we utilize pathway analysis to designate connections between genes altered by silica in WNT-signaling networks. Furthermore, we confirm microarray findings by QRT-PCR and demonstrate both activation of canonical (β-catenin) and down-regulation of non-canonical (WNT5A) signaling in immortalized (BEAS-2B) and primary (PBEC) human bronchial epithelial cells. These findings suggest that WNT-signaling and cross-talk with other pathways (e.g. Notch), may contribute to proliferative, fibrogenic and inflammatory responses to silica in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • Pathway analysis reveals silica-induced WNT-signaling in lung epithelial cells. • Silica-induced canonical WNT-signaling is mediated by autocrine/paracrine signals. • Crystalline silica decreases non-canonical WNT

  12. Automatic lung segmentation in functional SPECT images using active shape models trained on reference lung shapes from CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimariotis, Grigorios-Aris; Al-Mashat, Mariam; Haris, Kostas; Aletras, Anthony H; Jögi, Jonas; Bajc, Marika; Maglaveras, Nicolaos; Heiberg, Einar

    2018-02-01

    Image segmentation is an essential step in quantifying the extent of reduced or absent lung function. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new tool for automatic segmentation of lungs in ventilation and perfusion SPECT images and compare automatic and manual SPECT lung segmentations with reference computed tomography (CT) volumes. A total of 77 subjects (69 patients with obstructive lung disease, and 8 subjects without apparent perfusion of ventilation loss) performed low-dose CT followed by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) SPECT examination in a hybrid gamma camera system. In the training phase, lung shapes from the 57 anatomical low-dose CT images were used to construct two active shape models (right lung and left lung) which were then used for image segmentation. The algorithm was validated in 20 patients, comparing its results to reference delineation of corresponding CT images, and by comparing automatic segmentation to manual delineations in SPECT images. The Dice coefficient between automatic SPECT delineations and manual SPECT delineations were 0.83 ± 0.04% for the right and 0.82 ± 0.05% for the left lung. There was statistically significant difference between reference volumes from CT and automatic delineations for the right (R = 0.53, p = 0.02) and left lung (R = 0.69, p automatic quantification of wide range of measurements.

  13. Functional analyses of ATM, ATR and Fanconi anemia proteins in lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beumer, Jan H.; Fu, Katherine Y.; Anyang, Bean N.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Bakkenist, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    ATM and ATR are kinases implicated in a myriad of DNA-damage responses. ATM kinase inhibition radiosensitizes cells and selectively kills cells with Fanconi anemia (FA) gene mutations. ATR kinase inhibition sensitizes cells to agents that induce replication stress and selectively kills cells with ATM and TP53 mutations. ATM mutations and FANCF promoter-methylation are reported in lung carcinomas. We undertook functional analyses of ATM, ATR, Chk1 and FA proteins in lung cancer cell lines. We included Calu6 that is reported to be FANCL-deficient. In addition, the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database was interrogated for alterations in: 1) ATM, MRE11A, RAD50 and NBN; 2) ATR, ATRIP and TOPBP1; and 3) 15 FA genes. No defects in ATM, ATR or Chk1 kinase activation, or FANCD2 monoubiquitination were identified in the lung cancer cell lines examined, including Calu6, and major alterations in these pathways were not identified in the TCGA database. Cell lines were radiosensitized by ATM kinase inhibitor KU60019, but no cell killing by ATM kinase inhibitor alone was observed. While no synergy between gemcitabine or carboplatin and ATR kinase inhibitor ETP-46464 was observed, synergy between gemcitabine and Chk1 kinase inhibitor UCN-01 was observed in 54 T, 201 T and H460, and synergy between carboplatin and Chk1 kinase inhibitor was identified in 201 T and 239 T. No interactions between ATM, ATR and FA activation were observed by either ATM or ATR kinase inhibition in the lung cancer cell lines. Analyses of ATM serine 1981 and Chk1 serine 345 phosphorylation, and FANCD2 monoubiquitination revealed that ATM and ATR kinase activation and FA pathway signaling are intact in the lung cancer cell lines examined. As such, these posttranslational modifications may have utility as biomarkers for the integrity of DNA damage signaling pathways in lung cancer. Different sensitization profiles between gemcitabine and carboplatin and ATR kinase inhibitor ETP-46464 and Chk1 kinase inhibitor

  14. Altered expression of the IQGAP1 gene in human lung cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C.E.; Palmisano, W.A.; Lechner, J.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    IQGAP1 is a GTPase activation protein that accelerates GTP hydrolysis by normal p21 ras proteins. Therefore, IQGAP1 could act as an upstream affector of p21 ras activity by convert in excess amounts of active GTP-21 ras to inactive GDP-21 ras. IQGAP1 displays extensive sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of all previously reported ras GAPs, including the tumor suppressor gene protein neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). It has been shown that abnormal NF1 protein cannot negatively regulate the activity of ras proteins in neuroblast cells. This observation supports the hypothesis that NF1 is a tumor suppressor gene whose product acts upstream of ras. IQGAP1 is primarily expressed in lung, where it may play a role similar to NF1 in regulating the activity of H-ras or K-ras proteins. IQGAP1 functions as other GAPs by controlling the activity of ras.

  15. IL-10 Overexpression Alters Survival in the Setting of Gram Negative Pneumonia Following Lung Contusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgachev, Vladislav A.; Yu, Bi; Sun, Lei; Shanley, Thomas P.; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Hemmila, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lung contusion injury produces a vulnerable window within the inflammatory defenses of the lung that predisposes the patient to pneumonia. IL-10 is a known anti-inflammatory mediator produced by macrophages and capable of down-regulating acute lung inflammation. We investigated the impact of increased levels of IL-10 within the lung on survival and the host response to trauma in the setting of lung contusion and Gram-negative pneumonia. Design A bi-transgenic, tetracycline inducible, lung specific human IL-10 overexpression (IL-10 OE) mouse model and single transgenic (TG-) control mice were used. Mice underwent lung contusion injury (LC) or sham injury (Sham) at time -6 hrs. At time 0 animals were inoculated intratracheally with 500 CFU of Klebsiella pneumoniae (Pneu). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), lung tissue specimens, or purified macrophages were collected. Lung tissue and blood bacteria levels were quantified. Cytokine levels were assayed by ELISA and gene expression levels were evaluated by real time PCR. Cell type identification and quantification was done using real time PCR and flow cytometry. Main Results IL-10 OE mice demonstrated decreased 5 day survival compared to TG-mice following LC+Pneu (0 vs. 30%, pPneu animals (p<0.05). Conclusions Lung specific IL-10 over expression induces alternative activation of alveolar macrophages. This shift in macrophage phenotype decreases intracellular bacterial killing, resulting in a more pronounced bacteremia and accelerated mortality in a model of lung contusion and pneumonia. PMID:24430542

  16. Functional lymphatic alterations in patients suffering from lipedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilancini, S; Lucchi, M; Tucci, S; Eleuteri, P

    1995-04-01

    Lipedema is a chronic vascular disease almost exclusively of female sex, characterized by the deposit of fat on the legs, with an "Egyptian column" shape, orthostatic edema, hypothermia of the skin, alteration of the plantar support, and negativity of Stemmer's sign. The etiology and pathogenesis of this disease are still the object of study, and therapy is very difficult. Various authors have described morphologic and functional alterations of prelymphatic structures and of lymphatic vessels. The big veins remain untouched in the phlebograms and an alteration of the skin elasticity is demonstrated. The present authors have studied by dynamic lymphoscintigraphy 12 women patients suffering from lipedema, and compared the results with those of 5 normal subjects and 5 patients suffering from idiopathic lymphedema who were sex and age matched with the patients suffering from lipedema. The patients suffering from lipedema showed an abnormal lymphoscintigraphic pattern with a slowing of the lymphatic flow that presented some analogies to the alterations found in the patients suffering from lymphedema. A frequent asymmetry was also noticed in the lymphoscintigraphic findings that is in contrast to the symmetry of the clinical profile.

  17. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in bauxite miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J R; de Klerk, N H; Fritschi, L; Sim, M R; Musk, A W; Benke, G; Abramson, M J; McNeil, J J

    2001-09-01

    To determine whether cumulative bauxite exposure is associated with respiratory symptoms or changes in lung function in a group of bauxite miners. Current employees at three bauxite mines in Australia were invited to participate in a survey comprising: questionnaire on demographic details, respiratory symptoms, and work history; skin prick tests for four common aeroallergens; and spirometry. A task exposure matrix was constructed for bauxite exposure in all tasks in all jobs based on monitoring data. Data were examined for associations between cumulative bauxite exposure, and respiratory symptoms and lung function, by regression analyses. The participation rate was 86%. Self-reported work-related respiratory symptoms were reported by relatively few subjects (1.5%-11.8%). After adjustment for age and smoking no significant differences in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms were identified between subjects, in the quartiles of cumulative bauxite exposure distribution. The forced expiratory volume in I s (FEV1) of the exposed group was found to be significantly lower than that for the unexposed group. After adjustment for age, height, and smoking there were no statistically significant differences between quartiles in FEVI, forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEVl/FVC ratio. These data provide little evidence of a serious adverse effect on respiratory health associated with exposure to bauxite in an open-cut bauxite mine in present day conditions.

  18. Serum-surfactant SP-D correlates inversely to lung function in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Holmskov, Uffe; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects the lungs causing infections and inflammation. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate defense lectin primarily secreted in the lungs. We investigated the influence of the SP-D Met11Thr polymorphism on CF lung function; and serum SP-D as a marker for CF...

  19. Lung function studied by servo-controlled ventilator and respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piiper, J.

    1987-01-01

    The gas exchange function of lungs is studied. The gas concentration, measured by mass spectrometry and the lung volume and rate of change of lung volume are discussed. A servo-controlled ventilator is presented. Several experimental projects performed on anesthetized paralyzed dogs are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Changes in positive end-expiratory pressure alter the distribution of ventilation within the lung immediately after birth in newborn rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J Kitchen

    Full Text Available Current recommendations suggest the use of positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP to assist very preterm infants to develop a functional residual capacity (FRC and establish gas exchange at birth. However, maintaining a consistent PEEP is difficult and so the lungs are exposed to changing distending pressures after birth, which can affect respiratory function. Our aim was to determine how changing PEEP levels alters the distribution of ventilation within the lung. Preterm rabbit pups (28 days gestation were delivered and mechanically ventilated with one of three strategies, whereby PEEP was changed in sequence; 0-5-10-5-0 cmH2O, 5-10-0-5-0 cmH2O or 10-5-0-10-0 cmH2O. Phase contrast X-ray imaging was used to analyse the distribution of ventilation in the upper left (UL, upper right (UR, lower left (LL and lower right (LR quadrants of the lung. Initiating ventilation with 10PEEP resulted in a uniform increase in FRC throughout the lung whereas initiating ventilation with 5PEEP or 0PEEP preferentially aerated the UR than both lower quadrants (p<0.05. Consequently, the relative distribution of incoming VT was preferentially directed into the lower lobes at low PEEP, primarily due to the loss of FRC in those lobes. Following ventilation at 10PEEP, the distribution of air at end-inflation was uniform across all quadrants and remained so regardless of the PEEP level. Uniform distribution of ventilation can be achieved by initiating ventilation with a high PEEP. After the lungs have aerated, small and stepped reductions in PEEP result in more uniform changes in ventilation.

  1. Lung function studies in diagnostics and follow-up of pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braadvik, I.

    1994-06-01

    In 66 patients the relationship between lung volumes and lung mechanics in pulmonary sarcoidosis was investigated. Lung volumes, static lung mechanics, lung resistance, dynamic lung mechanics and arterial blood gases at rest and during exercise were obtained. Fifteen functionally compromised patients received steroids during one year. They were re-investigated during the treatment and at a follow-up after an average of 7 years. In another 41 patients with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis, the kinetics of the lung clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA measured over 180 minutes was explored, and compared to kinetics in healthy smokers. The relationship between lung clearance and lung volumes, lung mechanics, arterial blood gases and disease activity assessed with serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and 67 Ga scintigraphy was studied. Reducing lung volumes and compliance, increased resistance and arterial oxygen tension were common. Vital capacity (VC), and changes of VC at follow-up, corresponded to the slope of the static elastic pressure/volume curve, and to the variation of it. Other static lung volumes reflected rather the position of the curve along the volume axis. Reduced VC also reflected obstruction. Forced expiratory volume in one second revealed to equal extent lung stiffness and obstruction. Lung mechanics showed abnormalities not always evident from spirometry.In 50% of the patients lung clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA disclosed an abnormally fast mono-exponential clearance or a bi-exponential clearance, which however differed from that in smokers. Lung clearance more readily detected abnormal function than did spirometry. Clearance did nor correlate with other investigations. 67 Ga lung activity was higher in patients with a pathologic lung clearance

  2. Long-term pulmonary function after surgery for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naohiro; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Kikuchi, Shinji; Goto, Yukinobu; Ichimura, Hideo; Endo, Katsuyuki; Sato, Yukio

    2017-05-01

    Many patients with lung cancer have been cured by surgical intervention. However, the long-term effects of lung resection on pulmonary function are unclear. Therefore, we investigated long-term pulmonary function after surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent surgery for lung cancer between 2001 and 2009. A total of 445 patients who had survived more than 5 years since the surgery were included. The patients were divided into lobectomy, segmentectomy and partial resection groups. The time-dependent changes in pulmonary function were investigated. The percentages of the vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) at postoperative year (POY) 1 vs preoperative values were 92.9 ± 11.1% and 91.3 ± 13.0% in the lobectomy group, 95.9 ± 9.0% and 93.8 ± 10.5% in the segmentectomy group and 97.8 ± 7.3% and 98.1 ± 8.3% in the partial resection group, respectively. The values in the lobectomy group were significantly lower than those in the segmentectomy and partial resection groups. The percentages of vital capacity and FEV 1 at POY 5 vs preoperative values were 90.0 ± 11.5% and 86.2 ± 11.9% in the lobectomy group, 93.4 ± 9.8% and 91.1 ± 9.8% in the segmentectomy group and 94.3 ± 8.8% and 94.0 ± 8.0% in the partial resection group, respectively. The decrease in the rates from POY 1 to POY 5 were not significantly different among the procedures. Pulmonary function declined with pulmonary resection. After the patient recovered from the operation, pulmonary function decreased with time regardless of the surgical procedure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time...

  4. Structural and functional changes in the minipig lung following irradiation of different lung volumes at a constant mean lung dose; Strukturelle und funktionelle Veraenderungen an der Lunge von Minischweinen nach Bestrahlung unterschiedlich grosser Lungenvolumina mit gleicher mittlerer Lungendosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusche, S.; Herrmann, T.; Appold, S.; Hoelscher, T.; Bruechner, K.; Geyer, P.; Baumann, M.; Kumpf, R.

    2004-07-01

    Minipigs were subjected to irradiation of different lung volumes at approximately the same mean lung dose (D{sub m}ean) and examined for structural and morphological changes of the lung. The outcome confirmed earlier findings on the pig lung. While no significant differences between irradiation groups was found in terms of functional lung changes, there was a clear correlation between functional changes observed and the mean lung dose. This is in good agreement with data from clinical studies. It follows that the mean lung dose is of predictive value in considering functional lung damage in the assessment of different irradiation regimes. By contrast structural damage was found to correlate with applied dose. [German] Es wurden an Minischweinen unterschiedliche grosse Lungenvolumina mit vergleichbaren mittleren Lungendosen (mean lung dose, D{sub mean}) bestrahlt und die funktionellen und morphologischen Veraenderungen bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen zu funktionellen und morphologischen Veaenderungen bestaetigen fruehere Untersuchungen an der Schweinelunge. Hinsichtlich funktioneller Lungenveraenderungen fand sich kein signifikanter Unterschied zwischen den Bestrahlungsarmen, aber es konnte eine eindeutige Korrelation dieser Veraenderungen mit der mittleren Lungendosis D{sub mean} nachgewiesen werden. Dies steht in gutem Einklang mit Daten aus klinischen Untersuchungen. Somit bestaetigt sich, dass die mean lung dose eine praediktive Bedeutung zur Abschaetzung funktionaler Schaeden der Lunge bei der Beurteilung unterschiedlicher Bestrahlungsplaene hat. Die strukturellen Schaeden korrelieren hingegen mit der applizierten Dosis. (orig.)

  5. Altered functional connectivity of interoception in illness anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Dario; Longarzo, Mariachiara; Quarantelli, Mario; Salvatore, Elena; Cavaliere, Carlo; De Luca, Paolofabrizio; Trojano, Luigi; Aiello, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Interoception collects all information coming from the body and is sustained by several brain areas such as insula and cingulate cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate functional connectivity (FC) of networks implied in interoception in patients with Illness anxiety disorders (IADs). We observed significantly reduced FC between the left extrastriate body area (EBA) and the paracentral lobule compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the correlation analysis between behavioural questionnaires and ROI to ROI FC showed that higher levels of illness anxiety were related to hyper-connectivity between EBA and amygdala and hippocampus. Scores on a questionnaire for interoceptive awareness were significantly correlated with higher FC between right hippocampus and nucleus accumbens bilaterally, and with higher connectivity between left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Last, patients showed increased interoceptive awareness, measured by Self-Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ), and reduced capability in recognizing emotions, indicating inverse correlation between interoception and emotional awareness. Taken together our results suggested that, in absence of structural and micro-structural changes, patients with IADs show functional alteration in the neural network involved in the self-body representation; such functional alteration might be the target of possible treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytochemicals perturb membranes and promiscuously alter protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Thakur, Pratima; Herold, Karl F; Hobart, E Ashley; Ramsey, Nicole B; Periole, Xavier; de Jong, Djurre H; Zwama, Martijn; Yilmaz, Duygu; Hall, Katherine; Maretzky, Thorsten; Hemmings, Hugh C; Blobel, Carl; Marrink, Siewert J; Koçer, Armağan; Sack, Jon T; Andersen, Olaf S

    2014-08-15

    A wide variety of phytochemicals are consumed for their perceived health benefits. Many of these phytochemicals have been found to alter numerous cell functions, but the mechanisms underlying their biological activity tend to be poorly understood. Phenolic phytochemicals are particularly promiscuous modifiers of membrane protein function, suggesting that some of their actions may be due to a common, membrane bilayer-mediated mechanism. To test whether bilayer perturbation may underlie this diversity of actions, we examined five bioactive phenols reported to have medicinal value: capsaicin from chili peppers, curcumin from turmeric, EGCG from green tea, genistein from soybeans, and resveratrol from grapes. We find that each of these widely consumed phytochemicals alters lipid bilayer properties and the function of diverse membrane proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations show that these phytochemicals modify bilayer properties by localizing to the bilayer/solution interface. Bilayer-modifying propensity was verified using a gramicidin-based assay, and indiscriminate modulation of membrane protein function was demonstrated using four proteins: membrane-anchored metalloproteases, mechanosensitive ion channels, and voltage-dependent potassium and sodium channels. Each protein exhibited similar responses to multiple phytochemicals, consistent with a common, bilayer-mediated mechanism. Our results suggest that many effects of amphiphilic phytochemicals are due to cell membrane perturbations, rather than specific protein binding.

  7. SU-E-J-86: Lobar Lung Function Quantification by PET Galligas and CT Ventilation Imaging in Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslick, E; Kipritidis, J; Keall, P; Bailey, D; Bailey, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the lobar lung function using the novel PET Galligas ([68Ga]-carbon nanoparticle) ventilation imaging and the investigational CT ventilation imaging in lung cancer patients pre-treatment. Methods: We present results on our first three lung cancer patients (2 male, mean age 78 years) as part of an ongoing ethics approved study. For each patient a PET Galligas ventilation (PET-V) image and a pair of breath hold CT images (end-exhale and end-inhale tidal volumes) were acquired using a Siemens Biograph PET CT. CT-ventilation (CT-V) images were created from the pair of CT images using deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms and the Hounsfield Unit (HU) ventilation metric. A comparison of ventilation quantification from each modality was done on the lobar level and the voxel level. A Bland-Altman plot was used to assess the difference in mean percentage contribution of each lobe to the total lung function between the two modalities. For each patient, a voxel-wise Spearmans correlation was calculated for the whole lungs between the two modalities. Results: The Bland-Altman plot demonstrated strong agreement between PET-V and CT-V for assessment of lobar function (r=0.99, p<0.001; range mean difference: −5.5 to 3.0). The correlation between PET-V and CT-V at the voxel level was moderate(r=0.60, p<0.001). Conclusion: This preliminary study on the three patients data sets demonstrated strong agreement between PET and CT ventilation imaging for the assessment of pre-treatment lung function at the lobar level. Agreement was only moderate at the level of voxel correlations. These results indicate that CT ventilation imaging has potential for assessing pre-treatment lobar lung function in lung cancer patients

  8. Lung Deflation and Cardiovascular Structure and Function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Ian S; Barnes, Neil C; James, Wai-Yee; Midwinter, Dawn; Boubertakh, Redha; Follows, Richard; John, Leonette; Petersen, Steffen E

    2016-04-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease develop increased cardiovascular morbidity with structural alterations. To investigate through a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study the effect of lung deflation on cardiovascular structure and function using cardiac magnetic resonance. Forty-five hyperinflated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were randomized (1:1) to 7 (maximum 14) days inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 100/25 μg or placebo (7-day minimum washout). Primary outcome was change from baseline in right ventricular end-diastolic volume index versus placebo. There was a 5.8 ml/m(2) (95% confidence interval, 2.74-8.91; P deflation on intrinsic myocardial function. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01691885).

  9. Virus Innexins induce alterations in insect cell and tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Daniel K; Erickson, Stephanie L; Hersh, Bradley M; Turnbull, Matthew W

    2017-04-01

    Polydnaviruses are dsDNA viruses that induce immune and developmental alterations in their caterpillar hosts. Characterization of polydnavirus gene families and family members is necessary to understand mechanisms of pathology and evolution of these viruses, and may aid to elucidate the role of host homologues if present. For example, the polydnavirus vinnexin gene family encodes homologues of insect gap junction genes (innexins) that are expressed in host immune cells (hemocytes). While the roles of Innexin proteins and gap junctions in insect immunity are largely unclear, we previously demonstrated that Vinnexins form functional gap junctions and alter the junctional characteristics of a host Innexin when co-expressed in paired Xenopus oocytes. Here, we test the effect of ectopic vinnexin expression on host cell physiology using both a lepidopteran cell culture model and a dipteran whole organism model. Vinnexin expression in the cell culture system resulted in gene-specific alterations in cell morphology and a slight, but non-statistically significant, reduction in gap junction activity as measured by dye transfer, while ectopic expression of a lepidopteran innexin2 gene led to morphological alterations and increase in gap junction activity. Global ectopic expression in the model dipteran, Drosophila melanogaster, of one vinnexin (vinnexinG) or D. melanogaster innexin2 (Dm-inx2) resulted in embryonic lethality, while expression of the other vinnexin genes had no effect. Furthermore, ectopic expression of vinnexinG, but not other vinnexin genes or Dm-inx2, in D. melanogaster larval gut resulted in developmental arrest in the pupal stage. These data indicate the vinnexins likely have gene-specific roles in host manipulation. They also support the use of Drosophila in further analysis of the role of Vinnexins and other polydnavirus genes in modifying host physiological processes. Finally, our findings suggest the vinnexin genes may be useful to perturb and

  10. Interleukin 10 overexpression alters survival in the setting of gram-negative pneumonia following lung contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgachev, Vladislav A; Yu, Bi; Sun, Lei; Shanley, Thomas P; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Hemmila, Mark R

    2014-04-01

    Lung contusion injury produces a vulnerable window within the inflammatory defenses of the lung that predisposes the patient to pneumonia. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a known anti-inflammatory mediator produced by macrophages and capable of downregulating acute lung inflammation. We investigated the impact of increased levels of IL-10 within the lung on survival and the host response to trauma in the setting of lung contusion (LC) and gram-negative pneumonia. A bitransgenic, tetracycline-inducible, lung-specific human IL-10 overexpression (IL-10 OE) mouse model and single transgenic (TG-) control mice were used. Mice underwent LC injury or sham injury (sham) at time -6 h. At time 0, animals were inoculated intratracheally with 500 colony-forming units of Klebsiella pneumoniae (pneu). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissue specimens, or purified macrophages were collected. Lung tissue and blood bacteria levels were quantified. Cytokine levels were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gene expression levels were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell-type identification and quantification were done using real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Interleukin 10 OE mice demonstrated decreased 5-day survival compared with TG- mice following LC + pneu (0 vs. 30%, P pneu animals (P < 0.05). Lung-specific IL-10 overexpression induces alternative activation of alveolar macrophages. This shift in macrophage phenotype decreases intracellular bacterial killing, resulting in a more pronounced bacteremia and accelerated mortality in a model of LC and pneumonia.

  11. Sinus surgery can improve quality of life, lung infections, and lung function in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Aanaes, Kasper; Hoiby, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and bacterial sinusitis are ubiquitous in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). From the sinuses, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can infect the lungs. Methods We studied the effect of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) on symptoms of CRS and lower airway...... patients (62%). Four patients with preoperative P. aeruginosa lung colonization (25%) had no regrowth during follow-up; 2 of these had P. aeruginosa sinusitis. Sinonasal symptoms were improved 12 months after ESS and we observed a trend toward better lung function after ESS. Conclusion We demonstrated...

  12. Single Tyrosine Mutation in AAV8 Vector Capsid Enhances Gene Lung Delivery and Does Not Alter Lung Morphofunction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina V. Martini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Vectors derived from adeno-associated viruses (AAVs are important gene delivery tools for treating pulmonary diseases. Phosphorylation of surface-exposed tyrosine residues from AAV2 capsid targets the viral particles for ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation, and mutations of these tyrosine residues lead to highly efficient vector transduction in vitro and in vivo in different organs. We evaluated the pulmonary transduction efficiency of AAV8 vectors containing point mutations in surface-exposed capsid tyrosine residues. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice (20-25 g, n=24 were randomly assigned into three groups: control group animals received intratracheal (i.t. instillation of saline (50 μl, wild-type AAV8 group, and capsid mutant Y733F AAV8 group, which received (i.t. AAV8 vectors containing the DNA sequence of enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP. Four weeks after instillation, lung mechanics and morphometry, vector transduction (immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression of eGFP, and inflammatory cytokines and growth factor expression were analyzed. Results: Tyrosine-mutant AAV8 vectors displayed significantly increased transduction efficiency in the lung compared with their wild-type counterparts. No significant differences were observed in lung mechanics and morphometry between experimental groups. There was no evidence of inflammatory response in any group. Conclusion: AAV8 vectors may be useful for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of pulmonary diseases.

  13. Ethanol alters alveolar fluid balance via Nadph oxidase (NOX signaling to epithelial sodium channels (ENaC in the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A Downs

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased incidence of ICU-related morbidity and mortality, primarily from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. One explanation is that alcohol regulates epithelial sodium channels (ENaC via oxidant signaling to promote a pro- injury environment. We used small rodent models to mimic acute and chronic alcohol consumption and tested the hypothesis that ethanol (EtOH would affect lung fluid clearance by up-regulating ENaC activity in the lung. Fluorescence labeling of rat lung slices and in vivo mouse lung revealed an increase in ROS production in response to acute EtOH exposure. Using western blots and fluorescein-5-maleimide labeling, we conclude that EtOH exposure modifies cysteines of α-ENaC while data from single channel patch clamp analysis confirm that 0.16% EtOH increased ENaC activity in rat alveolar cells. In vivo lung fluid clearance demonstrated a latent increase in fluid clearance in mice receiving EtOH diet. Ethanol mice given a tracheal instillation of LPS demonstrated early lung fluid clearance compared to caloric control mice and C57Bl/6 mice. Standard biochemical techniques reveal that chronic EtOH consumption resulted in greater protein expression of the catalytic gp91(phox subunit and the obligate Rac1 protein. Collectively these data suggest that chronic EtOH consumption may lead to altered regulation of ENaC, contributing to a 'pro-injury' environment in the alcohol lung.

  14. Lung function in retired coke oven plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N; Bertrand, J P; Guenzi, M; Mayer, L; Téculescu, D; Mur, J M; Patris, A; Moulin, J J; Pham, Q T

    1992-01-01

    Lung function was studied in 354 coke oven plant workers in the Lorraine collieries (Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine, France) who retired between 1963 and 1982 and were still alive on 1 January 1988. A spirometric examination was performed on 68.4% of them in the occupational health service. Occupational exposure to respiratory hazards throughout their career was retraced for each subject. No adverse effect of occupational exposure on ventilatory function was found. Ventilatory function was, however negatively linked with smoking and with the presence of a respiratory symptom or discrete abnormalities visible on pulmonary x ray films. The functional values were mostly slightly lower than predicted values and the most reduced index was the mean expiratory flow, FEF25-75%. The decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was often parallel to that in forced vital capacity (FVC), but it was more pronounced for subjects who had worked underground, for smokers of more than 30 pack-years, and for subjects having a respiratory symptom. Pulmonary function indices were probably overestimated because of the exclusion of deceased subjects and the bias of the participants. PMID:1599869

  15. A cross sectional study on lung functions in athletes, singers, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity when performed regularly has beneficial effects on the various systems of the body, pulmonary functions inclusive. This study was aimed at determining the effect singing and athletics have on the lung functions as compared to sedentary lifestyle, and whether athletes differ in lung functions from singers in ...

  16. Connectomics and neuroticism: an altered functional network organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servaas, Michelle N; Geerligs, Linda; Renken, Remco J; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriëtte; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    The personality trait neuroticism is a potent risk marker for psychopathology. Although the neurobiological basis remains unclear, studies have suggested that alterations in connectivity may underlie it. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to shed more light on the functional network organization in neuroticism. To this end, we applied graph theory on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in 120 women selected based on their neuroticism score. Binary and weighted brain-wide graphs were constructed to examine changes in the functional network structure and functional connectivity strength. Furthermore, graphs were partitioned into modules to specifically investigate connectivity within and between functional subnetworks related to emotion processing and cognitive control. Subsequently, complex network measures (ie, efficiency and modularity) were calculated on the brain-wide graphs and modules, and correlated with neuroticism scores. Compared with low neurotic individuals, high neurotic individuals exhibited a whole-brain network structure resembling more that of a random network and had overall weaker functional connections. Furthermore, in these high neurotic individuals, functional subnetworks could be delineated less clearly and the majority of these subnetworks showed lower efficiency, while the affective subnetwork showed higher efficiency. In addition, the cingulo-operculum subnetwork demonstrated more ties with other functional subnetworks in association with neuroticism. In conclusion, the 'neurotic brain' has a less than optimal functional network organization and shows signs of functional disconnectivity. Moreover, in high compared with low neurotic individuals, emotion and salience subnetworks have a more prominent role in the information exchange, while sensory(-motor) and cognitive control subnetworks have a less prominent role.

  17. p53 alterations in atypical alveolar hyperplasia of the human lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, R. J.; Baas, I. O.; Clement, M. J.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Askin, F. B.; Hruban, R. H.; Westra, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Atypical alveolar hyperplasia (AAH) is a potential precursor lesion from which lung adenocarcinomas arise and may be a good target for studying the early events of lung tumorigenesis. We have previously shown that AAHs are neoplastic epithelial proliferations that often harbor activating mutations

  18. Lung function after extremely preterm birth-A population-based cohort study (EXPRESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunqvist, Per; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Winberg, Anna; Fellman, Vineta; Domellöf, Magnus; Melén, Erik; Norman, Mikael; Hallberg, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    Follow-up studies of children and young adults born very-to-moderately preterm show persistent and significant lung function deficits. The aim of the study was to determine lung function and airway mechanics in school-aged children born in 2004 to 2007 and extremely preterm (after 22-26 weeks of gestation). In a population-based cohort of children born extremely preterm and controls born at term (n = 350), follow-up at 6½-years-of-age was performed using spirometry and impulse oscillometry. Associations to gestational age, smallness for gestational age (SGA), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were assessed. Children born extremely preterm had lower forced vital capacity (FVC, z-score: -0.7, 95%CI: -1.0;-0.4), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 , z-score: -1.1, 95%CI: -1.4; -0.8), higher frequency-dependence of resistance (R 5-20 , 0.09, 95%CI: 0.05; 0.12 kPa · L -1  · s -1 ) and larger area under the reactance curve (AX, 0.78, 95%CI: 0.49; 1.07 kPa · L -1 ) than controls. In children born at 22-24 weeks of gestation, 24% had FVC and 44% had FEV 1 below the lower limit of normal. SGA and severe BPD only marginally contributed to pulmonary outcomes. Asthma-like disease was reported in 40% of extremely preterm children and 15% of controls. Many children born extremely preterm have altered airway mechanics and significant obstructive reduction in lung function. This warrants consideration for treatment and continued follow-up. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  20. A longitudinal study of lung function in jute processing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Zhou, C; Lou, J

    1992-01-01

    A 5-y follow-up study of pulmonary function was conducted in 1982 and in 1987 for 50 current and retired jute-processing workers who had been employed for more than 10 y in a jute mill in China. Control subjects, who had no history of dust or gas exposure, were selected from a paper-packing plant in the same city. Forced expiratory maneuvers were conducted in the same manner in both 1982 and 1987. The jute workers' pulmonary functions, i.e., forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0), and forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75%), were more compromised than were pulmonary functions in the controls for the same 5-y period; however, only the increased incidence of abnormal FEV1.0s in jute workers was statistically significant. Male jute workers had significantly higher annual decrements of FVC, FEV1.0, and FEF25-75% than did control workers. Regression analysis indicated that in 1987, predicted values of FEV1.0 and FEF25-75% for the jute workers were related to years of employment. Our results suggest that long-term exposure to jute dust could produce chronic loss of lung function.

  1. Socioeconomic status, lung function and admission to hospital for COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1999-01-01

    . Association between socioeconomic factors and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at study entry was analysed by linear regression. The relation between socioeconomic factors and risk of admission to hospital for COPD from study entry until 1993 was assessed...... and duration of smoking and inhalation, the difference was 220+/-31 mL and 363+/-39 mL in females and males, respectively. Results for FVC were of the same magnitude. Using a socioeconomic index which combined information on education and household income the association with lung function did not differ...... by age. A total of 219 females and 265 males were admitted to hospital for COPD during follow-up. Education and income were significantly associated with admission to hospital. After detailed adjustment for smoking the relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for medium and high versus low socioeconomic...

  2. Socioeconomic status, lung function and admission to hospital for COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1999-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of education and income on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessing lung function and hospital admission. The study population consisted of 14,223 subjects, aged 20-90 yrs, randomly sampled from the population of Copenhagen in 1976...... index in females were 0.74 (0.55-1.02) and 0.27 (0.10-0.73), respectively. Corresponding relative risks in males were 0.47 (0.36-0.63) and 0.35 (0.17-0.70). The results indicate that socioeconomic factors operating from early in life affect the adult risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary....... Association between socioeconomic factors and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at study entry was analysed by linear regression. The relation between socioeconomic factors and risk of admission to hospital for COPD from study entry until 1993 was assessed...

  3. Visual function alterations in essential tremor: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose is to report alterations in contrast sensitivity function (CSF and in the magno, parvo and koniocellular visual pathways by means of a multichannel perimeter in case of an essential tremor (ET. A complete evaluation of the visual function was performed in a 69-year old patient, including the analysis of the chromatic discrimination by the Fansworth–Munsell 100 hue test, the measurement of the CSF by the CSV-1000E test, and the detection of potential alteration patterns in the magno, parvo and koniocellular visual pathways by means of a multichannel perimeter. Visual acuity and intraocular pressure (IOP were within the ranges of normality in both eyes. No abnormalities were detected in the fundoscopic examination and in the optical coherence tomography (OCT exam. The results of the color vision examination were also within the ranges of normality. A significant decrease in the achromatic CSFs for right eye (RE and left eye (LE was detected for all spatial frequencies. The statistical global values provided by the multichannel perimeter confirms that there were significant absolute sensitivity losses compared to the normal pattern in RE. In the LE, only a statistically significant decrease in sensitivity was detected for the blue-yellow (BY channel. The pattern standard deviation (PSD values obtained in our patient indicated that there were significant localized losses compared to the normality pattern in the achromatic channel of the RE and in the red-green (RG channel of the LE. Some color vision alterations may be present in ET that cannot be detected with conventional color vision tests, such as the FM 100 Hue.

  4. Investigation of cadmium-induced alterations in renal glomerular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    This research was designed to test the hypothesis that certain aspects of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction are the result of glomerular, rather than classic tubular, injury. To determine whether cadmium-induced proteinuria was due to altered glomerular function, cadmium was administered chronically at a concentration of 185 ppm in the drinking water. This protocol resulted in the production of proteinuria which when analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay was indistinguishable from that occurring in control rats. Glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, and filtration fraction were all significantly depressed after 20-30 weeks of exposure. In order to further investigate these alterations in glomerular function, an acute exposure model was developed. It was found that a single i.p. injection of cadmium in mercaptoethanol resulted in the onset of acute renal failure. The clinical picture was characterized by a reduction in glomerular filtrate rate of 50-90% within 24 hours, with partial to total recovery occurring by day 7 post-exposure. Histological evidence indicated that to a large extent the reduction in GFR was due to tubular blockade and/or backleak of filtrate across damaged tubules

  5. The loss of Hoxa5 function promotes Notch-dependent goblet cell metaplasia in lung airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Boucherat

    2012-05-01

    Hox genes encode transcription factors controlling complex developmental processes in various organs. Little is known, however, about how HOX proteins control cell fate. Herein, we demonstrate that the goblet cell metaplasia observed in lung airways from Hoxa5−/− mice originates from the transdifferentiation of Clara cells. Reduced CC10 expression in Hoxa5−/− embryos indicates that altered cell specification occurs prior to birth. The loss of Hoxa5 function does not preclude airway repair after naphthalene exposure, but the regenerated epithelium presents goblet cell metaplasia and less CC10-positive cells, demonstrating the essential role of Hoxa5 for correct differentiation. Goblet cell metaplasia in Hoxa5−/− mice is a FOXA2-independent process. However, it is associated with increased Notch signaling activity. Consistent with these findings, expression levels of activated NOTCH1 and the effector gene HEY2 are enhanced in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In vivo administration of a γ-secretase inhibitor attenuates goblet cell metaplasia in Hoxa5−/− mice, highlighting the contribution of Notch signaling to the phenotype and suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy to inhibit goblet cell differentiation and mucus overproduction in airway diseases. In summary, the loss of Hoxa5 function in lung mesenchyme impacts on epithelial cell fate by modulating Notch signaling.

  6. [Bilateral dorsal sympathectomy for the treatment of primary hyperhidrosis: effects on lung function at 3 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Laura; Calaf, Núria; Feixas, Teresa; Casan, Pere

    2010-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is characterized by excessive sweating of the palms, soles, and axillae due to overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system at the level of the second and third sympathetic thoracic ganglia. The treatment of choice is bilateral dorsal sympathectomy performed using video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). The objective of our study was to determine whether lung function changes observed in a group of patients prior to bilateral dorsal sympathectomy performed using VATS were still evident 3 years after surgery. Of the 20 patients studied at baseline, we were able to obtain data for 18 (3 men and 15 women; mean age, 35 y). They underwent spirometry and a bronchial challenge test with methacholine, and the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) was measured. The results were compared with those of the tests performed before surgery. At 3 years from baseline, we detected a statistically significant increase in forced vital capacity from a mean (SD) of 96% (10%) to 101% (11%) (P=.008), and a statistically significant decrease in midexpiratory flow rate from 3.8 (0.9)L/s to 3.5 (0.9)L/s (P=.01). The results of the bronchial challenge test with methacholine and the FE(NO) remained unchanged. The lung function changes detected point toward minimal, clinically insignificant small airway alterations due to sympathetic denervation following bilateral dorsal sympathectomy performed 3 years earlier. Copyright (c) 2008 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Physiological and Functional Alterations after Spaceflight and Bed Rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Miller, Chris A; Kofman, Igor S; Reschke, Millard F; Taylor, Laura C; Lawrence, Emily L; Wood, Scott J; Laurie, Steven S; Lee, Stuart M C; Buxton, Roxanne E; May-Phillips, Tiffany R; Stenger, Michael B; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L; Ryder, Jeffrey W; Feiveson, Alan H; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2018-04-03

    Exposure to microgravity causes alterations in multiple physiological systems, potentially impacting the ability of astronauts to perform critical mission tasks. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on functional task performance and to identify the key physiological factors contributing to their deficits. A test battery comprised of 7 functional tests and 15 physiological measures was used to investigate the sensorimotor, cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations to spaceflight. Astronauts were tested before and after 6-month spaceflights. Subjects were also tested before and after 70 days of 6° head-down bed rest, a spaceflight analog, to examine the role of axial body unloading on the spaceflight results. These subjects included Control and Exercise groups to examine the effects of exercise during bed rest. Spaceflight subjects showed the greatest decrement in performance during functional tasks that required the greatest demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium which was paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests that assessed postural and dynamic gait control. Other changes included reduced lower limb muscle performance and increased heart rate to maintain blood pressure. Exercise performed during bed rest prevented detrimental change in neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, however, both bed rest groups experienced functional and balance deficits similar to spaceflight subjects. Bed rest data indicates that body support unloading experienced during spaceflight contributes to postflight postural control dysfunction. Further, the bed rest results in the Exercise group of subjects confirm that resistance and aerobic exercises performed during spaceflight can play an integral role in maintaining neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, which can help in reducing decrements in functional performance. These results indicate that a countermeasure to mitigate postflight postural control dysfunction is

  8. CHANGES IN LUNG FUNCTION IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH EXOGENOUS ALLERGIC ALVEOLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Nefedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total lung capacity (TLC, lung capacity (LC, forced LC (FLC, intrathoracic volume (ITV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 , (FEV1 /LC%, peak expiratory flow (PEF, maximum expiratory flow rate (MEFR25, MEFR50, MEFR75, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SB/VА, РаО2 , and РаСО2 were determined in 43 patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA before, during, and after treatment with glucocorticosteroids, hemapheresis, ambroxol, and fluimucil. Lung function became better in more than half (53.5% of the patients and worse in one fourth (25.6%; a combination of positive and negative functional changes was detected in 14.0%. Improved lung function was noted in 75.0, 50.0, and 38.5% of the patients with acute, subacute, and chronic EAA, respectively. Deterioration of lung function was determined in 46.2, 22.2, and 8.3% of the patients with chronic, subacute, and acute alveolitis, respectively. Better lung function manifested itself mainly as positive changes in lung volumes and capacities and pulmonary gas exchange function, less frequently as improved bronchial patency in the patients with acute and subacute EAA whereas the rate of positive functional changes in lung volumes and capacities, bronchial patency, and pulmonary gas exchange function was equal in those with chronic EAA. Poorer lung function appeared as negative changes in lung volumes and capacities in the patients with acute EAA, as worse pulmonary gas exchange function and negative changes in lung volumes and capacities and deteriorated bronchial patency in those with subacute and chronic EAA.

  9. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure adversely alters 14C-arachidonic acid metabolism in rat lungs, aortas and platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubawy, W.C.; Valentovic, M.A.; Atkinson, J.E.; Gairola, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    Male rats were exposed to freshly generated cigarette smoke once daily, 5 times a week for 10 weeks. Inhalation of smoke was verified by elevated carboxyhemoglobin in blood sampled immediately after smoke exposure and by increased lung aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity 24 hours after the last smoke exposure. Aortic rings isolated from smoke-exposed rats synthesized less prostacyclin (PGI2) from 14 C-arachidonic acid than rings from sham rats. Platelets from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more thromboxane (TXA2) from 14 C-arachidonic acid than platelets from room controls but not those from sham rats. Lung microsomes from smoke-exposed rats synthesized more TXA2 and had a lower PGI2/TXA2 ratio than lung microsomes from room controls and shams. It is concluded that chronic cigarette smoke exposure alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortas, platelets and lungs in a manner resulting in decreased PGI2 and increased TXA2, thereby creating a condition favoring platelet aggregation and a variety of cardiovascular diseases

  10. Altered osteoblast structure and function in parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong-Quan, Dai; Ying-Hui, Li; Fen, Yang; Bai, Ding; Ying-Jun, Tan

    Introduction Bone loss has a significant impact on astronauts during spaceflight being one of the main obstacles preventing interplanetary missions However the exact mechanism is not well understood In the present study we investigated the effects of acute gravitational changes generated by parabolic flight on the structure and function of osteoblasts ROS17 2 8 carried by airbus A300 Methods The alteration of microfilament cytoskeleton was observed by the Texas red conjugated Phalloidin and Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated DNase I immunofluorescence stain ALP activity and expression COL1A1 expression osteocalcin secrete which presenting the osteoblast function were detected by modified calcium and cobalt method RT-PCR and radioimmunity methods respectively Results The changed gravity induced the reorganization of microfilament cytoskeleton of osteoblast After 3 hours parabolic flight F-actin of osteoblast cytoskeleton became more thickness and directivity whereas G-actin reduced and relatively concentrated at the edge of nucleus observed by confocal fluorescence microscopy This phenomenon is identical with structure alternation observed in hypergravity but the osteoblast function decrease The excretion of osteocalcin the activity and mRNA expression of ALP decrease but the COL1A1 expression has no changes These results were similar to the changes in simulated or real microgravity Conclusion Above results suggest that short time gravity alternative change induce osteoblast structure and function

  11. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Birgitte Kjær; Jensen, Jørgen S; Nielsen, Kim G

    2008-01-01

    by whole-body plethysmography and bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed by cold, dry air hyperventilation. Neither baseline lung function nor bronchial response to cold dry air hyperventilation differed between M. pneumoniae-positive and -negative children: mean baseline lung function were 1.17 versus...

  12. CT-quantified emphysema distribution is associated with lung function decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoesein, F.A.A.M.; Rikxoort, E.M. van; Ginneken, B. van; de Jong, P. A.; Prokop, M.; Lammers, J.W.; Zanen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Emphysema distribution is associated with COPD. It is however unknown whether CT-quantified emphysema distribution (upper/lower lobe) is associated with lung function decline in heavy (former) smokers.587 male participants underwent lung CT-scanning and pulmonary function testing at baseline and

  13. Lung split function test and pneumonectomy. A lower limit for operability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Dige-Petersen, H; Lund, J O

    1978-01-01

    Regional 133Xe ventilation/perfusion studies were used to predict residual lung function after pulmonary resections. The accuracy of the method was good as checked by postoperative spirometry in 11 patients. In 25 patients with impaired lung function and pulmonary cancer, who were consecutively...

  14. Air Pollution Exposure and Lung Function in Children : The ESCAPE Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Gruzieva, Olena; Agius, Raymond M.; Beelen, Rob; Custovic, Adnan; Cyrys, Josef; Eeftens, Marloes; Flexeder, Claudia; Fuertes, Elaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Kluemper, Claudia; Korek, Michal; Moelter, Anna; Schultz, Erica S.; Simpson, Angela; Sugiri, Dorothea; Svartengren, Magnus; von Berg, Andrea; Wijga, Alet H.; Pershagen, Goeran; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence for adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on lung function of children. Quantitative summaries of the effects of air pollution on lung function, however, are lacking due to large differences among studies. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the association between

  15. [The clinical application value of dual source CT quantification volume imaging to forecast lung cancer patients' postoperative pulmonary function changing: a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liang, Chaoyang; Guo, Juntang; Ma, Yongfu; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Pu; Yang, Gongzheng; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    To probe the clinical application and value of dual source CT quantification volume imaging to forecast lung cancer patients' postoperative pulmonary function changing. Between June 2012 and June 2013, there were 233 patients (121 male patients and 112 female patients, with a mean age of (53 ± 16) years) who accepted the thoracoscope lobectomy or unilateral holo-lungs pneumonectomy accepted pulmonary function test before and after 3 months of the surgery. CT scan was conducted at both inspiration phase and expiration phase before the surgery and the lung volume of the single lobe, the pixel exponential distribution histogram, and the average lung density were measured after CT scan. The discrepancy and correlation between the preoperative lung volume accepted by CT and preoperative, postoperative pulmonary function index were compared. The CT volume scan showed that average lung density of the superior part at decubitus position is -(870 ± 22) HU, the inferior part was -(767 ± 16) HU (t = 3.13, P dual source CT quantification volume imaging to predict lung cancer patients' postoperative pulmonary function alteration, which can provide precise predictive value of these patients. CT quantification volume imaging technology has important clinical application value.

  16. Altered effector function of peripheral cytotoxic cells in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corne Jonathan M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting evidence that perforin and granzymes are important mediators in the lung destruction seen in COPD. We investigated the characteristics of the three main perforin and granzyme containing peripheral cells, namely CD8+ T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK; CD56+CD3- cells and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated and cell numbers and intracellular granzyme B and perforin were analysed by flow cytometry. Immunomagnetically selected CD8+ T lymphocytes, NK (CD56+CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells were used in an LDH release assay to determine cytotoxicity and cytotoxic mechanisms were investigated by blocking perforin and granzyme B with relevant antibodies. Results The proportion of peripheral blood NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells in smokers with COPD (COPD subjects was significantly lower (0.6% than in healthy smokers (smokers (2.8%, p +CD3- cells from COPD subjects were significantly less cytotoxic than in smokers (16.8% vs 51.9% specific lysis, p +CD3+ cells (16.7% vs 52.4% specific lysis, p +CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells from smokers and HNS. Conclusion In this study, we show that the relative numbers of peripheral blood NK (CD56+CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells in COPD subjects are reduced and that their cytotoxic effector function is defective.

  17. A plethysmographic method for measuring function in locally irradiated mouse lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, E.L.; Vojnovic, B.; Hirst, D.G.; Davies, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    A plethysmograph has been developed to measure pulmonary function in mice after single doses of X rays to both lungs. The apparatus consists of a whole-body airtight chamber fitted with a Lavalier microphone. The microphone acts as a sensitive electrical capacitance manometer converting pressure changes in the chamber into an electrical signal which is electronically processed and recorded on a pen recorder. Two parameters of lung function were simultaneously monitored, breathing rate and amplitude. Lung function has been tested in male CBA mice aged two to six months and in animals which have received graded X-ray doses to both lungs. No diurnal rhythm or age-related increase has been observed up to six months in control mice. The two lung-function parameters exhibited a dose-dependent response in irradiated lungs tested 16 weeks after irradiation; the response was reproducible in successive experiments. Respiration rate was increased above a threshold dose of 11 Gy (1100 rad), while amplitude decreased, also with a threshold at 11 Gy. These changes were observed before hisotological evidence of fibrosis became apparent and before pulmonary insufficiency led to deaths in the higher dose groups. The measurement of lung function by plethysmography is an alternative to lethality for assessing radiation damage in the lungs of small animals. The technique is non-destructive, responding to lower doses than LD 50 , and allows quantitative assessment of sequential changes in the lungs in each mouse over long post-irradiation times. (author)

  18. Longitudinal study of lung function in a cohort of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellerman, A; Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) have pronounced stasis of their respiratory secretions and therefore recurrent lower airway infections, which raises concerns for the development of lung function. Twenty four patients with PCD have been studied prospectively with a standardized regime...... in our clinic for 2-16 yrs with clinic visits, including spirometry 2-4 times per year, daily physiotherapy and monthly sputum cultures with subsequent specific antibiotic treatment. Lung function was significantly lower in the 12 PCD patients entering the cohort as adults when compared to the PCD......, respectively, the lung function remained stable in most patients. It is concluded that primary ciliary dyskinesia is accompanied by a progressive deterioration in lung function if undertreated, but lung function can be maintained with appropriate antibiotic treatment and regular physiotherapy. This emphasizes...

  19. Lung function not affected by asbestos exposure in workers with normal Computed Tomography scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikowsky, Christian; Felten, Michael K; Eisenhawer, Christian; Das, Marco; Kraus, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    It has been suggested that asbestos exposure affects lung function, even in the absence of asbestos-related pulmonary interstitial or pleural changes or emphysema. We analyzed associations between well-known asbestos-related risk factors, such as individual cumulative asbestos exposure, and key lung function parameters in formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers (N = 207) with normal CT scans. For this, we excluded participants with emphysema, fibrosis, pleural changes, or any combination of these. The lung function parameters of FVC, FEV1, DLCO/VA, and airway resistance were significantly associated with the burden of smoking, BMI and years since end of exposure (only DLCO/VA). However, they were not affected by factors directly related to amount (eg, cumulative exposure) or duration of asbestos exposure. Our results confirm the well-known correlation between lung function, smoking habits, and BMI. However, we found no significant association between lung function and asbestos exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Altered mitochondrial function after acute alteration of the endogenous insulin/glucagon ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohweder-Dunn, G.; Aprille, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH) affects pancreatic Islet cells to cause a drop in serum insulin and a rise in glucagon. This effect peaks 1 hr after injection and results in a 3-fold increase in serum glucose. Here they examined whether metabolic functions of liver mitochondria (mito) are altered by this change in hormone status. Rats fed ad lib on 12 hr light/dark cycles were given MH (2g/kg) or vehicle i.p. during the first 2 hrs of the light cycle. Liver mito were isolated 1 hr later. Acid-extracts were assayed for ATP+ADP+AMP (nmol/mg prot). Citrulline synthesis and pyruvate carboxylation rates (nmol/min/mg prot) were assayed by following H[ 14 C]O 3 - fixation in appropriate media. State 3 and 2,4-DNP-uncoupled respiratory rates (1/2 nmol O 2 /min/mg prot) were assayed polarographically with succinate. The effects of MH on mito are comparable to reported effects of glucagon injection. MH evokes acute reciprocal changes in insulin and glucagon that are highly reproducible. Thus, MH offers an interesting model for studying the effect of endogenous hormones on mito functions

  1. [System analytical approach of lung function and hemodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naszlady, Attila; Kiss, Lajos

    2009-02-15

    The authors critically analyse the traditional views in physiology and complete them with new statements based on computer model simulations of lung function and of hemodynamics. Conclusions are derived for the clinical practice as follows: the four-dimensional function curves are similar in both systems; there is a "waterfall" zone in the pulmonary blood perfusion; the various time constants of pulmonary regions can modify the blood gas values; pulmonary capillary pressure is equal to pulmonary arterial diastole pressure; heart is not a pressure pump, but a flow source; ventricles are loaded by the input impedance of the arterial systems and not by the total vascular (ohmlike) resistance; optimum heart rate in rest depends on the length of the aorta; this law of heart rate, based on the principle of resonance is valid along the mammalian allometric line; tachycardia decreases the input impedance; using positive end expiratory pressure respirators the blood gas of pulmonary artery should be followed; coronary circulation should be assessed in beat per milliliter, the milliliter per minute may be false. These statements are compared to related references.

  2. Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

  3. Chloroquine attenuates paraquat-induced lung injury in mice by altering inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haitao; Wu, Na; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhang, Lichun; Li, Tiegang; Zhao, Min

    2017-05-01

    Paraquat is one of the most extensively used herbicides and has high toxicity for humans and animals. However, there is no effective treatment for paraquat poisoning. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chloroquine on paraquat-induced lung injury in mice. Mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of paraquat and a daily intraperitoneal injection of the indicated dosages of chloroquine or dexamethasone. The histological changes, inflammation and oxidative stress in the lungs were examined at day 3, and the degree of pulmonary fibrosis was examined at day 28. H&E staining showed that chloroquine markedly attenuated lung injury induced by paraquat. In addition, the inflammatory responses induced by paraquat were inhibited after treatment with chloroquine, as indicated by the decreased number of leukocytes, the reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the reduced NO content, and downregulation of iNOS expression in lung tissues. No different effect was found between high-dose chloroquine and dexamethasone. Additionally, the treatment with chloroquine increased the activity of SOD and decreased the level of MDA in the lung tissues. The expressions of the anti-oxidative proteins, Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1, were also upregulated by chloroquine treatment. The high-dose chloroquine was more effective than dexamethasone in its anti-oxidation ability. Finally, the results of Masson's staining illustrated that chloroquine markedly attenuated fibrosis in the paraquat-exposed lungs. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that the expressions of the pro-fibrotic proteins TGF-β and α-SMA were downregulated after treatment with chloroquine. In conclusion, chloroquine effectively attenuated paraquat-induced lung injury in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Altered Interhemispheric Functional Coordination in Chronic Tinnitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Recent studies suggest that tinnitus may be due in part to aberrant callosal structure and interhemispheric interaction. To explore this hypothesis we use a novel method, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC, to examine the resting-state interhemispheric functional connectivity and its relationships with clinical characteristics in chronic tinnitus patients. Materials and Methods. Twenty-eight chronic tinnitus patients with normal hearing thresholds and 30 age-, sex-, education-, and hearing threshold-matched healthy controls were included in this study and underwent the resting-state fMRI scanning. We computed the VMHC to analyze the interhemispheric functional coordination between homotopic points of the brain in both groups. Results. Compared to the controls, tinnitus patients showed significantly increased VMHC in the middle temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and superior occipital gyrus. In tinnitus patients, a positive correlation was found between tinnitus duration and VMHC of the uncus. Moreover, correlations between VMHC changes and tinnitus distress were observed in the transverse temporal gyrus, superior temporal pole, precentral gyrus, and calcarine cortex. Conclusions. These results show altered interhemispheric functional connectivity linked with specific tinnitus characteristics in chronic tinnitus patients, which may be implicated in the neuropathophysiology of tinnitus.

  5. Functionally Distinct Tendons From Elastin Haploinsufficient Mice Exhibit Mild Stiffening and Tendon-Specific Structural Alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekhoff, Jeremy D; Fang, Fei; Kahan, Lindsey G; Espinosa, Gabriela; Cocciolone, Austin J; Wagenseil, Jessica E; Mecham, Robert P; Lake, Spencer P

    2017-11-01

    Elastic fibers are present in low quantities in tendon, where they are located both within fascicles near tenocytes and more broadly in the interfascicular matrix (IFM). While elastic fibers have long been known to be significant in the mechanics of elastin-rich tissue (i.e., vasculature, skin, lungs), recent studies have suggested a mechanical role for elastic fibers in tendons that is dependent on specific tendon function. However, the exact contribution of elastin to properties of different types of tendons (e.g., positional, energy-storing) remains unknown. Therefore, this study purposed to evaluate the role of elastin in the mechanical properties and collagen alignment of functionally distinct supraspinatus tendons (SSTs) and Achilles tendons (ATs) from elastin haploinsufficient (HET) and wild type (WT) mice. Despite the significant decrease in elastin in HET tendons, a slight increase in linear stiffness of both tendons was the only significant mechanical effect of elastin haploinsufficiency. Additionally, there were significant changes in collagen nanostructure and subtle alteration to collagen alignment in the AT but not the SST. Hence, elastin may play only a minor role in tendon mechanical properties. Alternatively, larger changes to tendon mechanics may have been mitigated by developmental compensation of HET tendons and/or the role of elastic fibers may be less prominent in smaller mouse tendons compared to the larger bovine and human tendons evaluated in previous studies. Further research will be necessary to fully elucidate the influence of various elastic fiber components on structure-function relationships in functionally distinct tendons.

  6. LINKING LUNG AIRWAY STRUCTURE TO PULMONARY FUNCTION VIA COMPOSITE BRIDGE REGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Hoffman, Eric A; Seetharaman, Indu; Jiao, Feiran; Lin, Ching-Long; Chan, Kung-Sik

    2016-12-01

    The human lung airway is a complex inverted tree-like structure. Detailed airway measurements can be extracted from MDCT-scanned lung images, such as segmental wall thickness, airway diameter, parent-child branch angles, etc. The wealth of lung airway data provides a unique opportunity for advancing our understanding of the fundamental structure-function relationships within the lung. An important problem is to construct and identify important lung airway features in normal subjects and connect these to standardized pulmonary function test results such as FEV1%. Among other things, the problem is complicated by the fact that a particular airway feature may be an important (relevant) predictor only when it pertains to segments of certain generations. Thus, the key is an efficient, consistent method for simultaneously conducting group selection (lung airway feature types) and within-group variable selection (airway generations), i.e., bi-level selection. Here we streamline a comprehensive procedure to process the lung airway data via imputation, normalization, transformation and groupwise principal component analysis, and then adopt a new composite penalized regression approach for conducting bi-level feature selection. As a prototype of composite penalization, the proposed composite bridge regression method is shown to admit an efficient algorithm, enjoy bi-level oracle properties, and outperform several existing methods. We analyze the MDCT lung image data from a cohort of 132 subjects with normal lung function. Our results show that, lung function in terms of FEV1% is promoted by having a less dense and more homogeneous lung comprising an airway whose segments enjoy more heterogeneity in wall thicknesses, larger mean diameters, lumen areas and branch angles. These data hold the potential of defining more accurately the "normal" subject population with borderline atypical lung functions that are clearly influenced by many genetic and environmental factors.

  7. HIV infection is associated with preservation of MAIT cells in the lungs but alteration of their phenotype and T cell receptor repertoire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, E. B.; Xulu, B.; Prakadan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death in HIV-positive people. A better understanding of the impact of HIV on lung immunity may lead to novel immunotherapeutic interventions. MAIT cells are tissue-homing donor-unrestricted T cells with broad anti-microbial activity. HIV infection causes...... early and irreversible depletion of MAIT cells in the peripheral circulation, but the effect of HIV on MAIT cells in the lungs is unknown. These researchers report, for the first time, that MAIT cells in the lungs are numerically preserved but phenotypically and clonotypically altered by HIV infection...... to determine the mechanisms underlying the altered phenotypes of lung-resident MAITs and whether these can be targeted to improve anti-microbial lung immunity in people living with HIV....

  8. Altered regulation of c-jun and its involvement in anchorage-independent growth of human lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, K; Masuda, A; Yanagisawa, K; Konishi, H; Osada, H; Saito, T; Ueda, R; Takahashi, T

    2006-01-12

    The c-jun oncogene is frequently overexpressed in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC), but its functional involvement in lung cancer development has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we found that among the immediate-early serum responsible genes, exemplified by c-jun, c-fos and c-myc, induction of c-jun in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, was dependent on anchorage, in contrast to clear induction of c-fos and c-myc under both anchorage-dependent and -independent conditions. In fact, forced expression of c-jun in BEAS-2B cells significantly increased cell viability and colony formation in soft agar. Furthermore, we also found that such anchorage-dependent regulation of c-jun was lost in a significant fraction of human lung cancer cell lines. Interestingly, suppressed anchorage-independent but not anchorage-dependent growth was noted by constitutive expression of a dominant-negative c-jun mutant in a lung cancer cell line showing dysregulated and sustained c-jun expression in the absence of anchorage. These findings suggest that dysregulated c-jun expression may be involved in the acquisition of anchorage independence in the process of human lung carcinogenesis.

  9. The association of systemic microvascular changes with lung function and lung density: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Harris

    Full Text Available Smoking causes endothelial dysfunction and systemic microvascular disease with resultant end-organ damage in the kidneys, eyes and heart. Little is known about microvascular changes in smoking-related lung disease. We tested if microvascular changes in the retina, kidneys and heart were associated with obstructive spirometry and low lung density on computed tomography. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited participants age 45-84 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Measures of microvascular function included retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and, in a subset, myocardial blood flow on magnetic resonance imaging. Spirometry was measured following ATS/ERS guidelines. Low attenuation areas (LAA were measured on lung fields of cardiac computed tomograms. Regression models adjusted for pulmonary and cardiac risk factors, medications and body size. Among 3,397 participants, retinal venular caliber was inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1 (P<0.001 and FEV(1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio (P = 0.04. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio was inversely associated with FEV(1 (P = 0.002 but not FEV(1/FVC. Myocardial blood flow (n = 126 was associated with lower FEV(1 (P = 0.02, lower FEV(1/FVC (P = 0.001 and greater percentage LAA (P = 0.04. Associations were of greater magnitude among smokers. Low lung function was associated with microvascular changes in the retina, kidneys and heart, and low lung density was associated with impaired myocardial microvascular perfusion. These cross-sectional results suggest that microvascular damage with end-organ dysfunction in all circulations may pertain to the lung, that lung dysfunction may contribute to systemic microvascular disease, or that there may be a shared predisposition.

  10. Antihistamine medication may alleviate negative effects of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on lung function in children. Birth cohort prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Spengler, Jack; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Camman, David

    2015-05-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the depressed lung growth attributable to prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may be modified by the intake of antihistamine medications. Individual prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in 176 children who were followed over nine years, in the course of which outdoor residential air monitoring, allergic skin tests for indoor allergens, lung function tests (FVC, FEV(1), FEV(05), and FEF(25-75)) were performed. The analysis with the General Estimated Equation (GEE) showed no association between prenatal PAH exposure and lung function in the group of children who were reported to be antihistamine users. However, in the group of antihistamine non-users all lung function tests except for FEF(25-75) were significantly and inversely associated with prenatal airborne PAH exposure. The results of the study suggest that the intake of antihistamine medications in early childhood may inhibit the negative effect of fetal PAH exposure on lung growth and provides additional indirect evidence for the hypothesis that lung alterations in young children resulting from PAH exposure may be caused by the allergic inflammation within lung. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Exploring the reproducibility of functional connectivity alterations in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Liviu; Onu, Mihaela; Wu, Tao; Roceanu, Adina; Bajenaru, Ovidiu

    2017-01-01

    Since anatomic MRI is presently not able to directly discern neuronal loss in Parkinson's Disease (PD), studying the associated functional connectivity (FC) changes seems a promising approach toward developing non-invasive and non-radioactive neuroimaging markers for this disease. While several groups have reported such FC changes in PD, there are also significant discrepancies between studies. Investigating the reproducibility of PD-related FC changes on independent datasets is therefore of crucial importance. We acquired resting-state fMRI scans for 43 subjects (27 patients and 16 normal controls, with 2 replicate scans per subject) and compared the observed FC changes with those obtained in two independent datasets, one made available by the PPMI consortium (91 patients, 18 controls) and a second one by the group of Tao Wu (20 patients, 20 controls). Unfortunately, PD-related functional connectivity changes turned out to be non-reproducible across datasets. This could be due to disease heterogeneity, but also to technical differences. To distinguish between the two, we devised a method to directly check for disease heterogeneity using random splits of a single dataset. Since we still observe non-reproducibility in a large fraction of random splits of the same dataset, we conclude that functional heterogeneity may be a dominating factor behind the lack of reproducibility of FC alterations in different rs-fMRI studies of PD. While global PD-related functional connectivity changes were non-reproducible across datasets, we identified a few individual brain region pairs with marginally consistent FC changes across all three datasets. However, training classifiers on each one of the three datasets to discriminate PD scans from controls produced only low accuracies on the remaining two test datasets. Moreover, classifiers trained and tested on random splits of the same dataset (which are technically homogeneous) also had low test accuracies, directly substantiating

  12. How linear features alter predator movement and the functional response.

    KAUST Repository

    McKenzie, Hannah W

    2012-01-18

    In areas of oil and gas exploration, seismic lines have been reported to alter the movement patterns of wolves (Canis lupus). We developed a mechanistic first passage time model, based on an anisotropic elliptic partial differential equation, and used this to explore how wolf movement responses to seismic lines influence the encounter rate of the wolves with their prey. The model was parametrized using 5 min GPS location data. These data showed that wolves travelled faster on seismic lines and had a higher probability of staying on a seismic line once they were on it. We simulated wolf movement on a range of seismic line densities and drew implications for the rate of predator-prey interactions as described by the functional response. The functional response exhibited a more than linear increase with respect to prey density (type III) as well as interactions with seismic line density. Encounter rates were significantly higher in landscapes with high seismic line density and were most pronounced at low prey densities. This suggests that prey at low population densities are at higher risk in environments with a high seismic line density unless they learn to avoid them.

  13. Lung Function Abnormalities in Smokers with Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits M E; Soriano, Joan B; Roche, Nicolas; Bloomfield, Paul H; Brusselle, Guy; Fabbri, Leonardo M; García-Rio, Francisco; Kearney, Mark T; Kwon, Namhee; Lundbäck, Bo; Rabe, Klaus F; Raillard, Alice; Muellerova, Hana; Cockcroft, John R

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the ALICE (Airflow Limitation in Cardiac Diseases in Europe) study was to investigate the prevalence of airflow limitation in patients with ischemic heart disease and the effects on quality of life, healthcare use, and future health risk. To examine prebronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry in outpatients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with clinically documented ischemic heart disease who were current or former smokers. This multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 cardiovascular outpatient clinics in nine European countries. Airflow limitation was defined as post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC less than 0.70. Among the 3,103 patients with ischemic heart disease who were recruited, lung function was defined for 2,730 patients. Airflow limitation was observed in 30.5% of patients with ischemic heart disease: 11.3% had mild airflow limitation, 15.8% moderate airflow limitation, 3.3% severe airflow limitation, and 0.1% very severe airflow limitation. Most patients with airflow limitation (70.6%) had no previous spirometry testing or diagnosed pulmonary disease. Airflow limitation was associated with greater respiratory symptomatology, impaired health status, and more frequent emergency room visits (P < 0.05). Airflow limitation compatible with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects almost one-third of patients with ischemic heart disease. Although airflow limitation is associated with additional morbidity and societal burden, it is largely undiagnosed and untreated. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01485159).

  14. Association of lung function genes with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Jin; Lim, Myoung Nam; Hong, Yoonki; Silverman, Edwin K; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jung, Bock Hyun; Ra, Seung Won; Choi, Hye Sook; Jung, Young Ju; Park, Yong Bum; Park, Myung Jae; Lee, Sei Won; Lee, Jae Seung; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang Do

    2014-08-01

    Spirometric measurements of pulmonary function are important in diagnosing and determining the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed this study to determine whether candidate genes identified in genome-wide association studies of spirometric measurements were associated with COPD and if they interacted with smoking intensity. The current analysis included 1,000 COPD subjects and 1,000 controls recruited from 24 hospital-based pulmonary clinics. Thirteen SNPs, chosen based on genome-wide association studies of spirometric measurements in the Korean population cohorts, were genotyped. Genetic association tests were performed, adjusting for age, sex, and smoking intensity, using models including a SNP-by-smoking interaction term. PID1 and FAM13A were significantly associated with COPD susceptibility. There were also significant interactions between SNPs in ACN9 and FAM13A and smoking pack-years, and an association of ACN9 with COPD in the lowest smoking tertile. The risk allele of FAM13A was associated with increased expression of FAM13A in the lung. We have validated associations of FAM13A and PID1 with COPD. ACN9 showed significant interaction with smoking and is a potential candidate gene for COPD. Significant associations of genetic variants of FAM13A with gene expression levels suggest that the associated loci may act as genetic regulatory elements for FAM13A gene expression.

  15. Ex vivo administration of trimetazidine improves post-transplant lung function in pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgun, Tugba; Iskender, Ilker; Yamada, Yoshito; Arni, Stephan; Lipiski, Miriam; van Tilburg, Koen; Weder, Walter; Inci, Ilhan

    2017-07-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is not only used to assess marginal donor lungs but is also used as a platform to deliver therapeutic agents outside the body. We previously showed the beneficial effects of trimetazidine (TMZ) on ischaemia reperfusion (IR) injury in a rat model. This study evaluated the effects of TMZ in a pig EVLP transplant model. Pig lungs were retrieved and stored for 24 h at 4°C, followed by 4 h of EVLP. Allografts were randomly allocated to 2 groups ( n  = 5 each). TMZ (5 mg/kg) was added to the prime solution prior to EVLP. After EVLP, left lungs were transplanted and recipients were observed for 4 h. Allograft gas exchange function and lung mechanics were recorded hourly throughout reperfusion. Microscopic lung injury and inflammatory and biochemical parameters were assessed. There was a trend towards better oxygenation during EVLP in the TMZ group ( P  = 0.06). After transplantation, pulmonary gas exchange was significantly better during the 4-h reperfusion period and after isolation of the allografts for 10 min ( P  Ex vivo treatment of donor lungs with TMZ significantly improved immediate post-transplant lung function. Further studies are warranted to understand the effect of this strategy on long-term lung function. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. Using SPECT-guidance to protect functional lung with optimizing intensity modulated radiotherapy in stage III non-small cell lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongtang; Li Baosheng; Sun Hongfu; Fang Yongcun; Chen Jinhu; Yan Jing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of using lung perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans to protect functional lung with optimizing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan in patients with stage m non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Twenty-four patients with stage III NSCLC who were candidated for radiotherapy were enrolled. All patients had PET-CT scans and SPECT scans. The two sets of images were accurately co-registered in the planning system. SPECT images were used to define a volume of functional lung (FL) and non-functional lung (NFL). The region of ≥30% maximum radioactive counts was FL and the other region was NFL. Then SPECT images were classified by comparing lung perfusion deficit with area of radiological abnormality. Grade O: no lung perfusion deficit. Grade 1: the size of radiological abnormality was similar to the area of lung perfusion deficit. Grade 2: the area of lung perfusion was bigger than that of radiological abnormality, and extended to 1 pulmonary lobe. Grade 3: the area of lung perfusion deficit exceed 1 pulmonary lobe. The optimized IMRT objective was to minimize the dose to FL. the difference between the two sets of IMRT plans was studied. Results: All patients had lung perfusion deficits, 8 patients with grade 1 damage, 6 patients with grade 2 damage, and 10 patient with grade 3 damage. After IMRT plan optimized, both the percentage of whole lung volume received dose (WLV) and the percentage of functional lung volume received dose (FLV) were decreased. However, the FLVs was decreased more significantly. There was significant difference in WLV 10 , WLV 15 , WLV 20 , WLV 25 , WLV 30 and FLV 10 , FLV 15 , FLV 20 , FLV 25 , FLV 30 between the two sets of IMRT plans (P<0.05). Conclusions: It is convenient to SPECT-guidance to protect functional lung with optimizing IMRT in stage III NSCLC patients, potentially reducing lung toxicity. (authors)

  17. PRE-TREATMENT WITH DIESEL EXHAUST EXTRACT ALTERS INFLUENZA VIRUS REPLICATION IN LUNG EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel Exhaust (DE) has been demonstrated to generate inflammatory responses in the lung and modify immune responses to allergens. However, little is known about the effects of DE on common respiratory viral infections. We examined whether exposure to DE extracts (DEE) modifies i...

  18. Long time enzyme replacement therapy stabilizes obstructive lung disease and alters peripheral immune cell subsets in Fabry patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odler, Balázs; Cseh, Áron; Constantin, Tamás; Fekete, György; Losonczy, György; Tamási, Lilla; Benke, Kálmán; Szilveszter, Bálint; Müller, Veronika

    2017-11-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, causing accumulation of globotriaosylceramid in different organs. Glycolipids are activators of different immune cell subsets the resulting inflammation is responsible for organ damage. Pulmonary involvement leads to airway inflammation; however, data on severity, as well as the effect of enzyme replacement therapy on lung function parameters and changes in peripheral immune cell subsets on lung involvement are sparse. Seven Fabry patients and four carriers underwent detailed clinical examinations screening for pulmonary manifestations. Repetitive measurements were performed on five patients on ERT (average follow-up 5 years). Patients with Fabry disease and control volunteers were included into peripheral blood cell measurements. Lung involvement was present in all patients. Symptoms suggestive for lung disease were mild, however, obstructive ventilatory disorder, dominantly affecting small airways accompanied by hyperinflation was demonstrated in all affected patients. ERT resulted in small improvement of FEV1 in most treated patients. Decreased ratio of myeloid DC, Th17 cells while increase in T helper (Th)1 cells, and no change in Th2 and regulatory T (Treg) cells were detected in Fabry patients. Fabry disease results mainly in mild symptoms related to lung involvement, characterized by moderate non-reversible obstructive ventilatory disorder. Stabilization of airway obstruction during follow-up was observed using ERT in most patients, emphasizing the importance of this treatment in respect of pulmonary manifestations. Changes of immune cell subsets in the peripheral blood might play a role in inflammatory process, including small airways in Fabry patient's lung. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Secondhand tobacco smoke, arterial stiffness, and altered circadian blood pressure patterns are associated with lung inflammation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Nicole J; Weber, Lynn P

    2012-02-01

    Chronic smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke exposure are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease that are known to adversely alter the structural and mechanical properties of arteries. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of subchronic secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on circadian blood pressure patterns, arterial stiffness, and possible sources of oxidative stress in conscious, unsedated radiotelemetry-implanted rats. Pulse wave change in pressure over time (dP/dt) was used an indicator of arterial stiffness and was compared with both structural (wall thickness) and functional (nitric oxide production and bioactivity and endothelin-1 levels) features of the arterial wall. In addition, histology of lung, heart, and liver was examined as well as pulmonary and hepatic detoxifying enzyme activity (cytochrome P450, specifically CYP1A1). Subchronic secondhand tobacco smoke exposure altered the circadian pattern of heart rate and blood pressure, with a loss in the normal dipping pattern of blood pressure during sleep. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure also increased pulse wave dP/dt in the absence of any structural modifications in the arterial wall. Furthermore, although nitric oxide production and endothelin-1 levels were not altered by secondhand tobacco smoke, there was increased inactivation of nitric oxide as indicated by peroxynitrite production. Increased lung neutrophils or pulmonary CYP1A1 may be responsible for the increase in oxidative stress in rats exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. In turn, this may be related to the observed failure of blood pressure to dip during periods of sleep and a possible increase in arterial stiffness.

  20. Relationship between linear and nonlinear dynamics of heart rate and impairment of lung function in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzuco A

    2015-08-01

    capacity/total lung capacity ratio, and residual volume/total lung capacity ratio. Significant and moderate associations were also observed between LF/HF ratio versus total gas volume (%, r=0.53; LF/HF ratio versus residual volume, %, r=0.52; and HF versus total gas volume (%, r=-0.53 (P<0.05. Linear regression analysis revealed that ΔRRi supine-M-RSA was independently related to DLCO (r=-0.77, r2=0.43, P<0.05. Conclusion: Responses of HRV indices were more prominent during M-RSA in moderate to severe COPD. Moreover, greater lung function impairment was related to poorer heart rate dynamics. Finally, impaired lung diffusion capacity was related to an altered parasympathetic response in these patients. Keywords: lung diffusion capacity, static lung volumes, rest hyperinflation, COPD, heart rate variability, cardiac autonomic nervous system

  1. Functional diversity in a fragmented landscape — Habitat alterations affect functional trait composition of frog assemblages in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana C. Riemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat alterations cause biodiversity loss, which in turn negatively affects ecosystem functioning and services, and thus human well-being. To be able to consider ecosystem functioning in conservation actions, analyzing the effects of habitat alteration on functional diversity is essential. Some altered habitats can maintain a significant part of regional biodiversity, however, functional diversity information in altered habitats is so far mostly lacking. We compared functional richness and functional β-diversity based on resource-use traits of frogs between three land-use categories in a rainforest ecosystem in Madagascar. Land-use categories represent a habitat alteration gradient ranging from continuous forest over forest fragments to matrix habitats including different agricultures. Our study revealed distinct changes in resource-use trait composition and complex patterns in the relationship between species richness and functional richness. Thus, the functional structure of frog assemblages changed due to habitat alterations. However, altered habitats likely provide different, rather than fewer functions compared to intact forest. Streams in all land-use categories were the functionally richest habitats, and thus important for ecosystem functioning. Species richness was one, but not the only driver of functional richness in our system. Functional clustering, potentially due to environmental filters depending on resource availability, was caused by anthropogenic and natural drivers. Our study shows that, even in systems where fragmented landscapes still maintain high species diversity, functional diversity can be altered in human altered habitats, which may affect ecosystem processes like productivity, nutrient cycling, and energy flows.

  2. Relationship between ultrasound bone parameters, lung function, and body mass index in healthy student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijetić, Selma; Pipinić, Ivana Sabolić; Varnai, Veda Maria; Macan, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Low bone mineral density has been reported in paediatric and adult patients with different lung diseases, but limited data are available on the association between lung function and bone density in a healthy young population. We explored the predictors of association between bone mass and pulmonary function in healthy first-year university students, focusing on body mass index (BMI). In this cross-sectional study we measured bone density with ultrasound and lung function with spirometry in 370 university students (271 girls and 99 boys). Information on lifestyle habits, such as physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption were obtained with a questionnaire. All lung function and bone parameters were significantly higher in boys than in girls (Pstudents had a significantly lower forced vital capacity (FVC%) (P=0.001 girls; P=0.012 boys), while overweight students had a significantly higher FVC% than normal weight students (P=0.024 girls; P=0.001 boys). BMI significantly correlated with FVC% (P=0.001) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 %) in both genders (P=0.001 girls; P=0.018 boys) and with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in boys. There were no significant associations between any of the bone and lung function parameters either in boys or girls. The most important determinant of lung function and ultrasound bone parameters in our study population was body mass index, with no direct association between bone density and lung function.

  3. Lung segmentectomy: does it offer a real functional benefit over lobectomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Charloux

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical segmentectomy has been developed to offer better pulmonary function preservation than lobectomy, in stage IA lung cancer. Despite the retrospective nature of most of the studies and the lack of randomised studies, a substantial body of literature today allows us to evaluate to what extent lung function decreases after segmentectomy and whether segmentectomy offers a real functional benefit over lobectomy. From the available series, it emerges that the mean decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 is low, ranging from −9% to −24% of the initial value within 2 months and −3 to −13% 12 months after segmentectomy. This reduction in lung function is significantly lower than that induced by lobectomy, but saves only a few per cent of pre-operative FEV1. Moreover, the published results do not firmly establish the functional benefit of segmentectomy over lobectomy in patients with poor lung function. Some issues remain to be addressed, including whether video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS segmentectomy may preserve lung function better than VATS lobectomy in patients with poor lung function, especially within the early days after surgery, and whether this may translate to lowering the functional limit for surgery. Eventually, trials comparing stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy, radiofrequency ablation and segmentectomy functional consequences are warranted.

  4. Lung segmentectomy: does it offer a real functional benefit over lobectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charloux, Anne; Quoix, Elisabeth

    2017-12-31

    Anatomical segmentectomy has been developed to offer better pulmonary function preservation than lobectomy, in stage IA lung cancer. Despite the retrospective nature of most of the studies and the lack of randomised studies, a substantial body of literature today allows us to evaluate to what extent lung function decreases after segmentectomy and whether segmentectomy offers a real functional benefit over lobectomy. From the available series, it emerges that the mean decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) is low, ranging from -9% to -24% of the initial value within 2 months and -3 to -13% 12 months after segmentectomy. This reduction in lung function is significantly lower than that induced by lobectomy, but saves only a few per cent of pre-operative FEV 1 Moreover, the published results do not firmly establish the functional benefit of segmentectomy over lobectomy in patients with poor lung function. Some issues remain to be addressed, including whether video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) segmentectomy may preserve lung function better than VATS lobectomy in patients with poor lung function, especially within the early days after surgery, and whether this may translate to lowering the functional limit for surgery. Eventually, trials comparing stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy, radiofrequency ablation and segmentectomy functional consequences are warranted. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  5. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult

  6. Neuromuscular function during a forward lunge in meniscectomized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Damgaard, Jacob; Roos, Ewa M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences in knee joint kinematics, ground reaction force kinetics and neuromuscular activity including muscle coactivation, and medial versus lateral muscle activity during a forward lunge between the operated and contralateral legs of meniscectomized patients...

  7. Lung function loss, smoking, vitamin C intake, and polymorphisms of the glutamate-cysteine ligase genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlinski, Mateusz; Postma, Dirkje S.; van Diemen, Cleo C.; Blokstra, Anneke; Smit, Henriette A.; Boezen, H. Marike

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Smoking-induced oxidative stress contributes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a lung disease characterized by low lung function and increasing mortality worldwide. The counterbalance for this effect may be provided by, for example, increased intake of the antioxidant vitamin C or

  8. The Effect of Wood Dust on Lung Function of Woodworkers in Na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The wood industry is one of the occupations where exposure to wood dust has been shown to lead to chronic lung diseases long after such exposure has ceased. This study assessed the effect of wood dust and other irritants on lung function of wood workers in Na'ibawa market, Kano. Method Using a ...

  9. Dietary factors and lung function in the general population : wine and resveratrol intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlinski, M; Boer, J M A; Smit, H A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT) 1 activity. We assessed the

  10. No relationship between lung function and high-sensitive C-reactive protein in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Siersted, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

      Several studies on adults have indicated that lower spirometric lung function may be associated with increased systemic inflammation, but no studies have investigated if this association is already present in adolescence. Objective:  We explored the temporal relationship between changes in lung...

  11. Assessing the Effects of Fibrosis on Lung Function by Light Microscopy-Coupled Stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilecki, Bartosz; Sørensen, Grith Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases such as fibrosis are characterized by structural abnormalities that lead to impairment of proper lung function. Stereological analysis of serial tissue sections allows detection and quantitation of subtle changes in lung architecture. Here, we describe a stereology-based method...

  12. Forward lunge as a functional performance test in ACL deficient subjects: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Henriksen, Marius; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    The forward lunge movement may be used as a functional performance test of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient and reconstructed subjects. The purposes were 1) to determine the test-retest reliability of a forward lunge in healthy subjects and 2) to determine the required numbers...

  13. No association between vitamin D and atopy, asthma, lung function or atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, B H; Heede, N G; Tang, L

    2015-01-01

    allergens were measured by standard procedures. Wheezing, asthma and AD were assessed from questionnaires and lung function was measured by spirometry. We found no statistically significant associations between s25(OH)D and prevalence or incidence of atopy, AD, asthma or wheezing. Associations with lung...

  14. Ultrastructural alterations in the mouse lung caused by real-life ambient PM{sub 10} at urban traffic sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, Constantini, E-mail: csamara@chem.auth.gr [Environmental Pollution Control Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thesaloniki (Greece); Kouras, Athanasios; Kaidoglou, Katerina [Environmental Pollution Control Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thesaloniki (Greece); Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, Elpida-Niki; Simou, Chrysanthi; Bousnaki, Maria [Laboratory of Histology-Embryology and Anthropology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thesaloniki (Greece); Kelessis, Apostolos [Environmental Department, Municipality of Thessaloniki, Kleanthous 18, 54 642 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-11-01

    Current levels of ambient air particulate matter (PM) are associated with mortality and morbidity in urban populations worldwide. Nevertheless, current knowledge does not allow precise quantification or definitive ranking of the health effects of individual PM components and indeed, associations may be the result of multiple components acting on different physiological mechanisms. In this paper, healthy Balb/c mice were exposed to ambient PM{sub 10} at a traffic site of a large city (Thessaloniki, northern Greece), in parallel to control mice that were exposed to filtered air. Structural damages were examined in ultrafine sections of lung tissues by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM). Ambient PM{sub 10} samples were also collected during the exposure experiment and characterized with respect to chemical composition and oxidative potential. Severe ultrastructural alterations in the lung tissue after a 10-week exposure of mice at PM{sub 10} levels often exceeding the daily limit of Directive 2008/50/EC were revealed mainly implying PM-induced oxidative stress. The DTT-based redox activity of PM{sub 10} was found within the range of values reported for traffic sites being correlated with traffic-related constituents. Although linkage of the observed lung damage with specific chemical components or sources need further elucidation, the magnitude of biological responses highlight the necessity for national and local strategies for mitigation of particle emissions from combustion sources. - Highlights: • Animal exposure to PM10 was conducted at a traffic site of a large city. • Chemical and toxicological characterization of PM10 was carried out. • Severe degenerative alterations in alveolar cells were revealed. • PM induced oxidative stress from carbonaceous species was suggested.

  15. Ultrastructural alterations in the mouse lung caused by real-life ambient PM10 at urban traffic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samara, Constantini; Kouras, Athanasios; Kaidoglou, Katerina; Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, Elpida-Niki; Simou, Chrysanthi; Bousnaki, Maria; Kelessis, Apostolos

    2015-01-01

    Current levels of ambient air particulate matter (PM) are associated with mortality and morbidity in urban populations worldwide. Nevertheless, current knowledge does not allow precise quantification or definitive ranking of the health effects of individual PM components and indeed, associations may be the result of multiple components acting on different physiological mechanisms. In this paper, healthy Balb/c mice were exposed to ambient PM 10 at a traffic site of a large city (Thessaloniki, northern Greece), in parallel to control mice that were exposed to filtered air. Structural damages were examined in ultrafine sections of lung tissues by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM). Ambient PM 10 samples were also collected during the exposure experiment and characterized with respect to chemical composition and oxidative potential. Severe ultrastructural alterations in the lung tissue after a 10-week exposure of mice at PM 10 levels often exceeding the daily limit of Directive 2008/50/EC were revealed mainly implying PM-induced oxidative stress. The DTT-based redox activity of PM 10 was found within the range of values reported for traffic sites being correlated with traffic-related constituents. Although linkage of the observed lung damage with specific chemical components or sources need further elucidation, the magnitude of biological responses highlight the necessity for national and local strategies for mitigation of particle emissions from combustion sources. - Highlights: • Animal exposure to PM10 was conducted at a traffic site of a large city. • Chemical and toxicological characterization of PM10 was carried out. • Severe degenerative alterations in alveolar cells were revealed. • PM induced oxidative stress from carbonaceous species was suggested

  16. Relationship between body balance, lung function, nutritional status and functional capacity in adults with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T. S. Penafortes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF is a hereditary condition in which lung disease affects all patients. In addition to pulmonary involvement, the multisystemic components of CF cause significant physical limitations. However, the impact of lung function on balance control in CF has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess body balance in adults with CF and to test its possible associations with lung function, nutritional status, and functional capacity. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study in which 14 adults with CF underwent pulmonary function testing (spirometry, body plethysmography, and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco, respiratory muscle strength, 6-min walking distance (6MWD, Berg balance scale (BBS, nutritional analysis (body mass index and bioelectrical impedance, and stabilometry. Body balance was quantified using stabilometry; all participants performed the following two trials: opened base, eyes open (OBEO; closed base, eyes closed (CBEC. RESULTS: In stabilometry, the median for the lateral range and anterior-posterior range in the CBEC trial was 0.10 (0.08-0.11 and 0.13 (0.11-0.22, respectively (p<0.05. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP correlated inversely with the lateral standard deviation (ρ=–0.61; p<0.05 as the DLco correlated positively with the anterior-posterior range (ρ=0.54; p<0.05. There were significant relationships between body composition indexes and almost all stabilometric variables measured. There were no relationships of the BBS and 6MWD with the stabilometric variables. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with CF, imbalance occurs mainly in the anterior-posterior direction and is especially associated with body composition.

  17. H-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomics Analysis Identifies Novel Urinary Biomarkers for Lung Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCClay, Joseph L.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Isern, Nancy G.; O' Connell, Thomas M.; Wooten, Jan B.; Zedler, Barbara K.; Dasika, Madhukar S.; Webb, B. T.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Murrelle, Edward L.; Leppert, Mark F.; van den Oord, Edwin J.

    2010-06-04

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by chronic airflow limitation, is a serious and growing public health concern. The major environmental risk factor for COPD is tobacco smoking, but the biological mechanisms underlying COPD are not well understood. In this study, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify metabolites associated with lung function in COPD. Plasma and urine were collected from 197 adults with COPD and from 195 adults without COPD. Samples were assayed using a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer, and the resulting spectra were analyzed against quantitative spirometric measures of lung function. After correcting for false discoveries and adjusting for covariates (sex, age, smoking) several spectral regions in urine were found to be significantly associated with baseline lung function. These regions correspond to the metabolites trigonelline, hippurate and formate. Concentrations of each metabolite, standardized to urinary creatinine, were associated with baseline lung function (minimum p-value = 0.0002 for trigonelline). No significant associations were found with plasma metabolites. Two of the three urinary metabolites positively associated with baseline lung function, i.e. hippurate and formate, are often related to gut microflora. This suggests that the microbiome composition is variable between individuals with different lung function. Alternatively, the nature and origins of all three associated metabolites may reflect lifestyle differences affecting overall health. Our results will require replication and validation, but demonstrate the utility of NMR metabolomics as a screening tool for identifying novel biomarkers of lung disease or disease risk.

  18. Dynamic alteration in splenic function during acute falciparum malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looareesuwan, S.; Ho, M.; Wattanagoon, Y.; White, N.J.; Warrell, D.A.; Bunnag, D.; Harinasuta, T.; Wyler, D.J.

    1987-09-10

    Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes lose their normal deformability and become susceptible to splenic filtration. In animal models, this is one mechanism of antimalarial defense. To assess the effect of acute falciparum malaria on splenic filtration, we measured the clearance of heated /sup 51/Cr-labeled autologous erythrocytes in 25 patients with acute falciparum malaria and in 10 uninfected controls. Two groups of patients could be distinguished. Sixteen patients had splenomegaly, markedly accelerated clearance of the labeled erythrocytes (clearance half-time, 8.4 +/- 4.4 minutes (mean +/- SD) vs. 62.5 +/- 36.5 minutes in controls; P less than 0.001), and a lower mean hematocrit than did the patients without splenomegaly (P less than 0.001). In the nine patients without splenomegaly, clearance was normal. After institution of antimalarial chemotherapy, however, the clearance in this group accelerated to supernormal rates similar to those in the patients with splenomegaly, but without the development of detectable splenomegaly. Clearance was not significantly altered by treatment in the group with splenomegaly. Six weeks later, normal clearance rates were reestablished in most patients in both groups. We conclude that splenic clearance of labeled erythrocytes is enhanced in patients with malaria if splenomegaly is present and is enhanced only after treatment if splenomegaly is absent. Whether this enhanced splenic function applies to parasite-infected erythrocytes in patients with malaria and has any clinical benefit will require further studies.

  19. Relationship of the functional movement screen in-line lunge to power, speed, and balance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin H; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C

    2014-05-01

    The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Descriptive laboratory study. Level 3. Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant.

  20. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Results: Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Conclusion: Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Clinical Relevance: Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant. PMID:24790688

  1. Altered mesocorticolimbic functional connectivity in psychotic disorder: an analysis of proxy genetic and environmental effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, S. C. T.; Gronenschild, E. H. B. M.; van de Ven, V.; Habets, P.; Goebel, R.; van Os, J.; Marcelis, M.; Kahn, Rene; Linszen, Don; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2015-01-01

    Altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic (MCL) system may mediate psychotic symptoms. In addition, pharmacological dopaminergic manipulation may coincide with altered functional connectivity (fc) 'in rest'. We set out to test whether MCL-fc is conditional on (familial risk

  2. Caspase 3 activity in isolated fetal rat lung fibroblasts and rat periodontal ligament fibroblasts: cigarette smoke-induced alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Elliot Scott

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary, oral and systemic diseases. Smoking during pregnancy is clearly a risk factor for the developing fetus and may be a major cause of infant mortality. Moreover, the oral cavity is the first site of exposure to cigarette smoke and may be a possible source for the spread of toxins to other organs of the body. Fibroblasts in general are morphologically heterogeneous connective tissue cells with diverse functions. Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a crucial process during embryogenesis and for the maintenance of homeostasis throughout life. Deregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in abnormal lung development in the fetus and disease progression in adults. Caspases, are proteases which belong to the family of cysteine aspartic acid proteases and are the key components for the downstream amplification of intra-cellular apoptotic signals. Of the 14 caspases known, caspase-3 is the key executioner of apoptosis. Fetal rat lung fibroblasts but not PDL viability is reduced by exposure to CSE. In addition Caspase 3 activity is elevated after CSE exposure in fetal lung fibroblasts but not in PDLs. Expression of caspase 3 is induced in CSE exposed lung fibroblasts but not in PDLs. Caspase 3 was localized to the cytoplasm in both cell types.

  3. Maternal E-Cigarette Exposure in Mice Alters DNA Methylation and Lung Cytokine Expression in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Li, Gerard; Chan, Yik Lung; Chapman, David G; Sukjamnong, Suporn; Nguyen, Tara; Annissa, Tiara; McGrath, Kristine C; Sharma, Pawan; Oliver, Brian G

    2018-03-01

    E-cigarette usage is increasing, especially among the young, with both the general population and physicians perceiving them as a safe alternative to tobacco smoking. Worryingly, e-cigarettes are commonly used by pregnant women. As nicotine is known to adversely affect children in utero, we hypothesized that nicotine delivered via e-cigarettes would negatively affect lung development. To test this, we developed a mouse model of maternal e-vapor (nicotine and nicotine-free) exposure and investigated the impact on the growth and lung inflammation in both offspring and mothers. Female Balb/c mice were exposed to e-fluid vapor containing nicotine (18 mg/ml nicotine E-cigarette [E-cig18], equivalent to two cigarettes per treatment, twice daily,) or nicotine free (E-cig0 mg/ml) from 6 weeks before mating until pups weaned. Male offspring were studied at Postnatal Day (P) 1, P20, and at 13 weeks. The mothers were studied when the pups weaned. In the mothers' lungs, e-cigarette exposure with and without nicotine increased the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. In adult offspring, TNF-α protein levels were increased in both E-cig18 and E-cig0 groups, whereas IL-1β was suppressed. This was accompanied by global changes in DNA methylation. In this study, we found that e-cigarette exposure during pregnancy adversely affected maternal and offspring lung health. As this occurred with both nicotine-free and nicotine-containing e-vapor, the effects are likely due to by-products of vaporization rather than nicotine.

  4. Extracorporeal lung perfusion and ventilation to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, F; Rosso, L; Gatti, S; Coppola, S; Froio, S; Colombo, J; Dossi, R; Pizzocri, M; Salice, V; Nosotti, M; Reggiani, P; Tosi, D; Palleschi, A; Pappalettera, M; Ferrero, S; Perazzoli, A; Costantini, D; Scalamogna, M; Rossi, G; Colombo, C; Santambrogio, L; Gattinoni, L

    2012-09-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has been validated as a valuable technique to increase the pool of organs available for lung transplantation. After a preclinical experience, we obtained permission from the Ethics Committee of our institution to transplant lungs after EVLP reconditioning. ABO compatibility, size match, and donor arterial oxygen pressure (PaO(2))/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)) ≤ 300 mm Hg were considered to be inclusion criteria, whereas the presence of chest trauma and lung contusion, evidence of gastric content aspiration, pneumonia, sepsis, or systemic disease were exclusion criteria. We only considered subjects on an extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) bridge to transplantation with rapid functional deterioration. Using Steen solution with packed red blood cells oxygenated with 21% O(2), 5% to 7% CO(2) was delivered, targeted with a blood flow of approximately 40% predicted cardiac output. Once normothermic, the lungs were ventilated with a tidal volume of 7 mL/kg a PEEP of 5 cmH(2)O and a respiratory rate of 7 bpm. Lungs were considered to be suitable for transplantation if well oxygenated [P(v-a) O(2) > 350 mm Hg on FiO(2) 100%], in the absence of deterioration of pulmonary vascular resistance and lung mechanics over the perfusion time. From March to September 2011, six lung transplantations were performed, including two with EVLP. The functional outcomes were similar between groups: at T72 posttransplantation, the median PaO(2)/FiO(2) were 306 mm Hg (range, 282 to 331 mm Hg) and 323 mm Hg (range, 270 to 396 mm Hg) (P = 1, EVLP versus conventional). Intensive care unit ICU and hospital length of stay were similar (P = .533 and P = .663, respectively) with no mortality at 60 days in both groups. EVLP donors were older (49 ± 6 y versus 21 ± 7 y, P organs available for transplantation with short-term outcomes comparable to conventional transplantations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional anatomy of the lung of the snake Pituophis melanoleucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, J N

    1982-09-01

    The respiratory system in Pituophis melanoleucus is composed of a trachea, a single bronchial lung containing the pulmonary vasculature, and a large membranous caudal air sac. Total air volume (VL) in a 1-kg snake is 97.5 ml and varies with size (M) according to the equation VL = 0.388 M0.80 where VL is in milliliters and M is in grams. These air volumes are similar to those measured in many lizards and turtles. Relative volumes of the trachea, vascular lung, and air sac in Pituophis are about 4, 20, and 76%, respectively. The respiratory tissue is composed of a honeycomb network of capillary-bearing partitions, which collectively forms the gas exchange surface. This respiratory tissue is confined to the proximal 20% of the lung. Total respiratory surface area (SA) in a 1-kg snake is 2.00 x 10(3) cm2 and varies with size according to the equation SA = 3.03 M0.94 where SA is in square centimeters. Total SA/VL within the bronchial lung is large, being approximately 101 cm2/ml. Gradients in respiratory surface area and lung air volume are reversed so that SA/VL is highest near the cranial tip of the lung and decreases towards the air sac. Harmonic mean thickness of the air-blood barrier was found to be 0.46 +/- 10(-4) cm with the result that the anatomic diffusion factor, or ratio of respiratory surface area to mean diffusion distance, for a 1-kg snake is 0.44 x 10(8) cm. This index of diffusion capacity is very close to that reported for two lungs of a turtle.

  6. Improvement in pulmonary function and elastic recoil after lung-reduction surgery for diffuse emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciurba, F C; Rogers, R M; Keenan, R J; Slivka, W A; Gorcsan, J; Ferson, P F; Holbert, J M; Brown, M L; Landreneau, R J

    1996-04-25

    Pulmonary function may improve after surgical resection of the most severely affected lung tissue (lung-reduction surgery) in patients with diffuse emphysema. The basic mechanisms responsible for the improvement, however, are not known. We studied 20 patients with diffuse emphysema before and at least three months after either a unilateral or a bilateral lung-reduction procedure. Clinical benefit was assessed by measurement of the six-minute walking distance and the transitional-dyspnea index, which is a subjective rating of the change from base line in functional impairment and the threshold for effort- and task- dependent dyspnea. Pressure-volume relations in the lungs were measured with static expiratory esophageal-balloon techniques, and right ventricular systolic function was assessed by echocardiography. The patients had significant improvement in the transitional-dyspnea index after surgery (Pelastic recoil of the lung, improved (from 1.3+/-0.6 cm of water per liter before surgery to 1.8+/-0.8 after, Pelastic recoil had a greater increase in the distance walked in six minutes than the other four patients, in whom recoil did not increase (P=0.02). The improved lung recoil led to disproportionate decreases in residual volume as compared with total lung capacity (16 percent vs. 6 percent), but the decreases in both values were significant (Pelastic recoil of the lung in patients with diffuse emphysema, leading to short-term improvement in dyspnea and exercise tolerance.

  7. Recent advances in understanding lung function development [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Melén

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed critical contributions to our understanding of the determinants and long-term implications of lung function development. In this article, we review studies that have contributed to advances in understanding lung function development and its critical importance for lung health into adult life. In particular, we have focused on early life determinants that include genetic factors, perinatal events, environmental exposures, lifestyle, infancy lower respiratory tract infections, and persistent asthma phenotypes. Longitudinal studies have conclusively demonstrated that lung function deficits that are established by school age may track into adult life and increase the risk of adult lung obstructive diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Furthermore, these contributions have provided initial evidence in support of a direct influence by early life events on an accelerated decline of lung function and an increased susceptibility to its environmental determinants well into adult life. As such, we argue that future health-care programs based on precision medicine approaches that integrate deep phenotyping with tailored medication and advice to patients should also foster optimal lung function growth to be fully effective.

  8. Lung function and breathing pattern in subjects developing high altitude pulmonary edema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F Clarenbach

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to comprehensively evaluate physiologic changes associated with development of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. We tested whether changes in pulmonary function and breathing pattern would herald clinically overt HAPE at an early stage. METHODS: In 18 mountaineers, spirometry, diffusing capacity, nitrogen washout, nocturnal ventilation and pulse oximetry were recorded at 490 m and during 3 days after rapid ascent to 4559 m. Findings were compared among subjects developing HAPE and those remaining well (controls. RESULTS: In 8 subjects subsequently developing radiographically documented HAPE at 4559 m, median FVC declined to 82% of low altitude baseline while closing volume increased to 164% of baseline (P<0.05, both instances. In 10 controls, FVC decreased slightly (to 93% baseline, P<0.05 but significantly less than in subjects with HAPE and closing volume remained unchanged. Sniff nasal pressure was reduced in both subjects with and without subsequent HAPE. During nights at 4559 m, mean nocturnal oxygen saturation dropped to lower values while minute ventilation, the number of periodic breathing cycles and heart rate were higher (60%; 8.6 L/min; 97 cycles/h; 94 beats/min, respectively in subjects subsequently developing HAPE than in controls (73%; 5.1 L/min; 48 cycles/h; 79 beats/min; P<0.05 vs. HAPE, all instances. CONCLUSION: The results comprehensively represent the pattern of physiologic alterations that precede overt HAPE. The changes in lung function are consistent with reduced lung compliance and impaired gas exchange. Pronounced nocturnal hypoxemia, ventilatory control instability and sympathetic stimulation are further signs of subsequent overt HAPE.

  9. Surfactant nebulisation : lung function, surfactant distribution and pulmonary blood flow distribution in lung lavaged rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Surfactant nebulisation is a promising alternative to surfactant instillation in newborns with the respiratory distress syndrome. Although less surfactant is deposited in the lung, it improves gas exchange, probably due to a superior distribution. We hypothesize that a more uniform

  10. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Poultry Confinement Workers in Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley P Kirychuk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether poultry production methods impact respiratory health, and whether poultry farmers have more respiratory symptoms and lower lung function than comparison control groups.

  11. Effects of Body Mass Index on Lung Function Index of Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiao; Ye, Jun; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Changan; Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Yongliang

    2018-01-01

    To study the effect of body mass index (BMI) on lung function indexes in Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed on 10, 592 participants. The linear relationship between lung function and BMI was evaluated by multivariate linear regression analysis, and the correlation between BMI and lung function was assessed by Pearson correlation analysis. Correlation analysis showed that BMI was positively related with the decreasing of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC (P <0.05), the increasing of FVC% predicted value (FVC%pre) and FEV1% predicted value (FEV1%pre). These suggested that Chinese people can restrain the decline of lung function to prevent the occurrence and development of COPD by the control of BMI.

  12. Health outcomes associated with lung function decline and respiratory symptoms and disease in a community cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In workplace respiratory disease prevention, a thorough understanding is needed of the relative contributions of lung function loss and respiratory symptoms in predicting adverse health outcomes. METHODS: Copenhagen City Heart Study respiratory data collected at 4 examinations (1976...

  13. Diagnosis-related deterioration of lung function after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Spoel (Marjolein); R. Laas (Roxanne); S.J. Gischler (Saskia); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); D. Tibboel (Dick); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the study was to assess lung function longitudinally after neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and to identify any effects of diagnosis and perinatal characteristics. 121 neonatal ECMO-treated children (70 with meconium aspiration

  14. Muscle fatigue in frog semitendinosus: alterations in contractile function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. V.; Balog, E. M.; Riley, D. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the contractile properties of the frog semitendinosus (ST) muscle before and during recovery from fatigue, to relate the observed functional changes to alterations in specific steps in the crossbridge model of muscle contraction, and to determine how fatigue affects the force-frequency relationship. The frog ST (22 degrees C) was fatigued by direct electrical stimulation with 100-ms 150-Hz trains at 1/s for 5 min. The fatigue protocol reduced peak twitch (Pt) and tetanic (Po) force to 32 and 8.5% of initial force, respectively. The decline in Pt was less than Po, in part due to a prolongation in the isometric contraction time (CT), which increased to 300% of the initial value. The isometric twitch duration was greatly prolonged as reflected by the lengthened CT and the 800% increase in the one-half relaxation time (1/2RT). Both Pt and Po showed a biphasic recovery, a rapid initial phase (2 min) followed by a slower (40 min) return to the prefatigue force. CT and 1/2RT also recovered in two phases, returning to 160 and 265% of control in the first 5 min. CT returned to the prefatigue value between 35 and 40 min, whereas even at 60 min 1/2RT was 133% of control. The maximal velocity of shortening, determined by the slack test, was significantly reduced [from 6.7 +/- 0.5 to 2.5 +/- 0.4 optimal muscle length/s] at fatigue. The force-frequency relationship was shifted to the left, so that optimal frequency for generating Po was reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  15. Spirometry quality in adults with very severe lung function impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; García-Torrentera, Rogelio; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Enright, Paul; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2015-05-01

    Some technologists worry that patients with very severe lung disease are unable to complete several spirometry maneuvers, which require considerable effort. We retrospectively selected all spirometry tests with an FEV1 30,000 subjects tested during the 3-y period) had adequate quality spirometry. Subjects with airway obstruction were less likely to meet FVC repeatability goals. A poor spirometry quality grade was associated with a very low FVC and a low body mass index, but not older age. Severe lung disease should not be used as an excuse for not meeting spirometry quality goals. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. mCOPD: Mobile Phone Based Lung Function Diagnosis and Exercise System for COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is a serious lung disease which makes people hard to breathe. The number of people who have COPD is on the rise. COPD patients require lung function examinations and perform breathing exercises on a regular basis in order to be more aware of their lung functions, get diagnosed early, and control the shortness of their breaths. In order to help people with COPD, we developed mCOPD which is a smartphone based Android application made especially for C...

  17. The prognostic importance of lung function in patients admitted with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper Karmark; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Akkan, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF).......The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF)....

  18. High-sensitive C-reactive protein is associated with reduced lung function in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Finn; Mikkelsen, Dennis; Hancox, Robert

    2009-01-01

    levels of CRP at age 20 yrs were associated with a greater reduction in both FEV(1) and forced vital capacity between ages 20 and 29 yrs. The findings show that higher levels of C-reactive protein in young adults are associated with subsequent decline in lung function, suggesting that low-grade systemic...... inflammation in young adulthood may lead to impaired lung function independently of the effects of smoking, obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness, asthma and eosinophilic inflammation....

  19. The impact of birth weight on the level of lung function and lung function decline in the general adult population. The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between low birth weight and low adult lung function, but findings have not been consistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether birth weight is associated with both the level and the decline in adult lung function in general......'s age at birth, parity, prematurity, multiple pregnancy, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and lung symptoms as covariates. RESULTS: Birth weight was positively associated with spirometric variables. For a 1 kg increase in birth weight, FEV1 increased by 86 ml (CI95%: 34-139) and FVC by 88 ml (CI95......1 and FVC. CONCLUSION: Low birth weight was significantly associated with lower adult FEV1 and FVC but not with the decline in these variables during a 5-year observation. Although FEV1/FVC ratio was not related to birth weight, persons with low birth weight experienced a steeper decline...

  20. Work stress, anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure, and blood-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo; Goldberg, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 1......, creatinine, glucose levels or resting blood pressure measures. This indicates that work stress is associated altered metabolic profile, increased systemic inflammation, and, in men, poorer liver function, which is a marker of high alcohol consumption.......Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 18......–72 years (the CONSTANCES cohort). According to the Effort-Reward Imbalance model, work stress was defined as an imbalance between perceived high efforts and low rewards at work. A standardized health examination included measures of anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure and standard blood...

  1. Gender Disparity in Lung Function Abnormalities among a Population Exposed to Particulate Matter Concentration in Ambient Air in the National Capital Region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. Since the women in this study were non-smokers, the PM in ambient air can be considered to be the major reason for the decline in lung function. The sources of PM pollutants in the study locations are large scale infrastructural development activities such as building and road construction activities. Narrowed lung airways can alter the airway caliber or resistance and flow rates proportional to the airway radius, especially in smaller airways. The present study suggests the need for policy makers and stake holders to take the necessary steps to identify PM sources and reduce the emissions of PM concentrations in ambient air.

  2. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness in preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Duiverman (Eric)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractIt is hypothesized that childhood asthma, especially when not well controlled, may constitute a risk factor for the development of COLD in adulthood (Cropp, 1985), It is unknown whether lung injury during early life is a risk factor for the development of COLD in adulthood, Asthma often

  3. A correlation of symptomatology with lung function in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients' biodata, symptoms, and signs were obtained using a specially designed form. The symptoms were scored using nasal symptom scoring protocol and the lung volumes determined using spirometry. The data were collated and analyzed using SPSS Version 15 statistical software. Results: There were 300 patients ...

  4. ANALYSIS OF LUNG FUNCTION TESTS AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-01

    LFT) data on patients who were referred from clinics both in and outside KBTH. A spirometer was used to assess various lung volume parameters. Results: One quarter of total subjects (25.5%) had obstructive, 14.8% restrictive ...

  5. Variants of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease genes and lung function decline in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Audrey H; Houseman, E Andres; Ryan, Louise; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2014-07-01

    A substantial proportion of the general population has low lung function, and lung function is known to decrease as we age. Low lung function is a feature of several pulmonary disorders, such as uncontrolled asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of polymorphisms in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease candidate genes with rates of lung function decline in a general population sample of aging men. We analyzed data from a cohort of 1,047 Caucasian men without known lung disease, who had a mean of 25 years of lung function data, and on whom DNA was available. The cohort was randomly divided into two groups, and we tested a total of 940 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 44 asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease candidate genes in the first group (testing cohort, n = 545) for association with change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second over time. One hundred nineteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms that showed nominal associations in the testing cohort were then genotyped and tested in the second group (replication cohort, n = 502). Evidence for association from the testing and replication cohorts were combined, and after adjustment for multiple testing, seven variants of three genes (DPP10, NPSR1, and ADAM33) remained significantly associated with change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second over time. Our findings that genetic variants of genes involved in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are associated with lung function decline in normal aging participants suggest that similar genetic mechanisms may underlie lung function decline in both disease and normal aging processes. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Functional lung MRI for regional monitoring of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till F Kaireit

    Full Text Available To test quantitative functional lung MRI techniques in young adults with cystic fibrosis (CF compared to healthy volunteers and to monitor immediate treatment effects of a single inhalation of hypertonic saline in comparison to clinical routine pulmonary function tests.Sixteen clinically stable CF patients and 12 healthy volunteers prospectively underwent two functional lung MRI scans and pulmonary function tests before and 2h after a single treatment of inhaled hypertonic saline or without any treatment. MRI-derived oxygen enhanced T1 relaxation measurements, fractional ventilation, first-pass perfusion parameters and a morpho-functional CF-MRI score were acquired.Compared to healthy controls functional lung MRI detected and quantified significantly increased ventilation heterogeneity in CF patients. Regional functional lung MRI measures of ventilation and perfusion as well as the CF-MRI score and pulmonary function tests could not detect a significant treatment effect two hours after a single treatment with hypertonic saline in young adults with CF (p>0.05.This study shows the feasibility of functional lung MRI as a non-invasive, radiation-free tool for monitoring patients with CF.

  7. Lung function following thermal injury in children--an 8-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlcak, R; Desai, M H; Robinson, E; Nichols, R; Herndon, D N

    1998-05-01

    despite the frequency of pulmonary complications and the reports of abnormal lung function as a sequela of severe thermal injury, most of the lung function studies following thermal injury have been directed at the immediate post-burn period. This investigation is designed to evaluate late residual respiratory impairment in patients with severe thermal injury. spirometry and lung volumes were completed on 17 children with severe thermal injury 8 years post-injury. None of the patients had pre-existing lung disease prior to injury. the patient demographic data was as follows: nine male, eight female patients; mean TBSB=67+/-29%; mean third degree=62+/-32%; 13 patients had inhalation injury diagnosed by bronchoscopy. Spirometry and lung volumes at examination as a percentage of predicted values were: [see table in text]. Spirometry and lung volumes show: two patients had an obstructive disease process; nine patients had an obstructive and restrictive disease process; five patients had a purely restrictive process; and one patient had a diffusion defect. the data indicate that children who survive severe thermal injury may not regain normal lung function.

  8. Tracking Regional Tissue Volume and Function Change in Lung Using Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunlin Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated the 24-hour redistribution and reabsorption of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid delivered to the lung during a bronchoscopic procedure in normal volunteers. In this work we utilize image-matching procedures to correlate fluid redistribution and reabsorption to changes in regional lung function. Lung CT datasets from six human subjects were used in this study. Each subject was scanned at four time points before and after BAL procedure. Image registration was performed to align images at different time points and different inflation levels. The resulting dense displacement fields were utilized to track tissue volume changes and reveal deformation patterns of local parenchymal tissue quantitatively. The registration accuracy was assessed by measuring landmark matching errors, which were on the order of 1 mm. The results show that quantitative-assessed fluid volume agreed well with bronchoscopist-reported unretrieved BAL volume in the whole lungs (squared linear correlation coefficient was 0.81. The average difference of lung tissue volume at baseline and after 24 hours was around 2%, which indicates that BAL fluid in the lungs was almost absorbed after 24 hours. Regional lung-function changes correlated with the presence of BAL fluid, and regional function returned to baseline as the fluid was reabsorbed.

  9. Cardiovascular Deconditioning in Humans: Alteration in Cardiovascular Regulation and Function During Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Alterations in cardiovascular regulation and function that occur during and after space flight have been reported. These alterations are manifested, for example, by reduced orthostatic tolerance upon reentry to the earth's gravity from space. However, the precise physiologic mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain to be fully elucidated. Perhaps, as a result, effective countermeasures have yet to be developed. In this project we apply a powerful, new method - cardiovascular system identification (CSI) - for the study of the effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system so that effective countermeasures can be developed. CSI involves the mathematical analysis of second-to-second fluctuations in non-invasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV - respiratory activity) in order to characterize quantitatively the physiologic mechanisms responsible for the couplings between these signals. Through the characterization of all the physiologic mechanisms coupling these signals, CSI provides a model of the closed-loop cardiovascular regulatory state in an individual subject. The model includes quantitative descriptions of the heart rate baroreflex, autonomic function, as well as other important physiologic mechanisms. We are in the process of incorporating beat-to-beat fluctuations of stroke volume into the CSI technique in order to quantify additional physiologic mechanisms such as those involved in control of peripheral vascular resistance and alterations in cardiac contractility. We apply CSI in conjunction with the two general protocols of the Human Studies Core project. The first protocol involves ground-based, human head down tilt bed rest to simulate microgravity and acute stressors - upright tilt, standing and bicycle exercise - to provide orthostatic and exercise challenges. The second protocol is intended to be the same as the first but with the addition of sleep deprivation to determine whether

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of respiratory movement and lung function; Magnetresonanztomographie der Atembewegung und Lungenfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetzlaff, R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Medizinische und Biologische Informatik, Heidelberg (Germany); Eichinger, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie (E010), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Lung function measurements are the domain of spirometry or plethysmography. These methods have proven their value in clinical practice, nevertheless, being global measurements the functional indices only describe the sum of all functional units of the lung. Impairment of only a single component of the respiratory pump or of a small part of lung parenchyma can be compensated by unaffected lung tissue. Dynamic imaging can help to detect such local changes and lead to earlier adapted therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seems to be perfect for this application as it is not hampered by image distortion as is projection radiography and it does not expose the patient to potentially harmful radiation like computed tomography. Unfortunately, lung parenchyma is not easy to image using MRI due to its low signal intensity. For this reason first applications of MRI in lung function measurements concentrated on the movement of the thoracic wall and the diaphragm. Recent technical advances in MRI however might allow measurements of regional dynamics of the lungs. (orig.) [German] Die Lungenfunktion wird bislang hauptsaechlich durch die Spirometrie oder Plethysmographie untersucht. Diese Methoden sind zwar sehr leistungsfaehig zur Diagnostik von Lungenerkrankungen, sind jedoch globale Messmethoden, deren Messparameter immer die Summe aller funktionellen Einheiten der Lunge beschreiben. Veraenderungen, die auf eine Teilkomponente der Atempumpe beschraenkt sind oder kleine Teile des Lungengewebes betreffen, koennen durch gesunde Lungenanteile kompensiert werden. Mit dynamischen bildgebenden Verfahren koennten solche regionalen Veraenderungen erfasst und so eine fruehere Therapie ermoeglicht werden. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) bietet sich hier ideal an, da sie als Schnittbildverfahren weder die Probleme der Bildverzerrung, der Projektionsverfahren noch die Strahlenbelastung der Computertomographie hat. Allerdings wird die MRT der Lunge durch das geringe Signal des

  11. Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibition alters gene expression and improves isoniazid-mediated clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in rabbit lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvakumar Subbian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB treatment is hampered by the long duration of antibiotic therapy required to achieve cure. This indolent response has been partly attributed to the ability of subpopulations of less metabolically active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb to withstand killing by current anti-TB drugs. We have used immune modulation with a phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4 inhibitor, CC-3052, that reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α production by increasing intracellular cAMP in macrophages, to examine the crosstalk between host and pathogen in rabbits with pulmonary TB during treatment with isoniazid (INH. Based on DNA microarray, changes in host gene expression during CC-3052 treatment of Mtb infected rabbits support a link between PDE4 inhibition and specific down-regulation of the innate immune response. The overall pattern of host gene expression in the lungs of infected rabbits treated with CC-3052, compared to untreated rabbits, was similar to that described in vitro in resting Mtb infected macrophages, suggesting suboptimal macrophage activation. These alterations in host immunity were associated with corresponding down-regulation of a number of Mtb genes that have been associated with a metabolic shift towards dormancy. Moreover, treatment with CC-3052 and INH resulted in reduced expression of those genes associated with the bacterial response to INH. Importantly, CC-3052 treatment of infected rabbits was associated with reduced ability of Mtb to withstand INH killing, shown by improved bacillary clearance, from the lungs of co-treated animals compared to rabbits treated with INH alone. The results of our study suggest that changes in Mtb gene expression, in response to changes in the host immune response, can alter the responsiveness of the bacteria to antimicrobial agents. These findings provide a basis for exploring the potential use of adjunctive immune modulation with PDE4 inhibitors to enhance the efficacy of existing anti-TB treatment.

  12. Preserving Functional Lung Using Perfusion Imaging and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Advanced-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Jang, Si Young; Liu, H. Helen; Guerrero, Thomas; Wang, Xuanmin; Gayed, Isis W.; Erwin, William D.; Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Jeter, Melenda; Yaremko, Brian P.; Borghero, Yerko O.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Mohan, Radhe

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess quantitatively the impact of incorporating functional lung imaging into intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients with advanced-stage NSCLC who underwent radiotherapy were included in this study. Before radiotherapy, each patient underwent lung perfusion imaging with single-photon-emission computed tomography and X-ray computed tomography (SPECT-CT). The SPECT-CT was registered with simulation CT and was used to segment the 50- and 90-percentile hyperperfusion lung (F50 lung and F90 lung). Two IMRT plans were designed and compared in each patient: an anatomic plan using simulation CT alone and a functional plan using SPECT-CT in addition to the simulation CT. Dosimetric parameters of the two types of plans were compared in terms of tumor coverage and avoidance of normal tissues. Results: In incorporating perfusion information in IMRT planning, the median reductions in the mean doses to the F50 and F90 lung in the functional plan were 2.2 and 4.2 Gy, respectively, compared with those in the anatomic plans. The median reductions in the percentage of volume irradiated with >5 Gy, >10 Gy, and >20 Gy in the functional plans were 7.1%, 6.0%, and 5.1%, respectively, for F50 lung, and 11.7%, 12.0%, and 6.8%, respectively, for F90 lung. A greater degree of sparing of the functional lung was achieved for patients with large perfusion defects compared with those with relatively uniform perfusion distribution. Conclusion: Function-guided IMRT planning appears to be effective in preserving functional lung in locally advanced-stage NSCLC patients

  13. Reduced brain functional reserve and altered functional connectivity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cader, Sarah; Cifelli, Alberto; Abu-Omar, Yasir; Palace, Jacqueline; Matthews, Paul M

    2006-02-01

    Cognitive dysfunction (affecting particularly attention and working memory) occurs early in patients with multiple sclerosis. Previous studies have focused on identifying potentially adaptive functional reorganization through recruitment of new brain regions that could limit expression of these deficits. However, lesion studies remind us that functional specializations in the brain make certain brain regions necessary for a given task. We therefore have asked whether altered functional interactions between regions normally recruited provide an alternative adaptive mechanism with multiple sclerosis pathology. We used a version of the n-back task to probe working memory in patients with early multiple sclerosis. We applied a functional connectivity analysis to test whether relationships between relative activations in different brain regions change in potentially adaptive ways with multiple sclerosis. We studied 21 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls with 3T functional MRI. The two groups performed equally well on the task. Task-related activations were found in similar regions for patients and controls. However, patients showed relatively reduced activation in the superior frontal and anterior cingulate gyri (P > 0.01). Patients also showed a variable, but generally substantially smaller increase in activation than healthy controls with greater task complexity, depending on the specific brain region assessed (P memory. Functional connectivity analysis suggests that altered inter-hemispheric interactions between dorsal and lateral prefrontal regions may provide an adaptive mechanism that could limit clinical expression of the disease distinct from recruitment of novel processing regions. Together, these results suggest that therapeutic enhancement of the coherence of interactions between brain regions normally recruited (functional enhancement), as well as recruitment of alternative areas or use of

  14. Assessment of an infant whole-body plethysmograph using an infant lung function model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmann, B; Stocks, J; Frey, U

    2001-04-01

    In order to facilitate international multicentre studies and improve the quality control of infant pulmonary function measurements, the European Respiratory Society-American Thoracic Society Task Force for infant lung function testing has recently developed specifications for standardized infant lung function equipment and software. A mechanical infant lung model analogue has been developed to assess whether infant lung function equipment is able to meet these requirements. However, the practical testing of infant lung function equipment using such models is highly complex because of the need to use very small pressure and flow changes, and the numerous potentially confounding factors associated with both the design of the device and the testing procedure. The aim of this study was to determine whether the infant lung model is capable of assessing the overall function of an whole-body infant- plethysmograph, using the only infant plethysmograph that was commercially available at the time as an example. The mechanical characteristics of the model such as vibrations or noise did not disturb the delicate plethysmographic measurements and thereby allowed a reliable assessment of the system. A series of tests revealed that the plethysmograph was able to measure airway resistance 1-3.5 kPa.L(-1).s with an accuracy of +/-2.5% and lung volumes 75-300 mL with an accuracy of +/-2.5% under in vitro conditions. To conclude, the infant lung model is a useful means of assessing the overall in vitro performance of infant whole-body plethysmographs, but thermal, mechanical and frequency response characteristics of such a device must be taken into account when interpreting the results of such assessments.

  15. INVASIVE PLANTS HARBOR HUNGRY DETRITIVORES THAT ALTER ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystems are expected to function more efficiently in response to a diverse community of inhabitants. However, biological invasions may change expected relationships between ecosystem function and diversity. We observed increased decomposition, a measure of ecosystem function...

  16. Using quantitative breath sound measurements to predict lung function following resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keus Leendert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting postoperative lung function is important for estimating the risk of complications and long-term disability after pulmonary resection. We investigated the capability of vibration response imaging (VRI as an alternative to lung scintigraphy for prediction of postoperative lung function in patients with intrathoracic malignancies. Methods Eighty-five patients with intrathoracic malignancies, considered candidates for lung resection, were prospectively studied. The projected postoperative (ppo lung function was calculated using: perfusion scintigraphy, ventilation scintigraphy, and VRI. Two sets of assessments made: one for lobectomy and one for pneumonectomy. Clinical concordance was defined as both methods agreeing that either a patient was or was not a surgical candidate based on a ppoFEV1% and ppoDLCO% > 40%. Results Limits of agreement between scintigraphy and VRI for ppo following lobectomy were -16.47% to 15.08% (mean difference = -0.70%;95%CI = -2.51% to 1.12% and for pneumonectomy were -23.79% to 19.04% (mean difference = -2.38%;95%CI = -4.69% to -0.07%. Clinical concordance between VRI and scintigraphy was 73% for pneumonectomy and 98% for lobectomy. For patients who had surgery and postoperative lung function testing (n = 31, ppoFEV1% using scintigraphic methods correlated with measured postoperative values better than projections using VRI, (adjusted R2 = 0.32 scintigraphy; 0.20 VRI, however the difference between methods failed to reach statistical significance. Limits of agreement between measured FEV1% postoperatively and ppoFEV1% based on perfusion scintigraphy were -16.86% to 23.73% (mean difference = 3.44%;95%CI = -0.29% to 7.16%; based on VRI were -19.56% to 28.99% (mean difference = 4.72%;95%CI = 0.27% to 9.17%. Conclusions Further investigation of VRI as an alternative to lung scintigraphy for prediction of postoperative lung function is warranted.

  17. Limitation of RI imaging in evaluating lung function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Michiaki; Tanaka, Eiko; Fukunaga, Takafumi; Oku, Yoshitaka; Kuno, Kenshi; Kawakami, Kenzou; Yoshida, Hitoshi.

    1989-01-01

    We developed two methods for determining the regional distribution of (1) RV/TLC and air trapping during forced expiration and (2) the ratio or pulmonary blood volume to blood flow. 1) The regional distributions of RV/TLC and air trapping ratio: A.T.R. (air trapping caused by forced expiration) were measured in respiratory disease cases and normal subjects using Xe-133 gas. In normal subjects, RV/TLC gradually decreased from the apex to the base of the lung. A.T.R. was very low in all lung fields. In chronic emphysema (CPE), both RV/TLC and A.T.R. were much higher than the value in normal subjects at the highly diseased areas. In contrast, in case of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), RV/TLC remained within the normal range and A.T.R. was increased considerably in the diseased regions. These results suggest that airway obstruction occurs only during the forced expiration in DPB. 2) The regional distribution of the ratio of pulmonary blood volume to blood flow (τ p ) were measured in a normal subject and a case of mitral regurgitation. In both subjects, the distribution of 1/τ p consisted of three zones: upper, middle and lower. The distribution of 1/τ p was constant in the middle zone, but, in the upper and lower zones, it decreased in proportion to the distance from the middle zone. In the case of mitral regurgitation, the middle zone shifted to the apex. Applying the results to the lung perfusion model proposed by West, it was suggested that these phenomena might reflect the increase of the pulmonary venous pressure and the perfusion disorder in the lower lung. (author)

  18. Functional Analysis of Somatic Mutations in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    as a tumor suppressor. To investigate the consequences of RBM10 mutations in vivo, we have taken advantage of a technique developed by the lab of...injection samples to the median corrected RPM in tumor samples. (E) Violin plots of representative mutants identified as enriched in tumor samples. Data...cancer-associated genes contribute to the initiation and maintenance of lung cancer. In addition, many of the techniques developed here, e.g. CRISPR

  19. Chronic zinc deficiency alters chick gut microbiota composition and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a prevalent micronutrient insufficiency. Although the gut is a vital organ for Zn utilization, and Zn deficiency is associated with impaired intestinal permeability and a global decrease in gastrointestinal health, alterations in the gut microbial ecology of the host under co...

  20. Correlation of spine deformity, lung function, and seat pressure in spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayesh; Walker, Janet L; Talwalkar, Vishwas R; Iwinski, Henry J; Milbrandt, Todd A

    2011-05-01

    Spinal deformity, a common problem in children with myelodysplasia, is associated with alterations in pulmonary function and sitting balance. Sitting imbalance causes areas of high pressure in patients already at high risk for developing pressure ulcers due to insensate skin. We asked: Does spinal deformity affect pulmonary function tests in children with myelodysplasia? Does the magnitude of spinal curvatures and pelvic obliquity affect seating pressures? Does spinal deformity and seated pressures correlate with a history of pressure ulcers? We retrospectively reviewed 32 patients with myelodysplasia and scoliosis (mean age, 14 years). The mean thoracic scoliosis was 64° with a mean pelvic obliquity of 15°. The mean forced vital capacity was 59% of predicted. The mean of the average and peak seated pressures were 24 and 137 mm Hg, respectively. We examined spinal radiographs, pulmonary function tests, and seated pressure maps and evaluated correlations of spinal deformity measures, pulmonary function, and seated pressures. The thoracic scoliosis inversely correlated with lung volume and weakly related with only the forced midexpiratory volume parameter (R(2) = 31%). The curve magnitude was associated with % seated area with pressures of 38 to 70 mm Hg while lesser degrees of pelvic obliquity were associated with % seating area with pressures of less than 38 mm Hg (R(2) = 25% and 24%, respectively). A history of pressure ulcers did not correlate with any spinal deformity or seated pressure measures. All patients displayed a reduced forced vital capacity, but this reduction was not related to increasing scoliosis. The smaller scoliosis curves and lesser degrees of pelvic obliquity were associated with larger areas of low seated pressures.

  1. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paulin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease.

  2. Intrauterine and early postnatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and lung function at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; de la Cruz, Oscar Asensio; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; de Dicastillo, Maria D Martinez López; Zabaleta, Carlos; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution on lung function at preschool age remain unexplored. We examined the association of exposure to air pollution during specific trimesters of pregnancy and postnatal life with lung function in preschoolers. Lung function was assessed with spirometry in preschoolers aged 4.5 years (n=620) participating in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. Temporally adjusted land use regression (LUR) models were applied to estimate individual residential exposures to benzene and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) during specific trimesters of pregnancy and early postnatal life (the first year of life). Recent and current (1 year and 1 week before lung function testing, respectively) exposures to NO₂ and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were also assessed. Exposure to higher levels of benzene and NO₂ during pregnancy was associated with reduced lung function. FEV1 estimates for an IQR increase in exposures during the second trimester of pregnancy were -18.4 mL, 95% CI -34.8 to -2.1 for benzene and -28.0 mL, 95% CI -52.9 to -3.2 for NO₂. Relative risk (RR) of low lung function (<80% of predicted FEV1) for an IQR increase in benzene and NO₂ during the second trimester of pregnancy were 1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.46 and 1.30, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.76, respectively. Associations for early postnatal, recent and current exposures were not statistically significant. Stronger associations appeared among allergic children and those of lower social class. Prenatal exposure to residential traffic-related air pollution may result in long-term lung function deficits at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Specific gene expression signatures induced by the multiple oncogenic alterations that occur within the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela De Marco

    enriched by the costitutive activation of AKT1-, PI3K- or PTEN-dependent signalling in lung epithelial cells. Expectedly, the analysis of the DEGs common to all three alterations highlighted a group of BioFunctions that included Cell Proliferation of tumor cell lines (14 DEGs, Invasion of cells (10 DEGs and Migration of tumour cell lines (10 DEGs, with a common core of 5 genes (ATF3, CDKN1A, GDF15, HBEGF and LCN2 that likely represent downstream effectors of the pro-oncogenic activities of PI3K/AKT signalling. Conversely, IPA analysis of exclusive DEGs led to the identification of different downstream effectors that are modulated by mutant AKT1 (TGFBR2, CTSZ, EMP1, mutant PIK3CA (CCND2, CDK2, IGFBP2, TRIB1 and PTEN loss (ASNS, FHL2. These findings not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms that are activated by aberrant signalling through the PI3K/AKT pathway in lung epithelial cells, but also contribute to the identification of previously unrecognised molecules whose regulation takes part in the development of lung cancer.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Proteome Alterations in CDV-Infected Mink Lung Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei Tong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a paramyxovirus, causes a severe highly contagious lethal disease in carnivores, such as mink. Mink lung epithelial cells (Mv.1.Lu cells are sensitive to CDV infection and are homologous to the natural host system of mink. The current study analyzed the response of Mv.1.Lu cells to CDV infection by iTRAQ combined with LC–MS/MS. In total, 151 and 369 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were markedly up-regulated or down-regulated, respectively. Thirteen DEPs were validated via real-time RT-PCR or western blot analysis. Network and KEGG pathway analyses revealed several regulated proteins associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway. Further validation was performed by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay, which demonstrated that different CDV strains induced NF-κB P65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Moreover, the results provided interesting information that some identified DEPs possibly associated with the pathogenesis and the immune response upon CDV infection. This study is the first overview of the responses to CDV infection in Mv.1.Lu cells, and the findings will help to analyze further aspects of the molecular mechanisms involved in viral pathogenesis and the immune responses upon CDV infection.

  5. CT Densitometry of the Lung in Healthy Nonsmokers with Normal Pulmonary Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tack Sun; Chae, Eun Jin; Seo, Joon Beom; Jung, Young Ju; Oh, Yeon Mok; Lee, Sang Do

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the upper normal limit of low attenuation area in healthy nonsmokers. A total of 36 nonsmokers with normal pulmonary function test underwent a CT scan. Six thresholds (-980 --930 HU) on inspiration CT and two thresholds (-950 and -910 HU) on expiration CT were used for obtaining low attenuation area. The mean lung density was obtained on both inspiration CT and expiration CT. Descriptive statistics of low attenuation area and the mean lung density, evaluation of difference of low attenuation area and the mean lung density in both sex and age groups, analysis of the relationship between demographic information and CT parameters were performed. Upper normal limit for low attenuation area was 12.96% on inspiration CT (-950 HU) and 9.48% on expiration CT (-910 HU). Upper normal limit for the mean lung density was -837.58 HU on inspiration CT and 686.82 HU on expiration CT. Low attenuation area and the mean lung density showed no significant differences in both sex and age groups. Body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with low attenuation area on inspiration CT (-950 HU, r = -0.398, p = 0.016) and positively correlated with the mean lung density on inspiration CT (r 0.539, p = 0.001) and expiration CT (r = 0.432, p = 0.009). Age and body surface area were not correlated with low attenuation area or the mean lung density. Low attenuation area on CT densitometry of the lung could be found in healthy nonsmokers with normal pulmonary function, and showed negative association with BMI. Reference values, such as range and upper normal limit for low attenuation area in healthy subjects could be helpful in quantitative analysis and follow up of early emphysema, using CT densitometry of the lung.

  6. CT Densitometry of the Lung in Healthy Nonsmokers with Normal Pulmonary Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Tack Sun; Chae, Eun Jin; Seo, Joon Beom; Jung, Young Ju; Oh, Yeon Mok; Lee, Sang Do [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the upper normal limit of low attenuation area in healthy nonsmokers. A total of 36 nonsmokers with normal pulmonary function test underwent a CT scan. Six thresholds (-980 --930 HU) on inspiration CT and two thresholds (-950 and -910 HU) on expiration CT were used for obtaining low attenuation area. The mean lung density was obtained on both inspiration CT and expiration CT. Descriptive statistics of low attenuation area and the mean lung density, evaluation of difference of low attenuation area and the mean lung density in both sex and age groups, analysis of the relationship between demographic information and CT parameters were performed. Upper normal limit for low attenuation area was 12.96% on inspiration CT (-950 HU) and 9.48% on expiration CT (-910 HU). Upper normal limit for the mean lung density was -837.58 HU on inspiration CT and 686.82 HU on expiration CT. Low attenuation area and the mean lung density showed no significant differences in both sex and age groups. Body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with low attenuation area on inspiration CT (-950 HU, r = -0.398, p = 0.016) and positively correlated with the mean lung density on inspiration CT (r 0.539, p = 0.001) and expiration CT (r = 0.432, p = 0.009). Age and body surface area were not correlated with low attenuation area or the mean lung density. Low attenuation area on CT densitometry of the lung could be found in healthy nonsmokers with normal pulmonary function, and showed negative association with BMI. Reference values, such as range and upper normal limit for low attenuation area in healthy subjects could be helpful in quantitative analysis and follow up of early emphysema, using CT densitometry of the lung.

  7. Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carolina Guimarães; Duarte, Maria do Carmo M B; Prado, Cecília Maciel; Albuquerque, Emídio Cavalcanti de; Andrade, Lívia B

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) on quality of life, from the children's and their parents' perspective, respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and functional capacity in children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study of children with CKD aged 8 to 17 years. Those incapable of taking the tests were excluded. After an interview, quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) (PedsQL(TM)), muscular strength, pulmonary function tests, and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) were applied. Student's t-test, ANOVA (difference in means), and Pearson's coefficient of correlation were used. The level of significance was set at 5%. Of the 40 patients, the mean distance walked at the 6MWT was 396 meters, and the mean final score at the quality of life test as perceived by the children and parents was 50.9 and 51, respectively. From the children's perspective, the transplanted patients had a higher quality of life score when compared to those undergoing hemodialysis (plife when compared to the sedentary children (plife score (plife and the functional capacity was observed in children with CKD, influenced by the type of treatment, gender, and sedentary life style. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Dose-responsiveness and persistence of microRNA expression alterations induced by cigarette smoke in mouse lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzotti, Alberto; Larghero, Patrizia; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Cartiglia, Cristina; Camoirano, Anna [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Steele, Vernon E. [National Cancer Institute (NCI), Rockville, MD (United States); De Flora, Silvio, E-mail: sdf@unige.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), either mainstream or environmental, results in a remarkable downregulation of microRNA expression in the lung of both mice and rats. The goals of the present study were to evaluate the dose responsiveness to CS and the persistence of microRNA alterations after smoking cessation. ICR (CD-1) neonatal mice were exposed whole-body to mainstream CS, at the doses of 119, 292, 438, and 631 mg/m{sup 3} of total particulate matter. Exposure started within 12 h after birth and continued daily for 4 weeks. The levels of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were measured by {sup 32}P postlabeling procedures, and the expression of 697 mouse microRNAs was analyzed by microarray. The highest CS dose was lethal. Exposure to CS caused a dose-dependent increase of DNA alterations. DNA adducts and, even more sharply, 8-oxodGuo were reverted 1 and 4 weeks after smoking cessation. Exposure to CS resulted in an evident dysregulation of microRNA expression profiles, mainly in the sense of downregulation. The two lowest doses were not particularly effective, while the highest nonlethal dose produced extensive microRNA alterations. The expression of most downregulated microRNAs, including among others 7 members of the let-7 family, was restored one week after smoking cessation. However, the recovery was incomplete for a limited array of microRNAs, including mir-34b, mir-345, mir-421, mir-450b, mir-466, and mir-469. Thus, it appears that microRNAs mainly behave as biomarkers of effect and that exposure to high-dose, lasting for an adequate period of time, is needed to trigger the CS-related carcinogenesis process in the experimental animal model used.

  9. Functional avoidance of lung in plan optimization with an aperture-based inverse planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Hilaire, Jason; Lavoie, Caroline; Dagnault, Anne; Beaulieu, Frederic; Morin, Francis; Beaulieu, Luc; Tremblay, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To implement SPECT-based optimization in an anatomy-based aperture inverse planning system for the functional avoidance of lung in thoracic irradiation. Material and methods: SPECT information has been introduced as a voxel-by-voxel modulation of lung importance factors proportionally to the local perfusion count. Fifteen cases of lung cancer have been retrospectively analyzed by generating angle-optimized non-coplanar plans, comparing a purely anatomical approach and our functional approach. Planning target volume coverage and lung sparing have been compared. Statistical significance was assessed by a Wilcoxon matched pairs test. Results: For similar target coverage, perfusion-weighted volume receiving 10 Gy was reduced by a median of 2.2% (p = 0.022) and mean perfusion-weighted lung dose, by a median of 0.9 Gy (p = 0.001). A separate analysis of patients with localized or non-uniform hypoperfusion could not show which would benefit more from SPECT-based treatment planning. Redirection of dose sometimes created overdosage regions in the target volume. Plans consisted of a similar number of segments and monitor units. Conclusions: Angle optimization and SPECT-based modulation of importance factors allowed for functional avoidance of the lung while preserving target coverage. The technique could be also applied to implement PET-based modulation inside the target volume, leading to a safer dose escalation.

  10. Functional validation and comparison framework for EIT lung imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Grychtol

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT is an emerging clinical tool for monitoring ventilation distribution in mechanically ventilated patients, for which many image reconstruction algorithms have been suggested. We propose an experimental framework to assess such algorithms with respect to their ability to correctly represent well-defined physiological changes. We defined a set of clinically relevant ventilation conditions and induced them experimentally in 8 pigs by controlling three ventilator settings (tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure and the fraction of inspired oxygen. In this way, large and discrete shifts in global and regional lung air content were elicited. METHODS: We use the framework to compare twelve 2D EIT reconstruction algorithms, including backprojection (the original and still most frequently used algorithm, GREIT (a more recent consensus algorithm for lung imaging, truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD, several variants of the one-step Gauss-Newton approach and two iterative algorithms. We consider the effects of using a 3D finite element model, assuming non-uniform background conductivity, noise modeling, reconstructing for electrode movement, total variation (TV reconstruction, robust error norms, smoothing priors, and using difference vs. normalized difference data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that, while variation in appearance of images reconstructed from the same data is not negligible, clinically relevant parameters do not vary considerably among the advanced algorithms. Among the analysed algorithms, several advanced algorithms perform well, while some others are significantly worse. Given its vintage and ad-hoc formulation backprojection works surprisingly well, supporting the validity of previous studies in lung EIT.

  11. Tobacco Induced Renal Function Alterations in Wistar Rats: An 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pattern was observed for urea and uric acid levels. Over all, the significant increase (P<0.05) in renal function parameters of the test rats (as compared to the control values), suggests that the ingestion of tobacco snuff has harmful effects on kidney functions. Keywords: Tobacco, Snuff, Kidney function, Nicotine substitute.

  12. Alteration by lung lavage of the biological effects from inhalation of a relatively insoluble form of 144Ce by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    The efficacy of lung lavage to remove a relatively insoluble form of 144 Ce from the lung as a means to prevent or alter serious biological effects was evaluated in 21 Beagle dogs. The dogs were divided into five groups. Eight dogs (Group 1) were treated with a series of ten lung lavages between day 2 and day 56 after exposure to 144 Ce. Three dogs (Group 2) were treated with 20 lung lavages from day 2 to day 82 after exposure to 144 Ce. The third group consisted of four dogs and was exposed to 144 Ce but was not treated. Four dogs (Group 4) were given ten lung lavages as in Group 1 but were not exposed to 144 Ce. Two dogs (Group 5) were given 20 lung lavages like the Group 2 dogs but were not exposed to 144 Ce. All but one of the exposed untreated dogs died between 209 to 240 days after inhalation exposure with radiation pneumonitis. The remaining dog died 1072 days after inhalation exposure with a pulmonary carcinoma. All of the treated dogs (Groups 1 and 2) have died except for one dog. Two dogs died with radiation pneumonitis at 170 and 296 days after 144 Ce exposure. The remaining dogs died from 815 to 1773 days after exposure with malignant tumors. The unexposed treated dogs are all alive. Lung lavage appeared to prolong life in the treated dogs and most dogs died with neoplasia rather than with any acute or chronic inflammatory disease

  13. The effect of weight–loss program on lung function and systemic inflammation in obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abas saremi

    2011-03-01

    Results: At baseline, obese individuals had higher serum C-reactive protein and poor pulmonary function than normal weight participants (p<0.05. After a 12 week aerobic training, body weight, waist circumference, visceral fat, total abdominal fat, and C- reactive protein were significantly decreased (p<0.05. In contrast, lung function parameters were improved after the aerobic training (p<0.05. Conclusion: Aerobic training resulted in an improvement in obesity indices and lung function in obese men, and this improvement was accompanied by decreased C- reactive protein levels.

  14. Best lung function equations for the very elderly selected by survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin R; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated which equations best predicted the lung function of a cohort of nonagenarians based on which best accounted for subsequent survival.In 1998, we measured lung function, grip strength and dementia score (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)) in a population-based sample of 2262 Danes b...... equations derived using very elderly subjects with possible selection bias. These findings can help inform how future lung function equations for the elderly are derived.......We evaluated which equations best predicted the lung function of a cohort of nonagenarians based on which best accounted for subsequent survival.In 1998, we measured lung function, grip strength and dementia score (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)) in a population-based sample of 2262 Danes...... born in 1905. Mortality was registered to 2011 when only five (0.2%) subjects were alive. In half the cohort, we recorded forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1).Complete data were available in 592 subjects with results expressed as standardised residuals (SR) using various prediction equations. Cox...

  15. Adsorption Properties of Typical Lung Cancer Breath Gases on Ni-SWCNTs through Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of useful information is contained in the human breath gases, which makes it an effective way to diagnose diseases by detecting the typical breath gases. This work investigated the adsorption of typical lung cancer breath gases: benzene, styrene, isoprene, and 1-hexene onto the surface of intrinsic and Ni-doped single wall carbon nanotubes through density functional theory. Calculation results show that the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorb on intrinsic single wall carbon nanotubes surface by weak physisorption. Besides, the density of states changes little before and after typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption. Compared with single wall carbon nanotubes adsorption, single Ni atom doping significantly improves its adsorption properties to typical lung cancer breath gases by decreasing adsorption distance and increasing adsorption energy and charge transfer. The density of states presents different degrees of variation during the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption, resulting in the specific change of conductivity of gas sensing material. Based on the different adsorption properties of Ni-SWCNTs to typical lung cancer breath gases, it provides an effective way to build a portable noninvasive portable device used to evaluate and diagnose lung cancer at early stage in time.

  16. Sustained function of genetically modified porcine lungs in an ex vivo model of pulmonary xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, Glen P; Levvey, Browyn J; Salvaris, Evelyn; Gooi, Julian; Marasco, Sylvana; Rosenfeldt, Frank; Egan, Chris; McEgan Ccp, Robin; Mennen, Mark; Russell, Prue; Robson, Simon C; Nottle, Mark B; Dwyer, Karen M; Snell, Greg I; Cowan, Peter J

    2013-11-01

    Xenotransplantation could provide a solution to the donor shortage that is currently the major barrier to solid-organ transplantation. The ability to breed pigs with multiple genetic modifications provides a unique opportunity to explore the immunologic challenges of pulmonary xenotransplantation. Explanted lungs from wild-type and 3 groups of genetically modified pigs were studied: (i) α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO); (ii) GTKO pigs expressing the human complementary regulatory proteins CD55 and CD59 (GTKO/CD55-59); and (iii) GTKO pigs expressing both CD55-59 and CD39 (GTKO/CD55-59/CD39). The physiologic, immunologic and histologic properties of porcine lungs were evaluated on an ex vivo rig after perfusion with human blood. Lungs from genetically modified pigs demonstrated stable pulmonary vascular resistance and better oxygenation of the perfusate, and survived longer than wild-type lungs. Physiologic function was inversely correlated with the degree of platelet sequestration into the xenograft. Despite superior physiologic profiles, lungs from genetically modified pigs still showed evidence of intravascular thrombosis and coagulopathy after perfusion with human blood. The ability to breed pigs with multiple genetic modifications, and to evaluate lung physiology and histology in real-time on an ex vivo rig, represent significant advances toward better understanding the challenges inherent to pulmonary xenotransplantation. © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  17. Early effects of the ex vivo evaluation system on graft function after swine lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Shinji; Oto, Takahiro; Kakishita, Tomokazu; Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Hori, Shiro; Yamane, Masaomi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2011-10-01

    Ex vivo lung evaluation (ex vivo) has been developed as a useful method by which to assess lungs from donation-after-cardiac death (DCD) donors prior to transplant. However, the safety of the ex vivo circulation itself with respect to grafts has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the ex vivo circuit using a swine lung transplant model. Lungs with or without 2-h warm ischemia were used. To assess post-transplant graft function, the left lung was transplanted after 2-h ex vivo or cold preservation; blood gas analysis of the left pulmonary vein (partial pressure of oxygen, PO(2)) was performed during the 6-h post-transplant follow-up period. Data were compared between the ex vivo (+) and ex vivo (-) groups. Partial pressure of oxygen/ inspired oxygen fraction (PO(2)/FiO(2)) in the ex vivo (-) group was significantly greater than that in the ex vivo (+) group until 3h after transplant. The PO(2)/FiO(2) levels in both groups then increased and became similar at 6 h after transplant, regardless of whether ischemic or non-ischemic lungs (pex vivo system were limited and seen only in the immediate post-transplant period. Therefore, in DCD swine lung transplantation, the ex vivo system appears to be safe. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spirometry and volumetric capnography in lung function assessment of obese and normal-weight individuals without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana S; Mendes, Roberto T; Marson, Fernando A L; Zambon, Mariana P; Antonio, Maria A R G M; Paschoal, Ilma A; Toro, Adyléia A D C; Severino, Silvana D; Ribeiro, Maria A G O; Ribeiro, José D

    To analyze and compare lung function of obese and healthy, normal-weight children and adolescents, without asthma, through spirometry and volumetric capnography. Cross-sectional study including 77 subjects (38 obese) aged 5-17 years. All subjects underwent spirometry and volumetric capnography. The evaluations were repeated in obese subjects after the use of a bronchodilator. At the spirometry assessment, obese individuals, when compared with the control group, showed lower values of forced expiratory volume in the first second by forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) and expiratory flows at 75% and between 25 and 75% of the FVC (p11 years (p<0.05). Even without the diagnosis of asthma by clinical criteria and without response to bronchodilator use, obese individuals showed lower FEV 1 /FVC values and forced expiratory flow, indicating the presence of an obstructive process. Volumetric capnography showed that obese individuals had higher alveolar tidal volume, with no alterations in ventilation homogeneity, suggesting flow alterations, without affecting lung volumes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Lung function decline rates according to GOLD group in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohae; Yoon, Ho Il; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lim, Seong Yong; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Sang Yeub; Lee, Jin Hwa; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Since the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) groups A-D were introduced, the lung function changes according to group have been evaluated rarely. We investigated the rate of decline in annual lung function in patients categorized according to the 2014 GOLD guidelines. Patients with COPD included in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) prospective study, who underwent yearly postbronchodilator spirometry at least three times, were included. The main outcome was the annual decline in postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), which was analyzed by random-slope and random-intercept mixed linear regression. A total 175 participants were included. No significant postbronchodilator FEV1 decline was observed between the groups (-34.4±7.9 [group A]; -26.2±9.4 [group B]; -22.7±16.0 [group C]; and -24.0±8.7 mL/year [group D]) (P=0.79). The group with less symptoms (-32.3±7.2 vs -25.0±6.5 mL/year) (P=0.44) and the low risk group (-31.0±6.1 vs -23.6±7.7 mL/year) (P=0.44) at baseline showed a more rapid decline in the postbronchodilator FEV1, but the trends were not statistically significant. However, GOLD stages classified by FEV1 were significantly related to the annual lung function decline. There was no significant difference in lung function decline rates according to the GOLD groups. Prior classification using postbronchodilator FEV1 predicts decline in lung function better than does the new classification.

  20. Accelerated decline in lung function in smoking women with airway obstruction: SAPALDIA 2 cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemp Elisabeth

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to determine if effects from smoking on lung function measured over 11 years differ between men and women. Methods In a prospective population based cohort study (Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults current smokers in 1991 (18 – 60 yrs were reassessed in 2002 (n = 1792. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate effects from pack-years of cigarettes smoked to 1991 and mean packs of cigarettes smoked per day between 1991 and 2002 on change in lung volume and flows over the 11 years. Results In both sexes, packs smoked between assessments were related to lung function decline but pack-years smoked before 1991 were not. Mean annual decline in FEV1 was -10.4 mL(95%CI -15.3, -5.5 per pack per day between assessments in men and -13.8 mL(95%CI-19.5,-8.1 in women. Decline per pack per day between 1991 and 2002 was lower in women who smoked in 1991 but quit before 2002 compared to persistent smokers (-6.4 vs -11.6 mL, p = 0.05 but this was not seen in men (-14.3 vs -8.8 mL p = 0.49. Smoking related decline was accelerated in men and women with airway obstruction, particularly in women where decline in FEV1 was three fold higher in participants with FEV1/FVC Conclusion There are differences in effects from smoking on lung function between men and women. Lung function recovers faster in women quitters than in men. Women current smokers with airway obstruction experience a greater smoking related decline in lung function than men.

  1. Short-term exposure to PM2.5and vanadium and changes in asthma gene DNA methylation and lung function decrements among urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Torrone, David; Lovinsky-Desir, Stephanie; Perzanowski, Matthew; Bautista, Joshua; Jezioro, Jacqueline R; Hoepner, Lori; Ross, Jamie; Perera, Frederica P; Chillrud, Steven N; Miller, Rachel L

    2017-04-19

    Both short and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants have been associated with asthma and reduced lung function. We hypothesized that short-term indoor exposure to fine particulate matter vanadium (V) would be associated with altered buccal cell DNA methylation of targeted asthma genes and decreased lung function among urban children in a nested subcohort of African American and Dominican children. Six day integrated levels of air pollutants were measured from children's homes (age 9-14; n = 163), repeated 6 months later (n = 98). Buccal samples were collected repeatedly during visits. CpG promoter loci of asthma genes (i.e., interleukin 4 (IL4), interferon gamma (IFNγ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2A), arginase 2 (ARG2)) were pyrosequenced and lung function was assessed. Exposure to V, but not PM 2.5 , was associated with lower DNA methylation of IL4 and IFNγ. In exploratory analyses, V levels were associated with lower methylation of the proinflammatory NOS2A-CpG +5099 among asthmatic overweight or obese children but not nonasthmatics. Short-term exposure to PM 2.5 , but not V, appeared associated with lower lung function (i.e., reduced z-scores for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 , FEV 1 / forced vital capacity [FEV 1 /FVC] and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of FVC [FEF 25-75 ]). Exposure to V was associated with altered DNA methylation of allergic and proinflammatory asthma genes implicated in air pollution related asthma. However, short-term exposure to PM 2.5, but not V, appeared associated with decrements in lung function among urban children.

  2. Functional alterations in neural substrates of geometric reasoning in adults with high-functioning autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamada

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum condition (ASC are known to excel in some perceptual cognitive tasks, but such developed functions have been often regarded as "islets of abilities" that do not significantly contribute to broader intellectual capacities. However, recent behavioral studies have reported that individuals with ASC have advantages for performing Raven's (Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM/RSPM, a standard neuropsychological test for general fluid intelligence, raising the possibility that ASC's cognitive strength can be utilized for more general purposes like novel problem solving. Here, the brain activity of 25 adults with high-functioning ASC and 26 matched normal controls (NC was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine neural substrates of geometric reasoning during the engagement of a modified version of the RSPM test. Among the frontal and parietal brain regions involved in fluid intelligence, ASC showed larger activation in the left lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC during an analytic condition with moderate difficulty than NC. Activation in the left LOTC and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC increased with task difficulty in NC, whereas such modulation of activity was absent in ASC. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis revealed a significant reduction of activation coupling between the left inferior parietal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during both figural and analytic conditions in ASC. These results indicate altered pattern of functional specialization and integration in the neural system for geometric reasoning in ASC, which may explain its atypical cognitive pattern, including performance on the Raven's Matrices test.

  3. Mitochondrial function is altered in horse atypical myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Hélène; Boemer, François; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Amory, Hélène; Baise, Etienne; Cassart, Dominique; van Loon, Gunther; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel; Votion, Dominique-M

    2016-09-01

    Equine atypical myopathy in Europe is a fatal rhabdomyolysis syndrome that results from the ingestion of hypoglycin A contained in seeds and seedlings of Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple). Acylcarnitine concentrations in serum and muscle OXPHOS capacity were determined in 15 atypical myopathy cases. All but one acylcarnitine were out of reference range and mitochondrial respiratory capacity was severely decreased up to 49% as compared to 10 healthy controls. The hallmark of atypical myopathy thus consists of a severe alteration in the energy metabolism including a severe impairment in muscle mitochondrial respiration that could contribute to its high death rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Lung functions at school age and chronic exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, M.; Kundi, M.; Wiesenberger, W. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    Early signs of lung function impairment have been found correlated with annual concentrations of outdoor air pollutants and with passive smoking. To investigate the combined effects of both indicators of chronic exposure to air pollution pulmonary functions in all elementary and high school children of an Austrian town was examined for 5 years. (author)

  5. Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-12

    Jun 12, 2014 ... effect on pulmonary function data and its relation with physical activity. .... measurement (age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI)); .... bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio was lower than 0.70 (3, 4). Statistical analysis. Variables distributions were normal. Smokers' characteristics and lung function data of the.

  6. Thermal Stimulation Alters Cervical Spinal Cord Functional Connectivity in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kenneth A; Sentis, Amy I; Bernadel-Huey, Olivia N; Chen, Yufen; Wang, Xue; Parrish, Todd B; Mackey, Sean

    2018-01-15

    The spinal cord has an active role in the modulation and transmission of the neural signals traveling between the body and the brain. Recent advancements in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have made the in vivo examination of spinal cord function in humans now possible. This technology has been recently extended to the investigation of resting state functional networks in the spinal cord, leading to the identification of distinct patterns of spinal cord functional connectivity. In this study, we expand on the previous work and further investigate resting state cervical spinal cord functional connectivity in healthy participants (n = 15) using high resolution imaging coupled with both seed-based functional connectivity analyses and graph theory-based metrics. Within spinal cord segment functional connectivity was present between the left and right ventral horns (bilateral motor network), left and right dorsal horns (bilateral sensory network), and the ipsilateral ventral and dorsal horns (unilateral sensory-motor network). Functional connectivity between the spinal cord segments was less apparent with the connectivity centered at the region of interest and spanning spinal cord functional network was demonstrated to be state-dependent as thermal stimulation of the right ventrolateral forearm resulted in significant disruption of the bilateral sensory network, increased network global efficiency, and decreased network modularity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    Background: Research has shown that being born preterm may affect lung capacity later in childhood. It is though unknown if type of early nutrition influences lung capacity and the risk of developing asthma in childhood. Aim: The aim was to investigate if type of early nutrition has an impact...... on lung function and the possible risk of developing asthma among 6 year old children born very preterm. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre study on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been established and described previously. The inclusion criteria were gestational age...... ≤ 32 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected age, the children received three different types of nutrition: A: Human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier (HMF) C: Preterm formula (PF). At the age of 6 years, the children performed an occlusion test (Rocc) and a lung resistance test...

  8. Altered B lymphocyte homeostasis and functions in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, Alexandra; Guerrier, Thomas; Jouvray, Mathieu; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Sobanski, Vincent; Hauspie, Carine; Hachulla, Eric; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Zéphir, Hélène; Vermersch, Patrick; Labalette, Myriam; Launay, David; Dubucquoi, Sylvain

    2018-03-01

    Beyond the production of autoantibodies, B-cells are thought to play a role in systemic sclerosis (SSc) by secreting proinflammatory/profibrotic cytokines. B-cells are a heterogeneous population with different subsets distinguished by their phenotypes and cytokine production. Data about B-cell subsets, cytokine production and intracellular pathways leading to this production are scarce in SSc. The aim of our study was to describe B-cell homeostasis, activation, proliferation, cytokine production in B-cells and serum and B-cell intracellular signaling pathways in SSc. We hypothezided that B-cell homeostasis and cytokine production were altered in SSc and could be explained by serum cytokine as well as by intracellular signaling pathway abnormalities. Forty SSc patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were prospectively included. B-cell subsets were determined by flow cytometry using CD19, CD21, CD24, CD38, CD27, IgM and IgD. CD25, CD80, CD95, HLA-DR were used to assess B-cell activation. Intracellular production of IL-10 and IL-6 were assessed by flow cytometry after TLR9 and CD40 stimulation. IL-6, IL-10, Ki67, Bcl2 mRNA were quantified in B-cells. Cytokine production was also assessed in sera and supernatants of B-cell culture, using a multiplex approach. Signaling pathways were studied through phosphorylation of mTOR, ERK, STAT3, STAT5 using a flow cytometry approach. We found that SSc patients exhibited an altered peripheral blood B-cell subset distribution, with decreased memory B-cells but increased proportion of naive and CD21 Lo CD38 Lo B-cell subsets. We observed an increased expression of activation markers (CD80, CD95, HLA-DR) on some B-cell subsets, mainly the memory B-cells. Secretion of IL-6, BAFF and CXCL13 were increased in SSc sera. There was no correlation between the peripheral blood B-cell subsets and the serum concentrations of these cytokines. After stimulation, we observed a lower proportion of IL-10 and IL-6 producing B-cells in SSc. Finally, we

  9. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, B.B.; Jensen, J.S.; Nielsen, K.G.

    2008-01-01

    follow-up examination including lung function testing (28 PCR-positive and 37 PCR-negative). In addition to the PCR-tested for M. pneumoniae all respiratory tract specimens were additionally tested for other atypical bacteria and for viruses by PCR. Lung function was measured as specific airway......Mycoplasma (M.) pneumoniae has been associated with exacerbation of symptoms in asthmatic school children and adults; and an etiological role in asthma has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether infection with M. pneumoniae in early childhood has a long-term influence...... on lung function and bronchial responsiveness. In a retrospective, clinical cohort-study children younger than 5 years-of-age when PCR-tested for M. pneumoniae were enrolled. Sixty-five children with clinical symptoms suggesting infection with M. pneumoniae during an epidemic season completed a clinical...

  10. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, B.B.; Jensen, J.S.; Nielsen, K.G.

    2008-01-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) pneumoniae has been associated with exacerbation of symptoms in asthmatic school children and adults; and an etiological role in asthma has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether infection with M. pneumoniae in early childhood has a long-term influence...... on lung function and bronchial responsiveness. In a retrospective, clinical cohort-study children younger than 5 years-of-age when PCR-tested for M. pneumoniae were enrolled. Sixty-five children with clinical symptoms suggesting infection with M. pneumoniae during an epidemic season completed a clinical...... resistance by whole-body plethysmography and bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed by cold, dry air hyperventilation. Neither baseline lung function nor bronchial response to cold dry air hyperventilation differed between M. pneumoniae-positive and -negative children: mean baseline lung function were 1...

  11. Differences in lung function among school children in communities in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peled, R.; Bibi, H.; Pope, C.A.; Nir, P.; Shiachi, R.; Scharff, S. [Barzilai Medical Centre, Ashqelon (Israel). Dept. Epidemiology

    2001-07-01

    Differences in lung functions of school-age children who lived near two power plants in the Ashkelon district of Israel were studied. Lung-function tests were performed, and the American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered in three study periods during the following years: (1) 1990, (2) 1994, and (3) 1997. Measurements of air pollutants (i.e., sulfur dioxide, nitric oxides, ozone) were also taken during these periods. The authors controlled for age, sex, height, weight, parents' education and smoking status, and being born out of Israel, and, consequently, substantial differences in lung function across the different communities and study periods were demonstrated in the study area. No robust association with air pollution was demonstrated. The cause of these differences in the respiratory health of children remains unknown.

  12. Quantative pre-surgical lung function estimation with SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Dale L.; Timmins, Sophi; Harris, Benjamin E.; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Roach, Paul J.; Willowson, Kathy P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: To develop methodology to predict lobar lung function based on SPECT/CT ventilation 6 k perfusion (V/Q) scanning in candidates for lobectomy for lung cancer. This combines two development areas from our group: quantitative SPECT based on CT-derived corrections for scattering and attenuation of photons, and SPECT V/Q scanning with lobar segmentation from CT Six patients underwent baseline pulmonary function testing (PFT) including spirometry, measurement of DLCO and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing. A SPECT/CT V/Q scan was acquired at baseline. Using in-house software each lobe was anatomically defined using CT to provide lobar ROIs which could be applied to the SPECT data. From these, individual lobar contribution to overall function was calculated from counts within the lobe and post-operative FEVl, DLCO and V02 peak were predicted. This was compared with the quantitative planar scan method using 3 rectangular ROIs over each lung.

  13. Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Betel Quid-Dependent Chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBetel quid (BQ is a common psychoactive substance worldwide with particularly high usage in many Asian countries. This study aimed to explore the effect of BQ use on functional connectivity by comparing global functional brain networks and their subset between BQ chewers and healthy controls (HCs.MethodsResting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was obtained from 24 betel quid-dependent (BQD male chewers and 27 healthy male individuals on a 3.0T scanner. We used independent component analysis (ICA to determine components that represent the brain’s functional networks and their spatial aspects of functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to identify the functional connectivity differences in each network between these two groups.ResultsSeventeen networks were identified by ICA. Nine of them showed connectivity differences between BQD and HCs (two sample t-tests, p < 0.001 uncorrected. We found increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal, bilateral frontoparietal, frontotemporal, occipital/parietal, frontotemporal/cerebellum, and temporal/limbic networks, and decreased connectivity in the parietal and medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks in the BQD compared to the HCs. The betel quid dependence scale scores were positively related to the increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal (r = 0.39, p = 0.03 while negatively related to the decreased functional connectivity in medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks (r = −0.35, p = 0.02.DiscussionOur findings provide further evidence that BQ chewing may lead to brain functional connectivity changes, which may play a key role in the psychological and physiological effects of BQ.

  14. Geriatric Assessment and Functional Decline in Older Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, L; Kenis, C; Schallier, D; Vansteenkiste, J; Nackaerts, K; Vanacker, L; Vandewalle, N; Flamaing, J; Lobelle, J P; Milisen, K; De Grève, J; Wildiers, H

    2017-10-01

    Older patients with lung cancer are a heterogeneous population making treatment decisions complex. This study aims to evaluate the value of geriatric assessment (GA) as well as the evolution of functional status (FS) in older patients with lung cancer, and to identify predictors associated with functional decline and overall survival (OS). At baseline, GA was performed in patients ≥70 years with newly diagnosed lung cancer. FS measured by activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was reassessed at follow-up to define functional decline and OS was collected. Predictors for functional decline and OS were determined. Two hundred and forty-five patients were included in this study. At baseline, GA deficiencies were present in all domains and ADL and IADL were impaired in 51 and 63% of patients, respectively. At follow-up, functional decline in ADL was observed in 23% and in IADL in 45% of patients. In multivariable analysis, radiotherapy was predictive for ADL decline. No other predictors for ADL or IADL decline were identified. Stage and baseline performance status were predictive for OS. Older patients with lung cancer present with multiple deficiencies covering all geriatric domains. During treatment, functional decline is observed in almost half of the patients. None of the specific domains of the GA were predictive for functional decline or survival, probably because of the high impact of the aggressiveness of this tumor type leading to a poor prognosis.

  15. A prospective study of the impact of diabetes mellitus on restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment: the Saku study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Nao; Morimoto, Akiko; Tatsumi, Yukako; Asayama, Kei; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Izawa, Satoshi; Ohno, Yuko

    2017-12-28

    To assess the impact of diabetes on restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment. This 5-year prospective study included 7524 participants aged 40-69years without lung function impairment at baseline who underwent a comprehensive medical check-up between April 2008 and March 2009 at Saku Central Hospital. Diabetes was defined by fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0mmol/l (126mg/dl), HbA1c≥6.5% (48mmol/mol), or a history of diabetes, as determined by interviews conducted by the physicians. Restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment were defined as forced vital capacity (FVC)impairment or until March 2014. During the follow-up period, 171 and 639 individuals developed restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment, respectively. Individuals with diabetes had a 1.6-fold higher risk of restrictive lung function impairment than those without diabetes after adjusting for sex, age, height, abdominal obesity, smoking status, exercise habits, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, log-transformed high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and baseline lung function [multivariable-adjusted HR and 95% CI; 1.57 (1.04-2.36)]. In contrast, individuals with diabetes did not have a significantly higher risk of obstructive lung function impairment [multivariable-adjusted HR and 95% CI; 0.93 (0.72-1.21)]. Diabetes was associated with restrictive lung function impairment but not obstructive lung function impairment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Decreased lung function after preschool wheezing rhinovirus illnesses in children at risk to develop asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Theresa W; Singh, Anne Marie; Danov, Zoran; Evans, Michael D; Jackson, Daniel J; Burton, Ryan; Roberg, Kathy A; Anderson, Elizabeth L; Pappas, Tressa E; Gangnon, Ronald; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2011-09-01

    Preschool rhinovirus (RV) wheezing illnesses predict an increased risk of childhood asthma; however, it is not clear how specific viral illnesses in early life relate to lung function later on in childhood. To determine the relationship of virus-specific wheezing illnesses and lung function in a longitudinal cohort of children at risk for asthma. Two hundred thirty-eight children were followed prospectively from birth to 8 years of age. Early life viral wheezing respiratory illnesses were assessed by using standard techniques, and lung function was assessed annually by using spirometry and impulse oscillometry. The relationships of these virus-specific wheezing illnesses and lung function were assessed by using mixed-effect linear regression. Children with RV wheezing illness demonstrated significantly decreased spirometry values, FEV(1) (P = .001), FEV(0.5) (P Children who wheezed with respiratory syncytial virus or other viral illnesses did not have any significant differences in spirometric or impulse oscillometry indices when compared with children who did not. Children diagnosed with asthma at ages 6 or 8 years had significantly decreased FEF(25-75) (P = .05) compared with children without asthma. Among outpatient viral wheezing illnesses in early childhood, those caused by RV infections are the most significant predictors of decreased lung function up to age 8 years in a high-risk birth cohort. Whether low lung function is a cause and/or effect of RV wheezing illnesses is yet to be determined. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interdisciplinary therapy improves biomarkers profile and lung function in asthmatic obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Patrícia Leão; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Cheik, Nadia Carla; Sanches, Priscila Lima; Correia, Fabíola Alvise; de Piano, Aline; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; do Nascimento, Claudia M O; Oyama, Lila M; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sérgio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous rise in the prevalence of asthma and obesity in the world, have demonstrated the importance of the development of treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term results of interdisciplinary therapy on inflammatory biomarkers and lung function in asthmatics obese adolescents. Seventy-six post-pubertal obese adolescents were recruited, including 50 non-asthmatics [body mass index (BMI), 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) ) and 26 asthmatics (BMI, 39 ± 4 kg/m(2) ). Body composition was measured by plethysmography, and visceral fat was analyzed by ultrasound. Serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed. Asthma and lung function were evaluated according to the American Thoracic Society criteria. Patients were submitted to 1-year weight loss interdisciplinary intervention consisting of medical, nutritional, exercise, and psychological therapy. After interdisciplinary intervention, the lung function and pro/anti-inflammatory adipokines improved significantly in both groups. Most importantly, there was an increase in adiponectin [4 (1.86-12.9) to 5.1 (2.48-16)], a reduction in CRP [2,073 (385-9,174) to 1,538 (205-7,083)] and leptin concentrations [59 (29-69) to 33 (9-49)] in the asthmatics patients. Furthermore, it was observed a reduction in asthma severity after treatment. In addition, Δ adiponectin was an independent factor to improve lung function after therapy in both groups. Interdisciplinary therapy resulted in beneficial changes in inflammatory biomarkers profile and lung function in asthmatic and non-asthmatic obese adolescents. Additionally, for the first time we showed that change in adiponectin level was an independent predictor to improve lung function in Brazilian obese adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Altered Proteome of Burkholderia pseudomallei Colony Variants Induced by Exposure to Human Lung Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Rageh Al-Maleki

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei primary diagnostic cultures demonstrate colony morphology variation associated with expression of virulence and adaptation proteins. This study aims to examine the ability of B. pseudomallei colony variants (wild type [WT] and small colony variant [SCV] to survive and replicate intracellularly in A549 cells and to identify the alterations in the protein expression of these variants, post-exposure to the A549 cells. Intracellular survival and cytotoxicity assays were performed followed by proteomics analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. B. pseudomallei SCV survive longer than the WT. During post-exposure, among 259 and 260 protein spots of SCV and WT, respectively, 19 were differentially expressed. Among SCV post-exposure up-regulated proteins, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (CbbA and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase were associated with adhesion and virulence. Among the down-regulated proteins, enolase (Eno is implicated in adhesion and virulence. Additionally, post-exposure expression profiles of both variants were compared with pre-exposure. In WT pre- vs post-exposure, 36 proteins were differentially expressed. Of the up-regulated proteins, translocator protein, Eno, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk, ferritin Dps-family DNA binding protein and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B were implicated in invasion and virulence. In SCV pre- vs post-exposure, 27 proteins were differentially expressed. Among the up-regulated proteins, flagellin, Eno, CbbA, Ndk and phenylacetate-coenzyme A ligase have similarly been implicated in adhesion, invasion. Protein profiles differences post-exposure provide insights into association between morphotypic and phenotypic characteristics of colony variants, strengthening the role of B. pseudomallei morphotypes in pathogenesis of melioidosis.

  19. Altered functional brain networks in Prader–Willi syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Heng; Qiu, Siyou; Tian, Jie; Wen, Xiaotong; Miller, Jennifer L.; von Deneen, Karen M.; Zhou, Zhenyu; Gold, Mark S.; Liu, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic imprinting disorder characterized mainly by hyperphagia and early childhood obesity. Previous functional neuroimaging studies used visual stimuli to examine abnormal activities in the eating-related neural circuitry of patients with PWS. It was found that patients with PWS exhibited both excessive hunger and hyperphagia consistently, even in situations without any food stimulation. In the present study, we employed resting-state functional MRI techniqu...

  20. Superoxide Dismutase 3 Polymorphism Associated with Reduced Lung Function in Two Large Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Bowler, Russell P; Juul, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) 3 inhibits oxidative fragmentation of lung matrix components Collagen 1, hyaluronan, and heparan sulfate. Inherited change in SOD3 expression or function could affect lung matrix homeostasis and influence pulmonary function. Objectives: To identify novel SOD3...... genotyped 9,093 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study for the polymorphisms and recorded spirometry, and admissions and deaths due to COPD during 26-year follow-up. Finally, we validated our findings in a cross-sectional analysis of 35,635 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study...

  1. Neonates with reduced neonatal lung function have systemic low-grade inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L.K.; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    , TNF-α, and CXCL8, confirmed a uniform upregulated inflammatory profile in children with reduced forced expiratory volume at 0.5 seconds (P = .02). Adjusting for body mass index at birth, maternal smoking, older children in the home, neonatal bacterial airway colonization, infections 14 days before...... of the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort who had completed neonatal lung function testing at age 4 weeks. Associations between neonatal lung function indices and inflammatory biomarkers were investigated by conventional statistics and unsupervised principal component analysis...

  2. Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Guimarães Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the chronic kidney disease (CKD on quality of life, from the children's and their parents' perspective, respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and functional capacity in children and adolescents. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of children with CKD aged 8 to 17 years. Those incapable of taking the tests were excluded. After an interview, quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM, muscular strength, pulmonary function tests, and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT were applied. Student's t-test, ANOVA (difference in means, and Pearson's coefficient of correlation were used. The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Of the 40 patients, the mean distance walked at the 6MWT was 396 meters, and the mean final score at the quality of life test as perceived by the children and parents was 50.9 and 51, respectively. From the children's perspective, the transplanted patients had a higher quality of life score when compared to those undergoing hemodialysis (p < 0.001; those who practiced physical activity had better quality of life when compared to the sedentary children (p < 0.001. From the children's and the parents' perspectives, the male gender had a higher quality of life score (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between the distance walked at the 6MWT and age, height, final PedsQLTM, forced vital capacity (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, as well as a negative correlation between FEV1/FVC and the distance walked. CONCLUSION: A significant reduction in the quality of life and the functional capacity was observed in children with CKD, influenced by the type of treatment, gender, and sedentary life style.

  3. Transient early wheeze and lung function in early childhood associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, Marjan; Boezen, H Marike; Granell, Raquel; Wijga, Alet H; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriëtte A; de Jongste, Johan C; Thijs, Carel; Mommers, Monique; Penders, John; Henderson, John; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a disturbed early lung development underlies the susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Little is known about whether subjects genetically predisposed to COPD show their first symptoms or reduced lung function in childhood. We investigated whether replicated genes for COPD associate with transient early wheeze (TEW) and lung function levels in 6- to 8-year-old children and whether cigarette smoke exposure in utero and after birth (environmental tobacco smoke [ETS]) modifies these effects. The association of COPD-related genotypes of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 15 genes with TEW, FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio was studied in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort (n = 1996) and replicated in the Child, parents and health: lifestyle and genetic constitution (KOALA) and Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohorts. AGER showed replicated association with FEV1/FVC ratio. TNS1 associated with more TEW in PIAMA and lower FEV1 in ALSPAC. TNS1 interacted with ETS in PIAMA, showing lower FEV1 in exposed children. HHIP rs1828591 interacted with cigarette smoke exposure in utero in PIAMA and with ETS in ALSPAC, with lower lung function in nonexposed children. SERPINE2, FAM13A, and MMP12 associated with higher FEV1 and FVC, and SERPINE2, HHIP, and TGFB1 interacted with cigarette smoke exposure in utero in PIAMA only, showing adverse effects of exposure on FEV1 being limited to children with genotypes conferring the lowest risk of COPD. Our findings indicate relevant involvement of at least 3 COPD genes in lung development and lung growth by demonstrating associations pointing toward reduced airway caliber in early childhood. Furthermore, our results suggest that COPD genes are involved in the infant's lung response to smoke exposure in utero and in early life. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  4. The Effect of Swimming on the Lung Functions in Healthy Young Male Population of Amritsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Shashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to study the effects of swimming on the lung functions in adult male population of Amritsar. Many exercise physiologists study the effect of exercise on pathology, and the mechanisms by which exercise can reduce or reverse disease progression. The present study was undertaken to study the effects swimming on the lung functions. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs of swimming trainees were compared with those of controls. We evaluated PFTs in 50 healthy subjects who participated in a 3 months of swimming plan. Pulmonary function tests were recorded before the commencement of swimming and at the end of swimming and compared the values so obtained with 50 healthy non- swimmers who were chosen as controls. The controls were the physiotherapy students from Khalsa College Amritsar. Both were in the age group of 18- 20 years. The PFTs were carried out with a computerized spirometer “Med-Spiror”. The various data was collected, compiled, statistically analysed and valid conclusions were drawn. Higher lung volumes and flow rates were achieved in swimming trainees after their training period, as compared to their own values obtained before their training period and to those of controls. Regular exercise enhances physical capabilities and physiological responses of the human body and also in the lungs. The cause of improved of various respiratory functions and flow rates after  swimming duration was better mechanical factors and lower airway resistance influenced during the training period. Key words: Pulmonary; Expiration; Swimming; Pulmonary Function Test

  5. Impact of field number and beam angle on functional image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Bilal A.; Bragg, Chris M.; Wild, Jim M.; Swinscoe, James A.; Lawless, Sarah E.; Hart, Kerry A.; Hatton, Matthew Q.; Ireland, Rob H.

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of beam angles and field number on functionally-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) normal lung avoidance treatment plans that incorporate hyperpolarised helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging (3He MRI) ventilation data. Eight non-small cell lung cancer patients had pre-treatment 3He MRI that was registered to inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy planning computed tomography. IMRT plans that minimised the volume of total lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (V20) were compared with plans that minimised 3He MRI defined functional lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (fV20). Coplanar IMRT plans using 5-field manually optimised beam angles and 9-field equidistant plans were also evaluated. For each pair of plans, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to compare fV20 and the percentage of planning target volume (PTV) receiving 90% of the prescription dose (PTV90). Incorporation of 3He MRI led to median reductions in fV20 of 1.3% (range: 0.2-9.3% p  =  0.04) and 0.2% (range: 0 to 4.1%; p  =  0.012) for 5- and 9-field arrangements, respectively. There was no clinically significant difference in target coverage. Functionally-guided IMRT plans incorporating hyperpolarised 3He MRI information can reduce the dose received by ventilated lung without comprising PTV coverage. The effect was greater for optimised beam angles rather than uniformly spaced fields.

  6. Supporting women with advanced breast cancer: the impact of altered functional status on their social roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai Qi Peggy; Parmar, Monica P; Gartshore, Kimberley

    2014-01-01

    Despite early detection of breast cancer and the progress of treatment modalities, metastasis-specific symptoms continue to impact women's functional status and daily living. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of altered functional status and social roles of women with advanced breast cancer. Using qualitative descriptive methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women diagnosed with advanced breast cancer and altered functional status attending a tertiary care cancer centre. Results illustrated the adaptive experience of women living with their illness as they reshaped their social roles to fit with their altered functional status and advanced disease. These findings highlight the opportunity for supportive care nursing interventions to facilitate the behavioural and cognitive transitions that are experienced by women with advanced breast cancer and altered functional status. These results may have implications for women with other advanced chronic diseases, though more research is required.

  7. Pathomorphological changes of lungs and functional biochemical parameters of respiratory function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tertyishniy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications and closely related with them systemic functional-biochemical abnormalities are the most common complications of cerebral stroke. The purpose of the work was to research functional-biochemical parameters of respiratory function and to find it’s association with morphological changes in the lungs because of intracerebral hemorrhage. 37 sectional observations in patients who die of intracerebral hemorrhage were analized. It was conducted analysis of morphological transformations and retrospective analysis of functional-biochemical findings of respiratory functions, in order to detect changes of systemic hemodynamics, oxygen balance and ion-osmotic one and acid-alkaline status. The results of the study. The changes of blood gas composition and acid-alkaline status are registered in the lungs in the background of microcirculation disturbance from the first hours of development of intracerebral hemorrhage. During the first days of the onset of disease the partial oxygen pressure in arterial blood (РаО2 decreased 50,88% in comparison with the calculated normative findings. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (РаСО2 in the arterial blood rosed by 52,17%. Without conducting artificial lung ventilation PO2 in venous blood decreased by 45,9%, and PCO2 increased by 40%. I has been marked a decrease in the oxygen capacity of the blood, due to the reduction of hemoglobin content in the blood to 103,7 minus 2 g/l and the concomitant decline in hematocrit up to 0,24-0,3. Deficit of the foundations has averaged from -6 to -10 mmol/l. These changes have led to a impression of the respiratory and metabolic acidosis, with a significant increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions. In the first day after the development of the disease with a rapid growing marks of swelling of the brain with concomitant dislocation of the brain stem, blood pH was 7,28 minus 0,02. It has been histologically determined interstitial edema, that

  8. Long noncoding nature brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense is associated with poor prognosis and functional regulation in non-small cell lung caner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, MingJing; Xu, Zhonghua; Jiang, Kanqiu; Xu, Weihua; Chen, Yongbin; Xu, ZhongHeng

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the prognostic potential and functional regulation of human nature antisense, brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense, in non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer carcinoma and adjacent non-carcinoma lung tissues were extracted from 151 patients. Their endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense expression levels were compared by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical relevance between endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense expression level and patients' clinicopathological variances or overall survival was analyzed. The potential of brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense being an independent prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer was also evaluated. In in vitro non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense was upregulated through forced overexpression. The effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense upregulation on non-small cell lung cancer in vitro survival, proliferation, and migration were evaluated by viability, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, and transwell assays. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense is lowly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer carcinoma tissues and further downregulated in late-stage carcinomas. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense downregulation was closely associated with non-small cell lung cancer patients' advanced tumor, lymph node, metastasis stage, and positive status of lymph node metastasis, and confirmed to be an independent prognostic factor for patients' poor overall survival. In non-small cell lung cancer A549 and H226 cell lines, forced overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense did not alter cancer cell viability but had significantly tumor suppressive effect in inhibiting in vitro non-small cell lung cancer proliferation and migration. Endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense in

  9. Genome-wide association study of lung function decline in adults with and without asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imboden, Medea; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Curjuric, Ivan; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Kumar, Ashish; Hancock, Dana B; Wilk, Jemma B; Vonk, Judith M; Thun, Gian A; Siroux, Valerie; Nadif, Rachel; Monier, Florent; Gonzalez, Juan R; Wjst, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Loehr, Laura R; Franceschini, Nora; North, Kari E; Altmüller, Janine; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Guerra, Stefano; Kronenberg, Florian; Lathrop, Mark; Moffatt, Miriam F; O’Connor, George T; Strachan, David P; Postma, Dirkje S; London, Stephanie J; Schindler, Christian; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kauffmann, Francine; Jarvis, Debbie L; Demenais, Florence; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung function level, however none addressed decline in lung function. Aim We conducted the first GWAS on age-related decline in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and in its ratio to forced vital capacity (FVC) stratified a priori by asthma status. Methods Discovery cohorts included adults of European ancestry (1441 asthmatics, 2677 non-asthmatics; Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA); Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution And Lung And Heart Disease In Adults (SAPALDIA); European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)). The associations of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC decline with 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were estimated. Thirty loci were followed-up by in silico replication (1160 asthmatics, 10858 non-asthmatics: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC); Framingham Heart Study (FHS); British 1958 Birth Cohort (B58C); Dutch asthma study). Results Main signals identified differed between asthmatics and non-asthmatics. None of the SNPs reached genome-wide significance. The association between the height related gene DLEU7 and FEV1 decline suggested for non-asthmatics in the discovery phase was replicated (discovery P=4.8×10−6; replication P=0.03) and additional sensitivity analyses point to a relation to growth. The top ranking signal, TUSC3, associated with FEV1/FVC decline in asthmatics (P=5.3×10−8) did not replicate. SNPs previously associated with cross-sectional lung function were not prominently associated with decline. Conclusions Genetic heterogeneity of lung function may be extensive. Our results suggest that genetic determinants of longitudinal and cross-sectional lung function differ and vary by asthma status. PMID:22424883

  10. Kaempferol inhibits Entamoeba histolytica growth by altering cytoskeletal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Verónica; Díaz-Martínez, Alfredo; Soto, Jacqueline; Marchat, Laurence A; Sanchez-Monroy, Virginia; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2015-11-01

    The flavonoid kaempferol obtained from Helianthemum glomeratum, an endemic Mexican medicinal herb used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, has been shown to inhibit growth of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in vitro; however, the mechanisms associated with this activity have not been documented. Several works reported that kaempferol affects cytoskeleton in mammalian cells. In order to gain insights into the action mechanisms involved in the anti-amoebic effect of kaempferol, here we evaluated the effect of this compound on the pathogenic events driven by the cytoskeleton during E. histolytica infection. We also carried out a two dimensional gel-based proteomic analysis to evidence modulated proteins that could explain the phenotypical changes observed in trophozoites. Our results showed that kaempferol produces a dose-dependent effect on trophozoites growth and viability with optimal concentration being 27.7 μM. Kaempferol also decreased adhesion, it increased migration and phagocytic activity, but it did not affect erythrocyte binding nor cytolytic capacity of E. histolytica. Congruently, proteomic analysis revealed that the cytoskeleton proteins actin, myosin II heavy chain and cortexillin II were up-regulated in response to kaempferol treatment. In conclusion, kaempferol anti-amoebic effects were associated with deregulation of proteins related with cytoskeleton, which altered invasion mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic fluoxetine treatment alters cardiovascular functions in unanesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Carlos C; Tavares, Rodrigo F; Guimarães, Franscisco S; Correa, Fernando M A; Joca, Sâmia R L; Resstel, Leonardo B M

    2011-11-30

    In the present study, we investigated the effects induced by fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg) for either 1 or 21 consecutive days on arterial pressure and heart rate basal levels, baroreflex activity, hemodynamic responses to vasoactive agents and cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress. Mild hypertension was observed after 21 days of treatment, but not after administration for 1 day. Moreover, chronic treatment affected the baroreflex control of heart rate, which was characterized by a reduced reflex tachycardia and an enhanced bradycardiac baroreflex response. The pressor responses to systemic administration of the selective α(1)-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine, as well as the depressor responses to systemic infusion of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, were reduced after chronic fluoxetine treatment. Fluoxetine treatment for 21 days reduced both the pressor and tachycardiac responses evoked by acute restraint stress. In conclusion, the results indicate the development of mild hypertension after chronic fluoxetine treatment. This effect was followed by changes in the baroreflex control of heart rate and altered vascular responsiveness to pressor and depressor agents, which may explain, at least in part, the increase in arterial pressure. Chronic fluoxetine treatment also affected cardiovascular responses to restraint stress, thus indicating that fluoxetine may affect cardiovascular adaptation under conditions of stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative computed tomography for the prediction of pulmonary function after lung cancer surgery: a simple method using simulation software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Li, Tao-Sheng; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2009-03-01

    The prediction of pulmonary functional reserve is mandatory in therapeutic decision-making for patients with resectable lung cancer, especially those with underlying lung disease. Volumetric analysis in combination with densitometric analysis of the affected lung lobe or segment with quantitative computed tomography (CT) helps to identify residual pulmonary function, although the utility of this modality needs investigation. The subjects of this prospective study were 30 patients with resectable lung cancer. A three-dimensional CT lung model was created with voxels representing normal lung attenuation (-600 to -910 Hounsfield units). Residual pulmonary function was predicted by drawing a boundary line between the lung to be preserved and that to be resected, directly on the lung model. The predicted values were correlated with the postoperative measured values. The predicted and measured values corresponded well (r=0.89, pcalculation using a segment-counting method (r=0.98), there were two outliers whose pulmonary functional reserves were predicted more accurately by CT than by segment counting. The measured pulmonary functional reserves were significantly higher than the predicted values in patients with extensive emphysematous areas (reserve after lung cancer surgery and helped to identify patients whose functional reserves are likely to be underestimated. Hence, this modality should be utilized for patients with marginal pulmonary function.

  13. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    assessment of toxicant - induced deficits in neuropsychological function, measurement of serum PCB concentrations, non-invasive determination of bone...likelihood of exposure to PCBs, lead, mercury , and pesticides, using a four point scale. Each job has also been classified using Standard Industrial and... Diuretics Anti-depressants Beta blockers Diabetes meds Acetaminophen Potassium supplement Gastro-intestinals Ace inhibitors Hyperlipoproteinemia meds

  14. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest that early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present…

  15. Altered monocyte function in experimental preeclampsia in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, Marijke M.; Broekema, Martine; Moes, Henk; van der Schaaf, Gerda; Heineman, Maas Jan; de Vos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we evaluated functional activity of monocytes in experimental preeclampsia induced by low-dose endotoxin infusion. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant (n = 12) and cyclic rats (n = 12) were equipped with a permanent jugular vein cannula and infused with either low-dose endotoxin

  16. Does Exercise Alter Immune Function and Respiratory Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines whether physical activity influences immune function as a consequence risk of infection from the common cold and other upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and whether the immune system responds differently to moderate versus intense physical exertion. Research indicates that people who participate in regular moderate…

  17. Effect of forced breathing on ventilatory functions of the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi L

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Ventilatory functions were studied in 36 male and 35 female subjects (mean age 18.5 years, who underwent six weeks course in forced breathing. Ventilatory functions were studied in the form of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Forced Expiratory Volume at the end of one second as % of FVC (FEV1%, Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and Breath Holding Time. Some of these ventilatory functions were found to be increased after a course of forced breathing.

  18. Toxic effects of different meconium fractions on lung function: new therapeutic strategies for meconium aspiration syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, O D; Tølløfsrud, P A; Lindenskov, P; Drevon, C A

    2008-12-01

    To review and summarize experimental data examining the effects of different fractions of meconium, and to test the effect of albumin on meconium aspiration both as prophylactic and rescue treatment. Newborn piglets 2 to 5 days of age were made hypoxic and then instilled meconium or fractions of meconium intratracheally. Meconium-added albumin and albumin instilled after meconium were also tested. Lung function and inflammatory cytokines were measured. Both the lipid- and water-soluble fractions induce inflammation in the lungs with elevation of inflammatory cytokines. When meconium was mixed with albumin, the inflammatory effects of meconium were significantly ameliorated. Rescue therapy with intratracheal albumin 5 min after the meconium aspiration syndrome was induced also improved lung function. These results indicate that at least part of the symptoms seen in the meconium aspiration syndrome could be prevented by blocking the active substances of meconium such as bile acids and free fatty acids.

  19. Cellular Senescence and Lung Function during Aging. Yin and Yang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Judith

    2016-12-01

    Cellular senescence is a cell fate decision and stress response that entails a permanent arrest of cell proliferation coupled to a complex secretory phenotype. Senescent cells increase in number with age in most, if not all, mammalian tissues, including the airways and lungs. They also increase at greater than expected numbers, compared with age-matched controls, at sites of age-related pathologies such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and emphysema. The senescence response is a double-edged sword. The proliferative arrest suppresses the development of cancer by preventing the propagation of stressed or damaged cells that are at risk for neoplastic transformation. However, this arrest can also curtail the proliferation of stem or progenitor cells and thus hamper tissue repair and regeneration. Similarly, the secretory phenotype can promote wound healing by transiently providing growth factors and the initial inflammatory stimulus that is required for tissue repair. However, when chronically present, the secretory phenotype of senescent cells can drive pathological inflammation, which contributes to a host of age-related pathologies, including cancer. There are now transgenes and prototype small molecules that can clear senescent cells, at least in mouse models, and thus improve health span and median life span. The next challenge will be to develop interventions and supplements that can abrogate the deleterious effects of senescent cells while preserving their beneficial effects.

  20. Evolution of the respiratory function after irradiation of the two lungs (about 50 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulier, Alain.

    1976-01-01

    Whole chest irradiation to a dose of 870 rets, i.e. 1500 rads in 4 sessions over 7 days, causes only minimal functional reduction in patients whose pulmonary function was normal prior to radiation therapy. This reduction is the result of combination of a mild restrictive syndrome (decreased vital capacity and residual volume) and a slight impairment in gas transfer. The changes in the gas transfer do not seem to be related to the restrictive syndrome. They would appear to be due to changes in the gas exchange zone other than a restriction of the gas exchange surface. A comparison of the results with those in the literature shows that there is a distinct relationship between the dose delivered to the lung and the functional reduction in the gas transfer zone. The reduction (DT) increases exponentially with the biologically active dose (in rets). The lungs tolerance dose calculated from the results of lung function studies corresponds to that evaluated by Abbatucci et al. on the basis of clinical and radiological criteria; it is very close to 900 rets. An increase in this dose would inevitably result in a deterioration in function that would rapidly become too severe: a 20% reduction in alveolararterial 'ductance' would be too great even for patients whose lung function was normal prior to radiation therapy. The recommended total dose of 870 rets already exposes the patient to a risk of a 5% (+-10%) reduction in gas exchange. Function studies prior to radiation therapy are indispensible: the radiotherapist remains, of course, the sole judge of the advisability of lung irradiation, but it is imperative that the physiologist participate in the post-irradiation follow-up [fr

  1. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Gender-Age-Physiology Index Stage for Predicting Future Lung Function Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Margaret L; Xia, Meng; Zhou, Yueren; Murray, Susan; Tayob, Nabihah; Brown, Kevin K; Wells, Athol U; Schmidt, Shelley L; Martinez, Fernando J; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease with variable course. The Gender-Age-Physiology (GAP) Index and staging system uses clinical variables to stage mortality risk. It is unknown whether clinical staging predicts future decline in pulmonary function. We assessed whether the GAP stage predicts future pulmonary function decline and whether interval pulmonary function change predicts mortality after accounting for stage. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (N = 657) were identified retrospectively at three tertiary referral centers, and baseline GAP stages were assessed. Mixed models were used to describe average trajectories of FVC and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess whether declines in pulmonary function ≥ 10% in 6 months predict mortality after accounting for GAP stage. Over a 2-year period, GAP stage was not associated with differences in yearly lung function decline. After accounting for stage, a 10% decrease in FVC or Dlco over 6 months independently predicted death or transplantation (FVC hazard ratio, 1.37; Dlco hazard ratio, 1.30; both, P ≤ .03). Patients with GAP stage 2 with declining pulmonary function experienced a survival profile similar to patients with GAP stage 3, with 1-year event-free survival of 59.3% (95% CI, 49.4-67.8) vs 56.9% (95% CI, 42.2-69.1). Baseline GAP stage predicted death or lung transplantation but not the rate of future pulmonary function decline. After accounting for GAP stage, a decline of ≥ 10% over 6 months independently predicted death or lung transplantation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Normative values and anthropometric determinants of lung function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-02-15

    Feb 15, 2013 ... Abstract Introduction: Respiratory diseases represent some of the most common causes of hospital visits in childhood. Most of our decision making rely on clinical assessment without the benefit of objective measures of pulmonary function. The ability to measure pulmonary function provides a tool that can ...

  3. Changes in cognitive state alter human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of the brain as a whole system can be accomplished using network theory principles. Research has shown that human functional brain networks during a resting state exhibit small-world properties and high degree nodes, or hubs, localized to brain areas consistent with the default mode network (DMN. However, the study of brain networks across different tasks and or cognitive states has been inconclusive. Research in this field is important because the underpinnings of behavioral output are inherently dependent on whether or not brain networks are dynamic. This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate multiple network metrics at a voxel-wise resolution in the human brain at both the whole brain and regional level under various conditions: resting state, visual stimulation, and multisensory (auditory and visual stimulation. Our results show that despite global network stability, functional brain networks exhibit considerable task-induced changes in connectivity, efficiency, and community structure at the regional level.

  4. GABA FUNCTION IS ALTERED FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM: NEUROANATOMICAL AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormone deficiency during development produces changes in the structure of neurons and glial cells and alters synaptic function in the hippocampus. GABAergic interneurons comprise the bulk of local inhibitory neuronal circuitry and a subpopulation of these interneurons ...

  5. [Altered expressions of alkane monooxygenase and hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression in lung tissue of rat hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua-jun; Yuan, Ya-dong

    2013-10-29

    To explore the altered expressions of alkane monooxygenase (AlkB) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in a rat model of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Twenty Wistar rats were divided randomly into normal control and hypoxia groups after 1-week adaptive feeding. Hypoxia group was raised in a homemade organic glass tank with a 24-h continuous supply of air and nitrogen atmospheric mixed gas. And the oxygen concentration of (10.0 ± 0.5)% was controlled by oxygen monitoring control system. The control group was maintained in room air. Both groups stayed in the same room with the same diet. After 8 weeks, the level of mean pulmonary pressure (mPAP) was measured by right-heart catheterization, right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) calculated by the ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum and hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling (HPSR) observed under microscope. And the levels of AlkB and HIF-1α mRNA and protein in lungs were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. At 8 weeks post-hypoxia, compared with the control group [11.0 ± 0.7 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa), 0.210 ± 0.035], the levels of mPAP and RVHI in hypoxia group (33.3 ± 1.3 mm Hg, 0.448 ± 0.013) increased significantly (both P < 0.05), the expressions of AlkB mRNA and protein in pulmonary tissue decreased significantly (0.338 ± 0.085 vs 0.688 ± 0.020, P < 0.01) (0.483 ± 0.052 vs 0.204 ± 0.010, P < 0.01), and the expressions of HIF-1α mRNA and protein increased significantly (0.790 ± 0.161 vs 0.422 ± 0.096, P < 0.01) (0.893 ± 0.080 vs 0.346 ± 0.008, P < 0.01). The down-regulation of AlkB in lung tissue may increase the activity of HIF-1 to participate in the occurrence and development of pulmonary hypertension.

  6. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Göran; Jarenbäck, Linnea; Peterson, Stefan; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions. Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I-IV) and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points. Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume) and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz) were segmented with break-points at 60%-70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of -5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and -3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61%. Continuous analyses of different lung function parameters over the spirometric COPD severity range gave valuable information additional to categorical analyses. Parameters related to volume, diffusion capacity, and reactance showed break-points around 65% of FEV1, indicating that air trapping starts to dominate in moderate COPD (FEV1 =50%-80%). This may have an

  7. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Göran Eriksson,1,* Linnea Jarenbäck,1,* Stefan Peterson,2 Jaro Ankerst,1 Leif Bjermer,1 Ellen Tufvesson11Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2Regional Cancer Center South, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions.Patients and methods: Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points.Results: Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz were segmented with break-points at 60%–70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of -5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and -3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61

  8. Altered Venous Function during Long-Duration Spaceflights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques-Olivier Fortrat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Venous adaptation to microgravity, associated with cardiovascular deconditioning, may contribute to orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. The aim of this study was to analyze the main parameters of venous hemodynamics with long-duration spaceflight.Methods: Venous plethysmography was performed on 24 cosmonauts before, during, and after spaceflights aboard the International Space Station. Venous plethysmography assessed venous filling and emptying functions as well as microvascular filtration, in response to different levels of venous occlusion pressure. Calf volume was assessed using calf circumference measurements.Results: Calf volume decreased during spaceflight from 2.3 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.2 L (p < 0.001, and recovered after it (2.3 ± 0.3 L. Venous compliance, determined as the relationship between occlusion pressure and the change in venous volume, increased during spaceflight from 0.090 ± 0.005 to 0.120 ± 0.007 (p < 0.01 and recovered 8 days after landing (0.071 ± 0.005, arbitrary units. The index of venous emptying rate decreased during spaceflight from −0.004 ± 0.022 to −0.212 ± 0.033 (p < 0.001, arbitrary units. The index of vascular microfiltration increased during spaceflight from 6.1 ± 1.8 to 10.6 ± 7.9 (p < 0.05, arbitrary units.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that overall venous function is changed during spaceflight. In future, venous function should be considered when developing countermeasures to prevent cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance with long-duration spaceflight.

  9. Polyploidization altered gene functions in cotton (Gossypium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhanyou; Yu, John Z; Cho, Jaemin; Yu, Jing; Kohel, Russell J; Percy, Richard G

    2010-12-16

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important crop plant that is widely grown to produce both natural textile fibers and cottonseed oil. Cotton fibers, the economically more important product of the cotton plant, are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. It has been known for a long time that large numbers of genes determine the development of cotton fiber, and more recently it has been determined that these genes are distributed across At and Dt subgenomes of tetraploid AD cottons. In the present study, the organization and evolution of the fiber development genes were investigated through the construction of an integrated genetic and physical map of fiber development genes whose functions have been verified and confirmed. A total of 535 cotton fiber development genes, including 103 fiber transcription factors, 259 fiber development genes, and 173 SSR-contained fiber ESTs, were analyzed at the subgenome level. A total of 499 fiber related contigs were selected and assembled. Together these contigs covered about 151 Mb in physical length, or about 6.7% of the tetraploid cotton genome. Among the 499 contigs, 397 were anchored onto individual chromosomes. Results from our studies on the distribution patterns of the fiber development genes and transcription factors between the At and Dt subgenomes showed that more transcription factors were from Dt subgenome than At, whereas more fiber development genes were from At subgenome than Dt. Combining our mapping results with previous reports that more fiber QTLs were mapped in Dt subgenome than At subgenome, the results suggested a new functional hypothesis for tetraploid cotton. After the merging of the two diploid Gossypium genomes, the At subgenome has provided most of the genes for fiber development, because it continues to function similar to its fiber producing diploid A genome ancestor. On the other hand, the Dt subgenome, with its non-fiber producing D genome ancestor

  10. Second to fourth digit ratio: a predictor of adult lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Nae Park

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex and sex hormones play a major role in lung physiology. It has been proposed that the ratio of the second to fourth digits (digit ratio is correlated with fetal sex hormones. We therefore hypothesized that digit ratio might help predict lung function. We investigated the relationship between digit ratio and pulmonary function test (PFT fi ndings. A total of 245 South Korean patients (162 male, 83 female aged from 34 to 90 years who were hospitalized for urological surgery were prospectively enrolled. Before administering the PFTs, the lengths of the second and fourth digits of the right hand were measured by a single investigator using a digital Vernier caliper. In males (n = 162, univariate and multivariate analysis using linear regression models showed that digit ratio was a signifi cant predictive factor of forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 (FVC: r = 0.156, P = 0.047; FEV1: r = 0.160, P = 0.042. In male ever-smokers (n = 69, lung functions (FVC and FEV1 were correlated with smoking exposure rather than digit ratio. In female never-smokers (n = 83, lung functions (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio were positively correlated with digit ratio on univariate analysis (FEV1: r = 0.242, P = 0.027; FEV1/FVC ratio: r = 0.245, P = 0.026. Patients with lower digit ratios tend to have decreased lung function. These results suggest that digit ratio is a predictor of airway function.

  11. Association between lutein intake and lung function in adults: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo van Lent, Debora; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Brusselle, Guy G; Franco, Oscar H; Lahousse, Lies; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2017-03-01

    Lutein, a fat-soluble carotenoid with antioxidant properties, may have an effect on respiratory health. However, the evidence is inconsistent. We aimed to cross-sectionally investigate the association between lutein intake and lung function by measuring forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC% in adults (aged 45-79 years). We included 4402 participants from the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study in The Netherlands. Lutein intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Lung function was assessed using spirometry around the same time point as the dietary assessment. No independent association was found between lutein intake and FEV1 (-12·17 (95 % CI -34·21, 9·87) ml per sd increase in lutein) after adjustment for age, sex, height, cohort effect, ethnicity, education, weight, total daily energy intake, smoking status, physical activity, and intakes of fatty acids, dietary fibre, alcohol, β-carotene, β-crypotoxanthin, lycopene and zeaxanthin. There was also no association between lutein and FVC or FEV1/FVC%. However, after stratification by smoking status, lutein intake was significantly associated with lower FEV1/FVC% in current smokers (-1·69 (95 % CI -2·93, -0·45) % per sd increase of lutein) independent of other carotenoids. The present study does not support an independent association between lutein intake and lung function in adults. However, future studies should focus on the potential inverse association between high lutein intake and lung function in specific risk groups such as smokers.

  12. Increased lung function decline in blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaon, Isabelle; Demange, Valérie; Herin, Fabrice; Touranchet, Annie; Paris, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    There is no consensus at the present time about the effect of welding on lung function decline. This study compared lung function decline between blue-collar workers exposed and not exposed to welding fumes in a French longitudinal cohort of 21,238 subjects aged 37 to 52 years at inclusion. Medical data, occupation, sector of activity, and spirometry were recorded twice by occupational physicians in 1990 and 1995. A job-exposure matrix was used to identify 503 male blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes and 709 control subjects and to define the weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes. Baseline lung function parameters were higher in workers exposed to welding fumes than in control subjects. After a 5-year follow-up, welding-fume exposure was associated with a nonsignificant decline in FVC (P = .06) and FEV(1) (P = .07) after adjustment for age, pack-years, BMI, and baseline value of the parameter. A significant accelerated decline in FEV(1) (P = .046) was also observed in never smokers exposed to welding fumes. An “exposure-response” relationship was observed between FEV(1) decline and weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes in nonsmokers but not in smokers. Blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes showed accelerated decline in lung function, which, in nonsmokers, was related to weekly duration of exposure.

  13. Effects of Exposure to Welding Fume on Lung Function: Results from the German WELDOX Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, M; Hoffmeyer, F; Gawrych, K; Lotz, A; Heinze, E; Berresheim, H; Merget, R; Harth, V; Van Gelder, R; Hahn, J-U; Hartwig, A; Weiß, T; Pesch, B; Brüning, T

    2015-01-01

    The association between exposure to welding fume and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been insufficiently clarified. In this study we assessed the influence of exposure to welding fume on lung function parameters. We investigated forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, and expiratory flow rates in 219 welders. We measured current exposure to respirable particles and estimated a worker's lifetime exposure considering welding techniques, working conditions and protective measures at current and former workplaces. Multiple regression models were applied to estimate the influence of exposure to welding fume, age, and smoking on lung function. We additionally investigated the duration of working as a welder and the predominant welding technique. The findings were that age- and smoking-adjusted lung function parameters showed no decline with increasing duration, current exposure level, and lifetime exposure to welding fume. However, 15% of the welders had FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal, but we could not substantiate the presence of an association with the measures of exposure. Adverse effects of cigarette smoking were confirmed. In conclusion, the study did not support the notion of a possible detrimental effect of exposure to welding fume on lung function in welders.

  14. Longitudinal decline in lung function in patients with occupational asthma due to western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F J; Dimich-Ward, H; Chan-Yeung, M

    1996-11-01

    There are few reports about longitudinal changes in lung function in asthmatic patients. Patients with asthma had a greater loss of lung function than normal healthy adults. To date, there have been no studies about the longitudinal changes in lung function in patients with occupational asthma. 280 male patients with red cedar asthma (RCA) who were followed up for at least one year were the study group. The exposed controls consisted of 399 male sawmill workers. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured with a Collins water spirometer. Changes in FEV1 over time (FEV1 slope) were calculated by a two point method for each subject. Atopy was considered to be present if the subjects showed at least one positive response to three allergens by skin prick test. Multiple regression analysis was carried out to examine factors that might affect longitudinal decline in FEV1. Patients with RCA who were still exposed had a greater decline in FEV1 slope (-26 ml/y) than sawmill workers. Smokers also showed a greater rate of decline in FEV1 (-43 ml/y) than non-smokers. Patients with RCA who continued to be exposed had a greater rate of decline in FEV1 than sawmill workers. Early diagnosis of occupational asthma and removal of these patients from a specific sensitiser is important in the prevention of further deterioration of lung function and respiratory symptoms.

  15. Sixteen new lung function signals identified through 1000 Genomes Project reference panel imputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artigas, Maria Soler; Wain, Louise V.; Miller, Suzanne; Kheirallah, Abdul Kader; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Ntalla, Ioanna; Shrine, Nick; Obeidat, Ma'en; Trochet, Holly; McArdle, Wendy L.; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Hui, Jennie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Joshi, Peter K.; Teumer, Alexander; Albrecht, Eva; Imboden, Medea; Rawal, Rajesh; Lopez, Lorna M.; Marten, Jonathan; Enroth, Stefan; Surakka, Ida; Polasek, Ozren; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Granell, Raquel; Hysi, Pirro G.; Flexeder, Claudia; Mahajan, Anubha; Beilby, John; Bosse, Yohan; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Campbell, Harry; Gieger, Christian; Glaeser, Sven; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Grallert, Harald; Hammond, Chris J.; Harris, Sarah E.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heliovaara, Markku; Henderson, John; Hocking, Lynne; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Ingelsson, Erik; Johansson, Asa; Kemp, John P.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumar, Ashish; Lind, Lars; Melen, Erik; Musk, Arthur W.; Navarro, Pau; Nickle, David C.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Raitakari, Olli T.; Ried, Janina S.; Ripatti, Samuli; Schulz, Holger; Scott, Robert A.; Sin, Don D.; Starr, John M.; Vinuela, Ana; Voelzke, Henry; Wild, Sarah H.; Wright, Alan F.; Zemunik, Tatijana; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Spector, Tim D.; Evans, David M.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Vitart, Veronique; Kahonen, Mika; Gyllensten, Ulf; Rudan, Igor; Deary, Ian J.; Karrasch, Stefan; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Heinrich, Joachim; Stubbe, Beate; Wilson, James F.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; James, Alan L.; Morris, Andrew P.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hayward, Caroline; Sayers, Ian; Strachan, David P.; Hall, Ian P.; Tobin, Martin D.; Deloukas, Panos; Hansell, Anna L.; Hubbard, Richard; Jackson, Victoria E.; Marchini, Jonathan; Pavord, Ian; Thomson, Neil C.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    Lung function measures are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In 38,199 European ancestry individuals, we studied genome-wide association of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC with 1000 Genomes Project (phase 1)-imputed

  16. Elemental composition of particulate matter and the association with lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Gruzieva, Olena; Mölter, Anna; Agius, Raymond; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Custovic, Adnan; Cyrys, Josef; Fuertes, Elaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; de Hoogh, Kees; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Keuken, Menno; Klümper, Claudia; Kooter, Ingeborg; Krämer, Ursula; Korek, Michal; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Simpson, Angela; Smit, Henriëtte A; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Wang, Meng; Wolf, Kathrin; Pershagen, Göran; Gehring, Ulrike

    BACKGROUND: Negative effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) on lung function have been shown repeatedly. Spatial differences in the composition and toxicity of PM may explain differences in observed effect sizes between studies. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in 5

  17. Elemental composition of particulate matter and the association with lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftens, M.; Hoek, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Mölter, A.; Agius, R.; Beelen, R.; Brunekreef, B.; Custovic, A.; Cyrys, J.; Fuertes, E.; Heinrich, J.; Hoffmann, B.; De Hoogh, K.; Jedynska, A.; Keuken, M.; Klümper, C.; Kooter, I.; Krämer, U.; Korek, M.; Koppelman, G.H.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Simpson, A.; Smit, H.A.; Tsai, M.Y.; Wang, M.; Wolf, K.; Pershagen, G.; Gehring, U.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Negative effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) on lung function have been shown repeatedly. Spatial differences in the composition and toxicity of PM may explain differences in observed effect sizes between studies. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in 5

  18. Morphologic and functional scoring of cystic fibrosis lung disease using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, Monika; Optazaite, Daiva-Elzbieta; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Hintze, Christian; Biederer, Jürgen; Niemann, Anne; Mall, Marcus A.; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Puderbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gains increasing importance in the assessment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The aim of this study was to develop a morpho-functional MR-scoring-system and to evaluate its intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and clinical practicability to monitor CF lung disease over a broad severity range from infancy to adulthood. 35 CF patients with broad age range (mean 15.3 years; range 0.5–42) were examined by morphological and functional MRI. Lobe based analysis was performed for parameters bronchiectasis/bronchial-wall-thickening, mucus plugging, abscesses/sacculations, consolidations, special findings and perfusion defects. The maximum global score was 72. Two experienced radiologists scored the images at two time points (interval 10 weeks). Upper and lower limits of agreement, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), total deviation index and coverage probability were calculated for global, morphology, function, component and lobar scores. Global scores ranged from 6 to 47. Intra- and inter-reader agreement for global scores were good (CCC: 0.98 (R1), 0.94 (R2), 0.97 (R1/R2)) and were comparable between high and low scores. Our results indicate that the proposed morpho-functional MR-scoring-system is reproducible and applicable for semi-quantitative evaluation of a large spectrum of CF lung disease severity. This scoring-system can be applied for the routine assessment of CF lung disease and maybe as endpoint for clinical trials.

  19. Longitudinal lung function decline and wood dust exposure in the furniture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schlünssen, V; Schaumburg, I

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between change in lung function and cumulative exposure to wood dust. In total, 1,112 woodworkers (927 males, 185 females) and 235 reference workers (104 males, 185 females) participated in a 6-yr longitudinal study. Forced expirato...

  20. Longitudinal lung function decline and wood dust exposure in the furniture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, G.; Schluenssen, V.; Schaumburg, I.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between change in lung function and cumulative exposure to wood dust. In total, 1,112 woodworkers (927 males, 185 females) and 235 reference workers (104 males, 185 females) participated in a 6-yr longitudinal study. Forced expirato...

  1. Detection of COPD, lung function decline and emphysema progression in heavy smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis has improved our insights in important determinants of lung function decline and emphysema progression in heavy smokers. Secondly, it improved our insight on the question which threshold of FEV1/FVC is most appropriate in diagnosing COPD. We showed in chapter 2 that

  2. Rural-urban disparity in lung function parameters of Nigerian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-demographic, nutritional status as well as lung function parameters measured using incentive Spirometry (MIR Spirolab III srl, Italy) of the children were obtained and compared among the rural and urban children. Results: A total of 250 children (128 rural and 122 urban) aged 9 to 17 years participated in the ...

  3. Pulmonary function change in patients with Sauropus androgynus-related obstructive lung disease 15 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ying Ou

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: After an acute deterioration, patients with S androgynus-related obstructive lung disease had a stationary pulmonary function over a period of 15 years, and their clinical manifestations were less severe than age- and FEV1-matched COPD patients. A further study with a larger sample size may be needed to confirm these findings.

  4. Arsenic Exposure and Impaired Lung Function. Findings from a Large Population-based Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Faruque; Chen, Yu; Yunus, Mahbub; Olopade, Christopher; Segers, Stephanie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Argos, Maria; Hasan, Rabiul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Akter, Mahmud M.; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Exposure to arsenic through drinking water has been linked to respiratory symptoms, obstructive lung diseases, and mortality from respiratory diseases. Limited evidence for the deleterious effects on lung function exists among individuals exposed to a high dose of arsenic. Objectives: To determine the deleterious effects on lung function that exist among individuals exposed to a high dose of arsenic. Methods: In 950 individuals who presented with any respiratory symptom among a population-based cohort of 20,033 adults, we evaluated the association between arsenic exposure, measured by well water and urinary arsenic concentrations measured at baseline, and post-bronchodilator–administered pulmonary function assessed during follow-up. Measurements and Main Results: For every one SD increase in baseline water arsenic exposure, we observed a lower level of FEV1 (−46.5 ml; P arsenical skin lesions status. Similar inverse relationships were observed between baseline urinary arsenic and FEV1 (−48.3 ml; P arsenic. This association remained significant in never-smokers and individuals without skin lesions, and was stronger in male smokers. Among male smokers and individuals with skin lesions, every one SD increase in water arsenic was related to a significant reduction of FEV1 (−74.4 ml, P arsenic exposure is associated with impaired lung function and the deleterious effect is evident at low- to moderate-dose range. PMID:23848239

  5. Gender difference in smoking effects on lung function and risk of hospitalization for COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Bjerg, A M; Andersen, P K

    1997-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that females may be more susceptible than males to the deleterious influence of tobacco smoking in developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This paper studies the interaction of gender and smoking on development of COPD as assessed by lung function and hosp......Recent findings suggest that females may be more susceptible than males to the deleterious influence of tobacco smoking in developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This paper studies the interaction of gender and smoking on development of COPD as assessed by lung function.......7-50.9) in females, and 3.2 (1.1-9.1), 5.7 (2.2-14.3) and 8.4 (3.3-21.6) in males) but the interaction term gender x pack-years did not reach significance (p=0.08). Results were similar in the GPS. After adjusting for smoking in more detail, females in both cohorts had an increased risk of hospitalization for COPD...... greater impact on the lung function of females than males, and after adjusting for smoking females subsequently suffered a higher risk of being admitted to hospital for COPD. Results suggest that adverse effects of smoking on lung function may be greater in females than in males....

  6. Reduced lung function is independently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Korean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chang-Hee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lung function is associated with incident insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between lung function and incident type 2 diabetes in Korean men. Methods This study included 9,220 men (mean age: 41.4 years without type 2 diabetes at baseline who were followed for five years. Subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline forced vital capacity (FVC (% predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 (% predicted quartiles. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was compared according to FVC and FEV1 quartiles. Results The overall incidence of type 2 diabetes was 2.2%. Reduced lung function was significantly associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age, BMI, education, smoking, exercise, alcohol, and HOMA-IR. Both FVC and FEV1 were negatively associated with type 2 diabetes (P 1 had a significantly higher odds ratio for type 2 diabetes compared with the highest quartile after adjusting for age and BMI (2.15 [95% CI 1.02-4.57] and 2.19 [95% CI 1.09-4.42]. Conclusions Reduced lung function is independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean men.

  7. Pneumoconiosis and emphysema in construction workers : results of HRCT and lung function findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Nij, E. Tjoe; Kraus, T.; van der Zee, J. S.; van Delden, O.; van Leeuwen, M.; Lammers, J. W.; Heederik, D.

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of HRCT findings in construction workers previously surveyed by chest radiographs classified according to ILO guidelines. To examine the association between HRCT findings and exposure to quartz containing dust, and lung function. Methods The study comprised a

  8. Pneumoconiosis and emphysema in construction workers: results of HRCT and lung function findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Tjoe Nij, E.; Kraus, T.; van der Zee, J. S.; van Delden, O.; van Leeuwen, M.; Lammers, J. W.; Heederik, D.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of HRCT findings in construction workers previously surveyed by chest radiographs classified according to ILO guidelines. To examine the association between HRCT findings and exposure to quartz containing dust, and lung function. The study comprised a questionnaire,

  9. Exercise tolerance, lung function abnormalities, anemia, and cardiothoracic ratio in sickle cell patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, Eduard J.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Nur, Erfan; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; van Steenwijk, Reindert P.; Biemond, Bart J.; Bresser, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a reduced exercise capacity and abnormal lung function. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can identify causes of exercise limitation. Forty-four consecutive SCD patients (27 HbSS, 11 HbSC, and 6 HbS-beta thalassemia) with a median age

  10. Effects of indoor air pollution on lung function of primary school children in Kuala Lumpur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizi, B.H.; Henry, R.L. (National Univ. of Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))

    1990-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 7-12 year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur city, lung function was assessed by spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements. Spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements were successfully performed in 1,214 and 1,414 children, respectively. As expected, the main predictors of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were standing height, weight, age, and sex. In addition, lung function values of Chinese and Malays were generally higher than those of Indians. In multiple regression models which included host and environmental factors, asthma was associated with significant decreases in FEV1, FEF25-75, and PEFR. However, family history of chest illness, history of allergies, low paternal education, and hospitalization during the neonatal period were not independent predictors of lung function. Children sharing rooms with adult smokers had significantly lower levels of FEF25-75. Exposures to wood or kerosene stoves were, but to mosquito repellents were not, associated with decreased lung function.

  11. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in

  12. Longitudinal study of lung function in a cohort of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellerman, A; Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) have pronounced stasis of their respiratory secretions and therefore recurrent lower airway infections, which raises concerns for the development of lung function. Twenty four patients with PCD have been studied prospectively with a standardized regime...

  13. LUNG FUNCTION AND RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH IN OBESE IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    E. G. Furman; A. M. Yarulina; L. V. Sofronova

    2015-01-01

    Background. It is known that obesity may influence the state of respiratory function and it is associated with a number of diseases of the respiratory system. Obesity in itself, even in the absence of other known causes, can cause a feeling of shortness of breath at rest. At the same time, the cardinal symptom of respiratory muscle weakness is shortness of breath, which promotes the reduction of exercise tolerance. At the moment the problem state of respiratory function and respiratory muscle...

  14. Alteration of renal function of rats following spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Following spaceflight, changes in renal function of humans have been suggested. To assess the effects of readaptation on renal function, urine was collected from male rats ( approximately 245 g) over a 2-wk period following a 14-day spaceflight. Rats were assigned to three groups: flight animals (n = 6), flight controls (n = 6) housed in the flight cages on the ground, and vivarium controls (n = 5) housed in standard shoe box cages. Animals were placed into individual metabolic cages for urine collection. Urine output was significantly increased for 3 days following flight. Excretion rates of Na+ and K+ were increased, resulting in an increased osmotic excretion rate. Creatinine excretion rate increased over the first two postflight days. Glomerular filtration rate increased immediately following spaceflight without changes in plasma creatinine, Na+, K+, or osmolality. Increased excretion of solute was thus the result of increased delivery and a decreased percent reabsorption of the filtered load. Osmolal clearance was increased immediately postflight while free water clearance was decreased. In growing rats, the diuresis after short-duration spaceflight is the result of an increase in solute excretion with an accompanying reduction in free water clearance.

  15. Waist circumference, BMI, and lung function in 8-year-old children : The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Wijga, Alet H.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Postma, Dirkje; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) may be associated with lung function in children, as observed in adults. Methods Height, weight, waist circumference, and lung function (FVC and FEV1) were measured during a medical examination in 1,058 eight-year-old children

  16. Change in lung function and morbidity from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in alpha1-antitrypsin MZ heterozygotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    A deteriorating effect of severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency (ZZ genotype) on lung function is well known, whereas the role of intermediate deficiency (MZ genotype) remains uncertain.......A deteriorating effect of severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency (ZZ genotype) on lung function is well known, whereas the role of intermediate deficiency (MZ genotype) remains uncertain....

  17. Genome-wide association analyses for lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease identify new loci and potential druggable targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wain, Louise V.; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Erzurumluoglu, A Mesut; Noyvert, Boris; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Obeidat, Ma'en; Henrys, Amanda P.; Portelli, Michael A.; Hall, Robert J; Billington, Charlotte K.; Rimington, Tracy L; Fenech, Anthony G; John, Catherine; Blake, Tineka; Jackson, Victoria E.; Allen, Richard J; Prins, Bram P.; Campbell, Archie; Porteous, David J.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wielscher, Matthias; Jamess, Alan L.; Hui, Jennie; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Wilson, James F.; Joshi, Peter K.; Stubbe, Beate; Rawal, Rajesh; Schulz, Holger; Imboden, Medea; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Karrasch, Stefan; Gieger, Christian; Deary, Ian J.; Harris, Sarah E.; Marten, Jonathan; Rudan, Igor; Enroth, Stefan; Gyllensten, Ulf; Kerr, Shona M.; Polasek, Ozren; Kahonen, Mika; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Hayward, Caroline; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Evans, David M.; Henderson, A. John; Pennell, Craig E.; Wang, Carol A.; Sly, Peter D.; Wan, Emily S; Busch, Robert; Hobbs, Brian D; Litonjua, Augusto; Sparrow, David W; Gulsvik, Amund; Bakke, Per S.; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Bosse, Yohan; Joubert, Philippe; van den Berge, Maarten; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Pare, Peter D.; Sin, Don; Nickle, David C.; Hao, Ke; Gottesman, Omri; Dewey, Frederick E; Bruse, Shannon E; Carey, David J.; Kirchner, H Lester; Jonsson, Stefan; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Gislason, Thorarinn; Stefansson, Kari; Schurmann, Claudia; Nadkarni, Girish N; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Walters, Robin G.; Chen, Zhengming; Millwood, Iona Y; Vaucher, Julien; Kurmi, Om P; Li, Liming; Hansell, Anna L.; Brightling, Chris; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Cho, Michael H.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Sayers, Ian; Trynka, Gosia; Morris, Andrew P.; Strachan, David P.; Halls, Ian P.; Tobin, Martin D.

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by reduced lung function and is the third leading cause of death globally. Through genome-wide association discovery in 48,943 individuals, selected from extremes of the lung function distribution in UK Biobank, and follow-up in 95,375

  18. Decreased lung function with mediation of blood parameters linked to e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H Marike; Vonk, Judith M; Wu, Weidong; Huo, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels have been associated with lower lung function in adults and smokers, but whether this also holds for children from electronic waste (e-waste) recycling areas is still unknown. To investigate the contribution of blood heavy metals and lung function levels, and

  19. Time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury: A prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, G.; de Groot, S.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Hopman, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury. Design: Multi-centre, prospective cohort study. Subjects: One hundred and nine subjects with recent, motor complete spinal cord injury. Methods: Lung function and

  20. Time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Gabi; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas; Hopman, Maria T E

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury. DESIGN: Multi-centre, prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: One hundred and nine subjects with recent, motor complete spinal cord injury. METHODS: Lung function and

  1. Time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, G.; Groot, S. de; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury. DESIGN: Multi-centre, prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: One hundred and nine subjects with recent, motor complete spinal cord injury. METHODS: Lung function and

  2. Lung function and short-term outcome in young asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, B; Bisgaard, H

    1999-01-01

    in 110 children with a mean+/-SD age of 3.8+/-1.0 yrs using the interruptor technique (resistance assessed using the interruptor technique (Rint)), whole body plethysmography (specific airway resistance (sRaw) and respiratory resistance (Rrs,5)and reactance at 5 Hz (Xrs,5) using the impulse oscillation...... technique. Rint, sRaw, Xrs,5 and Rrs,5 were suggestive of impaired lung function in 44%, 14%, 11% and 7.5% of the children, respectively, with a predominance of children aged 2-3 yrs. Sixty-five per cent were treated with inhaled steroids, and 35% were treated only with beta2-agonists as needed; lung...

  3. CHRNA3 genotype, nicotine dependence, lung function and disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2012-01-01

    The CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism has been associated to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and nicotine dependence in case-control studies with high smoking exposure; however, its influence on lung function and COPD severity in the general population is largely unknown. We...... genotyped 57,657 adult individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, of whom 34,592 were ever-smokers. Information on spirometry, hospital admissions, smoking behaviour and use of nicotinic replacement therapy was recorded. In homozygous (11%), heterozygous (44%) and noncarrier (45%) ever...

  4. Lung function after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for leukaemia or lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysom, K; Holm, K; Hesse, B

    1996-01-01

    Longitudinal data were analysed on the lung function of 25 of 29 survivors of childhood leukaemia or lymphoma, who had been conditioned with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation before allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, to test whether children are particularly vulnerable to pulmonary...... significantly reduced transfer factor, total lung capacity, and forced vital capacity (-1.0, -1.2, and -0.8 SD score, respectively), and increased ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (+0.9 SD score). None of the patients had pulmonary symptoms, and changes were unrelated...

  5. Panel studies of air pollution on children's lung function and respiratory symptoms: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Jalaludin, Bin; Baker, Peter

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews panel studies of air pollution on children's respiratory health and proposes future research directions. The PubMed electronic database was used to search published original epidemiological studies in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to November 2011. Children's age was limited to ≤18 years old. A total of 33 relevant articles were obtained, with 20 articles relating to lung function, 21 articles relating to respiratory symptoms, and 8 articles examining both. Most studies suggested the adverse effects of air pollution on children's lung function and respiratory symptoms. Particles and NO(2) showed more significant results, whereas effects of SO(2) were not consistent. A few studies indicated that O(3) interacted with temperature and sometimes seemed to be a protective factor for children's respiratory health. Negative associations between air pollutants and pulmonary health were more serious in asthmatic children than in healthy subjects. However, many outcomes depended on the number of lag days. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was the most usual measurement for children's lung function, followed by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)). There are significant adverse effects of air pollution on children's pulmonary health, especially for asthmatics. Future studies need to examine the lag effects of air pollution on children's lung function and respiratory symptoms. Ambient temperature is predicted to change worldwide due to climate change, which will threaten population health. Further research is needed to examine the effects of ambient temperature and the interactive effects between air pollution and ambient temperature on children's lung function and respiratory symptoms.

  6. Oral iodinated activated charcoal improves lung function in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogvall, Staffan; Erjefält, Jonas S; Olin, Anders I; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif

    2014-06-01

    The effect of 8 weeks treatment with oral iodinated activated charcoal (IAC) on lung function of patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was examined in a double blind randomized placebo controlled parallel group study with 40 patients. In the IAC group, patients showed a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 baseline by 130 ml compared to placebo, corresponding to 8.2% improvement (p = 0.031*). Correlation statistics revealed that the improvement of FEV1 baseline was significantly correlated both to FEV1 post-bronchodilator (p = 0.0020**) and FEV1 post-exercise (0.033*) values. This demonstrates that the improved baseline lung function by IAC did not inhibit a further beta2-adrenoceptor relaxation, and thus that patients did not reach a limit for maximal improvement of the lung function after IAC treatment. Eight patients in the IAC group developed abnormal thyroid hormone levels transiently during the treatment. This side effect was not correlated to improvement of lung function (p = 0.82). No serious adverse effects directly related to the treatment were recorded. In summary, this study demonstrates that iodinated activated charcoal surprisingly and significantly improved lung function of patients with moderate COPD. The underlying mechanism of action is unclear, but is likely to be different from the drugs used today. The immediate conclusion is that further studies are now justified in order to determine clinical efficacy of IAC in COPD and explore possible mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure to monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) leads to altered selenoprotein synthesis in a primary human lung cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meno, Sarah R; Nelson, Rebecca; Hintze, Korry J; Self, William T

    2009-09-01

    Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), a trivalent metabolite of arsenic, is highly cytotoxic and recent cell culture studies suggest that it might act as a carcinogen. The general consensus of studies indicates that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) is a result of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A longstanding relationship between arsenic and selenium metabolism has led to the use of selenium as a supplement in arsenic exposed populations, however the impact of organic arsenicals (methylated metabolites) on selenium metabolism is still poorly understood. In this study we determined the impact of exposure to MMA(III) on the regulation of expression of TrxR1 and its activity using a primary lung fibroblast line, WI-38. The promoter region of the gene encoding the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) contains an antioxidant responsive element (ARE) that has been shown to be activated in the presence of electrophilic compounds. Results from radiolabeled selenoproteins indicate that exposure to low concentrations of MMA(III) resulted in increased synthesis of TrxR1 in WI-38 cells, and lower incorporation of selenium into other selenoproteins. MMA(III) treatment led to increased mRNA encoding TrxR1 in WI-38 cells, while lower levels of mRNA coding for cellular glutathione peroxidase (cGpx) were detected in exposed cells. Luciferase activity of TrxR1 promoter fusions increased with addition of MMA(III), as did expression of a rat quinone reductase (QR) promoter fusion construct. However, MMA(III) induction of the TRX1 promoter fusion was abrogated when the ARE was mutated, suggesting that this regulation is mediated via the ARE. These results indicate that MMA(III) alters the expression of selenoproteins based on a selective induction of TrxR1, and this response to exposure to organic arsenicals that requires the ARE element.

  8. Characteristics, predictors and prospects of lung function among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for airflow limitation in addition to its other multi-systemic deleterious effects. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurement offers an opportunity to assess ventilatory function abnormalities in cigarette smokers. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine ventilatory ...

  9. Influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was done to assess the influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and respiratory function in sawmill workers in Benin City. 150 sawmill workers who were all males and aged between 18 and 50 years, and had been in continuous employment in sawmill factories for a minimum of one year were studied.

  10. Effect of cannabis smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms: a structured literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luis IG; Ind, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    As cannabis use increases, physicians need to be familiar with the effects of both cannabis and tobacco on the lungs. However, there have been very few long-term studies of cannabis smoking, mostly due to legality issues and the confounding effects of tobacco. It was previously thought that cannabis and tobacco had similar long-term effects as both cause chronic bronchitis. However, recent large studies have shown that, instead of reducing forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (FVC), marijuana smoking is associated with increased FVC. The cause of this is unclear, but acute bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabis may be relevant. Bullous lung disease, barotrauma and cannabis smoking have been recognised in case reports and small series. More work is needed to address the effects of cannabis on lung function, imaging and histological changes. PMID:27763599

  11. Computational multiscale toxicodynamic modeling of silver and carbon nanoparticle effects on mouse lung function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwaipayan Mukherjee

    Full Text Available A computational, multiscale toxicodynamic model has been developed to quantify and predict pulmonary effects due to uptake of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs in mice. The model consists of a collection of coupled toxicodynamic modules, that were independently developed and tested using information obtained from the literature. The modules were developed to describe the dynamics of tissue with explicit focus on the cells and the surfactant chemicals that regulate the process of breathing, as well as the response of the pulmonary system to xenobiotics. Alveolar type I and type II cells, and alveolar macrophages were included in the model, along with surfactant phospholipids and surfactant proteins, to account for processes occurring at multiple biological scales, coupling cellular and surfactant dynamics affected by nanoparticle exposure, and linking the effects to tissue-level lung function changes. Nanoparticle properties such as size, surface chemistry, and zeta potential were explicitly considered in modeling the interactions of these particles with biological media. The model predictions were compared with in vivo lung function response measurements in mice and analysis of mice lung lavage fluid following exposures to silver and carbon nanoparticles. The predictions were found to follow the trends of observed changes in mouse surfactant composition over 7 days post dosing, and are in good agreement with the observed changes in mouse lung function over the same period of time.

  12. Systemic Inflammation and Lung Function Impairment in Morbidly Obese Subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid van Huisstede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and asthma are associated. There is a relationship between lung function impairment and the metabolic syndrome. Whether this relationship also exists in the morbidly obese patients is still unknown. Hypothesis. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with the metabolic syndrome causes inflammation in the lungs and, hence, lung function impairment. Methods. This is cross-sectional study of morbidly obese patients undergoing preoperative screening for bariatric surgery. Metabolic syndrome was assessed according to the revised NCEP-ATP III criteria. Results. A total of 452 patients were included. Patients with the metabolic syndrome (n=293 had significantly higher blood monocyte (mean 5.3 versus 4.9, P=0.044 and eosinophil percentages (median 1.0 versus 0.8, P=0.002, while the total leukocyte count did not differ between the groups. The FEV1/FVC ratio was significantly lower in patients with the metabolic syndrome (76.7% versus 78.2%, P=0.032. Blood eosinophils were associated with FEV1/FVC ratio (adj. B −0.113, P=0.018. Conclusion. Although the difference in FEV1/FVC ratio between the groups is relatively small, in this cross-sectional study, and its clinical relevance may be limited, these data indicate that the presence of the metabolic syndrome may influence lung function impairment, through the induction of relative eosinophilia.

  13. Reduced survival in adult cystic fibrosis despite attenuated lung function decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Claire; Poor, Armeen D; Liu, Xinhua; Chiuzan, Codruta; Backenroth, Daniel; Zhang, Yuan; DiMango, Emily

    2017-01-01

    There is limited data on disease progression and survival in adult diagnosis cystic fibrosis (CF). This study evaluates change of lung function over time and rates of death/lung transplant in adult diagnosis CF. The CF Foundation Patient Registry was reviewed for patients diagnosed 1993-2003. Rate of FEV1 decline was calculated up to 2010 for age groups 6-11, 12-17, and 18 and above. Kaplan Meier method was used for 10 and 15year survival rate calculations for patients diagnosed as adults. Cox Proportional hazards models using predictors affecting disease progression and survival without transplant were run. Between 1993 and 2003, 11,884 patients were diagnosed with CF, of which 2848 were ages 6 and older. Annual rate of change of FEV1% predicted over 5years differed by diagnosis age group: -1.42% per year for ages 6-11, -2.04% for ages 12-17 and -1.13% for ages 18-65 (p70% predicted at diagnosis, 95% were alive without transplant at 10years, whereas of those with FEV1diagnosis, 31% were alive without transplant at 10years. Lung function declines at a slower rate in adult diagnosis CF. However, particularly in those with low lung function at diagnosis, rates of death or transplant in adult diagnosis CF after 10 and 15years is not negligible. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lung function and short-term outcome in young asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, B; Bisgaard, H

    1999-01-01

    in 110 children with a mean+/-SD age of 3.8+/-1.0 yrs using the interruptor technique (resistance assessed using the interruptor technique (Rint)), whole body plethysmography (specific airway resistance (sRaw) and respiratory resistance (Rrs,5)and reactance at 5 Hz (Xrs,5) using the impulse oscillation......The aims of this study were to investigate lung function in 2-5-yr-old stable asthmatic children consecutively referred from general practitioners and to analyse the outcome on the basis of their requirement for antiasthmatic treatment and symptoms after 1.6-4.5 yrs. Lung function was measured...... technique. Rint, sRaw, Xrs,5 and Rrs,5 were suggestive of impaired lung function in 44%, 14%, 11% and 7.5% of the children, respectively, with a predominance of children aged 2-3 yrs. Sixty-five per cent were treated with inhaled steroids, and 35% were treated only with beta2-agonists as needed; lung...

  15. Acute effects of volcanic ash from Mount Saint Helens on lung function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, A S; Johnson, L R; Vollmer, W M; Sexton, G J; Kanarek, P H

    1983-06-01

    To evaluate the acute effects of volcanic ash from Mt. St. Helens on the lung function of children, we studied 101 children 8 to 13 yr of age who were attending a 2-wk summer camp for children with diabetes mellitus in an area where about 1.2 cm of ash had fallen after the June 12, 1980, eruption. The outcome variables used were forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, their ratio and mean transit time. Total and respirable dust levels were measured using personal sampling pumps. The children were tested on arrival and twice (early morning [A.M.] and late afternoon [P.M.]) every second or third day during the session. A within-day effect was measured by the P.M./A.M. ratio for the lung function variables; a between-day effect was measured by the change in the P.M. measurements over the 2 wk of camp. We found no strong evidence of either a within-day or a between-day effect on lung function, even in a subgroup of children who had preexisting lung disease or symptoms, despite daytime dust/ash levels that usually exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's significant harm level for particulate matter.

  16. An electrophysiological analysis of altered cognitive functions in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münte, T F; Ridao-Alonso, M E; Preinfalk, J; Jung, A; Wieringa, B M; Matzke, M; Dengler, R; Johannes, S

    1997-09-01

    Neuropsychological deficits are a main feature of Huntington disease (HD) with previous data suggesting involvement of memory functions and visual processing. To increase the knowledge about cognitive malfunction in HD in the domains of visual processing and memory by the use of modern electrophysiological techniques (event-related potentials [ERPs]). A case-control design was used. Three ERP paradigms were used; a parallel visual search paradigm allowed for the simultaneous processing of a multi-element visual array in search of a target stimulus, while a serial search paradigm with varied numbers of distractor items necessitated a serial one by one scanning of the arrays. The third experiment was a word-recognition memory task. The measurements were obtained in a neurophysiological laboratory of a university hospital. Nine patients with HD and 9 control subjects matched for age, sex, and education were studied. Components of averaged ERPs were quantified by latency and amplitude measures and subjected to statistical analysis. Behavioral measures (search time, hit rate, and recognition accuracy) were assessed as well. The early visual components showed a significant latency shift (delay of about 50 milliseconds) in HD. In the search paradigms the P3 components differentiating target and standard stimuli were virtually absent in HD as was the ERP effect indexing word recognition. This was accompanied by a marked delay in search times and lower hit rates in the search tasks and a grossly reduced recognition accuracy in the memory task. The results suggest marked impairments of patients with HD in early visual sensory processing (early components). Deficits in visual search might be attributed to an impairment to deploy attentional resources across the visual field and/or an inability to control eye movements. The ERPs in the memory task differed grossly from similar data obtained by others in patients with Alzheimer disease, suggesting a different neural basis for

  17. NTCP modelling and pulmonary function tests evaluation for the prediction of radiation induced pneumonitis in non-small-cell lung cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsougos, Ioannis [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Thessaly, Larissa (Greece); Nilsson, Per [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Theodorou, Kiki [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Thessaly, Larissa (Greece); Kjellen, Elisabeth [Department of Oncology, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Ewers, Sven-Boerje [Department of Oncology, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Jarlman, Olof [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lind, Bengt K [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University (Sweden); Kappas, Constantin [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Thessaly, Larissa (Greece); Mavroidis, Panayiotis [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa (Greece)

    2007-02-21

    This work aims to evaluate the predictive strength of the relative seriality, parallel and Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models regarding the incidence of radiation pneumonitis (RP), in a group of patients following lung cancer radiotherapy and also to examine their correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The study was based on 47 patients who received radiation therapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. For each patient, lung dose volume histograms (DVHs) and the clinical treatment outcome were available. Clinical symptoms, radiological findings and pulmonary function tests incorporated in a post-treatment follow-up period of 18 months were used to assess the manifestation of radiation induced complications. Thirteen of the 47 patients were scored as having radiation induced pneumonitis, with RTOG criteria grade {>=} 3 and 28 of the 47 with RTOG criteria grade {>=} 2. Using this material, different methods of estimating the likelihood of radiation effects were evaluated, by analysing patient data based on their full dose distributions and associating the calculated complication rates with the clinical follow-up records. Lungs were evaluated as a paired organ as well as individual lungs. Of the NTCP models examined in the overall group considering the dose distribution in the ipsilateral lung, all models were able to predict radiation induced pneumonitis only in the case of grade 2 radiation pneumonitis score, with the LKB model giving the best results ({chi}{sup 2}-test: probability of agreement between the observed and predicted results P{sub {chi}}({chi}{sup 2}) = 0.524 using the 0.05 significance level). The NTCP modelling considering lungs as a paired organ did not give statistically acceptable results. In the case of lung cancer radiotherapy, the application of different published radiobiological parameters alters the NTCP results, but not excessively as in the case of breast cancer radiotherapy. In

  18. Cthrc1 lowers pulmonary collagen associated with bleomycin-induced fibrosis and protects lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Andrew P; Beyer, Megyn; Miller, Ryan; LeClair, Renee J

    2017-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) involves collagen deposition that results in a progressive decline in lung function. This process involves activation of Smad2/3 by transforming growth factor (TGF)- β and Wnt signaling pathways. Collagen Triple Helix Repeat-Containing-1 (Cthrc1) protein inhibits Smad2/3 activation. To test the hypothesis that Cthrc1 limits collagen deposition and the decline of lung function, Cthrc1 knockout (Cthrc1 -/- ) and wild-type mice (WT) received intratracheal injections of 2.5 U/kg bleomycin or saline. Lungs were harvested after 14 days and Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) TGF- β , IL1- β , hydroxyproline and lung compliance were assessed. TGF- β was significantly higher in Cthrc1 -/- compared to WT (53.45 ± 6.15 ng/mL vs. 34.48 ± 11.05) after saline injection. Bleomycin injection increased TGF- β in both Cthrc1 -/- (66.37 ± 8.54 ng/mL) and WT (63.64 ± 8.09 ng/mL). Hydroxyproline was significantly higher in Cthrc1 -/- compared to WT after bleomycin-injection (2.676 ± 0.527  μ g/mg vs. 1.889 ± 0.520, P  = 0.028). Immunohistochemistry of Cthrc1 -/- lung sections showed intracellular localization and activation of β -catenin Y654 in areas of tissue remodeling that was not evident in WT Lung compliance was significantly reduced by bleomycin in Cthrc1 -/- but there was no effect in WT animals. These data suggest Cthrc1 reduces fibrotic tissue formation in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and the effect is potent enough to limit the decline in lung function. We conclude that Cthrc1 plays a protective role, limiting collagen deposition and could form the basis of a novel therapy for pulmonary fibrosis. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  19. SU-F-J-91: Sparing Lung Function in Treatment Planning Using Dual Energy Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapointe, A; Bahig, H; Zerouali, K; Blais, D; Carrier, J; Filion, E; Roberge, D; Bedwani, S [Centre Hospitalier de l’Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); De Guise, J [Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To propose an alternate treatment plan that minimizes the dose to the functional lung tissues. In clinical situation, the evaluation of the lung functionality is typically derived from perfusion scintigraphy. However, such technique has spatial and temporal resolutions generally inferior to those of a CT scan. Alternatively, it is possible to evaluate pulmonary function by analysing the iodine concentration determined via contrast-enhanced dual energy CT (DECT) scan. Methods: Five lung cancer patients underwent a scintigraphy and a contrast-enhanced DECT scan (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens). The iodine concentration was evaluated using the two-material decomposition method to produce a functional map of the lung. The validation of the approach is realized by comparison between the differential function computed by DECT and scintigraphy. The functional map is then used to redefine the V5 (volume of the organ that received more than 5 Gy during a radiotherapy treatment) to a novel functional parameter, the V5f. The V5f, that uses a volume weighted by its function level, can assist in evaluating optimal beam entry points for a specific treatment plan. Results: The results show that the differential functions obtained by scintigraphy and DECT are in good agreement with a mean difference of 6%. In specific cases, we are able to visually correlate low iodine concentration with abnormal pulmonary lung or cancerous tumors. The comparison between V5f and V5 has shown that some entry points can be better exploited and that new ones are now accessible, 2.34 times more in average, without increasing the V5f - thus allowing easier optimization of other planning objectives. Conclusion: In addition to the high-resolution DECT images, the iodine map provides local information used to detect potential functional heterogeneities in the 3D space. We propose that this information be used to calculate new functional dose parameters such as the V5f. The presenting author

  20. Normative values and anthropometric determinants of lung function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of our decision making rely on clinical assessment without the benefit of objective measures of pulmonary function. ... The mean PEFR, FVC and FEVI were 3.95±1.55 litres per second (l/s) 1.58±0.58 litres (l) and 1.57±0.56l in the males while for the f ema le s 3.73±1.03l / s , 1.45±0.43l and 1.41±0.41l respectively.

  1. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Achille

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2, carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, and sulphur dioxide (SO2 were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1 associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The

  2. Acute Exacerbations and Lung Function Loss in Smokers with and without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dransfield, Mark T; Kunisaki, Ken M; Strand, Matthew J; Anzueto, Antonio; Bhatt, Surya P; Bowler, Russell P; Criner, Gerard J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Hanania, Nicola A; Nath, Hrudaya; Putcha, Nirupama; Roark, Sarah E; Wan, Emily S; Washko, George R; Wells, J Michael; Wendt, Christine H; Make, Barry J

    2017-02-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increase the risk of death and drive healthcare costs, but whether they accelerate loss of lung function remains controversial. Whether exacerbations in subjects with mild COPD or similar acute respiratory events in smokers without airflow obstruction affect lung function decline is unknown. To determine the association between acute exacerbations of COPD (and acute respiratory events in smokers without COPD) and the change in lung function over 5 years of follow-up. We examined data on the first 2,000 subjects who returned for a second COPDGene visit 5 years after enrollment. Baseline data included demographics, smoking history, and computed tomography emphysema. We defined exacerbations (and acute respiratory events in those without established COPD) as acute respiratory symptoms requiring either antibiotics or systemic steroids, and severe events by the need for hospitalization. Throughout the 5-year follow-up period, we collected self-reported acute respiratory event data at 6-month intervals. We used linear mixed models to fit FEV 1 decline based on reported exacerbations or acute respiratory events. In subjects with COPD, exacerbations were associated with excess FEV 1 decline, with the greatest effect in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage 1, where each exacerbation was associated with an additional 23 ml/yr decline (95% confidence interval, 2-44; P = 0.03), and each severe exacerbation with an additional 87 ml/yr decline (95% confidence interval, 23-151; P = 0.008); statistically significant but smaller effects were observed in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage 2 and 3 subjects. In subjects without airflow obstruction, acute respiratory events were not associated with additional FEV 1 decline. Exacerbations are associated with accelerated lung function loss in subjects with established COPD, particularly those with mild disease

  3. Clinical and Functional Lung Parameters Associated With Frequent Exacerbator Phenotype in Subjects With Severe COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzolo, Alberto; Carratù, Pierluigi; Dragonieri, Silvano; Falcone, Vito Antonio; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Liotino, Vito; D'Alba, Giuseppina; Castellana, Giorgio; Resta, Onofrio

    2017-05-01

    COPD is currently recognized as a syndrome associated with a high prevalence of comorbidities and various phenotypes. Exacerbations are very important events in the clinical history of COPD because they drive the decline in lung function. In the present study, we aim to identify whether there are any clinical and functional specific features of frequent exacerbators in a population of patients with severe COPD. We conducted a cross-sectional, case control study. All subjects had Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 3 or 4 COPD (FEV 1 lower inspiratory capacity percentage predicted. The Motley index (residual volume/total lung capacity percentage) was significantly increased in frequent exacerbators. Infrequent exacerbators had lower Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and BODE index than frequent exacerbators. In the multivariate model, a reduced inspiratory capacity percentage predicted and an increase of residual volume/total lung capacity percentage, BODE index and Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale were associated with the frequent exacerbation phenotype. Static hyperinflation and respiratory disability, measured by Motley index and Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, respectively, in the same way as the multidimensional BODE index staging system, were independently associated with frequent exacerbation status in subjects with severe COPD. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. Lung-dominant connective tissue disease among patients with interstitial lung disease: prevalence, functional stability, and common extrathoracic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Antunes Silva Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of a cohort of patients with lung-dominant connective tissue disease (LD-CTD. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD, positive antinuclear antibody (ANA results (≥ 1/320, with or without specific autoantibodies, and at least one clinical feature suggestive of connective tissue disease (CTD. RESULTS: Of the 1,998 patients screened, 52 initially met the criteria for a diagnosis of LD-CTD: 37% were male; the mean age at diagnosis was 56 years; and the median follow-up period was 48 months. During follow-up, 8 patients met the criteria for a definitive diagnosis of a CTD. The remaining 44 patients comprised the LD-CTD group, in which the most prevalent extrathoracic features were arthralgia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The most prevalent autoantibodies in this group were ANA (89% and anti-SSA (anti-Ro, 27%. The mean baseline and final FVC was 69.5% and 74.0% of the predicted values, respectively (p > 0.05. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia patterns were found in 45% and 9% of HRCT scans, respectively; 36% of the scans were unclassifiable. A similar prevalence was noted in histological samples. Diffuse esophageal dilatation was identified in 52% of HRCT scans. Nailfold capillaroscopy was performed in 22 patients; 17 showed a scleroderma pattern. CONCLUSIONS: In our LD-CTD group, there was predominance of females and the patients showed mild spirometric abnormalities at diagnosis, with differing underlying ILD patterns that were mostly unclassifiable on HRCT and by histology. We found functional stability on follow-up. Esophageal dilatation on HRCT and scleroderma pattern on nailfold capillaroscopy were frequent findings and might come to serve as diagnostic criteria.

  5. Genetic ancestry-smoking interactions and lung function in African Americans: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda C Aldrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 African Americans participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC Study initiated in 1997. We also examined an ongoing prospective cohort initiated in 1985 of 1,223 African Americans in the Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults (CARDIA Study. Pulmonary function and tobacco smoking exposure were measured at baseline and repeatedly over the follow-up period. Individual genetic ancestry proportions were estimated using ancestry informative markers selected to distinguish European and West African ancestry. African Americans with a high proportion of African ancestry had lower baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁ per pack-year of smoking (-5.7 ml FEV₁/ smoking pack-year compared with smokers with lower African ancestry (-4.6 ml in FEV₁/ smoking pack-year (interaction P value  = 0.17. Longitudinal analyses revealed a suggestive interaction between smoking, and African ancestry on the rate of FEV(1 decline in Health ABC and independently replicated in CARDIA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: African American individuals with a high proportion of African ancestry are at greater risk for losing lung function while smoking.

  6. Anatomically and Functionally Distinct Lung Mesenchymal Populations Marked by Lgr5 and Lgr6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Hyeon; Tammela, Tuomas; Hofree, Matan; Choi, Jinwook; Marjanovic, Nemanja Despot; Han, Seungmin; Canner, David; Wu, Katherine; Paschini, Margherita; Bhang, Dong Ha; Jacks, Tyler; Regev, Aviv; Kim, Carla F

    2017-09-07

    The diversity of mesenchymal cell types in the lung that influence epithelial homeostasis and regeneration is poorly defined. We used genetic lineage tracing, single-cell RNA sequencing, and organoid culture approaches to show that Lgr5 and Lgr6, well-known markers of stem cells in epithelial tissues, are markers of mesenchymal cells in the adult lung. Lgr6 + cells comprise a subpopulation of smooth muscle cells surrounding airway epithelia and promote airway differentiation of epithelial progenitors via Wnt-Fgf10 cooperation. Genetic ablation of Lgr6 + cells impairs airway injury repair in vivo. Distinct Lgr5 + cells are located in alveolar compartments and are sufficient to promote alveolar differentiation of epithelial progenitors through Wnt activation. Modulating Wnt activity altered differentiation outcomes specified by mesenchymal cells. This identification of region- and lineage-specific crosstalk between epithelium and their neighboring mesenchymal partners provides new understanding of how different cell types are maintained in the adult lung. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-homeostasis is altered in small and non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufman Amanda

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of differences in the cellular physiology of malignant and non-malignant cells is a prerequisite for the development of cancer treatments that effectively kill cancer without damaging normal cells. Calcium is a ubiquitous signal molecule that is involved in the control of proliferation and apoptosis. We aimed to investigate if the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+-homeostasis is different in lung cancer and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells. Methods The intracellular Ca2+-signaling was investigated using fluorescence microscopy and the expression of Ca2+-regulating proteins was assessed using Western Blot analysis. Results In a Small Cell Lung Cancer (H1339 and an Adeno Carcinoma Lung Cancer (HCC cell line but not in a Squamous Cell Lung Cancer (EPLC and a Large Cell Lung Cancer (LCLC cell line the ER Ca2+-content was reduced compared to NHBE. The reduced Ca2+-content correlated with a reduced expression of SERCA 2 pumping calcium into the ER, an increased expression of IP3R releasing calcium from the ER, and a reduced expression of calreticulin buffering calcium within the ER. Lowering the ER Ca2+-content with CPA led to increased proliferation NHBE and lung cancer cells. Conclusion The significant differences in Ca2+-homeostasis between lung cancer and NHBE cells could represent a new target for cancer treatments.

  8. Alterations of alveolar type II cells and intraalveolar surfactant after bronchoalveolar lavage and perfluorocarbon ventilation. An electron microscopical and stereological study in the rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhardt Wolfram

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL has been used in animals to induce surfactant depletion and to study therapeutical interventions of subsequent respiratory insufficiency. Intratracheal administration of surface active agents such as perfluorocarbons (PFC can prevent the alveolar collapse in surfactant depleted lungs. However, it is not known how BAL or subsequent PFC administration affect the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool. Methods Male wistar rats were surfactant depleted by BAL and treated for 1 hour by conventional mechanical ventilation (Lavaged-Gas, n = 5 or partial liquid ventilation with PF 5080 (Lavaged-PF5080, n = 5. For control, 10 healthy animals with gas (Healthy-Gas, n = 5 or PF5080 filled lungs (Healthy-PF5080, n = 5 were studied. A design-based stereological approach was used for quantification of lung parenchyma and the intracellular and intraalveolar surfactant pool at the light and electron microscopic level. Results Compared to Healthy-lungs, Lavaged-animals had more type II cells with lamellar bodies in the process of secretion and freshly secreted lamellar body-like surfactant forms in the alveoli. The fraction of alveolar epithelial surface area covered with surfactant and total intraalveolar surfactant content were significantly smaller in Lavaged-animals. Compared with Gas-filled lungs, both PF5080-groups had a significantly higher total lung volume, but no other differences. Conclusion After BAL-induced alveolar surfactant depletion the amount of intracellularly stored surfactant is about half as high as in healthy animals. In lavaged animals short time liquid ventilation with PF5080 did not alter intra- or extracellular surfactant content or subtype composition.

  9. Dietary intake, lung function and airway inflammation in Mexico City school children exposed to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Sánchez David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Air pollutant exposure has been associated with an increase in inflammatory markers and a decline in lung function in asthmatic children. Several studies suggest that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables might modify the adverse effect of air pollutants. Methods A total of 158 asthmatic children recruited at the Children's Hospital of Mexico and 50 non-asthmatic children were followed for 22 weeks. Pulmonary function was measured and nasal lavage collected and analyzed every 2 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using a 108-item food frequency questionnaire and a fruit and vegetable index (FVI and a Mediterranean diet index (MDI were constructed. The impact of these indices on lung function and interleukin-8 (IL-8 and their interaction with air pollutants were determined using mixed regression models with random intercept and random slope. Results FVI was inversely related to IL-8 levels in nasal lavage (p 1 (test for trend p 1 and FVC as was with MDI and ozone for FVC. No effect of diet was observed among healthy children. Conclusion Our results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake and close adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a beneficial effect on inflammatory response and lung function in asthmatic children living in Mexico City.

  10. Effects of occupational exposures and smoking on lung function in tile factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Maritta S; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relations of occupational exposures in tile industry to lung function and to evaluate potential interaction between smoking and tile dust exposure containing silica. A cross-sectional study of 232 workers (response rate 100%) in a tile factory and 76 office workers (response rate 73%) from four factories in Thailand was conducted in 2006-2007. Participants answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. Factory workers had lower spirometric functions than office workers, especially those with high dust exposure. There was a dose-response relation between duration of dust exposure and FEV1 and FVC, the adjusted effect of ≥ 21 years of exposure on FEV1 being -240 ml (-100 to -380) and on FVC -300 ml (-140 to -460). The adverse effect of dust on lung function was larger in current smokers suggesting synergism between smoking and tile dust exposure. This study provides evidence that long-term exposure to dust in tile industry is related to lung function reduction. There was a suggestion of synergistic effect between dust exposure and smoking. Tile factories should consider measures to reduce dust exposure and arrange spirometry surveillance for workers with such exposure. Smoking cessation should be promoted to prevent harmful effects of occupational tile dust exposure.

  11. Impact of backpack type on respiratory muscle strength and lung function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Christina; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We examine the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength in children. Thirty-seven children were assessed for lung function and inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength under four randomly determined conditions: unloaded erect standing and three conditions carrying 15% of the child's body weight. In these three conditions, children carried the weight on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over both shoulders, on a backpack with bilateral shoulder straps carried over one shoulder and on a backpack with a mono shoulder strap. Significantly lower forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and maximal expiratory pressure were observed when children carried a backpack with a mono shoulder strap compared to the unloaded standing position. In conclusion, the restrictive effect and the decrease in expiratory muscle strength were more pronounced for the backpack with a mono shoulder strap, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack. Practitioner summary: There is little known about the effect of schoolbags on respiratory muscle function. We investigated the influence of backpack type on lung function and respiratory muscle strength. A backpack with a mono shoulder strap created a restrictive effect and a decrease in strength, suggesting that a double strap backpack is preferable to a mono shoulder strap backpack.

  12. Dietary intake, lung function and airway inflammation in Mexico City school children exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Escamilla-Núñez, Consuelo; Texcalac-Sangrador, Jose L; Hernandez-Cadena, Leticia; Díaz-Sánchez, David; De Batlle, Jordi; Del Rio-Navarro, Blanca E

    2009-12-10

    Air pollutant exposure has been associated with an increase in inflammatory markers and a decline in lung function in asthmatic children. Several studies suggest that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables might modify the adverse effect of air pollutants. A total of 158 asthmatic children recruited at the Children's Hospital of Mexico and 50 non-asthmatic children were followed for 22 weeks. Pulmonary function was measured and nasal lavage collected and analyzed every 2 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using a 108-item food frequency questionnaire and a fruit and vegetable index (FVI) and a Mediterranean diet index (MDI) were constructed. The impact of these indices on lung function and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and their interaction with air pollutants were determined using mixed regression models with random intercept and random slope. FVI was inversely related to IL-8 levels in nasal lavage (p diet was observed among healthy children. Our results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake and close adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a beneficial effect on inflammatory response and lung function in asthmatic children living in Mexico City.

  13. Motivating smokers in the hospital pulmonary function laboratory to quit smoking by use of the lung age concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, David A; Marcy, Theodore; Dorwaldt, Anne; Pinckney, Richard; DeSarno, Michael; Solomon, Laura; Hughes, John R

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of lung age to motivate a quit attempt among smokers presenting to a hospital pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratory. Participants were randomized to receive a lung age-based motivational strategy (intervention group) versus standard care (control group). At 1 month, all participants were interviewed by telephone to determine whether they made a quit attempt. A total of 67 participants were enrolled, and 51 completed the study. Baseline mean data included age = 52 years, 70% women, 40 pack-years of smoking, FEV(1) = 69% predicted, and lung age = 83 years. The quit attempt rates were not different between the intervention and control groups (32% vs. 24%, respectively, p = .59). There was a near significant interaction between lung age and intervention strategy (p = .089), with quit attempt rates among those with normal lung age of 18% in the intervention group versus 33% in the control group and among those with high (worse) lung age of 39% in the intervention group versus 17% in the control group; p = .38. Using lung age to motivate smokers presenting to the PFT laboratory to quit may succeed in patients with high lung age but may undermine motivation in smokers with normal lung age. Further work is needed to refine the approach to smokers with normal lung age.

  14. Dissociation and Alterations in Brain Function and Structure: Implications for Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Utz, Annegret; Frost, Rachel; Winter, Dorina; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2017-01-01

    Dissociation involves disruptions of usually integrated functions of consciousness, perception, memory, identity, and affect (e.g., depersonalization, derealization, numbing, amnesia, and analgesia). While the precise neurobiological underpinnings of dissociation remain elusive, neuroimaging studies in disorders, characterized by high dissociation (e.g., depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD), dissociative identity disorder (DID), dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD)), have provided valuable insight into brain alterations possibly underlying dissociation. Neuroimaging studies in borderline personality disorder (BPD), investigating links between altered brain function/structure and dissociation, are still relatively rare. In this article, we provide an overview of neurobiological models of dissociation, primarily based on research in DDD, DID, and D-PTSD. Based on this background, we review recent neuroimaging studies on associations between dissociation and altered brain function and structure in BPD. These studies are discussed in the context of earlier findings regarding methodological differences and limitations and concerning possible implications for future research and the clinical setting.

  15. Quantitative functional lung imaging with synchrotron radiation using inhaled xenon as contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, S; Le Duc, G; Porra, L; Berruyer, G; Nemoz, C; Monfraix, S; Fiedler, S; Thomlinson, W; Suortti, P; Standertskjöld-Nordenstam, C G; Sovijärvi, A R

    2001-12-01

    Small airways play a key role in the distribution of ventilation and in the matching of ventilation to perfusion. The purpose of this study was to introduce an imaging method that allows measurement of regional lung ventilation and evaluation of the function of airways with a small diameter. The experiments were performed at the Medical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Monochromatic synchrotron radiation beams were used to obtain quantitative respiration-gated images of lungs and airways in two anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits using inhaled stable xenon (Xe) gas as a contrast agent. Two simultaneous images were acquired at two different energies, above and below the K-edge of Xe. Logarithmic subtraction of the two images yields absolute Xe concentrations. This technique is known as K-edge subtraction (KES) radiography. Two-dimensional planar and CT images were obtained showing spatial distribution of Xe concentrations within the airspaces, as well as the dynamics of filling with Xe. Bronchi down to 1 mm in diameter were visible both in the subtraction radiographs and in tomographic images. Absolute concentrations of Xe gas were calculated within the tube carrying the inhaled gas mixture, small and large bronchi, and lung tissue. Local time constants of ventilation with Xe were obtained by following the evolution of gas concentration in sequential computed tomography images. The results of this first animal study indicate that KES imaging of lungs with Xe gas as a contrast agent has great potential in studies of the distribution of ventilation within the lungs and of airway function, including airways with a small diameter.

  16. Effect of ozone exposure on lung functions and plasma prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.D.; Ainsworth, D.; Lam, H.F.; Amdur, M.O.

    1987-03-30

    Male Hartley guinea pigs were exposed either to filtered air or to 1 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/) for 1 hr. At 2, 8, 24, or 48 hr after exposure we measured ventilation, respiratory mechanics, lung volumes, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and alveolar volume (VA) in anesthetized, tracheotomized animals. Respiratory frequency and tidal volume were unchanged in all groups. Pulmonary resistance was increased 2 hr after O/sub 3/ but returned to control at 8 hr and thereafter. Prolonged reductions in lung volumes (total lung capacity, vital capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume) as well as in DLCO and VA occurred after O/sub 3/, with maximum decreases at 8 and 24 hr postexposure. Increased ratios of wet lung weight to body weight were seen at 2, 8, and 24 hr. In separate groups of animals, also exposed either to filtered air or to 1 ppm O/sub 3/, plasma eicosanoid (EC) concentrations were measured at 2, 8, 24, 48, or 72 hr after exposure. Significant increases in thromboxane B2 concentrations were seen at 2, 24, and 48 hr after exposure. Plasma concentrations of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha) and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) were increased at 24 hr and at 24, 48, and 72 hr, respectively. The nature of this long-term pulmonary response to a short-term exposure to O/sub 3/ suggests alveolar involvement, including probable alveolar duct constriction and localized pulmonary edema. Although changes in plasma EC concentrations were observed concurrent with impaired lung functions, no simple causal relationship was apparent from these studies.

  17. Measuring lung function using sound waves: role of the forced oscillation technique and impulse oscillometry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Bill; Salvi, Sundeep

    2015-03-01

    Measuring lung function is an important component in the decision making process for patients with obstructive airways disease (OAD). Not only does it help in arriving at a specific diagnosis, but it also helps in evaluating severity so that appropriate pharmacotherapy can be instituted, it helps determine prognosis and it helps evaluate response to therapy. Spirometry is currently the most commonly performed lung function test in clinical practice and is considered to be the gold standard diagnostic test for asthma and COPD. However, spirometry is not an easy test to perform because the forceful expiratory and inspiratory manoeuvres require good patient co-operation. Children aged <5 years, elderly people and those with physical and cognitive limitations cannot perform spirometry easily.

  18. Improved survival prediction from lung function data in a large population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, M.R.; Pedersen, O.F.; Lange, P.

    2008-01-01

    Studies relating tung function to survival commonly express lung function impairment as a percent of predicted but this retains age, height and sex bias. We have studied alternative methods of expressing forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) for predicting all cause and airway related lung disease...... mortality in the Copenhagen City Heart Study data. Cox regression models were derived for survival over 25 years in 13,900 subjects. Age on entry, sex, smoking status, body mass index, previous myocardial infarction and diabetes were putative predictors together with FEV1 either as raw data, standardised...... of expressing FEV1 impairment best reflects hazard for subsequent death. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2009/3...

  19. Influence of pleural drain insertion in lung function of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelami Vieira, Irinea Beatriz Carvalho; Vieira, Fabiano F; Abrão, João; Gastaldi, Ada Clarice

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal, prospective, randomized, blinded Trial to assess the influence of pleural drain (non-toxic PVC) site of insertion on lung function and postoperative pain of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in the first three days post-surgery and immediately after chest tube removal. Thirty six patients scheduled for elective myocardial revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were randomly allocated into two groups: SX group (subxiphoid) and IC group (intercostal drain). Spirometry, arterial blood gases, and pain tests were recorded. Thirty one patients were selected, 16 in SX group and 15 in IC group. Postoperative (PO) spirometric values were higher in SX than in IC group (ppleural drain location on breathing. PaO(2) on the second PO increased significantly in SX group compared with IC group (ptube removal. Drain with insertion in the subxiphoid region causes less change in lung function and discomfort, allowing better recovery of respiratory parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Epigenome-wide association study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung function in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hong, Yoonki; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Woo Jin; London, Stephanie J

    2017-07-01

    To identify differentially methylated probes (DMPs) and regions (DMRs) in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung function traits. We performed an epigenome-wide association study of COPD and spirometric parameters, including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC, in blood DNA using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 (n = 100, a Korean COPD cohort). We found one significant DMP (cg03559389, DIP2C) and 104 significant DMRs after multiple-testing correction. Of these, 34 DMRs mapped to genes differential expressed with respect to the same trait. Five of the genes were associated with more than two traits: CTU2, USP36, ZNF516, KLK10 and CPT1B. We identified novel differential methylation loci related to COPD and lung function in blood DNA in Koreans and confirmed previous findings in non-Asians. Epigenetic modification could contribute to the etiology of these phenotypes.

  1. Spatial and temporal expression of glucocorticoid, retinoid, and thyroid hormone receptors is not altered in lungs of congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajatapiti, Prapapan; Keijzer, Richard; Blommaart, Pietjan E.; Lamers, Wouter H.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Visser, Theo J.; Tibboel, Dick; Rottier, Robbert

    2006-01-01

    The degree of associated pulmonary hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension are major determination factors for survival in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) patients. Glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, and vitamin A have been shown to be involved in human lung development. To determine

  2. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor gene deletion alters bleomycin-induced lung injury, but not development of pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habgood, Anthony N; Tatler, Amanda L; Porte, Joanne; Wahl, Sharon M; Laurent, Geoffrey J; John, Alison E; Johnson, Simon R; Jenkins, Gisli

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, fatal disease with limited treatment options. Protease-mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activation has been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism of lung fibrosis. Protease activity in the lung is tightly regulated by protease inhibitors, particularly secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). The bleomycin model of lung fibrosis was used to determine the effect of increased protease activity in the lungs of Slpi(-/-) mice following injury. Slpi(-/-), and wild-type, mice received oropharyngeal administration of bleomycin (30 IU) and the development of pulmonary fibrosis was assessed. Pro and active forms of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were measured. Lung fibrosis was determined by collagen subtype-specific gene expression, hydroxyproline concentration, and histological assessment. Alveolar TGF-β activation was measured using bronchoalveolar lavage cell pSmad2 levels and global TGF-β activity was assessed by pSmad2 immunohistochemistry. The active-MMP-9 to pro-MMP-9 ratio was significantly increased in Slpi(-/-) animals compared with wild-type animals, demonstrating enhanced metalloproteinase activity. Wild-type animals showed an increase in TGF-β activation following bleomycin, with a progressive and sustained increase in collagen type I, alpha 1 (Col1α1), III, alpha 1(Col3α1), IV, alpha 1(Col4α1) mRNA expression, and a significant increase in total lung collagen 28 days post bleomycin. In contrast Slpi(-/-) mice showed no significant increase of alveolar TGF-β activity following bleomycin, above their already elevated levels, although global TGF-β activity did increase. Slpi(-/-) mice had impaired collagen gene expression but animals demonstrated minimal reduction in lung fibrosis compared with wild-type animals. These data suggest that enhanced proteolysis does not further enhance TGF-β activation, and inhibits sustained Col1α1, Col3α1, and Col4α1 gene expression

  3. Improvement of pulmonary function after lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer in emphysematous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, A; Zannini, P; Puglisi, A; Chiesa, G; Vanzulli, A; Bianchi, A; Fumagalli, A; Bianco, S

    1999-05-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is frequently associated with lung cancer and, because of the impaired pulmonary function involved, it may contraindicate surgical treatment. However, improvement of pulmonary function has been observed after surgical resection in patients with advanced emphysema. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pulmonary emphysema, as assessed by pulmonary function tests and radiological evaluation, can influence postoperative respiratory function after lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Respiratory function was evaluated before and after lobectomy for NSCLC. Radiological evaluation of emphysema was performed on chest X-ray and CT scan. Patients that had undergone chemo- or radiotherapy or had segmental or lobar atelectasis were excluded from the study. Thirty-five patients entered the study. A decrease in static lung volumes was observed after surgery. Total lung capacity (TLC) decreased from 6.58+/-0.92 to 5.46+/-0.77 l; functional residual capacity (FRC) from 3.70+/-0.88 to 2.96+/-0.73 1 and residual volume (RV) from 2.93+/-0.78 to 2.2+/-0.53 l. However, in a subgroup of 10 patients (Group 1), dynamic volumes after surgery were unchanged or slightly increased (forced vital capacity (FVC) from 3.23+/-0.65 to 3.3+/-0.68 l; forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) from 2.14+/-0.51 to 2.25+/-0.54 l), and airway resistances (sRaw) decreased from 15.58+/-5.18 to 11.42+/-5.25 cm H2O/s. Preoperative data showed that these patients had a greater obstruction, with FEV1 changing from 69+/-12.42 to 72.70+/-13.72% of predicted, as compared with a change from 87+/-12.7 to 72.08+/-13.10% in the other group of 25 patients (Group 2). Correlation analysis reached statistical significance between FEV1% variation (deltaFEV1%) and preoperative FEV1 and FVC% (r = -0.49, P = 0.002 and r = -0.5, P = 0.001, respectively) and between delta (FEV1)% and radiological scores for 3-level CT (r = 0.39, P = 0.04) and the sum of chest X-ray, single and 3-level CT

  4. Mannose binding lectin (MBL levels predict lung function decline in severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilonka. H. van Veen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that activation of the complement system in asthma contributes to ongoing inflammation, tissue damage and airway remodeling. Mannose binding lectin (MBL is a pattern recognition molecule that serves as the key mediator of the lectin pathway of complement activation. MBL levels are genetically determined and vary widely amongst individuals. In the present study we hypothesized that high MBL levels in asthma are associated with increased loss of lung function over time, as a consequence of inflammatory tissue damage. We measured serum MBL levels by ELISA in 68 patients with severe asthma and prospectively determined the change in post-bronchodilator (pb FEV1 over a mean period of 5.7 years. The relationship between MBL and change in pbFEV1 (FEV1 was analysed using (multiple regression analysis and corrected for possible confounders (age, sex, age of onset, asthma duration, and pbFEV1. The median (range MBL level was 332 (10.8-3587 ng·ml–1. MBL was significantly associated with FEV1 (p<0.04. Patients with a high MBL level (332 ng·ml–1 had an increased risk of lung function decline compared to those with low MBL levels (OR (CI: 3.16 (1.14-8.79, p = 0.027; the excess decline being 42 ml·yr–1 (p = 0.01. We conclude that a high MBL level is associated with an increased decline in lung function in patients with severe asthma. MBL might provide a clue towards better understanding of the pathophysiology of ongoing inflammation and subsequent decline in lung function of patients with severe asthma.

  5. Iron status is associated with asthma and lung function in US women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily P Brigham

    Full Text Available Asthma and iron deficiency are common conditions. Whether iron status affects the risk of asthma is unclear.To determine the relationship between iron status and asthma, lung function, and pulmonary inflammation.Relationships between measures of iron status (serum ferritin, serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, and sTfR/log10ferritin (sTfR-F Index and asthma, lung function, and pulmonary inflammation were examined in women 20-49 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic, linear, and quadratic regression models accounting for the survey design of NHANES were used to evaluate associations between iron status and asthma-related outcomes and were adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, smoking status, income, and BMI.Approximately 16% reported a lifetime history of asthma, 9% reported current asthma, and 5% reported a recent asthma episode/attack (n = 2906. Increased ferritin (iron stores was associated with decreased odds of lifetime asthma, current asthma, and asthma attacks/episodes in the range of ferritin linearly correlated with iron stores (20-300ng/ml. The highest quintile of ferritin (>76 ng/ml was also associated with a decreased odds of asthma. Ferritin levels were not associated with FEV1. Increased values of the sTfR-F Index and sTfR, indicating lower body iron and higher tissue iron need, respectively, were associated with decreased FEV1, but neither was associated with asthma. None of the iron indices were associated with FeNO.In US women, higher iron stores were inversely associated with asthma and lower body iron and higher tissue iron need were associated with lower lung function. Together, these findings suggest that iron status may play a role in asthma and lung function in US women.

  6. lung function of zimbabwea farm workers exposed to flue curing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcame measures. Lung function indices. Results. Forced vital capacity (FVq, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV,) and peak expiratory flow rate (pEFR) of the TfWs were 3.28 ± 051 litres, 2.68 ± 0.74 litres and 6.41 ±. 2.08litres/second, respectively. These figures were significantly lower than 3.97 ± 0.83 litres, 3.09 ...

  7. Scavenger receptor AI/II truncation, lung function and COPD: a large population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M; Nordestgaard, B G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The scavenger receptor A-I/II (SRA-I/II) on alveolar macrophages is involved in recognition and clearance of modified lipids and inhaled particulates. A rare variant of the SRA-I/II gene, Arg293X, truncates the distal collagen-like domain, which is essential for ligand recognition. We tested...... whether the Arg293X variant is associated with reduced lung function and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the general population....

  8. Cardiac mass and function decrease in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation: relationship to physical activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B Hinrichs

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: There is a need to expand knowledge on cardio-pulmonary pathophysiology of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS following lung transplantation (LTx. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess MRI-derived biventricular cardiac mass and function parameters as well as flow hemodynamics in patients with and without BOS after LTx. METHODS: Using 1.5T cardiac MRI, measurements of myocardial structure and function as well as measurements of flow in the main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta were performed in 56 lung transplant patients. The patients were dichotomized into two gender matched groups of comparable age range: one with BOS (BOS stages 1-3 and one without BOS (BOS 0/0p. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Significantly lower biventricular cardiac mass, right and left ventricular end-diastolic volume, biventricular stroke volume, flow hemodynamics and significant higher heart rate but preserved cardiac output were observed in patients with BOS 1-3 compared to the BOS 0/0p group (p < 0.05. In a stepwise logistic regression analysis global cardiac mass (p = 0.046 and days after LTx (p = 0.0001 remained independent parameters to predict BOS. In a second model an indicator for the physical fitness level - walking number of stairs - was added to the logistic regression model. In this second model, time after LTx (p = 0.005 and physical fitness (p = 0.01 remained independent predictors for BOS. CONCLUSION: The observed changes in biventricular cardiac mass and function as well as changes in hemodynamic flow parameters in the pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta are likely attributed to the physical fitness level of patients after lung transplantation, which in turn is strongly related to lung function.

  9. High Mallampati score, obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: triple insult to lung function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Uzma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the combined effect of high Mallampati score, obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA on lung function as measured by spirometry. Our results showed that the combination of sleep apnea, obesity and high Mallampati score resulted in a degree of restriction that was significantly greater than that produced by each factor alone. These observations underscore the importance of factoring in the Mallampati score in the assessment of respiratory disease.

  10. Cyclist route choice, traffic-related air pollution, and lung function: a scripted exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjour, Sarah; Jerrett, Michael; Westerdahl, Dane; de Nazelle, Audrey; Hanning, Cooper; Daly, Laura; Lipsitt, Jonah; Balmes, John

    2013-02-07

    A travel mode shift to active transportation such as bicycling would help reduce traffic volume and related air pollution emissions as well as promote increased physical activity level. Cyclists, however, are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. To promote safe bicycle commuting, the City of Berkeley, California, has designated a network of residential streets as "Bicycle Boulevards." We hypothesized that cyclist exposure to air pollution would be lower on these Bicycle Boulevards when compared to busier roads and this elevated exposure may result in reduced lung function. We recruited 15 healthy adults to cycle on two routes - a low-traffic Bicycle Boulevard route and a high-traffic route. Each participant cycled on the low-traffic route once and the high-traffic route once. We mounted pollutant monitors and a global positioning system (GPS) on the bicycles. The monitors were all synced to GPS time so pollutant measurements could be spatially plotted. We measured lung function using spirometry before and after each bike ride. We found that fine and ultrafine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and black carbon were all elevated on the high-traffic route compared to the low-traffic route. There were no corresponding changes in the lung function of healthy non-asthmatic study subjects. We also found that wind-speed affected pollution concentrations. These results suggest that by selecting low-traffic Bicycle Boulevards instead of heavily trafficked roads, cyclists can reduce their exposure to vehicle-related air pollution. The lung function results indicate that elevated pollutant exposure may not have acute negative effects on healthy cyclists, but further research is necessary to determine long-term effects on a more diverse population. This study and broader field of research have the potential to encourage policy-makers and city planners to expand infrastructure to

  11. The Effects of Inhaled Budesonide on Lung Function in Smokers and Nonsmokers With Mild Persistent Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Lamm, Carl Johan; Busse, William W

    2009-01-01

    difference being -83.1 mL (p 5 mL (p = 0.011) in smokers and + 46.5 mL (p = 0.001) in nonsmokers. The corresponding effect......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested reduced benefit from inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in smoking asthmatics. The objective of this post-hoc study was to study the effects of low dose inhaled budesonide on lung function in smokers and nonsmokers with mild persistent asthma. METHODS: Adult...

  12. Relationship of Vitamin D Binding Protein Polymorphisms and Lung Function in Korean Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Ye; Choi, Dong Pil; Won, Sungho; Lee, Young; Shin, Ju Hye; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Oh, Yeon Mok

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multiple genetic factors are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The association of gene encoding vitamin D binding protein (VDBP, GC) with COPD has been controversial. We sought to investigate the types of GC variants in the Korean population and determine the association of GC variants with COPD and lung function in the Korean population. Materials and Methods The study cohort consisted of 203 COPD patients and 157 control subjects. GC variants were genotyped by the restriction fragment-length polymorphism method. Repeated measures of lung function data were analyzed using a linear mixed model including sex, age, height, and pack-years of smoking to investigate the association of GC genetic factors and lung function. Results GC1F variant was most frequently observed in COPD (46.1%) and controls (42.0%). GC1S variant (29.0% vs. 21.4%; p=0.020) and genotype 1S-1S (8.3% vs. 3.4%; p=0.047) were more commonly detected in control than COPD. According to linear mixed model analysis including controls and COPD, subjects with genotype 1S-1S had 0.427 L higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) than those with other genotypes (p=0.029). However, interaction between the genotype and smoking pack-year was found to be particularly significant among subjects with genotype 1S-1S; FEV1 decreased by 0.014 L per smoking pack-year (p=0.001). Conclusion This study suggested that GC polymorphism might be associated with lung function and risk of COPD in Korean population. GC1S variant and genotype 1S-1S were more frequently observed in control than in COPD. Moreover, GC1S variant was more common in non-decliners than in rapid decliners among COPD. PMID:25048491

  13. Role of dystrophin in airway smooth muscle phenotype, contraction and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pawan; Basu, Sujata; Mitchell, Richard W; Stelmack, Gerald L; Anderson, Judy E; Halayko, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Dystrophin links the transmembrane dystrophin-glycoprotein complex to the actin cytoskeleton. We have shown that dystrophin-glycoprotein complex subunits are markers for airway smooth muscle phenotype maturation and together with caveolin-1, play an important role in calcium homeostasis. We tested if dystrophin affects phenotype maturation, tracheal contraction and lung physiology. We used dystrophin deficient Golden Retriever dogs (GRMD) and mdx mice vs healthy control animals in our approach. We found significant reduction of contractile protein markers: smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smMHC) and calponin and reduced Ca2+ response to contractile agonist in dystrophin deficient cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed reduced stress fibers and number of smMHC positive cells in dystrophin-deficient cells, when compared to control. Immunoblot analysis of Akt1, GSK3β and mTOR phosphorylation further revealed that downstream PI3K signaling, which is essential for phenotype maturation, was suppressed in dystrophin deficient cell cultures. Tracheal rings from mdx mice showed significant reduction in the isometric contraction to methacholine (MCh) when compared to genetic control BL10ScSnJ mice (wild-type). In vivo lung function studies using a small animal ventilator revealed a significant reduction in peak airway resistance induced by maximum concentrations of inhaled MCh in mdx mice, while there was no change in other lung function parameters. These data show that the lack of dystrophin is associated with a concomitant suppression of ASM cell phenotype maturation in vitro, ASM contraction ex vivo and lung function in vivo, indicating that a linkage between the DGC and the actin cytoskeleton via dystrophin is a determinant of the phenotype and functional properties of ASM.

  14. Glutathione S-transferase genotypes modify lung function decline in the general population: SAPALDIA cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann-Liebrich Ursula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the environmental and genetic risk factors of accelerated lung function decline in the general population is a first step in a prevention strategy against the worldwide increasing respiratory pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Deficiency in antioxidative and detoxifying Glutathione S-transferase (GST gene has been associated with poorer lung function in children, smokers and patients with respiratory diseases. In the present study, we assessed whether low activity variants in GST genes are also associated with accelerated lung function decline in the general adult population. Methods We examined with multiple regression analysis the association of polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes with annual decline in FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 during 11 years of follow-up in 4686 subjects of the prospective SAPALDIA cohort representative of the Swiss general population. Effect modification by smoking, gender, bronchial hyperresponisveness and age was studied. Results The associations of GST genotypes with FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 were comparable in direction, but most consistent for FEV1. GSTT1 homozygous gene deletion alone or in combination with GSTM1 homozygous gene deletion was associated with excess decline in FEV1 in men, but not women, irrespective of smoking status. The additional mean annual decline in FEV1 in men with GSTT1 and concurrent GSTM1 gene deletion was -8.3 ml/yr (95% confidence interval: -12.6 to -3.9 relative to men without these gene deletions. The GSTT1 effect on the FEV1 decline comparable to the observed difference in FEV1 decline between never and persistent smoking men. Effect modification by gender was statistically significant. Conclusion Our results suggest that genetic GSTT1 deficiency is a prevalent and strong determinant of accelerated lung function decline in the male general population.

  15. A multinational Andean genetic and health program. VIII. Lung function changes with migration between altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, W H; Yen, F; Soto, P; Schull, V N; Rothhammer, F; Schull, W J

    1979-08-01

    Studies of lung function in high altitude populations have suggested the influence of hypoxic environment on the development of this characteristic independent of confounding variables such as ethnicity and habitual exercise. However, often the effect of altitude on vital capacity is greater in children than adults, suggesting that more than developmental adaptation is operative. Also selective migration could account for the similarity of migrants and permanent residents at a destination altitude. To explore these problems we studied the lung function (FVC, FEV1, PFR) of 377 individuals who had migrated between altitudes in northern Chile. Migrant measurements were adjusted to those of permanent residents of appropriate age, sex and height at the altitudes of origin and destination. The measurements were then related to ethnicity (Spanish-Aymara ancestry), occupation and permanence, the latter combining information on both age at migration to and length of stay at a destination altitude. Upward migration was associated with increased chest depth, FVC and FEV1, but not height or other chest measurements. Downward migration had no significant effect. The flow-dependent test PFR was so sensitive to observer variability and occupation that it was difficult to establish its relationship to permanence. Unlike the body measurements, lung function measurements (especially PFR) tended to deviate from permanent controls at the origin altitude in a direction suggestive of selective migration, nor was permanence itself independent of ethnicity and occupation. Because of these difficulties the question of developmental adaptation in lung function may not be answerable in cross-sectional studies like the present and previous efforts, but rather in longitudinal investigations in which the control is the individual him/herself.

  16. Non-concomitant cortical structural and functional alterations in sensorimotor areas following incomplete spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity, including anatomical changes and functional reorganization, is the physiological basis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI. The correlation between brain anatomical changes and functional reorganization after SCI is unclear. This study aimed to explore whether alterations of cortical structure and network function are concomitant in sensorimotor areas after incomplete SCI. Eighteen patients with incomplete SCI (mean age 40.94 ± 14.10 years old; male:female, 7:11 and 18 healthy subjects (37.33 ± 11.79 years old; male:female, 7:11 were studied by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Gray matter volume (GMV and functional connectivity were used to evaluate cortical structure and network function, respectively. There was no significant alteration of GMV in sensorimotor areas in patients with incomplete SCI compared with healthy subjects. Intra-hemispheric functional connectivity between left primary somatosensory cortex (BA1 and left primary motor cortex (BA4, and left BA1 and left somatosensory association cortex (BA5 was decreased, as well as inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between left BA1 and right BA4, left BA1 and right BA5, and left BA4 and right BA5 in patients with SCI. Functional connectivity between both BA4 areas was also decreased. The decreased functional connectivity between the left BA1 and the right BA4 positively correlated with American Spinal Injury Association sensory score in SCI patients. The results indicate that alterations of cortical anatomical structure and network functional connectivity in sensorimotor areas were non-concomitant in patients with incomplete SCI, indicating the network functional changes in sensorimotor areas may not be dependent on anatomic structure. The strength of functional connectivity within sensorimotor areas could serve as a potential imaging biomarker for assessment and prediction of sensory function in patients with incomplete SCI

  17. Lung inflammatory and oxidative alterations after exogenous surfactant therapy fortified with budesonide in rabbit model of meconium aspiration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolka, P; Kopincová, J; Košútová, P; Čierny, D; Čalkovská, A; Mokrá, D

    2016-12-22

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) triggers inflammatory and oxidative pathways which can inactivate both pulmonary surfactant and therapeutically given exogenous surfactant. Glucocorticoid budesonide added to exogenous surfactant can inhibit inflammation and thereby enhance treatment efficacy. Neonatal meconium (25 mg/ml, 4 ml/kg) was administered intratracheally (i.t.) to rabbits. When the MAS model was prepared, animals were treated with budesonide i.t. (Pulmicort, 0.25 mg/kg, M+B); with surfactant lung lavage (Curosurf®, 10 ml/kg, 5 mg phospholipids/ml, M+S) followed by undiluted Curosurf® i.t. (100 mg phospholipids/kg); with combination of budesonide and surfactant (M+S+B); or were untreated (M); or served as controls with saline i.t. instead of meconium (C). Animals were oxygen-ventilated for additional 5 h. Cell counts in the blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), lung edema formation (wet/dry weight ratio), oxidative damage of lipids/ proteins and inflammatory expression profiles (IL-2, IL-6, IL-13, TNF-alpha) in the lung homogenate and plasma were determined. Combined surfactant+budesonide therapy was the most effective in reduction of neutrophil counts in BAL, oxidative damage, levels and mRNA expression of cytokines in the lung, and lung edema formation compared to untreated animals. Curosurf fortified with budesonide mitigated lung inflammation and oxidative modifications what indicate the perspectives of this treatment combination for MAS therapy.

  18. The relationship between lung function impairment and quantitative computed tomography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mets, O.M.; Murphy, K.; Zanen, P.; Lammers, J.W.; Gietema, H.A.; Jong, P.A. de; Ginneken, B. van; Prokop, M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the relationship between lung function impairment and quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements of air trapping and emphysema in a population of current and former heavy smokers with and without airflow limitation. In 248 subjects (50 normal smokers; 50 mild obstruction; 50 moderate obstruction; 50 severe obstruction; 48 very severe obstruction) CT emphysema and CT air trapping were quantified on paired inspiratory and end-expiratory CT examinations using several available quantification methods. CT measurements were related to lung function (FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC, RV/TLC, Kco) by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Quantitative CT measurements of emphysema and air trapping were strongly correlated to airflow limitation (univariate r-squared up to 0.72, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the combination of CT emphysema and CT air trapping explained 68-83% of the variability in airflow limitation in subjects covering the total range of airflow limitation (p < 0.001). The combination of quantitative CT air trapping and emphysema measurements is strongly associated with lung function impairment in current and former heavy smokers with a wide range of airflow limitation. (orig.)

  19. Western red cedar dust exposure and lung function: a dose-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noertjojo, H K; Dimich-Ward, H; Peelen, S; Dittrick, M; Kennedy, S M; Chan-Yeung, M

    1996-10-01

    The relationship between levels of cumulative red cedar dust exposure and decline in lung function was explored in an 11-yr follow-up study of 243 sawmill workers who participated in at least two occasions. We also studied 140 office workers in a similar manner as control subjects. Workers with asthma were excluded from the analysis. During the period of the study, 916 personal and 216 area samples of dust were collected from the sawmill. Cumulative wood dust exposure was calculated for each sawmill worker according to the duration and exposure in each job, based on the geometric mean of all dust measurements for that job. Average daily dust exposure was calculated by dividing the total cumulative exposure by the number of days of work. Workers were divided into low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups with mean daily level of exposure of 0.4 mg/m3, respectively. Sawmill workers had significantly greater declines in FEV1 and FVC compared with office workers adjusted for age, smoking, and initial lung function. A dose-response relationship was observed between the level of exposure and the annual decline in FVC. We conclude that exposure to Western red cedar dust is associated with a greater decline in lung function which may lead to development of chronic airflow limitation.

  20. The relationship between respiratory system impedance and lung function in asthmatics: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Takahiro; Kaneko, Masahiro; Tomioka, Hiromi

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to elucidate the relationship between the annual changes in respiratory system impedance, measured by FOT, and lung function tests in patients with asthma. Between March 2011 and March 2012, asthma outpatients who attended Kobe City Medical Center West Hospital were recruited. Lung function tests, FOT were conducted every 6 months until March 2016. The relationships between annual parameter changes were evaluated. Sixty-four patients were completed this study. The median follow-up period was 55 months. At enrollment, although resistance showed no relationship with forced expiratory volume in one second (%FEV 1 ), the reactance was moderately correlated with X5 (r=0.524, r 2 =0.275, <0.001), Fres (r=-0.498, r 2 =0.248, <0.001) and ALX (r=-0.416, r 2 =0.173, p=<0.001). By contrast, the annual resistance change at 5Hz (R5) was highly and significantly associated with%FEV 1 change (r=-0.564, r 2 =0.318, p<0.001). Longitudinal changes in airway resistance and reactance measured by FOT might be useful for the assessment of lung function in patients with asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Omalizumab reduces bronchial mucosal IgE and improves lung function in non-atopic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Prathap; Chan, Yih-Chih; Wu, Shih-Ying; Ohm-Laursen, Line; Thomas, Clare; Durham, Stephen R; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Rajakulasingam, Raj K; Ying, Sun; Gould, Hannah J; Corrigan, Chris J

    2016-12-01

    Omalizumab therapy of non-atopic asthmatics reduces bronchial mucosal IgE and inflammation and preserves/improves lung function when disease is destabilised by staged withdrawal of therapy.18 symptomatic, non-atopic asthmatics were randomised (1:1) to receive omalizumab or identical placebo treatment in addition to existing therapy for 20 weeks. Bronchial biopsies were collected before and after 12-14 weeks of treatment, then the patients destabilised by substantial, supervised reduction of their regular therapy. Primary outcome measures were changes in bronchial mucosal IgE + cells at 12-14 weeks, prior to regular therapy reduction, and changes in lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) after destabilisation at 20 weeks. Quality of life was also monitored.Omalizumab but not placebo therapy significantly reduced median total bronchial mucosal IgE + cells (pomalizumab treated patients, with significant differences in absolute (p=0.04) and % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (p=0.015).Omalizumab therapy of non-atopic asthmatics reduces bronchial mucosal IgE + mast cells and improves lung function despite withdrawal of conventional therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  2. Traffic related air pollution and development and persistence of asthma and low lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowatte, Gayan; Lodge, Caroline J; Knibbs, Luke D; Erbas, Bircan; Perret, Jennifer L; Jalaludin, Bin; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Bui, Dinh S; Giles, Graham G; Hamilton, Garun S; Wood-Baker, Richard; Thomas, Paul; Thompson, Bruce R; Matheson, Melanie C; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2018-04-01

    Traffic Related Air Pollution (TRAP) exposure is known to exacerbate existing respiratory diseases. We investigated longer term effects of TRAP exposure for individuals with or without existing asthma, and with or without lower lung function. Associations between TRAP exposure and asthma (n = 689) and lung function (n = 599) were investigated in the prospective Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS). TRAP exposure at age 45 years was measured using two methods based on residential address: mean annual NO 2 exposure; and distance to nearest major road. Adjusted multinomial logistic regression was used to model the association between exposure to TRAP at 45 years and changes in asthma and lung function, using three follow ups of TAHS (45, 50 and 53 years). For those who never had asthma by 45, living 200 m from a major road (aOR = 5.21; 95% CI 1.54, 17.6). For middle aged adults, living <200 m for a major road (a marker of TRAP exposure) influences both the development and persistence of asthma. These findings have public health implications for asthma prevention strategies in primary and secondary settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The association between systemic inflammatory cellular levels and lung function: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia McKeever

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower lung function is associated with an elevated systemic white cell count in men. However, these observations have not been demonstrated in a representative population that includes females and may be susceptible to confounding by recent airway infections or recent cigarette smoking. We tested the hypothesis that lung function is inversely associated with systemic white cell count in a population-based study. METHODS: The study population consisted adults aged 17-90+ years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who did not report a recent cough, cold or acute illness in a non-smoking and smoking population. RESULTS: In non-smoking adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FEV(1 125.3 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -163.1 to -87.5. Adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FVC 151.1 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -195.0 to -107.2. Similar associations were observed for granulocytes, mononuclear cells and lymphocytes. In current smokers, similar smaller associations observed for total white cell count, granulocytes and mononuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic cellular inflammation levels are inversely associated with lung function in a population of both non-smokers and smokers without acute illnesses. This may contribute to the increased mortality observed in individuals with a higher baseline white cell count.

  4. Spouse selection and environmental effects on spouse correlation in lung function measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuiman, Matthew W; Divitini, Mark L; Bartholomew, Helen C

    2005-01-01

    Concordance between spouses may be due to partner selection factors and/or the effects of marriage/environment. The extent to which partner selection factors contribute to spouse concordance has important implications for heritability studies. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude of spouse correlation in lung function measures and its relationship to duration of marriage. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data collected over the period 1969 to 1995 for 2615 couples from the Busselton Health Study have been analyzed using the program FISHER. Unadjusted correlations were around 0.45 for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and 0.25 for FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) and were reduced to 0.05 and 0.10, respectively, after adjustment for age, height, and smoking. No trend with marriage duration was apparent in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses but there was a significant downward trend in the correlations with age at marriage. The findings indicate that observed correlations in lung function measures are mostly due to partner selection factors and that partner selection factors have greater influence for couples that marry at younger ages. Family studies that aim to identify and separate genetic from other influences on lung function measures should not regard the mother-father correlation as due to common environment effects.

  5. Long term high flow heated oxygen treatment in COPD – lung function and physical ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinreich, Ulla; Storgaard, Line; Hockey, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) improves survival in patients with COPD with resting hypoxemia. Despite this, a progressive loss of lung function and physical ability is expected in COPD. The AIRVO device delivers nasal high flow (NHF) warmed and humidified oxygen-enriched air, 20-3..