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Sample records for altered lumbar connective

  1. Ultrasound evidence of altered lumbar connective tissue structure in human subjects with chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouffard Nicole A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the connective tissues forming the fascial planes of the back have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic low back pain (LBP, there have been no previous studies quantitatively evaluating connective tissue structure in this condition. The goal of this study was to perform an ultrasound-based comparison of perimuscular connective tissue structure in the lumbar region in a group of human subjects with chronic or recurrent LBP for more than 12 months, compared with a group of subjects without LBP. Methods In each of 107 human subjects (60 with LBP and 47 without LBP, parasagittal ultrasound images were acquired bilaterally centered on a point 2 cm lateral to the midpoint of the L2-3 interspinous ligament. The outcome measures based on these images were subcutaneous and perimuscular connective tissue thickness and echogenicity measured by ultrasound. Results There were no significant differences in age, sex, body mass index (BMI or activity levels between LBP and No-LBP groups. Perimuscular thickness and echogenicity were not correlated with age but were positively correlated with BMI. The LBP group had ~25% greater perimuscular thickness and echogenicity compared with the No-LBP group (ANCOVA adjusted for BMI, p Conclusion This is the first report of abnormal connective tissue structure in the lumbar region in a group of subjects with chronic or recurrent LBP. This finding was not attributable to differences in age, sex, BMI or activity level between groups. Possible causes include genetic factors, abnormal movement patterns and chronic inflammation.

  2. A lumbar body support (KBS 2000) alters lumbar muscle recruitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    random order) either a flat conventional mattress or a LBS placed on top of the ... mirrored these changes and were higher in patients only when lying on the flat ... While studies have examined the effect of lumbar support on LBP during sitting ... measured using a 4-channel EMG and customised software programme (EM8 ...

  3. Altered Insula Connectivity under MDMA.

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    Walpola, Ishan C; Nest, Timothy; Roseman, Leor; Erritzoe, David; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-10-01

    Recent work with noninvasive human brain imaging has started to investigate the effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on large-scale patterns of brain activity. MDMA, a potent monoamine-releaser with particularly pronounced serotonin- releasing properties, has unique subjective effects that include: marked positive mood, pleasant/unusual bodily sensations and pro-social, empathic feelings. However, the neurobiological basis for these effects is not properly understood, and the present analysis sought to address this knowledge gap. To do this, we administered MDMA-HCl (100 mg p.o.) and, separately, placebo (ascorbic acid) in a randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures design with twenty-five healthy volunteers undergoing fMRI scanning. We then employed a measure of global resting-state functional brain connectivity and follow-up seed-to-voxel analysis to the fMRI data we acquired. Results revealed decreased right insula/salience network functional connectivity under MDMA. Furthermore, these decreases in right insula/salience network connectivity correlated with baseline trait anxiety and acute experiences of altered bodily sensations under MDMA. The present findings highlight insular disintegration (ie, compromised salience network membership) as a neurobiological signature of the MDMA experience, and relate this brain effect to trait anxiety and acutely altered bodily sensations-both of which are known to be associated with insular functioning.

  4. Altered thalamic functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis

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    Liu, Yaou; Liang, Peipeng; Duan, Yunyun; Huang, Jing; Ren, Zhuoqiong; Jia, Xiuqin [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Dong, Huiqing; Ye, Jing [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shi, Fu-Dong [Department of Neurology and Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We demonstrated decreased connectivity between thalamus and cortical regions in MS. •Increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity was also observed in MS. •The increased functional connectivity is attenuated by increasing disease duration. -- Abstract: Objective: To compare thalamic functional connectivity (FC) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HC), and correlate these connectivity measures with other MRI and clinical variables. Methods: We employed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine changes in thalamic connectivity by comparing thirty-five patients with MS and 35 age- and sex-matched HC. Thalamic FC was investigated by correlating low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in thalamic voxels with voxels in all other brain regions. Additionally thalamic volume fraction (TF), T2 lesion volume (T2LV), EDSS and disease duration were recorded and correlated with the FC changes. Results: MS patients were found to have a significantly lower TF than HC in bilateral thalami. Compared to HC, the MS group showed significantly decreased FC between thalamus and several brain regions including right middle frontal and parahippocampal gyri, and the left inferior parietal lobule. Increased intra- and inter-thalamic FC was observed in the MS group compared to HC. These FC alterations were not correlated with T2LV, thalamic volume or lesions. In the MS group, however, there was a negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity (r = −0.59, p < 0.001). Conclusion: We demonstrated decreased FC between thalamus and several cortical regions, while increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity in MS patients. These complex functional changes reflect impairments and/or adaptations that are independent of T2LV, thalamic volume or presence of thalamic lesions. The negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity could indicate an adaptive role of thalamus that is

  5. Altered intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity in schizophrenia.

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    Zhou, Yuan; Zeidman, Peter; Wu, Shihao; Razi, Adeel; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Liuqing; Zou, Jilin; Wang, Gaohua; Wang, Huiling; Friston, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity among distributed brain regions. However, it is unclear how causal influences among large-scale brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia. In this study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to assess the hypothesis that there is aberrant directed (effective) connectivity within and between three key large-scale brain networks (the dorsal attention network, the salience network and the default mode network) in schizophrenia during a working memory task. Functional MRI data during an n-back task from 40 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling of between-subject effects in DCM with Parametric Empirical Bayes, we found that intrinsic (within-region) and extrinsic (between-region) effective connectivity involving prefrontal regions were abnormal in schizophrenia. Specifically, in patients (i) inhibitory self-connections in prefrontal regions of the dorsal attention network were decreased across task conditions; (ii) extrinsic connectivity between regions of the default mode network was increased; specifically, from posterior cingulate cortex to the medial prefrontal cortex; (iii) between-network extrinsic connections involving the prefrontal cortex were altered; (iv) connections within networks and between networks were correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and impaired cognition beyond working memory. In short, this study revealed the predominance of reduced synaptic efficacy of prefrontal efferents and afferents in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  6. Altered brain connectivity in sagittal craniosynostosis.

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    Beckett, Joel S; Brooks, Eric D; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vander Wyk, Brent; Jou, Roger J; Steinbacher, Derek M; Constable, R Todd; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Persing, John A

    2014-06-01

    Sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (sNSC) is the most common form of NSC. The condition is associated with a high prevalence (> 50%) of deficits in executive function. The authors employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI to evaluate whether hypothesized structural and functional connectivity differences underlie the observed neurocognitive morbidity of sNSC. Using a 3-T Siemens Trio MRI system, the authors collected DTI and resting-state functional connectivity MRI data in 8 adolescent patients (mean age 12.3 years) with sNSC that had been previously corrected via total vault cranioplasty and 8 control children (mean age 12.3 years) without craniosynostosis. Data were analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library and BioImageSuite. Analyses of the DTI data revealed white matter alterations approaching statistical significance in all supratentorial lobes. Statistically significant group differences (sNSC right supramarginal gyrus. Analysis of the resting-state seed in relation to whole-brain data revealed significant increases in negative connectivity (anticorrelations) of Brodmann area 8 to the prefrontal cortex (Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] center of mass coordinates [x, y, z]: -6, 53, 6) and anterior cingulate cortex (MNI coordinates 6, 43, 14) in the sNSC group relative to controls. Furthermore, in the sNSC patients versus controls, the Brodmann area 7, 39, and 40 seed had decreased connectivity to left angular gyrus (MNI coordinates -31, -61, 34), posterior cingulate cortex (MNI coordinates 13, -52, 18), precuneus (MNI coordinates 10, -55, 54), left and right parahippocampus (MNI coordinates -13, -52, 2 and MNI coordinates 11, -50, 2, respectively), lingual (MNI coordinates -11, -86, -10), and fusiform gyri (MNI coordinates -30, -79, -18). Intrinsic connectivity analysis also revealed altered connectivity between central nodes in the default mode network in sNSC relative to controls; the left and right posterior cingulate cortices

  7. Biomechanical effect of altered lumbar lordosis on intervertebral lumbar joints during the golf swing: a simulation study.

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    Bae, Tae Soo; Cho, Woong; Kim, Kwon Hee; Chae, Soo Won

    2014-11-01

    Although the lumbar spine region is the most common site of injury in golfers, little research has been done on intervertebral loads in relation to the anatomical-morphological differences in the region. This study aimed to examine the biomechanical effects of anatomical-morphological differences in the lumbar lordosis on the lumbar spinal joints during a golf swing. The golf swing motions of ten professional golfers were analyzed. Using a subject-specific 3D musculoskeletal system model, inverse dynamic analyses were performed to compare the intervertebral load, the load on the lumbar spine, and the load in each swing phase. In the intervertebral load, the value was the highest at the L5-S1 and gradually decreased toward the T12. In each lumbar spine model, the load value was the greatest on the kypholordosis (KPL) followed by normal lordosis (NRL), hypolordosis (HPL), and excessive lordosis (EXL) before the impact phase. However, results after the follow-through (FT) phase were shown in reverse order. Finally, the load in each swing phase was greatest during the FT phase in all the lumbar spine models. The findings can be utilized in the training and rehabilitation of golfers to help reduce the risk of injury by considering individual anatomical-morphological characteristics.

  8. Preliminary result on trabecular bone score (TBS in lumbar vertebrae with experimentally altered microarchitecture

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    M. Di Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary research is to investigate the reliability of a new qualitative parameter, called Trabecular Bone Score (TBS, recently proposed for evaluating the microarchitectural arrangement of cancellous bone in scans carried out by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Vertebral bodies of 15 fresh samples of lumbar spines of adult pig were analysed either in basal conditions and with altered microarchitecture of the cancellous bone obtained by progressive drilling. The examined bony areas do not show changes in bone mineral density (BMD, whereas TBS values decrease with the increasing alteration of the vertebral microtrabecular structure. Our preliminary data seem to confirm the reliability of TBS as a qualitative parameter useful for evaluating the microarchitectural strength in bony areas quantitatively analysed by DXA.

  9. Structural brain alterations in patients with lumbar disc herniation: a preliminary study.

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    Michael Luchtmann

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is one of the most common health complaints in industrial nations. For example, chronic low back pain (cLBP disables millions of people across the world and generates a tremendous economic burden. While previous studies provided evidence of widespread functional as well as structural brain alterations in chronic pain, little is known about cortical changes in patients suffering from lumbar disc herniation. We investigated morphometric alterations of the gray and white matter of the brain in patients suffering from LDH. The volumes of the gray and white matter of 12 LDH patients were determined in a prospective study and compared to the volumes of healthy controls to distinguish local differences. High-resolution MRI brain images of all participants were performed using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate local differences in gray and white matter volume between patients suffering from LDH and healthy controls. LDH patients showed significantly reduced gray matter volume in the right anterolateral prefrontal cortex, the right temporal lobe, the left premotor cortex, the right caudate nucleus, and the right cerebellum as compared to healthy controls. Increased gray matter volume, however, was found in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the left precuneal cortex, the left fusiform gyrus, and the right brainstem. Additionally, small subcortical decreases of the white matter were found adjacent to the left prefrontal cortex, the right premotor cortex and in the anterior limb of the left internal capsule. We conclude that the lumbar disk herniation can lead to specific local alterations of the gray and white matter in the human brain. The investigation of LDH-induced brain alterations could provide further insight into the underlying nature of the chronification processes and could possibly identify prognostic factors that may improve the conservative as well as the operative treatment of the

  10. Connective tissue alteration in abdominal wall hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, N A; Yadete, D H; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2011-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of abdominal wall hernia formation is complex. Optimal treatment of hernias depends on a full understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in their formation. The aim of this study was to review the literature on specific collagen alterations in abdom...

  11. Structural health monitoring (vibration) as a tool for identifying structural alterations of the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawchuk, Gregory N; Hartvigsen, Jan; Edgecombe, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an engineering technique used to identify mechanical abnormalities not readily apparent through other means. Recently, SHM has been adapted for use in biological systems, but its invasive nature limits its clinical application. As such, the purpose of this pr......Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an engineering technique used to identify mechanical abnormalities not readily apparent through other means. Recently, SHM has been adapted for use in biological systems, but its invasive nature limits its clinical application. As such, the purpose...... of this project was to determine if a non-invasive form of SHM could identify structural alterations in the spines of living human subjects. Lumbar spines of 10 twin pairs were visualized by magnetic resonance imaging then assessed by a blinded radiologist to determine whether twin pairs were structurally...... concordant or discordant. Vibration was then applied to each subject's spine and the resulting response recorded from sensors overlying lumbar spinous processes. The peak frequency, area under the curve and the root mean square were computed from the frequency response function of each sensor. Statistical...

  12. Altered whole-brain connectivity in albinism.

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    Welton, Thomas; Ather, Sarim; Proudlock, Frank A; Gottlob, Irene; Dineen, Robert A

    2017-02-01

    Albinism is a group of congenital disorders of the melanin synthesis pathway. Multiple ocular, white matter and cortical abnormalities occur in albinism, including a greater decussation of nerve fibres at the optic chiasm, foveal hypoplasia and nystagmus. Despite this, visual perception is largely preserved. It was proposed that this may be attributable to reorganisation among cerebral networks, including an increased interhemispheric connectivity of the primary visual areas. A graph-theoretic model was applied to explore brain connectivity networks derived from resting-state functional and diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging data in 23 people with albinism and 20 controls. They tested for group differences in connectivity between primary visual areas and in summary network organisation descriptors. Main findings were supplemented with analyses of control regions, brain volumes and white matter microstructure. Significant functional interhemispheric hyperconnectivity of the primary visual areas in the albinism group were found (P = 0.012). Tests of interhemispheric connectivity based on the diffusion-tensor data showed no significant group difference (P = 0.713). Second, it was found that a range of functional whole-brain network metrics were abnormal in people with albinism, including the clustering coefficient (P = 0.005), although this may have been driven partly by overall differences in connectivity, rather than reorganisation. Based on the results, it was suggested that changes occur in albinism at the whole-brain level, and not just within the visual processing pathways. It was proposed that their findings may reflect compensatory adaptations to increased chiasmic decussation, foveal hypoplasia and nystagmus. Hum Brain Mapp 38:740-752, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Altered connections on the road to psychopathy.

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    Craig, M C; Catani, M; Deeley, Q; Latham, R; Daly, E; Kanaan, R; Picchioni, M; McGuire, P K; Fahy, T; Murphy, D G M

    2009-10-01

    Psychopathy is strongly associated with serious criminal behaviour (for example, rape and murder) and recidivism. However, the biological basis of psychopathy remains poorly understood. Earlier studies suggested that dysfunction of the amygdala and/or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may underpin psychopathy. Nobody, however, has ever studied the white matter connections (such as the uncinate fasciculus (UF)) linking these structures in psychopaths. Therefore, we used in vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) tractography to analyse the microstructural integrity of the UF in psychopaths (defined by a Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) score of > or = 25) with convictions that included attempted murder, manslaughter, multiple rape with strangulation and false imprisonment. We report significantly reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) (Pamygdala-OFC network, we also studied two 'non-limbic' control tracts connecting the posterior visual and auditory areas to the amygdala and the OFC, and found no significant between-group differences. Lastly, to determine that our findings in UF could not be totally explained by non-specific confounds, we carried out a post hoc comparison with a psychiatric control group with a past history of drug abuse and institutionalization. Our findings remained significant. Taken together, these results suggest that abnormalities in a specific amygdala-OFC limbic network underpin the neurobiological basis of psychopathy.

  14. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  15. Altered intrinsic connectivity of the auditory cortex in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Yohana; Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Caclin, Anne; Albouy, Philippe; Platel, Hervé; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder of music perception and production, has been associated with abnormal anatomical and functional connectivity in a right frontotemporal pathway. To investigate whether spontaneous connectivity in brain networks involving the auditory cortex is altered in the amusic brain, we ran a seed-based connectivity analysis, contrasting at-rest functional MRI data of amusic and matched control participants. Our results reveal reduced frontotemporal connectivity in amusia during resting state, as well as an overconnectivity between the auditory cortex and the default mode network (DMN). The findings suggest that the auditory cortex is intrinsically more engaged toward internal processes and less available to external stimuli in amusics compared with controls. Beyond amusia, our findings provide new evidence for the link between cognitive deficits in pathology and abnormalities in the connectivity between sensory areas and the DMN at rest. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Altered functional brain connectivity in patients with visually induced dizziness

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    Angelique Van Ombergen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: We found alterations in the visual and vestibular cortical network in VID patients that could underlie the typical VID symptoms such as a worsening of their vestibular symptoms when being exposed to challenging visual stimuli. These preliminary findings provide the first insights into the underlying functional brain connectivity in VID patients. Future studies should extend these findings by employing larger sample sizes, by investigating specific task-based paradigms in these patients and by exploring the implications for treatment.

  17. Altered network hub connectivity after acute LSD administration

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    Felix Müller

    Full Text Available LSD is an ambiguous substance, said to mimic psychosis and to improve mental health in people suffering from anxiety and depression. Little is known about the neuronal correlates of altered states of consciousness induced by this substance. Limited previous studies indicated profound changes in functional connectivity of resting state networks after the administration of LSD. The current investigation attempts to replicate and extend those findings in an independent sample. In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study, 100 μg LSD and placebo were orally administered to 20 healthy participants. Resting state brain activity was assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Within-network and between-network connectivity measures of ten established resting state networks were compared between drug conditions. Complementary analysis were conducted using resting state networks as sources in seed-to-voxel analyses. Acute LSD administration significantly decreased functional connectivity within visual, sensorimotor and auditory networks and the default mode network. While between-network connectivity was widely increased and all investigated networks were affected to some extent, seed-to-voxel analyses consistently indicated increased connectivity between networks and subcortical (thalamus, striatum and cortical (precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex hub structures. These latter observations are consistent with findings on the importance of hubs in psychopathological states, especially in psychosis, and could underlay therapeutic effects of hallucinogens as proposed by a recent model. Keywords: LSD, fMRI, Functional connectivity, Networks, Hubs

  18. Altered functional connectivity of interoception in illness anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Dario; Longarzo, Mariachiara; Quarantelli, Mario; Salvatore, Elena; Cavaliere, Carlo; De Luca, Paolofabrizio; Trojano, Luigi; Aiello, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Interoception collects all information coming from the body and is sustained by several brain areas such as insula and cingulate cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate functional connectivity (FC) of networks implied in interoception in patients with Illness anxiety disorders (IADs). We observed significantly reduced FC between the left extrastriate body area (EBA) and the paracentral lobule compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the correlation analysis between behavioural questionnaires and ROI to ROI FC showed that higher levels of illness anxiety were related to hyper-connectivity between EBA and amygdala and hippocampus. Scores on a questionnaire for interoceptive awareness were significantly correlated with higher FC between right hippocampus and nucleus accumbens bilaterally, and with higher connectivity between left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Last, patients showed increased interoceptive awareness, measured by Self-Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ), and reduced capability in recognizing emotions, indicating inverse correlation between interoception and emotional awareness. Taken together our results suggested that, in absence of structural and micro-structural changes, patients with IADs show functional alteration in the neural network involved in the self-body representation; such functional alteration might be the target of possible treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural health monitoring (vibration) as a tool for identifying structural alterations of the lumbar spine: a twin control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawchuk, Gregory N; Hartvigsen, Jan; Edgecombe, Tiffany; Prasad, Narasimha; van Dieen, Jaap H

    2016-03-11

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an engineering technique used to identify mechanical abnormalities not readily apparent through other means. Recently, SHM has been adapted for use in biological systems, but its invasive nature limits its clinical application. As such, the purpose of this project was to determine if a non-invasive form of SHM could identify structural alterations in the spines of living human subjects. Lumbar spines of 10 twin pairs were visualized by magnetic resonance imaging then assessed by a blinded radiologist to determine whether twin pairs were structurally concordant or discordant. Vibration was then applied to each subject's spine and the resulting response recorded from sensors overlying lumbar spinous processes. The peak frequency, area under the curve and the root mean square were computed from the frequency response function of each sensor. Statistical analysis demonstrated that in twins whose structural appearance was discordant, peak frequency was significantly different between twin pairs while in concordant twins, no outcomes were significantly different. From these results, we conclude that structural changes within the spine can alter its vibration response. As such, further investigation of SHM to identify spinal abnormalities in larger human populations is warranted.

  20. Rapid recovery and altered neurochemical dependence of locomotor central pattern generation following lumbar neonatal spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züchner, Mark; Kondratskaya, Elena; Sylte, Camilla B; Glover, Joel C; Boulland, Jean-Luc

    2018-01-15

    were two main locomotor frequencies, but injured spinal cords exhibited a shift towards the higher frequency. Injury also altered the neurochemical dependence of locomotor CPG output, such that injured spinal cords, unlike control spinal cords, were incapable of generating low frequency rhythmic coordinated activity in the presence of NMDA and dopamine alone. Thus, the neonatal spinal cord also exhibits remarkable functional recovery after lumbar injuries, but the neurochemical sensitivity of locomotor circuitry is modified in the process. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  1. Altered spinal motion in low back pain associated with lumbar strain and spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Joseph S; Carr, Christopher B; Wong, Cyrus; Sharma, Adrija; Mahfouz, Mohamed R; Komistek, Richard D

    2013-04-01

    Study Design We present a patient-specific computer model created to translate two-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopic motion data into three-dimensional (3D) in vivo biomechanical motion data. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the in vivo biomechanical differences in patients with and without acute low back pain. Current dynamic imaging of the lumbar spine consists of flexion-extension static radiographs, which lack sensitivity to out-of-plane motion and provide incomplete information on the overall spinal motion. Using a novel technique, in-plane and coupled out-of-plane rotational motions are quantified in the lumbar spine. Methods A total of 30 participants-10 healthy asymptomatic subjects, 10 patients with low back pain without spondylosis radiologically, and 10 patients with low back pain with radiological spondylosis-underwent dynamic fluoroscopy with a 3D-to-2D image registration technique to create a 3D, patient-specific bone model to analyze in vivo kinematics using the maximal absolute rotational magnitude and the path of rotation. Results Average overall in-plane rotations (L1-L5) in patients with low back pain were less than those asymptomatic, with the dominant loss of motion during extension. Those with low back pain also had significantly greater out-of-plane rotations, with 5.5 degrees (without spondylosis) and 7.1 degrees (with spondylosis) more out-of-plane rotational motion per level compared with asymptomatic subjects. Conclusions Subjects with low back pain exhibited greater out-of-plane intersegmental motion in their lumbar spine than healthy asymptomatic subjects. Conventional flexion-extension radiographs are inadequate for evaluating motion patterns of lumbar strain, and assessment of 3D in vivo spinal motion may elucidate the association of abnormal vertebral motions and clinically significant low back pain.

  2. Training for Micrographia Alters Neural Connectivity in Parkinson's Disease

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    Evelien Nackaerts

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in clarifying the neural networks underlying rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease (PD, the impact of prolonged motor learning interventions on brain connectivity in people with PD is currently unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare cortical network changes after 6 weeks of visually cued handwriting training (= experimental with a placebo intervention to address micrographia, a common problem in PD. Twenty seven early Parkinson's patients on dopaminergic medication performed a pre-writing task in both the presence and absence of visual cues during behavioral tests and during fMRI. Subsequently, patients were randomized to the experimental (N = 13 or placebo intervention (N = 14 both lasting 6 weeks, after which they underwent the same testing procedure. We used dynamic causal modeling to compare the neural network dynamics in both groups before and after training. Most importantly, intensive writing training propagated connectivity via the left hemispheric visuomotor stream to an increased coupling with the supplementary motor area, not witnessed in the placebo group. Training enhanced communication in the left visuomotor integration system in line with the learned visually steered training. Notably, this pattern was apparent irrespective of the presence of cues, suggesting transfer from cued to uncued handwriting. We conclude that in early PD intensive motor skill learning, which led to clinical improvement, alters cortical network functioning. We showed for the first time in a placebo-controlled design that it remains possible to enhance the drive to the supplementary motor area through motor learning.

  3. Altered interhemispheric connectivity in individuals with Tourette's disorder

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    Plessen, Kerstin J; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The corpus callosum is the major commissure connecting the cerebral hemispheres. Prior evidence suggests involvement of the corpus callosum in the pathophysiology of Tourette's disorder. The authors assessed corpus callosum size and anatomical connectivity across the cerebral hemispheres...

  4. Altered intrahemispheric structural connectivity in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

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    Bastian Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS is a common developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by tics and frequent psychiatric comorbidities, often causing significant disability. Tic generation has been linked to disturbed networks of brain areas involved in planning, controlling and execution of actions, particularly structural and functional disorders in the striatum and cortico–striato–thalamo–cortical loops. We therefore applied structural diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to characterize changes in intrahemispheric white matter connectivity in cortico-subcortical circuits engaged in motor control in 15 GTS patients without psychiatric comorbidities. White matter connectivity was analyzed by probabilistic fiber tractography between 12 predefined cortical and subcortical regions of interest. Connectivity values were combined with measures of clinical severity rated by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS. GTS patients showed widespread structural connectivity deficits. Lower connectivity values were found specifically in tracts connecting the supplementary motor areas (SMA with basal ganglia (pre-SMA–putamen, SMA–putamen and in frontal cortico-cortical circuits. There was an overall trend towards negative correlations between structural connectivity in these tracts and YGTSS scores. Structural connectivity of frontal brain networks involved in planning, controlling and executing actions is reduced in adult GTS patients which is associated with tic severity. These findings are in line with the concept of GTS as a neurodevelopmental disorder of brain immaturity.

  5. Altered thalamic connectivity during spontaneous attacks of migraine without aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hougaard, Anders; Magon, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    ,-58,-30) and cerebellum lobule VI (right, 34,-42,-36 and left, -32,-42,-36). Results We found increased functional connectivity between the right thalamus and several contralateral brain regions (superior parietal lobule, insular cortex, primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area and orbitofrontal cortex...... and the headache-free days. Functional connectivity was assessed in four different networks using seed-based analysis. The chosen seeds were in the thalamus (MNI coordinates x,y,z: right, 22,-24,0 and left, -22,-28,6), pons (right, 8,-24,-32 and left, -8,-24,-32), cerebellum crus I (right, 46,-58,-30 and left, -46......). There was decreased functional connectivity between the right thalamus and three ipsilateral brain areas (primary somatosensory cortex and premotor cortex). We found no change in functional connectivity in the pontine or the cerebellar networks. Conclusions The study indicates that network connectivity between...

  6. Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Betel Quid-Dependent Chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojun; Pu, Weidan; Liu, Haihong; Li, Xinmin; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Dursun, Serdar M; Xue, Zhimin; Liu, Zhening

    2017-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is a common psychoactive substance worldwide with particularly high usage in many Asian countries. This study aimed to explore the effect of BQ use on functional connectivity by comparing global functional brain networks and their subset between BQ chewers and healthy controls (HCs). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was obtained from 24 betel quid-dependent (BQD) male chewers and 27 healthy male individuals on a 3.0T scanner. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to determine components that represent the brain's functional networks and their spatial aspects of functional connectivity. Two sample t -tests were used to identify the functional connectivity differences in each network between these two groups. Seventeen networks were identified by ICA. Nine of them showed connectivity differences between BQD and HCs (two sample t -tests, p  betel quid dependence scale scores were positively related to the increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal ( r  = 0.39, p  = 0.03) while negatively related to the decreased functional connectivity in medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks ( r  = -0.35, p  = 0.02). Our findings provide further evidence that BQ chewing may lead to brain functional connectivity changes, which may play a key role in the psychological and physiological effects of BQ.

  7. Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Betel Quid-Dependent Chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBetel quid (BQ is a common psychoactive substance worldwide with particularly high usage in many Asian countries. This study aimed to explore the effect of BQ use on functional connectivity by comparing global functional brain networks and their subset between BQ chewers and healthy controls (HCs.MethodsResting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was obtained from 24 betel quid-dependent (BQD male chewers and 27 healthy male individuals on a 3.0T scanner. We used independent component analysis (ICA to determine components that represent the brain’s functional networks and their spatial aspects of functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to identify the functional connectivity differences in each network between these two groups.ResultsSeventeen networks were identified by ICA. Nine of them showed connectivity differences between BQD and HCs (two sample t-tests, p < 0.001 uncorrected. We found increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal, bilateral frontoparietal, frontotemporal, occipital/parietal, frontotemporal/cerebellum, and temporal/limbic networks, and decreased connectivity in the parietal and medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks in the BQD compared to the HCs. The betel quid dependence scale scores were positively related to the increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal (r = 0.39, p = 0.03 while negatively related to the decreased functional connectivity in medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks (r = −0.35, p = 0.02.DiscussionOur findings provide further evidence that BQ chewing may lead to brain functional connectivity changes, which may play a key role in the psychological and physiological effects of BQ.

  8. Altered resting brain connectivity in persistent cancer related fatigue

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    Johnson P. Hampson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an estimated 3 million women in the US living as breast cancer survivors and persistent cancer related fatigue (PCRF disrupts the lives of an estimated 30% of these women. PCRF is associated with decreased quality of life, decreased sleep quality, impaired cognition and depression. The mechanisms of cancer related fatigue are not well understood; however, preliminary findings indicate dysfunctional activity in the brain as a potential factor. Here we investigate the relationship between PCRF on intrinsic resting state connectivity in this population. Twenty-three age matched breast cancer survivors (15 fatigued and 8 non-fatigued who completed all cancer-related treatments at least 12 weeks prior to the study, were recruited to undergo functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI. Intrinsic resting state networks were examined with both seed based and independent component analysis methods. Comparisons of brain connectivity patterns between groups as well as correlations with self-reported fatigue symptoms were performed. Fatigued patients displayed greater left inferior parietal lobule to superior frontal gyrus connectivity as compared to non-fatigued patients (P < 0.05 FDR corrected. This enhanced connectivity was associated with increased physical fatigue (P = 0.04, r = 0.52 and poor sleep quality (P = 0.04, r = 0.52 in the fatigued group. In contrast greater connectivity in the non-fatigued group was found between the right precuneus to the periaqueductal gray as well as the left IPL to subgenual cortex (P < 0.05 FDR corrected. Mental fatigue scores were associated with greater default mode network (DMN connectivity to the superior frontal gyrus (P = 0.05 FDR corrected among fatigued subjects (r = 0.82 and less connectivity in the non-fatigued group (r = −0.88. These findings indicate that there is enhanced intrinsic DMN connectivity to the frontal gyrus in breast cancer survivors with persistent

  9. Thermal Stimulation Alters Cervical Spinal Cord Functional Connectivity in Humans.

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    Weber, Kenneth A; Sentis, Amy I; Bernadel-Huey, Olivia N; Chen, Yufen; Wang, Xue; Parrish, Todd B; Mackey, Sean

    2018-01-15

    The spinal cord has an active role in the modulation and transmission of the neural signals traveling between the body and the brain. Recent advancements in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have made the in vivo examination of spinal cord function in humans now possible. This technology has been recently extended to the investigation of resting state functional networks in the spinal cord, leading to the identification of distinct patterns of spinal cord functional connectivity. In this study, we expand on the previous work and further investigate resting state cervical spinal cord functional connectivity in healthy participants (n = 15) using high resolution imaging coupled with both seed-based functional connectivity analyses and graph theory-based metrics. Within spinal cord segment functional connectivity was present between the left and right ventral horns (bilateral motor network), left and right dorsal horns (bilateral sensory network), and the ipsilateral ventral and dorsal horns (unilateral sensory-motor network). Functional connectivity between the spinal cord segments was less apparent with the connectivity centered at the region of interest and spanning spinal cord functional network was demonstrated to be state-dependent as thermal stimulation of the right ventrolateral forearm resulted in significant disruption of the bilateral sensory network, increased network global efficiency, and decreased network modularity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Altered amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during emotion perception in schizophrenia.

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    Bjorkquist, Olivia A; Olsen, Emily K; Nelson, Brady D; Herbener, Ellen S

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia evidence impaired emotional functioning. Abnormal amygdala activity has been identified as an etiological factor underlying affective impairment in this population, but the exact nature remains unclear. The current study utilized psychophysiological interaction analyses to examine functional connectivity between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during an emotion perception task. Participants with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) viewed and rated positive, negative, and neutral images while undergoing functional neuroimaging. Results revealed a significant group difference in right amygdala-mPFC connectivity during perception of negative versus neutral images. Specifically, HC participants demonstrated positive functional coupling between the amygdala and mPFC, consistent with co-active processing of salient information. In contrast, SZ participants evidenced negative functional coupling, consistent with top-down inhibition of the amygdala by the mPFC. A significant positive correlation between connectivity strength during negative image perception and clinician-rated social functioning was also observed in SZ participants, such that weaker right amygdala-mPFC coupling during negative compared to neutral image perception was associated with poorer social functioning. Overall, results suggest that emotional dysfunction and associated deficits in functional outcome in schizophrenia may relate to abnormal interactions between the amygdala and mPFC during perception of emotional stimuli. This study adds to the growing literature on abnormal functional connections in schizophrenia and supports the functional disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered interhemispheric connectivity in individuals with Tourette's disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The corpus callosum is the major commissure connecting the cerebral hemispheres. Prior evidence suggests involvement of the corpus callosum in the pathophysiology of Tourette's disorder. The authors assessed corpus callosum size and anatomical connectivity across the cerebral hemispheres...... in persons with Tourette's disorder. METHOD: The size of the corpus callosum was determined on the true midsagittal slices of reformatted, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans and compared across groups in a cross-sectional case-control study of 158 subjects with Tourette's disorder and 121...... healthy comparison subjects, ages 5-65 years. RESULTS: In the context of increasing midsagittal corpus callosum area from childhood to age 30 years, children with Tourette's disorder had smaller overall corpus callosum size, whereas adults with Tourette's disorder on average had larger corpus callosum...

  12. Altered thalamo-cortical resting state functional connectivity in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyan; Bai, Jie; Wang, Caihong; von Deneen, Karen M; Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Jingliang

    2017-07-13

    The thalamus has widespread connections with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modulates communication between the striatum and PFC, which is crucial to the neural mechanisms of smoking. However, relatively few studies focused on the thalamic resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns and their association with smoking behaviors in smokers. 24 young male smokers and 24 non-smokers were enrolled in our study. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess the nicotine dependence level. The bilateral thalamic RSFC patterns were compared between smokers and non-smokers. The relationship between neuroimaging findings and smoking behaviors (FTND and pack-years) were also investigated in smokers. Relative to nonsmokers, smokers showed reduced RSFC strength between the left thalamus and several brain regions, i.e. the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral caudate. In addition, the right thalamus showed reduced RSFC with the right dlPFC as well as the bilateral insula in smokers. Therefore, the findings in the current study revealed the reduced RSFC of the thalamus with the dlPFC, the ACC, the insula and the caudate in smokers, which provided new insights into the roles of the thalamus in nicotine addiction from a function integration perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pseudorabies virus infection alters neuronal activity and connectivity in vitro.

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    Kelly M McCarthy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-herpesviruses, including human herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, varicella zoster virus and the swine pseudorabies virus (PRV, infect the peripheral nervous system of their hosts. Symptoms of infection often include itching, numbness, or pain indicative of altered neurological function. To determine if there is an in vitro electrophysiological correlate to these characteristic in vivo symptoms, we infected cultured rat sympathetic neurons with well-characterized strains of PRV known to produce virulent or attenuated symptoms in animals. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made at various times after infection. By 8 hours of infection with virulent PRV, action potential (AP firing rates increased substantially and were accompanied by hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials and spikelet-like events. Coincident with the increase in AP firing rate, adjacent neurons exhibited coupled firing events, first with AP-spikelets and later with near identical resting membrane potentials and AP firing. Small fusion pores between adjacent cell bodies formed early after infection as demonstrated by transfer of the low molecular weight dye, Lucifer Yellow. Later, larger pores formed as demonstrated by transfer of high molecular weight Texas red-dextran conjugates between infected cells. Further evidence for viral-induced fusion pores was obtained by infecting neurons with a viral mutant defective for glycoprotein B, a component of the viral membrane fusion complex. These infected neurons were essentially identical to mock infected neurons: no increased AP firing, no spikelet-like events, and no electrical or dye transfer. Infection with PRV Bartha, an attenuated circuit-tracing strain delayed, but did not eliminate the increased neuronal activity and coupling events. We suggest that formation of fusion pores between infected neurons results in electrical coupling and elevated firing rates, and that these processes may contribute to the altered neural

  14. Impaired clock output by altered connectivity in the circadian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María de la Paz; Chu, Jessie; Villella, Adriana; Atkinson, Nigel; Kay, Steve A; Ceriani, María Fernanda

    2007-03-27

    Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the molecular processes that impart a temporal control to physiology and behavior in most eukaryotes. In Drosophila, dorsal and ventral neuronal networks act in concert to convey rhythmicity. Recently, the hierarchical organization among the different circadian clusters has been addressed, but how molecular oscillations translate into rhythmic behavior remains unclear. The small ventral lateral neurons can synchronize certain dorsal oscillators likely through the release of pigment dispersing factor (PDF), a neuropeptide central to the control of rhythmic rest-activity cycles. In the present study, we have taken advantage of flies exhibiting a distinctive arrhythmic phenotype due to mutation of the potassium channel slowpoke (slo) to examine the relevance of specific neuronal populations involved in the circadian control of behavior. We show that altered neuronal function associated with the null mutation specifically impaired PDF accumulation in the dorsal protocerebrum and, in turn, desynchronized molecular oscillations in the dorsal clusters. However, molecular oscillations in the small ventral lateral neurons are properly running in the null mutant, indicating that slo is acting downstream of these core pacemaker cells, most likely in the output pathway. Surprisingly, disrupted PDF signaling by slo dysfunction directly affects the structure of the underlying circuit. Our observations demonstrate that subtle structural changes within the circadian network are responsible for behavioral arrhythmicity.

  15. Alteration of synaptic connectivity of oligodendrocyte precursor cells following demyelination

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    Sahel, Aurélia; Ortiz, Fernando C.; Kerninon, Christophe; Maldonado, Paloma P.; Angulo, María Cecilia; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are a major source of remyelinating oligodendrocytes in demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). While OPCs are innervated by unmyelinated axons in the normal brain, the fate of such synaptic contacts after demyelination is still unclear. By combining electrophysiology and immunostainings in different transgenic mice expressing fluorescent reporters, we studied the synaptic innervation of OPCs in the model of lysolecithin (LPC)-induced demyelination of corpus callosum. Synaptic innervation of reactivated OPCs in the lesion was revealed by the presence of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic currents, VGluT1+ axon-OPC contacts in 3D confocal reconstructions and synaptic junctions observed by electron microscopy. Moreover, 3D confocal reconstructions of VGluT1 and NG2 immunolabeling showed the existence of glutamatergic axon-OPC contacts in post-mortem MS lesions. Interestingly, patch-clamp recordings in LPC-induced lesions demonstrated a drastic decrease in spontaneous synaptic activity of OPCs early after demyelination that was not caused by an impaired conduction of compound action potentials. A reduction in synaptic connectivity was confirmed by the lack of VGluT1+ axon-OPC contacts in virtually all rapidly proliferating OPCs stained with EdU (50-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine). At the end of the massive proliferation phase in lesions, the proportion of innervated OPCs rapidly recovers, although the frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents did not reach control levels. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that newly-generated OPCs do not receive synaptic inputs during their active proliferation after demyelination, but gain synapses during the remyelination process. Hence, glutamatergic synaptic inputs may contribute to inhibit OPC proliferation and might have a physiopathological relevance in demyelinating disorders. PMID:25852473

  16. Altered cerebellar functional connectivity with intrinsic connectivity networks in adults with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated the higher-order functions of the cerebellum, including emotion regulation and cognitive processing, and have indicated that the cerebellum should therefore be included in the pathophysiological models of major depressive disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the resting-state functional connectivity of the cerebellum in adults with major depression and healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty adults with major depression and 20 gender-, age-, and education-matched controls were investigated using seed-based resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, depressed patients showed significantly increased functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the temporal poles. However, significantly reduced cerebellar functional connectivity was observed in the patient group in relation to both the default-mode network, mainly including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, and the executive control network, mainly including the superior frontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score was negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the bilateral Lobule VIIb and the right superior frontal gyrus in depressed patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated increased cerebellar coupling with the temporal poles and reduced coupling with the regions in the default-mode and executive control networks in adults with major depression. These differences between patients and controls could be associated with the emotional disturbances and cognitive control function deficits that accompany major depression. Aberrant cerebellar connectivity during major depression may also imply a substantial role for the cerebellum in the pathophysiological models of depression.

  17. Detecting altered connectivity patterns in HIV associated neurocognitive impairment using mutual connectivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Anas Zainul; D'Souza, Adora M.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-01

    The use of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has provided interesting insights into our understanding of the brain. In clinical setups these scans have been used to detect and study changes in the brain network properties in various neurological disorders. A large percentage of subjects infected with HIV present cognitive deficits, which are known as HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). In this study we propose to use our novel technique named Mutual Connectivity Analysis (MCA) to detect differences in brain networks in subjects with and without HIV infection. Resting state functional MRI scans acquired from 10 subjects (5 HIV+ and 5 HIV-) were subject to standard preprocessing routines. Subsequently, the average time-series for each brain region of the Automated Anatomic Labeling (AAL) atlas are extracted and used with the MCA framework to obtain a graph characterizing the interactions between them. The network graphs obtained for different subjects are then compared using Network-Based Statistics (NBS), which is an approach to detect differences between graphs edges while controlling for the family-wise error rate when mass univariate testing is performed. Applying this approach on the graphs obtained yields a single network encompassing 42 nodes and 65 edges, which is significantly different between the two subject groups. Specifically connections to the regions in and around the basal ganglia are significantly decreased. Also some nodes corresponding to the posterior cingulate cortex are affected. These results are inline with our current understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of HIV associated neurocognitive disease (HAND) and other HIV based fMRI connectivity studies. Hence, we illustrate the applicability of our novel approach with network-based statistics in a clinical case-control study to detect differences connectivity patterns.

  18. Parallel Alterations of Functional Connectivity during Execution and Imagination after Motor Imagery Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rushao; Hui, Mingqi; Long, Zhiying; Zhao, Xiaojie; Yao, Li

    2012-01-01

    Background Neural substrates underlying motor learning have been widely investigated with neuroimaging technologies. Investigations have illustrated the critical regions of motor learning and further revealed parallel alterations of functional activation during imagination and execution after learning. However, little is known about the functional connectivity associated with motor learning, especially motor imagery learning, although benefits from functional connectivity analysis attract more attention to the related explorations. We explored whether motor imagery (MI) and motor execution (ME) shared parallel alterations of functional connectivity after MI learning. Methodology/Principal Findings Graph theory analysis, which is widely used in functional connectivity exploration, was performed on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of MI and ME tasks before and after 14 days of consecutive MI learning. The control group had no learning. Two measures, connectivity degree and interregional connectivity, were calculated and further assessed at a statistical level. Two interesting results were obtained: (1) The connectivity degree of the right posterior parietal lobe decreased in both MI and ME tasks after MI learning in the experimental group; (2) The parallel alterations of interregional connectivity related to the right posterior parietal lobe occurred in the supplementary motor area for both tasks. Conclusions/Significance These computational results may provide the following insights: (1) The establishment of motor schema through MI learning may induce the significant decrease of connectivity degree in the posterior parietal lobe; (2) The decreased interregional connectivity between the supplementary motor area and the right posterior parietal lobe in post-test implicates the dissociation between motor learning and task performing. These findings and explanations further revealed the neural substrates underpinning MI learning and supported that

  19. Perfusion deficits and functional connectivity alterations in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Baojuan; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Linchuan; Li, Liang; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    To explore the alteration in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity between survivors with recent onset post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and without PTSD, survived from the same coal mine flood disaster. In this study, a processing pipeline using arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence was proposed. Considering low spatial resolution of ASL sequence, a linear regression method was firstly used to correct the partial volume (PV) effect for better CBF estimation. Then the alterations of CBF between two groups were analyzed using both uncorrected and PV-corrected CBF maps. Based on altered CBF regions detected from the CBF analysis as seed regions, the functional connectivity abnormities in PTSD patients was investigated. The CBF analysis using PV-corrected maps indicates CBF deficits in the bilateral frontal lobe, right superior frontal gyrus and right corpus callosum of PTSD patients, while only right corpus callosum was identified in uncorrected CBF analysis. Furthermore, the regional CBF of the right superior frontal gyrus exhibits significantly negative correlation with the symptom severity in PTSD patients. The resting-state functional connectivity indicates increased connectivity between left frontal lobe and right parietal lobe. These results indicate that PV-corrected CBF exhibits more subtle perfusion changes and may benefit further perfusion and connectivity analysis. The symptom-specific perfusion deficits and aberrant connectivity in above memory-related regions may be putative biomarkers for recent onset PTSD induced by a single prolonged trauma exposure and help predict the severity of PTSD.

  20. Frequency-Dependent Altered Functional Connections of Default Mode Network in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youjun Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive dysfunction of cognitive ability. Previous research has indicated that the default mode network (DMN is closely related to cognition and is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease. Because recent studies have shown that different frequency bands represent specific physiological functions, DMN functional connectivity studies of the different frequency bands based on resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI data may provide new insight into AD pathophysiology. In this study, we explored the functional connectivity based on well-defined DMN regions of interest (ROIs from the five frequency bands: slow-5 (0.01–0.027 Hz, slow-4 (0.027–0.073 Hz, slow-3 (0.073–0.198 Hz, slow-2 (0.198–0.25 Hzs and standard low-frequency oscillations (LFO (0.01–0.08 Hz. We found that the altered functional connectivity patterns are mainly in the frequency band of slow-5 and slow-4 and that the decreased connections are long distance, but some relatively short connections are increased. In addition, the altered functional connections of the DMN in AD are frequency dependent and differ between the slow-5 and slow-4 bands. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were significantly correlated with the altered functional connectivity patterns in the slow-5 and slow-4 bands. These results indicate that frequency-dependent functional connectivity changes might provide potential biomarkers for AD pathophysiology.

  1. Sex and disease-related alterations of anterior insula functional connectivity in chronic abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jui-Yang; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Labus, Jennifer S; Gupta, Arpana; Katibian, David; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Stains, Jean; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Smith, Suzanne R; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Mayer, Emeran A

    2014-10-22

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has been used to investigate intrinsic brain connectivity in healthy subjects and patients with chronic pain. Sex-related differences in the frequency power distribution within the human insula (INS), a brain region involved in the integration of interoceptive, affective, and cognitive influences, have been reported. Here we aimed to test sex and disease-related alterations in the intrinsic functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior INS. The anterior INS is engaged during goal-directed tasks and modulates the default mode and executive control networks. By comparing functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior INS in age-matched female and male healthy subjects and patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common chronic abdominal pain condition, we show evidence for sex and disease-related alterations in the functional connectivity of this region: (1) male patients compared with female patients had increased positive connectivity of the dorsal anterior INS bilaterally with the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal posterior INS; (2) female patients compared with male patients had greater negative connectivity of the left dorsal anterior INS with the left precuneus; (3) disease-related differences in the connectivity between the bilateral dorsal anterior INS and the dorsal medial PFC were observed in female subjects; and (4) clinical characteristics were significantly correlated to the insular connectivity with the dorsal medial PFC in male IBS subjects and with the precuneus in female IBS subjects. These findings are consistent with the INS playing an important role in modulating the intrinsic functional connectivity of major networks in the resting brain and show that this role is influenced by sex and diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414252-08$15.00/0.

  2. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in women with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Hoon; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Jae-Jin; Lee, Seojung; Yoon, Kang Joon; Choi, Moonjong; Jung, Young-Chul

    2015-12-30

    The biological underpinnings of the psychological factors characterizing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to evaluate alterations of resting-state functional connectivity in CFS patients. Participants comprised 18 women with CFS and 18 age-matched female healthy controls who were recruited from the local community. Structural and functional magnetic resonance images were acquired during a 6-min passive-viewing block scan. Posterior cingulate cortex seeded resting-state functional connectivity was evaluated, and correlation analyses of connectivity strength were performed. Graph theory analysis of 90 nodes of the brain was conducted to compare the global and local efficiency of connectivity networks in CFS patients with that in healthy controls. The posterior cingulate cortex in CFS patients showed increased resting-state functional connectivity with the dorsal and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Connectivity strength of the posterior cingulate cortex to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex significantly correlated with the Chalder Fatigue Scale score, while the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score was controlled. Connectivity strength to the rostral anterior cingulate cortex significantly correlated with the Chalder Fatigue Scale score. Global efficiency of the posterior cingulate cortex was significantly lower in CFS patients, while local efficiency showed no difference from findings in healthy controls. The findings suggest that CFS patients show inefficient increments in resting-state functional connectivity that are linked to the psychological factors observed in the syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Altered amygdalar resting-state connectivity in depression is explained by both genes and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Tornador, Cristian; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Nuria; Nenadic, Igor; Deco, Gustavo; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2015-10-01

    Recent findings indicate that alterations of the amygdalar resting-state fMRI connectivity play an important role in the etiology of depression. While both depression and resting-state brain activity are shaped by genes and environment, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors mediating the relationship between amygdalar resting-state connectivity and depression remain largely unexplored. Likewise, novel neuroimaging research indicates that different mathematical representations of resting-state fMRI activity patterns are able to embed distinct information relevant to brain health and disease. The present study analyzed the influence of genes and environment on amygdalar resting-state fMRI connectivity, in relation to depression risk. High-resolution resting-state fMRI scans were analyzed to estimate functional connectivity patterns in a sample of 48 twins (24 monozygotic pairs) informative for depressive psychopathology (6 concordant, 8 discordant and 10 healthy control pairs). A graph-theoretical framework was employed to construct brain networks using two methods: (i) the conventional approach of filtered BOLD fMRI time-series and (ii) analytic components of this fMRI activity. Results using both methods indicate that depression risk is increased by environmental factors altering amygdalar connectivity. When analyzing the analytic components of the BOLD fMRI time-series, genetic factors altering the amygdala neural activity at rest show an important contribution to depression risk. Overall, these findings show that both genes and environment modify different patterns the amygdala resting-state connectivity to increase depression risk. The genetic relationship between amygdalar connectivity and depression may be better elicited by examining analytic components of the brain resting-state BOLD fMRI signals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Alteration of long-distance functional connectivity and network topology in patients with supratentorial gliomas

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    Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Ho Sung; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The need for information regarding functional alterations in patients with brain gliomas is increasing, but little is known about the functional consequences of focal brain tumors throughout the entire brain. Using resting-state functional MR imaging (rs-fMRI), this study assessed functional connectivity in patients with supratentorial brain gliomas with possible alterations in long-distance connectivity and network topology. Data from 36 patients with supratentorial brain gliomas and 12 healthy subjects were acquired using rs-fMRI. The functional connectivity matrix (FCM) was created using 32 pairs of cortical seeds on Talairach coordinates in each individual subject. Local and distant connectivity were calculated using z-scores in the individual patient's FCM, and the averaged FCM of patients was compared with that of healthy subjects. Weighted network analysis was performed by calculating local efficiency, global efficiency, clustering coefficient, and small-world topology, and compared between patients and healthy controls. When comparing the averaged FCM of patients with that of healthy controls, the patients showed decreased long-distance, inter-hemispheric connectivity (0.32 ± 0.16 in patients vs. 0. 42 ± 0.15 in healthy controls, p = 0.04). In network analysis, patients showed increased local efficiency (p < 0.05), but global efficiency, clustering coefficient, and small-world topology were relatively preserved compared to healthy subjects. Patients with supratentorial brain gliomas showed decreased long-distance connectivity while increased local efficiency and preserved small-world topology. The results of this small case series may provide a better understanding of the alterations of functional connectivity in patients with brain gliomas across the whole brain scale. (orig.)

  5. [(Modic) signal alterations of vertebral endplates and their correlation to a minimally invasive treatment of lumbar disc herniation using epidural injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liphofer, J P; Theodoridis, T; Becker, G T; Koester, O; Schmid, G

    2006-11-01

    To study the influence of (Modic) signal alterations (SA) of the cartilage endplate (CEP) of vertebrae L3-S1 on the outcome of an in-patient minimally invasive treatment (MIT) using epidural injections on patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). The MR images of 59 consecutive patients with LDH within segments L3/L4 - L5/S1 undergoing in-patient minimally invasive treatment with epidural injections were evaluated in a clinical study. The (Modic) signal alterations of the CEP were recorded using T1- and T2-weighted sagittal images. On the basis of the T2-weighted sagittal images, the extension and distribution of the SA were measured by dividing each CEP into 9 areas. The outcome of the MIT was recorded using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before and after therapy and in a 3-month follow-up. Within a subgroup of patients (n = 35), the distribution and extension of the signal alterations were correlated with the development of the ODI. Segments with LDH showed significantly more (p < 0.001) SA of the CEP than segments without LDH. Although the extension of the SA was not dependent on sex, it did increase significantly with age (p = 0.017). The outcome after MIT did not depend on the sex and age of the patients nor on the type of LDH. The SA extension tended to have a negative correlation with the outcome after MIT after 3 months (p = 0.071). A significant negative correlation could be established between the SA extension in the central section of the upper endplate and the outcome after 3 months (p = 0.019). 1. Lumbar disc herniation is clearly associated with the prevalence of (Modic) signal alterations. 2. Extensive signal alterations tend to correlate with a negative outcome of an MIT using epidural injections. 3. Such SA in the central portion of the upper CEP correlate significantly with a negative treatment result. 4. The central portion of the upper CEP being extensively affected by (Modic) SA is a negative predictor for the success of a minimally

  6. Altered Network Oscillations and Functional Connectivity Dynamics in Children Born Very Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Alexander; Doesburg, Sam M; Herdman, Anthony T; Ribary, Urs; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-09-01

    Structural brain connections develop atypically in very preterm children, and altered functional connectivity is also evident in fMRI studies. Such alterations in brain network connectivity are associated with cognitive difficulties in this population. Little is known, however, about electrophysiological interactions among specific brain networks in children born very preterm. In the present study, we recorded magnetoencephalography while very preterm children and full-term controls performed a visual short-term memory task. Regions expressing task-dependent activity changes were identified using beamformer analysis, and inter-regional phase synchrony was calculated. Very preterm children expressed altered regional recruitment in distributed networks of brain areas, across standard physiological frequency ranges including the theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Reduced oscillatory synchrony was observed among task-activated brain regions in very preterm children, particularly for connections involving areas critical for executive abilities, including middle frontal gyrus. These findings suggest that inability to recruit neurophysiological activity and interactions in distributed networks including frontal regions may contribute to difficulties in cognitive development in children born very preterm.

  7. Exercise alters resting state functional connectivity of motor circuits in Parkinsonian rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G.; Heintz, Ryan; Peng, Yu-Hao; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined changes in functional connectivity after long-term aerobic exercise. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of forced running wheel exercise on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of motor circuits of rats subjected to bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the dorsal striatum. Our results showed substantial similarity between lesion-induced changes in rsFC in the rats and alterations in rsFC reported in Parkinson’s disease subjects, including disconnection of the dorsolateral striatum. Exercise in lesioned rats resulted in: (a) normalization of many of the lesion-induced alterations in rsFC, including reintegration of the dorsolateral striatum into the motor network; (b) emergence of the ventrolateral striatum as a new broadly connected network hub; (c) increased rsFC among the motor cortex, motor thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Our results showed for the first time that long-term exercise training partially reversed lesion-induced alterations in rsFC of the motor circuits, and in addition enhanced functional connectivity in specific motor pathways in the Parkinsonian rats, which could underlie recovery in motor functions observed in these rats. PMID:25219465

  8. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in patients with chronic bilateral vestibular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttlich, Martin; Jandl, Nico M; Wojak, Jann F; Sprenger, Andreas; von der Gablentz, Janina; Münte, Thomas F; Krämer, Ulrike M; Helmchen, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from gait unsteadiness, oscillopsia and impaired spatial orientation. Brain imaging studies applying caloric irrigation to patients with BVF have shown altered neural activity of cortical visual-vestibular interaction: decreased bilateral neural activity in the posterior insula and parietal operculum and decreased deactivations in the visual cortex. It is unknown how this affects functional connectivity in the resting brain and how changes in connectivity are related to vestibular impairment. We applied a novel data driven approach based on graph theory to investigate altered whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity in BVF patients (n= 22) compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n= 25) using resting-state fMRI. Changes in functional connectivity were related to subjective (vestibular scores) and objective functional parameters of vestibular impairment, specifically, the adaptive changes during active (self-guided) and passive (investigator driven) head impulse test (HIT) which reflects the integrity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). BVF patients showed lower bilateral connectivity in the posterior insula and parietal operculum but higher connectivity in the posterior cerebellum compared to controls. Seed-based analysis revealed stronger connectivity from the right posterior insula to the precuneus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex and the middle frontal gyrus. Excitingly, functional connectivity in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) of the inferior parietal lobe and posterior cerebellum correlated with the increase of VOR gain during active as compared to passive HIT, i.e., the larger the adaptive VOR changes the larger was the increase in regional functional connectivity. Using whole brain resting-state connectivity analysis in BVF patients we show that enduring bilateral deficient or missing vestibular input leads to changes in resting-state connectivity of the brain. These

  9. Pukala intrusion, its age and connection to hydrothermal alteration in Orivesi, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Talikka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pukala intrusion is situated in the Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian Shield in the contact region between the Central Finland Granitoid Complex and the Tampere Belt. The acid subvolcanic intrusion, which is in contact or close to severalaltered domains, mainly consists of porphyritic granodiorite and trondhjemite. The Pukala intrusion was emplaced into volcanic sequence in an island-arc or fore-arc setting before or during the early stages of the main regional deformation phase of the Svecofennian orogeny. On the basis of the geochemical data, the Pukala intrusion is a peraluminous volcanic-arc granitoid. After crystallisation at 1896±3 Ma, multiphase deformation and metamorphismcaused alteration, recrystallisation, and orientation of the minerals, and tilted the intrusion steeply towards south. The 1851±5 Ma U-Pb age for titanite is connected to the late stages of the Svecofennian tectonometamorphic evolution of the region. Several hydrothermally altered domains are located in the felsic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks of the Tampere Belt within less than one kilometre south of the Pukala intrusion. Alteration is divided into three basic types: partial silica alteration, chlorite-sericite±silica alteration, and sericite alteration in shear zones. The first two types probably formed during the emplacement and crystallisation of the Pukala intrusion, and the third is linked to late shearing. Intense sericitisation and comb quartz bands in the contact of theintrusion and the altered domain at Kutemajärvi suggest that the hydrothermal system was driven by the Pukala intrusion.

  10. Altered default network resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-na Ding

    Full Text Available Excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction (IGA.Seventeen adolescents with IGA and 24 normal control adolescents underwent a 7.3 minute resting-state fMRI scan. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. To assess the relationship between IGA symptom severity and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas correlated with PCC connectivity were correlated with the scores of the 17 subjects with IGA on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11 and their hours of Internet use per week.There were no significant differences in the distributions of the age, gender, and years of education between the two groups. The subjects with IGA showed longer Internet use per week (hours (p<0.0001 and higher CIAS (p<0.0001 and BIS-11 (p = 0.01 scores than the controls. Compared with the control group, subjects with IGA exhibited increased functional connectivity in the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe and middle temporal gyrus. The bilateral inferior parietal lobule and right inferior temporal gyrus exhibited decreased connectivity. Connectivity with the PCC was positively correlated with CIAS scores in the right precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, caudate, nucleus accumbens, supplementary motor area, and lingual gyrus. It was negatively correlated with the right cerebellum anterior lobe and left superior parietal lobule.Our results suggest that adolescents with IGA exhibit different resting-state patterns of brain activity. As these alterations are partially consistent with those in patients with substance addiction, they support the

  11. Altered caudate connectivity is associated with executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simoni, Sara; Jenkins, Peter O; Bourke, Niall J; Fleminger, Jessica J; Hellyer, Peter J; Jolly, Amy E; Patel, Maneesh C; Cole, James H; Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-01

    executive dysfunction. We show for the first time that altered subcortical connectivity is associated with large-scale network disruption in traumatic brain injury and that this disruption is related to the cognitive impairments seen in these patients. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  12. Altered caudate connectivity is associated with executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simoni, Sara; Jenkins, Peter O; Bourke, Niall J; Fleminger, Jessica J; Jolly, Amy E; Patel, Maneesh C; Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-01

    measures of executive dysfunction. We show for the first time that altered subcortical connectivity is associated with large-scale network disruption in traumatic brain injury and that this disruption is related to the cognitive impairments seen in these patients. PMID:29186356

  13. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in patients with chronic bilateral vestibular failure

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Göttlich; Nico M. Jandl; Jann F. Wojak; Andreas Sprenger; Janina von der Gablentz; Thomas F. Münte; Ulrike M. Krämer; Christoph Helmchen

    2014-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from gait unsteadiness, oscillopsia and impaired spatial orientation. Brain imaging studies applying caloric irrigation to patients with BVF have shown altered neural activity of cortical visual–vestibular interaction: decreased bilateral neural activity in the posterior insula and parietal operculum and decreased deactivations in the visual cortex. It is unknown how this affects functional connectivity in the resting brain and how chang...

  14. Distribution of MRI signal alterations of the cartilage endplate in pre-operated patients with special focus on recurrent lumbar disc herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.T.; Liphofer, J.; Koester, O.; Willburger, R.E.; Schmid, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To study the location of (Modic) MR signal alterations (SA) of the cartilage endplate (CEP) in pre- and non-operated segments L3-S1 with special focus on the presence of recurrent lumbar disc herniation (RLDH). Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study the MR images of vertebrae L3-S1 of 65 consecutive patients with a history of microdiscectomy were evaluated. Of the 190 segments studied, 67 were pre-operated. These were divided into a group with recurrent lumbar disc herniation (RLDH) (n=19) and a group without evidence of RLDH (n=48). Non-operated segments (n=123) were also considered as a separate group. In these three groups the prevalence of different Modic types was determined using the sag. T1- and T2-weighted images, and, in particular, the distribution of SA at the upper and lower CEP was examined by evaluating the sag. T2-weighted images. In order to achieve this, each CEP was divided into nine regions. Results: Pre-operated segments showed significantly more frequent (p<0.001) and more expansive (p<0.001) SA than non-operated segments. Non-operated segments showed SA less frequently in the central region of both upper and lower CEP (p=0.056 and p=0.015, respectively). In operated segments without RLDH, the upper CEP had significantly more SA on the operation side than in the mid-sagittal and contra-lateral regions (p=0.016, p=0.037) and significantly more on the operation side of the lower CEP than in the contra-lateral region (p=0.027). Operated segments with RLDH did not show an emphasis of SA on the operation side. In this group SA occurred significantly more often in the central and ventral mid-sagittal regions of the upper CEP than in the preoperated segments without RLDH. (orig.)

  15. [Lumbar spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seichi, Atsushi

    2014-10-01

    Lumbar spondylosis is a chronic, noninflammatory disease caused by degeneration of lumbar disc and/or facet joints. The etiology of lumbar spondylosis is multifactorial. Patients with lumbar spondylosis complain of a broad variety of symptoms including discomfort in the low back lesion, whereas some of them have radiating leg pain or neurologenic intermittent claudication (lumbar spinal stenosis). The majority of patients with spondylosis and stenosis of the lumbosacral spine can be treated nonsurgically. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and COX-2 inhibitors are helpful in controlling symptoms. Prostaglandin, epidural injection, and transforaminal injection are also helpful for leg pain and intermittent claudication. Operative therapy for spinal stenosis or spondylolisthesis is reserved for patients who are totally incapacitated by their condition.

  16. Altered causal connectivity of resting state brain networks in amnesic MCI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipeng Liang

    Full Text Available Most neuroimaging studies of resting state networks in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have concentrated on functional connectivity (FC based on instantaneous correlation in a single network. The purpose of the current study was to investigate effective connectivity in aMCI patients based on Granger causality of four important networks at resting state derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging data--default mode network (DMN, hippocampal cortical memory network (HCMN, dorsal attention network (DAN and fronto-parietal control network (FPCN. Structural and functional MRI data were collected from 16 aMCI patients and 16 age, gender-matched healthy controls. Correlation-purged Granger causality analysis was used, taking gray matter atrophy as covariates, to compare the group difference between aMCI patients and healthy controls. We found that the causal connectivity between networks in aMCI patients was significantly altered with both increases and decreases in the aMCI group as compared to healthy controls. Some alterations were significantly correlated with the disease severity as measured by mini-mental state examination (MMSE, and California verbal learning test (CVLT scores. When the whole-brain signal averaged over the entire brain was used as a nuisance co-variate, the within-group maps were significantly altered while the between-group difference maps did not. These results suggest that the alterations in causal influences may be one of the possible underlying substrates of cognitive impairments in aMCI. The present study extends and complements previous FC studies and demonstrates the coexistence of causal disconnection and compensation in aMCI patients, and thus might provide insights into biological mechanism of the disease.

  17. Altered functional connectivity in lesional peduncular hallucinosis with REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Maiya R; Tie, Yanmei; Gabrieli, John D E; McGinnis, Scott M; Golby, Alexandra J; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem lesions causing peduncular hallucinosis (PH) produce vivid visual hallucinations occasionally accompanied by sleep disorders. Overlapping brainstem regions modulate visual pathways and REM sleep functions via gating of thalamocortical networks. A 66-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation developed abrupt-onset complex visual hallucinations with preserved insight and violent dream enactment behavior. Brain MRI showed restricted diffusion in the left rostrodorsal pons suggestive of an acute ischemic stroke. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was diagnosed on polysomnography. We investigated the integrity of ponto-geniculate-occipital circuits with seed-based resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in this patient compared to 46 controls. Rs-fcMRI revealed significantly reduced functional connectivity between the lesion and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN), and between LGN and visual association cortex compared to controls. Conversely, functional connectivity between brainstem and visual association cortex, and between visual association cortex and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly increased in the patient. Focal damage to the rostrodorsal pons is sufficient to cause RBD and PH in humans, suggesting an overlapping mechanism in both syndromes. This lesion produced a pattern of altered functional connectivity consistent with disrupted visual cortex connectivity via de-afferentation of thalamocortical pathways. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Altered resting-state connectivity within default mode network associated with late chronotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Charlotte Mary; Norbury, Ray

    2018-04-20

    Current evidence suggests late chronotype individuals have an increased risk of developing depression. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of this association are not fully understood. Forty-six healthy, right-handed individuals free of current or previous diagnosis of depression, family history of depression or sleep disorder underwent resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rsFMRI). Using an Independent Component Analysis (ICA) approach, the Default Mode Network (DMN) was identified based on a well validated template. Linear effects of chronotype on DMN connectivity were tested for significance using non-parametric permutation tests (applying 5000 permutations). Sleep quality, age, gender, measures of mood and anxiety, time of scan and cortical grey matter volume were included as covariates in the regression model. A significant positive correlation between chronotype and functional connectivity within nodes of the DMN was observed, including; bilateral PCC and precuneus, such that later chronotype (participants with lower rMEQ scores) was associated with decreased connectivity within these regions. The current results appear consistent with altered DMN connectivity in depressed patients and weighted evidence towards reduced DMN connectivity in other at-risk populations which may, in part, explain the increased vulnerability for depression in late chronotype individuals. The effect may be driven by self-critical thoughts associated with late chronotype although future studies are needed to directly investigate this. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Altered resting state functional connectivity of fear and reward circuitry in comorbid PTSD and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Helpman, Liat; Papini, Santiago; Schneier, Franklin; Markowitz, John C; Van Meter, Page E; Lindquist, Martin A; Wager, Tor D; Neria, Yuval

    2017-07-01

    Individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder (PTSD-MDD) often exhibit greater functional impairment and poorer treatment response than individuals with PTSD alone. Research has not determined whether PTSD-MDD is associated with different network connectivity abnormalities than PTSD alone. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) patterns of brain regions involved in fear and reward processing in three groups: patients with PTSD-alone (n = 27), PTSD-MDD (n = 21), and trauma-exposed healthy controls (TEHCs, n = 34). Based on previous research, seeds included basolateral amygdala (BLA), centromedial amygdala (CMA), and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Regardless of MDD comorbidity, PTSD was associated with decreased connectivity of BLA-orbitalfrontal cortex (OFC) and CMA-thalamus pathways, key to fear processing, and fear expression, respectively. PTSD-MDD, compared to PTSD-alone and TEHC, was associated with decreased connectivity across multiple amygdala and striatal-subcortical pathways: BLA-OFC, NAcc-thalamus, and NAcc-hippocampus. Further, while both the BLA-OFC and the NAcc-thalamus pathways were correlated with MDD symptoms, PTSD symptoms correlated with the amygdala pathways (BLA-OFC; CMA-thalamus) only. Comorbid PTSD-MDD may be associated with multifaceted functional connectivity alterations in both fear and reward systems. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. (Modic) signal alterations of vertebral endplates and their correlation to a minimally invasive treatment of lumbar disc herniation using epidural injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liphofer, J.P.; Becker, G.T.; Koester, O.; Theodoridis, T.; Schmid, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To study the influence of (Modic) signal alterations (SA) of the cartilage endplate (CEP) of vertebrae L3-S1 on the outcome of an in-patient minimally invasive treatment (MIT), using epidural injections on patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Materials and Methods: The MR images of 59 consecutive patients with LDH within segments L3/L4-L5/S1 undergoing in-patient minimally invasive treatment with epidural injections were evaluated in a clinical study. The (Modic) signal alterations of the CEP were recorded using T1- and T2-weighted sagittal images. On the basis of the T2-weighted sagittal images, the extension and distribution of the SA were measured by dividing each CEP into 9 areas. The outcome of the MIT was recorded using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before and after therapy and in a 3-month follow-up. Within a subgroup of patients (n=35), the distribution and extension of the signal alterations were correlated with the development of the ODI. Results: Segments with LDH showed significantly more (p<0.001) SA of the CEP than segments without LDH. Although the extension of the SA was not dependent on sex, it did increase significantly with age (p=0.017). The outcome after MIT did not depend on the sex and age of the patients or on the type od LDH. The SA extension tended to have a negative correlation with the outcome after MIT after 3 months (p=0.071). A significant negative correlation could be established between the SA extension in the central section of the upper endplate and the outcome after 3 months (p=0.019). (orig.)

  1. Altered default network resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei-na; Sun, Jin-hua; Sun, Ya-wen; Zhou, Yan; Li, Lei; Xu, Jian-rong; Du, Ya-song

    2013-01-01

    Excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Seventeen adolescents with IGA and 24 normal control adolescents underwent a 7.3 minute resting-state fMRI scan. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. To assess the relationship between IGA symptom severity and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas correlated with PCC connectivity were correlated with the scores of the 17 subjects with IGA on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and their hours of Internet use per week. There were no significant differences in the distributions of the age, gender, and years of education between the two groups. The subjects with IGA showed longer Internet use per week (hours) (paddiction, they support the hypothesis that IGA as a behavioral addiction that may share similar neurobiological abnormalities with other addictive disorders.

  2. Evidence for altered basal ganglia-brainstem connections in cervical dystonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J Blood

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the interaction of the basal ganglia with the cerebellum and the brainstem in motor control and movement disorders. In addition, it has been suggested that these subcortical connections with the basal ganglia may help to coordinate a network of regions involved in mediating posture and stabilization. While studies in animal models support a role for this circuitry in the pathophysiology of the movement disorder dystonia, thus far, there is only indirect evidence for this in humans with dystonia.In the current study we investigated probabilistic diffusion tractography in DYT1-negative patients with cervical dystonia and matched healthy control subjects, with the goal of showing that patients exhibit altered microstructure in the connectivity between the pallidum and brainstem. The brainstem regions investigated included nuclei that are known to exhibit strong connections with the cerebellum. We observed large clusters of tractography differences in patients relative to healthy controls, between the pallidum and the brainstem. Tractography was decreased in the left hemisphere and increased in the right hemisphere in patients, suggesting a potential basis for the left/right white matter asymmetry we previously observed in focal dystonia patients.These findings support the hypothesis that connections between the basal ganglia and brainstem play a role in the pathophysiology of dystonia.

  3. Alterations in Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients and Possible Association with Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junkai; Fan, Yunli; Dong, Yue; Ma, Mengying; Ma, Yi; Dong, Yuru; Niu, Yajuan; Jiang, Yin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Zhiyan; Wu, Liuzhen; Sun, Hongqiang; Cui, Cailian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have documented that heightened impulsivity likely contributes to the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorders. However, there is still a lack of studies that comprehensively detected the brain changes associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol addicts. This study was designed to investigate the alterations in brain structure and functional connectivity associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol dependent patients. Brain structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data as well as impulsive behavior data were collected from 20 alcohol dependent patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls respectively. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the differences of grey matter volume, and tract-based spatial statistics was used to detect abnormal white matter regions between alcohol dependent patients and healthy controls. The alterations in resting-state functional connectivity in alcohol dependent patients were examined using selected brain areas with gray matter deficits as seed regions. Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependent patients had significantly reduced gray matter volume in the mesocorticolimbic system including the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the putamen, decreased fractional anisotropy in the regions connecting the damaged grey matter areas driven by higher radial diffusivity value in the same areas and decreased resting-state functional connectivity within the reward network. Moreover, the gray matter volume of the left medial prefrontal cortex exhibited negative correlations with various impulse indices. These findings suggest that chronic alcohol dependence could cause a complex neural changes linked to abnormal impulsivity.

  4. Altered neural connectivity during response inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Daan; Hartman, Catharina A.; Mennes, Maarten; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Franke, Barbara; Rommelse, Nanda; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Response inhibition is one of the executive functions impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Increasing evidence indicates that altered functional and structural neural connectivity are part of the neurobiological basis of ADHD. Here, we investigated if

  5. Altered functional connectivity within the central reward network in overweight and obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveleskie, K; Gupta, A; Kilpatrick, L A; Mayer, E D; Ashe-McNalley, C; Stains, J; Labus, J S; Mayer, E A

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects have identified abnormal activation of key regions of central reward circuits, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), in response to food-related stimuli. We aimed to examine whether women with elevated body mass index (BMI) show structural and resting state (RS) functional connectivity alterations within regions of the reward network. Subjects/Methods: Fifty healthy, premenopausal women, 19 overweight and obese (high BMI=26–38 kg m−2) and 31 lean (BMI=19–25 kg m−2) were selected from the University of California Los Angeles' Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress database. Structural and RS functional scans were collected. Group differences in grey matter volume (GMV) of the NAcc, oscillation dynamics of intrinsic brain activity and functional connectivity of the NAcc to regions within the reward network were examined. Results: GMV of the left NAcc was significantly greater in the high BMI group than in the lean group (P=0.031). Altered frequency distributions were observed in women with high BMI compared with lean group in the left NAcc (P=0.009) in a medium-frequency (MF) band, and in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (P=0.014, ingestive behaviors. PMID:25599560

  6. Altered intrinsic functional connectivity in the latent period of epileptogenesis in a temporal lobe epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoin; Jung, Seungmoon; Lee, Peter; Jeong, Yong

    2017-10-01

    The latent period, a seizure-free phase, is the duration between brain injury and the onset of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) during epileptogenesis. The latent period is thought to involve several progressive pathophysiological events that lead to the evolution of the chronic epilepsy phase. Hence, it is vital to investigate the changes in the latent period during epileptogenesis in order to better understand temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to achieve early diagnosis and appropriate management of the condition. Accordingly, recent studies with patients with TLE using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have reported that alterations of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) during the chronic period are associated with some clinical manifestations, including learning and memory impairments, emotional instability, and social behavior deficits, in addition to repetitive seizure episodes. In contrast, the changes in the intrinsic rsFC during epileptogenesis, particularly during the latent period, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the alterations in intrinsic rsFC during the latent and chronic periods in a pilocarpine-induced TLE mouse model using intrinsic optical signal imaging (IOSI). This technique can monitor the changes in the local hemoglobin concentration according to neuronal activity and can help investigate large-scale brain intrinsic networks. After seeding on the anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) and calculating the correlation coefficients between each ROI, we established and compared functional correlation matrices and functional connectivity maps during the latent and chronic periods of epilepsy. We found a decrease in the interhemispheric rsFC at the frontal and temporal regions during both the latent and chronic periods. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the interhemispheric rsFC was observed in the somatosensory area during the chronic period. Changes in network configurations during

  7. Altered brain activation and connectivity during anticipation of uncertain threat in trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Haiyang; Wang, Yi; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia; Xu, Pengfei; Huang, Yuxia; Li, Xuebing

    2018-06-08

    In the research field of anxiety, previous studies generally focus on emotional responses following threat. A recent model of anxiety proposes that altered anticipation prior to uncertain threat is related with the development of anxiety. Behavioral findings have built the relationship between anxiety and distinct anticipatory processes including attention, estimation of threat, and emotional responses. However, few studies have characterized the brain organization underlying anticipation of uncertain threat and its role in anxiety. In the present study, we used an emotional anticipation paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the aforementioned topics by employing brain activation and general psychophysiological interactions (gPPI) analysis. In the activation analysis, we found that high trait anxious individuals showed significantly increased activation in the thalamus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), as well as decreased activation in the precuneus, during anticipation of uncertain threat compared to the certain condition. In the gPPI analysis, the key regions including the amygdala, dmPFC, and precuneus showed altered connections with distributed brain areas including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), inferior parietal sulcus (IPS), insula, para-hippocampus gyrus (PHA), thalamus, and MTG involved in anticipation of uncertain threat in anxious individuals. Taken together, our findings indicate that during the anticipation of uncertain threat, anxious individuals showed altered activations and functional connectivity in widely distributed brain areas, which may be critical for abnormal perception, estimation, and emotion reactions during the anticipation of uncertain threat. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. How has climate change altered network connectivity in a mountain stream network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A. S.; Schmadel, N.; Wondzell, S. M.; Johnson, S.

    2017-12-01

    Connectivity along river networks is broadly recognized as dynamic, with seasonal and event-based expansion and contraction of the network extent. Intermittently flowing streams are particularly important as they define a crucial threshold for continuously connected waters that enable migration by aquatic species. In the Pacific northwestern U.S., changes in atmospheric circulation have been found to alter rainfall patterns and result in decreased summer low-flows in the region. However, the impact of this climate dynamic on network connectivity is heretofore unstudied. Thus, we ask: How has connectivity in the riparian corridor changed in response to observed changes in climate? In this study we take the well-studied H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest as representative of mountain river networks in the Pacific northwestern U.S. First, we analyze 63 years of stream gauge information from a network of 11 gauges to document observed changes in timing and magnitude of stream discharge. We found declining magnitudes of seasonal low-flows and shifting seasonality of water export from the catchment, both of which we attribute to changes in precipitation timing and storage as snow vs. rainfall. Next, we use these discharge data to drive a reduced-complexity model of the river network to simulate network connectivity over 63 years. Model results show that network contraction (i.e., minimum network extent) has decreased over the past 63 years. Unexpectedly, the increasing winter peak flows did not correspond with increasing network expansion, suggesting a geologic control on maximum flowing network extent. We find dynamic expansion and contraction of the network primarily occurs during period of catchment discharge less than about 1 m3/s at the outlet, whereas the network extent is generally constant for discharges from 1 to 300 m3/s. Results of our study are of interest to scientists focused on connectivity as a control on ecological processes both directly (e.g., fish

  9. Altered resting state connectivity in right side frontoparietal network in primary insomnia patients

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    Li, Shumei; Tian, Junzhang; Li, Meng; Wang, Tianyue; Lin, Chulan; Yin, Yi; Jiang, Guihua [Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Guangzhou (China); Zeng, Luxian [Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Department of Science and Education, Guangzhou (China); Li, Cheng [Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Department of Renal Transplantation, Guangzhou (China)

    2018-02-15

    This study investigated alterations of resting-state networks (RSNs) in primary insomnia patients as well as relationships between these changes and clinical features. Fifty-nine primary insomnia patients and 53 healthy control subjects underwent a resting-state fMRI scan (rs-fMRI). Ten RSNs were identified using independent component analysis of rs-fMRI data. To assess significant differences between the two groups, voxel-wise analysis of ten RSNs was conducted using dual regression with FSL randomised non-parametric permutation testing and a threshold-free cluster enhanced technique to control for multiple comparisons. Relationships between abnormal functional connectivity and clinical variables were then investigated with Pearson's correlation analysis. Primary insomnia patients showed decreased connectivity in regions of the right frontoparietal network (FPN), including the superior parietal lobule and superior frontal gyrus. Moreover, decreased connectivity in the right middle temporal gyrus and right lateral occipital cortex with the FPN showed significant positive correlations with disease duration and self-rated anxiety, respectively. Our study suggests that primary insomnia patients are characterised by abnormal organisation of the right FPN, and dysfunction of the FPN is correlated with disease duration and anxiety. The results enhance our understanding of neural substrates underlying symptoms of primary insomnia from the viewpoint of resting-state networks. (orig.)

  10. Altered Effective Connectivity of Hippocampus-Dependent Episodic Memory Network in mTBI Survivors

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    Hao Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs are generally recognized to affect episodic memory. However, less is known regarding how external force altered the way functionally connected brain structures of the episodic memory system interact. To address this issue, we adopted an effective connectivity based analysis, namely, multivariate Granger causality approach, to explore causal interactions within the brain network of interest. Results presented that TBI induced increased bilateral and decreased ipsilateral effective connectivity in the episodic memory network in comparison with that of normal controls. Moreover, the left anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG, the concept forming hub, left hippocampus (the personal experience binding hub, and left parahippocampal gyrus (the contextual association hub were no longer network hubs in TBI survivors, who compensated for hippocampal deficits by relying more on the right hippocampus (underlying perceptual memory and the right medial frontal gyrus (MeFG in the anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC. We postulated that the overrecruitment of the right anterior PFC caused dysfunction of the strategic component of episodic memory, which caused deteriorating episodic memory in mTBI survivors. Our findings also suggested that the pattern of brain network changes in TBI survivors presented similar functional consequences to normal aging.

  11. Altered Coupling Between Resting-State Cerebral Blood Flow and Functional Connectivity in Schizophrenia.

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    Zhu, Jiajia; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Xu, Lixue; Liu, Feng; Qin, Wen; Yu, Chunshui

    2017-10-21

    Respective changes in resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity in schizophrenia have been reported. However, their coupling alterations in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. 89 schizophrenia patients and 90 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI to calculate functional connectivity strength (FCS) and arterial spin labeling imaging to compute CBF. The CBF-FCS coupling of the whole gray matter and the CBF/FCS ratio (the amount of blood supply per unit of connectivity strength) of each voxel were compared between the 2 groups. Whole gray matter CBF-FCS coupling was decreased in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls. In schizophrenia patients, the decreased CBF/FCS ratio was predominantly located in cognitive- and emotional-related brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, hippocampus and thalamus, whereas an increased CBF/FCS ratio was mainly identified in the sensorimotor regions, including the putamen, and sensorimotor, mid-cingulate and visual cortices. These findings suggest that the neurovascular decoupling in the brain may be a possible neuropathological mechanism of schizophrenia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Altered resting state connectivity in right side frontoparietal network in primary insomnia patients

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    Li, Shumei; Tian, Junzhang; Li, Meng; Wang, Tianyue; Lin, Chulan; Yin, Yi; Jiang, Guihua; Zeng, Luxian; Li, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated alterations of resting-state networks (RSNs) in primary insomnia patients as well as relationships between these changes and clinical features. Fifty-nine primary insomnia patients and 53 healthy control subjects underwent a resting-state fMRI scan (rs-fMRI). Ten RSNs were identified using independent component analysis of rs-fMRI data. To assess significant differences between the two groups, voxel-wise analysis of ten RSNs was conducted using dual regression with FSL randomised non-parametric permutation testing and a threshold-free cluster enhanced technique to control for multiple comparisons. Relationships between abnormal functional connectivity and clinical variables were then investigated with Pearson's correlation analysis. Primary insomnia patients showed decreased connectivity in regions of the right frontoparietal network (FPN), including the superior parietal lobule and superior frontal gyrus. Moreover, decreased connectivity in the right middle temporal gyrus and right lateral occipital cortex with the FPN showed significant positive correlations with disease duration and self-rated anxiety, respectively. Our study suggests that primary insomnia patients are characterised by abnormal organisation of the right FPN, and dysfunction of the FPN is correlated with disease duration and anxiety. The results enhance our understanding of neural substrates underlying symptoms of primary insomnia from the viewpoint of resting-state networks. (orig.)

  13. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

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    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early brain connectivity alterations and cognitive impairment in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Tudela, Raúl; López-Gil, Xavier; Soria, Guadalupe

    2018-02-07

    Animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are essential to understanding the disease progression and to development of early biomarkers. Because AD has been described as a disconnection syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based connectomics provides a highly translational approach to characterizing the disruption in connectivity associated with the disease. In this study, a transgenic rat model of AD (TgF344-AD) was analyzed to describe both cognitive performance and brain connectivity at an early stage (5 months of age) before a significant concentration of β-amyloid plaques is present. Cognitive abilities were assessed by a delayed nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) task preceded by a training phase where the animals learned the task. The number of training sessions required to achieve a learning criterion was recorded and evaluated. After DNMS, MRI acquisition was performed, including diffusion-weighted MRI and resting-state functional MRI, which were processed to obtain the structural and functional connectomes, respectively. Global and regional graph metrics were computed to evaluate network organization in both transgenic and control rats. The results pointed to a delay in learning the working memory-related task in the AD rats, which also completed a lower number of trials in the DNMS task. Regarding connectivity properties, less efficient organization of the structural brain networks of the transgenic rats with respect to controls was observed. Specific regional differences in connectivity were identified in both structural and functional networks. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between cognitive performance and brain networks, including whole-brain structural connectivity as well as functional and structural network metrics of regions related to memory and reward processes. In this study, connectivity and neurocognitive impairments were identified in TgF344-AD rats at a very early stage of the disease when most of the pathological hallmarks

  15. Altered neural connectivity during response inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Daan; Hartman, Catharina A; Mennes, Maarten; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Franke, Barbara; Rommelse, Nanda; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition is one of the executive functions impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Increasing evidence indicates that altered functional and structural neural connectivity are part of the neurobiological basis of ADHD. Here, we investigated if adolescents with ADHD show altered functional connectivity during response inhibition compared to their unaffected siblings and healthy controls. Response inhibition was assessed using the stop signal paradigm. Functional connectivity was assessed using psycho-physiological interaction analyses applied to BOLD time courses from seed regions within inferior- and superior frontal nodes of the response inhibition network. Resulting networks were compared between adolescents with ADHD (N = 185), their unaffected siblings (N = 111), and controls (N = 125). Control subjects showed stronger functional connectivity than the other two groups within the response inhibition network, while subjects with ADHD showed relatively stronger connectivity between default mode network (DMN) nodes. Stronger connectivity within the response inhibition network was correlated with lower ADHD severity, while stronger connectivity with the DMN was correlated with increased ADHD severity. Siblings showed connectivity patterns similar to controls during successful inhibition and to ADHD subjects during failed inhibition. Additionally, siblings showed decreased connectivity with the primary motor areas as compared to both participants with ADHD and controls. Subjects with ADHD fail to integrate activation within the response inhibition network and to inhibit connectivity with task-irrelevant regions. Unaffected siblings show similar alterations only during failed stop trials, as well as unique suppression of motor areas, suggesting compensatory strategies. These findings support the role of altered functional connectivity in understanding the neurobiology and familial transmission of ADHD.

  16. Reorganization of Visual Callosal Connections Following Alterations of Retinal Input and Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restani, Laura; Caleo, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review, we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC). The CC is the major white matter structure in the brain and is involved in information processing between the two hemispheres. In particular, visual callosal connections interconnect homologous areas of visual cortices, binding together the two halves of the visual field. This interhemispheric communication plays a significant role in visual cortical output. Here, we will first review the essential literature on the physiology of the callosal connections in normal vision. The available data support the view that the callosum contributes to both excitation and inhibition to the target hemisphere, with a dynamic adaptation to the strength of the incoming visual input. Next, we will focus on data showing how callosal connections may sense visual alterations and respond to the classical paradigm for the study of visual plasticity, i.e., monocular deprivation (MD). This is a prototypical example of a model for the study of callosal plasticity in pathological conditions (e.g., strabismus and amblyopia) characterized by unbalanced input from the two eyes. We will also discuss the findings of callosal alterations in blind subjects. Noteworthy, we will discuss data showing that inter-hemispheric transfer mediates recovery of visual responsiveness following cortical damage. Finally, we will provide an overview of how callosal projections dysfunction could contribute to pathologies such as neglect and occipital

  17. REORGANIZATION OF VISUAL CALLOSAL CONNECTIONS FOLLOWING ALTERATIONS OF RETINAL INPUT AND BRAIN DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA RESTANI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC. The CC is the major white matter structure in the brain and is involved in information processing between the two hemispheres. In particular, visual callosal connections interconnect homologous areas of visual cortices, binding together the two halves of the visual field. This interhemispheric communication plays a significant role in visual cortical output. Here, we will first review essential literature on the physiology of the callosal connections in normal vision. The available data support the view that the callosum contributes to both excitation and inhibition to the target hemisphere, with a dynamic adaptation to the strength of the incoming visual input. Next, we will focus on data showing how callosal connections may sense visual alterations and respond to the classical paradigm for the study of visual plasticity, i.e. monocular deprivation. This is a prototypical example of a model for the study of callosal plasticity in pathological conditions (e.g. strabismus and amblyopia characterized by unbalanced input from the two eyes. We will also discuss findings of callosal alterations in blind subjects. Noteworthy, we will discuss data showing that inter-hemispheric transfer mediates recovery of visual responsiveness following cortical damage. Finally, we will provide an overview of how callosal projections dysfunction could contribute to pathologies such as neglect and occipital

  18. Altered functional connectivity of amygdala underlying the neuromechanism of migraine pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiye; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Mengqi; Dong, Zhao; Ma, Lin; Yu, Shengyuan

    2017-12-01

    The amygdala is a large grey matter complex in the limbic system, and it may contribute in the neurolimbic pain network in migraine. However, the detailed neuromechanism remained to be elucidated. The objective of this study is to investigate the amygdala structural and functional changes in migraine and to elucidate the mechanism of neurolimbic pain-modulating in the migraine pathogenesis. Conventional MRI, 3D structure images and resting state functional MRI were performed in 18 normal controls (NC), 18 patients with episodic migraine (EM), and 16 patients with chronic migraine (CM). The amygdala volume was measured using FreeSurfer software and the functional connectivity (FC) of bilateral amygdala was computed over the whole brain. Analysis of covariance was performed on the individual FC maps among groups. The increased FC of left amygdala was observed in EM compared with NC, and the decreased of right amygdala was revealed in CM compared with NC. The increased FC of bilateral amygdala was observed in CM compared with EM. The correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between the score of sleep quality (0, normal; 1, mild sleep disturbance; 2, moderate sleep disturbance; 3, serious sleep disturbance) and the increased FC strength of left amygdala in EM compared with NC, and a positive correlation between the score of sleep quality and the increased FC strength of left amygdala in CM compared with EM, and other clinical variables showed no significant correlation with altered FC of amygdala. The altered functional connectivity of amygdala demonstrated that neurolimbic pain network contribute in the EM pathogenesis and CM chronicization.

  19. Differential Functional Connectivity Alterations of Two Subdivisions within the Right dlPFC in Parkinson's Disease

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    Julian Caspers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD often show impairments in executive function (EF like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function. To investigate whether these functionally distinct subdivisions of right dlPFC are differentially affected in PD, we analyzed resting-state functional connectivity (FC in 39 PD patients and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were examined both after at least 12 h withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs (OFF and under their regular dopaminergic medication (ON. We found that only the posterior right dlPFC subdivision shows FC alterations in PD, while the anterior part remains unaffected. PD-related decreased FC with posterior right dlPFC was found in the bilateral medial posterior parietal cortex (mPPC and left dorsal premotor region (PMd in the OFF state. In the medical ON, FC with left PMd normalized, while decoupling with bilateral mPPC remained. Furthermore, we observed increased FC between posterior right dlPFC and the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC in PD in the ON state. Our findings point to differential disturbances of right dlPFC connectivity in PD, which relate to its hierarchical organization of EF processing by stronger affecting the functionally basal posterior aspect than the hierarchically higher anterior part.

  20. Experience-dependent plasticity in white matter microstructure: Reasoning training alters structural connectivity

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    Allyson P Mackey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI techniques have made it possible to investigate white matter plasticity in humans. Changes in DTI measures, principally increases in fractional anisotropy (FA, have been observed following training programs as diverse as juggling, meditation, and working memory. Here, we sought to test whether three months of reasoning training could alter white matter microstructure. We recruited participants (n=23 who were enrolled in a course to prepare for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT, a test that places strong demands on reasoning skills, as well as age- and IQ-matched controls planning to take the LSAT in the future (n=22. DTI data were collected at two scan sessions scheduled three months apart. In trained participants but not controls, we observed decreases in radial diffusivity (RD in white matter connecting frontal cortices, and in mean diffusivity (MD within frontal and parietal lobe white matter. Further, participants exhibiting larger gains on the LSAT exhibited greater decreases in MD in the right internal capsule. In summary, reasoning training altered multiple measures of white matter structure in young adults. While the cellular underpinnings are unknown, these results provide evidence of experience-dependent white matter changes that may not be limited to myelination.

  1. Acupuncture induces divergent alterations of functional connectivity within conventional frequency bands: evidence from MEG recordings.

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    Youbo You

    Full Text Available As an ancient Chinese healing modality which has gained increasing popularity in modern society, acupuncture involves stimulation with fine needles inserted into acupoints. Both traditional literature and clinical data indicated that modulation effects largely depend on specific designated acupoints. However, scientific representations of acupoint specificity remain controversial. In the present study, considering the new findings on the sustained effects of acupuncture and its time-varied temporal characteristics, we employed an electrophysiological imaging modality namely magnetoencephalography with a temporal resolution on the order of milliseconds. Taken into account the differential band-limited signal modulations induced by acupuncture, we sought to explore whether or not stimulation at Stomach Meridian 36 (ST36 and a nearby non-meridian point (NAP would evoke divergent functional connectivity alterations within delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Whole-head scanning was performed on 28 healthy participants during an eyes-closed no-task condition both preceding and following acupuncture. Data analysis involved calculation of band-limited power (BLP followed by pair-wise BLP correlations. Further averaging was conducted to obtain local and remote connectivity. Statistical analyses revealed the increased connection degree of the left temporal cortex within delta (0.5-4 Hz, beta (13-30 Hz and gamma (30-48 Hz bands following verum acupuncture. Moreover, we not only validated the closer linkage of the left temporal cortex with the prefrontal and frontal cortices, but further pinpointed that such patterns were more extensively distributed in the ST36 group in the delta and beta bands compared to the restriction only to the delta band for NAP. Psychophysical results for significant pain threshold elevation further confirmed the analgesic effect of acupuncture at ST36. In conclusion, our findings may provide a new perspective to lend

  2. Altered cerebro-cerebellum resting-state functional connectivity in HIV-infected male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijuan; Li, Ruili; Zhou, Yawen; Wang, Yanming; Cui, Jin; Nguchu, Benedictor Alexander; Qiu, Bensheng; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Hongjun

    2018-05-21

    In addition to the role of planning and executing movement, the cerebellum greatly contributes to cognitive process. Numerous studies have reported structural and functional abnormalities in the cerebellum for HIV-infected patients, but little is known about the altered functional connectivity of particular cerebellar subregions and the cerebrum. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of the cerebellum and further analyze the relationship between the rsFC changes and the neuropsychological evaluation. The experiment involved 26 HIV-infected men with asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and 28 healthy controls (HC). We selected bilateral hemispheric lobule VI and lobule IX as seed regions and mapped the whole-brain rsFC for each subregion. Results revealed that right lobule VI showed significant increased rsFC with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in HIV-infected subjects. In addition, the correlation analysis on HIV-infected subjects illustrated the increased rsFC was negatively correlated with the attention/working memory score. Moreover, significantly increased cerebellar rsFCs were also observed in HIV-infected patients related to right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and right superior medial gyrus (SMG) while decreased rsFC was just found between right lobule VI and the left hippocampus (HIP). These findings suggested that, abnormalities of cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity might be associated with cognitive dysfunction in HIV-infected men, particularly working memory impairment. It could also be the underlying mechanism of ANI, providing further evidence for early injury in the neural substrate of HIV-infected patients.

  3. Differences in functional brain connectivity alterations associated with cerebral amyloid deposition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Dahyun eYi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite potential implications for the early detection of impending AD, very little is known about the differences of large scale brain networks between amnestic MCI (aMCI with high cerebral amyloid beta protein (Aβ deposition (i.e., aMCI+ and aMCI with no or very little Aβ deposition (i.e., aMCI-. We first aimed to extend the current literature on altering intrinsic functional connectivity (FC of the default mode network (DMN and salience network (SN from CN to AD dementia. Second, we further examined the differences of the DMN and the SN between aMCI-, aMCI+, and CN. Forty-three older adult (12 CN, 10 aMCI+, 10 aMCI-, and 11 AD dementia subjects were included. All participants received clinical and neuropsychological assessment, resting state functional MRI, structural MRI, and Pittsburgh compound-B-PET scans. FC data were preprocessed using Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components of FSL. Group comparisons were carried out using the dual-regression approach. In addition, to verify presence of grey matter (GM volume changes with intrinsic functional network alterations, Voxel Based Morphometry was performed on the acquired T1-weighted data. As expected, AD dementia participants exhibited decreased FC in the DMN compared to CN (in precuneus and cingulate gyrus. The degree of alteration in the DMN in aMCI+ compared to CN was intermediate to that of AD. In contrast, aMCI- exhibited increased FC in the DMN compared to CN (in precuneus as well as aMCI+. In terms of the SN, aMCI- exhibited decreased FC compared to both CN and aMCI+ particularly in the inferior frontal gyrus. FC within the SN in aMCI+ and AD did not differ from CN. Compared to CN, aMCI- showed atrophy in bilateral superior temporal gyri whereas aMCI+ showed atrophy in right precuneus. The results indicate that despite of the similarity in cross-sectional cognitive features aMCI- has quite different functional brain connectivity compared to

  4. Lumbar lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ella; Kalichman, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar lordosis is a key postural component that has interested both clinicians and researchers for many years. Despite its wide use in assessing postural abnormalities, there remain many unanswered questions regarding lumbar lordosis measurements. Therefore, in this article we reviewed different factors associated with the lordosis angle based on existing literature and determined normal values of lordosis. We reviewed more than 120 articles that measure and describe the different factors associated with the lumbar lordosis angle. Because of a variety of factors influencing the evaluation of lumbar lordosis such as how to position the patient and the number of vertebrae included in the calculation, we recommend establishing a uniform method of evaluating the lordosis angle. Based on our review, it seems that the optimal position for radiologic measurement of lordosis is standing with arms supported while shoulders are flexed at a 30° angle. There is evidence that many factors, such as age, gender, body mass index, ethnicity, and sport, may affect the lordosis angle, making it difficult to determine uniform normal values. Normal lordosis should be determined based on the specific characteristics of each individual; we therefore presented normal lordosis values for different groups/populations. There is also evidence that the lumbar lordosis angle is positively and significantly associated with spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis. However, no association has been found with other spinal degenerative features. Inconclusive evidence exists for association between lordosis and low back pain. Additional studies are needed to evaluate these associations. The optimal lordotic range remains unknown and may be related to a variety of individual factors such as weight, activity, muscular strength, and flexibility of the spine and lower extremities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Altered resting-state effective connectivity of fronto-parietal motor control systems on the primary motor network following stroke

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    Inman, Cory S.; James, G. Andrew; Hamann, Stephan; Rajendra, Justin K.; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Butler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous brain imaging work suggests that stroke alters the effective connectivity (the influence neural regions exert upon each other) of motor execution networks. The present study examines the intrinsic effective connectivity of top-down motor control in stroke survivors (n=13) relative to healthy participants (n=12). Stroke survivors exhibited significant deficits in motor function, as assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) of resting-state fMRI data to investigate the relationship between motor deficits and the intrinsic effective connectivity between brain regions involved in motor control and motor execution. An exploratory adaptation of SEM determined the optimal model of motor execution effective connectivity in healthy participants, and confirmatory SEM assessed stroke survivors’ fit to that model. We observed alterations in spontaneous resting-state effective connectivity from fronto-parietal guidance systems to the motor network in stroke survivors. More specifically, diminished connectivity was found in connections from the superior parietal cortex to primary motor cortex and supplementary motor cortex. Furthermore, the paths demonstrated large individual variance in stroke survivors but less variance in healthy participants. These findings suggest that characterizing the deficits in resting-state connectivity of top-down processes in stroke survivors may help optimize cognitive and physical rehabilitation therapies by individually targeting specific neural pathway. PMID:21839174

  6. Premotor nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive pathway connecting lumbar segments with the ventral motor nucleus of the cervical enlargement in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsala, Jozef; Lukácová, Nadezda; Cízková, Dása; Lukác, Imrich; Kuchárová, Karolína; Marsala, Martin

    2004-03-01

    In this study we investigate the occurrence and origin of punctate nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the neuropil of the ventral motor nucleus in C7-Th1 segments of the dog spine, which are supposed to be the terminal field of an ascending premotor propriospinal nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive pathway. As the first step, nitric oxide synthase immunohistochemistry was used to distinguish nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive staining of the ventral motor nucleus. Dense, punctate nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity was found on control sections in the neuropil of the ventral motor nucleus. After hemisection at Th10-11, axotomy-induced retrograde changes consisting in a strong upregulation of nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons were found mostly unilaterally in lamina VIII, the medial part of lamina VII and in the pericentral region in all segments of the lumbosacral enlargement. Concurrently, a strong depletion of the punctate nitric oxide synthase immunopositivity in the neuropil of the ventral motor nucleus ipsilaterally with the hemisection was detected, thus revealing that an uncrossed ascending premotor propriospinal pathway containing a fairly high number of nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive fibers terminates in the ventral motor nucleus. Application of the retrograde fluorescent tracer Fluorogold injected into the ventral motor nucleus and analysis of alternate sections processed for nitric oxide synthase immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of Fluorogold-labeled and nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive axons in the ventrolateral funiculus and in the lateral and medial portions of the ventral column throughout the thoracic and upper lumbar segments. A noticeable number of Fluorogold-labeled and nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive somata detected on consecutive sections were found in the lumbosacral enlargement, mainly in laminae VIII-IX, the medial part of lamina VII and in the pericentral region (lamina X), ipsilaterally with the

  7. Motor and cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity alterations in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eixarch, Elisenda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Bargallo, Nuria; Batalle, Dafnis; Gratacos, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    .409 ± 0.046; P = .016) in both networks were observed in the intrauterine growth restriction group, with no differences in number of streamlines. More importantly, strong specific correlation was found between tractography-related metrics and its relative function in both networks in intrauterine growth restricted children. Motor network metrics were correlated specifically with motor scale results (fractional anisotropy: rho = 0.857; integrity: rho = 0.740); cortico-striatal-thalamic network metrics were correlated with cognitive (fractional anisotropy: rho = 0.793; integrity, rho = 0.762) and socioemotional scale (fractional anisotropy: rho = 0.850; integrity: rho = 0.877). These results support the existence of altered brain connectivity in intrauterine growth restriction demonstrated by altered connectivity in motor and cortico-striatal-thalamic networks, with reduced fractional anisotropy and integrity. The specific correlation between tractography-related metrics and neurodevelopmental outcomes in intrauterine growth restriction shows the potential to use this approach to develop imaging biomarkers to predict specific neurodevelopmental outcome in infants who are at risk because of intrauterine growth restriction and other prenatal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the structural brain network reveals altered connectivity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy due to periventricular white matter lesions

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    Kerstin Pannek

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that network-based analysis of structural connectivity can identify alterations in FA in unilateral CP, and that these alterations in FA are related to clinical function. Application of this connectome-based analysis to investigate alterations in connectivity following treatment may elucidate the neurological correlates of improved functioning due to intervention.

  9. Alterations of White Matter Connectivity in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Jun; Wang, Yi; Qian, Long; Liu, Gang; Liu, Shuang-Feng; Zou, Li-Ping; Zhang, Ji-Shui; Hu, Nan; Chen, Xiao-Qiao; Yu, Sheng-Yuan; Guo, Sheng-Li; Li, Ke; He, Mian-Wang; Wu, Hai-Tao; Qiu, Jiang-Xia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yu-Lin; Lou, Xin; Ma, Lin

    2018-03-27

    Purpose To investigate the topologic architecture of white matter connectivity networks in preschool-aged children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) versus typical development (TD). Materials and Methods Forty-two participants were enrolled, including 21 preschool children with ASD (14 male children and seven female children; mean age, 4.56 years ± 0.97 [standard deviation]) and 21 children with TD (11 males and 10 females; mean age, 5.13 years ± 0.82). The diagnosis of ASD was determined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Global Assessment of Functioning scores (mean score, 8.00 ± 0.50). All participants underwent diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and T2-weighted imaging on a 3-T magnetic resonance system. A graph theoretical analysis was applied to investigate the topologic organization of the brain network including global and local topologic parameters. Statistical analysis was then performed for the comparison between the groups. Results Compared with the TD group, children with ASD demonstrated shortened characteristic path length (t 1 = 0.536, t 2 = 0.534, t 3 = 0.523, t 4 = 0.510, and t 5 = 0.501; P < .05) and increased global efficiency (t 1 = 0.499, t 2 = 0.497, t 3 = 0.486, t 4 = 0.473, and t 5 = 0.465; P < .05) and clustering coefficient (t 1 = 0.673, t 2 = 0.750, t 3 = 0.757, t 4 = 0.738, and t 5 = 0.741; P < .05). Significant increases in nodal efficiency were mainly found in left pallidum (0.037 vs 0.032, respectively; P < .01) and right caudate nucleus (0.037 vs 0.032, respectively; P < .01) of the basal ganglia network. Conclusion Significantly altered patterns of global and local brain network topography may underlie the abnormal brain development in preschool children with ASD compared with those who have TD. The identification of altered structural connectivity in basal ganglia and paralimbic-limbic networks may point toward potential imaging biomarkers for preschool-age patients with ASD.

  10. Altered effective connectivity contributes to micrographia in patients with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Evelien; Nieuwboer, Alice; Broeder, Sanne; Swinnen, Stephan; Vandenberghe, Wim; Heremans, Elke

    2018-02-01

    Recently, it was shown that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) can also experience freezing episodes during handwriting and present writing problems outside these episodes. So far, the neural networks underlying increased handwriting problems in subjects with FOG are unclear. This study used dynamic causal modeling of fMRI data to investigate neural network dynamics underlying freezing-related handwriting problems and how these networks changed in response to visual cues. Twenty-seven non-freezers and ten freezers performed a pre-writing task with and without visual cues in the scanner with their right hand. The results showed that freezers and non-freezers were able to recruit networks involved in cued and uncued writing in a similar fashion. Whole group analysis also revealed a trend towards altered visuomotor integration in patients with FOG. Next, we controlled for differences in disease severity between both patient groups using a sensitivity analysis. For this, a subgroup of ten non-freezers matched for disease severity was selected by an independent researcher. This analysis further exposed significantly weaker coupling in mostly left hemispheric visuo-parietal, parietal - supplementary motor area, parietal - premotor, and premotor-M1 pathways in freezers compared to non-freezers, irrespective of cues. Correlation analyses revealed that these impairments in connectivity were related to writing amplitude and quality. Taken together, these findings show that freezers have reduced involvement of the supplementary motor area in the motor network, which explains the impaired writing amplitude regulation in this group. In addition, weaker supportive premotor connectivity may have contributed to micrographia in freezers, a pattern that was independent of cueing.

  11. Brain Connectivity Alterations Are Associated with the Development of Dementia in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Josie-Anne; McIntosh, Anthony R; Postuma, Ronald B; Kovacevic, Natasha; Latreille, Véronique; Panisset, Michel; Chouinard, Sylvain; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Dementia affects a high proportion of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and poses a burden on caregivers and healthcare services. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a common nonevasive and nonexpensive technique that can easily be used in clinical settings to identify brain functional abnormalities. Only few studies had identified EEG abnormalities that can predict PD patients at higher risk for dementia. Brain connectivity EEG measures, such as multiscale entropy (MSE) and phase-locking value (PLV) analyses, may be more informative and sensitive to brain alterations leading to dementia than previously used methods. This study followed 62 dementia-free PD patients for a mean of 3.4 years to identify cerebral alterations that are associated with dementia. Baseline resting state EEG of patients who developed dementia (N = 18) was compared to those of patients who remained dementia-free (N = 44) and of 37 healthy subjects. MSE and PLV analyses were performed. Partial least squares statistical analysis revealed group differences associated with the development of dementia. Patients who developed dementia showed higher signal complexity and lower PLVs in low frequencies (mainly in delta frequency) than patients who remained dementia-free and controls. Conversely, both patient groups showed lower signal variability and higher PLVs in high frequencies (mainly in gamma frequency) compared to controls, with the strongest effect in patients who developed dementia. These findings suggest that specific disruptions of brain communication can be measured before PD patients develop dementia, providing a new potential marker to identify patients at highest risk of developing dementia and who are the best candidates for neuroprotective trials.

  12. Connectivity and tissue microstructural alterations in right and left temporal lobe epilepsy revealed by diffusion spectrum imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Lemkaddem

    2014-01-01

    Global connectivity, hub architecture and regional connectivity patterns were altered in TLE patients and showed different characteristics in RTLE vs LTLE with stronger abnormalities in RTLE. The microstructural analysis suggested that disturbed axonal density contributed more than fiber orientation to the connectivity changes affecting the temporal lobes whereas fiber orientation changes were more involved in extratemporal lobe changes. Our study provides further structural evidence that RTLE and LTLE are not symmetrical entities and DSI-based imaging could help investigate the microstructural correlate of these imaging abnormalities.

  13. Altered interhemispheric functional connectivity in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia: a resting-state fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Minglong; Xie, Bing; Yin, Xuntao; Wang, Jian [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Yang, Hong; Wang, Hao [Third Military Medical University, Ophthalmology Research Center, Southwest Eye Hospital/Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Yu, Longhua [Third Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); 401st Hospital of PLA, Department of Radiology, Qingdao (China); He, Sheng [University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Department of Psychology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Altered brain functional connectivity has been reported in patients with amblyopia by recent neuroimaging studies. However, relatively little is known about the alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity in amblyopia. The present study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity patterns between homotopic regions across hemispheres in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia under resting state. Nineteen monocular anisometropic amblyopia (AA), 18 strabismic amblyopia (SA), and 20 normal-sight controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. After a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination, resting-state fMRI scanning was performed in all participants. The pattern of the interhemispheric functional connectivity was measured with the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach. VMHC values differences within and between three groups were compared, and correlations between VMHC values and each the clinical variable were also analyzed. Altered VMHC was observed in AA and SA patients in lingual gyrus and fusiform gyrus compared with NC subjects. The altered VMHC of lingual gyrus showed a pattern of AA > SA > NC, while the altered VMHC of fusiform gyrus showed a pattern of AA > NC > SA. Moreover, the VMHC values of lingual gyrus were positively correlated with the stereoacuity both in AA and SA patients, and the VMHC values of fusiform gyrus were positively correlated with the amount of anisometropia just in AA patients. These findings suggest that interhemispheric functional coordination between several homotopic visual-related brain regions is impaired both in AA and SA patients under resting state and revealed the similarities and differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity between the anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia. (orig.)

  14. Altered interhemispheric functional connectivity in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia: a resting-state fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Minglong; Xie, Bing; Yin, Xuntao; Wang, Jian; Yang, Hong; Wang, Hao; Yu, Longhua; He, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Altered brain functional connectivity has been reported in patients with amblyopia by recent neuroimaging studies. However, relatively little is known about the alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity in amblyopia. The present study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity patterns between homotopic regions across hemispheres in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia under resting state. Nineteen monocular anisometropic amblyopia (AA), 18 strabismic amblyopia (SA), and 20 normal-sight controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. After a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination, resting-state fMRI scanning was performed in all participants. The pattern of the interhemispheric functional connectivity was measured with the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach. VMHC values differences within and between three groups were compared, and correlations between VMHC values and each the clinical variable were also analyzed. Altered VMHC was observed in AA and SA patients in lingual gyrus and fusiform gyrus compared with NC subjects. The altered VMHC of lingual gyrus showed a pattern of AA > SA > NC, while the altered VMHC of fusiform gyrus showed a pattern of AA > NC > SA. Moreover, the VMHC values of lingual gyrus were positively correlated with the stereoacuity both in AA and SA patients, and the VMHC values of fusiform gyrus were positively correlated with the amount of anisometropia just in AA patients. These findings suggest that interhemispheric functional coordination between several homotopic visual-related brain regions is impaired both in AA and SA patients under resting state and revealed the similarities and differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity between the anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia. (orig.)

  15. Altered functional connectivity of the default mode network in Williams syndrome: a multimodal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Adriana; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Osório, Ana; Magalhães, Ricardo; Vasconcelos, Cristiana; Férnandez, Montse; Carracedo, Angel; Alegria, Joana; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Soares, José Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Resting state brain networks are implicated in a variety of relevant brain functions. Importantly, abnormal patterns of functional connectivity (FC) have been reported in several neurodevelopmental disorders. In particular, the Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be associated with social cognition. We hypothesize that the DMN may be altered in Williams syndrome (WS), a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder characterized by an unique cognitive and behavioral phenotype. In this study, we assessed the architecture of the DMN using fMRI in WS patients and typically developing matched controls (sex and age) in terms of FC and volumetry of the DMN. Moreover, we complemented the analysis with a functional connectome approach. After excluding participants due to movement artifacts (n = 3), seven participants with WS and their respective matched controls were included in the analyses. A decreased FC between the DMN regions was observed in the WS group when compared with the typically developing group. Specifically, we found a decreased FC in a posterior hub of the DMN including the precuneus, calcarine and the posterior cingulate of the left hemisphere. The functional connectome approach showed a focalized and global increased FC connectome in the WS group. The reduced FC of the posterior hub of the DMN in the WS group is consistent with immaturity of the brain FC patterns and may be associated with the singularity of their visual spatial phenotype. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Alterations of the default mode network connectivity in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Joana; Goncalves, Oscar Filipe; Soares, José Miguel; Marques, Paulo; Sampaio, Adriana

    2016-10-30

    Obsessive-compulsive personality (OCPD) disorder is characterized by a pattern of excessive self-control, perfectionism and behavioral and cognitive rigidity. Despite the fact that OCPD is the most common personality disorder in the general population, published studies looking at the brain correlates of this disorder are practically nonexistent. The main goal of this study was to analyze the presence of brain alterations in OCPD when compared to healthy controls, specifically at the level of the Default Mode Network (DMN). The DMN is a well-established resting state network which was found to be associated with psychological processes that may play a key role in OCPD (e.g., self-awareness, episodic future thinking and mental simulation). Ten individuals diagnosed with OCPD and ten healthy controls underwent a clinical assessment interview and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisition. The results show that OCPD patients presented an increased functional connectivity in the precuneus (i.e., a posterior node of the DMN), known to be involved in the retrieval manipulation of past events in order to solve current problems and develop plans for the future. These results suggest that this key node of the DMN may play an important role in the pathophysiology of OCPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of alteration in mucogingival line location following use of subepithelial connective tissue graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Fariba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective : The aim of this study is to evaluate the positional changes that occur in mucogingival line following the use of subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG. Materials and Methods : In 19 Miller class I or II gingival recession defects, distance between mucogingival line (MGL and cemento-enamel junction, also width of keratinized and attached gingiva, and clinical attachment level were measured. SCTG were used for covering the exposed roots. A fore mentioned parameters were repeated at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery and alterations were measured. Paired t test was used to analyze the results. Results : MGL had been moved in coronal direction (4.39 ± 0.77 mm on average during surgical approach. After 1 year, MGL shifted 2.11 ± 0.7 mm apically. In accordance with this apical shift, a significant increase in the width of keratinized and attached gingival width (2.89 ± 0.63 mm and 2.82 ± 0.5 mm, respectively was seen (P < 0.05. Conclusion : MGL tended to revert back to its original position following the use of SCTG, and this reversion is accompanied with an increase in the keratinized and attached gingival width.

  19. Altered brain structural connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhiliang; Duan, Xujun; Xie, Bing; Du, Handan; Li, Rong; Xu, Qiang; Wei, Luqing; Zhang, Shao-xiang; Wu, Yi; Gao, Qing; Chen, Huafu

    2013-09-25

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by dysfunction of several discrete brain regions such as medial prefrontal gyrus with hypoactivation and amygdala with hyperactivation. However, alterations of large-scale whole brain topological organization of structural networks remain unclear. Seventeen patients with PTSD in motor vehicle accident survivors and 15 normal controls were enrolled in our study. Large-scale structural connectivity network (SCN) was constructed using diffusion tensor tractography, followed by thresholding the mean factional anisotropy matrix of 90 brain regions. Graph theory analysis was then employed to investigate their aberrant topological properties. Both patient and control group showed small-world topology in their SCNs. However, patients with PTSD exhibited abnormal global properties characterized by significantly decreased characteristic shortest path length and normalized characteristic shortest path length. Furthermore, the patient group showed enhanced nodal centralities predominately in salience network including bilateral anterior cingulate and pallidum, and hippocampus/parahippocamus gyrus, and decreased nodal centralities mainly in medial orbital part of superior frontal gyrus. The main limitation of this study is the small sample of PTSD patients, which may lead to decrease the statistic power. Consequently, this study should be considered an exploratory analysis. These results are consistent with the notion that PTSD can be understood by investigating the dysfunction of large-scale, spatially distributed neural networks, and also provide structural evidences for further exploration of neurocircuitry models in PTSD. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Altered brain functional connectivity and behaviour in a mouse model of maternal alcohol binge-drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantacorps, Lídia; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge L; Valverde, Olga; Conejo, Nélida M

    2018-06-08

    alcohol-exposed offspring, suggesting neuroadaptive effects due to early alcohol exposure. Our results demonstrate that maternal binge-like alcohol drinking causes long-lasting effects on motor and emotional-related behaviours associated with impaired neuronal metabolic capacity and altered functional brain connectivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alteration in intrinsic and extrinsic functional connectivity of resting state networks associated with subclinical hypothyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Modi, Shilpi; Rana, Poonam; Kumar, Pawan; Kanwar, Ratnesh; Sekhri, Tarun; D'souza, Maria; Khushu, Subash

    2018-03-05

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is characterized by mild elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (range 5-10 μIU/ml) and normal free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4). The cognitive function impairment is well known in thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, but little is known about deficits in brain functions in SCH subjects. Also, whether hormone-replacement treatment is necessary or not in SCH subjects is still debatable. In order to have an insight into the cognition of SCH subjects, intrinsic and extrinsic functional connectivity (FC) of the resting state networks (RSNs) was studied. For resting state data analysis we used an unbiased, data-driven approach based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and dual-regression that can emphasize widespread changes in FC without restricting to a set of predefined seeds. 28 SCH subjects and 28 matched healthy controls (HC) participated in the study. RSN analysis showed significantly decreased intrinsic FC in somato-motor network (SMN) and right fronto-parietal attention network (RAN) and increased intrinsic FC in default mode network (DMN) in SCH subjects as compared to control subjects. The reduced intrinsic FC in the SMN and RAN suggests neuro-cognitive alterations in SCH subjects in the corresponding functions which were also evident from the deficit in the neuropsychological performance of the SCH subjects on behavioural tests such as digit span, delayed recall, visual retention, recognition, Bender Gestalt and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We also found a significant reduction in extrinsic network FC between DMN and RAN; SMN and posterior default mode network (PDMN); and increased extrinsic FC between SMN and anterior default mode network (ADMN) in SCH subjects as compared to controls. An altered extrinsic FC in SCH suggests functional reorganization in response to neurological disruption. The partial correlation analysis between intrinsic and extrinsic RSNs

  2. Altered functional resting-state hypothalamic connectivity and abnormal pituitary morphology in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukoshe, Akvile; van Dijk, Suzanne E; van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; van der Lugt, Aad; White, Tonya; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C

    2017-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by endocrine problems and hyperphagia, indicating hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. However, few studies have explored the underlying neurobiology of the hypothalamus and its functional connectivity with other brain regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the anatomical differences of the hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, and pituitary gland as well as resting state functional connectivity of the hypothalamus in children with PWS. Twenty-seven children with PWS (13 DEL, 14 mUPD) and 28 typically developing children were included. Manual segmentations by a blinded investigator were performed to determine the volumes of the hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, and pituitary gland. In addition, brain-wide functional connectivity analysis was performed using the obtained masks of the hypothalamus. Children with PWS showed altered resting state functional connectivity between hypothalamus and right and left lateral occipital complex, compared to healthy controls. In addition, children with PWS had on average a 50% smaller pituitary volume, an irregular shape of the pituitary, and a longer pituitary stalk. Pituitary volume did not increase in volume during puberty in PWS. No volumetric differences in the hypothalamus and mammillary bodies were found. In all subjects, the posterior pituitary bright spot was observed. We report altered functional hypothalamic connectivity with lateral occipital complexes in both hemispheres, which are implicated in response to food and reward system, and absence of connectivity might therefore at least partially contribute to the preoccupation with food in PWS.

  3. Altered functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Ting; Peng, Jing; Nie, Binbin; Gao, Juan; Liu, Jiangtao; Li, Yang; Wang, Gang; Ma, Xin; Li, Kuncheng

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity alteration of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Twenty-two first-episode MDD patients and thirty age-, gender- and education-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Rest state functional magnetic resonance images and structure magnetic resonance images were scanned. The functional connectivity analysis was done based on the result of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). And the right DLPFC was chosen as the seed region of interests (ROI), as its gray matter density (GMD) decreased in the MDD patients compared with controls and its GMD values were negative correlation with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the MDD patients showed increased functional connectivity with right the DLPFC in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), thalamus and precentral gyrus. In contrast, there were decreased functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and right parietal lobe. Conclusions: By applying the VBM results to the functional connectivity analysis, the study suggested that abnormality of GMD in right DLPFC might be related to the functional connectivity alteration in the pathophysiology of MDD, which might be useful in further characterizing structure–function relations in this disorder.

  4. Altered functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Ting, E-mail: yeting@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Peng, Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie, Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Juan, E-mail: gaojuan@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li, Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Wang, Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Ma, Xin, E-mail: lijianshe@medmail.com.cn [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li, Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); and others

    2012-12-15

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity alteration of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Twenty-two first-episode MDD patients and thirty age-, gender- and education-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Rest state functional magnetic resonance images and structure magnetic resonance images were scanned. The functional connectivity analysis was done based on the result of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). And the right DLPFC was chosen as the seed region of interests (ROI), as its gray matter density (GMD) decreased in the MDD patients compared with controls and its GMD values were negative correlation with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the MDD patients showed increased functional connectivity with right the DLPFC in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), thalamus and precentral gyrus. In contrast, there were decreased functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and right parietal lobe. Conclusions: By applying the VBM results to the functional connectivity analysis, the study suggested that abnormality of GMD in right DLPFC might be related to the functional connectivity alteration in the pathophysiology of MDD, which might be useful in further characterizing structure–function relations in this disorder.

  5. Bayesian network analysis reveals alterations to default mode network connectivity in individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Shouzi; Bao, Feng; Wang, Pengyun; Huang, Xin; Li, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with abnormal functioning of the default mode network (DMN). Functional connectivity (FC) changes to the DMN have been found in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), which is the prodromal stage of AD. However, whether or not aMCI also alters the effective connectivity (EC) of the DMN remains unknown. We employed a combined group independent component analysis (ICA) and Bayesian network (BN) learning approach to resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data from 17 aMCI patients and 17 controls, in order to establish the EC pattern of DMN, and to evaluate changes occurring in aMCI. BN analysis demonstrated heterogeneous regional convergence degree across DMN regions, which were organized into two closely interacting subsystems. Compared to controls, the aMCI group showed altered directed connectivity weights between DMN regions in the fronto-parietal, temporo-frontal, and temporo-parietal pathways. The aMCI group also exhibited altered regional convergence degree in the right inferior parietal lobule. Moreover, we found EC changes in DMN regions in aMCI were correlated with regional FC levels, and the connectivity metrics were associated with patients' cognitive performance. This study provides novel sights into our understanding of the functional architecture of the DMN and adds to a growing body of work demonstrating the importance of the DMN as a mechanism of aMCI.

  6. Different alterations in brain functional networks according to direct and indirect topological connections in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Seungyup; Kim, Taewon; Won, Wang Yeon; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2017-10-01

    Schizophrenia displays connectivity deficits in the brain, but the literature has shown inconsistent findings about alterations in global efficiency of brain functional networks. We supposed that such inconsistency at the whole brain level may be due to a mixture of different portions of global efficiency at sub-brain levels. Accordingly, we considered measuring portions of global efficiency in two aspects: spatial portions by considering sub-brain networks and topological portions by considering contributions to global efficiency according to direct and indirect topological connections. We proposed adjacency and indirect adjacency as new network parameters attributable to direct and indirect topological connections, respectively, and applied them to graph-theoretical analysis of brain functional networks constructed from resting state fMRI data of 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls. Group differences in the network parameters were observed not for whole brain and hemispheric networks, but for regional networks. Alterations in adjacency and indirect adjacency were in opposite directions, such that adjacency increased, but indirect adjacency decreased in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, over connections in frontal and parietal regions, increased adjacency was associated with more severe negative symptoms, while decreased adjacency was associated with more severe positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This finding indicates that connectivity deficits associated with positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia may involve topologically different paths in the brain. In patients with schizophrenia, although changes in global efficiency may not be clearly shown, different alterations in brain functional networks according to direct and indirect topological connections could be revealed at the regional level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered frontal inter-hemispheric resting state functional connectivity is associated with bulimic symptoms among restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuaiyu; Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Su, Yanhua; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-29

    Theory and research have indicated that restrained eating (RE) increases risk for binge-eating and eating disorder symptoms. According to the goal conflict model, such risk may result from disrupted hedonic-feeding control and its interaction with reward-driven eating. However, RE-related alterations in functional interactions among associated underlying brain regions, especially between the cerebral hemispheres, have rarely been examined directly. Therefore, we investigated inter-hemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among female restrained eaters (REs) (n=23) and unrestrained eaters (UREs) (n=24) following food deprivation as well as its relation to overall bulimia nervosa (BN) symptoms using voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC). Seed-based RSFC associated with areas exhibiting significant VMHC differences was also assessed. Compared to UREs, REs showed reduced VMHC in the dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an area involved in inhibiting hedonic overeating. REs also displayed decreased RSFC between the right DLPFC and regions associated with reward estimation--the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Finally, bulimic tendencies had a negative correlation with VMHC in the DLPFC and a positive correlation with functional connectivity (DLPFC and VMPFC) among REs but not UREs. Findings suggested that reduced inter-hemispheric functional connectivity in appetite inhibition regions and altered functional connectivity in reward related regions may help to explain why some REs fail to control hedonically-motivated feeding and experience higher associated levels of BN symptomatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7-19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27, offspring of patients with BD (N = 39 and offspring of community control parents (N = 40. We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence.

  9. Altered functional connectivity to stressful stimuli in prenatally cocaine-exposed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Yip, Sarah W; Balodis, Iris M; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Mayes, Linda C; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is linked to addiction and obesity vulnerability. Neural responses to stressful and appetitive cues in adolescents with PCE versus those without have been differentially linked to substance-use initiation. However, no prior studies have assessed cue-reactivity responses among PCE adolescents using a connectivity-based approach. Twenty-two PCE and 22 non-prenatally drug-exposed (NDE) age-, sex-, IQ- and BMI-matched adolescents participated in individualized guided imagery with appetitive (favorite-food), stressful and neutral-relaxing cue scripts during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjective favorite-food craving scores were collected before and after script exposure. A data-driven voxel-wise intrinsic connectivity distribution analysis was used to identify between-group differences and examine relationships with craving scores. A group-by-cue interaction effect identified a parietal lobe cluster where PCE versus NDE adolescents showed less connectivity during stressful and more connectivity during neutral-relaxing conditions. Follow-up seed-based connectivity analyses revealed that, among PCE adolescents, the parietal seed was positively connected to inferior parietal and sensory areas and negatively connected to corticolimbic during both stress and neutral-relaxing conditions. For NDE, greater parietal connectivity to parietal, cingulate and sensory areas and lesser parietal connectivity to medial prefrontal areas were found during stress compared to neutral-relaxing cueing. Craving scores inversely correlated with corticolimbic connectivity in PCE, but not NDE adolescents, during the favorite-food condition. Findings from this first data-driven intrinsic connectivity analysis of PCE influences on adolescent brain function indicate differences relating to PCE status and craving. These findings provide insight into the developmental impact of in utero drug exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mind-wandering and alterations to default mode network connectivity when listening to naturalistic versus artificial sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Gould van Praag, CD; Garfinkel, SN; Sparasci, O; Mees, A; Philippides, AO; Ware, M; Ottaviani, C; Critchley, HD

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic environments have been demonstrated to promote relaxation and wellbeing. We assess opposing theoretical accounts for these effects through investigation of autonomic arousal and alterations of activation and functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) of the brain while participants listened to sounds from artificial and natural environments. We found no evidence for increased DMN activity in the naturalistic compared to artificial or control condition, however,...

  11. Altered resting state neuromotor connectivity in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: A MAPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J. Kutch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain network activity associated with altered motor control in individuals with chronic pain is not well understood. Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS is a debilitating condition in which previous studies have revealed altered resting pelvic floor muscle activity in men with CP/CPPS compared to healthy controls. We hypothesized that the brain networks controlling pelvic floor muscles would also show altered resting state function in men with CP/CPPS. Here we describe the results of the first test of this hypothesis focusing on the motor cortical regions, termed pelvic-motor, that can directly activate pelvic floor muscles. A group of men with CP/CPPS (N = 28, as well as group of age-matched healthy male controls (N = 27, had resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP Research Network study. Brain maps of the functional connectivity of pelvic-motor were compared between groups. A significant group difference was observed in the functional connectivity between pelvic-motor and the right posterior insula. The effect size of this group difference was among the largest effect sizes in functional connectivity between all pairs of 165 anatomically-defined subregions of the brain. Interestingly, many of the atlas region pairs with large effect sizes also involved other subregions of the insular cortices. We conclude that functional connectivity between motor cortex and the posterior insula may be among the most important markers of altered brain function in men with CP/CPPS, and may represent changes in the integration of viscerosensory and motor processing.

  12. More consistently altered connectivity patterns for cerebellum and medial temporal lobes than for amygdala and striatum in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning ePeters

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain architecture can be divided into a cortico-thalamic system and modulatory ‘subcortical-cerebellar’ systems containing key structures such as striatum, medial temporal lobes (MTLs, amygdala, and cerebellum. Subcortical-cerebellar systems are known to be altered in schizophrenia. In particular, intrinsic functional brain connectivity (iFC between these systems has been consistently demonstrated in patients. While altered connectivity is known for each subcortical-cerebellar system separately, it is unknown whether subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns with the cortico-thalamic system are comparably altered across systems, i.e., if separate subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns are consistent across patients. Methods: To investigate this question, 18 patients with schizophrenia (3 unmedicated, 15 medicated with atypical antipsychotics and 18 healthy controls were assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Independent component analysis of fMRI data revealed cortical intrinsic brain networks (NWs with time courses representing proxies for cortico-thalamic system activity. Subcortical-cerebellar systems’ activity was represented by fMRI-based time courses of selected regions-of-interest (ROIs (i.e., striatum, MTL, amygdala, cerebellum. Correlation analysis among ROI- and NWs-time courses yielded individual connectivity matrices (i.e. connectivity between NW and ROIs (allROIs-NW, separateROI-NW, only NWs (NWs-NWs, and only ROIs (allROIs-allROIs as main outcome measures, which were classified by support-vector-machine-based leave-one-out cross-validation. Differences in classification accuracy were statistically evaluated for consistency across subjects and systems. Results: Correlation matrices based on allROIs-NWs yielded 91% classification accuracy, which was significantly superior to allROIs-allROIs and NWs-NWs (56% and 74%, respectively. Considering separate

  13. Connectivity and tissue microstructural alterations in right and left temporal lobe epilepsy revealed by diffusion spectrum imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkaddem, Alia; Daducci, Alessandro; Kunz, Nicolas; Lazeyras, François; Seeck, Margitta; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Vulliémoz, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Focal epilepsy is increasingly recognized as the result of an altered brain network, both on the structural and functional levels and the characterization of these widespread brain alterations is crucial for our understanding of the clinical manifestation of seizure and cognitive deficits as well as for the management of candidates to epilepsy surgery. Tractography based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging allows non-invasive mapping of white matter tracts in vivo. Recently, diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI), based on an increased number of diffusion directions and intensities, has improved the sensitivity of tractography, notably with respect to the problem of fiber crossing and recent developments allow acquisition times compatible with clinical application. We used DSI and parcellation of the gray matter in regions of interest to build whole-brain connectivity matrices describing the mutual connections between cortical and subcortical regions in patients with focal epilepsy and healthy controls. In addition, the high angular and radial resolution of DSI allowed us to evaluate also some of the biophysical compartment models, to better understand the cause of the changes in diffusion anisotropy. Global connectivity, hub architecture and regional connectivity patterns were altered in TLE patients and showed different characteristics in RTLE vs LTLE with stronger abnormalities in RTLE. The microstructural analysis suggested that disturbed axonal density contributed more than fiber orientation to the connectivity changes affecting the temporal lobes whereas fiber orientation changes were more involved in extratemporal lobe changes. Our study provides further structural evidence that RTLE and LTLE are not symmetrical entities and DSI-based imaging could help investigate the microstructural correlate of these imaging abnormalities.

  14. Altered functional connectivity differs in stroke survivors with impaired touch sensation following left and right hemisphere lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Goodin

    Full Text Available One in two survivors experience impairment in touch sensation after stroke. The nature of this impairment is likely associated with changes associated with the functional somatosensory network of the brain; however few studies have examined this. In particular, the impact of lesioned hemisphere has not been investigated. We examined resting state functional connectivity in 28 stroke survivors, 14 with left hemisphere and 14 with right hemisphere lesion, and 14 healthy controls. Contra-lesional hands showed significantly decreased touch discrimination. Whole brain functional connectivity (FC data was extracted from four seed regions, i.e. primary (S1 and secondary (S2 somatosensory cortices in both hemispheres. Whole brain FC maps and Laterality Indices (LI were calculated for subgroups. Inter-hemispheric FC was greater in healthy controls compared to the combined stroke cohort from the left S1 seed and bilateral S2 seeds. The left lesion subgroup showed decreased FC, relative to controls, from left ipsi-lesional S1 to contra-lesional S1 and to distributed temporal, occipital and parietal regions. In comparison, the right lesion group showed decreased connectivity from contra-lesional left S1 and bilateral S2 to ipsi-lesional parietal operculum (S2, and to occipital and temporal regions. The right lesion group also showed increased intra-hemispheric FC from ipsi-lesional right S1 to inferior parietal regions compared to controls. In comparison to the left lesion group, those with right lesion showed greater intra-hemispheric connectivity from left S1 to left parietal and occipital regions and from right S1 to right angular and parietal regions. Laterality Indices were significantly greater for stroke subgroups relative to matched controls for contra-lesional S1 (left lesion group and contra-lesional S2 (both groups. We provide evidence of altered functional connectivity within the somatosensory network, across both hemispheres, and to other

  15. The Responsive Amygdala: Treatment-induced Alterations in Functional Connectivity in Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, LE; Pielech, M; Erpelding, N; Linnman, C; Moulton, E; Sava, S; Lebel, A; Serrano, P; Sethna, N; Berde, C; Becerra, L; Borsook, D

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala is a key brain region with efferent and afferent neural connections that involve complex behaviors such as pain, reward, fear and anxiety. This study evaluated resting state functional connectivity of the amygdala with cortical and subcortical regions in a group of chronic pain patients (pediatric complex regional pain syndrome) with age-gender matched controls before and after intensive physical-biobehavioral pain treatment. Our main findings include (1) enhanced functional connectivity from the amygdala to multiple cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions in patients compared to controls, with differences predominantly in the left amygdala in the pre-treated condition (disease state); (2) dampened hyperconnectivity from the left amygdala to the motor cortex, parietal lobe, and cingulate cortex after intensive pain rehabilitation treatment within patients with nominal differences observed among healthy controls from Time 1 to Time 2 (treatment effects); (3) functional connectivity to several regions key to fear circuitry (prefrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobe, bilateral cingulate, hippocampus) correlated with higher pain-related fear scores and (4) decreases in pain-related fear associated with decreased connectivity between the amygdala and the motor and somatosensory cortex, cingulate, and frontal areas. Our data suggest that there are rapid changes in amygdala connectivity following an aggressive treatment program in children with chronic pain and intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity activity serving as a potential indicator of treatment response. PMID:24861582

  16. Altered functional connectivity of the language network in ASD: Role of classical language areas and cerebellum☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verly, Marjolein; Verhoeven, Judith; Zink, Inge; Mantini, Dante; Peeters, Ronald; Deprez, Sabine; Emsell, Louise; Boets, Bart; Noens, Ilse; Steyaert, Jean; Lagae, Lieven; De Cock, Paul; Rommel, Nathalie; Sunaert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The development of language, social interaction and communicative skills is remarkably different in the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Atypical brain connectivity has frequently been reported in this patient population. However, the neural correlates underlying their disrupted language development and functioning are still poorly understood. Using resting state fMRI, we investigated the functional connectivity properties of the language network in a group of ASD patients with clear comorbid language impairment (ASD-LI; N = 19) and compared them to the language related connectivity properties of 23 age-matched typically developing children. A verb generation task was used to determine language components commonly active in both groups. Eight joint language components were identified and subsequently used as seeds in a resting state analysis. Interestingly, both the interregional and the seed-based whole brain connectivity analysis showed preserved connectivity between the classical intrahemispheric language centers, Wernicke's and Broca's areas. In contrast however, a marked loss of functional connectivity was found between the right cerebellar region and the supratentorial regulatory language areas. Also, the connectivity between the interhemispheric Broca regions and modulatory control dorsolateral prefrontal region was found to be decreased. This disruption of normal modulatory control and automation function by the cerebellum may underlie the abnormal language function in children with ASD-LI. PMID:24567909

  17. Altered functional connectivity of the language network in ASD: Role of classical language areas and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Verly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of language, social interaction and communicative skills is remarkably different in the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Atypical brain connectivity has frequently been reported in this patient population. However, the neural correlates underlying their disrupted language development and functioning are still poorly understood. Using resting state fMRI, we investigated the functional connectivity properties of the language network in a group of ASD patients with clear comorbid language impairment (ASD-LI; N = 19 and compared them to the language related connectivity properties of 23 age-matched typically developing children. A verb generation task was used to determine language components commonly active in both groups. Eight joint language components were identified and subsequently used as seeds in a resting state analysis. Interestingly, both the interregional and the seed-based whole brain connectivity analysis showed preserved connectivity between the classical intrahemispheric language centers, Wernicke's and Broca's areas. In contrast however, a marked loss of functional connectivity was found between the right cerebellar region and the supratentorial regulatory language areas. Also, the connectivity between the interhemispheric Broca regions and modulatory control dorsolateral prefrontal region was found to be decreased. This disruption of normal modulatory control and automation function by the cerebellum may underlie the abnormal language function in children with ASD-LI.

  18. Sex Commonalities and Differences in Obesity-Related Alterations in Intrinsic Brain Activity and Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Labus, Jennifer S; Bhatt, Ravi R; Ju, Tiffany; Love, Aubrey; Bal, Amanat; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Kilpatrick, Lisa A

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize obesity-related sex differences in the intrinsic activity and connectivity of the brain's reward networks. Eighty-six women (n = 43) and men (n = 43) completed a 10-minute resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Sex differences and commonalities in BMI-related frequency power distribution and reward seed-based connectivity were investigated by using partial least squares analysis. For whole-brain activity in both men and women, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-5 activity in the left globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra. In women only, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-4 activity in the right GP and bilateral putamen. For seed-based connectivity in women, increased BMI was associated with reduced slow-5 connectivity between the left GP and putamen and the emotion and cortical regulation regions, but in men, increased BMI was associated with increased connectivity with the medial frontal cortex. In both men and women, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-4 connectivity between the right GP and bilateral putamen and the emotion regulation and sensorimotor-related regions. The stronger relationship between increased BMI and decreased connectivity of core reward network components with cortical and emotion regulation regions in women may be related to the greater prevalence of emotional eating. The present findings suggest the importance of personalized treatments for obesity that consider the sex of the affected individual. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  19. Altered auditory processing and effective connectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kit Melissa; Mørup, Morten; Birknow, Michelle Rosgaard

    2018-01-01

    . Mismatch negativity (MMN), a brain marker of change detection, is reduced in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Using dynamic causal modelling (DCM), previous studies showed that top-down effective connectivity linking the frontal and temporal cortex is reduced in schizophrenia......11.2 deletion carriers. DCM showed reduced intrinsic connection within right primary auditory cortex as well as in the top-down, connection from the right inferior frontal gyrus to right superior temporal gyrus for 22q11.2 deletion carriers although not surviving correction for multiple comparison...

  20. Altered dynamic functional connectivity in the default mode network in patients with cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Lin, Hai-Long; Chen, Qiu-Feng; Liu, Peng-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal brain intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) has been documented in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) by static connectivity analysis. However, changes in dynamic FC (dFC) remain unknown. We aimed to identify altered dFC within the default mode network (DMN) associated with MHE. Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from 20 cirrhotic patients with MHE and 24 healthy controls. DMN seed regions were defined using seed-based FC analysis (centered on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)). Dynamic FC architecture was calculated using a sliding time-window method. K-means clustering (number of clusters = 2-4) was applied to estimate FC states. When the number of clusters was 2, MHE patients presented weaker connectivity strengths compared with controls in states 1 and 2. In state 1, decreased FC strength was found between the PCC/precuneus (PCUN) and right medial temporal lobe (MTL)/bilateral lateral temporal cortex (LTC); left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right MTL/left LTC; right IPL and right MTL/bilateral LTC; right MTL and right LTC; and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and right MTL/bilateral LTC. In state 2, reduced FC strength was observed between the PCC/PCUN and bilateral MTL/bilateral LTC; left IPL and left MTL/bilateral LTC/MPFC; and left LTC and right LTC. Altered connectivities from state 1 were correlated with patient cognitive performance. Similar findings were observed when the number of clusters was set to 3 or 4. Aberrant dynamic DMN connectivity is an additional characteristic of MHE. Dynamic connectivity analysis offers a novel paradigm for understanding MHE-related mechanisms. (orig.)

  1. Altered dynamic functional connectivity in the default mode network in patients with cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Lin, Hai-Long [Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Qiu-Feng; Liu, Peng-Fei [Central South University, School of Information Science and Engineering, Changsha (China)

    2017-09-15

    Abnormal brain intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) has been documented in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) by static connectivity analysis. However, changes in dynamic FC (dFC) remain unknown. We aimed to identify altered dFC within the default mode network (DMN) associated with MHE. Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from 20 cirrhotic patients with MHE and 24 healthy controls. DMN seed regions were defined using seed-based FC analysis (centered on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)). Dynamic FC architecture was calculated using a sliding time-window method. K-means clustering (number of clusters = 2-4) was applied to estimate FC states. When the number of clusters was 2, MHE patients presented weaker connectivity strengths compared with controls in states 1 and 2. In state 1, decreased FC strength was found between the PCC/precuneus (PCUN) and right medial temporal lobe (MTL)/bilateral lateral temporal cortex (LTC); left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right MTL/left LTC; right IPL and right MTL/bilateral LTC; right MTL and right LTC; and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and right MTL/bilateral LTC. In state 2, reduced FC strength was observed between the PCC/PCUN and bilateral MTL/bilateral LTC; left IPL and left MTL/bilateral LTC/MPFC; and left LTC and right LTC. Altered connectivities from state 1 were correlated with patient cognitive performance. Similar findings were observed when the number of clusters was set to 3 or 4. Aberrant dynamic DMN connectivity is an additional characteristic of MHE. Dynamic connectivity analysis offers a novel paradigm for understanding MHE-related mechanisms. (orig.)

  2. Spatial working memory in neurofibromatosis 1: Altered neural activity and functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira F.A. Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Dysfunctional engagement of WM circuitry, and aberrant functional connectivity of ‘task-negative’ regions in NF1 patients may underlie spatial WM difficulties characteristic of the disorder.

  3. Successful group psychotherapy of depression in adolescents alters fronto-limbic resting-state connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, J; Metzger, C D; Plener, P L; Koelch, M G; Groen, G; Abler, B

    2017-02-01

    Current resting state imaging findings support suggestions that the neural signature of depression and therefore also its therapy should be conceptualized as a network disorder rather than a dysfunction of specific brain regions. In this study, we compared neural connectivity of adolescent patients with depression (PAT) and matched healthy controls (HC) and analysed pre-to-post changes of seed-based network connectivities in PAT after participation in a cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy (CBT). 38 adolescents (30 female; 19 patients; 13-18 years) underwent an eyes-closed resting-state scan. PAT were scanned before (pre) and after (post) five sessions of CBT. Resting-state functional connectivity was analysed in a seed-based approach for right-sided amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Symptom severity was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory Revision (BDI-II). Prior to group CBT, between groups amygdala and sgACC connectivity with regions of the default mode network was stronger in the patients group relative to controls. Within the PAT group, a similar pattern significantly decreased after successful CBT. Conversely, seed-based connectivity with affective regions and regions processing cognition and salient stimuli was stronger in HC relative to PAT before CBT. Within the PAT group, a similar pattern changed with CBT. Changes in connectivity correlated with the significant pre-to-post symptom improvement, and pre-treatment amygdala connectivity predicted treatment response in depressed adolescents. Sample size and missing long-term follow-up limit the interpretability. Successful group psychotherapy of depression in adolescents involved connectivity changes in resting state networks to that of healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Altered functional connectivity differs in stroke survivors with impaired touch sensation following left and right hemisphere lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Peter; Lamp, Gemma; Vidyasagar, Rishma; McArdle, David; Seitz, Rüdiger J; Carey, Leeanne M

    2018-01-01

    One in two survivors experience impairment in touch sensation after stroke. The nature of this impairment is likely associated with changes associated with the functional somatosensory network of the brain; however few studies have examined this. In particular, the impact of lesioned hemisphere has not been investigated. We examined resting state functional connectivity in 28 stroke survivors, 14 with left hemisphere and 14 with right hemisphere lesion, and 14 healthy controls. Contra-lesional hands showed significantly decreased touch discrimination. Whole brain functional connectivity (FC) data was extracted from four seed regions, i.e. primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices in both hemispheres. Whole brain FC maps and Laterality Indices (LI) were calculated for subgroups. Inter-hemispheric FC was greater in healthy controls compared to the combined stroke cohort from the left S1 seed and bilateral S2 seeds. The left lesion subgroup showed decreased FC, relative to controls, from left ipsi-lesional S1 to contra-lesional S1 and to distributed temporal, occipital and parietal regions. In comparison, the right lesion group showed decreased connectivity from contra-lesional left S1 and bilateral S2 to ipsi-lesional parietal operculum (S2), and to occipital and temporal regions. The right lesion group also showed increased intra-hemispheric FC from ipsi-lesional right S1 to inferior parietal regions compared to controls. In comparison to the left lesion group, those with right lesion showed greater intra-hemispheric connectivity from left S1 to left parietal and occipital regions and from right S1 to right angular and parietal regions. Laterality Indices were significantly greater for stroke subgroups relative to matched controls for contra-lesional S1 (left lesion group) and contra-lesional S2 (both groups). We provide evidence of altered functional connectivity within the somatosensory network, across both hemispheres, and to other networks in stroke

  5. Altered temporal features of intrinsic connectivity networks in boys with combined type of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xun-Heng; Li, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Temporal patterns within ICNs provide new way to investigate ADHD brains. • ADHD exhibits enhanced temporal activities within and between ICNs. • Network-wise ALFF influences functional connectivity between ICNs. • Univariate patterns within ICNs are correlated to behavior scores. - Abstract: Purpose: Investigating the altered temporal features within and between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) for boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and analyzing the relationships between altered temporal features within ICNs and behavior scores. Materials and methods: A cohort of boys with combined type of ADHD and a cohort of age-matched healthy boys were recruited from ADHD-200 Consortium. All resting-state fMRI datasets were preprocessed and normalized into standard brain space. Using general linear regression, 20 ICNs were taken as spatial templates to analyze the time-courses of ICNs for each subject. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) were computed as univariate temporal features within ICNs. Pearson correlation coefficients and node strengths were computed as bivariate temporal features between ICNs. Additional correlation analysis was performed between temporal features of ICNs and behavior scores. Results: ADHD exhibited more activated network-wise ALFF than normal controls in attention and default mode-related network. Enhanced functional connectivities between ICNs were found in ADHD. The network-wise ALFF within ICNs might influence the functional connectivity between ICNs. The temporal pattern within posterior default mode network (pDMN) was positively correlated to inattentive scores. The subcortical network, fusiform-related DMN and attention-related networks were negatively correlated to Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores. Conclusion: The temporal low frequency oscillations of ICNs in boys with ADHD were more activated than normal controls during resting state; the temporal features within ICNs could

  6. Altered temporal features of intrinsic connectivity networks in boys with combined type of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xun-Heng, E-mail: xhwang@hdu.edu.cn [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Li, Lihua [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Temporal patterns within ICNs provide new way to investigate ADHD brains. • ADHD exhibits enhanced temporal activities within and between ICNs. • Network-wise ALFF influences functional connectivity between ICNs. • Univariate patterns within ICNs are correlated to behavior scores. - Abstract: Purpose: Investigating the altered temporal features within and between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) for boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and analyzing the relationships between altered temporal features within ICNs and behavior scores. Materials and methods: A cohort of boys with combined type of ADHD and a cohort of age-matched healthy boys were recruited from ADHD-200 Consortium. All resting-state fMRI datasets were preprocessed and normalized into standard brain space. Using general linear regression, 20 ICNs were taken as spatial templates to analyze the time-courses of ICNs for each subject. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) were computed as univariate temporal features within ICNs. Pearson correlation coefficients and node strengths were computed as bivariate temporal features between ICNs. Additional correlation analysis was performed between temporal features of ICNs and behavior scores. Results: ADHD exhibited more activated network-wise ALFF than normal controls in attention and default mode-related network. Enhanced functional connectivities between ICNs were found in ADHD. The network-wise ALFF within ICNs might influence the functional connectivity between ICNs. The temporal pattern within posterior default mode network (pDMN) was positively correlated to inattentive scores. The subcortical network, fusiform-related DMN and attention-related networks were negatively correlated to Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores. Conclusion: The temporal low frequency oscillations of ICNs in boys with ADHD were more activated than normal controls during resting state; the temporal features within ICNs could

  7. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder: a perfusion MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baojuan; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hong-Bing; Yin, Hong

    2013-03-01

    The majority of studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) so far have focused on delineating patterns of activations during cognitive processes. Recently, more and more researches have started to investigate functional connectivity in PTSD subjects using BOLD-fMRI. Functional connectivity analysis has been demonstrated as a powerful approach to identify biomarkers of different brain diseases. This study aimed to detect resting-state functional connectivity abnormities in patients with PTSD using arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI. As a completely non-invasive technique, ASL allows quantitative estimates of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Compared with BOLD-fMRI, ASL fMRI has many advantages, including less low-frequency signal drifts, superior functional localization, etc. In the current study, ASL images were collected from 10 survivors in mining disaster with recent onset PTSD and 10 survivors without PTSD. Decreased regional CBF in the right middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and postcentral gyrus was detected in the PTSD patients. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis was performed using an area in the right middle temporal gyrus as region of interest. Compared with the non-PTSD group, the PTSD subjects demonstrated increased functional connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right superior temporal gyrus, the left middle temporal gyrus. Meanwhile, decreased functional connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right postcentral gyrus, the right superior parietal lobule was also found in the PTSD patients. This is the first study which investigated resting-state functional connectivity in PTSD using ASL images. The results may provide new insight into the neural substrates of PTSD.

  8. Hippocampal Atrophy Is Associated with Altered Hippocampus-Posterior Cingulate Cortex Connectivity in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampal Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Y C; Tseng, C E; Lin, F-H; Liou, H H; Tseng, W Y I

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis have structural and functional abnormalities in the mesial temporal regions. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of the epileptic network in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis, we aimed to clarify the relationships between hippocampal atrophy and the altered connection between the hippocampus and the posterior cingulate cortex in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Fifteen patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis and 15 healthy controls were included in the study. Multicontrast MR imaging, including high-resolution T1WI, diffusion spectrum imaging, and resting-state fMRI, was performed to measure the hippocampal volume, structural connectivity of the inferior cingulum bundle, and intrinsic functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the posterior cingulate cortex, respectively. Compared with controls, patients had decreased left hippocampal volume (volume ratio of the hippocampus and controls, 0.366% ± 0.029%; patients, 0.277% ± 0.063%, corrected P = .002), structural connectivity of the bilateral inferior cingulum bundle (generalized fractional anisotropy, left: controls, 0.234 ± 0.020; patients, 0.193 ± 0.022, corrected P = .0001, right: controls, 0.226 ± 0.022; patients, 0.208 ± 0.017, corrected P = .047), and intrinsic functional connectivity between the left hippocampus and the left posterior cingulate cortex (averaged z-value: controls, 0.314 ± 0.152; patients, 0.166 ± 0.062). The left hippocampal volume correlated with structural connectivity positively (standardized β = 0.864, P = .001), but it had little correlation with intrinsic functional connectivity (standardized β = -0.329, P = .113). On the contralesional side, the hippocampal volume did not show any significant correlation with structural connectivity or intrinsic functional connectivity ( F 2,12 = 0.284, P = .757, R 2

  9. Altered Functional Connectivity of the Default Mode Network in Low-Empathy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Jun; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Han, Kiwan; Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Jae Jin; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Ji Woong

    2017-09-01

    Empathy is the ability to identify with or make a vicariously experience of another person's feelings or thoughts based on memory and/or self-referential mental simulation. The default mode network in particular is related to self-referential empathy. In order to elucidate the possible neural mechanisms underlying empathy, we investigated the functional connectivity of the default mode network in subjects from a general population. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 19 low-empathy subjects and 18 medium-empathy subjects. An independent component analysis was used to identify the default mode network, and differences in functional connectivity strength were compared between the two groups. The low-empathy group showed lower functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann areas 9 and 32) within the default mode network, compared to the medium-empathy group. The results of the present study suggest that empathy is related to functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex within the default mode network. Functional decreases in connectivity among low-empathy subjects may reflect an impairment of self-referential mental simulation. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  10. Altered resting state cortico-striatal connectivity in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s disease

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    Youngbin Kwak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by dopamine depletion in the striatum. One consistent pathophysiological hallmark of PD is an increase in spontaneous oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia thalamocortical networks. We evaluated these effects using resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s patients on and off L-DOPA and age-matched controls using six different striatal seed regions. We observed an overall increase in the strength of cortico-striatal functional connectivity in PD patients off L-DOPA compared to controls. This enhanced connectivity was down-regulated by L-DOPA as shown by an overall decrease in connectivity strength, particularly within motor cortical regions. We also performed a frequency content analysis of the BOLD signal time course extracted from the six striatal seed regions. PD off L-DOPA exhibited increased power in the frequency band 0.02 – 0.05 Hz compared to controls and to PD on L-DOPA. The L-DOPA associated decrease in the power of this frequency range modulated the L-DOPA associated decrease in connectivity strength between striatal seeds and the thalamus. In addition, the L-DOPA associated decrease in power in this frequency band also correlated with the L-DOPA associated improvement in cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that PD and L-DOPA modulate striatal resting state BOLD signal oscillations and corticostriatal network coherence.

  11. Altered effective connectivity within default mode network in major depression disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Baojuan; Bai, Yuanhan; Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Linchuan; Cui, Longbiao; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the neural basis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is important for the diagnosis and treatment of this mental disorder. The default mode network (DMN) is considered to be highly involved in the MDD. To find directed interaction between DMN regions associated with the development of MDD, the effective connectivity within the DMN of the MDD patients and matched healthy controls was estimated by using a recently developed spectral dynamic causal modeling. Sixteen patients with MDD and sixteen matched healthy control subjects were included in this study. While the control group underwent the resting state fMRI scan just once, all patients underwent resting state fMRI scans before and after two months' treatment. The spectral dynamic causal modeling was used to estimate directed connections between four DMN nodes. Statistical analysis on connection strengths indicated that efferent connections from the medial frontal cortex (MFC) to posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and to right parietal cortex (RPC) were significant higher in pretreatment MDD patients than those of the control group. After two-month treatment, the efferent connections from the MFC decreased significantly, while those from the left parietal cortex (LPC) to MFC, PCC and RPC showed a significant increase. These findings suggest that the MFC may play an important role for inhibitory conditioning of the DMN, which was disrupted in MDD patients. It also indicates that disrupted suppressive function of the MFC could be effectively restored after two-month treatment.

  12. Income change alters default mode network connectivity for adolescents in poverty

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    David G. Weissman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing poverty during childhood and adolescence may affect brain function. However, income is dynamic, and studies have not addressed whether income change relates to brain function. In the present study, we investigated whether intrinsic functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN regions was influenced by mean family income and family income change. Parents of 68 Mexican-origin adolescents (35 females reported family income annually when adolescents were 10–16 years old. Intercept and slope of income at each of these ages were calculated for each participant. At age 16 years, adolescents completed a resting state functional neuroimaging scan. Adolescents from high and low income families did not differ in their functional connectivity, but for adolescents in families with lower incomes, their connectivity patterns depended on their income slope. Low-income adolescents whose income increased demonstrated greater connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, both DMN regions, and between the PCC and the right inferior frontal gyrus. Increases in income were associated with greater connectivity of the mPFC with the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule regardless of mean income. Increases in income, especially among adolescents in poverty, may alleviate stressors, influencing the development of brain networks. Keywords: Adversity, Brain, fMRI, Resting state, Socio-economic status, Youth

  13. Income change alters default mode network connectivity for adolescents in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David G; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W; Hastings, Paul D; Guyer, Amanda E

    2018-04-01

    Experiencing poverty during childhood and adolescence may affect brain function. However, income is dynamic, and studies have not addressed whether income change relates to brain function. In the present study, we investigated whether intrinsic functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN) regions was influenced by mean family income and family income change. Parents of 68 Mexican-origin adolescents (35 females) reported family income annually when adolescents were 10-16 years old. Intercept and slope of income at each of these ages were calculated for each participant. At age 16 years, adolescents completed a resting state functional neuroimaging scan. Adolescents from high and low income families did not differ in their functional connectivity, but for adolescents in families with lower incomes, their connectivity patterns depended on their income slope. Low-income adolescents whose income increased demonstrated greater connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), both DMN regions, and between the PCC and the right inferior frontal gyrus. Increases in income were associated with greater connectivity of the mPFC with the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule regardless of mean income. Increases in income, especially among adolescents in poverty, may alleviate stressors, influencing the development of brain networks. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Subjective Cognitive Decline Is Associated With Altered Default Mode Network Connectivity in Individuals With a Family History of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Sander C J; Pichet Binette, Alexa; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Tabrizi, Shirin; Savard, Mélissa; Bellec, Pierre; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Breitner, John C S; Villeneuve, Sylvia

    2018-05-01

    Both subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and a family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) portend risk of brain abnormalities and progression to dementia. Posterior default mode network (pDMN) connectivity is altered early in the course of AD. It is unclear whether SCD predicts similar outcomes in cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD. We studied 124 asymptomatic individuals with a family history of AD (age 64 ± 5 years). Participants were categorized as having SCD if they reported that their memory was becoming worse (SCD + ). We used extensive neuropsychological assessment to investigate five different cognitive domain performances at baseline (n = 124) and 1 year later (n = 59). We assessed interconnectivity among three a priori defined ROIs: pDMN, anterior ventral DMN, medial temporal memory system (MTMS), and the connectivity of each with the rest of brain. Sixty-eight (55%) participants reported SCD. Baseline cognitive performance was comparable between groups (all false discovery rate-adjusted p values > .05). At follow-up, immediate and delayed memory improved across groups, but the improvement in immediate memory was reduced in SCD + compared with SCD - (all false discovery rate-adjusted p values < .05). When compared with SCD - , SCD + subjects showed increased pDMN-MTMS connectivity (false discovery rate-adjusted p < .05). Higher connectivity between the MTMS and the rest of the brain was associated with better baseline immediate memory, attention, and global cognition, whereas higher MTMS and pDMN-MTMS connectivity were associated with lower immediate memory over time (all false discovery rate-adjusted p values < .05). SCD in cognitively normal individuals is associated with diminished immediate memory practice effects and a brain connectivity pattern that mirrors early AD-related connectivity failure. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA. Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  16. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in patients with chronic bilateral vestibular failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Göttlich

    2014-01-01

    Using whole brain resting-state connectivity analysis in BVF patients we show that enduring bilateral deficient or missing vestibular input leads to changes in resting-state connectivity of the brain. These changes in the resting brain are robust and task-independent as they were found in the absence of sensory stimulation and without a region-related a priori hypothesis. Therefore they may indicate a fundamental disease-related change in the resting brain. They may account for the patients' persistent deficits in visuo-spatial attention, spatial orientation and unsteadiness. The relation of increasing connectivity in the inferior parietal lobe, specifically SMG, to improvement of VOR during active head movements reflects cortical plasticity in BVF and may play a clinical role in vestibular rehabilitation.

  17. Altered Functional Connectivity of Insular Subregions in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyun Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches have demonstrated that the insula is the crucial hub of the human brain networks and most vulnerable region of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, little is known about the changes of functional connectivity of insular subregions in the AD patients. In this study, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data including 32 AD patients and 38 healthy controls (HCs. By defining three subregions of insula, we mapped whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC and identified several distinct RSFC patterns of the insular subregions: For positive connectivity, three cognitive-related RSFC patterns were identified within insula that suggest anterior-to-posterior functional subdivisions: (1 an dorsal anterior zone of the insula that exhibits RSFC with executive control network (ECN; (2 a ventral anterior zone of insula, exhibits functional connectivity with the salience network (SN; (3 a posterior zone along the insula exhibits functional connectivity with the sensorimotor network (SMN. In addition, we found significant negative connectivities between the each insular subregion and several special default mode network (DMN regions. Compared with controls, the AD patients demonstrated distinct disruption of positive RSFCs in the different network (ECN and SMN, suggesting the impairment of the functional integrity. There were no differences of the positive RSFCs in the SN between the two groups. On the other hand, several DMN regions showed increased negative RSFCs to the sub-region of insula in the AD patients, indicating compensatory plasticity. Furthermore, these abnormal insular subregions RSFCs are closely correlated with cognitive performances in the AD patients. Our findings suggested that different insular subregions presented distinct RSFC patterns with various functional networks, which are differently affected in the AD patients.

  18. Mind-wandering and alterations to default mode network connectivity when listening to naturalistic versus artificial sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould van Praag, Cassandra D; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Sparasci, Oliver; Mees, Alex; Philippides, Andrew O; Ware, Mark; Ottaviani, Cristina; Critchley, Hugo D

    2017-03-27

    Naturalistic environments have been demonstrated to promote relaxation and wellbeing. We assess opposing theoretical accounts for these effects through investigation of autonomic arousal and alterations of activation and functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) of the brain while participants listened to sounds from artificial and natural environments. We found no evidence for increased DMN activity in the naturalistic compared to artificial or control condition, however, seed based functional connectivity showed a shift from anterior to posterior midline functional coupling in the naturalistic condition. These changes were accompanied by an increase in peak high frequency heart rate variability, indicating an increase in parasympathetic activity in the naturalistic condition in line with the Stress Recovery Theory of nature exposure. Changes in heart rate and the peak high frequency were correlated with baseline functional connectivity within the DMN and baseline parasympathetic tone respectively, highlighting the importance of individual neural and autonomic differences in the response to nature exposure. Our findings may help explain reported health benefits of exposure to natural environments, through identification of alterations to autonomic activity and functional coupling within the DMN when listening to naturalistic sounds.

  19. Altered resting-state network connectivity in stroke patients with and without apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Anneliese B; Robin, Donald A; Parkinson, Amy L; Duffy, Joseph R; McNeil, Malcom R; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael; Price, Cathy J; Eickhoff, Simon B; Ballard, Kirrie J

    2015-01-01

    Motor speech disorders, including apraxia of speech (AOS), account for over 50% of the communication disorders following stroke. Given its prevalence and impact, and the need to understand its neural mechanisms, we used resting state functional MRI to examine functional connectivity within a network of regions previously hypothesized as being associated with AOS (bilateral anterior insula (aINS), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and ventral premotor cortex (PM)) in a group of 32 left hemisphere stroke patients and 18 healthy, age-matched controls. Two expert clinicians rated severity of AOS, dysarthria and nonverbal oral apraxia of the patients. Fifteen individuals were categorized as AOS and 17 were AOS-absent. Comparison of connectivity in patients with and without AOS demonstrated that AOS patients had reduced connectivity between bilateral PM, and this reduction correlated with the severity of AOS impairment. In addition, AOS patients had negative connectivity between the left PM and right aINS and this effect decreased with increasing severity of non-verbal oral apraxia. These results highlight left PM involvement in AOS, begin to differentiate its neural mechanisms from those of other motor impairments following stroke, and help inform us of the neural mechanisms driving differences in speech motor planning and programming impairment following stroke.

  20. Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to evaluate microstructural changes in intramuscular connective tissue of beef semimembranosus muscle subjected to hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP). Samples were HDP treated in a plastic container (HDP-PC) or a steel commercial unit (HDP-CU). C...

  1. Altered resting-state network connectivity in stroke patients with and without apraxia of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneliese B. New

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor speech disorders, including apraxia of speech (AOS, account for over 50% of the communication disorders following stroke. Given its prevalence and impact, and the need to understand its neural mechanisms, we used resting state functional MRI to examine functional connectivity within a network of regions previously hypothesized as being associated with AOS (bilateral anterior insula (aINS, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, and ventral premotor cortex (PM in a group of 32 left hemisphere stroke patients and 18 healthy, age-matched controls. Two expert clinicians rated severity of AOS, dysarthria and nonverbal oral apraxia of the patients. Fifteen individuals were categorized as AOS and 17 were AOS-absent. Comparison of connectivity in patients with and without AOS demonstrated that AOS patients had reduced connectivity between bilateral PM, and this reduction correlated with the severity of AOS impairment. In addition, AOS patients had negative connectivity between the left PM and right aINS and this effect decreased with increasing severity of non-verbal oral apraxia. These results highlight left PM involvement in AOS, begin to differentiate its neural mechanisms from those of other motor impairments following stroke, and help inform us of the neural mechanisms driving differences in speech motor planning and programming impairment following stroke.

  2. Postoperative seizure freedom does not normalize altered connectivity in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccotta, Luigi; Lopez, Mayra A; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Ances, Beau M; Day, Brian K; Eisenman, Lawrence N; Dowling, Joshua L; Leuthardt, Eric C; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Hogan, Robert Edward

    2017-11-01

    Specific changes in the functional connectivity of brain networks occur in patients with epilepsy. Yet whether such changes reflect a stable disease effect or one that is a function of active seizure burden remains unclear. Here, we longitudinally assessed the connectivity of canonical cognitive functional networks in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), both before and after patients underwent epilepsy surgery and achieved seizure freedom. Seventeen patients with intractable TLE who underwent epilepsy surgery with Engel class I outcome and 17 matched healthy controls took part in the study. The functional connectivity of a set of cognitive functional networks derived from typical cognitive tasks was assessed in patients, preoperatively and postoperatively, as well as in controls, using stringent methods of artifact reduction. Preoperatively, functional networks in TLE patients differed significantly from healthy controls, with differences that largely, but not exclusively, involved the default mode and temporal/auditory subnetworks. However, undergoing epilepsy surgery and achieving seizure freedom did not lead to significant changes in network connectivity, with postoperative functional network abnormalities closely mirroring the preoperative state. This result argues for a stable chronic effect of the disease on brain connectivity, with changes that are largely "burned in" by the time a patient with intractable TLE undergoes epilepsy surgery, which typically occurs years after the initial diagnosis. The result has potential implications for the treatment of intractable epilepsy, suggesting that delaying surgical intervention that may achieve seizure freedom may lead to functional network changes that are no longer reversible by the time of epilepsy surgery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Altered Amygdala Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Hemispheric Asymmetry in Patients With Social Anxiety Disorder

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    Ye-Ha Jung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The amygdala plays a key role in emotional hyperreactivity in response to social threat in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FCN of the left and right amygdala with various brain regions and functional lateralization in patients with SAD.Methods: A total of 36 patients with SAD and 42 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at rest. Using the left and right amygdala as seed regions, we compared the strength of the rs-FCN in the patient and control groups. Furthermore, we investigated group differences in the hemispheric asymmetry of the functional connectivity maps of the left and right amygdala.Results: Compared with healthy controls, the rs-FCN between the left amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was reduced in patients with SAD, whereas left amygdala connectivity with the fusiform gyrus, anterior insula, supramarginal gyrus, and precuneus was increased or positively deflected in the patient group. Additionally, the strength rs-FCN between the left amygdala and anterior insula was positively associated with the severity of the fear of negative evaluation in patients with SAD (r = 0.338, p = 0.044. The rs-FCN between the right amygdala and medial frontal gyrus was decreased in patients with SAD compared with healthy controls, whereas connectivity with the parahippocampal gyrus was greater in the patient group than in the control group. The hemispheric asymmetry patterns in the anterior insula, intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and inferior frontal gyrus of the patient group were opposite those of the control group, and functional lateralization of the connectivity between the amygdala and the IPS was associated with the severity of social anxiety symptoms (r = 0.365, p = 0.037.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in addition to impaired fronto-amygdala communication, the functional lateralization of amygdala function

  4. Altered cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity in relation to spatial working memory capacity in children with ADHD

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    Kathryn L. Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD captures a heterogeneous group of children, who are characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Previous resting state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI studies have sought to understand the neural correlates of ADHD by comparing connectivity measurements between those with and without the disorder, focusing primarily on cortical-striatal circuits mediated by the thalamus. To integrate the multiple phenotypic features associated with ADHD and help resolve its heterogeneity, it is helpful to determine how specific circuits relate to unique cognitive domains of the ADHD syndrome. Spatial working memory has been proposed as a key mechanism in the pathophysiology of ADHD.Methods: We correlated the rs-fcMRI of five thalamic regions of interest with spatial span working memory scores in a sample of 67 children aged 7-11 years (ADHD and typically developing children; TDC. In an independent dataset, we then examined group differences in thalamo-striatal functional connectivity between 70 ADHD and 89 TDC (7-11 years from the ADHD-200 dataset. Thalamic regions of interest were created based on previous methods that utilize known thalamo-cortical loops and rs-fcMRI to identify functional boundaries in the thalamus.Results/Conclusions: Using these thalamic regions, we found atypical rs-fcMRI between specific thalamic groupings with the basal ganglia. To identify the thalamic connections that relate to spatial working memory in ADHD, only connections identified in both the correlational and comparative analyses were considered. Multiple connections between the thalamus and basal ganglia, particularly between medial and anterior dorsal thalamus and the putamen, were related to spatial working memory and also altered in ADHD. These thalamo-striatal disruptions may be one of multiple atypical neural and cognitive mechanisms that relate to the ADHD clinical phenotype.

  5. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study.

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    Sophia Mueller

    Full Text Available Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA. We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, voxel-based morphometry (VBM and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male. Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration.

  6. Altered functional connectivity architecture of the brain in medication overuse headache using resting state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiye; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Mengqi; Dong, Zhao; Ma, Lin; Yu, Shengyuan

    2017-12-01

    Functional connectivity density (FCD) could identify the abnormal intrinsic and spontaneous activity over the whole brain, and a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) could further reveal the altered functional network with the identified brain regions. This may be an effective assessment strategy for headache research. This study is to investigate the RSFC architecture changes of the brain in the patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) using FCD and RSFC methods. 3D structure images and resting-state functional MRI data were obtained from 37 MOH patients, 18 episodic migraine (EM) patients and 32 normal controls (NCs). FCD was calculated to detect the brain regions with abnormal functional activity over the whole brain, and the seed-based RSFC was performed to explore the functional network changes in MOH and EM. The decreased FCD located in right parahippocampal gyrus, and the increased FCD located in left inferior parietal gyrus and right supramarginal gyrus in MOH compared with NC, and in right caudate and left insula in MOH compared with EM. RSFC revealed that decreased functional connectivity of the brain regions with decreased FCD anchored in the right dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex, right frontopolar cortex in MOH, and in left temporopolar cortex and bilateral visual cortices in EM compared with NC, and in frontal-temporal-parietal pattern in MOH compared with EM. These results provided evidence that MOH and EM suffered from altered intrinsic functional connectivity architecture, and the current study presented a new perspective for understanding the neuromechanism of MOH and EM pathogenesis.

  7. Herniated lumbar intervertebral disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochhauser, L.; Cacayorin, E.D.; Karcnik, T.J.; McGowan, D.P.; Clark, K.G.; Storrs, D.; Kieffer, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    From a series of 25 patients with low-back pain and sciatica who subsequently underwent surgical exploration, 24 lumbar herniated disks and one asymmetrically bulging disk were correctly diagnosed with use of a 0.5-T MR imaging unit. The radiologic findings on saggital images included a polypoid protrusion beyond the posterior margin of the vertebral bodies more clearly displayed with T1-weighted than with T-2 weighted sequences and a focal extension into the extradural space on axial views. In most, the signal intensity of HNP was isointense to the disk of origin. The study suggests that MR imaging is currently capable of accurately predicting an HNP. The diagnosis is based primarily on morphologic characteristics rather than signal intensity alterations

  8. Zebrafish Get Connected: Investigating Neurotransmission Targets and Alterations in Chemical Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine A. Horzmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmission is the basis of neuronal communication and is critical for normal brain development, behavior, learning, and memory. Exposure to drugs and chemicals can alter neurotransmission, often through unknown pathways and mechanisms. The zebrafish (Danio rerio model system is increasingly being used to study the brain and chemical neurotoxicity. In this review, the major neurotransmitter systems, including glutamate, GABA, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and glutamate are surveyed and pathways of synthesis, transport, metabolism, and action are examined. Differences between human and zebrafish neurochemical pathways are highlighted. We also review techniques for evaluating neurological function, including the measurement of neurotransmitter levels, assessment of gene expression through transcriptomic analysis, and the recording of neurobehavior. Finally examples of chemical toxicity studies evaluating alterations in neurotransmitter systems in the zebrafish model are reviewed.

  9. Altered resting-state network connectivity in stroke patients with and without apraxia of speech

    OpenAIRE

    New, Anneliese B.; Robin, Donald A.; Parkinson, Amy L.; Duffy, Joseph R.; McNeil, Malcom R.; Piguet, Olivier; Hornberger, Michael; Price, Cathy J.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Motor speech disorders, including apraxia of speech (AOS), account for over 50% of the communication disorders following stroke. Given its prevalence and impact, and the need to understand its neural mechanisms, we used resting state functional MRI to examine functional connectivity within a network of regions previously hypothesized as being associated with AOS (bilateral anterior insula (aINS), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and ventral premotor cortex (PM)) in a group of 32 left hemisphere ...

  10. Early brain connectivity alterations and cognitive impairment in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz-Moreno, Emma; Tudela, Raúl; López-Gil, Xavier; Soria, Guadalupe

    2018-01-01

    Background Animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are essential to understanding the disease progression and to development of early biomarkers. Because AD has been described as a disconnection syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based connectomics provides a highly translational approach to characterizing the disruption in connectivity associated with the disease. In this study, a transgenic rat model of AD (TgF344-AD) was analyzed to describe both cognitive performance and brain c...

  11. Alterations in conflict monitoring are related to functional connectivity in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg-Katz, Keren; Maidan, Inbal; Jacob, Yael; Giladi, Nir; Mirelman, Anat; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have difficulties in executive functions including conflict monitoring. The neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties are not yet fully understood. In order to examine the neural mechanisms related to conflict monitoring in PD, we evaluated 35 patients with PD and 20 healthy older adults while they performed a word-color Stroop paradigm in the MRI. Specifically, we focused on changes between the groups in task-related functional connectivity using psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is a brain node previously associated with the Stroop paradigm, was selected as the seed region for this analysis. Patients with PD, as compared to healthy controls, had reduced task-related functional connectivity between the ACC and parietal regions including the precuneus and inferior parietal lobe. This was seen only in the incongruent Stroop condition. A higher level of connectivity between the ACC and precuneus was correlated with a lower error rate in the conflicting, incongruent Stroop condition in the healthy controls, but not in the patients with PD. Furthermore, the patients also had reduced functional connectivity between the ACC and the superior frontal gyrus which was present in both the incongruent and congruent task condition. The present findings shed light on brain mechanisms that are apparently associated with specific cognitive difficulties in patients with PD. Among patients with PD, impaired conflict monitoring processing within the ACC-based fronto-parietal network may contribute to difficulties under increased executive demands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alterations of Intrinsic Connectivity Networks in Antipsychotic-Naïve First-Episode Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anhøj, Simon; Ødegaard Nielsen, Mette; Jensen, Maria Høj

    2018-01-01

    Background: The investigation of large-scale intrinsic connectivity networks in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia increases our understanding of system-level cerebral dysfunction in schizophrenia while enabling control of confounding effects of medication and disease progression. Re......-parietal networks suggested to be involved in the control of cognitive and sensory functions. Moreover, the present study suggests that the problem of not disengaging the VAN leads to difficulties with attention and possibly subjective awareness....

  13. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform–amygdalar effective connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H.; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-01-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform–amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. PMID:24298171

  14. How music alters a kiss: superior temporal gyrus controls fusiform-amygdalar effective connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrs, Corinna; Deserno, Lorenz; Bakels, Jan-Hendrik; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Koelsch, Stefan; Kuchinke, Lars

    2014-11-01

    While watching movies, the brain integrates the visual information and the musical soundtrack into a coherent percept. Multisensory integration can lead to emotion elicitation on which soundtrack valences may have a modulatory impact. Here, dynamic kissing scenes from romantic comedies were presented to 22 participants (13 females) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The kissing scenes were either accompanied by happy music, sad music or no music. Evidence from cross-modal studies motivated a predefined three-region network for multisensory integration of emotion, consisting of fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala (AMY) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG). The interactions in this network were investigated using dynamic causal models of effective connectivity. This revealed bilinear modulations by happy and sad music with suppression effects on the connectivity from FG and AMY to aSTG. Non-linear dynamic causal modeling showed a suppressive gating effect of aSTG on fusiform-amygdalar connectivity. In conclusion, fusiform to amygdala coupling strength is modulated via feedback through aSTG as region for multisensory integration of emotional material. This mechanism was emotion-specific and more pronounced for sad music. Therefore, soundtrack valences may modulate emotion elicitation in movies by differentially changing preprocessed visual information to the amygdala. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Lumbar facet syndrome - Lumbar facet joint injection and low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Jimenez Hakim, Enrique; Rodriguez, Jose Maria; Hakim Daccach, Fernando; Quinonez, German; Rodriguez Munera, Andres

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted a retrospective study lo evaluate the effectiveness of injection therapy in the lumbar zygapophysial joints with anesthetics and steroids in patients with persisting low back pain and lumbar facer syndrome. Thirty-seven patients with low back pain who reported immediate relief of their pain after controlled blocks into the facet joints between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae and the fifth lumbar and first sacral vertebrae were evaluated. Outcome was evaluated using the visual analog pain scales. All outcome measures were repeated at eight days and six weeks alter controlled injection. At six-week follow-up examination 83,7% of thirty-seven patients experienced a good response to controlled blocks of the lumbar zygaphyseal (facet) joints. Good result is the pain relief of 50% or more. Fifteen patients experienced a good response with pain relief of eight points or more in the VAS

  16. Altered structural connectivity of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbe, Yulia; Marrakchi-Kacem, Linda; Lecomte, Sophie; Valabregue, Romain; Poupon, Fabrice; Guevara, Pamela; Tucholka, Alan; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stephane; Hartmann, Andreas; Poupon, Cyril

    2015-02-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset syndrome characterized by the presence and persistence of motor and vocal tics. A dysfunction of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in this syndrome has been supported by convergent data from neuro-pathological, electrophysiological as well as structural and functional neuroimaging studies. Here, we addressed the question of structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We specifically tested the hypothesis that deviant brain development in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome could affect structural connectivity within the input and output basal ganglia structures and thalamus. To this aim, we acquired data on 49 adult patients and 28 gender and age-matched control subjects on a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We used and further implemented streamline probabilistic tractography algorithms that allowed us to quantify the structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks. To further investigate the microstructure of white matter in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, we also evaluated fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity in these pathways, which are both sensitive to axonal package and to myelin ensheathment. In patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome compared to control subjects, we found white matter abnormalities in neuronal pathways connecting the cerebral cortex, the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Specifically, striatum and thalamus had abnormally enhanced structural connectivity with primary motor and sensory cortices, as well as paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area and parietal cortices. This enhanced connectivity of motor cortex positively correlated with severity of tics measured by the Yale Global Tics Severity Scale and was not influenced by current medication status, age or gender of patients. Independently of the severity of tics, lateral and medial orbito

  17. Altered functional connectivity density in patients with herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong S

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shunda Hong,1,* Lili Gu,2,* Fuqing Zhou,1 Jiaqi Liu,1 Muhua Huang,1 Jian Jiang,1 Laichang He,1 Honghan Gong,1 Xianjun Zeng1 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pain, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in patients with herpes zoster (HZ and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN. Patients and methods: Thirty-three right-handed HZ patients (13 males; mean age 57.15±9.30 years, 22 right-handed PHN patients (9 males; mean age 66.13±6.77 years, and 28 well-matched healthy controls (HC (9 males; mean age 54.21±7.72 years underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging for intrinsic functional connectivity analyses. Functional connectivity density (FCD was calculated and compared among the PHN, HZ, and HC groups. In addition, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to compare various clinical indices in the regions with abnormal FCD values. Results: Compared with the HC, both HZ and PHN patients showed significantly decreased FCD in the precuneus, and patients with HZ displayed significantly increased FCD in the brainstem/limbic lobe/parahippocampalgyrus, whereas patients with PHN displayed significantly increased FCD in the hippocampus (correlation thresholds r=0.25, voxel level of P<0.01 and Gaussian random field theory at a cluster level of P<0.05. However, the FCD was not significantly different between the PHN and HZ patients. Furthermore, the decreased FCD in the precuneus was positively correlated with the visual analog scale score in the PHN group (r=0.672; P=0.001. Conclusion: Decreased connectivity of the precuneus occurred in both HZ and PHN patients, indicating a disrupted default-mode network. Furthermore, in the HZ

  18. Altered auditory processing and effective connectivity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kit Melissa; Mørup, Morten; Birknow, Michelle Rosgaard; Fischer, Elvira; Hulme, Oliver; Vangkilde, Anders; Schmock, Henriette; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Didriksen, Michael; Olsen, Line; Werge, Thomas; Siebner, Hartwig R; Garrido, Marta I

    2018-01-30

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most common copy number variants and confers a markedly increased risk for schizophrenia. As such, 22q11.2DS is a homogeneous genetic liability model which enables studies to delineate functional abnormalities that may precede disease onset. Mismatch negativity (MMN), a brain marker of change detection, is reduced in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Using dynamic causal modelling (DCM), previous studies showed that top-down effective connectivity linking the frontal and temporal cortex is reduced in schizophrenia relative to healthy controls in MMN tasks. In the search for early risk-markers for schizophrenia we investigated the neural basis of change detection in a group with 22q11.2DS. We recorded high-density EEG from 19 young non-psychotic 22q11.2 deletion carriers, as well as from 27 healthy non-carriers with comparable age distribution and sex ratio, while they listened to a sequence of sounds arranged in a roving oddball paradigm. Despite finding no significant reduction in the MMN responses, whole-scalp spatiotemporal analysis of responses to the tones revealed a greater fronto-temporal N1 component in the 22q11.2 deletion carriers. DCM showed reduced intrinsic connection within right primary auditory cortex as well as in the top-down, connection from the right inferior frontal gyrus to right superior temporal gyrus for 22q11.2 deletion carriers although not surviving correction for multiple comparison. We discuss these findings in terms of reduced adaptation and a general increased sensitivity to tones in 22q11.2DS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Altered functional connectivity of fusiform gyrus in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a resting state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuPing eCai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual cognition such as face recognition requires a high level of functional interaction between distributed regions of a network. It has been reported that the fusiform gyrus (FG is an important brain area involved in facial cognition; altered connectivity of FG to some other regions may lead to a deficit in visual cognition especially face recognition. However, whether functional connectivity between the FG and other brain regions changes remains unclear during the resting state in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI subjects. Here, we employed a resting state functional MRI (fMRI to examine changes in functional connectivity of left/right FG comparing aMCI patients with age-matched control subjects. Forty-eight aMCI and thirty-eight control subjects from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI were analyzed. We focused on the correlation between low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in the FG and those in all other brain regions. Compared to the control group, we found some discrepant regions in the aMCI group which presented increased or decreased connectivity with the left/right FG including the left precuneus, left lingual gyrus, right thalamus, supramarginal gyrus, left supplementary motor area, left inferior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampus. More importantly, we also obtained that both left and right FG have increased functional connections with the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG and right anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC in aMCI patients. That was not a coincidence and might imply that the MOG and ACC also play a critical role in visual cognition, especially face recognition. These findings in a large part supported our hypothesis and provided a new insight in understanding the important subtype of MCI.

  20. Alterations of bone skeleton structure in connection with strontium-90 incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, N.V.; Mazhuga, P.M.; Domashevskaya, E.I.; Gorskij, B.A.; Nakorenok, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    By using the methods of histology, electron microscopy and radiochemistry studied the bone skeleton state of animals (mouse like rodents and minks) which live in the 30 km zone of the ChNPP.It was defined contents of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 134 Cs in the bones during 1989-1993 years. There were described changes in histostructure of the periost endost and bone compact of the tubular bones and also in metaepiphyzal growth plate. The mechanisms of the revealed alterations are discussed

  1. Parkinson's disease and pesticides: A meta-analysis of disease connection and genetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hussien; Abushouk, Abdelrahman Ibrahim; Gabr, Mohamed; Negida, Ahmed; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a globally prevalent, multifactorial disorder that occurs due to interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Observational studies have shown a link between exposure to pesticides and the risk of PD. We performed this study to systemically review published case-control studies and estimate quantitatively the association between pesticide exposure and PD. We searched Medline (through PubMed) for eligible case-control studies. The association between pesticide exposure and PD risk or occurrence of certain genetic alterations, related to the pathogenesis of PD was presented as odds ratios (OR) and pooled under the random effects model, using the statistical add-in (MetaXL, version 5.0). The pooled result showed that exposure to pesticides is linked to PD (OR 1.46, 95% CI [1.21, 1.77]), but there was a significant heterogeneity among included studies. Exposure to pesticides increased the risk of alterations in different PD pathogenesis-related genes, such as GST (OR 1.97, 95% CI [1.41, 2.76]), PON-1 (OR 1.32, 95% CI [1.09, 1.6]), MDR1 (OR 2.06, 95% CI [1.58, 2.68]), and SNCA genes (OR 1.28, 95% CI [1.02, 1.37]). There was no statistically significant association between exposure to pesticides and alteration of CYP2D6 (OR 1.19, 95% CI [0.91, 1.54]), SLC6A3 (OR 0.74, 95% CI [0.55, 1]), MnSOD (OR 1.45, 95% CI [0.97, 2.16]), NQO1 (OR 1.35, 95% CI [0.91, 2.01]), and PON-2 genes (OR 0.88, 95% CI [0.53, 1.45]). In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence that pesticide exposure is significantly associated with the risk of PD and alterations in genes involved in PD pathogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of this association and the effect of the duration of exposure or the type of pesticides should be addressed by future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased cortical thickness and altered functional connectivity of the right superior temporal gyrus in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Wang, Junping; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Lu, Fengmei; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2015-01-01

    Altered structure in the temporal cortex has been implicated in the variable language laterality of left-handers (LH). The neuroanatomy of language lateralization and the corresponding synchronous functional connectivity (FC) in handedness cohorts are not, however, fully understood. We used structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to investigate the effect of altered cortical thickness on FC in LH and right-handers (RH). Whole-brain cortical thickness was calculated and compared between the LH and RH. We observed increased cortical thickness in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the LH. A further FC analysis was conducted between the right STG and the remaining voxels in the brain. Compared with RH, the LH showed significantly higher FC in the left STG, right occipital cortex, and lower FC in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Our findings suggest that LH have atypical connectivity in the language network, with an enhanced role of the STG, findings which provide novel insights into the structural and functional substrates underlying the atypical language development of left-handed individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Altering neuronal excitability to preserve network connectivity in a computational model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem de Haan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal hyperactivity and hyperexcitability of the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region is an increasingly observed phenomenon in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD. In later stages, oscillatory slowing and loss of functional connectivity are ubiquitous. Recent evidence suggests that neuronal dynamics have a prominent role in AD pathophysiology, making it a potentially interesting therapeutic target. However, although neuronal activity can be manipulated by various (non-pharmacological means, intervening in a highly integrated system that depends on complex dynamics can produce counterintuitive and adverse effects. Computational dynamic network modeling may serve as a virtual test ground for developing effective interventions. To explore this approach, a previously introduced large-scale neural mass network with human brain topology was used to simulate the temporal evolution of AD-like, activity-dependent network degeneration. In addition, six defense strategies that either enhanced or diminished neuronal excitability were tested against the degeneration process, targeting excitatory and inhibitory neurons combined or separately. Outcome measures described oscillatory, connectivity and topological features of the damaged networks. Over time, the various interventions produced diverse large-scale network effects. Contrary to our hypothesis, the most successful strategy was a selective stimulation of all excitatory neurons in the network; it substantially prolonged the preservation of network integrity. The results of this study imply that functional network damage due to pathological neuronal activity can be opposed by targeted adjustment of neuronal excitability levels. The present approach may help to explore therapeutic effects aimed at preserving or restoring neuronal network integrity and contribute to better-informed intervention choices in future clinical trials in AD.

  4. Multiple fMRI system-level baseline connectivity is disrupted in patients with consciousness alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Athena; Gómez, Francisco; Crone, Julia Sophia; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Tshibanda, Luaba; Noirhomme, Quentin; Thonnard, Marie; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Kirsch, Murielle; Laureys, Steven; Soddu, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    In healthy conditions, group-level fMRI resting state analyses identify ten resting state networks (RSNs) of cognitive relevance. Here, we aim to assess the ten-network model in severely brain-injured patients suffering from disorders of consciousness and to identify those networks which will be most relevant to discriminate between patients and healthy subjects. 300 fMRI volumes were obtained in 27 healthy controls and 53 patients in minimally conscious state (MCS), vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) and coma. Independent component analysis (ICA) reduced data dimensionality. The ten networks were identified by means of a multiple template-matching procedure and were tested on neuronality properties (neuronal vs non-neuronal) in a data-driven way. Univariate analyses detected between-group differences in networks' neuronal properties and estimated voxel-wise functional connectivity in the networks, which were significantly less identifiable in patients. A nearest-neighbor "clinical" classifier was used to determine the networks with high between-group discriminative accuracy. Healthy controls were characterized by more neuronal components compared to patients in VS/UWS and in coma. Compared to healthy controls, fewer patients in MCS and VS/UWS showed components of neuronal origin for the left executive control network, default mode network (DMN), auditory, and right executive control network. The "clinical" classifier indicated the DMN and auditory network with the highest accuracy (85.3%) in discriminating patients from healthy subjects. FMRI multiple-network resting state connectivity is disrupted in severely brain-injured patients suffering from disorders of consciousness. When performing ICA, multiple-network testing and control for neuronal properties of the identified RSNs can advance fMRI system-level characterization. Automatic data-driven patient classification is the first step towards future single-subject objective diagnostics

  5. Traffic pollution exposure is associated with altered brain connectivity in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jesus; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Macià, Dídac; Fenoll, Raquel; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; Forns, Joan; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Capellades, Jaume; Querol, Xavier; Deus, Joan; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Children are more vulnerable to the effects of environmental elements due to their active developmental processes. Exposure to urban air pollution has been associated with poorer cognitive performance, which is thought to be a result of direct interference with brain maturation. We aimed to assess the extent of such potential effects of urban pollution on child brain maturation using general indicators of vehicle exhaust measured in the school environment and a comprehensive imaging evaluation. A group of 263 children, aged 8 to 12 years, underwent MRI to quantify regional brain volumes, tissue composition, myelination, cortical thickness, neural tract architecture, membrane metabolites, functional connectivity in major neural networks and activation/deactivation dynamics during a sensory task. A combined measurement of elemental carbon and NO2 was used as a putative marker of vehicle exhaust. Air pollution exposure was associated with brain changes of a functional nature, with no evident effect on brain anatomy, structure or membrane metabolites. Specifically, a higher content of pollutants was associated with lower functional integration and segregation in key brain networks relevant to both inner mental processes (the default mode network) and stimulus-driven mental operations. Age and performance (motor response speed) both showed the opposite effect to that of pollution, thus indicating that higher exposure is associated with slower brain maturation. In conclusion, urban air pollution appears to adversely affect brain maturation in a critical age with changes specifically concerning the functional domain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered Functional Connectivity of Cognitive-Related Cerebellar Subregions in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia. Previous studies have found disrupted resting state functional connectivities (rsFCs in various brain networks in the AD patients. However, few studies have focused on the rsFCs of the cerebellum and its sub-regions in the AD patients. In this study, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI data including 32 AD patients and 38 healthy controls (HCs. We selected two cognitive-related subregions of the cerebellum as seed region and mapped the whole-brain rsFCs for each subregion. We identified several distinct rsFC patterns of the two cognitive-related cerebellar subregions: default-mode network (DMN, frontoparietal network (FPN, visual network (VN and sensorimotor network (SMN. Compared with the controls, the AD patients showed disrupted rsFCs in several different networks (DMN, VN and SMN, predicting the impairment of the functional integration in the cerebellum. Notably, these abnormal rsFCs of the two cerebellar subregions were closely associated with cognitive performance. Collectively, we demonstrated the distinct rsFCs patterns of cerebellar sub-regions with various functional networks, which were differentially impaired in the AD patients.

  7. Family Nurture Intervention in preterm infants alters frontal cortical functional connectivity assessed by EEG coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M M; Grieve, P G; Stark, R I; Isler, J R; Hofer, M A; Yang, J; Ludwig, R J; Welch, M G

    2015-07-01

    To assess the impact of Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) on cortical function in preterm infants at term age. Family Nurture Intervention is a NICU-based intervention designed to establish emotional connection between mothers and preterm infants. Infants born at 26-34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) were divided into two groups, standard care (SC, N = 49) and FNI (FNI, N = 56). Infants had EEG recordings of ~one hour duration with 124 lead nets between 37 and 44 weeks PMA. Coherence was measured between all pairs of electrodes in ten frequency bands. Data were summarised both within and between 12 regions during two sleep states (active, quiet). Coherence levels were negatively correlated with PMA age in both groups. As compared to SC infants, FNI infants showed significantly lower levels of EEG coherence (1-18 Hz) largely within and between frontal regions. Coherence in FNI infants was decreased in regions where we previously found robust increases in EEG power. As coherence decreases with age, results suggest that FNI may accelerate brain maturation particularly in frontal brain regions, which have been shown in research by others to be involved in regulation of attention, cognition and emotion regulation; domains deficient in preterm infants. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Altered contralateral sensorimotor system organization after experimental hemispherectomy: a structural and functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Willem M; van der Marel, Kajo; van Meer, Maurits P A; van Rijen, Peter C; Gosselaar, Peter H; Braun, Kees P J; Dijkhuizen, Rick M

    2015-08-01

    Hemispherectomy is often followed by remarkable recovery of cognitive and motor functions. This reflects plastic capacities of the remaining hemisphere, involving large-scale structural and functional adaptations. Better understanding of these adaptations may (1) provide new insights in the neuronal configuration and rewiring that underlies sensorimotor outcome restoration, and (2) guide development of rehabilitation strategies to enhance recovery after hemispheric lesioning. We assessed brain structure and function in a hemispherectomy model. With MRI we mapped changes in white matter structural integrity and gray matter functional connectivity in eight hemispherectomized rats, compared with 12 controls. Behavioral testing involved sensorimotor performance scoring. Diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were acquired 7 and 49 days post surgery. Hemispherectomy caused significant sensorimotor deficits that largely recovered within 2 weeks. During the recovery period, fractional anisotropy was maintained and white matter volume and axial diffusivity increased in the contralateral cerebral peduncle, suggestive of preserved or improved white matter integrity despite overall reduced white matter volume. This was accompanied by functional adaptations in the contralateral sensorimotor network. The observed white matter modifications and reorganization of functional network regions may provide handles for rehabilitation strategies improving functional recovery following large lesions.

  9. Altered Structural and Functional Connectivity of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqing Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional connectivity (FC of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and rs-fMRI data were collected in 25 patients with JME and in 24 control subjects. A FC analysis was subsequently performed, with seeding at the regions that demonstrated between-group differences in gray matter volume (GMV. Then, the observed structural and FCs were associated with the clinical manifestations. The decreased GMV regions were found in the bilateral anterior cerebellum, the right orbital superior frontal gyrus, the left middle temporal gyrus, the left putamen, the right hippocampus, the bilateral caudate, and the right thalamus. The changed FCs were mainly observed in the motor-related areas and the cognitive-related areas. The significant findings of this study revealed an important role for the cerebellum in motor control and cognitive regulation in JME patients, which also have an effect on the activity of the occipital lobe. In addition, the changed FCs were related to the clinical features of JME patients. The current observations may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of JME.

  10. (Modic) signal alterations of vertebral endplates and their correlation to a minimally invasive treatment of lumbar disc herniation using epidural injections; (Modic-)Signalveraenderungen vertebraler Endplatten und ihr Bezug zu einer minimalinvasiven Injektionstherapie lumbaler Bandscheibenvorfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liphofer, J.P.; Becker, G.T.; Koester, O. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, St. Josef-Hospital Bochum (Germany); Theodoridis, T. [Klinik fuer Orthopaedie und Unfallchirurgie, St. Josef-Hospital Bochum (Germany); Schmid, G. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Johanna-Etienne-Krankenhaus Neuss (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To study the influence of (Modic) signal alterations (SA) of the cartilage endplate (CEP) of vertebrae L3-S1 on the outcome of an in-patient minimally invasive treatment (MIT), using epidural injections on patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Materials and Methods: The MR images of 59 consecutive patients with LDH within segments L3/L4-L5/S1 undergoing in-patient minimally invasive treatment with epidural injections were evaluated in a clinical study. The (Modic) signal alterations of the CEP were recorded using T1- and T2-weighted sagittal images. On the basis of the T2-weighted sagittal images, the extension and distribution of the SA were measured by dividing each CEP into 9 areas. The outcome of the MIT was recorded using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before and after therapy and in a 3-month follow-up. Within a subgroup of patients (n=35), the distribution and extension of the signal alterations were correlated with the development of the ODI. Results: Segments with LDH showed significantly more (p<0.001) SA of the CEP than segments without LDH. Although the extension of the SA was not dependent on sex, it did increase significantly with age (p=0.017). The outcome after MIT did not depend on the sex and age of the patients or on the type od LDH. The SA extension tended to have a negative correlation with the outcome after MIT after 3 months (p=0.071). A significant negative correlation could be established between the SA extension in the central section of the upper endplate and the outcome after 3 months (p=0.019). (orig.)

  11. LSD alters eyes-closed functional connectivity within the early visual cortex in a retinotopic fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Leor; Sereno, Martin I; Leech, Robert; Kaelen, Mendel; Orban, Csaba; McGonigle, John; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2016-08-01

    The question of how spatially organized activity in the visual cortex behaves during eyes-closed, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-induced "psychedelic imagery" (e.g., visions of geometric patterns and more complex phenomena) has never been empirically addressed, although it has been proposed that under psychedelics, with eyes-closed, the brain may function "as if" there is visual input when there is none. In this work, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) data was analyzed from 10 healthy subjects under the influence of LSD and, separately, placebo. It was suspected that eyes-closed psychedelic imagery might involve transient local retinotopic activation, of the sort typically associated with visual stimulation. To test this, it was hypothesized that, under LSD, patches of the visual cortex with congruent retinotopic representations would show greater RSFC than incongruent patches. Using a retinotopic localizer performed during a nondrug baseline condition, nonadjacent patches of V1 and V3 that represent the vertical or the horizontal meridians of the visual field were identified. Subsequently, RSFC between V1 and V3 was measured with respect to these a priori identified patches. Consistent with our prior hypothesis, the difference between RSFC of patches with congruent retinotopic specificity (horizontal-horizontal and vertical-vertical) and those with incongruent specificity (horizontal-vertical and vertical-horizontal) increased significantly under LSD relative to placebo, suggesting that activity within the visual cortex becomes more dependent on its intrinsic retinotopic organization in the drug condition. This result may indicate that under LSD, with eyes-closed, the early visual system behaves as if it were seeing spatially localized visual inputs. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3031-3040, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Biological alterations resulting from chronic lung irradiation. II. Connective tissue alterations following inhalation of 144Ce fused clay aerosol in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, J.A.; Harris, D.V.; Pfleger, R.C.; Benjamin, S.A.; Belasich, J.J.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol of 144 Ce clay to quantitate the relationship between pulmonary radiation dose and induced fibrosis. Collagen, elastin, glucosamine, and the ratios of elastin/collagen, hydroxyproline/hydroxylysine, and hydroxyproline/proline were determined to indicate changes in connective tissue constituents. Total lung collagen was partitioned into native collagen, soluble collagen, and ultrafilterable hydroxyproline peptides. Increased total lung collagen correlated best with increasing cumulative radiation dose and increasing time after inhalation exposure. The increase in total lung collagen was not seen until more than 4 mo after exposure and a cumulative dose of about 40,000 rad. Soluble collagen and low molecular weight hydroxyproline peptide quantities both increased at 2 mo after exposure and cumulative doses of 20,000 to 27,000 rad. A variable elastin response apparently was not related to either increasing time or increasing radiation dose after exposure. These results indicate that collagen accumulation is an important factor in pulmonary fibrosis. Although collagen synthesis and breakdown were both activated at a relatively early time after inhalation, a significant increase in native collagen (scarring) occurred only when the metabolic balance was altered by protracted time or irradiation after exposure. The interrelationships observed in this study provide insight into the mechanism of fibrosis induced by chronic pulmonary injury. (U.S.)

  13. Alterations in Cortical Sensorimotor Connectivity following Complete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Prospective Resting-State fMRI Study.

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    Akinwunmi Oni-Orisan

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have demonstrated alterations during task-induced brain activation in spinal cord injury (SCI patients. The interruption to structural integrity of the spinal cord and the resultant disrupted flow of bidirectional communication between the brain and the spinal cord might contribute to the observed dynamic reorganization (neural plasticity. However, the effect of SCI on brain resting-state connectivity patterns remains unclear. We undertook a prospective resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI study to explore changes to cortical activation patterns following SCI. With institutional review board approval, rs-fMRI data was obtained in eleven patients with complete cervical SCI (>2 years post injury and nine age-matched controls. The data was processed using the Analysis of Functional Neuroimages software. Region of interest (ROI based analysis was performed to study changes in the sensorimotor network using pre- and post-central gyri as seed regions. Two-sampled t-test was carried out to check for significant differences between the two groups. SCI patients showed decreased functional connectivity in motor and sensory cortical regions when compared to controls. The decrease was noted in ipsilateral, contralateral, and interhemispheric regions for left and right precentral ROIs. Additionally, the left postcentral ROI demonstrated increased connectivity with the thalamus bilaterally in SCI patients. Our results suggest that cortical activation patterns in the sensorimotor network undergo dynamic reorganization following SCI. The presence of these changes in chronic spinal cord injury patients is suggestive of the inherent neural plasticity within the central nervous system.

  14. Alterations of White Matter Integrity and Hippocampal Functional Connectivity in Type 2 Diabetes Without Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Qian Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the white matter (WM integrity and hippocampal functional connectivity (FC in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients without mild cognitive impairment (MCI by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI, respectively.Methods: Twelve T2DM patients without MCI and 24 age, sex and education matched healthy controls (HC were recruited. DTI and rs-fMRI data were subsequently acquired on a 3.0T MR scanner. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS combining region of interests (ROIs analysis was used to investigate the alterations of DTI metrics (fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, λ1 and λ23 and FC measurement was performed to calculate hippocampal FC with other brain regions. Cognitive function was evaluated by using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. Brain volumes were also evaluated among these participants.Results: There were no difference of MMSE and MoCA scores between two groups. Neither whole brain nor regional brain volume decrease was revealed in T2DM patients without MCI. DTI analysis revealed extensive WM disruptions, especially in the body of corpus callosum (CC. Significant decreases of hippocampal FC with certain brain structures were revealed, especially with the bilateral frontal cortex. Furthermore, the decreased FA in left posterior thalamic radiation (PTR and increased MD in the splenium of CC were closely related with the decreased hippocampal FC to caudate nucleus and frontal cortex.Conclusions: T2DM patients without MCI showed extensive WM disruptions and abnormal hippocampal FC. Moreover, the WM disruptions and abnormal hippocampal FC were closely associated.Highlights-T2DM patients without MCI demonstrated no obvious brain volume decrease.-Extensive white matter disruptions, especially within the body of corpus callosum, were revealed with DTI analysis among the T2DM patients.-Despite no MCI in T2

  15. Alterations in visual cortical activation and connectivity with prefrontal cortex during working memory updating in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thang M; Borghi, John A; Kujawa, Autumn J; Klein, Daniel N; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2017-01-01

    alterations in activity patterns of the visual association areas, their connectivity with the prefrontal cortex, and their relationship with core clinical characteristics. These results highlight the role of information updating deficits in the cognitive control and symptomatology of depression.

  16. Radiological assessment of loss of disc height during acute and chronic degenerative lumbar disc alterations; Radiologische Beurteilung der segmentalen Hoehenabnahme bei akuten und chronisch degenerativen lumbalen Bandscheibenveraenderungen

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    Zoellner, J.; Sancaktaroglu, T.; Nafe, B.; Eysel, P. [Orthopaedische Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany); Loew, R. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    Aim of the study: A loss of disc height with increasing segmental mobility is an important reason for low back pain. The measurement of hyaluronic acid content of the nucleus pulposus prolaps shows a difference between acute (group 1) and chronic (group 2) disc degeneration. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the decreasing of disc height between these two groups and the no-symptomatic segments of these patients. Methods: 20 human lateral preoperative X-ray measurements according to Frobin et al. were taken; group 1 with 7 patients (mean age 41 years) and group 2 with 13 patients (mean age 44 years). Results: There was a significant tendency (p=0.091) to a reduction of disc height in group 2 between symptomatic and asymptomatic discs. Conclusion: The used method is not suitable to answer the present question conclusively. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die segmentale Hoehenabnahme der Bandscheibe mit nachfolgender Instabilitaet im Rahmen von degenerativen lumbalen Bandscheibenerkrankungen hat eine wesentliche klinische Bedeutung. In einer vorgeschalteten Untersuchung konnte ueber die Bestimmung des Hyaluronsaeuregehaltes von Nucleus pulposus-Material der Grad der Bandscheibendegeneration beurteilt werden. Die Frage ist, ob hier ein praeoperativ radiologisch nachweisbarer Hoehenunterschied zwischen den akuten (Gruppe 1) und den chronischen (Gruppe 2) Bandscheibenvorfaellen im Vergleich zu den klinisch nicht betroffenen Bandscheibensegmenten der Patienten besteht? Methode: Es wurden 20 konsekutive praeoperative seitliche Roentgenaufnahmen der Lendenwirbelsaeule nach der Methode von Frobin et al. vermessen. Diese bestanden aus einer ersten Gruppe (7 Patienten) mit einem durchschnittlichen Alter von 41 Jahren und einer zweiten Gruppe (13 Patienten) mit einem durchschnittlichen Alter von 44 Jahren. Ergebnisse: Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchung zeigten lediglich in der 2. Gruppe mit einer chronischen Bandscheibendegeneration eine Tendenz zur Abhaengigkeit (p

  17. Schizophrenia alters intra-network functional connectivity in the caudate for detecting speech under informational speech masking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingjun; Wu, Chao; Li, Juanhua; Li, Ruikeng; Peng, Hongjun; She, Shenglin; Ning, Yuping; Li, Liang

    2018-04-04

    Speech recognition under noisy "cocktail-party" environments involves multiple perceptual/cognitive processes, including target detection, selective attention, irrelevant signal inhibition, sensory/working memory, and speech production. Compared to health listeners, people with schizophrenia are more vulnerable to masking stimuli and perform worse in speech recognition under speech-on-speech masking conditions. Although the schizophrenia-related speech-recognition impairment under "cocktail-party" conditions is associated with deficits of various perceptual/cognitive processes, it is crucial to know whether the brain substrates critically underlying speech detection against informational speech masking are impaired in people with schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated differences between people with schizophrenia (n = 19, mean age = 33 ± 10 years) and their matched healthy controls (n = 15, mean age = 30 ± 9 years) in intra-network functional connectivity (FC) specifically associated with target-speech detection under speech-on-speech-masking conditions. The target-speech detection performance under the speech-on-speech-masking condition in participants with schizophrenia was significantly worse than that in matched healthy participants (healthy controls). Moreover, in healthy controls, but not participants with schizophrenia, the strength of intra-network FC within the bilateral caudate was positively correlated with the speech-detection performance under the speech-masking conditions. Compared to controls, patients showed altered spatial activity pattern and decreased intra-network FC in the caudate. In people with schizophrenia, the declined speech-detection performance under speech-on-speech masking conditions is associated with reduced intra-caudate functional connectivity, which normally contributes to detecting target speech against speech masking via its functions of suppressing masking-speech signals.

  18. Functional Connectivity Estimated from Resting-State fMRI Reveals Selective Alterations in Male Adolescents with Pure Conduct Disorder.

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    Feng-Mei Lu

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder (CD is characterized by a persistent pattern of antisocial behavior and aggression in childhood and adolescence. Previous task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have revealed widespread brain regional abnormalities in adolescents with CD. However, whether the resting-state networks (RSNs are altered in adolescents with CD remains unknown. In this study, resting-state fMRI data were first acquired from eighteen male adolescents with pure CD and eighteen age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD individuals. Independent component analysis (ICA was implemented to extract nine representative RSNs, and the generated RSNs were then compared to show the differences between the CD and TD groups. Interestingly, it was observed from the brain mapping results that compared with the TD group, the CD group manifested decreased functional connectivity in four representative RSNs: the anterior default mode network (left middle frontal gyrus, which is considered to be correlated with impaired social cognition, the somatosensory network (bilateral supplementary motor area and right postcentral gyrus, the lateral visual network (left superior occipital gyrus, and the medial visual network (right fusiform, left lingual gyrus and right calcarine, which are expected to be relevant to the perceptual systems responsible for perceptual dysfunction in male adolescents with CD. Importantly, the novel findings suggested that male adolescents with pure CD were identified to have dysfunctions in both low-level perceptual networks (the somatosensory network and visual network and a high-order cognitive network (the default mode network. Revealing the changes in the functional connectivity of these RSNs enhances our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of emotion and social cognition and the regulation of perception in adolescents with CD.

  19. Perceived social isolation is associated with altered functional connectivity in neural networks associated with tonic alertness and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layden, Elliot A; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Cappa, Stefano F; Dodich, Alessandra; Falini, Andrea; Canessa, Nicola

    2017-01-15

    Perceived social isolation (PSI), colloquially known as loneliness, is associated with selectively altered attentional, cognitive, and affective processes in humans, but the neural mechanisms underlying these adjustments remain largely unexplored. Behavioral, eye tracking, and neuroimaging research has identified associations between PSI and implicit hypervigilance for social threats. Additionally, selective executive dysfunction has been evidenced by reduced prepotent response inhibition in social Stroop and dichotic listening tasks. Given that PSI is associated with pre-attentional processes, PSI may also be related to altered resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in the brain. Therefore, we conducted the first resting-state fMRI FC study of PSI in healthy young adults. Five-minute resting-state scans were obtained from 55 participants (31 females). Analyses revealed robust associations between PSI and increased brain-wide FC in areas encompassing the right central operculum and right supramarginal gyrus, and these associations were not explained by depressive symptomatology, objective isolation, or demographics. Further analyses revealed that PSI was associated with increased FC between several nodes of the cingulo-opercular network, a network known to underlie the maintenance of tonic alertness. These regions encompassed the bilateral insula/frontoparietal opercula and ACC/pre-SMA. In contrast, FC between the cingulo-opercular network and right middle/superior frontal gyrus was reduced, a finding associated with diminished executive function in prior literature. We suggest that, in PSI, increased within-network cingulo-opercular FC may be associated with hypervigilance to social threat, whereas reduced right middle/superior frontal gyrus FC to the cingulo-opercular network may be associated with diminished impulse control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    alteration in eigenvector centrality, clustering coefficient (inter-regional) and participation co-efficient (inter-modular) alterations of frontal-striatal and fronto-limbic nodes suggesting re-organization of these pathways. Both along tract and structural topology network measurements correlated strongly with motor and visual clinical outcome scores. This study shows the value of combining along-tract analysis and structural network topology in depicting not only selective parietal occipital regional vulnerability but also reorganization of frontal-striatal and frontal-limbic pathways in preterm children with cerebral palsy. These finding also support the concept that widespread, but selective posterior-anterior neural network connectivity alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy likely contribute to the pathogenesis of neurosensory and cognitive impairment in this group.

  1. Altered Functional Connectivity of the Default Mode Network in Patients With Schizo-obsessive Comorbidity: A Comparison Between Schizophrenia and Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Lai-quan; Xie, Wen-lan

    2018-01-01

    increased rsFC between subregions of the DMN and the middle temporal gyrus, but the OCD group exhibited decreased rsFC between them. These findings highlight a specific alteration in functional connectivity in the DMN in patients with SOC, and provide new insights into the dysfunctional brain organization...

  2. Lumbar stenosis: clinical case

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    Pedro Sá

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar stenosis is an increasingly common pathological condition that is becoming more frequent with increasing mean life expectancy, with high costs for society. It has many causes, among which degenerative, neoplastic and traumatic causes stand out. Most of the patients respond well to conservative therapy. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients who present symptoms after implementation of conservative measures. Here, a case of severe stenosis of the lumbar spine at several levels, in a female patient with pathological and surgical antecedents in the lumbar spine, is presented. The patient underwent two different decompression techniques within the same operation.

  3. Alterations of parenchymal microstructure, neuronal connectivity and cerebrovascular resistance at adolescence following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury in early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Maxime; Li, Ying; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Hyder, Fahmeed; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Kannurpatti, Sridhar

    2018-06-01

    TBI is a leading cause of morbidity in children. To investigate outcome of early developmental TBI during adolescence, a rat model of fluid percussion injury was developed, where previous work reported deficits in sensorimotor behavior and cortical blood flow at adolescence. 1 Based on the non-localized outcome, we hypothesized that multiple neurophysiological components of brain function, namely neuronal connectivity, synapse/axonal microstructural integrity and neurovascular function are altered and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods could be used to determine regional alterations. Adolescent outcomes of developmental TBI were studied 2-months after injury, using functional MRI (fMRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). fMRI based resting state functional connectivity (RSFC), representing neural connectivity, was significantly altered between sham and TBI. RSFC strength decreased in the cortex, hippocampus and thalamus accompanied by decrease in the spatial extent of their corresponding RSFC networks and inter-hemispheric asymmetry. Cerebrovascular reactivity to arterial CO2 changes diminished after TBI across both hemispheres, with a more pronounced decrease in the ipsilateral hippocampus, thalamus and motor cortex. DTI measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), reporting on axonal and microstructural integrity of the brain, indicated similar inter-hemispheric asymmetry, with highest change in the ipsilateral hippocampus and regions adjoining the ipsilateral thalamus, hypothalamus and amygdala. TBI-induced corpus callosal microstructural alterations indicated measurable changes in inter-hemispheric structural connectivity. Hippocampus, thalamus and select cortical regions were most consistently affected in multiple imaging markers. The multi-modal MRI results demonstrate cortical and subcortical alterations in neural connectivity, cerebrovascular resistance and parenchymal microstructure in the adolescent brain

  4. Altered Behavioral and Autonomic Pain Responses in Alzheimer’s Disease Are Associated with Dysfunctional Affective, Self-Reflective and Salience Network Resting-State Connectivity

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    Paul A. Beach

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While pain behaviors are increased in Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients compared to healthy seniors (HS across multiple disease stages, autonomic responses are reduced with advancing AD. To better understand the neural mechanisms underlying these phenomena, we undertook a controlled cross-sectional study examining behavioral (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia, PAINAD scores and autonomic (heart rate, HR pain responses in 24 HS and 20 AD subjects using acute pressure stimuli. Resting-state fMRI was utilized to investigate how group connectivity differences were related to altered pain responses. Pain behaviors (slope of PAINAD score change and mean PAINAD score were increased in patients vs. controls. Autonomic measures (HR change intercept and mean HR change were reduced in severe vs. mildly affected AD patients. Group functional connectivity differences associated with greater pain behavior reactivity in patients included: connectivity within a temporal limbic network (TLN and between the TLN and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC; between default mode network (DMN subcomponents; between the DMN and ventral salience network (vSN. Reduced HR responses within the AD group were associated with connectivity changes within the DMN and vSN—specifically the precuneus and vmPFC. Discriminant classification indicated HR-related connectivity within the vSN to the vmPFC best distinguished AD severity. Thus, altered behavioral and autonomic pain responses in AD reflects dysfunction of networks and structures subserving affective, self-reflective, salience and autonomic regulation.

  5. Altered resting-state functional connectivity of the frontal-striatal reward system in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Joshua; Reynolds, Gretchen; Saygin, Zeynep M; Hofmann, Stefan G; Pollack, Mark; Gabrieli, John D E; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated differences in the intrinsic functional brain organization (functional connectivity) of the human reward system between healthy control participants and patients with social anxiety disorder. Functional connectivity was measured in the resting-state via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 53 patients with social anxiety disorder and 33 healthy control participants underwent a 6-minute resting-state fMRI scan. Functional connectivity of the reward system was analyzed by calculating whole-brain temporal correlations with a bilateral nucleus accumbens seed and a ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed. Patients with social anxiety disorder, relative to the control group, had (1) decreased functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens seed and other regions associated with reward, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex; (2) decreased functional connectivity between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed and lateral prefrontal regions, including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices; and (3) increased functional connectivity between both the nucleus accumbens seed and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex seed with more posterior brain regions, including anterior cingulate cortex. Social anxiety disorder appears to be associated with widespread differences in the functional connectivity of the reward system, including markedly decreased functional connectivity between reward regions and between reward regions and lateral prefrontal cortices, and markedly increased functional connectivity between reward regions and posterior brain regions.

  6. Tinnitus alters resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in human auditory and non-auditory brain regions as measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, Juan; Hu, Xiao-Su; Issa, Mohamad; Bisconti, Silvia; Kovelman, Ioulia; Kileny, Paul; Basura, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Tinnitus, or phantom sound perception, leads to increased spontaneous neural firing rates and enhanced synchrony in central auditory circuits in animal models. These putative physiologic correlates of tinnitus to date have not been well translated in the brain of the human tinnitus sufferer. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we recently showed that tinnitus in humans leads to maintained hemodynamic activity in auditory and adjacent, non-auditory cortices. Here we used fNIRS technology to investigate changes in resting state functional connectivity between human auditory and non-auditory brain regions in normal-hearing, bilateral subjective tinnitus and controls before and after auditory stimulation. Hemodynamic activity was monitored over the region of interest (primary auditory cortex) and non-region of interest (adjacent non-auditory cortices) and functional brain connectivity was measured during a 60-second baseline/period of silence before and after a passive auditory challenge consisting of alternating pure tones (750 and 8000Hz), broadband noise and silence. Functional connectivity was measured between all channel-pairs. Prior to stimulation, connectivity of the region of interest to the temporal and fronto-temporal region was decreased in tinnitus participants compared to controls. Overall, connectivity in tinnitus was differentially altered as compared to controls following sound stimulation. Enhanced connectivity was seen in both auditory and non-auditory regions in the tinnitus brain, while controls showed a decrease in connectivity following sound stimulation. In tinnitus, the strength of connectivity was increased between auditory cortex and fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal, temporal, occipito-temporal and occipital cortices. Together these data suggest that central auditory and non-auditory brain regions are modified in tinnitus and that resting functional connectivity measured by fNIRS technology may contribute to conscious phantom

  7. Tinnitus alters resting state functional connectivity (RSFC in human auditory and non-auditory brain regions as measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan San Juan

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, or phantom sound perception, leads to increased spontaneous neural firing rates and enhanced synchrony in central auditory circuits in animal models. These putative physiologic correlates of tinnitus to date have not been well translated in the brain of the human tinnitus sufferer. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS we recently showed that tinnitus in humans leads to maintained hemodynamic activity in auditory and adjacent, non-auditory cortices. Here we used fNIRS technology to investigate changes in resting state functional connectivity between human auditory and non-auditory brain regions in normal-hearing, bilateral subjective tinnitus and controls before and after auditory stimulation. Hemodynamic activity was monitored over the region of interest (primary auditory cortex and non-region of interest (adjacent non-auditory cortices and functional brain connectivity was measured during a 60-second baseline/period of silence before and after a passive auditory challenge consisting of alternating pure tones (750 and 8000Hz, broadband noise and silence. Functional connectivity was measured between all channel-pairs. Prior to stimulation, connectivity of the region of interest to the temporal and fronto-temporal region was decreased in tinnitus participants compared to controls. Overall, connectivity in tinnitus was differentially altered as compared to controls following sound stimulation. Enhanced connectivity was seen in both auditory and non-auditory regions in the tinnitus brain, while controls showed a decrease in connectivity following sound stimulation. In tinnitus, the strength of connectivity was increased between auditory cortex and fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal, temporal, occipito-temporal and occipital cortices. Together these data suggest that central auditory and non-auditory brain regions are modified in tinnitus and that resting functional connectivity measured by fNIRS technology may contribute to

  8. Altered structural and effective connectivity in anorexia and bulimia nervosa in circuits that regulate energy and reward homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, G K W; Shott, M E; Riederer, J; Pryor, T L

    2016-11-01

    Anorexia and bulimia nervosa are severe eating disorders that share many behaviors. Structural and functional brain circuits could provide biological links that those disorders have in common. We recruited 77 young adult women, 26 healthy controls, 26 women with anorexia and 25 women with bulimia nervosa. Probabilistic tractography was used to map white matter connectivity strength across taste and food intake regulating brain circuits. An independent multisample greedy equivalence search algorithm tested effective connectivity between those regions during sucrose tasting. Anorexia and bulimia nervosa had greater structural connectivity in pathways between insula, orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum, but lower connectivity from orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala to the hypothalamus (Pbulimia nervosa effective connectivity was directed from anterior cingulate via ventral striatum to the hypothalamus. Across all groups, sweetness perception was predicted by connectivity strength in pathways connecting to the middle orbitofrontal cortex. This study provides evidence that white matter structural as well as effective connectivity within the energy-homeostasis and food reward-regulating circuitry is fundamentally different in anorexia and bulimia nervosa compared with that in controls. In eating disorders, anterior cingulate cognitive-emotional top down control could affect food reward and eating drive, override hypothalamic inputs to the ventral striatum and enable prolonged food restriction.

  9. Altered Functional Connectivity of Fronto-Cingulo-Striatal Circuits during Error Monitoring in Adolescents with a History of Childhood Abuse

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    Heledd Hart

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is associated with error hypersensitivity. We examined the effect of childhood abuse and abuse-by-gene (5-HTTLPR, MAOA interaction on functional brain connectivity during error processing in medication/drug-free adolescents. Functional connectivity was compared, using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data, between 22 age- and gender-matched medication-naïve and substance abuse-free adolescents exposed to severe childhood abuse and 27 healthy controls, while they performed an individually adjusted tracking stop-signal task, designed to elicit 50% inhibition failures. During inhibition failures, abused participants relative to healthy controls exhibited reduced connectivity between right and left putamen, bilateral caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and between right supplementary motor area (SMA and right inferior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Abuse-related connectivity abnormalities were associated with longer abuse duration. No group differences in connectivity were observed for successful inhibition. The findings suggest that childhood abuse is associated with decreased functional connectivity in fronto-cingulo-striatal networks during error processing. Furthermore that the severity of connectivity abnormalities increases with abuse duration. Reduced connectivity of error detection networks in maltreated individuals may be linked to constant monitoring of errors in order to avoid mistakes which, in abusive contexts, are often associated with harsh punishment.

  10. Lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogduk, N

    1980-11-15

    Low back pain, referred pain in the lower limbs, and spasm of the back, gluteal, and hamstring muscles are clinical features which can be induced in normal volunteers by stimulating structures which are innervated by the lumbar dorsal rami. Conversely, they can be relieved in certain patients by selective interruption of conduction along dorsal rami. These facts permit the definition of a lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, which can be distinguished from the intervertebral disc syndrome and other forms of low back pain. The distinguishing feature is that, in lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, all the clinical features are exclusively mediated by dorsal rami and do not arise from nerve-root compression. The pathophysiology, pathology, and treatment of this syndrome are described. Recognition of this syndrome, and its treatment with relatively minor procedures, can obviate the need for major surgery which might otherwise be undertaken.

  11. A whole-brain computational modeling approach to explain the alterations in resting-state functional connectivity during progression of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Demirtaş

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common dementia with dramatic consequences. The research in structural and functional neuroimaging showed altered brain connectivity in AD. In this study, we investigated the whole-brain resting state functional connectivity (FC of the subjects with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (PAD, mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI and mild dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD, the impact of APOE4 carriership, as well as in relation to variations in core AD CSF biomarkers. The synchronization in the whole-brain was monotonously decreasing during the course of the disease progression. Furthermore, in AD patients we found widespread significant decreases in functional connectivity (FC strengths particularly in the brain regions with high global connectivity. We employed a whole-brain computational modeling approach to study the mechanisms underlying these alterations. To characterize the causal interactions between brain regions, we estimated the effective connectivity (EC in the model. We found that the significant EC differences in AD were primarily located in left temporal lobe. Then, we systematically manipulated the underlying dynamics of the model to investigate simulated changes in FC based on the healthy control subjects. Furthermore, we found distinct patterns involving CSF biomarkers of amyloid-beta (Aβ1−42 total tau (t-tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau. CSF Aβ1−42 was associated to the contrast between healthy control subjects and clinical groups. Nevertheless, tau CSF biomarkers were associated to the variability in whole-brain synchronization and sensory integration regions. These associations were robust across clinical groups, unlike the associations that were found for CSF Aβ1−42. APOE4 carriership showed no significant correlations with the connectivity measures.

  12. Altered patterns of directed connectivity within the reading network of dyslexic children and their relation to reading dysfluency

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    Gojko Žarić

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a complex cognitive skill subserved by a distributed network of visual and language-related regions. Disruptions of connectivity within this network have been associated with developmental dyslexia but their relation to individual differences in the severity of reading problems remains unclear. Here we investigate whether dysfunctional connectivity scales with the level of reading dysfluency by examining EEG recordings during visual word and false font processing in 9-year-old typically reading children (TR and two groups of dyslexic children: severely dysfluent (SDD and moderately dysfluent (MDD dyslexics. Results indicated weaker occipital to inferior-temporal connectivity for words in both dyslexic groups relative to TRs. Furthermore, SDDs exhibited stronger connectivity from left central to right inferior-temporal and occipital sites for words relative to TRs, and for false fonts relative to both MDDs and TRs. Importantly, reading fluency was positively related with forward and negatively with backward connectivity. Our results suggest disrupted visual processing of words in both dyslexic groups, together with a compensatory recruitment of right posterior brain regions especially in the SDDs during word and false font processing. Functional connectivity in the brain’s reading network may thus depend on the level of reading dysfluency beyond group differences between dyslexic and typical readers.

  13. Altered structural connectivity of pain-related brain network in burning mouth syndrome-investigation by graph analysis of probabilistic tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Akihiko; Shizukuishi, Takashi; Kikuta, Junko; Yamada, Haruyasu; Watanabe, Yusuke; Imamura, Yoshiki; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Dezawa, Ko; Haradome, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu

    2017-05-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic intraoral pain syndrome featuring idiopathic oral pain and burning discomfort despite clinically normal oral mucosa. The etiology of chronic pain syndrome is unclear, but preliminary neuroimaging research has suggested the alteration of volume, metabolism, blood flow, and diffusion at multiple brain regions. According to the neuromatrix theory of Melzack, pain sense is generated in the brain by the network of multiple pain-related brain regions. Therefore, the alteration of pain-related network is also assumed as an etiology of chronic pain. In this study, we investigated the brain network of BMS brain by using probabilistic tractography and graph analysis. Fourteen BMS patients and 14 age-matched healthy controls underwent 1.5T MRI. Structural connectivity was calculated in 83 anatomically defined regions with probabilistic tractography of 60-axis diffusion tensor imaging and 3D T1-weighted imaging. Graph theory network analysis was used to evaluate the brain network at local and global connectivity. In BMS brain, a significant difference of local brain connectivity was recognized at the bilateral rostral anterior cingulate cortex, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and left pars orbitalis which belong to the medial pain system; however, no significant difference was recognized at the lateral system including the somatic sensory cortex. A strengthened connection of the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex with the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem was revealed. Structural brain network analysis revealed the alteration of the medial system of the pain-related brain network in chronic pain syndrome.

  14. Endoscopic anatomy and features of lumbar discectomy by Destandau technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Mostofi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive spine surgery prevents alteration of paraspinal muscles and avoids traditional open surgery, so in the majority of cases, recovery is much quicker and patients have less back pain after surgery. The authors describe an endoscopic approach to lumbar disc herniation by the Destandau's method originated in Bordeaux. Destandau designed ENDOSPINE for discectomy will be inserted, and the procedure will continue using endoscopy. The Endoscopic approach to lumbar disc herniation by Destandau's method offers a convenient access to lumbar disc herniation with less complications and negligible morbidity. It gives maximum exposure to the disc space with maximal angles and minimal cutaneous incision. Contrary to other minimally invasive approaches, the visual field in discectomy by Destandau technique is broad and depending on the workability of ENDOSPINE an adequate access to lumbar disc herniation is possible.

  15. Altered Amygdala Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Maintenance Hemodialysis End-Stage Renal Disease Patients with Depressive Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui Juan; Wang, Yun Fei; Qi, Rongfeng; Schoepf, U Joseph; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Ball, B Devon; Zhang, Zhe; Kong, Xiang; Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate patterns in the amygdala-based emotional processing circuit of hemodialysis patients using resting-state functional MR imaging (rs-fMRI). Fifty hemodialysis patients (25 with depressed mood and 25 without depressed mood) and 26 healthy controls were included. All subjects underwent neuropsychological tests and rs-fMRI, and patients also underwent laboratory tests. Functional connectivity of the bilateral amygdala was compared among the three groups. The relationship between functional connectivity and clinical markers was investigated. Depressed patients showed increased positive functional connectivity of the left amygdala with the left superior temporal gyrus and right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) but decreased amygdala functional connectivity with the left precuneus, angular gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and left inferior parietal lobule compared with non-depressed patients (P amygdala with bilateral supplementary motor areas and PHG but decreased amygdala functional connectivity with the right superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, bilateral precuneus, and PCC (P amygdala (P amygdala-prefrontal-PCC-limbic circuits was impaired in depressive hemodialysis patients, with a gradual decrease in ACC between controls, non-depressed, and depressed patients for the right amygdala. This indicates that ACC plays a role in amygdala-based emotional regulatory circuits in these patients.

  16. Gray matter deficits and altered resting-state connectivity in the superior temporal gyrus among individuals with problematic hypersexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Ji-Woo; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2018-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of hypersexual disorder have been accumulating, yet alternations in brain structures and functional connectivity in individuals with problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB) has only recently been studied. This study aimed to investigate gray matter deficits and resting-state abnormalities in individuals with PHB using voxel-based morphometry and resting-state connectivity analysis. Seventeen individuals with PHB and 19 age-matched healthy controls participated in this study. Gray matter volume of the brain and resting-state connectivity were measured using 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to healthy subjects, individuals with PHB had significant reductions in gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right middle temporal gyrus. Individuals with PHB also exhibited a decrease in resting-state functional connectivity between the left STG and left precuneus and between the left STG and right caudate. The gray matter volume of the left STG and its resting-state functional connectivity with the right caudate both showed significant negative correlations with the severity of PHB. The findings suggest that structural deficits and resting-state functional impairments in the left STG might be linked to PHB and provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms of PHB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lumbar spinal stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønne, Greger; Fritzell, Peter; Hägg, Olle

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decompression surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is the most common spinal procedure in the elderly. To avoid persisting low back pain, adding arthrodesis has been recommended, especially if there is a coexisting degenerative spondylolisthesis. However, this strategy remains con...

  18. Altered Long- and Short-Range Functional Connectivity in Patients with Betel Quid Dependence: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disease. Brain structural abnormalities may constitute an abnormal neural network that underlies the risk of drug dependence. We hypothesized that individuals with Betel Quid Dependence (BQD have functional connectivity alterations that can be described by long- and short-range functional connectivity density(FCD maps. Methods: We tested this hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from subjects of the Han ethnic group in Hainan, China. Here, we examined BQD individuals (n = 33 and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs (n = 32 in a rs-fMRI study to observe FCD alterations associated with the severity of BQD. Results: Compared with HCs, long-range FCD was decreased in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and increased in the left cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL and bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL in the BQD group. Short-range FCD was reduced in the right ACC and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, and increased in the left CPL. The short-range FCD alteration in the right ACC displayed a negative correlation with the Betel Quid Dependence Scale (BQDS (r=-0.432, P=0.012, and the long-range FCD alteration of left IPL showed a positive correlation with the duration of BQD(r=0.519, P=0.002 in BQD individuals. Conclusions: fMRI revealed differences in long- and short- range FCD in BQD individuals, and these alterations might be due to BQ chewing, BQ dependency, or risk factors for developing BQD.

  19. Altered activity and functional connectivity of superior temporal gyri in anxiety disorders: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaohu; Xi, Qian; Wang, Peijun; Li, Chunbo [Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai (China); He, Hongjian [Bio-X lab, Dept. of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-08-15

    The prior functional MRI studies have demonstrated significantly abnormal activity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) of anxiety patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether the abnormal activity in these regions was related to a loss of functional connectivity between these regions. Ten healthy controls and 10 anxiety patients underwent noninvasive fMRI while actively listening to emotionally neutral words alternated by silence (Task 1) or threat-related words (Task 2). The participants were instructed to silently make a judgment of each word's valence (i.e., unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral). A coherence analysis was applied to the functional MRI data to examine the functional connectivity between the left and the right STG, which was selected as the primary region of interest on the basis of our prior results. The data demonstrated that the anxiety patients exhibited significantly increased activation in the bilateral STG than the normal controls. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that the patient group showed significantly decreased degree of connectivity between the bilateral STG during processing Task 2 compared to Task 1 (t = 2.588, p = 0.029). In addition, a significantly decreased connectivity was also observed in the patient group compared to the control group during processing Task 2 (t = 2.810, p = 0.012). Anxiety patients may exhibit increased activity of the STG but decreased functional connectivity between the left and right STG, which may reflect the underlying neural abnormality of anxiety disorder, and this will provide new insights into this disease.

  20. Altered activity and functional connectivity of superior temporal gyri in anxiety disorders: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaohu; Xi, Qian; Wang, Peijun; Li, Chunbo; He, Hongjian

    2014-01-01

    The prior functional MRI studies have demonstrated significantly abnormal activity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) of anxiety patients. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether the abnormal activity in these regions was related to a loss of functional connectivity between these regions. Ten healthy controls and 10 anxiety patients underwent noninvasive fMRI while actively listening to emotionally neutral words alternated by silence (Task 1) or threat-related words (Task 2). The participants were instructed to silently make a judgment of each word's valence (i.e., unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral). A coherence analysis was applied to the functional MRI data to examine the functional connectivity between the left and the right STG, which was selected as the primary region of interest on the basis of our prior results. The data demonstrated that the anxiety patients exhibited significantly increased activation in the bilateral STG than the normal controls. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that the patient group showed significantly decreased degree of connectivity between the bilateral STG during processing Task 2 compared to Task 1 (t = 2.588, p = 0.029). In addition, a significantly decreased connectivity was also observed in the patient group compared to the control group during processing Task 2 (t = 2.810, p = 0.012). Anxiety patients may exhibit increased activity of the STG but decreased functional connectivity between the left and right STG, which may reflect the underlying neural abnormality of anxiety disorder, and this will provide new insights into this disease.

  1. Altered Immune Function Associated with Disordered Neural Connectivity and Executive Dysfunctions: A Neurophysiological Study on Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Wong, Chun-kwok; Lam, Joseph M. K.; Poon, Priscilla M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have impaired executive function, disordered neural connectivity, and abnormal immunologic function. The present study examined whether these abnormalities were associated. Seventeen high-functioning (HFA) and 17 low-functioning (LFA) children with ASD, aged 8-17…

  2. Functional Connectivity Alterations between Networks and Associations with Infant Immune Health within Networks in HIV Infected Children on Early Treatment: A Study at 7 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadrana T. F. Toich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although HIV has been shown to impact brain connectivity in adults and youth, it is not yet known to what extent long-term early antiretroviral therapy (ART may alter these effects, especially during rapid brain development in early childhood. Using both independent component analysis (ICA and seed-based correlation analysis (SCA, we examine the effects of HIV infection in conjunction with early ART on resting state functional connectivity (FC in 7 year old children. HIV infected (HIV+ children were from the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy (CHER trial and all initiated ART before 18 months; uninfected children were recruited from an interlinking vaccine trial. To better understand the effects of current and early immune health on the developing brain, we also investigated among HIV+ children the association of FC at 7 years with CD4 count and CD4%, both in infancy (6–8 weeks and at scan. Although we found no differences within any ICA-generated resting state networks (RSNs between HIV+ and uninfected children (27 HIV+, 18 uninfected, whole brain connectivity to seeds located at RSN connectivity peaks revealed several loci of FC differences, predominantly from seeds in midline regions (posterior cingulate cortex, paracentral lobule, cuneus, and anterior cingulate. Reduced long-range connectivity and increased short-range connectivity suggest developmental delay. Within the HIV+ children, clinical measures at age 7 years were not associated with FC values in any of the RSNs; however, poor immune health during infancy was associated with localized FC increases in the somatosensory, salience and basal ganglia networks. Together these findings suggest that HIV may affect brain development from its earliest stages and persist into childhood, despite early ART.

  3. Prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation alters activation and connectivity in cortical and subcortical reward systems: a tDCS-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matthew J; Messing, Samuel B; Rao, Hengyi; Detre, John A; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2014-08-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique used both experimentally and therapeutically to modulate regional brain function. However, few studies have directly measured the aftereffects of tDCS on brain activity or examined changes in task-related brain activity consequent to prefrontal tDCS. To investigate the neural effects of tDCS, we collected fMRI data from 22 human subjects, both at rest and while performing the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), before and after true or sham transcranial direct current stimulation. TDCS decreased resting blood perfusion in orbitofrontal cortex and the right caudate and increased task-related activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in response to losses but not wins or increasing risk. Network analysis showed that whole-brain connectivity of the right ACC correlated positively with the number of pumps subjects were willing to make on the BART, and that tDCS reduced connectivity between the right ACC and the rest of the brain. Whole-brain connectivity of the right DLPFC also correlated negatively with pumps on the BART, as prior literature would suggest. Our results suggest that tDCS can alter activation and connectivity in regions distal to the electrodes. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Altered Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Language-Related Brain Regions in Association with Verbal Memory Performance in Euthymic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. J. Linden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential abnormalities in the structure and function of the temporal lobes have been studied much less in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. This may not be justified because language-related symptoms, such as pressured speech and flight of ideas, and cognitive deficits in the domain of verbal memory are amongst the hallmark of bipolar disorder (BD, and contribution of temporal lobe dysfunction is therefore likely. In the current study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity (FC between the auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus [HG], planum temporale [PT] and whole brain using seed correlation analysis in n = 21 BD euthymic patients and n = 20 matched healthy controls and associated it with verbal memory performance. In comparison to controls BD patients showed decreased functional connectivity between Heschl’s gyrus and planum temporale and the left superior and middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, fronto-temporal functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal/precentral gyrus and the insula was increased in patients. Verbal episodic memory deficits in the investigated sample of BD patients and language-related symptoms might therefore be associated with a diminished FC within the auditory/temporal gyrus and a compensatory fronto-temporal pathway.

  5. Isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis with sciatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annertz, M.; Holtaas, S.; Cronqvist, S.; Joensson, B.; Stroemqvist, B.; Lund Univ. Hospital

    1990-01-01

    Seventeen patients with sciatica and isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis were studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In 13, myelography was also performed: 5 had dural sac deformation and root sleeve shortening, 2 had deformation with unilateral root sleeve shortening, one had bilateral root sleeve shortening only, and one had sac deformation only. In 4, myelography was normal. On sagittal MR examinations the neural foramen had an altered shape bilaterally with the long axis horizontal in all cases. In addition to altered shape the following was found in the 33 foramina evaluated. I: Normal nerve (n=8), II: Compressed nerve (n=16); III: Disappearance of fat, nerve not possible to identify (n=9). In patients with unilateral sciatica, the degree of foraminal stenosis correlated well with the side of symptoms. Coronal views showed the course of the nerve and pedicular kinking. Eight patients underwent decompressive surgery which revealed nerve compression by hypertrophic fibrous tissue and pedicular kinking, which correlated well with the findings on MR. Since the site of nerve compression often was peripheral to the root sleeves, myelography did not give complete information. (orig.)

  6. Lumbar spine chordoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hatem, M.B.Ch.B, MRes, LMCC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chordoma is a rare tumor arising from notochord remnants in the spine. It is slow-growing, which makes it difficult to diagnose and difficult to follow up after treatment. Typically, it occurs in the base of the skull and sacrococcygeal spine; it rarely occurs in other parts of the spine. CT-guided biopsy of a suspicious mass enabled diagnosis of lumbar spine chordoma.

  7. Short-term memory deficits correlate with hippocampal-thalamic functional connectivity alterations following acute sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengyang, Li; Daqing, Huang; Jianlin, Qi; Haisheng, Chang; Qingqing, Meng; Jin, Wang; Jiajia, Liu; Enmao, Ye; Yongcong, Shao; Xi, Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Acute sleep restriction heavily influences cognitive function, affecting executive processes such as attention, response inhibition, and memory. Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between hippocampal activity and short-term memory function. However, the specific contribution of the hippocampus to the decline of short-term memory following sleep restriction has yet to be established. In the current study, we utilized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the association between hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) and the decline of short-term memory following total sleep deprivation (TSD). Twenty healthy adult males aged 20.9 ± 2.3 years (age range, 18-24 years) were enrolled in a within-subject crossover study. Short-term memory and FC were assessed using a Delay-matching short-term memory test and a resting-state fMRI scan before and after TSD. Seed-based correlation analysis was performed using fMRI data for the left and right hippocampus to identify differences in hippocampal FC following TSD. Subjects demonstrated reduced alertness and a decline in short-term memory performance following TSD. Moreover, fMRI analysis identified reduced hippocampal FC with the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), temporal regions, and supplementary motor area. In addition, an increase in FC between the hippocampus and bilateral thalamus was observed, the extent of which correlated with short-term memory performance following TSD. Our findings indicate that the disruption of hippocampal-cortical connectivity is linked to the decline in short-term memory observed after acute sleep restriction. Such results provide further evidence that support the cognitive impairment model of sleep deprivation.

  8. Altered resting state functional connectivity of the cognitive control network in fibromyalgia and the modulation effect of mind-body intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jian; Wolcott, Emily; Wang, Zengjian; Jorgenson, Kristen; Harvey, William F; Tao, Jing; Rones, Ramel; Wang, Chenchen

    2018-05-02

    This study examines altered resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the cognitive control network (CCN) in fibromyalgia patients as compared to healthy controls, as well as how an effective mind-body intervention, Tai Chi, can modulate the altered rsFC of the CCN. Patients with fibromyalgia and matched healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Fibromyalgia patients were scanned 12 weeks before and after intervention. The bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was used as a seed to explore the rsFC of the CCN. Data analysis was conducted with 21 patients and 20 healthy subjects. Compared to healthy subjects, fibromyalgia patients exhibited increased rsFC between the DLPFC and the bilateral rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) at baseline. The rsFC between the CCN and rACC/MPFC further increased after Tai Chi intervention, and this increase was accompanied by clinical improvements. This rsFC change was also significantly associated with corresponding changes in the Overall Impact domain of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR). Further analysis showed that the rACC/MPFC rsFC with both the PAG and hippocampus significantly decreased following Tai Chi intervention. Our study suggests that fibromyalgia is associated with altered CCN rsFC and that effective mind-body treatment may elicit clinical improvements by further increasing this altered rsFC. Elucidating this mechanism of enhancing the allostasis process will deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying mind-body interventions in fibromyalgia patients and facilitate the development of new pain management methods.

  9. Modafinil alters intrinsic functional connectivity of the right posterior insula: a pharmacological resting state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Cera

    Full Text Available Modafinil is employed for the treatment of narcolepsy and has also been, off-label, used to treat cognitive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. In a previous study, we have reported that single dose administration of modafinil in healthy young subjects enhances fluid reasoning and affects resting state activity in the Fronto Parietal Control (FPC and Dorsal Attention (DAN networks. No changes were found in the Salience Network (SN, a surprising result as the network is involved in the modulation of emotional and fluid reasoning. The insula is crucial hub of the SN and functionally divided in anterior and posterior subregions.Using a seed-based approach, we have now analyzed effects of modafinil on the functional connectivity (FC of insular subregions.Analysis of FC with resting state fMRI (rs-FMRI revealed increased FC between the right posterior insula and the putamen, the superior frontal gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex in the modafinil-treated group.Modafinil is considered a putative cognitive enhancer. The rs-fMRI modifications that we have found are consistent with the drug cognitive enhancing properties and indicate subregional targets of action.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684306.

  10. PARAMETRIC MODEL OF LUMBAR VERTEBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAPPETTI Nicola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes the realization of a parametric/variational CAD model of a normotype lumbar vertebra, which could be used for improving the effectiveness of actual imaging techniques in informational augmentation of the orthopaedic and traumatological diagnosis. In addition it could be used for ergonomic static and dynamical analysis of the lumbar region and vertebral column.

  11. Oxytocin attenuates trust as a subset of more general reinforcement learning, with altered reward circuit functional connectivity in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Jaime S; Nedic, Sanja; Wong, Kin F; Strey, Shmuel L; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Dickerson, Bradford C; Wald, Lawrence L; La Camera, Giancarlo; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2018-07-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is an endogenous neuropeptide that, while originally thought to promote trust, has more recently been found to be context-dependent. Here we extend experimental paradigms previously restricted to de novo decision-to-trust, to a more realistic environment in which social relationships evolve in response to iterative feedback over twenty interactions. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled within-subject/crossover experiment of human adult males, we investigated the effects of a single dose of intranasal OT (40 IU) on Bayesian expectation updating and reinforcement learning within a social context, with associated brain circuit dynamics. Subjects participated in a neuroeconomic task (Iterative Trust Game) designed to probe iterative social learning while their brains were scanned using ultra-high field (7T) fMRI. We modeled each subject's behavior using Bayesian updating of belief-states ("willingness to trust") as well as canonical measures of reinforcement learning (learning rate, inverse temperature). Behavioral trajectories were then used as regressors within fMRI activation and connectivity analyses to identify corresponding brain network functionality affected by OT. Behaviorally, OT reduced feedback learning, without bias with respect to positive versus negative reward. Neurobiologically, reduced learning under OT was associated with muted communication between three key nodes within the reward circuit: the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and lateral (limbic) habenula. Our data suggest that OT, rather than inspiring feelings of generosity, instead attenuates the brain's encoding of prediction error and therefore its ability to modulate pre-existing beliefs. This effect may underlie OT's putative role in promoting what has typically been reported as 'unjustified trust' in the face of information that suggests likely betrayal, while also resolving apparent contradictions with regard to OT's context-dependent behavioral effects. Copyright

  12. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, Eva; Connolly, Colm G; Ho, Tiffany C; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N; Yang, Tony T

    2015-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad-happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Altered microstructural connectivity of the superior cerebellar peduncle is related to motor dysfunction in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaie, Ryuzo; Mohri, Ikuko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Tachibana, Masaya; Azuma, Junji; Matsuzaki, Junko; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Norihiko; Taniike, Masako

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have reported motor impairments in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the brain mechanism underlying motor impairment in ASD remains unclear. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that underconnectivity between the cerebellum and other brain regions contributes to the features of ASD. In this study, we investigated the microstructural integrity of the cerebellar pathways, including the superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles, of children with and without ASD by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to determine whether the microstructural integrity of the cerebellar pathways is related to motor function in children with ASD. Thirteen children with ASD and 11 age-, gender-, handedness-, and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) controls were enrolled in this study. DTI outcome measurements, such as fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), for the cerebellar pathways were calculated. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2 (M-ABC 2) was used for assessing motor functions. There were no significant differences between the two groups in RD. However, compared to the TD subjects, patients with ASD had a significantly lower FA in the right superior cerebellar peduncle and lower AD in the left superior cerebellar peduncle, in addition to a significantly lower score in ball skills and the total test score of M-ABC 2. There was a significant positive correlation between the total test score of M-ABC 2 and FA in the right superior cerebellar peduncle in the ASD group. These findings suggest that the altered microstructural integrity of the superior cerebellar peduncle may be related to motor impairment in ASD.

  14. PCB 136 Atropselectively Alters Morphometric and Functional Parameters of Neuronal Connectivity in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons via Ryanodine Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongren; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Ghogha, Atefeh; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Bose, Diptiman D.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with multiple ortho chlorine substitutions sensitize ryanodine receptors (RyRs), and this activity promotes Ca2+-dependent dendritic growth in cultured neurons. Many ortho-substituted congeners display axial chirality, and we previously reported that the chiral congener PCB 136 (2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl) atropselectively sensitizes RyRs. Here, we test the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers differentially alter dendritic growth and other parameters of neuronal connectivity influenced by RyR activity. (−)-PCB 136, which potently sensitizes RyRs, enhances dendritic growth in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, whereas (+)-PCB 136, which lacks RyR activity, has no effect on dendritic growth. The dendrite-promoting activity of (−)-PCB 136 is observed at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100nM and is blocked by pharmacologic RyR antagonism. Neither atropisomer alters axonal growth or cell viability. Quantification of PCB 136 atropisomers in hippocampal cultures indicates that atropselective effects on dendritic growth are not due to differential partitioning of atropisomers into cultured cells. Imaging of hippocampal neurons loaded with Ca2+-sensitive dye demonstrates that (−)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations. Similarly, (−)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the activity of hippocampal neurons plated on microelectrode arrays. These data support the hypothesis that atropselective effects on RyR activity translate into atropselective effects of PCB 136 atropisomers on neuronal connectivity, and suggest that the variable atropisomeric enrichment of chiral PCBs observed in the human population may be a significant determinant of individual susceptibility for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes following PCB exposure. PMID:24385416

  15. Identifying the Alteration Patterns of Brain Functional Connectivity in Progressive Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients: A Longitudinal Whole-Brain Voxel-Wise Degree Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanjia; Liu, Kai; Shi, Lin; Lei, Yi; Liang, Peipeng; Li, Kuncheng; Chu, Winnie C W; Wang, Defeng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), while some of them may remain stable over decades. The underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the connectivity differences between progressive MCI (PMCI) and stable MCI (SMCI) individuals on a whole-brain scale and on a voxel-wise basis, and we also aimed to reveal the differential dynamic alteration patterns between these two disease subtypes. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance images of PMCI and SMCI patients at baseline and year-one were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset, and the progression was determined based on a 3-year follow-up. A whole-brain voxel-wise degree map that was calculated based on graph-theory was constructed for each subject, and then the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses on the degree maps were performed between PMCI and SMCI patients. In longitudinal analyses, compared with SMCI group, PMCI group showed decreased long-range degree in the left middle occipital/supramarginal gyrus, while the short-range degree was increased in the left supplementary motor area and middle frontal gyrus and decreased in the right middle temporal pole. A significant longitudinal alteration of decreased short-range degree in the right middle occipital was found in PMCI group. Taken together with previous evidence, our current findings may suggest that PMCI, compared with SMCI, might be a "severe" presentation of disease along the AD continuum, and the rapidly reduced degree in the right middle occipital gyrus may have indicative value for the disease progression. Moreover, the cross-sectional comparison results and corresponding receiver-operator characteristic-curves analyses may indicate that the baseline degree difference is not a good predictor of disease progression in MCI patients. Overall, these findings may provide objective evidence and an indicator

  16. [Lumbar spinal angiolipoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Alberto; Ortega Martinez, Rodrigo; Pérez López, Carlos; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro; Mansilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are fairly infrequent benign tumours that are usually located in the epidural space of the thoracic column and represent 0.14% to 1.3% of all spinal tumours. Lumbar angiolipomas are extremely rare, representing only 9.6% of all spinal extradural angiolipomas. We report the case of a woman who complained of a lumbar pain of several months duration with no neurological focality and that had intensified in the last three days without her having had any injury or made a physical effort. The MR revealed an extradural mass L1-L2, on the posterior face of the medulla, decreasing the anteroposterior diameter of the canal. The patient symptoms improved after surgery. Total extirpation of the lesion is possible in most cases, and the prognosis is excellent even if the lesion is infiltrative. For this reason, excessively aggressive surgery is not necessary to obtain complete resection. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Alterations of Resting-State Static and Dynamic Functional Connectivity of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Subjects with Internet Gaming Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Han

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder (IGD, a major behavior disorder, has gained increasing attention. Recent studies indicate altered resting-state static functional connectivity (FC of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in subjects with IGD. Whereas static FC often provides information on functional changes in subjects with IGD, investigations of temporal changes in FC between the DLPFC and the other brain regions may shed light on the dynamic characteristics of brain function associated with IGD. Thirty subjects with IGD and 30 healthy controls (HCs matched for age, gender and education status were recruited. Using the bilateral DLPFC as seeds, static FC and dynamic FC maps were calculated and compared between groups. Correlations between alterations in static FC and dynamic FC and clinical variables were also investigated within the IGD group. The IGD group showed significantly lower static FC between the right DLPFC and the left rolandic operculum while higher static FC between the right DLPFC and the left pars triangularis when compared to HCs. The IGD group also had significantly decreased dynamic FC between the right DLPFC and the left insula, right putamen and left precentral gyrus, and increased dynamic FC in the left precuneus. Moreover, the dynamic FC between the right DLPFC and the left insula was negatively correlated with the severity of IGD. Dynamic FC can be used as a powerful supplement to static FC, helping us obtain a more comprehensive understanding of large-scale brain network activity in IGD and put forward new ideas for behavioral intervention therapy for it.

  18. Effective artifact removal in resting state fMRI data improves detection of DMN functional connectivity alteration in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovica eGriffanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artefact removal from resting state fMRI data is an essential step for a better identification of the resting state networks and the evaluation of their functional connectivity (FC, especially in pathological conditions. There is growing interest in the development of cleaning procedures, especially those not requiring external recordings (data-driven, which are able to remove multiple sources of artefacts. It is important that only inter-subject variability due to the artefacts is removed, preserving the between-subject variability of interest - crucial in clinical applications using clinical scanners to discriminate different pathologies and monitor their staging. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients, decreased FC is usually observed in the posterior cingulate cortex within the default mode network (DMN, and this is becoming a possible biomarker for AD. The aim of this study was to compare four different data-driven cleaning procedures (regression of motion parameters; regression of motion parameters, mean white matter and cerebrospinal fluid signal; FMRIB's ICA-based X-noiseifier –FIX- cleanup with soft and aggressive options on data acquired at 1.5T. The approaches were compared using data from 20 elderly healthy subjects and 21 AD patients in a mild stage, in terms of their impact on within-group consistency in FC and ability to detect the typical FC alteration of the DMN in AD patients. Despite an increased within-group consistency across subjects after applying any of the cleaning approaches, only after cleaning with FIX the expected DMN FC alteration in AD was detectable. Our study validates the efficacy of artefact removal even in a relatively small clinical population, and supports the importance of cleaning fMRI data for sensitive detection of FC alterations in a clinical environment.

  19. Altered Functional Connectivity of the Basal Nucleus of Meynert in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholinergic dysfunction plays an important role in mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM provides the main source of cortical cholinergic innervation. Previous studies have characterized structural changes of the cholinergic basal forebrain in individuals at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, whether and how functional connectivity of the BNM (BNM-FC is altered in MCI remains unknown.Objective: The aim of this study was to identify alterations in BNM-FC in individuals with MCI as compared to healthy controls (HCs, and to examine the relationship between these alterations with neuropsychological measures in individuals with MCI.Method: One-hundred-and-one MCI patients and 103 HCs underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI. Imaging data were processed with SPM8 and CONN software. BNM-FC was examined via correlation in low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations between the BNM and all other brain voxels. Group differences were examined with a covariance analysis with age, gender, education level, mean framewise displacement (FD and global correlation (GCOR as nuisance covariates. Pearson’s correlation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the BNM-FC and clinical assessments.Result: Compared with HCs, individuals with MCI showed significantly decreased BNM-FC in the left insula extending into claustrum (insula/claustrum. Furthermore, greater decrease in BNM-FC with insula/claustrum was associated with more severe impairment in immediate recall during Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT in MCI patients.Conclusion: MCI is associated with changes in BNM-FC to the insula/claustrum in relation to cognitive impairments. These new findings may advance research of the cholinergic bases of cognitive dysfunction during healthy aging and in individuals at risk of developing AD.

  20. Side effects after diagnostic lumbar puncture and lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Salvesen, R.; Dale, L.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective, controlled study was performed to compare side effect incidences after lumbar iohexol myelography (n=97) and diagnostic lumbar puncture (n=85). No significant side effect incidence differences (iohexol vs. controls) were found regarding number of patients with any side effect (63 vs. 73%), headache (44 vs. 54%), nausea, dizziness, visual, auditory, or psychic symptoms. Early-onset headache occurred significantly more often in the iohexol group (16 vs 5%), while postural headache occurred most frequently after lumbar puncture (25 vs. 41%). These results suggest that apart from the slight early-onset headache, most side effets after lumbar iohexol myelography are related to the puncture per se, not to the contrast agent. (orig.)

  1. Percutaneous lumbar discectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Chengjiang; Su Huanbin; Xu Sui; He Xiaofeng; Li Yanhao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To probe the therapeutic effects, indications and safety of the percutaneous lumbar discectomy (PLDP). Methods: To ameliorate percutaneous punctured route based on classic PLD and modified jaw structure of pulpiform nacleus forceps, with statistic analysis of the therapeutic results of 352 cases of patient undergone PLDP and follow up ranging from 6 to 38 months retrospectively. Results: The effective ratios were excellent in 45.5%, good for 45.4% and bad in 9.1%. 44 of 352 cases with pulps prolapse were cured. No intervertebral inflammation and paradisc hematoma took place. One case complicated with cauda equina injury and 4 cases with appliances broken inside the disc. Conclusions: PLDP is effective and safe, not only adaptive to the contained disc herniation, but also for noncontained herniation. (authors)

  2. Ameliorative percutaneous lumbar discectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Chengjiang; Su Huanbin; He Xiaofeng; Li Yanhao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To ameliorate the percutaneous lumbar discectomy (APLD) for improving the effectiveness and amplifying the indicative range of PLD. Methods: To ameliorate percutaneous punctured route based on classic PLD and discectomy of extracting pulp out of the herniated disc with special pulpforceps. The statistical analysis of the therapeutic results on 750 disc protrusions of 655 cases undergone APLD following up from 6 to 54 months retrospectively. Results: The effective ratios were excellent in 40.2%, good for 46.6% and bad of 13.3%. No occurrance of intervertebral inflammation and paradiscal hematoma, there were only 1 case complicated with injuried cauda equina, and 4 cases with broken appliance within disc. Conclusions: APLD is effective and safe, not only indicative for inclusion disc herniation, but also for noninclusion herniation. (authors)

  3. Lumbar myelography with iohexol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestvold, K.; Sortland, O.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1983 iohexol has been routinely used for myelography in our hospital and 1 650 myelographies have been performed. The first 331 patients with lumbar myelography were included in a follow-up study. Headache was observed in 26 per cent, nausea in 12 per cent and vertigo in 6 per cent of the patients, a frequency very similar to that observed in an earlier study of side effects following spinal puncture. Severe reactions were not seen. Three patients had radicular symptoms and 3 patients had minor mental symptoms possibly caused by the contrast medium. It is concluded that most side effects are related to the spinal puncture and that iohexol probably can be used with safety in out-patients. (orig.)

  4. [Lumbar stabilization exercises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Ríos, Jorge Rodrigo; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is the intervention with the highest level of evidence on efficacy for treatment of chronic low back pain, with a higher benefit in terms of pain and function compared to any other intervention. A wide variety of exercises programs have been designed; however, "lumbar stabilization exercises" have become increasingly popular among clinicians who are in contact with spine diseases. However, there is controversy regarding the adequate prescription and there are multiple protocols. The aim of this literature review is to analyze the information about these exercises to promote better decision-making among clinicians and design the best program for each patient. We found the program an essential tool in the treatment of low back pain in both therapeutic and preventive phases.

  5. LUMBAR CORSETS CAN DECREASE LUMBAR MOTION IN GOLF SWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hashimoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K., full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC, with a soft corset (SC, and with a hard corset (HC, with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38° or HC (28° than under WOC (44° conditions (p < 0.05. The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec than under SC (177°/sec and WOC (191° /sec conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC

  6. Lumbar spondylolysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Antonio; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Cerase, Alfonso; Magarelli, Nicola; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2011-06-01

    Spondylolysis is an osseous defect of the pars interarticularis, thought to be a developmental or acquired stress fracture secondary to chronic low-grade trauma. It is encountered most frequently in adolescents, most commonly involving the lower lumbar spine, with particularly high prevalence among athletes involved in certain sports or activities. Spondylolysis can be asymptomatic or can be a cause of spine instability, back pain, and radiculopathy. The biomechanics and pathophysiology of spondylolysis are complex and debated. Imaging is utilized to detect spondylolysis, distinguish acute and active lesions from chronic inactive non-union, help establish prognosis, guide treatment, and to assess bony healing. Radiography with satisfactory technical quality can often demonstrate a pars defect. Multislice CT with multiplanar reformats is the most accurate modality for detecting the bony defect and may also be used for assessment of osseous healing; however, as with radiographs, it is not sensitive for detection of the early edematous stress response without a fracture line and exposes the patient to ionizing radiation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging should be used as the primary investigation for adolescents with back pain and suspected stress reactions of the lumbar pars interarticularis. Several imaging pitfalls render MR imaging less sensitive than CT for directly visualizing the pars defects (regional degenerative changes and sclerosis). Nevertheless, the presence of bone marrow edema on fluid-sensitive images is an important early finding that may suggest stress response without a visible fracture line. Moreover, MR is the imaging modality of choice for identifying associated nerve root compression. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) use is limited by a high rate of false-positive and false-negative results and by considerable ionizing radiation exposure. In this article, we provide a review of the current concepts regarding spondylolysis, its

  7. Lumbar spondylolysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, Antonio; Magarelli, Nicola; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Cerase, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Spondylolysis is an osseous defect of the pars interarticularis, thought to be a developmental or acquired stress fracture secondary to chronic low-grade trauma. It is encountered most frequently in adolescents, most commonly involving the lower lumbar spine, with particularly high prevalence among athletes involved in certain sports or activities. Spondylolysis can be asymptomatic or can be a cause of spine instability, back pain, and radiculopathy. The biomechanics and pathophysiology of spondylolysis are complex and debated. Imaging is utilized to detect spondylolysis, distinguish acute and active lesions from chronic inactive non-union, help establish prognosis, guide treatment, and to assess bony healing. Radiography with satisfactory technical quality can often demonstrate a pars defect. Multislice CT with multiplanar reformats is the most accurate modality for detecting the bony defect and may also be used for assessment of osseous healing; however, as with radiographs, it is not sensitive for detection of the early edematous stress response without a fracture line and exposes the patient to ionizing radiation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging should be used as the primary investigation for adolescents with back pain and suspected stress reactions of the lumbar pars interarticularis. Several imaging pitfalls render MR imaging less sensitive than CT for directly visualizing the pars defects (regional degenerative changes and sclerosis). Nevertheless, the presence of bone marrow edema on fluid-sensitive images is an important early finding that may suggest stress response without a visible fracture line. Moreover, MR is the imaging modality of choice for identifying associated nerve root compression. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) use is limited by a high rate of false-positive and false-negative results and by considerable ionizing radiation exposure. In this article, we provide a review of the current concepts regarding spondylolysis, its

  8. Lumbar spondylolysis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Antonio; Magarelli, Nicola; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Dept. of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic Univ., Rome (Italy); Cianfoni, Alessandro [Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston (United States); Cerase, Alfonso [General Hospital, Unit Neuroimaging and Neurointervention (NINT), Department of Neurosciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Siena (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Spondylolysis is an osseous defect of the pars interarticularis, thought to be a developmental or acquired stress fracture secondary to chronic low-grade trauma. It is encountered most frequently in adolescents, most commonly involving the lower lumbar spine, with particularly high prevalence among athletes involved in certain sports or activities. Spondylolysis can be asymptomatic or can be a cause of spine instability, back pain, and radiculopathy. The biomechanics and pathophysiology of spondylolysis are complex and debated. Imaging is utilized to detect spondylolysis, distinguish acute and active lesions from chronic inactive non-union, help establish prognosis, guide treatment, and to assess bony healing. Radiography with satisfactory technical quality can often demonstrate a pars defect. Multislice CT with multiplanar reformats is the most accurate modality for detecting the bony defect and may also be used for assessment of osseous healing; however, as with radiographs, it is not sensitive for detection of the early edematous stress response without a fracture line and exposes the patient to ionizing radiation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging should be used as the primary investigation for adolescents with back pain and suspected stress reactions of the lumbar pars interarticularis. Several imaging pitfalls render MR imaging less sensitive than CT for directly visualizing the pars defects (regional degenerative changes and sclerosis). Nevertheless, the presence of bone marrow edema on fluid-sensitive images is an important early finding that may suggest stress response without a visible fracture line. Moreover, MR is the imaging modality of choice for identifying associated nerve root compression. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) use is limited by a high rate of false-positive and false-negative results and by considerable ionizing radiation exposure. In this article, we provide a review of the current concepts regarding spondylolysis, its

  9. Reproduction of the lumbar lordosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Marianne Løgtholt; Langhoff, Lotte; Jensen, Tue Secher

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether it is possible to reproduce the lumbar lordosis in the upright position during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by positioning the patient supine with straightened lower extremities and investigates intra- and interexaminer reliability of measurements...... of the lumbar lordosis on radiographs and MRI. METHODS: This was an observational study, which included an intra- and interexaminer reliability study. The lumbar lordosis was measured digitally on radiographs taken from 22 patients in an upright standing position, and 22 MRI scans of the same patients lying...... supine with straightened lower extremities. These measurements were compared statistically. Intra- and interexaminer reliability was calculated applying the Bland and Altman method. RESULTS: The lumbar lordosis in the standing position was reproduced in the straightened supine position with a median...

  10. Biomechanical study of percutaneous lumbar diskectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuan; Huang Xianglong; Shen Tianzhen; Hu Zhou; Hong Shuizong; Mei Haiying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the stiffness of lumbar spine after the injury caused by percutaneous diskectomy and evaluate the efficiency of percutaneous lumbar diskectomy by biomechanical study. Methods: Four fresh lumbar specimens were used to analyse load-displacement curves in the intact lumbar spine and vertical disc-injured lumbar spine. The concepts of average flexibility coefficient (f) and standardized average flexibility coefficient (fs) were also introduced. Results: The load-displacement curves showed a good stabilization effect of the intact lumbar spine and disc-injured lumbar spine in flexion, extension, right and left bending. The decrease of anti-rotation also can be detected (P<0.05). Conclusion: In biomechanical study, percutaneous lumbar diskectomy is one of the efficiency methods to treat lumbar diac hernia

  11. Effect of aging and lumbar spondylosis on lumbar lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Osita Okpala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lumbar lordosis (LL, the anterior convexity of the lumbar spine in the mid-sagittal plane, gives the spine some resilience and helps in protecting it from compressive forces because some of the force is taken by the anterior longitudinal ligaments. In aging and lumbar spondylosis, the intervertebral discs undergo the same degenerative changes though at different rates, and in both, while some authors reported a straightening of LL, others reported no significant change. This morphologic information would hopefully influence therapeutic decision-making, particularly in lumbar spondylosis, which though usually asymptomatic, is a common cause of low back pain. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aging and lumbar spondylosis on LL. Subjects and Methods: Lumbosacral joint angle (LSJA, an angular measure of LL, was retrospectively measured in 252 normal and 329 spondylotic adolescent and adult supine lateral lumbosacral spine archival radiographs, and data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0 (New York, USA. Results: Normal LSJA range was 5°–39°; the mean was 18.7° and showed insignificant variation with gender and aging. Spondylotic range was 5°–40° and the mean (20.8° differed from the normal mean by about 2°, which probably have inconsequential effect on the lumbar curvature, suggesting that the normal and spondylotic mean values are essentially equal. The spondylotic mean also showed insignificant variation with aging and inconsequential 1° gender difference in favor of females. Conclusion: LL is substantially maintained in aging and lumbar spondylosis.

  12. Altered brain activation and functional connectivity in working memory related networks in patients with type 2 diabetes: An ICA-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Lu, Shan; Liu, Chunlei; Zhang, Huimei; Zhou, Xuanhe; Ni, Changlin; Qin, Wen; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can cause multidimensional cognitive deficits, among which working memory (WM) is usually involved at an early stage. However, the neural substrates underlying impaired WM in T2DM patients are still unclear. To clarify this issue, we utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and independent component analysis to evaluate T2DM patients for alterations in brain activation and functional connectivity (FC) in WM networks and to determine their associations with cognitive and clinical variables. Twenty complication-free T2DM patients and 19 matched healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled, and fMRI data were acquired during a block-designed 1-back WM task. The WM metrics of the T2DM patients showed no differences compared with those of the HCs, except for a slightly lower accuracy rate in the T2DM patients. Compared with the HCs, the T2DM patients demonstrated increased activation within their WM fronto-parietal networks, and activation strength was significantly correlated with WM performance. The T2DM patients also showed decreased FC within and between their WM networks. Our results indicate that the functional integration of WM sub-networks was disrupted in the complication-free T2DM patients and that strengthened regional activity in fronto-parietal networks may compensate for the WM impairment caused by T2DM. PMID:27021340

  13. Altered Functional Connectivity Following an Inflammatory White Matter Injury in the Newborn Rat: A High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Intrinsic Optical Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Guevara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Very preterm newborns have an increased risk of developing an inflammatory cerebral white matter injury that may lead to severe neuro-cognitive impairment. In this study we performed functional connectivity (fc analysis using resting-state optical imaging of intrinsic signals (rs-OIS to assess the impact of inflammation on resting-state networks (RSN in a pre-clinical model of perinatal inflammatory brain injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS or saline injections were administered in postnatal day (P3 rat pups and optical imaging of intrinsic signals were obtained 3 weeks later. (rs-OIS fc seed-based analysis including spatial extent were performed. A support vector machine (SVM was then used to classify rat pups in two categories using fc measures and an artificial neural network (ANN was implemented to predict lesion size from those same fc measures. A significant decrease in the spatial extent of fc statistical maps was observed in the injured group, across contrasts and seeds (*p = 0.0452 for HbO2 and **p = 0.0036 for HbR. Both machine learning techniques were applied successfully, yielding 92% accuracy in group classification and a significant correlation r = 0.9431 in fractional lesion volume prediction (**p = 0.0020. Our results suggest that fc is altered in the injured newborn brain, showing the long-standing effect of inflammation.

  14. A new lumbar posterior fixation system, the memory metal spinal system : an in-vitro mechanical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Dennis; Firkins, Paul John; Wapstra, Frits H.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Spinal systems that are currently available for correction of spinal deformities or degeneration such as lumbar spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease use components manufactured from stainless steel or titanium and typically comprise two spinal rods with associated connection

  15. Can the human lumbar posterior columns be stimulated by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation? A modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Danner, Simon M.; Hofstoetter, Ursula S.; Ladenbauer, Josef; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Stimulation of different spinal cord segments in humans is a widely developed clinical practice for modification of pain, altered sensation and movement. The human lumbar cord has become a target for modification of motor control by epidural and more recently by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation. Posterior columns of the lumbar spinal cord represent a vertical system of axons and when activated can add other inputs to the motor control of the spinal cord than stimulated posterior roots. ...

  16. Lumbar spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Spinal stenosis, which has attracted increasing attention in recent years, represents an important group of clinical and radiologic entities. Recognition and ultimate surgical management of the many abnormalities found in this group require precise preoperative delineation of the morbid anatomy. Conventional axial tomography provided the first accurate picture of the sagittal dimension, but it was limited by poor contrast resolution. Computerized tomography and ultrasound have finally provided the means for accurate measurement of midsagittal diameter and surface area. It is now possible to provide a preoperative assessment of bony and soft-tissue canal compression and to guide surgical decompression by objective anatomic measurements. True spinal stenosis of the lumbar vertebral canal is a form of compression produced by the walls of the vertebral canal. It involves the whole of the vertebral canal by exerting compression at two of its opposite surfaces. There are two types of stenosis: (1) transport stenosis, wherein the clinical manifestations are due to impeded flow of fluid, which is dependent on the available cross-sectional area of the canal surface of the stenotic structure, and (2) compressive stenosis, which includes abnormal compression of opposing surfaces only. According to these definitions, indentation on the spinal canal by disc protrusion or localized tumor is not considered true spinal stenoses. In this chapter the authors discuss only those conditions that produce true canal stenosis

  17. White matter alterations related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and COMT val158met polymorphism: children with valine homozygote attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have altered white matter connectivity in the right cingulum (cingulate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabukcu Basay B

    2016-04-01

    -posterior thalamic radiation (include optic radiation than the val homozygotes, independent of ADHD diagnosis. Third, children with ADHD had lower FA in the L-CGC and R-retrolenticular part of the internal capsule than the controls, independent of the COMT polymorphism.Conclusion: Significant differences reported here may be evidence that the COMT gene val158met polymorphism variants, as well as ADHD, could affect brain development. ADHD and the COMT polymorphism might be interactively affecting WM development in the R-CGC to alter the WM connectivity in children with val homozygote ADHD.Keywords: neuroimaging, attention deficit, hyperactivity, catechol-O-methyltransferase

  18. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL IN LUMBAR DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Leinonen

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Impaired motor and sensory functions have been associated with low back pain (LBP. This includes disturbances in a wide range of sensorimotor control e.g. sensory dysfunctions, impaired postural responses and psychomotor control. However, the physiological mechanisms, clinical relevance and characteristics of these findings in different spinal pathologies require further clarification. The purposes of this study were to investigate postural control, lumbar muscle function, movement perception and associations between these findings in healthy volunteers (n=35, patients with lumbar disc herniation (n=20 and lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS, n=26. Paraspinal muscle responses for sudden upper limb loading and muscle activation during flexion-extension movement and the lumbar endurance test were measured by surface electromyography (EMG. Postural stability was measured on a force platform during two- and one-footed standing. Lumbar movement perception was assessed in a motorised trunk rotation unit in the seated position. In addition, measurements of motor-(MEP and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP and needle EMG examination of lumbar multifidus muscles were performed in the LSS patients. Clinical and questionnaire data were also recorded. A short latency paraspinal muscle response (~50 ms for sudden upper limb loading was observed. The latency of the response was shortened by expectation (p=0.017. The response latency for unexpected loading was similar in healthy persons and disc herniation patients but the latency was not shortened by expectation in the patients (p = 0.014. Also impaired postural control (p < 0.05 and lumbar movement perception (p = 0.012 were observed in disc herniation patients. The impaired lumbar movement perception (p=0.054 and anticipatory muscle activation (p = 0.043 tended to be restored after successful surgery but postural control had still not recovered after 3 months of follow-up. The majority of LSS patients were unable

  19. Gossypiboma complicated with paraspinal abscess and lumbar sinus: An uncommon complication of posterior lumbar spinal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Tripathy, Pradipta; Das, Pulin Bihari; Mohapatra, Debahuti

    2017-01-01

    A 42-year-old female presented with the complaint of purulent discharging sinus over posterior lumbar area following one month of lumbar spinal surgery for prolapsed intervertebral disc. Gossypiboma complicated with paraspinal abscess and sinus track formation over posterior lumbar area was diagnosed in magnetic resonance imaging which was confirmed in re- exploration of lumbar spinal operative site.

  20. Dual photon absorptiometry in lumbar vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, B.O.; Hansson, T.H.; Skoeldborn, H.

    1980-01-01

    In connection with determination of the bone mineral content in the third lumbar vertebra by dual photon absorptiometry, the fat in the adipose capsules of the kidneys is assumed to cause erroneous positioning of the baseline, leading to overestimation of the bone mineral content. The bone mineral content in L3 was measured in situ (BMC 1 ) and vitro (BMC 2 ) in 14 cadavers. The difference between BMC 1 and BMC 2 was significantly greater than zero, the median value being 0.32 g/cm at the confidence level of 94.4 per cent. It is concluded that at correlation between bone mineral content and compressive strength in vitro, the in vivo strength is overestimated by about 250 N. (Auth.)

  1. Ergonomic lumbar risk analysis of construction workers by NIOSH method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Caetano Pereira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Work in construction has tasks directly connected with manual transport. One of the body segments suffering greater demand in works with these characteristics is the lumbar spine segment. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of risk of lumbar construction workers in the shipment of materials. The sample was composed of 74 construction workers. Were used as a research tool: the NIOSH method for lumbar risk verification expressed by weight limit recommended (WPR and the lifting Index (IL, Visual analogue scale (VAS for the evaluation of pain intensity, the e-1 Corlett.0 for the mapping of the pain and Borg to the subjective perception of the intensity of physical exertion. The present study identified the weight limit (WP of 8.707 for management activity of bags of cement for the load of 8.194 wheelbarrows used. These findings are 6 times under actual weights handled during the activities that revolve around 50 kg with the sacks and averaged 49.72 kg stands with mass. The dimensional settings found in the search are at high risk for ergonomic lumbar region, and measures of reconfiguration of workplaces and operation of auxiliary devices for lifting, transporting and unloading are fundamental, in addition to the need for reflection about the current logistical problems that induce producers to supply the cement sacks with 50 kg.

  2. Lumbar myelography with omnipaque (iohexol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilleaas, F.; Weber, H.

    1986-01-01

    Lumbar myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed in 103 consecutive adult patients with low back pain or sciatica. The patients were observed for 48 h with registration of possible adverse reactions. Mild or moderate transient side effects were recorded in 24 patients. No serious adverse reactions were noted, and EEG recorded in 25 patients showed no changes. (orig.)

  3. Lumbar myelography with Omnipaque (iohexol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilleaas, F.; Bach-Gansmo, T.; Weber, H.

    1986-07-01

    Lumbar myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed in 103 consecutive adult patients with low back pain or sciatica. The patients were observed for 48 h with registration of possible adverse reactions. Mild or moderate transient side effects were recorded in 24 patients. No serious adverse reactions were noted, and EEG recorded in 25 patients showed no changes.

  4. Chondroblastoma of the lumbar vertebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, L.Y.J.; Shu, S.J.; Chan, M.K.; Chan, C.H.S. [Dept. of Radiology and Imaging, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2001-12-01

    Chondroblastoma of the vertebra is a very rare condition. To our knowledge fewer than 20 cases have been reported in the world literature. We report a 54-year-old man with chondroblastoma of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The clinical and radiological aspects of the tumor are discussed, emphasizing the presence of an extraosseous mass suggestive of locally aggressive behavior. (orig.)

  5. Preliminary findings of altered functional connectivity of the default mode network linked to functional outcomes one year after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jaclyn A; Salorio, Cynthia F; Barber, Anita D; Risen, Sarah R; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Suskauer, Stacy J

    2017-07-10

    This study examined functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) and examined brain-behavior relationships in a pilot cohort of children with chronic mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Compared to uninjured peers, children with TBI demonstrated less anti-correlated functional connectivity between DMN and right Brodmann Area 40 (BA 40). In children with TBI, more anomalous less anti-correlated) connectivity between DMN and right BA 40 was linked to poorer performance on response inhibition tasks. Collectively, these preliminary findings suggest that functional connectivity between DMN and BA 40 may relate to longterm functional outcomes in chronic pediatric TBI.

  6. Lumbar motion changes in chronic low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Rune M; Hartvigsen, Jan; Boyle, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Several therapies have been used in the treatment of chronic low back pain, including various exercise strategies and spinal manipulative therapy. A common belief is that spinal motion changes in particular ways in direct response to specific interventions, such as exercise...... or spinal manipulation. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess changes in lumbar region motion over 12 weeks by evaluating four motion parameters in the sagittal plane and two in the horizontal plane in LBP patients treated with either exercise therapy or spinal manipulation. STUDY DESIGN......, and the University of Southern Denmark. No conflicts of interest. RESULTS: For the cohort as a whole, lumbar region motion parameters were altered over the 12-week period, except for the jerk index parameter. The group receiving spinal manipulation changed significantly in all, and the exercise groups in half...

  7. Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Ninomiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to the initial MRI, this hernia occurred in an “intact” disc among multilevel severely degenerated discs. Right leg paresis and bladder dysfunction appeared a few days after admission. Microscopic lumbar disc herniotomy was performed. The right leg motor weakness improved just after the operation, but the moderate left leg motor weakness and difficulty in urination persisted.

  8. Altered task-based and resting-state amygdala functional connectivity following real-time fMRI amygdala neurofeedback training in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Siegle, Greg J; Misaki, Masaya; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) trained to upregulate their amygdala hemodynamic response during positive autobiographical memory (AM) recall with real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) training, depressive symptoms diminish. Here, we assessed the effect of rtfMRI-nf on amygdala functional connectivity during both positive AM recall and rest. The current manuscript consists of a secondary analysis on data from our published clinical trial of neurofeedback. Patients with MDD completed two rtfMRI-nf sessions (18 received amygdala rtfMRI-nf, 16 received control parietal rtfMRI-nf). One-week prior-to and following training participants also completed a resting-state fMRI scan. A GLM-based functional connectivity analysis was applied using a seed ROI in the left amygdala. We compared amygdala functional connectivity changes while recalling positive AMs from the baseline run to the final transfer run during rtfMRI-nf training, as well during rest from the baseline to the one-week follow-up visit. Finally, we assessed the correlation between change in depression scores and change in amygdala connectivity, as well as correlations between amygdala regulation success and connectivity changes. Following training, amygdala connectivity during positive AM recall increased with widespread regions in the frontal and limbic network. During rest, amygdala connectivity increased following training within the fronto-temporal-limbic network. During both task and resting-state analyses, amygdala-temporal pole connectivity decreased. We identified increased amygdala-precuneus and amygdala-inferior frontal gyrus connectivity during positive memory recall and increased amygdala-precuneus and amygdala-thalamus connectivity during rest as functional connectivity changes that explained significant variance in symptom improvement. Amygdala-precuneus connectivity changes also explain a significant amount of variance in neurofeedback

  9. Altered intrinsic organisation of brain networks implicated in attentional processes in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state study of attention, default mode and salience network connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    Deficits in task-related attentional engagement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been hypothesised to be due to altered interrelationships between attention, default mode and salience networks. We examined the intrinsic connectivity during rest within and between these networks. Six-minute resting-state scans were obtained. Using a network-based approach, connectivity within and between the dorsal and ventral attention, the default mode and the salience networks was compared between the ADHD and control group. The ADHD group displayed hyperconnectivity between the two attention networks and within the default mode and ventral attention network. The salience network was hypoconnected to the dorsal attention network. There were trends towards hyperconnectivity within the dorsal attention network and between the salience and ventral attention network in ADHD. Connectivity within and between other networks was unrelated to ADHD. Our findings highlight the altered connectivity within and between attention networks, and between them and the salience network in ADHD. One hypothesis to be tested in future studies is that individuals with ADHD are affected by an imbalance between ventral and dorsal attention systems with the former playing a dominant role during task engagement, making individuals with ADHD highly susceptible to distraction by salient task-irrelevant stimuli.

  10. Altered functional connectivity during self- and close other-reflection in patients with bipolar disorder with past psychosis and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen; Vander Meer, Lisette; Opmeer, Esther M; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Ruhé, Henricus G; Aleman, André

    2016-12-01

    Disturbances in implicit self-processing have been reported both in psychotic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. It remains unclear whether these two psychotic disorders show disturbed functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection, which is associated with social functioning and illness symptoms. Therefore, we investigated functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection in BD with past psychosis and schizophrenia. Twenty-three BD-patients, 17 schizophrenia-patients and 21 health controls (HC) performed a self-reflection task, including the conditions self-reflection, close other-reflection and semantic control. Functional connectivity was investigated with generalized psycho-physiological interaction (gPPI). During self-reflection compared to semantic, BD-patients had decreased connectivity between several cortical-midline structures (CMS) nodes (i.e., anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex), the insula and the head of the caudate while HC showed increased connectivities. Schizophrenia-patients, during close other-reflection compared to semantic, demonstrated reduced ventral-anterior insula-precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) functional connectivity, whereas this was increased in HC. There were no differences between BD and schizophrenia during self- and close other-reflection. We propose that decreased functional connectivity between the CMS nodes/insula and head of the caudate in BD-patients may imply a reduced involvement of the motivational system during self-reflection; and the reduced functional connectivity between the ventral-anterior insula and precuneus/PCC during close other-reflection in schizophrenia-patients may subserve difficulties in information integration of autobiographical memory and emotional awareness in relation to close others. These distinctive impaired patterns of functional connectivity in BD and schizophrenia (compared to HC) deserve further investigation to determine their

  11. Electromyographic activity of the trunk extensor muscles: effect of varying hip position and lumbar posture during Roman chair exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John M; Verna, Joe L; Manini, Todd M; Mooney, Vert; Graves, James E

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of hip position and lumbar posture on the surface electromyographic activity of the trunk extensors during Roman chair exercise. Descriptive, repeated measures. University-based musculoskeletal research laboratory. Twelve healthy volunteers (7 men, 5 women; age range, 18-35y) without a history of low back pain were recruited from a university setting. Not applicable. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded from the lumbar extensor, gluteal, and hamstring musculature during dynamic Roman chair exercise. For each muscle group, electromyographic activity (mV/rep) was compared among exercises with internal hip rotation and external hip rotation and among exercises by using a typical lumbar posture (nonbiphasic) and a posture that accentuated lumbar lordosis (biphasic). For the lumbar extensors, electromyographic activity during exercise was 18% greater with internal hip rotation than external hip rotation (Phamstrings, there was no difference in electromyographic activity between internal and external hip rotation or between biphasic and nonbiphasic postures (P >.05). The level of recruitment of the lumbar extensors can be modified during Roman chair exercise by altering hip position and lumbar posture. Clinicians can use these data to develop progressive exercise protocols for the lumbar extensors with a variety of resistance levels without the need for complex equipment. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  12. Altered task-based and resting-state amygdala functional connectivity following real-time fMRI amygdala neurofeedback training in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymberly D. Young

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Neurofeedback training to increase amygdala hemodynamic activity during positive AM recall increased amygdala connectivity with regions involved in self-referential, salience, and reward processing. Results suggest future targets for neurofeedback interventions, particularly interventions involving the precuneus.

  13. Alterations of white matter structural networks in patients with non-neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus identified by probabilistic tractography and connectivity-based analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Xu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study reveals an altered topological organization of white matter networks in non-NPSLE patients. Furthermore, this research provides new insights into the structural disruptions underlying the functional and neurocognitive deficits in non-NPSLE patients.

  14. Lumbar disc excision through fenestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lumbar disc herniation often causes sciatica. Many different techniques have been advocated with the aim of least possible damage to other structures while dealing with prolapsed disc surgically in the properly selected and indicated cases. Methods : Twenty six patients with clinical symptoms and signs of prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc having radiological correlation by MRI study were subjected to disc excision by interlaminar fenestration method. Results : The assessment at follow-up showed excellent results in 17 patients, good in 6 patients, fair in 2 patients and poor in 1 patient. The mean preoperative and postoperative Visual Analogue Scores were 9.34 ±0.84 and 2.19 ±0.84 on scale of 0-10 respectively. These were statistically significant (p value< 0.001, paired t test. No significant complications were recorded. Conclusion : Procedures of interlaminar fenestration and open disc excision under direct vision offers sufficient adequate exposure for lumbar disc excision with a smaller incision, lesser morbidity, shorter convalescence, early return to work and comparable overall results in the centers where recent laser and endoscopy facilities are not available.

  15. Altered effective connectivity network of the basal ganglia in low-grade hepatic encephalopathy: a resting-state fMRI study with Granger causality analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfeng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The basal ganglia often show abnormal metabolism and intracranial hemodynamics in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE. Little is known about how the basal ganglia affect other brain system and is affected by other brain regions in HE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effective connectivity network associated with the basal ganglia is disturbed in HE patients by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty five low-grade HE patients and thirty five age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The effective connectivity networks associated with the globus pallidus, the primarily affected region within basal ganglia in HE, were characterized by using the Granger causality analysis and compared between HE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the abnormal effective connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels and neuropsychological performances of all HE patients. Compared with the healthy controls, patients with low-grade HE demonstrated mutually decreased influence between the globus pallidus and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, cuneus, bi-directionally increased influence between the globus pallidus and the precuneus, and either decreased or increased influence from and to the globus pallidus in many other frontal, temporal, parietal gyri, and cerebellum. Pearson correlation analyses revealed that the blood ammonia levels in HE patients negatively correlated with effective connectivity from the globus pallidus to ACC, and positively correlated with that from the globus pallidus to precuneus; and the number connectivity test scores in patients negatively correlated with the effective connectivity from the globus pallidus to ACC, and from superior frontal gyrus to globus pallidus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low-grade HE patients had disrupted effective

  16. The influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination during weightlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Boyi; Ning, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar muscle fatigue is a potential risk factor for the development of low back pain. In this study, we investigated the influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns during weightlifting. Each of the 15 male subjects performed five repetitions of weightlifting tasks both before and after a lumbar extensor muscle fatiguing protocol. Lumbar muscle electromyography was collected to assess fatigue. Trunk kinematics was recorded to calculate lumbar-pelvic continuous relative phase (CRP) and CRP variability. Results showed that fatigue significantly reduced the average lumbar-pelvic CRP value (from 0.33 to 0.29 rad) during weightlifting. The average CRP variability reduced from 0.17 to 0.15 rad, yet this change ws statistically not significant. Further analyses also discovered elevated spinal loading during weightlifting after the development of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar extensor muscle fatigue should be avoided in an occupational environment. Lumbar extensor muscle fatigue generates more in-phase lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns and elevated spinal loading during lifting. Such increase in spinal loading may indicate higher risk of back injury. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar muscle fatigue should be avoided to reduce the risk of LBP.

  17. Assessment of Lumbar Lordosis and Lumbar Core Strength in Information Technology Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Roma Satish; Nagrale, Sanket; Dabadghav, Rachana; Rairikar, Savita; Shayam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2016-06-01

    Observational study. To correlate lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength in information technology (IT) professionals. IT professionals have to work for long hours in a sitting position, which can affect lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength. Flexicurve was used to assess the lumbar lordosis, and pressure biofeedback was used to assess the lumbar core strength in the IT professionals. All subjects, both male and female, with and without complaint of low back pain and working for two or more years were included, and subjects with a history of spinal surgery or spinal deformity were excluded from the study. Analysis was done using Pearson's correlation. For the IT workers, no correlation was seen between lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength (r=-0.04); however, a weak negative correlation was seen in IT people who complained of pain (r=-0.12), while there was no correlation of lumbar lordosis and lumbar core in IT people who had no complains of pain (r=0.007). The study shows that there is no correlation of lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength in IT professionals, but a weak negative correlation was seen in IT people who complained of pain.

  18. Fuerza lumbar en jugadores de hockey hierba

    OpenAIRE

    Til Pérez, Lluís; Barceló Peiró, Oriol; Pomés Díes, Teresa; Martínez Navas, Roberto; Galilea Ballarini, Pedro; Bellver Vives, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    Introducción: El dolor lumbar tiene una alta prevalencia entre los deportistas, se ha relacionado con déficits en la fuerza extensora lumbar, y el hecho de padecerlo representa un obstáculo importante para la práctica de deportes de alta intensidad. Método: Se ha medido la fuerza lumbar en 2 grupos de practicantes de hockey hierba mediante máquina MedX® y un test de resistencia isométrico lumbar. Resultados: Entre ambos grupos los resultados han sido muy homogéneos....

  19. The Impact of Lumbar Spine Disease and Deformity on Total Hip Arthroplasty Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, Daniel J; Sheets, Charles Z; Seyler, Thorsten M; Penrose, Colin T; Klement, Mitchell R; Gallizzi, Michael A; Brown, Christopher R

    2017-05-01

    Concomitant spine and hip disease in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) presents a management challenge. Degenerative lumbar spine conditions are known to decrease lumbar lordosis and limit lumbar flexion and extension, leading to altered pelvic mechanics and increased demand for hip motion. In this study, the effect of lumbar spine disease on complications after primary THA was assessed. The Medicare database was searched from 2005 to 2012 using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, procedure codes for primary THA and diagnosis codes for preoperative diagnoses of lumbosacral spondylosis, lumbar disk herniation, acquired spondylolisthesis, and degenerative disk disease. The control group consisted of all patients without a lumbar spine diagnosis who underwent THA. The risk ratios for prosthetic hip dislocation, revision THA, periprosthetic fracture, and infection were significantly higher for all 4 lumbar diseases at all time points relative to controls. The average complication risk ratios at 90 days were 1.59 for lumbosacral spondylosis, 1.62 for disk herniation, 1.65 for spondylolisthesis, and 1.53 for degenerative disk disease. The average complication risk ratios at 2 years were 1.66 for lumbosacral spondylosis, 1.73 for disk herniation, 1.65 for spondylolisthesis, and 1.59 for degenerative disk disease. Prosthetic hip dislocation was the most common complication at 2 years in all 4 spinal disease cohorts, with risk ratios ranging from 1.76 to 2.00. This study shows a significant increase in the risk of complications following THA in patients with lumbar spine disease. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):e520-e525.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Clinical anatomy and 3D virtual reconstruction of the lumbar plexus with respect to lumbar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zi-hai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure of the anterior or lateral lumbar via the retroperitoneal approach easily causes injuries to the lumbar plexus. Lumbar plexus injuries which occur during anterior or transpsoas lumbar spine exposure and placement of instruments have been reported. This study aims is to provide more anatomical data and surgical landmarks in operations concerning the lumbar plexus in order to prevent lumbar plexus injuries and to increase the possibility of safety in anterior approach lumbar surgery. Methods To study the applied anatomy related to the lumbar plexus of fifteen formaldehyde-preserved cadavers, Five sets of Virtual Human (VH data set were prepared and used in the study. Three-dimensional (3D computerized reconstructions of the lumbar plexus and their adjacent structures were conducted from the VH female data set. Results The order of lumbar nerves is regular. From the anterior view, lumbar plexus nerves are arranged from medial at L5 to lateral at L2. From the lateral view, lumbar nerves are arranged from ventral at L2 to dorsal at L5. The angle of each nerve root exiting outward to the corresponding intervertebral foramen increases from L1 to L5. The lumbar plexus nerves are observed to be in close contact with transverse processes (TP. All parts of the lumbar plexus were located by sectional anatomy in the dorsal third of the psoas muscle. Thus, access to the psoas major muscle at the ventral 2/3 region can safely prevent nerve injuries. 3D reconstruction of the lumbar plexus based on VCH data can clearly show the relationships between the lumbar plexus and the blood vessels, vertebral body, kidney, and psoas muscle. Conclusion The psoas muscle can be considered as a surgical landmark since incision at the ventral 2/3 of the region can prevent lumbar plexus injuries for procedures requiring exposure of the lateral anterior of the lumbar. The transverse process can be considered as a landmark and reference in surgical

  1. Clinical anatomy and 3D virtual reconstruction of the lumbar plexus with respect to lumbar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sheng; Chang, Shan; Zhang, Yuan-zhi; Ding, Zi-hai; Xu, Xin Ming; Xu, Yong-qing

    2011-04-14

    Exposure of the anterior or lateral lumbar via the retroperitoneal approach easily causes injuries to the lumbar plexus. Lumbar plexus injuries which occur during anterior or transpsoas lumbar spine exposure and placement of instruments have been reported. This study aims is to provide more anatomical data and surgical landmarks in operations concerning the lumbar plexus in order to prevent lumbar plexus injuries and to increase the possibility of safety in anterior approach lumbar surgery. To study the applied anatomy related to the lumbar plexus of fifteen formaldehyde-preserved cadavers, Five sets of Virtual Human (VH) data set were prepared and used in the study. Three-dimensional (3D) computerized reconstructions of the lumbar plexus and their adjacent structures were conducted from the VH female data set. The order of lumbar nerves is regular. From the anterior view, lumbar plexus nerves are arranged from medial at L5 to lateral at L2. From the lateral view, lumbar nerves are arranged from ventral at L2 to dorsal at L5. The angle of each nerve root exiting outward to the corresponding intervertebral foramen increases from L1 to L5. The lumbar plexus nerves are observed to be in close contact with transverse processes (TP). All parts of the lumbar plexus were located by sectional anatomy in the dorsal third of the psoas muscle. Thus, access to the psoas major muscle at the ventral 2/3 region can safely prevent nerve injuries. 3D reconstruction of the lumbar plexus based on VCH data can clearly show the relationships between the lumbar plexus and the blood vessels, vertebral body, kidney, and psoas muscle. The psoas muscle can be considered as a surgical landmark since incision at the ventral 2/3 of the region can prevent lumbar plexus injuries for procedures requiring exposure of the lateral anterior of the lumbar. The transverse process can be considered as a landmark and reference in surgical operations by its relative position to the lumbar plexus. 3D

  2. Radiographic measurement reliability of lumbar lordosis in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Sub; Goh, Tae Sik; Park, Shi Hwan; Lee, Hong Seok; Suh, Kuen Tak

    2013-04-01

    Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of the several different methods to measure lumbar lordosis have been reported. However, it has not been studied sofar in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We evaluated the inter and intraobserver reliabilities of six specific measures of global lumbar lordosis in patients with AS. Ninety-one consecutive patients with AS who met the most recently modified New York criteria were enrolled and underwent anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of whole spine. The radiographs were divided into non-ankylosis (no bony bridge in the lumbar spine), incomplete ankylosis (lumbar spines were partially connected by bony bridge) and complete ankylosis groups to evaluate the reliability of the Cobb L1-S1, Cobb L1-L5, centroid, posterior tangent L1-S1, posterior tangent L1-L5, and TRALL methods. The radiographs were composed of 39 non-ankylosis, 27 incomplete ankylosis and 25 complete ankylosis. Intra- and inter-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of all six methods were generally high. The ICCs were all ≥0.77 (excellent) for the six radiographic methods in the combined group. However, a comparison of the ICCs, 95 % confidence intervals and mean absolute difference (MAD) between groups with varying degrees of ankylosis showed that the reliability of the lordosis measurements decreased in proportion to the severity of ankylosis. The Cobb L1-S1, Cobb L1-L5 and posterior tangent L1-S1 method demonstrated higher ICCs for both inter and intraobserver comparisons and the other methods showed lower ICCs in all groups. The intraobserver MAD was similar in the Cobb L1-S1 and Cobb L1-L5 (2.7°-4.3°), but the other methods showed higher intraobserver MAD. Interobserver MAD of Cobb L1-L5 only showed low in all group. These results are the first to provide a reliability analysis of different global lumbar lordosis measurement methods in AS. The findings in this study demonstrated that the Cobb L1-L5 method is reliable for measuring

  3. Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ninomiya, Koshi; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Ohkawa, Toshika; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to...

  4. Altered functional connectivity during self- and close other-reflection in patients with bipolar disorder with past psychosis and patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Liwen; Meer, van der Lisette; Opmeer, Esther M.; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Aleman, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances in implicit self-processing have been reported both in psychotic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. It remains unclear whether these two psychotic disorders show disturbed functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection, which is associated with social

  5. Altered Connectivity of the Anterior Cingulate and the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus in a Longitudinal Study of Later-life Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Harada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with later-life depression (LLD show abnormal gray matter (GM volume, white matter (WM integrity and functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities persist over time. We examined whether structural and functional abnormalities in these two regions are present within the same subjects during depressed vs. remitted phases. Sixteen patients with LLD and 30 healthy subjects were studied over a period of 1.5 years. Brain images obtained with a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI system were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry of the GM volume, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI were used to assess ACC–pSTG connectivity. Patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases showed significantly smaller GM volume in the left ACC and left pSTG than healthy subjects. Both patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases had significantly higher diffusivities in the WM tract of the left ACC–pSTG than healthy subjects. Remitted patients with LLD showed lower functional ACC–pSTG connectivity compared to healthy subjects. No difference was found in the two regions between depressed and remitted patients in GM volume, structural or functional connectivity. Functional ACC–pSTG connectivity was positively correlated with lower global function during remission. Our preliminary data show that structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC and pSTG occur during LLD remission. Our findings tentatively reveal the brain pathophysiology involved in LLD and may aid in developing neuroanatomical biomarkers for this condition.

  6. Altered Connectivity of the Anterior Cingulate and the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus in a Longitudinal Study of Later-life Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kenichiro; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Nakashima, Mami; Watanuki, Toshio; Hirotsu, Masako; Matsubara, Toshio; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Matsuo, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Patients with later-life depression (LLD) show abnormal gray matter (GM) volume, white matter (WM) integrity and functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities persist over time. We examined whether structural and functional abnormalities in these two regions are present within the same subjects during depressed vs. remitted phases. Sixteen patients with LLD and 30 healthy subjects were studied over a period of 1.5 years. Brain images obtained with a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry of the GM volume, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI were used to assess ACC-pSTG connectivity. Patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases showed significantly smaller GM volume in the left ACC and left pSTG than healthy subjects. Both patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases had significantly higher diffusivities in the WM tract of the left ACC-pSTG than healthy subjects. Remitted patients with LLD showed lower functional ACC-pSTG connectivity compared to healthy subjects. No difference was found in the two regions between depressed and remitted patients in GM volume, structural or functional connectivity. Functional ACC-pSTG connectivity was positively correlated with lower global function during remission. Our preliminary data show that structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC and pSTG occur during LLD remission. Our findings tentatively reveal the brain pathophysiology involved in LLD and may aid in developing neuroanatomical biomarkers for this condition.

  7. Hernia discal lumbar: Tratamiento conservador

    OpenAIRE

    López-Sastre Núñez, Antonio; Candau Pérez, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    Existe una gran demanda de patología lumbar crónica y aguda que debe de tratarse conjuntamente entre el especialista en Rehabilitación y el Cirujano de columna vertebral. En este trabajo se detallan las posibilidades del tratamiento conservador antes de optar por la cirugía. Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica de los resultados conservadores del tratamiento de la lumbociática de origen discal comparando aquellos estudios publicados con validez estadística. Se detallan las modernas pautas de...

  8. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after lumbar spinal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevik, Belma; Kirbas, Ismail; Cakir, Banu; Akin, Kayihan; Teksam, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Background: Postoperative remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) as a complication of lumbar spinal surgery is an increasingly recognized clinical entity. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery and to describe diagnostic imaging findings of RCH. Methods: Between October 1996 and March 2007, 2444 patients who had undergone lumbar spinal surgery were included in the study. Thirty-seven of 2444 patients were scanned by CT or MRI due to neurologic symptoms within the first 7 days of postoperative period. The data of all the patients were studied with regard to the following variables: incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery, gender and age, coagulation parameters, history of previous arterial hypertension, and position of lumbar spinal surgery. Results: The retrospective study led to the identification of two patients who had RCH after lumbar spinal surgery. Of 37 patients who had neurologic symptoms, 29 patients were women and 8 patients were men. CT and MRI showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the folia of bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in both patients with RCH. The incidence of RCH was 0.08% among patients who underwent lumbar spinal surgery. Conclusion: RCH is a rare complication of lumbar spinal surgery, self-limiting phenomenon that should not be mistaken for more ominous pathologic findings such as hemorrhagic infarction. This type of bleeding is thought to occur secondary to venous infarction, but the exact pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. CT or MRI allowed immediate diagnosis of this complication and guided conservative management.

  9. [A woman with a postoperative lumbar swelling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Hanna M; Elsenburg, Patric H J M; Frequin, Stephan T F M

    2013-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman had developed a large lumbar swelling in a period of four weeks following lumbar laminectomy. An MRI-scan revealed a large fluid collection, which had formed from the spinal canal. The diagnosis 'liquorcele', a rare complication of spine surgery, was established.

  10. Embryonic exposure to an aqueous coal dust extract results in gene expression alterations associated with the development and function of connective tissue and the hematological system, immunological and inflammatory disease, and cancer in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Wirbisky-Hershberger, Sara E; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; de la Rosa, Jesus; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2018-03-01

    Coal mining is one of the economic activities with the greatest impact on environmental quality. At all stages contaminants are released as particulates such as coal dust. The first aim of this study was to obtain an aqueous coal dust extract and characterize its composition in terms of trace elements by ICP-MS. In addition, the developmental toxicity of the aqueous coal extract was evaluated using zebrafish (Danio rerio) after exposure to different concentrations (0-1000 ppm; μg mL -1 ) to establish acute toxicity, morphology and transcriptome changes. Trace elements within the aqueous coal dust extract present at the highest concentrations (>10 ppb) included Sr, Zn, Ba, As, Cu and Se. In addition, Cd and Pb were found in lower concentrations. No significant difference in mortality was observed (p > 0.05), but a delay in hatching was found at 0.1 and 1000 ppm (p 0.05). Transcriptomic results of zebrafish larvae revealed alterations in 77, 61 and 1376 genes in the 1, 10, and 100 ppm groups, respectively. Gene ontology analysis identified gene alterations associated with the development and function of connective tissue and the hematological system, as well as pathways associated with apoptosis, the cell cycle, transcription, and oxidative stress including the MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, altered genes were associated with cancer; connective tissue, muscular, and skeletal disorders; and immunological and inflammatory diseases. Overall, this is the first study to characterize gene expression alterations in response to developmental exposure to aqueous coal dust residue from coal mining with transcriptome results signifying functions and systems to target in future studies.

  11. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John; Farhart, Patrick; Kountouris, Alex; James, Trefor; Portus, Marc

    2010-01-01

    To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains. This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers in Australia during seasons 1998-1999 to 2008-2009 inclusive. There were 205 pace bowlers, 33 of whom suffered a lumbar stress fracture when playing first class cricket. Risk ratios ([RR] with 95% confidence intervals[CI]) were calculated to compare the seasonal incidence of various injuries between bowlers with a prior history of lumbar stress fracture and those with no history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of calf strain was strongly associated with prior lumbar stress fracture injury history (RR = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4-7.1). Risks of both hamstring strain (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03-2.1) and quadriceps strain (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) were somewhat associated with history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of groin strain was not associated with history of lumbar stress fracture (RR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4-1.1). Other injuries showed little association with prior lumbar stress fracture, although knee cartilage injuries were more likely in the non-stress fracture group. Bony hypertrophy associated with lumbar stress fracture healing may lead to subsequent lumbar nerve root impingement, making lower limb muscle strains more likely to occur. Confounders may be responsible for some of the findings. In particular, bowling speed is likely to be independently correlated with risk of lumbar stress fracture and risk of muscle strain. However, as the relationship between lumbar stress fracture history and calf strain was very strong, and that there is a strong theoretical basis for the connection, it is likely that this is a true association.

  12. Influence of Lumbar Lordosis on the Outcome of Decompression Surgery for Lumbar Canal Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Han Soo

    2018-01-01

    Although sagittal spinal balance plays an important role in spinal deformity surgery, its role in decompression surgery for lumbar canal stenosis is not well understood. To investigate the hypothesis that sagittal spinal balance also plays a role in decompression surgery for lumbar canal stenosis, a prospective cohort study analyzing the correlation between preoperative lumbar lordosis and outcome was performed. A cohort of 85 consecutive patients who underwent decompression for lumbar canal stenosis during the period 2007-2011 was analyzed. Standing lumbar x-rays and 36-item short form health survey questionnaires were obtained before and up to 2 years after surgery. Correlations between lumbar lordosis and 2 parameters of the 36-item short form health survey (average physical score and bodily pain score) were statistically analyzed using linear mixed effects models. There was a significant correlation between preoperative lumbar lordosis and the 2 outcome parameters at postoperative, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year time points. A 10° increase of lumbar lordosis was associated with a 5-point improvement in average physical scores. This correlation was not present in preoperative scores. This study showed that preoperative lumbar lordosis significantly influences the outcome of decompression surgery on lumbar canal stenosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alteration of the magnitude of the proton magnetic moment in nuclear magnetons in connection with the changes in the atomic mass values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamyrin, B.A.; Aruev, N.N.; Alekseenko, S.A.

    1983-06-01

    In connection with the revision of the table values of the atomic masses and the forthcoming coordination of the values of the fundamental physical constants, the result of measurement of the proton magnetic moment in nuclear Magnetons obtained in 1971 is re-examined by taking into account recent data. With the atomic masses recognized in 1982 the proton magnetic moment expressed in nuclear magnetons without a correction for diamagnetic screening of the proton in a water molecule is found to be ..mu..sub(p)'/..mu..sub(n)=2.7927729+-0.0000012 (4.3x10/sup -5/%).

  14. A musculoskeletal lumbar and thoracic model for calculation of joint kinetics in the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Cheol; Ta, Duc manh; Koo, Seung Bum; Jung Moon Ki

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal spine model that allows relative movements in the thoracic spine for calculation of intra-discal forces in the lumbar and thoracic spine. The thoracic part of the spine model was composed of vertebrae and ribs connected with mechanical joints similar to anatomical joints. Three different muscle groups around the thoracic spine were inserted, along with eight muscle groups around the lumbar spine in the original model from AnyBody. The model was tested using joint kinematics data obtained from two normal subjects during spine flexion and extension, axial rotation and lateral bending motions beginning from a standing posture. Intra-discal forces between spine segments were calculated in a musculoskeletal simulation. The force at the L4-L5 joint was chosen to validate the model's prediction against the lumbar model in the original AnyBody model, which was previously validated against clinical data.

  15. A musculoskeletal lumbar and thoracic model for calculation of joint kinetics in the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Cheol; Ta, Duc manh; Koo, Seung Bum [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung Moon Ki [AnyBody Technology A/S, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal spine model that allows relative movements in the thoracic spine for calculation of intra-discal forces in the lumbar and thoracic spine. The thoracic part of the spine model was composed of vertebrae and ribs connected with mechanical joints similar to anatomical joints. Three different muscle groups around the thoracic spine were inserted, along with eight muscle groups around the lumbar spine in the original model from AnyBody. The model was tested using joint kinematics data obtained from two normal subjects during spine flexion and extension, axial rotation and lateral bending motions beginning from a standing posture. Intra-discal forces between spine segments were calculated in a musculoskeletal simulation. The force at the L4-L5 joint was chosen to validate the model's prediction against the lumbar model in the original AnyBody model, which was previously validated against clinical data.

  16. Cervical spine disease may result in a negative lumbar spinal drainage trial in normal pressure hydrocephalus: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komotar, Ricardo J; Zacharia, Brad E; Mocco, J; Kaiser, Michael G; Frucht, Stephen J; McKhann, Guy M

    2008-10-01

    In this case report, we present a patient with normal pressure hydrocephalus in whom a lumbar drainage trial yielded a false-negative result secondary to cervical spondylosis. An 80-year-old woman presented with classic symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus as well as evidence of cervical myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine showed enlarged ventricles and single-level cervical canal narrowing. An initial lumbar drainage trial was performed, which revealed negative results. The patient then underwent cervical decompression and fusion. Despite this procedure, the patient's symptoms continued to worsen. A repeat lumbar drainage trial was performed with positive results. Subsequently, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed, resulting in significant improvement of her symptoms. This case report illustrates how altered cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics may impact the accuracy of the lumbar spinal drainage trial in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus.

  17. Rat disc torsional mechanics: effect of lumbar and caudal levels and axial compression load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A; Malhotra, Neil R; Elliott, Dawn M

    2009-03-01

    Rat models with altered loading are used to study disc degeneration and mechano-transduction. Given the prominent role of mechanics in disc function and degeneration, it is critical to measure mechanical behavior to evaluate changes after model interventions. Axial compression mechanics of the rat disc are representative of the human disc when normalized by geometry, and differences between the lumbar and caudal disc have been quantified in axial compression. No study has quantified rat disc torsional mechanics. Compare the torsional mechanical behavior of rat lumbar and caudal discs, determine the contribution of combined axial load on torsional mechanics, and compare the torsional properties of rat discs to human lumbar discs. Cadaveric biomechanical study. Cyclic torsion without compressive load followed by cyclic torsion with a fixed compressive load was applied to rat lumbar and caudal disc levels. The apparent torsional modulus was higher in the lumbar region than in the caudal region: 0.081+/-0.026 (MPa/degrees, mean+/-SD) for lumbar axially loaded; 0.066+/-0.028 for caudal axially loaded; 0.091+/-0.033 for lumbar in pure torsion; and 0.056+/-0.035 for caudal in pure torsion. These values were similar to human disc properties reported in the literature ranging from 0.024 to 0.21 MPa/degrees. Use of the caudal disc as a model may be appropriate if the mechanical focus is within the linear region of the loading regime. These results provide support for use of this animal model in basic science studies with respect to torsional mechanics.

  18. 49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Year-Old Child § 572.19 Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. 572.19 Section..., the lumbar spine assembly shall flex by an amount that permits the rigid thoracic spine to rotate from...

  19. Interdisciplinary Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Part of Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery Rehabilitation: Experience of Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgreen, Pil; Rolving, Nanna; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Patients receiving lumbar spinal fusion surgery often have persisting postoperative pain negatively affecting their daily life. These patients may be helped by interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral therapy which is recognized as an effective intervention for improving beneficial pain coping behavior, thereby facilitating the rehabilitation process of patients with chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experience of patients recovering from lumbar spinal fusion surgery and to explore potential similarities and disparities in pain coping behavior between receivers and nonreceivers of interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral group therapy. We conducted semistructured interviews with 10 patients; 5 receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy in connection with their lumbar spinal fusion surgery and 5 receiving usual care. We conducted a phenomenological analysis to reach our first aim and then conducted a comparative content analysis to reach our second aim. Patients' postoperative experience was characterized by the need to adapt to the limitations imposed by back discomfort (coexisting with the back), need for recognition and support from others regarding their pain, a relatively long rehabilitation period during which they "awaited the result of surgery", and ambivalence toward analgesics. The patients in both groups had similar negative perception of analgesics and tended to abstain from them to avoid addiction. Coping behavior apparently differed among receivers and nonreceivers of interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Receivers prevented or minimized pain by resting before pain onset, whereas nonreceivers awaited pain onset before resting. The postoperative experience entailed ambivalence, causing uncertainty, worry and insecurity. This ambivalence was relieved when others recognized the patient's pain and offered support. Cognitive-behavioral therapy as part of rehabilitation may have encouraged beneficial pain coping

  20. Biomechanical aspects of lumbar spine injuries in athletes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M J

    1985-03-01

    One of the areas of the body which is very often injured by athletes is the lower lack, or the lumbar area of the spine. This problem is of some concern to physical educators, athletic therapists, coaches, athletes, and physicians. The type of injury which occurs in the lumbar spine is dependent on the direction, magnitude, and the point of application of the forces to the spine. This part of the body is susceptible to injury due to the large forces which must be supported, which include the body weight and any external weights, as well as the forces due to very high accelerations of the body parts. Since the lumbar spine is the only connecting column between the upper and lower parts of the body, all the forces must be transmitted via these structures. There are two general techniques of calculating the forces on the lumbar spinal structures, a static approach and a dynamic approach. The static approach may be useful to calculate compression and shear forces on the spine in stationary positions as may be seen in weightlifting. However, the dynamics approach should be used to calculate the effects of the various weights and inertial forces on spinal structures. The most common types of lower back injuries found in athletes were: muscle strains, ligament sprains, lumbar vertebral fractures, disc injuries, and neural arch fractures. The most common serious athletic injury to the lower back was found to be neural arch fractures at the pars interarticularis, or the isthmus between the superior and inferior articular processes. These fractures are known as spondylolysis, or defect in the pars interarticularis of one side of the vertebrae; and spondylolisthesis, a bilateral defect in the pars interarticularis, often accompanied by forward displacement of the vertebral body. The sports in which lower back injuries commonly occurred were also examined, and it was determined that gymnastics, weightlifting and football were the sports in which the lower back is at greatest

  1. Lumbar interspinous bursitis in active polymyalgia rheumatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarani, Carlo; Barozzi, Libero; Boiardi, Luigi; Pipitone, Nicolò; Bajocchi, Gian Luigi; Macchioni, Pier Luigi; Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Pazzola, Giulia; Valentino, Massimo; De Luca, Carlo; Hunder, Gene G

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the inflammatory involvement of lumbar interspinous bursae in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten consecutive, untreated new patients with PMR and pain in the shoulder and pelvic girdles were investigated. Seven patients with spondyloarthritis (4 with psoriatic spondyloarthrits, one with entheropatic spondyloarthritis, and 2 with ankylosing spondylitis) as well as 2 patients with spinal osteoarthritis and 2 patients with rheumatoid arthritis with lumbar pain served as controls. MRI of lumbar spine was performed in all PMR patients and controls. Nine patients (5 PMR patients and 4 controls) also had MRI of the thoracic spine. MRI evidence of interspinous lumbar bursitis was found in 9/10 patients with PMR and in 5/11 controls. A moderate to marked (grade ≥2 on a semiquantitative 0-3 scale) lumbar bursitis occurred significantly more frequently in patients with PMR than in control patients (60% vs. 9%, p=0.020). In most of the patients and controls lumbar bursitis was found at the L3-L5 interspaces. Only 2 patients had bursitis at a different level (one patient had widespread lumbar bursitis, and one control at L2-L4). No interspinous bursitis was demonstrated by MRI of the thoracic spine in patients and controls. Inflammation of lumbar bursae may be responsible for the low back pain reported by patients with PMR. The prominent inflammatory involvement of bursae including those of the lumbar spine supports the hypothesis that PMR may be a disorder affecting predominantly extra-articular synovial structures.

  2. Correlation between Lumbar Lordosis Angle and Degree of Gynoid Lipodystrophy (Cellulite) in Asymptomatic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Giovana Barbosa; Filho, A’Dayr Natal; João, Sílvia Maria Amado

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) has been cited as a common dermatological alteration. It occurs mainly in adult women and tends to gather around the thighs and buttocks. Its presence and severity have been related to many factors, including biotype, age, sex, circulatory changes, and, as some authors have suggested, mechanical alterations such as lumbar hyperlordosis. OBJECTIVE To correlate the degree of cellulite with the angle of lumbar lordosis in asymptomatic women. METHODS Fifty volunteers were evaluated by digital photos, palpation, and thermograph. The degree of cellulite was classified on a scale of 1–4. Analyses were performed on the superior, inferior, right and left buttocks (SRB, IRB, SLB, ILB), and the superior right and left thighs (SRT, SLT). The volunteers underwent a lateral-view X-ray, and the angle of lumbar lordosis was measured using Cobb’s method (inferior endplate of T12 and the superior endplate of S). The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Spearman’s correlation. A significance level of 5% was adopted. RESULTS Volunteers had a mean age of 26.1 ± 4.4 years and a mean body mass index of 20.7 ± 1.9 kg/m2. There was no significant difference in lumbar lordosis angle between those with cellulite classes 2 and 3 (p ≥ 0.297). There was also no correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and the degree of cellulite (p ≥ 0.085 and r ≥ 0.246). CONCLUSIONS The analysis suggests that there is no correlation between the degree of cellulite and the angle of lumbar lordosis as measured using Cobb’s method. PMID:18719762

  3. Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Blease, S.; MacSweeney, E

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques.

  4. ISASS Policy Statement – Lumbar Artificial Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary goal of this Policy Statement is to educate patients, physicians, medical providers, reviewers, adjustors, case managers, insurers, and all others involved or affected by insurance coverage decisions regarding lumbar disc replacement surgery. Procedures This Policy Statement was developed by a panel of physicians selected by the Board of Directors of ISASS for their expertise and experience with lumbar TDR. The panel's recommendation was entirely based on the best evidence-based scientific research available regarding the safety and effectiveness of lumbar TDR. PMID:25785243

  5. Gonadal dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moilanen, A.; Kokko, M.L.; Pitkaenen, M.

    1983-01-01

    Different ways to minimize the gonadal dose in lumbar spine radiography have been studied. Two hundred and fifty lumbar spine radiographs were reviewed to assess the clinical need for lateral L5/S1 projection. Modern film/screen combinations and gonadal shielding of externally scattered radiation play a major role in the reduction of the genetic dose. The number of exposures should be minimized. Our results show that two projections, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral, appear to be sufficient in routine radiography of the lumbar spine. (orig.)

  6. Safety in connection with the request for approval of the installation alteration in the fuel reprocessing facilities of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A report to the Prime Minister by the Nuclear Safety Commission was presented concerning the safety in the installation alteration of the fuel reprocessing facilities, as PNC had requested its approval to the Prime Minister. The safety was confirmed. The items of examination on the safety made by the committee on Examination of Nuclear Fuel Safety of NSC were the aseismic design of liquid waste storage, uranium denitration facility, intermediate gate and radioactive solid waste storage; the criticality safety design of the denitration facility; the radiation shielding design of the liquid waste storage, denitration facility and solid waste storage; the function of radioactive material containment of the liquid waste storage and denitration facility; the radiation control in the liquid waste storage, denitration facility and solid waste storage; the waste management in the liquid waste storage and denitration facility; fire and explosion prevention in the liquid waste storage; exposure dose from the liquid waste storage and denitration facility. (Mori, K.)

  7. Nursing care for patients receiving percutaneous lumbar discectomy and intradiscal electrothermal treatment for lumbar disc herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Ling

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the nursing experience in caring patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation who received percutaneous lumbar discectomy (PLD) together with intradiscal electrothermal treatment (IDET) under DSA guidance. Methods: The perioperative nursing care measures carried out in 126 patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation who underwent PLD and IDET were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Successful treatment of PLD and IDET was accomplished in 112 cases. Under comprehensive and scientific nursing care and observation, no serious complications occurred. Conclusion: Scientific and proper nursing care is a strong guarantee for a successful surgery and a better recovery in treating lumbar intervertebral disc herniation with PLD and IDET under DSA guidance. (authors)

  8. Altered Gray Matter Volume and Resting-State Connectivity in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder: A Voxel-Based Morphometry and Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Ji-Woo; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2018-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) have been accumulating due to growing concerns regarding the psychological and social problems associated with Internet use. However, relatively little is known about the brain characteristics underlying IGD, such as the associated functional connectivity and structure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in gray matter (GM) volume and functional connectivity during resting state in individuals with IGD using voxel-based morphometry and a resting-state connectivity analysis. The participants included 20 individuals with IGD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Resting-state functional and structural images were acquired for all participants using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. We also measured the severity of IGD and impulsivity using psychological scales. The results show that IGD severity was positively correlated with GM volume in the left caudate (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons), and negatively associated with functional connectivity between the left caudate and the right middle frontal gyrus (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). This study demonstrates that IGD is associated with neuroanatomical changes in the right middle frontal cortex and the left caudate. These are important brain regions for reward and cognitive control processes, and structural and functional abnormalities in these regions have been reported for other addictions, such as substance abuse and pathological gambling. The findings suggest that structural deficits and resting-state functional impairments in the frontostriatal network may be associated with IGD and provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms of IGD. PMID:29636704

  9. Altered Gray Matter Volume and Resting-State Connectivity in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder: A Voxel-Based Morphometry and Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woo Seok

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD have been accumulating due to growing concerns regarding the psychological and social problems associated with Internet use. However, relatively little is known about the brain characteristics underlying IGD, such as the associated functional connectivity and structure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in gray matter (GM volume and functional connectivity during resting state in individuals with IGD using voxel-based morphometry and a resting-state connectivity analysis. The participants included 20 individuals with IGD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Resting-state functional and structural images were acquired for all participants using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. We also measured the severity of IGD and impulsivity using psychological scales. The results show that IGD severity was positively correlated with GM volume in the left caudate (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons, and negatively associated with functional connectivity between the left caudate and the right middle frontal gyrus (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons. This study demonstrates that IGD is associated with neuroanatomical changes in the right middle frontal cortex and the left caudate. These are important brain regions for reward and cognitive control processes, and structural and functional abnormalities in these regions have been reported for other addictions, such as substance abuse and pathological gambling. The findings suggest that structural deficits and resting-state functional impairments in the frontostriatal network may be associated with IGD and provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms of IGD.

  10. Alteration of functional connectivity within visuospatial working memory-related brain network in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zong-xia; Huang, Dong-Hong; Ye, Wei; Chen, Zi-rong; Huang, Wen-li; Zheng, Jin-ou

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the resting-state brain network related to visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE). The functional mechanism underlying the cognitive impairment in VSWM was also determined. Fifteen patients with rTLE and 16 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness underwent a 6-min resting-state functional MRI session and a neuropsychological test using VSWM_Nback. The VSWM-related brain network at rest was extracted using multiple independent component analysis; the spatial distribution and the functional connectivity (FC) parameters of the cerebral network were compared between groups. Behavioral data were subsequently correlated with the mean Z-value in voxels showing significant FC difference during intergroup comparison. The distribution of the VSWM-related resting-state network (RSN) in the group with rTLE was virtually consistent with that in the healthy controls. The distribution involved the dorsolateral prefrontal lobe and parietal lobe in the right hemisphere and the partial inferior parietal lobe and posterior lobe of the cerebellum in the left hemisphere (pright superior frontal lobe (BA8), right middle frontal lobe, and right ventromedial prefrontal lobe compared with the controls (pright superior frontal lobe (BA11), right superior parietal lobe, and left posterior lobe of the cerebellum (prights reserved.

  11. Fem Modelling of Lumbar Vertebra System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimantas Kačianauskas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents modeling of human lumbar vertebra and it‘sdeformation analysis using finite elements method. The problemof tissue degradation is raised. Using the computer aided modelingwith SolidWorks software the models of lumbar vertebra(L1 and vertebra system L1-L4 were created. The article containssocial and medical problem analysis, description of modelingmethods and the results of deformation test for one vertebramodel and for model of 4 vertebras (L1-L4.

  12. High serotonin levels during brain development alter the structural input-output connectivity of neural networks in the rat somatosensory layer IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eMiceli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic regulation of serotonin (5-HT concentration is critical for normal topographical organization and development of thalamocortical (TC afferent circuits. Down-regulation of the serotonin transporter (SERT and the consequent impaired reuptake of 5-HT at the synapse, results in a reduced terminal branching of developing TC afferents within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1. Despite the presence of multiple genetic models, the effect of high extracellular 5-HT levels on the structure and function of developing intracortical neural networks is far from being understood. Here, using juvenile SERT knockout (SERT-/- rats we investigated, in vitro, the effect of increased 5-HT levels on the structural organization of (i the thalamocortical projections of the ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus towards S1, (ii the general barrel-field pattern and (iii the electrophysiological and morphological properties of the excitatory cell population in layer IV of S1 (spiny stellate and pyramidal cells. Our results confirmed previous findings that high levels of 5-HT during development lead to a reduction of the topographical precision of TCA projections towards the barrel cortex. Also, the barrel pattern was altered but not abolished in SERT-/- rats. In layer IV, both excitatory spiny stellate and pyramidal cells showed a significantly reduced intracolumnar organization of their axonal projections. In addition, the layer IV spiny stellate cells gave rise to a prominent projection towards the infragranular layer Vb. Our findings point to a structural and functional reorganization, of TCAs, as well as early stage intracortical microcircuitry, following the disruption of 5-HT reuptake during critical developmental periods. The increased projection pattern of the layer IV neurons suggests that the intracortical network changes are not limited to the main entry layer IV but may also affect the subsequent stages of the canonical circuits of the barrel

  13. Spinaplasty following lumbar laminectomy for multilevel lumbar spinal stenosis to prevent iatrogenic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Mohan Tuli

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Spinaplasty following posterior decompression for multilevel lumbar canal stenosis is a simple operation, without any serious complications, retaining median structures, maintaining the tension band and the strength with least disturbance of kinematics, mobility, stability and lordosis of the lumbar spine.

  14. [Finite element analysis of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur model with simulate lumbar rotatory manipulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua; Xiong, Chang-Yuan; Han, Guo-Wu

    2012-07-01

    To study the changes of displacement and stress in the model of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur during lumbar rotatory manipulation. The date of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur CT scan by Mimics 10.01 software was established a lumbar pelvic and proximal femur geometric model, then the model was modified with Geomagic 9, at last the modified model was imported into hypermesh 10 and meshed with tetrahedron, at the same time,add disc and ligaments. According to the principle of lumbar rotatory manipulation,the lumbar rotatory manipulation were decomposed. The mechanical parameters assigned into the three-dimensional finite element model. The changes of displacement and stress in the model of lunbar pelvic and proximal femur under the four conditions were calculated with Abaqus model of Hypermesh 10. 1) Under the same condition,the displacement order of lumbar was L1>L2>L3>L5 L5, anterior column > middle column > posterior column. 2) Under the different conditions, the displacement order of lumbar,case 3>case 1>case 4>case 2. 3) Under the same conditions, the displacement order of lumbar inter-vertebral disc from L1,2 to L5S1 was L1,2>L2,3>L3,4>L4,5>L5S1, as for the same inter-vertebral disc, the order was: second quadrant>third quadrant>first quadrant>fourth quadrant. 4) Under the different conditions,the displacement order of the inter-vertebral disc was L1,2>L2,3>L3,4>L4,5>L5S1, but to same inter-vertebral disc: case 3>case 4>case 1 >case 2. 5) There were apparent displacement and stress concentration in pelvis and hip during the manipulation. 1) The principles of lumbar rotation manipulation closely related to the relative displacement caused by rotation of various parts of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur model; 2) During the process of lumbar rotatory manipulation, the angle of lateral bending and flexion can not be randomly increased; 3) During the process of lumbar rotatory manipulation, all the conditions of lumbar pelvic and proximal femur must be

  15. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Tevfik; Turan, Yahya; Gülşen, İsmail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury. PMID:25210343

  16. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Yilmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury.

  17. Concomitant Intracranial and Lumbar Chronic Subdural Hematoma Treated by Fluoroscopic Guided Lumbar Puncture: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICHINOSE, Daisuke; TOCHIGI, Satoru; TANAKA, Toshihide; SUZUKI, Tomoya; TAKEI, Jun; HATANO, Keisuke; KAJIWARA, Ikki; MARUYAMA, Fumiaki; SAKAMOTO, Hiroki; HASEGAWA, Yuzuru; TANI, Satoshi; MURAYAMA, Yuichi

    2018-01-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with a severe headache, lower back pain, and lower abdominal pain 1 month after a head injury caused by falling. Computed tomography (CT) of the head demonstrated bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) with a significant amount in the left frontoparietal region. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine also revealed CSDH from L2 to S1 level. A simple drainage for the intracranial CSDH on the left side was performed. Postoperatively, the headache was improved; however, the lower back and abdominal pain persisted. Aspiration of the liquefied spinal subdural hematoma was performed by a lumbar puncture under fluoroscopic guidance. The clinical symptoms were dramatically improved postoperatively. Concomitant intracranial and spinal CSDH is considerably rare so only 23 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature so far. The etiology and therapeutic strategy were discussed with a review of the literature. Therapeutic strategy is not established for these two concomitant lesions. Conservative follow-up was chosen for 14 cases, resulting in a favorable clinical outcome. Although surgical evacuation of lumbosacral CSDH was performed in seven cases, an alteration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure following spinal surgery should be reminded because of the intracranial lesion. Since CSDH is well liquefied in both intracranial and spinal lesion, a less invasive approach is recommended not only for an intracranial lesion but also for spinal lesion. Fluoroscopic-guided lumbar puncture for lumbosacral CSDH following burr hole surgery for intracranial CSDH could be a recommended strategy. PMID:29479039

  18. MR-guided lumbar sympathicolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Claudius W.; Schott, Ulrich G.; Pereira, Philippe L.; Truebenbach, Jochen; Claussen, Claus D.; Duda, Stephan H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Schneider, Wilke [Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of MR-guided lumbar sympathicolysis (LSL) in a non-selected patient population. One hundred one MR-guided LSL procedures were performed in 89 patients according to Haaga's technique using a horizontally open clinical MR system (0.2 T) and non-ferromagnetic 20-G cannulas (neurolysis, n=93; blockade, n=8). Only gradient-recalled sequences in either single or multislice mode [fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) and fast low-angle shot] were applied for anatomical survey and needle guiding. Bupivacaine injection was monitored with MR fluoroscopically. Fluid distribution was subsequently documented in a CT scan in 65 patients. Ninety-one LSL procedures could be successfully completed. Ten patients were not treated using MR due to patient inconvenience, severe motion artifacts (n=4 each), excessive spondylophytes, and retroperitoneal hematoma (n=1 each). One case of ureteral necrosis occurred. Motion artifacts were rated less severe in single-slice FISP sequences and in obese patients. An average of 3.48 sequence measurements were required for definitive needle placement. Average table time was 32.3 min. An MR-guided LSL is feasible and can be performed with acceptable safety and time effort. It can be recommended for repeated sympathetic blockades in younger patients to avoid cumulative irradiation associated with CT guidance. (orig.)

  19. MR-guided lumbar sympathicolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Claudius W.; Schott, Ulrich G.; Pereira, Philippe L.; Truebenbach, Jochen; Claussen, Claus D.; Duda, Stephan H.; Schneider, Wilke

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of MR-guided lumbar sympathicolysis (LSL) in a non-selected patient population. One hundred one MR-guided LSL procedures were performed in 89 patients according to Haaga's technique using a horizontally open clinical MR system (0.2 T) and non-ferromagnetic 20-G cannulas (neurolysis, n=93; blockade, n=8). Only gradient-recalled sequences in either single or multislice mode [fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) and fast low-angle shot] were applied for anatomical survey and needle guiding. Bupivacaine injection was monitored with MR fluoroscopically. Fluid distribution was subsequently documented in a CT scan in 65 patients. Ninety-one LSL procedures could be successfully completed. Ten patients were not treated using MR due to patient inconvenience, severe motion artifacts (n=4 each), excessive spondylophytes, and retroperitoneal hematoma (n=1 each). One case of ureteral necrosis occurred. Motion artifacts were rated less severe in single-slice FISP sequences and in obese patients. An average of 3.48 sequence measurements were required for definitive needle placement. Average table time was 32.3 min. An MR-guided LSL is feasible and can be performed with acceptable safety and time effort. It can be recommended for repeated sympathetic blockades in younger patients to avoid cumulative irradiation associated with CT guidance. (orig.)

  20. [Biomechanics changes of lumbar spine caused by foraminotomy via percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J; Yu, S S; Liu, J J; Chen, L; Jing, J H

    2018-04-03

    Objective: To analyze the biomechanics changes of lumbar spine caused by foraminotomy via percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy using the finite element method. Methods: Three healthy adult males (aged 35.6 to 42.3 years) without spinal diseases were enrolled in this study and 3D-CT scans were carried out to obtain the parameters of lumbar spine. Mimics software was applied to build a 3D finite element model of lumbar spine. Graded resections (1/4, 2/4, 3/4 and 4/4) of the left superior articular process of L(5) were done via percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy. Then, the pressure of the L(4/5) right facets, the pressure of the L(4/5) intervertebral disc and the motion of lumbar spine were recorded after simulating the normal flexion and extension, lateral flexion and rotation of the lumbar spine model during different resections. The data were compared among groups with analysis of variance. Results: Comparing with the normal group, after 1/4 resection of the left superior articular process of L(5), the pressure of the L(4/5) right facets showed significant differences during left lateral flexion and rotation of lumbar spine ( q =8.823, 8.248, both P biomechanics and the stability of lumbar spine changed partly after 1/4 resection of the superior articular process and obviously after more than 2/4 is resected. The superior articular process should be paid more attention during foraminotomy via percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy.

  1. Model of lumbar spinal stenosis in the experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Perepechai

    2015-07-01

      Abstracts The description of an experimental model of lumbar spinal stenosis on 20 rats. The experiment was symmetrical dissection of arc plates to the inside thin cortical layer plates, and then dissection of the latter. The middle part of the arc with the spinous processes of the vertebrae is separated from the rest of the arc, and articular processes. The separated middle part of the arc with yellow ligament is shifted in the ventral direction, reducing the size of the cavity of the spinal canal and fix the contacting bone edges with bone cement. Degenerative changes of the nerve roots were evaluated histologically by endoneural and epineural changes using a 7-point scale of G. Byrond and others. In the studied group of animals 7 days after spinal canal stenosis simulations appeared degenerative changes of nerve fibers, but the degree is low, and there is virtually no endoneural inflammation. The epineurium determined expressed or gross changes, indicating epineural inflammatory processes. After 1 month. There appeared dystrophic and degenerative changes of nerve fibers of the overwhelming majority (over 75%. At a later date (3 months, endoneural change remained practically the same as in the 1th month after surgery, epineural violations were preserved, there were groups and single fibroblasts as a sign of epineural fibrosis, as well as portions of connective tissue neoplasms and hyalinosis.   Keywords: lumbar spinal stenosis, an experimental model.

  2. Outcomes of extended transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talia, Adrian J; Wong, Michael L; Lau, Hui C; Kaye, Andrew H

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to assess the results of extended transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for a two surgeon, single institution series. In total, extended TLIF with bilateral decompression was performed in 57 patients. Pain, American Spinal Injury Association scores, patient demographics, body mass index (BMI), perioperative indices and radiographic measurements were recorded and analysed. The surgeries were performed between February 2011 and January 2014 on 38 women and 19 men. The mean patient age was 62.86 years, and the mean BMI was 30.31 kg/m(2). In 49 patients, spondylolisthesis was the primary indication. The mean intraoperative time was 284.65 min, and this decreased as the series progressed. The median length of stay was 5 days (range: 2-9). The surgical complication rate was 19.3%. Two patients died from cardiopulmonary complications. Single level TLIF was performed in 78.9% of the cohort, with L4/5 the most commonly fused level. Significant pain reduction was achieved from a mean (± standard deviation) preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) of 8.28 ± 1.39 to 1.50 ± 1.05 at 12 months postoperatively. No patients deteriorated neurologically. Spondylolisthesis was significantly corrected from a preoperative mean of 6.82 mm to 2.80 mm postoperatively. Although there is a learning curve associated with the procedure, extended TLIF with bilateral facet joint removal and decompression appeared to be a safe and effective alternative to other fusion techniques, and our results were comparable to other published case series. The stabilisation and correction of spinal deformity reduces pain, aids neurologic recovery and improves quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bertolotti's syndrome revisited. Transitional vertebrae of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elster, A D

    1989-12-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome refers to the association of back pain with lumbosacral transitional vertebrae. Such vertebrae were observed in 140 of 2,000 adults with back pain over a 4-year period of study. Each patient had radiographic evaluation of the lumbar spine by plain films as well as a sectional imaging modality (magnetic resonance [MR] or computed tomography [CT]). The overall incidence of structural pathology (eg, spinal stenosis and disc protrusion) detected by CT or MR was not apparently higher in patients with transitional vertebrae, but the distribution of these lesions was significantly different. Disc bulge or herniation, when it occurred, was nearly nine times more common at the interspace immediately above the transitional vertebra than at any other level. Spinal stenosis and nerve root canal stenosis were more common at or near the interspace above the transitional vertebra than at any other level. Degenerative change at the articulation between the transverse process of the transitional vertebra and the pelvis was an uncommon occurrence; when seen there was no significant correlation with the reported side of pain. It is postulated that hypermobility and altered stresses become concentrated in the spine at the level immediately above a lumbar transitional vertebra. Accelerated disc and facet joint degeneration at this level may then result.

  4. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  5. Lumbar lordosis in female collegiate dancers and gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Caswell, Amanda M; Kenworthy, Kristen L; Cortes, Nelson; Caswell, Shane V

    2014-12-01

    Postural deviations can predispose an individual to increased injury risk. Specifically, lumbar deviations are related to increased low back pain and injury. Dancers and gymnasts are anecdotally suggested to have exaggerated lumbar lordosis and subsequently may be at increased risk of lumbar pathologies. Our objective was to examine lumbar lordosis levels in dancers and gymnasts. We examined lumbar lordosis in 47 healthy collegiate females (17 dancers, 29 gymnasts; mean age 20.2 ± 1.6 yrs) using 2-dimensional sagittal plane photographs and the Watson MacDonncha Posture Analysis instrument. Participants' lordosis levels were cross-tabulated and a Mann-Whitney U-test compared lumbar lordosis between groups (plordosis deviations. The distribution of lordosis was similar across groups (p=0.22). Most dancers and gymnasts had moderate or marked lumbar lordosis. The extreme ranges of motion required during dancing and gymnastics may contribute to the participants' high lumbar lordosis. Instructors should be aware that there may be links between repetitive hyperextension activities and lumbar lordosis levels in dancers and gymnasts. Thus, they should proactively examine lumbar lordosis in their dancers and gymnasts. How much age of training onset, regimens, survivor bias, or other factors influence lumbar lordosis requires study. Longitudinal studies are also needed to determine if lumbar lordosis levels influence lumbar injury incidence in dancers and gymnasts.

  6. Tractography of lumbar nerve roots: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbi, Vincent; Budzik, Jean-Francois; Thuc, Vianney le; Cotten, Anne [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service de Radiologie et d' Imagerie musculo-squelettique, Lille Cedex (France); Duhamel, Alain [Universite de Lille 2, UDSL, Lille (France); Bera-Louville, Anne [Service de Rhumatologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aims of this preliminary study were to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tracking (FT) of the lumbar nerve roots, and to assess potential differences in the DTI parameters of the lumbar nerves between healthy volunteers and patients suffering from disc herniation. Nineteen patients with unilateral sciatica related to posterolateral or foraminal disc herniation and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. DTI with tractography of the L5 or S1 nerves was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated from tractography images. FA and MD values could be obtained from DTI-FT images in all controls and patients. The mean FA value of the compressed lumbar nerve roots was significantly lower than the FA of the contralateral nerve roots (p=0.0001) and of the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.0001). MD was significantly higher in compressed nerve roots than in the contralateral nerve root (p=0.0002) and in the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.04). DTI with tractography of the lumbar nerves is possible. Significant changes in diffusion parameters were found in the compressed lumbar nerves. (orig.)

  7. Tractography of lumbar nerve roots: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbi, Vincent; Budzik, Jean-Francois; Thuc, Vianney le; Cotten, Anne; Duhamel, Alain; Bera-Louville, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this preliminary study were to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tracking (FT) of the lumbar nerve roots, and to assess potential differences in the DTI parameters of the lumbar nerves between healthy volunteers and patients suffering from disc herniation. Nineteen patients with unilateral sciatica related to posterolateral or foraminal disc herniation and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. DTI with tractography of the L5 or S1 nerves was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated from tractography images. FA and MD values could be obtained from DTI-FT images in all controls and patients. The mean FA value of the compressed lumbar nerve roots was significantly lower than the FA of the contralateral nerve roots (p=0.0001) and of the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.0001). MD was significantly higher in compressed nerve roots than in the contralateral nerve root (p=0.0002) and in the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.04). DTI with tractography of the lumbar nerves is possible. Significant changes in diffusion parameters were found in the compressed lumbar nerves. (orig.)

  8. Structural Changes of Lumbar Muscles in Non-specific Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, Dorien; Oosterwijck, Jessica Van; Meeus, Mira; Danneels, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar muscle dysfunction due to pain might be related to altered lumbar muscle structure. Macroscopically, muscle degeneration in low back pain (LBP) is characterized by a decrease in cross-sectional area and an increase in fat infiltration in the lumbar paraspinal muscles. In addition microscopic changes, such as changes in fiber distribution, might occur. Inconsistencies in results from different studies make it difficult to draw firm conclusions on which structural changes are present in the different types of non-specific LBP. Insights regarding structural muscle alterations in LBP are, however, important for prevention and treatment of non-specific LBP. The goal of this article is to review which macro- and/or microscopic structural alterations of the lumbar muscles occur in case of non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP), recurrent low back pain (RLBP), and acute low back pain (ALBP). Systematic review. All selected studies were case-control studies. A systematic literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed and Web of Science. Only full texts of original studies regarding structural alterations (atrophy, fat infiltration, and fiber type distribution) in lumbar muscles of patients with non-specific LBP compared to healthy controls were included. All included articles were scored on methodological quality. Fifteen studies were found eligible after screening title, abstract, and full text for inclusion and exclusion criteria. In CLBP, moderate evidence of atrophy was found in the multifidus; whereas, results in the paraspinal and the erector spinae muscle remain inconclusive. Also moderate evidence occurred in RLBP and ALBP, where no atrophy was shown in any lumbar muscle. Conflicting results were seen in undefined LBP groups. Results concerning fat infiltration were inconsistent in CLBP. On the other hand, there is moderate evidence in RLBP that fat infiltration does not occur, although a larger muscle fat index was found in the erector spinae

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine What's in this article? ...

  10. Enlargement of lumbar spinal canal in lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. Evaluation with three-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunishi, Yoshihiko

    2003-01-01

    A number of clinical studies have demonstrated that enlargement of the lumbar spinal canal is one of the effective surgical procedures for the treatment of the lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis and provides a good result. In the present study, we have evaluated the long-term outcome of the enlargement of the lumbar canal without fusion in thirty eight patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) The improvement rate was excellent in 80% of the patients (mean improvement ratio, 83%) according to the Japanese Orthopedic Association scoring system. We found that the sufficient enlargement of the canal was obtained by the surgery and maintained for a long period of time. The results from 3D-CT suggested that a round shape was maintained in the canal after the surgery because of pressures of the dura mater against to the bony canal. None of patients showed lumbar instability. In conclusion, enlargement of lumbar canal without fusion is useful for the treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, and the enlarged canal has been maintained for a long period of time after the surgery. The results demonstrated the clinical utility of 3D-CT to evaluate the preoperative and postoperative shape of the spine. (author)

  11. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal

    OpenAIRE

    Zarzur,Edmundo

    1996-01-01

    Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of t...

  12. Sensitivity of lumbar spine loading to anatomical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putzer, Michael; Ehrlich, Ingo; Rasmussen, John

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal simulations of lumbar spine loading rely on a geometrical representation of the anatomy. However, this data has an inherent inaccuracy. This study evaluates the in uence of dened geometrical parameters on lumbar spine loading utilizing ve parametrized musculoskeletal lumbar spine ...... lumbar spine model for a subject-specic approach with respect to bone geometry. Furthermore, degeneration processes could lead to computational problems and it is advised that stiffness properties of discs and ligaments should be individualized....

  13. Lumbar Lordosis of Spinal Stenosis Patients during Intraoperative Prone Positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Su-Keon; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Song, Kyung-Sub; Park, Byung-Moon; Lim, Sang-Youn; Jang, Geun; Lee, Beom-Seok; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis on the OSI (Jackson; Orthopaedic Systems Inc.) frame. Restoration of lumbar lordosis is important for maintaining sagittal balance. Physiologic lumbar lordosis has to be gained by intraoperative prone positioning with a hip extension and posterior instrumentation technique. There are some debates about changing lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame after an intraoperative prone position. We evaluated the effect of spondyloli...

  14. Congenital lumbar vertebrae agenesis in a lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajli Abbasi, Mohammad; Shojaei, Bahador; Azari, Omid

    2017-01-01

    Congenital agenesis of lumbar vertebrae was diagnosed in a day-old female lamb based on radiology and clinical examinations. There was no neurological deficit in hindlimb and forelimb associated with standing disability. Radiography of the abdominal region revealed absence of lumbar vertebrae. Necropsy confirmed clinical and radiographic results. No other anomaly or agenesis was seen macroscopically in the abdominal and thoracic regions as well as vertebral column. Partial absence of vertebral column has been reported in human and different animal species, as an independent occurrence or associated with other organs anomalies. The latter has been designated as caudal regression syndrome. Vertebral agenesis may arise from irregularity in the differentiation of somites to the sclerotome or sclerotome to the vertebral primordium. Most of the previously reported cases of agenesis were related to the lumbosacral region, lonely or along with other visceral absences. This case was the first report of congenital agenesis of lumbar vertebrae in a lamb.

  15. Biomechanical implications of lumbar spinal ligament transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E

    2014-11-01

    Many lumbar spine surgeries either intentionally or inadvertently damage or transect spinal ligaments. The purpose of this work was to quantify the previously unknown biomechanical consequences of isolated spinal ligament transection on the remaining spinal ligaments (stress transfer), vertebrae (bone remodelling stimulus) and intervertebral discs (disc pressure) of the lumbar spine. A finite element model of the full lumbar spine was developed and validated against experimental data and tested in the primary modes of spinal motion in the intact condition. Once a ligament was removed, stress increased in the remaining spinal ligaments and changes occurred in vertebral strain energy, but disc pressure remained similar. All major biomechanical changes occurred at the same spinal level as the transected ligament, with minor changes at adjacent levels. This work demonstrates that iatrogenic damage to spinal ligaments disturbs the load sharing within the spinal ligament network and may induce significant clinically relevant changes in the spinal motion segment.

  16. Optimizing Residents' Performance of Lumbar Puncture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Wienecke, Troels; Thagesen, Helle

    2018-01-01

    Background: Lumbar puncture is often associated with uncertainty and limited experience on the part of residents; therefore, preparatory interventions can be essential. There is growing interest in the potential benefit of videos over written text. However, little attention has been given...... to whether the design of the videos impacts on subsequent performance. Objective: To investigate the effect of different preparatory interventions on learner performance and self-confidence regarding lumbar puncture (LP). Design: Randomized controlled trial in which participants were randomly assigned to one...... of three interventions as preparation for performing lumbar puncture: 1) goal- and learner-centered video (GLV) presenting procedure-specific process goals and learner-centered information; 2) traditional video (TV) providing expert-driven content, but no process goals; and 3) written text (WT...

  17. Side effects after lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Myhr, G.; Dale, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Side effects of iohexol lumbar myelography have been analyzed with respect to the influence of the type of radiological abnormality, sex and age in a group of 200 patients. Headache, postural headache, nausea and back/leg pain were significantly more frequent in patients without definite radiological abnormalities. Postural headache, nausea, dizziness and mental symptoms were more frequent in women, while headache, postural headache, nausea, dizziness, minor mental symptoms (i.e. anxiety or depression) and pain became less frequent with age. This pattern is similar to that reported after lumbar puncture. Young women without definite clinical signs of nerve root lesions probably have the greatest risk of experiencing side effects after iohexol lumbar myelography. (orig.)

  18. Can the human lumbar posterior columns be stimulated by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation? A modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Simon M; Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Ladenbauer, Josef; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Stimulation of different spinal cord segments in humans is a widely developed clinical practice for modification of pain, altered sensation, and movement. The human lumbar cord has become a target for modification of motor control by epidural and, more recently, by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation. Posterior columns of the lumbar spinal cord represent a vertical system of axons and when activated can add other inputs to the motor control of the spinal cord than stimulated posterior roots. We used a detailed three-dimensional volume conductor model of the torso and the McIntyre-Richard-Grill axon model to calculate the thresholds of axons within the posterior columns in response to transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord stimulation. Superficially located large-diameter posterior column fibers with multiple collaterals have a threshold of 45.4 V, three times higher than posterior root fibers (14.1 V). With the stimulation strength needed to activate posterior column axons, posterior root fibers of large and small diameters as well as anterior root fibers are coactivated. The reported results inform on these threshold differences, when stimulation is applied to the posterior structures of the lumbar cord at intensities above the threshold of large-diameter posterior root fibers. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Investigation of biomechanical behavior of lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic stabilization device using finite element approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoghare, Ashish B.; Kashyap, Siddharth; Padole, Pramod M.

    2013-03-01

    Degenerative disc disease is a major source of lower back pain and significantly alters the biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Dynamic stabilization device is a remedial technique which uses flexible materials to stabilize the affected lumbar region while preserving the natural anatomy of the spine. The main objective of this research work is to investigate the stiffness variation of dynamic stabilization device under various loading conditions under compression, axial rotation and flexion. Three dimensional model of the two segment lumbar spine is developed using computed tomography (CT) scan images. The lumbar structure developed is analyzed in ANSYS workbench. Two types of dynamic stabilization are considered: one with stabilizing device as pedicle instrumentation and second with stabilization device inserted around the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis suggests that proper positioning of the dynamic stabilization device is of paramount significance prior to the surgery. Inserting the device in the posterior region indicates the adverse effects as it shows increase in the deformation of the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis executed by positioning stabilizing device around the inter-vertebral disc yields better result for various stiffness values under compression and other loadings. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Treatment of osteoid osteoma in the vertebral body of the lumbar spine by radiofrequency ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristante, Alexandre Fogaca; Barros Filho, Tarcisio; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo de; Babrabrini, Almir F.; Teixeira, William G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A case of Osteoid osteoma, a rare bone tumor, is studied in a 44-year-old female patient. Scintigraphy using Tc 99m demonstrated increased uptake on the left side of the vertebral body of the fourth vertebra. Computed tomography of the lumbar spine revealed an area of hypoattenuation surrounded by an area of hyperattenuation (bone sclerosis), suggestive of an osteogenic tumor . Complementary examination using MRI demonstrated a signal alteration of 1 cm diameter in the vertebral body of the fourth lumbar vertebra, surrounded by an area of signal compatible with bone edema. The anamnesis data, physical evaluation, and complementary examinations suggested the presence of osteoid osteoma in the vertical body of the fourth lumbar vertebra. A tomography-guided biopsy was performed, and material was collected for cultures, pathological studies in paraffin, and fast freezing (in print). Pathological study of frozen sections ruled out the presence of neoplastic cells. At the same time, minimally invasive destruction of the tumor was performed through a pedicullar approach, via a radiofrequency probe. One year after the procedure, computed tomography did not demonstrate any tumor, and the patient did not report any lumbar pain. (MAC)

  1. Lumbar paraspinal muscle transverse area and symmetry in dogs with and without degenerative lumbosacral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A L; Hecht, S; Millis, D L

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis have decreased lumbar paraspinal muscle transverse area and symmetry compared with control dogs. Retrospective cross-sectional study comparing muscles in transverse T2-weighted magnetic resonance images for nine dogs with and nine dogs without degenerative -lumbosacral stenosis. Mean transverse area was measured for the lumbar multifidus and sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis muscles bilaterally and the L7 vertebral body at the level of the caudal endplate. Transverse areas of both muscle groups relative to L7 and asymmetry indices were compared between study populations using independent t tests. Mean muscle-to-L7 transverse area ratios were significantly smaller in the degenerative lumbosacral stenosis group compared with those in the control group in both lumbar multifidus (0·84 ±0·26 versus 1·09 ±0·25; P=0·027) and sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis (0·5 ±0·15 versus 0·68 ±0·12; P=0·005) muscles. Mean asymmetry indices were higher for both muscles in the group with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis than in the control group, but highly variable and the difference was not statistically significant. These findings suggest that dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis have decreased lumbar paraspinal muscle mass that may be a cause or consequence of the -syndrome. Understanding altered paraspinal muscle characteristics may improve understanding of the -pathophysiology and management options for degenerative lumbosacral stenosis. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhergee G. S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the degenerative cascade in the lumbar spine as the cause for the altered anatomy and pathophysiology in spinal stenosis. [11-15] If compression does not occur, the canal should be described as narrow but not stenotic. Some studies defined lumbar spinal stenosis as a “narrowing of the osteoligamentous vertebral canal and/or the intervertebral foramina causing compression of the thecal sac and/or the caudal nerve roots; at a single vertebral level, narrowing may affect the whole canal or part of it” (Postacchini 1983. This definition distinguished between disc herniation and stenosis. [16] . The most common type of spinal stenosis is caused by degenerative arthritis of the spine. Hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament which usually are confined to the cervical spine, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH syndrome also may result in an acquired form of spinal stenosis. Congenital forms caused by disorders such as achondroplasia and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are much less common. Congenital spinal stenosis usually is central and is evident or imaging studies. Idiopathic congenital narrowing usually involves the anteroposterior dimension of the canal secondary to short pedicles; the patient otherwise is normal. In contrast, in achondroplasia, the canal is narrowed in the anteroposterior plane owing to shortened pedicles and in lateral dimension because of diminished interpedicular distance. Acquired forms of spinal stenosis usually are

  3. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  4. Treatment and outcome of herniated lumbar intervertebral disk in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of treatment in cases of lumbar disk herniation is to return the patient to .... instability during surgery on the lumbar spine for the treatment of reherniation ... H. H. Failure within one year following subtotal lumbar discectomy. J Bone ...

  5. Imaging of the lumbar spine after diskectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laredo, J.D.; Wybier, M.

    1995-01-01

    The radiological investigation of persistent or recurrent sciatica after lumbar diskectomy essentially consists of demonstrating recurrent disk herniation. Comparison between plain and contrast enhanced CT or MR examinations at the level of the diskectomy is the main step of the radiological survey. The meanings of the various radiological findings are discussed. Other lesions that may induce persistent sciatica after lumbar diskectomy include degenerative narrowing of the lateral recess, spinal instability, stress fracture of the remaining neural arch, pseudo-meningomyelocele after laminectomy. (authors). 34 refs., 5 tabs

  6. Fine needle diagnosis in lumbar osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, K.B.; Brinker, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Lumbar vertebral body and disk infection, presenting as low back pain, is a relatively uncommon disease but is seen more often in drug addicts. Radiographs show typical changes of infection of the lumbar vertebrae and adjacent disc. Under local anesthesia a fine needle is placed, saline injected, and aspirated. The entire needle-syringe unit is submitted to the bacteriology department. Pseudomonas infection is usually found. This method of diagnosis is simple, cost effective, well accepted by the patients, and can be done on outpatients. (orig.)

  7. Clinical study of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, SHUGUANG; SUN, JUNYING; TANG, GENLIN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the clinical effects of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability. The 48 patients comprised 27 males and 21 females, aged 47?72 years. Three cases had first and second degree lumbar spondylolisthesis and all received bilateral vertebral lamina fenestration for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using a threaded fusion cage (TFC), which maintains the three-column...

  8. Preliminary experience with lumbar facet distraction and fixation as treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Giovanni; Landi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the properties of facet fixation with the Facet Wedge system in patients affected by lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Summary of Background Data: Implant of intra-articular spacers is an emerging technique for lumbar degenerative disease. Methods: This study included forty patients (Group 1) with symptomatic LSS in whom intra-articular spacers have been implanted along with microdecompression (MD) of the neural structures. Group 1 has been compared with a homogeneous ...

  9. Does Lordotic Angle of Cage Determine Lumbar Lordosis in Lumbar Interbody Fusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Taek-Ho; Cho, Kyu-Jung; Kim, Young-Tae; Park, Jae-Woo; Seo, Beom-Ho; Kim, Nak-Chul

    2017-07-01

    Retrospective, radiological analysis. To determine that 15° lordotic angle cages create higher lumbar lordosis in open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) than 4° and 8° cages. Restoration of lumbar lordosis is important to obtain good outcome after lumbar fusion surgery. Various shapes and angles of cages in interbody fusion have been used; however, it is not proved that lordotic angle of cages determine lumbar lordosis. Sixty-seven patients were evaluated after TLIF using 15° cages and screw instrumentation. For comparison, TLIF using 4° lordotic angle cages in 65 patients and 8° cages in 49 patients were analyzed. Lumbar lordosis angles, segmental lordosis angles, disc height, and bony union rate were measured on the radiographs. The lumbar lordosis was 31.1° preoperatively, improved to 42.9° postoperatively, and decreased to 36.4° at the last follow-up in the 15° group. It was 35.8° before surgery, corrected to 41.5° after surgery, and changed to 33.6° at the last follow-up in the 4° group. In the 8° group, it was 32.7° preoperatively, improved to 39.1° postoperatively, and decreased to 34.5° at the last follow-up. These changes showed statistical significances (P lordosis at L4-5 was 6.6° before surgery, 13.1° after surgery, and 9.8° at the last follow-up in the 15° group. It was 6.9°, 9.5°, and 6.2° in the 4° group and 6.7°, 9.8°, and 8.1° in the 8° group, respectively (P lordosis after TLIF. Cages with sufficient lordotic angle showed better restoration of lumbar lordosis and prevention of loss of correction. 4.

  10. Surgically Treated Symptomatic Prolapsed Lumbar and Sacral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: There are various postulated possible causes of surgically symptomatic prolapsed intervertebral discs in the lumbar and sacral regions. They may be acting singularly or collectively. Yet, these factors, which could vary in different environments, have not been satisfactorily confirmed. The intention ...

  11. Benign fibrous histiocytoma of the lumbar vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Oguz, Erbil; Sehirlioglu, Ali; Kose, Ozkan; Sanal, Tuba; Ozcan, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytoma is an extremely rare spinal tumor with ten reported cases in the literature. Benign fibrous histiocytoma constitutes a diagnostic challenge because it shares common clinical symptoms, radiological characteristics, and histological features with other benign lesions involving the spine. We present a case of benign fibrous histiocytoma of the lumbar spine and discuss its differential diagnosis and management. (orig.)

  12. Postoperative braces for degenerative lumbar diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Andre N.; Ayala, Ana Patricia; Rubinstein, Sidney M.; El Dib, Regina; Rodrigues, Luciano M.; Gotfryd, Alberto Ofenhejm; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Belloti, João Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: The primary objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of orthosis following lumbar spinal surgery for people with degenerative disease on pain reduction and improvement of functional status. Secondary objectives

  13. FUNCTIONAL PATHOLOGY OF LUMBAR SPINAL STENOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENNING, L

    This paper deals with the effect of motion upon the stenotic lumbar spinal canal and its contents. A review is presented of personal investigations and relevant data from the literature. The normal spinal canal and its lateral recesses are naturally narrowed by retroflexion and/or axial loading, as

  14. Multiple-level lumbar spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Lianlei; Yuan, Suomao; Tian, Yonghao; Zheng, Yanping; Li, Jianmin

    2015-03-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis occur most commonly at only one spinal level. The authors report on 13 cases of lumbar spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis at multiple levels. During July 2007-March 2012, multiple-level spondylolysis associated with spondylolisthesis was diagnosed in 13 patients (10 male, 3 female) at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University. The mean patient age was 43.5 ± 14.6 years. The duration of low-back pain was 11.7 ± 5.1 months. Spondylolysis occurred at L-2 in 2 patients, L-3 in 4 patients, L-4 in all patients, and L-5 in 5 patients. Spondylolysis occurred at 3 spinal levels in 3 patients and at 2 levels in 10 patients. All patients had spondylolisthesis at 1 or 2 levels. Japanese Orthopaedic Association and visual analog scale scores were used to evaluate preoperative and postoperative neurological function and low-back pain. All patients underwent pedicle screw fixation and interbody fusion or direct pars interarticularis repair. Both low-back pain scores improved significantly after surgery (p spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis occurred more often in men. Most multiplelevel lumbar spondylolysis occurred at 2 spinal levels and was associated with sports, trauma, or heavy labor. Multiplelevel lumbar spondylolysis occurred mostly at L3-5; associated spondylolisthesis usually occurred at L-4 and L-5, mostly at L-4. The treatment principle was the same as that for single-level spondylolisthesis.

  15. Changing the needle for lumbar punctures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engedal, Thorbjørn Søndergaard; Ording, H.; Vilholm, O. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a common complication of diagnostic lumbar punctures. Both a non-cutting needle design and the use of smaller size needles have been shown to greatly reduce the risk of PDPH. Nevertheless, larger cutting needles are still widely used. This study d...

  16. Partial Facetectomy for Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several different techniques exist to address the pain and disability caused by isolated nerve root impingement. Failure to adequately decompress the lumbar foramen may lead to failed back surgery syndrome. However, aggressive treatment often causes spinal instability or may require fusion for satisfactory results. We describe a novel technique for decompression of the lumbar nerve root and demonstrate its effectiveness in relief of radicular symptoms. Methods. Partial facetectomy was performed by removal of the medial portion of the superior facet in patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis. 47 patients underwent the procedure from 2001 to 2010. Those who demonstrated neurogenic claudication without spinal instability or central canal stenosis and failed conservative management were eligible for the procedure. Functional level was recorded for each patient. These patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years to evaluate outcomes. Results. 27 of 47 patients (57% reported no back pain and no functional limitations. Eight of 47 patients (17% reported moderate pain, but had no limitations. Six of 47 patients (13% continued to experience degenerative symptoms. Five of 47 patients (11% required additional surgery. Conclusions. Partial facetectomy is an effective means to decompress the lumbar nerve root foramen without causing spinal instability.

  17. Lumbar radiculopathy due to unilateral facet hypertrophy following lumbar disc hernia operation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kökeş, Fatih; Günaydin, Ahmet; Aciduman, Ahmet; Kalan, Mehmet; Koçak, Halit

    2007-10-01

    To present a radiculopathy case due to unilateral facet hypertrophy developing three years after a lumbar disc hernia operation. A fifty two-year-old female patient, who had been operated on for a left L5-S1 herniated lumbar disc three years ago, was hospitalized and re-operated with a diagnosis of unilateral facet hypertrophy. She had complaints of left leg pain and walking restrictions for the last six months. Left Straight Leg Raising test was positive at 40 degrees , left ankle dorsiflexion muscle strength was 4/5, left Extensor Hallucis Longus muscle strength was 3/5, and left Achilles reflex was hypoactive. Lumbar spinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed left L5-S1 facet hypertrophy. Lumbar radiculopathy due to lumbar facet hypertrophy is a well-known neurological condition. Radicular pain develops during the late postoperative period following lumbar disc hernia operations that are often related to recurrent disc herniation or to formation of post-operative scar tissue. In addition, it can be speculated that unilateral facet hypertrophy, which may develop after a disc hernia operation, might also be one of the causes of radiculopathy.

  18. A reappraisal of the anatomy of the human lumbar erector spinae.

    OpenAIRE

    Bogduk, N

    1980-01-01

    In the lumbar region the longissimus thoracis and iliocostalis lumborum are separated by the erector spinae aponeurosis and its ventral reflection--the lumbar intermuscular aponeurosis. Lumbar fibres of the longissimus arise from the ilium and the lumbar intermuscular aponeurosis and insert into the accessory processes and proximal ends of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. Lumbar fibres of iliocostalis insert into the costal elements of the first four lumbar vertebrae. The lum...

  19. [Discarthrosis with hyperalgic lumbar multileveled radicular syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardaru, D; Tiţu, Gabriela; Pendefunda, L

    2012-01-01

    The problems at the level of intervertebral discs are producing dysfunctions and important functional regression at the level of lumbar column, at a stage at which the patient could remain blocked in an anterior or lateral flexion position or producing an antalgic position of scoliosis that could incapacitate the patient to perform activities of daily living. The medical rehabilitation, in such cases, must seek not only the relief of local pain through different methods of obtaining it, but also the functional reeducation of the intervertebral articulations through specific analytical mobilization in order to achieve the biomechanical harmonization of the rachis. We report the case study of a 66 year-old patient who presented to our clinic for medical consult and physical therapy when he was diagnosed with discharthrosis, hyperalgic lumbar multileveled radiculopathy at L4-L5 and L5-S1. The lumbar x-ray showed osteophytes, disc narrowing at the level of L5-S1 and inter-apophysis arthrosis. The clinical examination revealed difficulty walking with pain in the right sacroiliac articulations and right sciatic emergence with plantar paraesthesia. The patient developed pain induced scoliosis on the right side that restricted the lumbar range of motion and prevented the right flexion blocking him into an left flexion, any attempt of straightening inducing pain. The condition was treated using specific analytical lumbar mobilization for the realignment of the vertebrae complex. In this case study, we found that functional reeducation in cases of pain induced deviations of the rachis of the column should be centered on the harmonization of inadequate pressure and position of the complex intervertebral articulations.

  20. Physiological pattern of lumbar disc height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggemann, M.; Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to present a new method of quantifying objectively the height of all discs in lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine and of analysing the normal craniocaudal sequence pattern of lumbar disc heights. Methods: The new parameter is the ventrally measured disc height corrected for the dependence on the angle of lordosis by normalisation to mean angles observed in the erect posture of healthy persons. To eliminate radiographic magnification, the corrected ventral height is related to the mean depth of the cranially adjoining vertebra. In this manner lumbar disc heights were objectively measured in young, mature and healthy persons (146 males and 65 females). The craniocaudal sequence pattern was analysed by mean values from all persons and by height differences of adjoining discs in each individual lumbar spine. Results: Mean normative values demonstrated an increase in disc height between L1/L2 and L4/L5 and a constant or decreasing disc height between L4/L5 and L5/S1. However, this 'physiological sequence of disc height in the statistical mean' was observed in only 36% of normal males and 55% of normal females. Conclusion: The radiological pattern of the 'physiological sequence of lumbar disc height' leads to a relevant portion of false positive pathological results especially at L4/L5. An increase of disc height from L4/L5 to L5/S1 may be normal. The recognition of decreased disc height should be based on an abrupt change in the heights of adjoining discs and not on a deviation from a craniocaudal sequence pattern. (orig.) [de

  1. Return to Golf After Lumbar Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflett, Grant D; Hellman, Michael D; Louie, Philip K; Mikhail, Christopher; Park, Kevin U; Phillips, Frank M

    Spinal fusion surgery is being increasingly performed, yet few studies have focused on return to recreational sports after lumbar fusion and none have specifically analyzed return to golf. Most golfers successfully return to sport after lumbar fusion surgery. Case series. Level 4. All patients who underwent 1- or 2-level primary lumbar fusion surgery for degenerative pathologies performed by a single surgeon between January 2008 and October 2012 and had at least 1-year follow-up were included. Patients completed a specifically designed golf survey. Surveys were mailed, given during follow-up clinic, or answered during telephone contact. A total of 353 patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, with 200 responses (57%) to the questionnaire producing 34 golfers. The average age of golfers was 57 years (range, 32-79 years). In 79% of golfers, preoperative back and/or leg pain significantly affected their ability to play golf. Within 1 year from surgery, 65% of patients returned to practice and 52% returned to course play. Only 29% of patients stated that continued back/leg pain limited their play. Twenty-five patients (77%) were able to play the same amount of golf or more than before fusion surgery. Of those providing handicaps, 12 (80%) reported the same or an improved handicap. More than 50% of golfers return to on-course play within 1 year of lumbar fusion surgery. The majority of golfers can return to preoperative levels in terms of performance (handicap) and frequency of play. This investigation offers insight into when golfers return to sport after lumbar fusion surgery and provides surgeons with information to set realistic expectations postoperatively.

  2. Segmental and global lordosis changes with two-level axial lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, Miguel A; Tobler, William D; Ernst, Robert J; Raley, Thomas J; Anand, Neel; Miller, Larry E; Nasca, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Background Loss of lumbar lordosis has been reported after lumbar interbody fusion surgery and may portend poor clinical and radiographic outcome. The objective of this research was to measure changes in segmental and global lumbar lordosis in patients treated with presacral axial L4-S1 interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation and to determine if these changes influenced patient outcomes. Methods We performed a retrospective, multi-center review of prospectively collected data in 58 consecutive patients with disabling lumbar pain and radiculopathy unresponsive to nonsurgical treatment who underwent L4-S1 interbody fusion with the AxiaLIF two-level system (Baxano Surgical, Raleigh NC). Main outcomes included back pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Odom's outcome criteria, and fusion status using flexion and extension radiographs and computed tomography scans. Segmental (L4-S1) and global (L1-S1) lumbar lordosis measurements were made using standing lateral radiographs. All patients were followed for at least 24 months (mean: 29 months, range 24-56 months). Results There was no bowel injury, vascular injury, deep infection, neurologic complication or implant failure. Mean back pain severity improved from 7.8±1.7 at baseline to 3.3±2.6 at 2 years (p lordosis, defined as a change in Cobb angle ≤ 5°, was identified in 84% of patients at L4-S1 and 81% of patients at L1-S1. Patients with loss or gain in segmental or global lordosis experienced similar 2-year outcomes versus those with less than a 5° change. Conclusions/Clinical Relevance Two-level axial interbody fusion supplemented with posterior fixation does not alter segmental or global lordosis in most patients. Patients with postoperative change in lordosis greater than 5° have similarly favorable long-term clinical outcomes and fusion rates compared to patients with less than 5° lordosis change. PMID:25694920

  3. Functional and quantitative magnetic resonance myelography of symptomatic stenoses of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, Knut [District Hospital Castle of Werneck, MRI Center of Excellence, Werneck (Germany); Ganslandt, Oliver [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany); Stadlbauer, Andreas [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University Vienna, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that functional, quantitative magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) allows standardized diagnosis of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenoses which show at least equal detectability compared to functional myelography and postmyelographic CT (pmCT) based on intra- and postoperative findings. We investigated 43 volunteers and 47 patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenoses using MRM in normal position as well as in flexion and extension in a standard whole-body MR scanner. Twenty volunteers were additionally examined under axial loading. All patients were investigated by functional myelography and pmCT and 10 patients had a functional lumbar MRM postoperatively. Range of motion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes in normal position, flexion, extension, and under axial loading (volunteers) were assessed for each segment. Detectability was determined by using intraoperative findings, and postoperative freedom of symptoms was correlated with CSF volume changes in MRM. The ranges of motion in a standard whole-body MR scanner provide adequate scope for investigations into function (flexion and extension) in both volunteers and patients. Axial loading was associated with a mechanism of extension, albeit to a far smaller extent. Detectability of lumbar stenoses was 100 % for MRM, 58 % for conventional myelography, and 68 % for pmCT. Postoperative changes in CSF volume of levels with stenoses in MRM strongly correlated with freedom of symptoms (R = 0.772). This MRM method allows for exact diagnosis and reproducible quantification of stenoses, motion-related changes, and spondylolistheses of the lumbar spine. It may be useful for early detection of alterations in order to avoid neuronal compression. (orig.)

  4. Three-dimensional motion analysis of the lumbar spine during "free squat" weight lift training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, James C; Quinlan, John F; Stapleton, Robert; FitzPatrick, David P; McCormack, Damian

    2007-06-01

    Heavy weight lifting using a squat bar is a commonly used athletic training exercise. Previous in vivo motion studies have concentrated on lifting of everyday objects and not on the vastly increased loads that athletes subject themselves to when performing this exercise. Athletes significantly alter their lumbar spinal motion when performing squat lifting at heavy weights. Controlled laboratory study. Forty-eight athletes (28 men, 20 women) performed 6 lifts at 40% maximum, 4 lifts at 60% maximum, and 2 lifts at 80% maximum. The Zebris 3D motion analysis system was used to measure lumbar spine motion. Exercise was performed as a "free" squat and repeated with a weight lifting support belt. Data obtained were analyzed using SAS. A significant decrease (P free squat or when lifting using a support belt in any of the groups studied. Weight lifting using a squat bar causes athletes to significantly hyperextend their lumbar spines at heavier weights. The use of a weight lifting support belt does not significantly alter spinal motion during lifting.

  5. REHABILITATION THERAPY VERSUS DRUG THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH LUMBAR DISC DEGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BROSCATEAN, Emanuela-Flavia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar disc degeneration is a disorder whose clinical manifestations are represented by episodic pain in the lumbar spine, without lumbar blockage and minor muscle contraction. Because lumbalgia caused by lumbar disc degeneration is not always very high intensity pain, the easiest to apply treatment is drug therapy. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential role of rehabilitation treatment in the recovery of patients and the prevention of complications compared to drug therapy alone. The study included 28 patients (17 women and 11 men aged between 23-60 years, assigned to two groups: 20 patients who received rehabilitation treatment (consisting of massage, kinesiotherapy, hydrokinesiotherapy, electrotherapy and medication and 8 patients who received drug treatment consisting of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. The treatment duration was 10 days. For the evaluation of pain, the visual analogue scale was used, for the degree of disability, the Oswestry questionnaire, and for joint mobility and muscle strength, articular and muscular testing. At the end of treatment, the study group compared to the control group had a statistically significant result for pain (p=0.001, as well as for the Oswestry score (p=0.030. The mean age of the patients was 35.51±3.026, which shows an increased incidence among young adults. A possible connection between the development of the disease in women and age less than 45 years was also investigated, but the result was not statistically significant, p=0.22. Our data suggest the fact that rehabilitation treatment plays an important role in the reduction of pain and the improvement of the quality of life of patients with lumbar disc degeneration by decreasing the degree of disability. In the future, it can be proposed to monitor patients with lumbar disc degeneration over a longer time period in order to see the effects of kinetic rehabilitation programs in relation to the delay of chronicization. As

  6. Clinical application of percutaneous lumbar puncture to treat sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation under CT guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Linyou; Li Yuan; Shao Yangtong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of the percutaneous lumbar puncture to treat sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation. Methods: 75 cases of lumbar disc herniation with significant clinical signs were confirmed by CT scan. The technique of the percutaneous lumbar puncture led the needle to approach nerve root and injected medicine diffusing into extraduramater, and then relieved the symptom of sciatica. Results: The rate of success of percutaneous lumbar puncture guided by CT reached to 100%. After two weeks of follow-up, the symptom of pain was obviously improved and disappeared in 63.3% cases. There were 23.0% cases needed a second procedure, and no change was obsesved in 9.3% cases. Conclusions: The percutaneous lumbar puncture guided by CT to treat sciatica resulted from lumbar disc herniation is one of the safe, reliable, effective new methods with no complication. The long term effectiveness is still in need of investigation. (authors)

  7. Connecting Grammaticalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens; Heltoft, Lars; Schøsler, Lene

    morphological, topological and constructional paradigms often connect to form complex paradigms. The book introduces the concept of connecting grammaticalisation to describe the formation, restructuring and dismantling of such complex paradigms. Drawing primarily on data from Germanic, Romance and Slavic...

  8. Simulation of the Lumbar Spine as a Multi-Module Paralel Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ceccarelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simulation of movements of lumbar spine is proposed by using a model with serially connected parallel manipulators. An analysis has been computed for the human spine structure and its movements, in order to simulate the motions and forces that actuate a spine specifically in the lumbar segment. A mechanical model has been designed with available identified parameters of human spine, by using characteristics of parallel manipulators and spring stiffness. This model is suitable to properly simulate the trunk behavior at macroscopic level but also the smooth behavior of intervertebral discs and actuating motions of muscles and tendons. Simulation results for spring actions and joints reaction forces can give an evaluation of the forces that intervertebral discs supports during motions of a real spine.

  9. Patient misconceptions concerning lumbar spondylosis diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Eric W; Bentley, J Nicole; Yee, Patricia P S; Chang, Kate W C; Kendall-Thomas, Jennifer; Park, Paul; Yang, Lynda J S

    2015-05-01

    results show that a surprisingly high percentage of patients have misconceptions regarding the diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spondylosis, and that these misconceptions persist in patients with a history of spine surgery. Specifically, patients overemphasize the value of radiological studies and have mixed perceptions of the relative risk and effectiveness of surgical intervention compared with more conservative management. These misconceptions have the potential to alter patient expectations and decrease satisfaction, which could negatively impact patient outcomes and subjective valuations of physician performance. While these results are preliminary, they highlight a need for improved communication and patient education during surgical consultation for lumbar spondylosis.

  10. The effects of needle deformation during lumbar puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to assess deformation of the tip and deflection from the axis of 22-gauge Quincke needles when they are used for diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP. Thus, it can be determined whether constructional alterations of needles are important for predicting clinical problems after diagnostic LP. Materials and Methods: The 22-gauge Quincke needles used for diagnostic LP were evaluated. A specially designed protractor was used for measurement and evaluation. Waist circumference was measured in each patient. Patients were questioned about headaches occurring after LP. Results: A total of 115 Quincke-type spinal needles used in 113 patients were evaluated. No deflection was detected in 38 (33.1% of the needles. Deflection between 0.1° and 5° occurred in 43 (37.3% of the needles and deflection ≥ 5.1° occurred in 34 patients (29.6%. Forty-seven (41.5% patients experienced post lumbar puncture headache (PLPH and 13 (11.5% patients experienced intracranial hypotension (IH. No statistically significant correlation between the degree of deflection and headache was found (P > 0.05. Epidural blood patch was performed for three patients. Deformity in the form of bending like a hook occurred in seven needles and IH occurred in six patients using these needles. Two of the needles used in three patients requiring blood patch were found to be bent. Conclusion: Deformation of needles may increase complications after LP. Needle deformation may lead to IH. In case of deterioration in the structure of the needle, termination of the puncture procedure and the use of a new needle could reduce undesirable clinical consequences, especially IH.

  11. The effects of needle deformation during lumbar puncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Hasan Hüseyin; Demir, Caner F.; Varol, Sefer; Arslan, Demet; Yıldız, Mustafa; Akil, Eşref

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess deformation of the tip and deflection from the axis of 22-gauge Quincke needles when they are used for diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP). Thus, it can be determined whether constructional alterations of needles are important for predicting clinical problems after diagnostic LP. Materials and Methods: The 22-gauge Quincke needles used for diagnostic LP were evaluated. A specially designed protractor was used for measurement and evaluation. Waist circumference was measured in each patient. Patients were questioned about headaches occurring after LP. Results: A total of 115 Quincke-type spinal needles used in 113 patients were evaluated. No deflection was detected in 38 (33.1%) of the needles. Deflection between 0.1° and 5° occurred in 43 (37.3%) of the needles and deflection ≥ 5.1° occurred in 34 patients (29.6%). Forty-seven (41.5%) patients experienced post lumbar puncture headache (PLPH) and 13 (11.5%) patients experienced intracranial hypotension (IH). No statistically significant correlation between the degree of deflection and headache was found (P > 0.05). Epidural blood patch was performed for three patients. Deformity in the form of bending like a hook occurred in seven needles and IH occurred in six patients using these needles. Two of the needles used in three patients requiring blood patch were found to be bent. Conclusion: Deformation of needles may increase complications after LP. Needle deformation may lead to IH. In case of deterioration in the structure of the needle, termination of the puncture procedure and the use of a new needle could reduce undesirable clinical consequences, especially IH. PMID:25883480

  12. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  13. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Patrick Farhart2, Alex Kountouris3, Trefor James3, Marc Portus31School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Punjab Kings XI team, Indian Premier League, India; 3Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaObjective: To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains.Methods: This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers in Australia during seasons 1998–1999 to 2008–2009 inclusive. There were 205 pace bowlers, 33 of whom suffered a lumbar stress fracture when playing first class cricket. Risk ratios ([RR] with 95% confidence intervals[CI] were calculated to compare the seasonal incidence of various injuries between bowlers with a prior history of lumbar stress fracture and those with no history of lumbar stress fracture.Results: Risk of calf strain was strongly associated with prior lumbar stress fracture injury history (RR = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4–7.1. Risks of both hamstring strain (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03–2.1 and quadriceps strain (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.5 were somewhat associated with history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of groin strain was not associated with history of lumbar stress fracture (RR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4–1.1. Other injuries showed little association with prior lumbar stress fracture, although knee cartilage injuries were more likely in the non-stress fracture group.Conclusion: Bony hypertrophy associated with lumbar stress fracture healing may lead to subsequent lumbar nerve root impingement, making lower limb muscle strains more likely to occur. Confounders may be responsible for some of the findings. In particular, bowling speed is likely to be independently correlated with risk of lumbar stress fracture and risk of muscle strain. However, as the relationship between lumbar stress fracture history and calf strain was very strong, and that there is a

  14. Isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis with sciatica; MR imaging vs myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annertz, M.; Holtaas, S.; Cronqvist, S.; Joensson, B.; Stroemqvist, B. (Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopedics)

    1990-09-01

    Seventeen patients with sciatica and isthmic lumbar spondylolisthesis were studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In 13, myelography was also performed: 5 had dural sac deformation and root sleeve shortening, 2 had deformation with unilateral root sleeve shortening, one had bilateral root sleeve shortening only, and one had sac deformation only. In 4, myelography was normal. On sagittal MR examinations the neural foramen had an altered shape bilaterally with the long axis horizontal in all cases. In addition to altered shape the following was found in the 33 foramina evaluated. I: Normal nerve (n=8), II: Compressed nerve (n=16); III: Disappearance of fat, nerve not possible to identify (n=9). In patients with unilateral sciatica, the degree of foraminal stenosis correlated well with the side of symptoms. Coronal views showed the course of the nerve and pedicular kinking. Eight patients underwent decompressive surgery which revealed nerve compression by hypertrophic fibrous tissue and pedicular kinking, which correlated well with the findings on MR. Since the site of nerve compression often was peripheral to the root sleeves, myelography did not give complete information. (orig.).

  15. Surgical outcome of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with pedicle screw fixation for lumbar spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoda, Motoi; Kuno, Shigehiko; Inoue, Tatsushi

    2009-01-01

    Problems of lumbar spondylolisthesis treatment are many surgical tactics, elderly patient, osteoporosis, complications and recurrence of the symptoms. PLIF (posterior lumbar interbody fusion) and PS (pedicle screw) fixation technique for lumbar spondylolisthesis provide good patient satisfaction. Good outcome has been reported by only laminectomy alone, but patient satisfaction becomes worse year after year. The role of instrumentation for lumbar spondylolisthesis is decompression of the nerve root, correction of lumbar pathologies, bony fusion and early mobilization. We show our surgical technique and long term outcome of PLIF with PS for lumbar spondylolisthesis. Three hundred and fifty cases of lumbar spondylolisthesis were operated on in Department of Neurosurgery, Fujita Health University during the period of from December 1992 to August 2008. Patient background: age 16-84 years old (mean 62.5), Gender: male 153, female 197. Follow-up period 1-180 months (mean 61.2). Degenerative: 255, Isthmic: 63, Dysplastic: 10, Fracture: 5 and scoliosis 16 cases. Surgical procedure was PS with interbody fusion cage: 331, Hybrid cage (titanium cage with hydroxyapatite) 314, PS with Cerabone: 2 and PS with autograft: 17. CT was done to evaluate bony fusion postoperatively. Post operative improvements by JOA (Japan Orthopedic Association) score is 11.4 before surgery, 24.1 (post op. within 2 years), 25.4 (post op. 2-5 years), 25.0 (post op. 5-10 years) and 22.4 (post op. 10-15 years). Significant improvements were observed in %Slip and Slip angle but no remarkable change was observed in lumbar lordotic angle by postoperative X-ray evaluation. No root injury, and systemic complication except 4 cases of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage during surgery. Two cases were reoperated in whom cage with autograft migration due to pseudoarthrosis. Two cases had to undergo screw and cage system removal due to infection. Two cases of adjacent level stenosis had to undergo operation 10

  16. Oriental Medical Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Yeon Lee

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar spinal stenosis results from the progressive combined narrowing of the central spinal canal, the neurorecesses, and the neuroforaminal canals. In the absence of prior surgery, tumor, or infection, the spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposis posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins, or a combination of two or more of the above factors. Patients with spinal stenosis become symptomatic when pain, motor weakness, paresthesia, or other neurologic compromise causes distress. In one case, we administrated oriental medical treatment with acupuncture treatment and herb-medicine. Oriental medical treatment showed desirable effect on lumbar spinal stenosis.

  17. Neuromodulation of the lumbar spinal locomotor circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuYong, Nicholas; Lu, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    The lumbar spinal cord contains the necessary circuitry to independently drive locomotor behaviors. This function is retained following spinal cord injury (SCI) and is amenable to rehabilitation. Although the effectiveness of task-specific training and pharmacologic modulation has been repeatedly demonstrated in animal studies, results from human studies are less striking. Recently, lumbar epidural stimulation (EDS) along with locomotor training was shown to restore weight-bearing function and lower-extremity voluntary control in a chronic, motor-complete human SCI subject. Related animal studies incorporating EDS as part of the therapeutic regiment are also encouraging. EDS is emerging as a promising neuromodulatory tool for SCI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. CT recognition of lateral lumbar disk herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.; Thornton, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be useful in diagnosing posterolateral and central lumbar disk herniations, its effectiveness in demonstrating lateral herniated disks has not been emphasized. The myelographic recognition of those herniations may be difficult because root sheaths or dural sacs may not be deformed. A total of 274 CT scans interpreted as showing lumbar disk herniation was reviewed. Fourteen (5%) showed a lateral disk herniation. The CT features of a lateral herniated disk included: (1) focal protrusion of the disk margin within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen: (2) displacement of epidural fat within the intervertebral foramen; (3) absence of dural sac deformity; and (4) soft-tissue mass within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen. Because it can image the disk margin and free disk fragments irrespective of dural sac or root sheath deformity, CT may be more effective than myelography for demonstrating the presence and extent of lateral disk herniation

  19. Side effects after ambulatory lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Myhr, G.; Stovner, L.J.; Dale, L.G.; Tangerud, A.

    1989-01-01

    Side effect incidences after ambulatory (22G needle and two h bed rest) and after non-ambulatory (22 and 20G needles and 20 h bed rest) lumbar iohexol myelography have been estimated and compared. Headache incidence was significantly greater in ambulatory (50%, n=107) as compared to nonambulatory myelography (26%, n=58). Headaches in the ambulatory group tended to be of shorter duration and the difference between severe headaches in ambulatory and non-ambulatory groups was not significant. Serious adverse reactions did not occur and none of the ambulatory patients required readmission because of side effects. The headache was predominantly postural and occurred significantly earlier in the ambulatory group. Headache incidence was significantly greater after 20G needle myelography (44%, n=97) as compared to 22G needle iohexol myelography (26%, n=58). The results support the hypothesis that CSF leakage is a major cause of headache after lumbar iohexol myelography. (orig.)

  20. Constipation after thoraco-lumbar fusion surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Schaller, Karl; Tessitore, Enrico; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2014-11-01

    Thoraco-lumbar posterior fusion surgery is a frequent procedure used for patients with spinal instability due to tumor, trauma or degenerative disease. In the perioperative phase, many patients may experience vomiting, bowel irritation, constipation, or may even show symptoms of adynamic ileus possibly due to immobilization and high doses of opioid analgesics and narcotics administered during and after surgery. Retrospective single-center study on patients undergoing thoraco-lumbar fusion surgery for degenerative lumbar spine disease with instability in 2012. Study groups were built according to presence/absence of postoperative constipation, with postoperative constipation being defined as no bowel movement on postoperative days 0-2. Ninety-nine patients (39 males, 60 females) with a mean age of 57.1 ± 17.3 years were analyzed, of which 44 patients with similar age, gender, BMI and ASA-grades showed constipation (44.4%). Occurrence of constipation was associated with longer mean operation times (247 ± 62 vs. 214 ± 71 min; p=0.012), higher estimated blood loss (545 ± 316 vs. 375 ± 332 ml; pconstipation. One patient with constipation developed a sonographically confirmed paralytic ileus. Patients with constipation showed a tendency toward longer postoperative hospitalization (7.6 vs. 6.7 days, p=0.136). The rate of constipation was high after thoraco-lumbar fusion surgery. Moreover, it was associated with longer surgery time, higher blood loss, and higher postoperative morphine doses. Further trials are needed to prove if the introduction of faster and less invasive surgery techniques may have a positive side effect on bowel movement after spine surgery as they may reduce operation times, blood loss and postoperative morphine use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Complications in posterior lumbar interbody fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuzer, Rolf-Peter

    2010-01-01

    From 1993 to 2000, 220 consecutive patients with unstable degenerative spondylolisthesis were studied after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using different types of grafts and pedicle screw systems. In a retrospective review the author detail the associated complications and their correlation with perioperative factors. The causes, strategies for their avoidance, and the clinical course of these complications are also disscused. The study group was composed of 136 women and 84 men...

  2. Pedicular stress fracture in the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Htoo, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Spondylolisthesis with or without spondylolysis is common in the lumbar spine. Associated fracture in the pedicle ('pediculolysis') is unusual. The margins of pedicular stress fractures, like spondylolysis, usually appear sclerotic. A patient with a pedicular stress fracture with minimal marginal sclerosis suggesting an injury of recent onset is presented here. There was associated bilateral spondylolysis. The findings in this patient suggest that established pediculolysis probably represents a stress fracture that has failed to heal. (authors)

  3. Pedicular stress fracture in the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Htoo, M.M. [Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, (Singapore). Department of Diagnostic Radiology

    1997-08-01

    Spondylolisthesis with or without spondylolysis is common in the lumbar spine. Associated fracture in the pedicle (`pediculolysis`) is unusual. The margins of pedicular stress fractures, like spondylolysis, usually appear sclerotic. A patient with a pedicular stress fracture with minimal marginal sclerosis suggesting an injury of recent onset is presented here. There was associated bilateral spondylolysis. The findings in this patient suggest that established pediculolysis probably represents a stress fracture that has failed to heal. (authors). 10 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Synovial chondromatosis in a lumbar apophyseal joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrafato, V.; Campanacci, D.A.; Capanna, R. [Department of Orthopedic Oncology, Centro Traumatologico Ortopedico, Florence (Italy); Franchi, A. [Institute of Pathology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    A 31-year-old woman presented with painful swelling in the right paravertebral region that had been present for 2 years. Radiography and CT revealed an area of increased density due to multiple calcifications localized at the fourth lumbar vertebra. Histological examination revealed that the lesion consisted of nodules of hyaline cartilage, with focal areas of calcification, growing within synovial tissue. (orig.) With 5 figs., 11 refs.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Hajime

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the stenotic condition of the lumbar spinal canal, MRI was compared with myelography and with discography in 102 patients, all of whom underwent surgical exploration. Various pathologic conditions were studied including 50 cases of herniated nucleus pulposus, 39 cases of lumbar canal stenosis (central, peripheral type or combined type), and 13 cases of spondylolisthesis (degenerative, spondylolytic, and dysplastic type). High correlation was detected between the T2 weighted mid-sagittal image of the thecal sac and the lateral view of a full-column myelogram, but subtle changes such as adhesive changes, or redundancy, or anomalous changes of the nerve roots were more clearly demonstrated on myelograms than on MRI. Actually some of these changes could not be detected on MRI. The degrees of disc degeneration were classified into five grades according to the signal intensity and the irregularity of the disc on the T2-weighted image. The MRI evaluation of disc degeneration in this series was similar to that of the discography. However, MRI could not replace discography for identifying the source of pain in symptomatic patients. Although MRI might be the imaging modality for diagnostic screening and for detecting stenotic conditions of the lumbar spinal canal, it will not be able to replace myelography and/or discography for determining indication for surgery and preferred surgical approach. (author)

  6. Lumbar supports for prevention and treatment of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Tulder, M W; Jellema, P; van Poppel, M N

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lumbar supports are used in the treatment of low back pain patients to make the impairment and disability vanish or decrease. Lumbar supports are also used to prevent the onset of low back pain (primary prevention) or to prevent recurrences of a low back pain episode (secondary...... 1999, and the Embase database up to September 1998. We also screened references given in relevant reviews and identified controlled trials, and used Science Citation Index to identify additional controlled trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Controlled clinical trials that reported on any type of lumbar...... types of treatment or no intervention. No evidence was found on the effectiveness of lumbar supports for secondary prevention. The systematic review of therapeutic trials showed that there is limited evidence that lumbar supports are more effective than no treatment, while it is still unclear if lumbar...

  7. Bone alterations by stress in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doege, H.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes our experiences with the bone imaging in athletes. We studied 10 athletes and 10 other patients with spondylolisthesis of the lumbar spine and 16 athletes with suspicion of alterations of extremities. An increased uptake of this radiopharmaceutical was detected in six of 10 athletes with spondylolisthesis caused probably by stress fracture. Bone scans were negative in seven of 16 athletes with suspicion of lesion of extremities. In the remaining 9 patients scans were abnormal and showed periosteal injuries, epiphyseal alteration, joint abnormalities, tibial stress fractures and couvert fracture. It was also abnormal in bone injuries not evident in radiography. (orig.) [de

  8. Measurements of the lumbar spinal canal by computed tomography in lumbar diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Kenji; Kawai, Shinya; Oda, Hirotane; Saika, Minoru; Uminaga, Yasuo; Takano, Shinichi; Akiho, Yasushi

    1986-01-01

    To assess the significance of computed tomography (CT) in the elucidation of morphology of the lumbar spinal canal (LSC), the antero-posterior (AP) and transverse (T) diameter, and T area of the soft and bony LSC, and dural canal (DC) were measured by CT in 15 patients with lumbar canal stenosis, 45 patient with spondylosis, and 33 control subjects. The AP diameter failed to indicate the degree of stenosis because it was independent of morphology of the LSC. The T area of the LSC did not always help to determine the degree of DC compression, but showed some degree of stenosis. The T area of the DC was useful in determining the degree of stenosis and morphology of the stenosed site. With the use of the T area of the DC, the upper margin of articular segment was found to be most stenosed in patients with lumbar canal stenosis. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. The Neandertal vertebral column 2: The lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Arlegi, Mikel; Barash, Alon; Stock, Jay T; Been, Ella

    2017-05-01

    Here we provide the most extensive metric and morphological analysis performed to date on the Neandertal lumbar spine. Neandertal lumbar vertebrae show differences from modern humans in both the vertebral body and in the neural arch, although not all Neandertal lumbar vertebrae differ from modern humans in the same way. Differences in the vertebral foramen are restricted to the lowermost lumbar vertebrae (L4 and L5), differences in the orientation of the upper articular facets appear in the uppermost lumbar vertebrae (probably in L1 and L2-L3), and differences in the horizontal angle of the transverse process appear in L2-L4. Neandertals, when compared to modern humans, show a smaller degree of lumbar lordosis. Based on a still limited fossil sample, early hominins (australopiths and Homo erectus) had a lumbar lordosis that was similar to but below the mean of modern humans. Here, we hypothesize that from this ancestral degree of lumbar lordosis, the Neandertal lineage decreased their lumbar lordosis and Homo sapiens slightly increased theirs. From a postural point of view, the lower degree of lordosis is related to a more vertical position of the sacrum, which is also positioned more ventrally with respect to the dorsal end of the pelvis. This results in a spino-pelvic alignment that, though different from modern humans, maintained an economic postural equilibrium. Some features, such as a lower degree of lumbar lordosis, were already present in the middle Pleistocene populations ancestral to Neandertals. However, these middle Pleistocene populations do not show the full suite of Neandertal lumbar morphologies, which probably means that the characteristic features of the Neandertal lumbar spine did not arise all at once. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Computed tomography as the primary radiological examination of lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkko, E.; Laehde, S.

    1988-10-01

    A series of 235 patients examined by lumbar CT because of sciatica or other low back disorder was studied. The need of additional examinations and correlations to surgical findings were evaluated. Inadequate information was the cause of additional examination, mostly myelography in 20 patients (8,5%). It was concluded that lumbar CT is a suitable first examination of the lumbar spine in sciatica and low back pain. The indications to complementary myelography and its benefit are discussed.

  11. Computed tomography as the primary radiological examination of lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkko, E.; Laehde, S.

    1988-01-01

    A series of 235 patients examined by lumbar CT because of sciatica or other low back disorder was studied. The need of additional examinations and correlations to surgical findings were evaluated. Inadequate information was the cause of additional examination, mostly myelography in 20 patients (8,5%). It was concluded that lumbar CT is a suitable first examination of the lumbar spine in sciatica and low back pain. The indications to complementary myelography and its benefit are discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Predictors of clinical outcome following lumbar disc surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Jeffrey J; Fritz, Julie; Koppenhaver, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    scheduled for first time, single-level lumbar discectomy. Participants underwent a standardized preoperative evaluation including real-time ultrasound imaging assessment of lumbar multifidus function, and an 8-week postoperative rehabilitation programme. Clinical outcome was defined by change in disability....... CONCLUSIONS: Information gleaned from the clinical history and physical examination helps to identify patients more likely to succeed with lumbar disc surgery. While this study helps to inform clinical practice, additional research confirming these results is required prior to confident clinical...

  13. Angiogenesis in the degeneration of the lumbar intervertebral disc

    OpenAIRE

    David, Gh; Ciurea, AV; Iencean, SM; Mohan, A

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the study is to show the histological and biochemical changes that indicate the angiogenesis of the intervertebral disc in lumbar intervertebral disc hernia and the existence of epidemiological correlations between these changes and the risk factors of lumbar intervertebral disc hernia, as well as the patient's quality of life (QOL). We have studied 50 patients aged between 18 and 73 years old, who have undergone lumbar intervertebral disc hernia surgery, making fibroblast growth ...

  14. Etiology of lumbar lordosis and its pathophysiology: a review of the evolution of lumbar lordosis, and the mechanics and biology of lumbar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrey, Carolyn J; Bailey, Jeannie F; Safaee, Michael; Clark, Aaron J; Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank; Smith, Justin S; Ames, Christopher P

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of postural degeneration, particularly the loss of lumbar lordosis commonly observed in the elderly in the context of evolution, mechanical, and biological studies of the human spine and to synthesize recent research findings to clinical management of postural malalignment. Lumbar lordosis is unique to the human spine and is necessary to facilitate our upright posture. However, decreased lumbar lordosis and increased thoracic kyphosis are hallmarks of an aging human spinal column. The unique upright posture and lordotic lumbar curvature of the human spine suggest that an understanding of the evolution of the human spinal column, and the unique anatomical features that support lumbar lordosis may provide insight into spine health and degeneration. Considering evolution of the skeleton in isolation from other scientific studies provides a limited picture for clinicians. The evolution and development of human lumbar lordosis highlight the interdependence of pelvic structure and lumbar lordosis. Studies of fossils of human lineage demonstrate a convergence on the degree of lumbar lordosis and the number of lumbar vertebrae in modern Homo sapiens. Evolution and spine mechanics research show that lumbar lordosis is dictated by pelvic incidence, spinal musculature, vertebral wedging, and disc health. The evolution, mechanics, and biology research all point to the importance of spinal posture and flexibility in supporting optimal health. However, surgical management of postural deformity has focused on restoring posture at the expense of flexibility. It is possible that the need for complex and costly spinal fixation can be eliminated by developing tools for early identification of patients at risk for postural deformities through patient history (genetics, mechanics, and environmental exposure) and tracking postural changes over time.

  15. Weightlifter Lumbar Physiology Health Influence Factor Analysis of Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Chinese women's weightlifting project has been in the advanced world level, suggests that the Chinese coaches and athletes have many successful experience in the weight lifting training. Little weight lifting belongs to high-risk sports, however, to the lumbar spine injury, some young good athletes often due to lumbar trauma had to retire, and the national investment and athletes toil is regret things. This article from the perspective of sports medicine, weightlifting athletes training situation analysis and put forward Suggestions, aimed at avoiding lumbar injury, guarantee the health of athletes. In this paper, first of all to 50 professional women's weightlifting athletes doing investigation, found that 82% of the athletes suffer from lumbar disease symptoms, the reason is mainly composed of lumbar strain, intensity is too large, motion error caused by three factors. From the Angle of sports medicine and combined with the characteristics of the structure of human body skeleton athletes lumbar structural mechanics analysis, find out the lumbar force's two biggest technical movement, study, and regulate the action standard, so as to minimize lumbar force, for athletes to contribute to the health of the lumbar spine.

  16. Congenital absence of the lumbar facet joint associated with bilateral spondylolysis of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Kasai, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with a rare case of congenital absence of lumbar facet joint manifesting as low back pain. Physical examination showed no neurological or hematologic abnormalities. Radiography revealed absence of a facet joint on the right side of L4-5. Computed tomography and three-dimensional computed tomography revealed absence of the facet joint on the right side of L4-5 and spondylolysis on both sides of L5. Pain subsided after conservative treatment. This is an extremely rare case of congenital absence of lumbar facet joint associated with bilateral spondylolysis.

  17. Oswestry Disability Index is a better indicator of lumbar motion than the Visual Analogue Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Ferrin K; Bohl, Daniel D; Webb, Matthew L; Russo, Glenn S; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-09-01

    Lumbar pathology is often associated with axial pain or neurologic complaints. It is often presumed that such pain is associated with decreased lumbar motion; however, this correlation is not well established. The utility of various outcome measures that are used in both research and clinical practice have been studied, but the connection with range of motion (ROM) has not been well documented. The current study was performed to assess objectively the postulated correlation of lumbar complaints (based on standardized outcome measures) with extremes of lumbar ROM and functional ROM (fROM) with activities of daily living (ADLs) as assessed with an electrogoniometer. This study was a clinical cohort study. Subjects slated to undergo a lumbar intervention (injection, decompression, and/or fusion) were enrolled voluntarily in the study. The two outcome measures used in the study were the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for axial extremity, lower extremity, and combined axial and lower extremity, as well as the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Pain and disability scores were assessed with the VAS score and ODI. A previously validated electrogoniometer was used to measure ROM (extremes of motion in three planes) and fROM (functional motion during 15 simulated activities of daily living). Pain and disability scores were analyzed for statistically significant association with the motion assessments using linear regression analyses. Twenty-eight men and 39 women were enrolled, with an average age of 55.6 years (range, 18-79 years). The ODI and VAS were associated positively (p<.001). Combined axial and lower extremity VAS scores were associated with lateral and rotational ROM (p<.05), but not with flexion/extension or any fROM. Similar findings were noted for separately analyzed axial and lower extremity VAS scores. On the other hand, the ODI correlated inversely with ROM in all planes, and fROM in at least one plane for 10 of 15 ADLs (p<.05). Extremes of lumbar motion and

  18. Making Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

  19. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  20. COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS BASED ON ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR AIDING IN DIAGNOSING OSTEOARTHRITIS OF THE LUMBAR SPINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronezi, Carlos Cassiano Denipotti; de Azevedo Simões, Priscyla Waleska Targino; dos Santos, Robson Luiz; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Meláo, Suelen; de Mattos, Merisandra Côrtes; Cechinel, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the advantages of applying artificial neural networks to recognize patterns on lumbar spine radiographies in order to aid in the process of diagnosing primary osteoarthritis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive analytical study with a quantitative approach and an emphasis on diagnosis. The training set was composed of images collected between January and July 2009 from patients who had undergone lateral-view digital radiographies of the lumbar spine, which were provided by a radiology clinic located in the municipality of Criciúma (SC). Out of the total of 260 images gathered, those with distortions, those presenting pathological conditions that altered the architecture of the lumbar spine and those with patterns that were difficult to characterize were discarded, resulting in 206 images. The image data base (n = 206) was then subdivided, resulting in 68 radiographies for the training stage, 68 images for tests and 70 for validation. A hybrid neural network based on Kohonen self-organizing maps and on Multilayer Perceptron networks was used. Results: After 90 cycles, the validation was carried out on the best results, achieving accuracy of 62.85%, sensitivity of 65.71% and specificity of 60%. Conclusions: Even though the effectiveness shown was moderate, this study is still innovative. The values show that the technique used has a promising future, pointing towards further studies on image and cycle processing methodology with a larger quantity of radiographies. PMID:27027010

  1. Correlations between radiographic, magnetic resonance and histological examinations on the degeneration of human lumbar intervertebral discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delio Eulalio Martins

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: There is controversy regarding which imaging method is best for identifying early degenerative alterations in intervertebral discs. No correlations between such methods and histological finds are presented in the literature. The aim of this study was to correlate the thickness of intervertebral discs measured on simple radiographs with the degree of degeneration seen on magnetic resonance images and the histological findings relating to nerve ends inside the discs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional correlation study on the lumbar spines of human cadavers, at Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Ten lumbar spinal columns were extracted from human cadavers and subjected to magnetic resonance imaging and simple radiography. They were classified according to the degree of disc degeneration seen on magnetic resonance, and the thickness of the discs was measured on radiographs. The intervertebral discs were then extracted, embedded in paraffin and analyzed immunohistochemically with protein S100, and the nerve fibers were counted and classified. RESULTS: No correlation was observed between the thickness of the intervertebral discs and the degree of degeneration seen on magnetic resonance images. Only the uppermost lumbar discs (L1/L2 and L2/L3 presented a correlation between their thickness and type I and IV nerve endings. CONCLUSION: Reduced disc thickness is unrelated to increased presence of nerve ends in intervertebral discs, or to the degree of disc degeneration.

  2. A retrospective study of epidural and intravenous steroids after percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for large lumbar disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Patients who underwent PELD with epidural steroid administration for large lumbar disc herniation showed favorable curative effect compared with those who underwent PELD with intravenous steroid administration.

  3. About Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S Rockland

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the attention attracted by connectomics, one can lose sight of the very real questions concerning What are connections? In the neuroimaging community, structural connectivity is ground truth and underlying constraint on functional or effective connectivity. It is referenced to underlying anatomy; but, as increasingly remarked, there is a large gap between the wealth of human brain mapping and the relatively scant data on actual anatomical connectivity. Moreover, connections have typically been discussed as pairwise, point x projecting to point y (or: to points y and z, or more recently, in graph theoretical terms, as nodes or regions and the interconnecting edges. This is a convenient shorthand, but tends not to capture the richness and nuance of basic anatomical properties as identified in the classic tradition of tracer studies. The present short review accordingly revisits connectional weights, heterogeneity, reciprocity, topography, and hierarchical organization, drawing on concrete examples. The emphasis is on presynaptic long-distance connections, motivated by the intention to probe current assumptions and promote discussions about further progress and synthesis.

  4. Pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch predisposes to adjacent segment disease after lumbar spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenfluh, Dominique A; Mueller, Daniel A; Rothenfluh, Esin; Min, Kan

    2015-06-01

    Several risk factors and causes of adjacent segment disease have been debated; however, no quantitative relationship to spino-pelvic parameters has been established so far. A retrospective case-control study was carried out to investigate spino-pelvic alignment in patients with adjacent segment disease compared to a control group. 45 patients (ASDis) were identified that underwent revision surgery for adjacent segment disease after on average 49 months (7-125), 39 patients were selected as control group (CTRL) similar in the distribution of the matching variables, such as age, gender, preoperative degenerative changes, and numbers of segments fused with a mean follow-up of 84 months (61-142) (total n = 84). Several radiographic parameters were measured on pre- and postoperative radiographs, including lumbar lordosis measured (LL), sacral slope, pelvic incidence (PI), and tilt. Significant differences between ASDis and CTRL groups on preoperative radiographs were seen for PI (60.9 ± 10.0° vs. 51.7 ± 10.4°, p = 0.001) and LL (48.1 ± 12.5° vs. 53.8 ± 10.8°, p = 0.012). Pelvic incidence was put into relation to lumbar lordosis by calculating the difference between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis (∆PILL = PI-LL, ASDis 12.5 ± 16.7° vs. CTRL 3.4 ± 12.1°, p = 0.001). A cutoff value of 9.8° was determined by logistic regression and ROC analysis and patients classified into a type A (∆PILL lordosis mismatch. In type A spino-pelvic alignment, 25.5 % of patients underwent revision surgery for adjacent segment disease, whereas 78.3 % of patients classified as type B alignment had revision surgery. Classification of patients into type A and B alignments yields a sensitivity for predicting adjacent segment disease of 71 %, a specificity of 81 % and an odds ratio of 10.6. In degenerative disease of the lumbar spine a high pelvic incidence with diminished lumbar lordosis seems to predispose to adjacent segment disease. Patients with such pelvic incidence-lumbar

  5. Segmental fracture of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'hEireamhoin, Sven; Devitt, Brian; Baker, Joseph; Kiely, Paul; Synnott, Keith

    2010-10-01

    A case report is presented. To describe a rare, previously undescribed pattern of spinal injury. This seems to be a unique injury with no previously described injuries matching the fracture pattern observed. This is a case report based on the experience of the authors. The discussion includes a short literature review based on pubmed searches. We report the case of a 26-year-old female cyclist involved in a road traffic accident with a truck resulting in complete disruption of the lumbar spine. The cyclist was caught on the inside of a truck turning left and seems to have passed under the rear wheels. She was brought to the local emergency department where, after appropriate resuscitation, trauma survey revealed spinal deformity with complete neurologic deficit below T12 and fractured pubic rami, soft tissue injuries to the perineum and multiple abrasions. Plain radiology showed a segmental fracture dislocation of her lumbar vertebrae, extending from the L1 superior endplate through to L4-L5 disc space. The entire segment was displaced in both anteroposterior and lateral planes. Computed tomography confirmed these injuries and ruled out significant visceral injury. She was transferred to the national spinal unit (author unit), where she underwent reduction and fixation with rods and screws from T9-S1, using one cross-link. After her immediate postoperative recovery, she was referred to the national rehabilitation unit. Although so-called "en bloc" lumbar fractures have been previously described, the authors were unable to find any injury of this degree in the literature. This rare injury seems to show a pattern of spinal injury previously undescribed.

  6. Acute lumbar spondylolysis in intercollegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jeremy Hunter; Guin, Patrick D; Theiss, Stephen M

    2012-12-01

    A retrospective case series. The purpose of this study was to describe a unique group of intercollegiate athletes who are skeletally mature and who developed symptomatic acute lumbar spondylolysis and to study long-term return to play outcome of nonoperative and surgical repair of L3 and L4 spondylolysis in skeletally mature athletes. Traditionally, symptomatic acute lumbar spondylolysis is a defect found in skeletally immature athletes, most commonly in the pars interarticularis of L5, less commonly in the L3/L4 region, and even less commonly in skeletally mature athletes as described in this group. Eight intercollegiate athletes (2 women and 6 men, ages ranging from 19 to 21 y) with acute lumbar spondylolysis were diagnosed by means of computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission-CT bone scan. L3 lesions were present in 5 patients, and L4 lesions were present in 3 patients. All patients were treated initially nonoperatively with a protocol of bracing and activity modification. The healing progress was assessed through repeat CT scan. Patients who failed to respond to nonoperative procedures underwent direct repair of their pars defect through variable angle pedicle screw and sublaminar hook. Outcomes were measured by completion of the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (mean follow-up 6.5 y) and return to athletic participation. All patients successfully returned to full athletic competition. Two patients showed radiographic healing and resolution of pain following 3 months of nonoperative treatment. Five patients required surgical repair of the pars defect. All of these patients eventually returned to unrestricted participation in athletics. This study shows that this subgroup will generally respond well to surgical correction of the pars defect and return to uninhibited competition following conservative treatment and/or surgical repair.

  7. Simple prediction method of lumbar lordosis for planning of lumbar corrective surgery: radiological analysis in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong Suh; Chung, Sung Soo; Park, Se Jun; Kim, Dong Min; Shin, Seong Kee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at deriving a lordosis predictive equation using the pelvic incidence and to establish a simple prediction method of lumbar lordosis for planning lumbar corrective surgery in Asians. Eighty-six asymptomatic volunteers were enrolled in the study. The maximal lumbar lordosis (MLL), lower lumbar lordosis (LLL), pelvic incidence (PI), and sacral slope (SS) were measured. The correlations between the parameters were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis. Predictive equations of lumbar lordosis through simple regression analysis of the parameters and simple predictive values of lumbar lordosis using PI were derived. The PI strongly correlated with the SS (r = 0.78), and a strong correlation was found between the SS and LLL (r = 0.89), and between the SS and MLL (r = 0.83). Based on these correlations, the predictive equations of lumbar lordosis were found (SS = 0.80 + 0.74 PI (r = 0.78, R (2) = 0.61), LLL = 5.20 + 0.87 SS (r = 0.89, R (2) = 0.80), MLL = 17.41 + 0.96 SS (r = 0.83, R (2) = 0.68). When PI was between 30° to 35°, 40° to 50° and 55° to 60°, the equations predicted that MLL would be PI + 10°, PI + 5° and PI, and LLL would be PI - 5°, PI - 10° and PI - 15°, respectively. This simple calculation method can provide a more appropriate and simpler prediction of lumbar lordosis for Asian populations. The prediction of lumbar lordosis should be used as a reference for surgeons planning to restore the lumbar lordosis in lumbar corrective surgery.

  8. Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Ana Claudia Ferreira; Machado, Marcio Martins; Figueiredo, Marco Antonio Junqueira; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2002-01-01

    Intraspinal synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are rare and commonly associated with osteoarthritis of the facet joints, particularly at level L4-L5. Symptoms are uncommon and may include low-back pain or sciatica. These cysts are accurately diagnosed by using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnosis is essential for the correct management of the cysts. Several treatment options are available including rest and immobilization, computed tomography guided corticosteroid injection, and surgery in patients that are nonresponsive to other treatment methods. (author)

  9. Mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangviriyapaiboon, Teera

    2008-09-01

    To demonstrate the surgical technique and advantages of the mini-open transforaminal approach for lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) combined with transpedicular screw fixation. Clinical and radiographic results were assessed to determine the clinical outcomes in twelve consecutive patients selected for minimally invasive access (mini-open technique) for TLIF in Prasat Neurological Institute. A retrospective analysis was performed on 12 patients (age range, 38-74 yr; mean, 54. 8 yr) who underwent mini-open transforaminal approach for lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) combined with transpedicular screw fixation between September 2006 and June 2008. The titanium pedicle screws were introduced bilaterally through the 3.5 cm length, skin incisions with Spine Classics MLD- system retractor, autologous bone graft were inserted to perform TLIF in all patients. Eight patients were augmented anterior column support with titanium interbody cage, unilateral cage insertion in four patients and the others were inserted bilaterally interbody cages. Six patients presented with low back pain and associated radiculopathy, and six presented with low back pain only. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion was performed at L3-L4 in two patients, L4-L5 in four patients, L5-S1 in five patients, and two levels fusion in one patient. All patients were able to ambulate after spinal fusion. The patients were able to walk within 1.4 days (range 1-2 days). The hospital stay averaged 4.4 days (range 3-7 days). Periodic follow-up took place 1 to 21 months after surgery (mean, 7.4 months). The radiological fusion was archived in all nine patients who were operated on more than two months age. The other three patients who had been follow-up less than two months were probably fusion on the 1-month followed-up radiological examination. The use of mini-open technique for pedicle screw instrumentation with spinal fusion procedure provides excellent clinical results and may be an operation of choice for

  10. Collateral pathways in lumbar epidural venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thijssen, H.O.M.; Ike, B.W.; Chevrot, A.; Bijlsma, R.

    1982-01-01

    Opacification of collateral pathways other than the central channels is very rare in lumbar epidural venography. Two cases of opacification of the inferior mesenteric vein following extravasation of contrast medium at the tip of the lateral sacral vein catheter are reported. One case is presented in which filling of normal parametrial venous plexuses and the left ovarian vein occurred as a consequence of incompetent or absent valves in the internal iliac vein. The literature containing comparable collateral flow patterns in disease is reviewed. The significance of the phlebographic features in our cases is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Hidroterapia en el embarazo. Dolor lumbar

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Manzano, Eva S.; Martínez Payá, Jacinto Javier

    2002-01-01

    Con este trabajo hemos estudiado las ventajas que tiene la hidroterapia en el embarazo y la presencia de dolor lumbar, tan frecuente, sobre todo en los últimos meses de gestación. Creemos conveniente hacer referencia a la evolución que sufre la columna vertebral de la cuadrupedia a la bipedestación. Dicho paso contribuye al desarrollo de la inteligencia humana, pero es un importante inconveniente para su columna vertebral, que sigue pagando tributo a la posición erguida, y al conj...

  12. NONFUSION STABILIZATION IN THE DEGENERATIVE LUMBAR SPINE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Voršič

    2009-04-01

    Conclusions Cosmic is a posterior dynamic nonfusion pedicle screw-rod system for the stabilization of the lumbar vertebral column. It represents the new step in the development of the spinal instrumentation and can efficiently replace the spondylodesis in the treatment of painful degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine.

  13. Lumbar hernia - a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Yonamine, Claudia

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a case of lumbar hernia of inferior right space (Petit's triangle), classified as acquired hernia and diagnosed by clinical history and computed tomography. Lumbar hernia are quite rare. Authors have done a literature review of this disease. (author)

  14. Surgical treatment of foraminal herniated disc of the lumbar spine

    OpenAIRE

    Halikov Shavkatbek; Abduhalikov Alimjon Karimjanovich

    2017-01-01

    Herniated lumbar intervertebral disc have a significant impact on both the patient’s life as well, and because of the high prevalence and economic impact on society as a whole. Designed scheduling algorithm foraminal hernia surgical treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc, based on the preoperative detection of compressing factors allows to define differentiated indications for decompressive or decompressive-stabilizing surgery.

  15. 49 CFR 572.85 - Lumbar spine flexure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine flexure. 572.85 Section 572.85... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.85 Lumbar spine flexure. (a) When subjected to continuously applied force in accordance with paragraph (b...

  16. Spine imaging after lumbar disc replacement: pitfalls and current recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Yohan; Sand?n, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Most lumbar artificial discs are still composed of stainless steel alloys, which prevents adequate postoperative diagnostic imaging of the operated region when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus patients with postoperative radicular symptoms or claudication after stainless steel implants often require alternative diagnostic procedures. Methods Possible complications of lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) are reviewed from the available literature and imaging reco...

  17. Reliability and validity of subjective assessment of lumbar lordosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiological assessment of lumbar lordotic curve aids in early diagnosis of conditions even before neurologic changes set in. Objective: To ascertain the level of reliability and validity of subjective assessment of lumbar lordosis in conventional radiography. Design: A blinded, repeated-measures diagnostic test was carried ...

  18. Mechanisms of action of lumbar supports : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, M N; de Looze, M P; Koes, B W; Smid, T; Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the putative mechanisms of action of lumbar supports in lifting activities. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the evidence bearing on the putative mechanisms of action of lumbar supports. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A restriction of trunk

  19. Mechanisms of action of lumbar supports: a sytematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel-Bruinvels, M.N.M.; de Looze, M.P.; Koes, B.W.; Smid, T.; Bouter, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    Study Design. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the putative mechanisms of action of lumbar supports in lifting activities. Objective. To summarize the evidence bearing on the putative mechanisms of action of lumbar supports. Summary of Background Data. A restriction of trunk

  20. Complications of lumbar puncture in a child treated for leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, Melanie; Delpierre, Isabelle; Damry, Nash; Christophe, Catherine; Azzi, Nadira; Sekhara, Tayeb

    2005-01-01

    Lumbar puncture may lead to neurological complications. These include intracranial hypotension, cervical epidural haematomas, and cranial and lumbar subdural haematomas. MRI is the modality of choice to diagnose these complications. This report documents MRI findings of such complications in a child treated for leukaemia. (orig.)

  1. Internet Connectivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Internet Connectivity. BSNL, SIFY, HCL in Guwahati; only BSNL elsewhere in NE (local player in Shillong). Service poor; All vendors lease BW from BSNL.

  2. Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum topromote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seekto enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of theeducational system are welcome.

  3. HR Connect

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — HR Connect is the USAID HR personnel system which allows HR professionals to process HR actions related to employee's personal and position information. This system...

  4. Management of Lumbar Conditions in the Elite Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wellington K; Jenkins, Tyler James

    2017-07-01

    Lumbar disk herniation, degenerative disk disease, and spondylolysis are the most prevalent lumbar conditions that result in missed playing time. Lumbar disk herniation has a good prognosis. After recovery from injury, professional athletes return to play 82% of the time. Surgical management of lumbar disk herniation has been shown to be a viable option in athletes in whom nonsurgical measures have failed. Degenerative disk disease is predominately genetic but may be accelerated in athletes secondary to increased physiologic loading. Nonsurgical management is the standard of care for lumbar degenerative disk disease in the elite athlete. Spondylolysis is more common in adolescent athletes with back pain than in adult athletes. Nonsurgical management of spondylolysis is typically successful. However, if surgery is required, fusion or direct pars repair can allow the patient to return to sports.

  5. Interventional Radiology Management of a Ruptured Lumbar Artery Pseudoaneurysm after Cryoablation and Vertebroplasty of a Lumbar Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, Aldo Victor; Arrigoni, Francesco, E-mail: arrigoni.francesco@gmail.com [Ospedale San Salvatore, Department of Radiology (Italy); Bruno, Federico [University of L’Aquila, Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences (Italy); Carducci, Sergio; Varrassi, Marco; Zugaro, Luigi [Ospedale San Salvatore, Department of Radiology (Italy); Barile, Antonio; Masciocchi, Carlo [University of L’Aquila, Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    We describe the management of a complication (a lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm and its rupture) after combined procedure (cryoablation and vertebroplasty) on a lumbar (L2) metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. Review of the literature is also presented with discussion about the measures to be taken to prevent these types of complications.

  6. Computed Tomography of the lumbar facet joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Mi Ryoung; Kim, Yung Soon; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Jeon, Hae Sang; Kim, Dae Yung [Kang Nam General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    The lumbar facet disease is a frequently overlooked cause of sciatic pain, but the lumbar facet joints are well-recognized source of low back pain and radiating leg pain which can be confused with sciatica due to herniated disc. We measured the angulation of the facet joints on axial spine CT films in 149 cases which contains 41 normal group and 108 abnormal group and studied the relationship between the angulation and degeneration of the facets, the asymmetry of each sided facets and facet degeneration, the asymmetry and disc protrusion, and the asymmetry and annular bulging of the disc. The results were as follows: 1. Facet angulation in abnormal group were more sagittally oriented than the normal group. 2. The angulation of right facet was more sagittally oriented than the left in L4-5 level of abnormal group. 3. Degeneration of facet joints occur asymmetrically, and the more facet joint degenerates, the more it orients sagittally, particularly in L4-5. 4. Asymmetry in facet joint degeneration and unilateral disc protrusion of L5-SI level is greater than the normal gro0008.

  7. Computed Tomography of the lumbar facet joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Mi Ryoung; Kim, Yung Soon; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Jeon, Hae Sang; Kim, Dae Yung

    1989-01-01

    The lumbar facet disease is a frequently overlooked cause of sciatic pain, but the lumbar facet joints are well-recognized source of low back pain and radiating leg pain which can be confused with sciatica due to herniated disc. We measured the angulation of the facet joints on axial spine CT films in 149 cases which contains 41 normal group and 108 abnormal group and studied the relationship between the angulation and degeneration of the facets, the asymmetry of each sided facets and facet degeneration, the asymmetry and disc protrusion, and the asymmetry and annular bulging of the disc. The results were as follows: 1. Facet angulation in abnormal group were more sagittally oriented than the normal group. 2. The angulation of right facet was more sagittally oriented than the left in L4-5 level of abnormal group. 3. Degeneration of facet joints occur asymmetrically, and the more facet joint degenerates, the more it orients sagittally, particularly in L4-5. 4. Asymmetry in facet joint degeneration and unilateral disc protrusion of L5-SI level is greater than the normal group

  8. Repair of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta Ibarra, Javier; Arrieta Maria, Victor; Torres Romero Fernando; Ramirez Cabrales, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to present the surgical experience in the repair of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine. Background: Spodylolysis is an important cause of low back pain in young adults and is responsible for high grade of incapacity. Classically, patients with surgical indications with Spondylolysis have been treated with vertebral arthrodesis arthrodesis, with the following functional lost of the intervened segment and biomechanical overload of the upper contiguous segment. There are not previous reports about repairing of lysis in national literature and international references in this technique are scarce. Materials and methods: Eight patients within 2002-2004 were operated, a direct repairing of the lyses by in situ, fusion and interfragmental osteosynthesis with AO 3.5 mm titanium cortical screws with autogenous bone grafts was achieved. The casuistic was analyzed depending on clinical presentation, consolidation, mobility and vitality of the disc in imaginology studies. Results: During the follow-up a firm fusion in all cases, mobility and vitality preservation of the L5-S1 intervertebral disc was detected. There was neither infection nor neurological deficit. Recommendations: Repairing of spondylolysis in lumbar column, in young symptomatic patients without or with mild lystesis (grade I) and without associated disc damage, is a safe surgical technique

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Hajime; Matsui, Norio; Fujiyoshi, Fuminori; Izumida, Makoto; Wakita, Sato; Sekiya, Isato

    1991-01-01

    In order to evaluate the stenotic condition of lumbar spinal canal, MRI was compared with myelogram and with discogram in 82 patients, all of whom underwent surgical exploration. Pathologic conditions were studied including herniated nucleus pulposus in 36, lumbar canal stenosis (central, peripheral portion, combined) in 35, and spondylisthesis (degenerative, spondylolytic, dysplastic) in 11. Correlation between T2 mid-sagittal image of the thecal sac and profile view of full-column myelogram was very high, but fine parts such as adhesive change or redundancy or anomalous condition of nerve roots were more clearly observed on myelogram than on MRI. And some of them were not detected on MRI. The stage of disc degeneration was classified in 5 grades according to signal intensity and irregularity of the disc on T2-weighted image. The evaluation of disc degeneration was similar to discogram. But MRI will not replace discography for identifying the source of pain in symptomatic patients. Although MRI is the most important imaging modality to diagnostic screening and to post-operative evaluation of the stenotic condition, determination of the strict indication and the method of the operation will need myelogram and/or discogram and so on. (author)

  10. The reasons for delay lumbar puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH. Lotfi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of meningitis and encephalitis and prompt initiation of appropriate therapy is vital and any delay will lead to high mortality and serious and permanent morbidity. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the management of 220 patients with suspected central nervous system (CNS infections (meningitis and encephalitis to determine the percentage of patients’ suspected CNS infection undergo lumbar puncture in acceptable time (in accordance with conventional algorithms. In this descriptive study, patients with suspected CNS infections admitted to Bu-Ali and Qods hospitals, in the period July 2013 to December 2015 were studied. Information of 220 patients was collected. Continuous variables were summarized as means ± standard deviation and categorical variables as frequencies and percentages. Lumbar puncture (LP in patients was delayed in 200 cases (91%. Most common causes of delay in performing LP were prolongation of the process of determining patient needs to puncture, satisfying patients, CT scan delay and the delay in allowing LP by neurologist. In this study, delaying LP rate was higher than other studies. It seems certain pattern in assistants’ visits for counseling. CT requests and neurologic consultation before LP performed for all adult patients.

  11. Reproducibility of central lumbar vertebral BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, F.; Pocock, N.; Griffiths, M.; Majerovic, Y.; Freund, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Lumbar vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has generally been calculated from a region of interest which includes the entire vertebral body. Although this region excludes part of the transverse processes, it does include the outer cortical shell of the vertebra. Recent software has been devised to calculate BMD in a central vertebral region of interest which excludes the outer cortical envelope. Theoretically this area may be more sensitive to detecting osteoporosis which affects trabecular bone to a greater extent than cortical bone. Apart from the sensitivity of BMD estimation, the reproducibility of any measurement is important owing to the slow rate of change of bone mass. We have evaluated the reproducibility of this new vertebral region of interest in 23 women who had duplicate lumbar spine DXA scans performed on the same day. The patients were repositioned between each measurement. Central vertebral analysis was performed for L2-L4 and the reproducibility of area, bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD calculated as the coefficient of variation; these values were compared with those from conventional analysis. Thus we have shown that the reproducibility of the central BMD is comparable to the conventional analysis which is essential if this technique is to provide any additional clinical data. The reasons for the decrease in reproducibility of the area and hence BMC requires further investigation

  12. Lumbar spondylolysis in the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Kevin J; Elser, Tim; Stromberg, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Spondylolysis is a common occurrence for adolescent athletes who have low back pain. The injury involves a defect in the pars interarticularis, occurring as a result of repeated hyperextension and rotation. Clinical findings might include tightness of the hip flexors and hamstrings, weakness of the abdominals and gluteals, and an excessive lordotic posture. The validity of several clinical tests were compared alongside magnetic resonance imaging, but were not able to distinguish spondylolysis from other causes of low back pain. Medical referral should be arranged so that medical imaging and diagnostic testing can be completed to insure a proper diagnosis. Initial intervention includes rest from sport, which may vary from 2 weeks to 6 months. Bracing is also used to help minimize lumbar lordosis and lumbar extension. Exercises that focus on stabilization and spine neutral position should be incorporated in physical therapy intervention. Avoiding end ranges is important while performing exercises to minimize the translational and rotational stresses on the spine. Surgical interventions have also been recommended for athletes who have had persistent low back pain for more than six months with no relief from rest and bracing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Mechanical studies of lumbar interbody fusion implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, R J; Steinhauser, E; Rechl, H; Mittelmeier, W; Bertagnoli, R; Gradinger, R

    2002-05-01

    In addition to autogenous or allogeneic bone grafts, fusion cages composed of metal or plastic are being used increasingly as spacers for interbody fusion of spinal segments. The goal of this study was the mechanical testing of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) fusion cages used for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. With a special testing device according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards, the mechanical properties of the implants were determined under four different loading conditions. The implants (UNION cages, Medtronic Sofamor Danek) provide sufficient axial compression, shear, and torsional strength of the implant body. Ultimate axial compression load of the fins is less than the physiological compression loads at the lumbar spine. Therefore by means of an appropriate surgical technique parallel grooves have to be reamed into the endplates of the vertebral bodies according to the fin geometry. Thereby axial compression forces affect the implants body and the fins are protected from damaging loading. Using a supplementary anterior or posterior instrumentation, in vivo failure of the fins as a result of physiological shear and torsional spinal loads is unlikely. Due to specific complications related to autogenous or allogeneic bone grafts, fusion cages made of metal or carbon fiber reinforced plastic are an important alternative implant in interbody fusion.

  14. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Unilateral Fixation for Degenerative Lumbar Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Wang; Hu, Yong-Cheng; Wu, Zhan-Yong; Wu, Hua-Rong; Wu, Chun-Fu; Zhang, Lian-Suo; Xu, Wei-Kun; Fan, Hui-Long; Cai, Jin-Sheng; Ma, Jian-Qing

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of the minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion combined with posterolateral fusion and unilateral fixation using a tubular retractor in the management of degenerative lumbar disease. A retrospective analysis was conducted to analyze the clinical outcome of 58 degenerative lumbar disease patients who were treated with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion combined with posterolateral fusion and unilateral fixation during December 2012 to January 2015. The spine was unilaterally approached through a 3.0-cm skin incision centered on the disc space, located 2.5 cm lateral to the midline, and the multifidus muscles and longissimus dorsi were stripped off. After transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and posterolateral fusion the unilateral pedicle screw fixation was performed. The visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain, the Oswestry disability index (ODI), and the MacNab score were applied to evaluate clinical effects. The operation time, peri-operative bleeding, postoperative time in bed, hospitalization costs, and the change in the intervertebral height were analyzed. Radiological fusion based on the Bridwell grading system was also assessed at the last follow-up. The quality of life of the patients before and after the operation was assessed using the short form-36 scale (SF-36). Fifty-eight operations were successfully performed, and no nerve root injury or dural tear occurred. The average operation time was 138 ± 33 min, intraoperative blood loss was 126 ± 50 mL, the duration from surgery to getting out of bed was 46 ± 8 h, and hospitalization cost was 1.6 ± 0.2 ten thousand yuan. All of the 58 patients were followed up for 7-31 months, with an average of 14.6 months. The postoperative VAS scores and ODI score were significantly improved compared with preoperative data (P degenerative lumbar disease, and the short-term clinical outcome is satisfactory

  15. Establishing Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    Global law settings are characterised by a structural pre-eminence of connectivity norms, a type of norm which differs from coherency or possibility norms. The centrality of connectivity norms emerges from the function of global law, which is to increase the probability of transfers of condensed ...... and human rights can be understood as serving a constitutionalising function aimed at stabilising and facilitating connectivity. This allows for an understanding of colonialism and contemporary global governance as functional, but not as normative, equivalents.......Global law settings are characterised by a structural pre-eminence of connectivity norms, a type of norm which differs from coherency or possibility norms. The centrality of connectivity norms emerges from the function of global law, which is to increase the probability of transfers of condensed...... social components, such as economic capital and products, religious doctrines and scientific knowledge, from one legally structured context to another within world society. This was the case from colonialism and colonial law to contemporary global supply chains and human rights. Both colonial law...

  16. Lumbar kinematic variability during gait in chronic low back pain and associations with pain, disability and isolated lumbar extension strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Bruce-Low, Stewart; Smith, Dave; Jessop, David; Osborne, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Chronic low back pain is a multifactorial condition with many dysfunctions including gait variability. The lumbar spine and its musculature are involved during gait and in chronic low back pain the lumbar extensors are often deconditioned. It was therefore of interest to examine relationships between lumbar kinematic variability during gait, with pain, disability and isolated lumbar extension strength in participants with chronic low back pain. Twenty four participants with chronic low back pain were assessed for lumbar kinematics during gait, isolated lumbar extension strength, pain, and disability. Angular displacement and kinematic waveform pattern and offset variability were examined. Angular displacement and kinematic waveform pattern and offset variability differed across movement planes; displacement was highest and similar in frontal and transverse planes, and pattern variability and offset variability higher in the sagittal plane compared to frontal and transverse planes which were similar. Spearman's correlations showed significant correlations between transverse plane pattern variability and isolated lumbar extension strength (r=-.411) and disability (r=.401). However, pain was not correlated with pattern variability in any plane. The r(2) values suggested 80.5% to 86.3% of variance was accounted for by other variables. Considering the lumbar extensors role in gait, the relationship between both isolated lumbar extension strength and disability with transverse plane pattern variability suggests that gait variability may result in consequence of lumbar extensor deconditioning or disability accompanying chronic low back pain. However, further study should examine the temporality of these relationships and other variables might account for the unexplained variance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhng, Seon Kwan; Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm 2 in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm 2 and 0.765g/cm 2 . Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures

  18. Altered States

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But as members of the international community, we can take advantage of .... The connections and their effects, between people and states, are not just more ...... children's IQs and are linked to attention disorders, aggression, and delinquency.

  19. 49 CFR 572.75 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 6-Year-Old Child § 572.75 Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure. (a) Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly. The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis consist of... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and...

  20. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  1. [Enlargement in managment of lumbar spinal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steib, J P; Averous, C; Brinckert, D; Lang, G

    1996-05-01

    Lumbar stenosis has been well discussed recently, especially at the 64th French Orthopaedic Society (SOFCOT: July 1989). The results of different surgical treatments were considered as good, but the indications for surgical treatment were not clear cut. Laminectomy is not the only treatment of spinal stenosis. Laminectomy is an approach with its own rate of complications (dural tear, fibrosis, instability... ).Eight years ago, J. Sénégas described what he called the "recalibrage" (enlargement). His feeling was that, in the spinal canal, we can find two different AP diameters. The first one is a fixed constitutional AP diameter (FCAPD) at the cephalic part of the lamina. The second one is a mobile constitutional AP diameter (MCAPD) marked by the disc and the ligamentum flavum. This diameter is maximal in flexion, minimal in extension. The nerve root proceeds through the lateral part of the canal: first above, between the disc and the superior articular process, then below, in the lateral recess bordered by the pedicle, the vertebral body and the posterior articulation. With the degenerative change the disc space becomes shorter, the superior articular process is worn out with osteophytes. These degenerative events are complicated by inter vertebral instability increasing the stenosis. The idea of the "recalibrage" is to remove only the upper part of the lamina with the ligamentum flavum and to cut the hypertrophied anterior part of the articular process from inside. If needed the disc and other osteophytes are removed. The surgery is finished with a ligamentoplasty reducing the flexion and preventing the extension by a posterior wedge.Our experience in spine surgery especially in scoliosis surgery, showed us that it was possible to cure a radicular compression without opening the canal. The compression is then lifted by the 3D reduction and restoration of an anatomy as normal as possible. Lumbar stenosis is the consequence of a degenerative process. Indeed, hip

  2. FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY, SAGITTAL ALIGNMENT AND PELVIC BALANCE IN LUMBAR SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Muñiz Luna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To demonstrate the recovery of lumbar sagittal pelvic alignment and sagittal pelvic balance after surgical reduction of lumbar spondylolisthesis and establish the benefits of the surgery for reduction and fixation of the lumbar spondylolisthesis with 360o circumferential arthrodesis for 2 surgical approaches by clinical and functional evaluation. Method: Eight patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis treated with surgical reduction and fixation of listhesis and segmental circumferential fusion with two surgical approaches were reviewed. They were evaluated before and after treatment with Oswestry, Visual Analogue for pain and Odom scales, performing radiographic measurement of lumbar sagittal alignment and pelvic sagittal balance with the technique of pelvic radius. Results: Oswestry scales and EVA reported improvement of symptoms after treatment in 8 cases; the Odom scale had six outstanding cases reported. The lumbar sagittal alignment presented a lumbosacral lordosis angle and a lumbopelvic lordosis angle reduced in 4 cases and increased in 4 other cases; pelvic sagittal balance increased the pelvic angle in 4 cases and decreased in 3 cases and the sacral translation of the hip axis to the promontory increased in 6 cases. Conclusion: The surgical procedure evaluated proved to be useful by modifying the lumbar sagittal alignment and the pelvic balance, besides reducing the symptoms, enabling the patient to have mobility and movement and the consequent satisfaction with the surgery.

  3. The top 100 classic papers in lumbar spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Jeremy; Skovrlj, Branko; Caridi, John M; Cho, Samuel K

    2015-05-15

    Bibliometric review of the literature. To analyze and quantify the most frequently cited papers in lumbar spine surgery and to measure their impact on the entire lumbar spine literature. Lumbar spine surgery is a dynamic and complex field. Basic science and clinical research remain paramount in understanding and advancing the field. While new literature is published at increasing rates, few studies make long-lasting impacts. The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all papers relevant to lumbar spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each paper. The most cited paper was found to be the classic paper from 1990 by Boden et al that described magnetic resonance imaging findings in individuals without back pain, sciatica, and neurogenic claudication showing that spinal stenosis and herniated discs can be incidentally found when scanning patients. The second most cited study similarly showed that asymptomatic patients who underwent lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging frequently had lumbar pathology. The third most cited paper was the 2000 publication of Fairbank and Pynsent reviewing the Oswestry Disability Index, the outcome-measure questionnaire most commonly used to evaluate low back pain. The majority of the papers originate in the United States (n=58), and most were published in Spine (n=63). Most papers were published in the 1990s (n=49), and the 3 most common topics were low back pain, biomechanics, and disc degeneration. This report identifies the top 100 papers in lumbar spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the lumbar spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in lumbar spine surgery today. 3.

  4. Measurement of action forces and posture to determine the lumbar load of healthcare workers during care activities with patient transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilmeier, Andreas; Jordan, Claus; Luttmann, Alwin; Jäger, Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Moving patients or other care activities with manual patient handling is characterized by high mechanical load on the lumbar spine of healthcare workers (HCWs). During the patient transfer activity, the caregivers exert lifting, pulling, and pushing forces varying over time with respect to amplitude and direction. Furthermore, the caregivers distinctly change their posture and frequently obtain postures asymmetrical to the median sagittal plane, including lateral bending and turning the trunk. This paper describes a procedure to determine lumbar load during patient transfer supported by measurement techniques and an exemplary application; this methodology represents the basis of a complex research project, the third 'Dortmund Lumbar Load Study (DOLLY 3)'. Lumbar load was determined by simulation calculations using a comprehensive biomechanical model ('The Dortmunder'). As the main influencing factors, the hand forces of the caregiver exerted during typical patient transfers and the posture and movements of the HCW were recorded in laboratory studies. The action forces were determined three-dimensionally with the help of a newly developed 'measuring bed', two different 'measuring chairs', a 'measuring bathtub', and a 'measuring floor'. To capture the forces during transfers in or at the bed, a common hospital bed was equipped with an additional framework, which is attached to the bedstead and connected to the bedspring frame via three-axial force sensors at the four corners. The other measuring systems were constructed similarly. Body movements were recorded using three-dimensional optoelectronic recording tools and video recordings. The posture and force data served as input data for the quantification of various lumbar-load indicators.

  5. Lumbar lordosis and sacral slope in lumbar spinal stenosis: standard values and measurement accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredow, J; Oppermann, J; Scheyerer, M J; Gundlfinger, K; Neiss, W F; Budde, S; Floerkemeier, T; Eysel, P; Beyer, F

    2015-05-01

    Radiological study. To asses standard values, intra- and interobserver reliability and reproducibility of sacral slope (SS) and lumbar lordosis (LL) and the correlation of these parameters in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Anteroposterior and lateral X-rays of the lumbar spine of 102 patients with LSS were included in this retrospective, radiologic study. Measurements of SS and LL were carried out by five examiners. Intraobserver correlation and correlation between LL and SS were calculated with Pearson's r linear correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for inter- and intraobserver reliability. In addition, patients were examined in subgroups with respect to previous surgery and the current therapy. Lumbar lordosis averaged 45.6° (range 2.5°-74.9°; SD 14.2°), intraobserver correlation was between Pearson r = 0.93 and 0.98. The measurement of SS averaged 35.3° (range 13.8°-66.9°; SD 9.6°), intraobserver correlation was between Pearson r = 0.89 and 0.96. Intraobserver reliability ranged from 0.966 to 0.992 ICC in LL measurements and 0.944-0.983 ICC in SS measurements. There was an interobserver reliability ICC of 0.944 in LL and 0.990 in SS. Correlation between LL and SS averaged r = 0.79. No statistically significant differences were observed between the analyzed subgroups. Manual measurement of LL and SS in patients with LSS on lateral radiographs is easily performed with excellent intra- and interobserver reliability. Correlation between LL and SS is very high. Differences between patients with and without previous decompression were not statistically significant.

  6. Making connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marion Duimel

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Verbinding maken; senioren en internet. More and more older people are finding their way to the Internet. Many people aged over 50 who have only recently gone online say that a new world has opened up for them. By connecting to the Internet they have the feeling that they

  7. CMS Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcas, J.; Bockelman, B.; Gardner, R., Jr.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jayatilaka, B.; Aftab Khan, F.; Lannon, K.; Larson, K.; Letts, J.; Marra Da Silva, J.; Mascheroni, M.; Mason, D.; Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Tiradani, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment collects and analyzes large amounts of data coming from high energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This involves a huge amount of real and simulated data processing that needs to be handled in batch-oriented platforms. The CMS Global Pool of computing resources provide +100K dedicated CPU cores and another 50K to 100K CPU cores from opportunistic resources for these kind of tasks and even though production and event processing analysis workflows are already managed by existing tools, there is still a lack of support to submit final stage condor-like analysis jobs familiar to Tier-3 or local Computing Facilities users into these distributed resources in an integrated (with other CMS services) and friendly way. CMS Connect is a set of computing tools and services designed to augment existing services in the CMS Physics community focusing on these kind of condor analysis jobs. It is based on the CI-Connect platform developed by the Open Science Grid and uses the CMS GlideInWMS infrastructure to transparently plug CMS global grid resources into a virtual pool accessed via a single submission machine. This paper describes the specific developments and deployment of CMS Connect beyond the CI-Connect platform in order to integrate the service with CMS specific needs, including specific Site submission, accounting of jobs and automated reporting to standard CMS monitoring resources in an effortless way to their users.

  8. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion versus transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion--systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Thayaparan, Ganesha K; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    To assess the clinical and radiographic outcomes and complications of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) versus transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). A systematic literature search was conducted from six electronic databases. The relative risk and weighted mean difference (WMD) were used as statistical summary effect sizes. Fusion rates (88.6% vs. 91.9%, P = 0.23) and clinical outcomes were comparable between ALIF and TLIF. ALIF was associated with restoration of disk height (WMD, 2.71 mm, P = 0.01), segmental lordosis (WMD, 2.35, P = 0.03), and whole lumbar lordosis (WMD, 6.33, P = 0.03). ALIF was also associated with longer hospitalization (WMD, 1.8 days, P = 0.01), lower dural injury (0.4% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.05) but higher blood vessel injury (2.6% vs. 0%, P = 0.04). ALIF and TLIF appear to have similar success and clinical outcomes, with different complication profiles. ALIF may be associated with superior restoration of disk height and lordosis, but requires further validation in future studies.

  9. Clinical outcomes of two minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for lumbar degenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yonghao; Liu, Xinyu

    2016-10-01

    There are two modified TLIF, including MIS-TLIF and TLIF through Wiltse approach (W-TLIF). Although both of the two minimally invasive surgical procedures can be effective in the treatment for lumbar degenerative diseases, no comparative analysis has been made so far regarding their clinical outcomes. To compare the clinical outcomes of MIS-TLIF and W-TLIF for the treatment for single-segment degenerative lumbar diseases. Ninety-seven patients with single-segment degenerative lumbar disorders were included in this study. Forty-seven underwent MIS-TLIF surgery (group A). For group B, fifty patients underwent W-TLIF. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, the visual analog scale (VAS) of low back pain (LBP) and leg pain, MRI score and atrophy rate of CSA, interbody fusion rate were assessed during the postoperative follow-up. Incision length, blood loss, operative time, CPK, and postoperative incision pain VAS were better in group A (P degenerative disease. MIS-TLIF has less blood loss, shorter surgical incision, and less lower postoperative back pain, while W-TLIF is less expensive for hospital stay with lower exposure to X-rays.

  10. Manejo del síndrome doloroso lumbar Management of lumbar syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rivas Hernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica del síndrome doloroso lumbar y se seleccionaron los artículos relacionados con este síndrome publicados desde 1991 hasta 2009. Se hizo hincapié en la búsqueda de guías para el manejo del dolor lumbar en la práctica clínica, y sus criterios fueron revisados por el equipo de especialistas en Ortopedia y Traumatología del Servicio de columna vertebral del Hospital Ortopédico Docente "Fructuoso Rodríguez" y adaptados a las condiciones del Sistema Nacional de Salud cubano.A bibliographic review on painful syndrome was made selecting the articles published from 1991 to 2009 related to this syndrome. Authors emphasize in the search of guides for management of lumbar pain in the clinical practice, whose criteria were analyzed by the team Orthopedics and Traumatology team of the spinal column service from the "Fructuoso Rodríguez" Hospital and adjusted to conditions of the Cuban Health System.

  11. Cirugía de la columna lumbar degenerativa

    OpenAIRE

    López-Sastre Núñez, Antonio; Menéndez Díaz, D.; Vaquero Morillo, F.

    1998-01-01

    En una realidad la gran demanda actual de fusiones de la columna lumbar. Los resultados clínicos obtenidos con la fusión posterolateral se ven claramente superados con las fusiones anteroposteriores. Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica de las diferentes formas de fusión de la columna lumbar y la reaparición del concepto de soporte de columna anterior. Se establecen las indicaciones y las ventajas de la fusión anteroposterior lumbar, describiéndose las posibles vías de abordaje posterior y a...

  12. Traumatic Lumbar Hernia Diagnosed by Ultrasonography: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Lae; Yim, Yoon Myung; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok; Choi, Chung Hwan; Lee, Ju Kang

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic lumbar hernia describes the extrusion of intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal contents through a defect in the posterolateral abdominal wall caused by a trauma. This is a rare entity and usually diagnosed by computed tomography. A 64-year-old male received an injury on his cervical spinal cord after an accident in which he fell down. He complained of a mass on his left posterolateral back area. We diagnosed the mass as a traumatic lumbar hernia by ultrasonography and confirmed it by computed tomography. We conclude that the ultrasonography can be a useful diagnostic tool for traumatic lumbar hernia

  13. Traumatic Lumbar Hernia Diagnosed by Ultrasonography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Lae; Yim, Yoon Myung; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok; Choi, Chung Hwan; Lee, Ju Kang [Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Traumatic lumbar hernia describes the extrusion of intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal contents through a defect in the posterolateral abdominal wall caused by a trauma. This is a rare entity and usually diagnosed by computed tomography. A 64-year-old male received an injury on his cervical spinal cord after an accident in which he fell down. He complained of a mass on his left posterolateral back area. We diagnosed the mass as a traumatic lumbar hernia by ultrasonography and confirmed it by computed tomography. We conclude that the ultrasonography can be a useful diagnostic tool for traumatic lumbar hernia

  14. The effects of dorso-lumbar motion restriction on the ground reaction force components during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Joseph J; Traum, Edward

    2016-04-01

    The effects of restricting dorso-lumbar spine mobility on ground reaction forces in runners was measured and assessed. A semi-rigid cast was used to restrict spinal motion during running. Subjects ran across a force platform at 3.6 m/s, planting the right foot on the platform. Data was collected from ten running trials with the cast and ten without the cast and analysed. Casted running showed that the initial vertical heel strike maximum was increased (p running (p running results in measurable and repeatable alterations in ground reaction force components. Alterations in load transfer due to decreased spinal motion may be a factor contributing to selected injuries in runners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ASSOCIATION OF SPINOPELVIC PARAMETERS WITH THE LOCATION OF LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Léo, Jefferson Coelho de; Léo, Álvaro Coelho de; Cardoso, Igor Machado; Jacob Júnior, Charbel; Batista Júnior, José Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To associate spinopelvic parameters, pelvic incidence, sacral slope, pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis with the axial location of lumbar disc herniation.Methods:Retrospective study, which evaluated imaging and medical records of 61 patients with lumbar disc herniation, who underwent surgery with decompression and instrumented lumbar fusion in only one level. Pelvic incidence, sacral slope, pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis with simple lumbopelvic lateral radiographs, which included the ...

  16. Computed tomography in lumbar canal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Shu; Baba, Itsushi; Ishida, Akihisa; Sumida, Tadayuki; Sasaki, Seishu

    1984-01-01

    Preoperative CT was done in 39 patients with lumbar canal stenosis. Marked symmetrical narrowing of the whole vertebral canal was seen in the group with nervous symptoms in the cauda equina. Deformed bilateral intervertebral joints were seen in the group with both nervous symptoms in the cauda equina and radicular sciatica. The lateral recess on the affected side was markedly narrowed by the projection of the upper and lower joints and herniation. In the group with radicular sciatica, the vertebral canal itself was not so narrowed, but the unilateral intervertebral joint was extremely deformed, causing a narrowing of the lateral recess. There were large differences in the angle of the left and right intervertebral joints. (Namekawa, K)

  17. Sciatica caused by lumbar epidural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfquih, Hatim; El Mostarchid, Brahim; Akhaddar, Ali; gazzaz, Miloudi; Boucetta, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Gas production as a part of disc degeneration can occur but rarely causes nerve compression syndromes. The clinical features are similar to those of common sciatica. CT is very useful in the detection of epidural gas accumulation and nerve root compression. We report a case of symptomatic epidural gas accumulation originating from vacuum phenomenon in the intervertebral disc, causing lumbo-sacral radiculopathy. A 45-year-old woman suffered from sciatica for 9 months. The condition worsened in recent days. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated intradiscal vacuum phenomenon, and accumulation of gas in the lumbar epidural space compressing the dural sac and S1 nerve root. After evacuation of the gas, her pain resolved without recurrence.

  18. Lumbar Facet Tropism: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Fernando; Kirkpatrick, Christina M; Jeong, William; Fisahn, Christian; Usman, Sameera; Rustagi, Tarush; Loukas, Marios; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-06-01

    Scattered reports exist in the medical literature regarding facet tropism. However, this finding has had mixed conclusions regarding its origin and impact on the normal spine. We performed a literature review of the anatomy, embryology, biomechanics, and pathology related to lumbar facet tropism. Facet tropism is most commonly found at L4-L5 vertebral segments and there is some evidence that this condition may lead to facet degenerative spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disc disease, and other degenerative conditions. Long-term analyses of patients are necessary to elucidate relationships between associated findings and facet tropism. In addition, a universally agreed definition that is more precise should be developed for future investigative studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Traumatic subdural hematoma in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jenn-Yeu; Chen, Yu-Hao; Hung, Kuang-Chen; Chang, Ti-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic spinal subdural hematoma is rare and its mechanism remains unclear. This intervention describes a patient with mental retardation who was suffering from back pain and progressive weakness of the lower limbs following a traffic accident. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a lumbar subdural lesion. Hematoma was identified in the spinal subdural space during an operation. The muscle power of both lower limbs recovered to normal after surgery. The isolated traumatic spinal subdural hematoma was not associated with intracranial subdural hemorrhage. A spinal subdural hematoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord compression, especially for patients who have sustained spinal trauma. Emergency surgical decompression is usually the optimal treatment for a spinal subdural hematoma with acute deterioration and severe neurological deficits. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effects of Lumbar Fusion Surgery with ISOBAR Devices Versus Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery on Pain and Disability in Patients with Lumbar Degenerative Diseases: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Fen; Wu, Meng-Shan; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Liao, Ying-Chin

    2018-06-01

    Purpose/Aim: Lumbar degenerative diseases (LDDs) cause pain and disability and are treated with lumbar fusion surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lumbar fusion surgery with ISOBAR devices versus posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery for alleviating LDD-associated pain and disability. We performed a literature review and meta-analysis conducted in accordance with Cochrane methodology. The analysis included Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation assessments, Jadad Quality Score evaluations, and Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions assessments. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Cochrane Library, ProQuest, the Airiti Library, and the China Academic Journals Full-text Database for relevant randomized controlled trials and cohort studies published in English or Chinese between 1997 and 2017. Outcome measures of interest included general pain, lower back pain, and disability. Of the 18 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 16 examined general pain (802 patients), 5 examined lower back pain (274 patients), and 15 examined disability (734 patients). General pain, lower back pain, and disability scores were significantly lower after lumbar fusion surgery with ISOBAR devices compared to presurgery. Moreover, lumbar fusion surgery with ISOBAR devices was more effective than PLIF for decreasing postoperative disability, although it did not provide any benefit in terms of general pain or lower back pain. Lumbar fusion surgery with ISOBAR devices alleviates general pain, lower back pain, and disability in LDD patients and is superior to PLIF for reducing postoperative disability. Given possible publication bias, we recommend further large-scale studies.

  1. Lumbar spinal canal size of sciatica patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurme, M.; Alaranta, H.; Aalto, T.; Knuts, L.R.; Vanharanta, H.; Troup, J.D.G. (Turku City Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Surgery; Social Insurance Institution, Turku (Finland). Rehabilitation Research Centre; Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; Liverpool Univ. (UK). Dept. of Orthopaedic and Accident Surgery)

    Seven measures at the three lowest lumbar interspaces were recorded from conventional radiographs of the lumbar spines of 160 consecutive patients with low back pain and sciatica admitted for myelography and possible surgery. Eighty-eight patients were operated upon for disc herniation, and of the conservatively-treated 72 patients, 18 had a pathologic and 54 a normal myelogram. The results were evaluated after one year using the occupational handicap scales of WHO. Correlations of radiographic measures to stature were moderate and to age small. After adjusting for stature and age, only the male interpedicular distances and the antero-posterior diameter of intervertebral foramen at L3 were greater than those of females. The males with a pathologic myelogram had smaller posterior disc height at L3 and a smaller interarticular distance at L3 and L4 than those with normal myelogram, likewise the midsagittal diameter at L3 and L4 in females. In all patients other measures besides posterior disc height were smaller than those for low back pain patients (p<0.001) or for cadavers (p<0.001). The only correlation between measures and clinical manifestations was between pedicular length at L3 and limited straight leg raising. Where the disc material had been extruded into the spinal canal, the interpedicular distance was significantly wider. Only anterior disc height at L3 revealed differences between good and poor outcome one year after surgery, as did the interarticular distance at S1 in patients with normal myelogram after conservative treatment. (orig.).

  2. Lumbar spinal canal size of sciatica patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurme, M.; Alaranta, H.; Aalto, T.; Knuts, L.R.; Vanharanta, H.; Troup, J.D.G.; Social Insurance Institution, Turku; Helsinki Univ.; Liverpool Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Seven measures at the three lowest lumbar interspaces were recorded from conventional radiographs of the lumbar spines of 160 consecutive patients with low back pain and sciatica admitted for myelography and possible surgery. Eighty-eight patients were operated upon for disc herniation, and of the conservatively-treated 72 patients, 18 had a pathologic and 54 a normal myelogram. The results were evaluated after one year using the occupational handicap scales of WHO. Correlations of radiographic measures to stature were moderate and to age small. After adjusting for stature and age, only the male interpedicular distances and the antero-posterior diameter of intervertebral foramen at L3 were greater than those of females. The males with a pathologic myelogram had smaller posterior disc height at L3 and a smaller interarticular distance at L3 and L4 than those with normal myelogram, likewise the midsagittal diameter at L3 and L4 in females. In all patients other measures besides posterior disc height were smaller than those for low back pain patients (p<0.001) or for cadavers (p<0.001). The only correlation between measures and clinical manifestations was between pedicular length at L3 and limited straight leg raising. Where the disc material had been extruded into the spinal canal, the interpedicular distance was significantly wider. Only anterior disc height at L3 revealed differences between good and poor outcome one year after surgery, as did the interarticular distance at S1 in patients with normal myelogram after conservative treatment. (orig.)

  3. Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective, control-matched, cohort radiographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kern; Samartzis, Dino; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Nassr, Ahmad; Andersson, Gunnar B; Yoon, S Tim; Phillips, Frank M; Goldberg, Edward J; An, Howard S

    2005-01-01

    -sectional spinal canal area (mean critical values of 6.5 mm and 213 mm(2) were observed, respectively). The mean critical ratios were 0.43 (2:1 AP vertebral body: pedicle length) on the lateral lumbar radiograph and 0.36 on the sagittal MRI. The altered canal anatomy resulting from a decreased pedicle length may anatomically predispose these patients to earlier complaints of symptomatic neurogenic claudication. Identification of the presence of congenital stenosis should increase the treating surgeon's awareness of the potential need for multilevel treatment.

  4. Outcome after surgical treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis: the lumbar extension test is not a predictive factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Lars; Hauerberg, John; Springborg, Jacob B

    2009-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A prospective clinical study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the predictive value of the lumbar extension test for outcome after surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Studies have indicated that aggravation of the symptoms from LSS by extension...... of the lumbar spine has predictive value for the outcome after decompression. The aim of this study was to investigate this theory in a larger group of patients. METHODS: One hundred forty-six consecutive patients surgically treated for LSS were included in the study. The clinical condition was recorded before...... has no predictive value for the outcome after surgical treatment of LSS....

  5. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... by drawing on and operationalizing violent, male networks — from struggle activists' networks, to vigilante groups and gangs, to the police. The fact that they were women helped them to tap into and exploit these networks. At the same time, they were restricted by their sex, as their ability to navigate...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...

  6. Comprehensive comparing percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy with posterior lumbar internal fixation for treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yapeng; Zhang, Wei; Qie, Suhui; Zhang, Nan; Ding, Wenyuan; Shen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The study was to comprehensively compare the postoperative outcome and imaging parameter characters in a short/middle period between the percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and the internal fixation of bone graft fusion (the most common form is posterior lumbar interbody fusion [PLIF]) for the treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis after a previous lumbar internal fixation surgery. In this retrospective case-control study, we collected the medical records from 11 patients who received PELD operation (defined as PELD group) for and from 13 patients who received the internal fixation of bone graft fusion of lumbar posterior vertebral lamina decompression (defined as control group) for the treatment of the lumbar disc prolapse combined with stable retrolisthesis at Department of Spine Surgery, the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University (Shijiazhuang, China) from May 2010 to December 2015. The operation time, the bleeding volume of perioperation, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were compared between 2 groups. Before and after surgery at different time points, ODI, VAS index, and imaging parameters (including Taillard index, inter-vertebral height, sagittal dislocation, and forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae) were compared. The average operation time, the blooding volume, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were significantly less in PELD than in control group. The ODI and VAS index in PELD group showed a significantly immediate improving on the same day after the surgery. However, Taillard index, intervertebral height, sagittal dislocation in control group showed an immediate improving after surgery, but no changes in PELD group till 12-month after surgery. The forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae was significantly increased and decreased in PELD and in control group, respectively. PELD operation was superior in terms of operation time, bleeding volume, recovery period

  7. Comprehensive comparing percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy with posterior lumbar internal fixation for treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis: A retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yapeng; Zhang, Wei; Qie, Suhui; Zhang, Nan; Ding, Wenyuan; Shen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    The study was to comprehensively compare the postoperative outcome and imaging parameter characters in a short/middle period between the percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and the internal fixation of bone graft fusion (the most common form is posterior lumbar interbody fusion [PLIF]) for the treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis after a previous lumbar internal fixation surgery.In this retrospective case-control study, we collected the medical records from 11 patients who received PELD operation (defined as PELD group) for and from 13 patients who received the internal fixation of bone graft fusion of lumbar posterior vertebral lamina decompression (defined as control group) for the treatment of the lumbar disc prolapse combined with stable retrolisthesis at Department of Spine Surgery, the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University (Shijiazhuang, China) from May 2010 to December 2015. The operation time, the bleeding volume of perioperation, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were compared between 2 groups. Before and after surgery at different time points, ODI, VAS index, and imaging parameters (including Taillard index, inter-vertebral height, sagittal dislocation, and forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae) were compared.The average operation time, the blooding volume, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were significantly less in PELD than in control group. The ODI and VAS index in PELD group showed a significantly immediate improving on the same day after the surgery. However, Taillard index, intervertebral height, sagittal dislocation in control group showed an immediate improving after surgery, but no changes in PELD group till 12-month after surgery. The forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae was significantly increased and decreased in PELD and in control group, respectively.PELD operation was superior in terms of operation time, bleeding volume, recovery period, and financial

  8. 3-dimensional reconstructions of computer tomograms of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Waggershauser, T.; Zendel, W.; Astinet, A.; Felix, R.; Hansen, K.; Lanksch, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, 50 patients were examined by a Siemens 'Somatom Plus'; continuous 2 mm sections between the third lumbar and first sacral vertebra were obtained. All these imaging procedures were suitable for the diagnosis of osteochondrosis and chondrosis. Spondylosis was diagnosed more frequently on 3-D CT. Spondyloarthrosis, with narrowing of the invertebral foramina and root canals is shown particularly well by 3-D CT, since the entire extent of these structures can be seen. 3-D surface reconstruction of the lumbar spine is useful in the diagnosis of lumbar spondyloarthrosis with narrowing of the root canals and of the spinal canal. This method of axial CT is superior to conventional radiography of the lumbar spine in the usual two planes. (orig./GDG) [de

  9. Lumbar puncture in patients using anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Domingues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents has largely increased. Diagnostic lumbar puncture in patients taking these drugs represents a challenge considering the opposing risks of bleeding and thrombotic complications. To date there are no controlled trials, specific guidelines, nor clear recommendations in this area. In the present review we make some recommendations about lumbar puncture in patients using these drugs. Our recommendations take into consideration the pharmacology of these drugs, the thrombotic risk according to the underlying disease, and the urgency in cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Evaluating such information and a rigorous monitoring of neurological symptoms after lumbar puncture are crucial to minimize the risk of hemorrhage associated neurological deficits. An individualized patient decision-making and an effective communication between the assistant physician and the responsible for conducting the lumbar puncture are essential to minimize potential risks.

  10. Radiographic comparison between male and female patients with lumbar spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Shoichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Kondo, Tadashi; Ueno, Junji; Yasui, Natsuo; Nishitani, Hiromu

    2010-02-01

    We studied the lumbar spines of 117 adults (39 women and 78 men) with spondylolysis unrelated to low back pain using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Of the 117 subjects with spondylolysis, including five with multiple-level spondylolysis, there were 124 vertebrae with spondylolysis. In adult lumbar spines with unilateral spondylolysis, there was no significant difference between the incidence of spondylolisthesis in female and male subjects. However, in those with bilateral spondylolysis, there was a significantly higher incidence of spondylolisthesis in female subjects (90.9%) than in males (66.2%). Furthermore, females with bilateral spondylolysis had significant more slippage than males. Lumbar index and lumbar lordosis were not significantly different between male and female subjects, and did not significantly correlate with slippage. In conclusion, to treat acute spondylolysis in adolescents, it is important to obtain bony union at least unilaterally, especially in female subjects, to prevent further slippage.

  11. Lumbar vertebra chordoma | Erlank | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Spinal chordomas in the lumbar region are rare and can easily be overlooked in the differential diagnosis of vertebral column tumours. South African Journal of Radiology Vol. 10 (3) 2006: pp. 37-38 ...

  12. Spinous Process Osteochondroma as a Rare Cause of Lumbar Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 5th Lumbar Vertebra (L5 spinous process osteochondroma as a rare cause of lumbar pain in an old patient. A 70-year-old male presented with progressive and disabling lower lumbar pain. Tenderness over the central and left paraspinal area of the lower lumbar region and a palpable mass were evident. CT scan showed a mass arising from the spinous process of L5. Marginal resection of the tumor was performed through a posterior approach. The histological study revealed an osteochondroma. After surgery, pain was completely relieved. After one year there was no evidence of local recurrence or symptoms. Osteochondromas rarely involve the spine, but when they do symptoms like pain, radiculopathy/myelopathy, or cosmetic deformity may occur. The imagiologic exam of election for diagnosis is CT scan. When symptomatic the treatment of choice is surgical resection. The most concerning complication of osteochondromas is malignant transformation, a rare event.

  13. association between early life malnutrition and the size of lumbar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between early life malnutrition and the development of lumbar ... incriminate such predictors as poverty, aridity and human development which can be reduced ..... relationship with early childhood caries.

  14. Diagnosis of Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis using Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Yawara; Ohtori, Seiji; Suzuki, Munetaka; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Hajime; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Aoki, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Atsuya; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis of lumbar foraminal stenosis remains difficult. Here, we report on a case in which bilateral lumbar foraminal stenosis was difficult to diagnose, and in which diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was useful. The patient was a 52-year-old woman with low back pain and pain in both legs that was dominant on the right. Right lumbosacral nerve compression due to a massive uterine myoma was apparent, but the leg pain continued after a myomectomy was performed. No abnormalities were observed during nerve conduction studies. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated bilateral L5 lumbar foraminal stenosis. DTI imaging was done. The extraforaminal values were decreased and tractography was interrupted in the foraminal region. Bilateral L5 vertebral foraminal stenosis was treated by transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and the pain in both legs disappeared. The case indicates the value of DTI for diagnosing vertebral foraminal stenosis.

  15. Lumbar Scoliosis Combined Lumbar Spinal Stenosis and Herniation Diagnosed Patient Was Treated with “U” Route Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to report a case of a 63-year-old man with a history of low back pain (LBP and left leg pain for 2 years, and the symptom became more serious in the past 5 months. The patient was diagnosed with lumbar scoliosis combined with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS and lumbar disc herniation (LDH at the level of L4-5 that was confirmed using Computerized Topography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The surgical team preformed a novel technique, “U” route transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD, which led to substantial, long-term success in reduction of pain intensity and disability. After removing the osteophyte mass posterior to the thecal sac at L4-5, the working channel direction was changed to the gap between posterior longitudinal ligament and thecal sac, and we also removed the herniation and osteophyte at L3-4 with “U” route PELD. The patient’s symptoms were improved immediately after the surgical intervention; low back pain intensity decreased from preoperative 9 to postoperative 2 on a visual analog scale (VAS recorded at 1 month postoperatively. The success of the intervention suggests that “U” route PELD may be a feasible alternative to treat lumbar scoliosis with LSS and LDH patients.

  16. Cross-sectional area of human trunk paraspinal muscles before and after posterior lumbar surgery using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad S; Arjmand, Navid; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Farahmand, Farzam; Hashemi, Hassan; Bagheri, Sahar; Valizadeh, Mahsa

    2016-03-01

    Iatrogenic injuries to paraspinal muscles during the posterior lumbar surgery (PLS) cause a reduction in their cross-sectional areas (CSAs) and contractile densities over time post-surgery. This study aims to quantify such alterations. Pre- and postoperative CSAs (~6 months interval) of all paraspinal muscles were measured in six patients undergoing PLS using a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner to quantify the alterations in geometrical and tissue effective contractile (non-fatty) CSAs of these muscles at all lumbar levels. To examine the presence of any confounding effects on recorded changes within ~7-month period, measurements were also carried out on ten healthy volunteers. In the healthy population, an important (~22%) portion of CSA of the erector spinae (ES) was noncontractile at the lower lumbar levels. Negligible variations over time in both the total geometrical (<1.7% in average) and contractile (<1.2%) CSAs of muscles were observed in the healthy group (i.e., no confounding effect). Following PLS, significant reductions were observed in the geometrical CSA of only multifidus (MF) muscle by ~14 and 11% as well as in its contractile CSA by ~26 and 14% at the L5-S1 and L4-L5 levels, respectively. The total CSA of ES at lower lumbar levels shows substantial noncontractile contents in both healthy and patient populations. Biomechanical models of the spine should hence account for the noncontractile contents using only the effective contractile muscle CSAs. Postoperative variations in CSAs of paraspinal muscles may have profound effects on patterns of muscle activities, spinal loading, and stability.

  17. Single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation in surgical treatment for single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Hao; Wang, Xiyang; Zhang, Penghui; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yupeng; Liu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and efficacy of surgical management of single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis (TB) by using single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation.Methods: Seventeen cases of single-segment lumbar TB were treated with single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reco...

  18. Radiographic Results of Single Level Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Degenerative Lumbar Spine Disease: Focusing on Changes of Segmental Lordosis in Fusion Segment

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Bum; Jeon, Taek-Soo; Heo, Youn-Moo; Lee, Woo-Suk; Yi, Jin-Woong; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Hwang, Cheol-Mog

    2009-01-01

    Background To assess the radiographic results in patients who underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), particularly the changes in segmental lordosis in the fusion segment, whole lumbar lordosis and disc height. Methods Twenty six cases of single-level TLIF in degenerative lumbar diseases were analyzed. The changes in segmental lordosis, whole lumbar lordosis, and disc height were evaluated before surgery, after surgery and at the final follow-up. Results The segmental lordosi...

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of hydro-kinesiotherapy Programs in lumbar spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria BOTEZAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar spondylarthrosis is a degenerative disease that affects the joint structures of the lumbar spine. In the course of time, numerous studies on the role of hydro-kinesiotherapy in the treatment of lumbar spondylosis have been conducted. The aim of this research is motivated by the significantly high number of patients with chronic pain in the lumbar spine due to lumbar spondylosis, as well as by the negative impact on their quality of life through the impairment of the activities of daily living. The prospective longitudinal study was carried out at the Clinical Rehabilitation Hospital Cluj-Napoca. The study included 35 patients with chronic low back pain and mobility limitation in the lumbar spine. The patients were assigned to two groups: the study group formed by 20 patients and the control group consisting of 15 patients aged between 40-70 years. The treatment of the patients included in the study was performed over a two week period and consisted of a hydro-kinesiotherapy program, for the patients of the study group, the duration of a treatment session being 40 minutes. Both the subjects of the study group and of the control group also benefited from sedative massage of the lumbosacral spine, kinesiotherapy, laser therapy of the lumbar spine. The patients were evaluated using Schober’s test, the Visual Analogue Scale, the Oswestry index. These evaluation methods were applied to the patients of both groups at the beginning of the rehabilitation programs and after two weeks. The results of the study demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of the medical rehabilitation programs that included hydro-kinesiotherapy programs. The patients of both groups had improvements through a decrease of lumbar pain, an increase in lumbar spine mobility, as well as in the patients’ ability to organize themselves in the activities of daily living. However, the patients of the study group, with a hydro-kinesiotherapy program performed for two weeks, had

  20. Translaminar screw fixation in the lumbar spine: technique, indications, results

    OpenAIRE

    Grob, D.; Humke, T.

    1998-01-01

    Translaminar screw fixation of the lumbar spine represents a simple and effective technique for short segment fusion in the degenerative spine. Clinical experience with 173 patients who underwent translaminar screw fixation revealed a fusion rate of 94%. The indications for translaminar screw fixation as a primary fixation procedure are: segmental dysfunction, lumbar spinal stenosis with painful degenerative changes, segmental revision surgery after discectomies, and painful disc-related synd...

  1. Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Physiology and Biomechanics During Simulated Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0043 TITLE: Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Physiology and Biomechanics During Simulated Military Operations PRINCIPAL...31May2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Physiology and Biomechanics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER During Simulated Military Operations 5b... Biomechanics , Cincinnati, 2015. § Website(s) or other Internet site(s) § Nothing to report § Technologies or techniques § Nothing to report

  2. Weightlifter Lumbar Physiology Health Influence Factor Analysis of Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Chinese women's weightlifting project has been in the advanced world level, suggests that the Chinese coaches and athletes have many successful experience in the weight lifting training. Little weight lifting belongs to high-risk sports, however, to the lumbar spine injury, some young good athletes often due to lumbar trauma had to retire, and the national investment and athletes toil is regret things. This article from the perspective of sports medicine, weightlifting athletes training situa...

  3. Cerebellar Herniation after Lumbar Puncture in Galactosemic Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Kalay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral edema resulting in elevated intracranial pressure is a well-known complication of galactosemia. Lumbar puncture was performed for the diagnosis of clinically suspected bacterial meningitis. Herniation of cerebral tissue through the foramen magnum is not a common problem in neonatal intensive care units because of the open fontanelle in infants. We present the case of a 3-week-old infant with galactosemia who presented with signs of cerebellar herniation after lumbar puncture.

  4. Iliac artery pseudoaneurysm after lumbar disc hernia operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Atay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar disc herniation surgery is usually performed through a posterior approach. Vascular injuries can be counted among the complications. 39 years old male patient had lower extremity pain which has started after lumbar disc herniation surgery and continued for a month. Iliac arterial pseudoaneurysm has been detected in computerized tomography. It was successfully treated with vascular surgery [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(0.100: 5-7

  5. Deformation Measurement Of Lumbar Vertebra By Holographic Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshiro; Kojima, Arata; Ogawa, Ryoukei; Iwata, Koichi; Nagata, Ryo

    1988-01-01

    The mechanical properties of normal lumbar vertebra and one with the interarticular part cut off to simulate hemi-spondylolysis were measured by the double exposure holographic interferometry. In the normal lumbar vertebra, displacement due to the load applied to the inferior articular process was greater than that of superior articular process under the same load. The interarticular part was subjected to the high stress. From these points, one of the valuable data to consider the cause of spondylolysis was obtained.

  6. Radiographic comparison between male and female patients with lumbar spondylolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Takao, Shoichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Kondo, Tadashi; Ueno, Junji; Yasui, Natsuo; Nishitani, Hiromu

    2010-01-01

    We studied the lumbar spines of 117 adults (39 women and 78 men) with spondylolysis unrelated to low back pain using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Of the 117 subjects with spondylolysis, including five with multiple-level spondylolysis, there were 124 vertebrae with spondylolysis. In adult lumbar spines with unilateral spondylolysis, there was no significant difference between the incidence of spondylolisthesis in female and male subjects. However, in those with bilateral spondyloly...

  7. Diagnosis of Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis using Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Eguchi, Yawara; Ohtori, Seiji; Suzuki, Munetaka; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Hajime; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Aoki, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Atsuya; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of lumbar foraminal stenosis remains difficult. Here, we report on a case in which bilateral lumbar foraminal stenosis was difficult to diagnose, and in which diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was useful. The patient was a 52-year-old woman with low back pain and pain in both legs that was dominant on the right. Right lumbosacral nerve compression due to a massive uterine myoma was apparent, but the leg pain continued after a myomectomy was performed. No abnormalities were observed dur...

  8. Immediate Effects of a Single Session of Motor Skill Training on the Lumbar Movement Pattern During a Functional Activity in People With Low Back Pain: A Repeated-Measures Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marich, Andrej V; Lanier, Vanessa M; Salsich, Gretchen B; Lang, Catherine E; Van Dillen, Linda R

    2018-04-06

    People with low back pain (LBP) may display an altered lumbar movement pattern of early lumbar motion compared to people with healthy backs. Modifying this movement pattern during a clinical test decreases pain. It is unknown whether similar effects would be seen during a functional activity. The objective of this study is was to examine the lumbar movement patterns before and after motor skill training, effects on pain, and characteristics that influenced the ability to modify movement patterns. The design consisted of a repeated-measures study examining early-phase lumbar excursion in people with LBP during a functional activity test. Twenty-six people with chronic LBP received motor skill training, and 16 people with healthy backs were recruited as a reference standard. Twenty minutes of motor skill training to decrease early-phase lumbar excursion during the performance of a functional activity were used as a treatment intervention. Early-phase lumbar excursion was measured before and after training. Participants verbally reported increased pain, decreased pain, or no change in pain during performance of the functional activity test movement in relation to their baseline pain. The characteristics of people with LBP that influenced the ability to decrease early-phase lumbar excursion were examined. People with LBP displayed greater early-phase lumbar excursion before training than people with healthy backs (LBP: mean = 11.2°, 95% CI = 9.3°-13.1°; healthy backs: mean = 7.1°, 95% CI = 5.8°-8.4°). Following training, the LBP group showed a decrease in the amount of early-phase lumbar excursion (mean change = 4.1°, 95% CI = 2.4°-5.8°); 91% of people with LBP reported that their pain decreased from baseline following training. The longer the duration of LBP (β = - 0.22) and the more early-phase lumbar excursion before training (β = - 0.82), the greater the change in early-phase lumbar excursion following training. The long

  9. Overload pain but root differentiation discomfort in the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Siminska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar pain syndromes of the spine can also be referred to as the pain of the cross. These ailments have now become epidemics of our time. In literature, these pain are referred to as localized ailments that are located in the lumbar, lumbosacral, and cross-iliac areas. Cross pains are a very general term because there are a multitude of factors that cause lumbar disc herniation. This problem poses great diagnostic difficulties. [4]. The nature of these ailments is often difficult to pinpoint by the patient, but it can be the pain that describes patients from blunt, piercing, biting, baking, to those that are termed cold feeling. Keep in mind that the location of the lumbar pain symptoms varies. Patients report pain that is located throughout the lumbar-sacral area or only on one side of the spine, or occurs only in the area of the hip joints. These complaints often radiate along the lower limb. They are often the result of a lack of proper spine prevention: they contribute to this poor body posture, improper sleep positioning, as well as lack of coping skills, as well as a bad diet. In daily life, it is important to remember to do your daily activities in the correct position as well as to use prevention to avoid pain in the lumbar area.

  10. Efficacy of different bone volume expanders for augmenting lumbar fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E

    2008-01-01

    A wide variety of bone volume expanders are being used in performing posterolateral lumbar noninstrumented and instrumented lumbar fusions. This article presents a review of their efficacy based on fusion rates, complications, and outcomes. Lumbar noninstrumented and instrumented fusions frequently use laminar autografts and different bone graft expanders. This review presents the utility of multiple forms/ratios of DBMs containing allografts. It also discusses the efficacy of artificial bone graft substitutes, including HA and B-TCP. Dynamic x-ray and/or CT examinations were used to document fusion in most series. Outcomes were variously assessed using Odom's criteria or different outcome questionnaires (Oswestry Questionnaire, SF-36, Dallas Pain Questionnaire, and/or Low Back Pain Rating Scale). Performing noninstrumented and instrumented lumbar posterolateral fusions resulted in comparable fusion rates in many series. Similar outcomes were also documented based on Odom's criteria or the multiple patient-based questionnaires. However, in some studies, the addition of spinal instrumentation increased the reoperation rate, operative time, blood loss, and cost. Various forms of DBMs, applied in different ratios to autografts, effectively supplemented spinal fusions in animal models and patient series. beta-Tricalcium phosphate, which is used to augment autograft fusions addressing idiopathic scoliosis or lumbar disease, also proved to be effective. Different types of bone volume expanders, including various forms of allograft-based DBMs, and artificial bone graft substitutes (HA and B-TCP) effectively promote posterolateral lumbar noninstrumented and instrumented fusions when added to autografts.

  11. Single photon emission computed tomography in lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, S.; Muro, T.; Eisenstein, S.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic images and plain X-ray films of the lumbar vertebrae was performed in 15 patients with lumbar spondylosis and 15 patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. The facet joint and osteophyte images were observed in particular, and the slipping ratio of spondylolisthetic vertebrae was determined. The slipping ratio of degenerative spondylolisthesis ranged from 11.8 % to 22.3 %. Hot uptake of 99mTc-HMDP by both L4-5 facet joints was significantly greater in the patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis than in those with lumbar spondylosis. The hot uptake by the osteophytes in lumbar spondylosis was nearly uniform among the three inferior segments, L3-4, L4-5 and L5-S, but was localized to the spondylolisthetic vertebrae, L4-5, or L5-S, in the patients with spondylolisthesis. Half of the osteophytes with hot uptake were assigned to the 3rd degree of Nathan's grading. It was suggested that stress was localized to the slipping vertebrae and their facet joints in patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. (author)

  12. Radiographic Morphometry of the Lumbar Spine in Munich Miniature Pigs†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, Elisabeth C; Post, Christina; Pfarrer, Christiane D; Sager, Martin; Waibl, Helmut R

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human spinal column disease remains high, and animal models still play important roles in prophylactic, diagnostic, and therapeutic research. Because of their similar size to humans, pigs remain an important spine model. For pigs to serve as a model for the human spine, basic similarities and differences must be understood. In this study, morphometric data of the lumbar spine of Munich miniature pigs (Troll) were recorded radiologically, evaluated, and compared with recorded human data. Whereas humans have a constant number of 5 lumbar vertebrae, Munich minipigs had 5 or 6 lumbar vertebrae. Compared with their human counterparts, the lumbar vertebral bodies of the minipigs were remarkably larger in the craniocaudal (superior–inferior) direction and considerably smaller in the dorsoventral and laterolateral directions. The porcine vertebral canal was smaller than the human vertebral canal. The spinal cord extended into the caudal part of the porcine lumbar vertebral canal and thus did not terminate as cranial, as seen in humans. The lumbar intervertebral spaces of the pig were narrower in craniocaudal direction than human intervertebral spaces. These differences need to be considered when planning surgical actions, not only to avoid pain and irreversible damage to the minipigs but also to achieve accurate scientific results. PMID:27177570

  13. Clostridium difficile colitis in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Silvestre, Jason; Al Maaieh, Motasem; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2014-09-01

    Retrospective database analysis. To investigate incidence, comorbidities, and impact on health care resources of Clostridium difficile infection after lumbar spine surgery. C. difficile colitis is reportedly increasing in hospitalized patients and can have a negative impact on patient outcomes. No data exist on estimates of C. difficile infection rates and its consequences on patient outcomes and health care resources among patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was examined from 2002 to 2011. Patients were included for study based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, procedural codes for lumbar spine surgery for degenerative diagnoses. Baseline patient characteristics were determined and multivariable analyses assessed factors associated with increased incidence of C. difficile and risk of mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery is 0.11%. At baseline, patients infected with C. difficile were significantly older (65.4 yr vs. 58.9 yr, Pinfection. Small hospital size was associated with decreased odds (odds ratio [OR], 0.5; Pinfection. Uninsured (OR, 1.62; Pinfection. C. difficile increased hospital length of stay by 8 days (Pdifficile infection after lumbar spine surgery carries a 36.4-fold increase in mortality and costs approximately $10,658,646 per year to manage. These data suggest that great care should be taken to avoid C. difficile colitis in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery because it is associated with longer hospital stays, greater overall costs, and increased inpatient mortality. 3.

  14. LUMBAR LORDOSIS IN ASYMPTOMATICS SUBJECTS AND PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J MOUSAVI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The relationship between the degree of lumbar lordosis and chronic and purpose low back pain (LBP has long been speculated, but there is discrepancy in findings of previous researchers. The purpose of this of this study was to drtermin differences between lumbar lordosis in asymptomatic and LBP subjects. Matherials: Lumbar lordosis of 420 patients with chronic LBP and 420 asymptomatic subjects was measured by two examiner. A flexible ruler was used to measure lumbar lodosis in all subjects. Results: The averagr degree of lumbar lordosis for all subjects was 37±13°. Females had greater lumbar lordosis (42 ±15° than males (32±100 and elderly subjects had lesser lumbar lordosis than younger and middle aged subjects. Conclussoion: The degree of lumbar lordosis was not differet between normal subjects and those with LBP. It seems that effects of lumbar lordosis on LBP and treatment pr