WorldWideScience

Sample records for altered immunological properties

  1. Structure alteration and immunological properties of {sup 60}Co gamma rays irradiated bothropstoxin-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Janaina A.; Yonamine, Camila Myiagui; Caproni, Priscila; Casare, Murilo; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: janabap@gmail.com; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de; Vieira, Daniel Perez; Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia

    2007-07-01

    About 20000 ophidic accidents are registered every year in Brazil. Serum therapy with equine antisera is the only efficient treatment. The venoms employed for immunization are fairly toxic and some venoms present low immunogenicity. Thus, the obtention of modified antigens with lower toxicity and preserved or improved immunogenicity would be useful. These toxins, when submitted to gamma radiation, in aqueous solution, present structural modifications. This occurs due to reactions with the radiolysis products of water. Some scavenger substances, such as NaNO{sub 3} and t-butanol, remove selectively the water radiolysis products. Ionizing radiation has proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venoms toxicity without affecting and even increasing their immunogenic properties. However, the immune mechanisms involved in recognition, processing and presentation of irradiated antigens are yet unclear. In the present work, we investigated the immunological behavior of bothropstoxin-I (Bthx-1), before and after irradiation, in the presence of selective scavengers. Isogenic mice were immunized with either the native or the irradiated toxin, either with or without scavengers. After three immunizations, serum samples were collected and the antibody titers and isotypes were determined by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay. The antigenic characterization of native and irradiated bothropstoxin-I was performed by Western blot. The detection of expression of murine cytokines (IFN-{gamma} and IL-10) was analyzed by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction). According to our data, irradiation process has promoted structural modifications in the toxin, characterized by higher molecular weight forms of the protein (aggregates and oligomers). Our data also indicate that irradiated toxins, alone or in the presence of NaNO{sub 3}, an aqueous electron scavenger, were immunogenic and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin. On the other

  2. Immunological properties of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, Lev A; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2017-03-01

    In the past decade, gold nanoparticles have attracted strong interest from the nanobiotechnological community owing to the significant progress made in robust and easy-to-make synthesis technologies, in surface functionalization, and in promising biomedical applications. These include bioimaging, gene diagnostics, analytical sensing, photothermal treatment of tumors, and targeted delivery of various biomolecular and chemical cargos. For the last-named application, gold nanoparticles should be properly fabricated to deliver the cargo into the targeted cells through effective endocytosis. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding the selective penetration of gold nanoparticles into immune cells. The interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cell receptors is discussed. As distinct from other published reviews, we present a summary of the immunological properties of gold nanoparticles. This review also summarizes what is known about the application of gold nanoparticles as an antigen carrier and adjuvant in immunization for the preparation of antibodies in vivo . For each of the above topics, the basic principles, recent advances, and current challenges are discussed. Thus, this review presents a detailed analysis of data on interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cells. Emphasis is placed on the systematization of data over production of antibodies by using gold nanoparticles and adjuvant properties of gold nanoparticles. Specifically, we start our discussion with current data on interaction of various gold nanoparticles with immune cells. The next section describes existing technologies to improve production of antibodies in vivo by using gold nanoparticles conjugated with specific ligands. Finally, we describe what is known about adjuvant properties of bare gold or functionalized nanoparticles. In the Conclusion section, we present a short summary of reported data and some challenges and perspectives.

  3. Altered immunological reactivity in HIV-1-exposed uninfected neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygino, Joana; Lima, Patrícia G; Filho, Renato G S; Silva, Agostinho A L; Saramago, Carmen S M; Andrade, Regis M; Andrade, Daniel M; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Brindeiro, Rodrigo; Tanuri, Amilcar; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2008-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate immune events in HIV-1-exposed uninfected neonates born from mothers who control (G1) or not (G2) the plasma viral load, using unexposed neonates as controls. Cord blood from each neonate was collected, plasma and mononuclear cells were separated and the lymphoproliferation and cytokine pattern were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the in vitro lymphoproliferation induced by polyclonal activators was higher in the G2 neonates. Nevertheless, no cell culture responded to poll synthetic HIV-1 envelope peptides. The cytokine dosage in the plasma and supernatants of polyclonally-activated cultures demonstrated that, while IL-4 and IL-10 were the dominant cytokines produced in G1 and control groups, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were significantly higher in G2 neonates. Systemic levels of IL-10 observed among the G1 neonates were higher in those born from anti-retroviral treated mothers. In summary, our results indicate an altered immune responsiveness in neonates exposed in utero to HIV and support the role of maternal anti-retroviral treatment to attenuate it.

  4. Immunological and biological properties of recombinant Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Lamontagne, P; Boulanger, J; Brunet, C; Hébert, J

    1997-03-01

    Current forms of allergy diagnosis and therapies are based on the use of natural allergenic extracts. Despite strong evidence that higher therapeutic efficacy may be achieved with purified allergens, the purification of multiple allergic components from extracts is a fastidious and sometimes an impossible task. However, the use of recombinant allergens may be an alternative to overcome this problem. In this study, we compared the immunological properties of recombinant (r) Lol p 1 with those of the natural protein. We cloned directly the gene encoding Lol p 1 from genomic DNA of ryegrass pollen. This gene was subcloned into the expression vector pMAL-c and expressed as fusion protein. Subsequently, rLol p 1 was cleaved from maltose-binding protein using factor Xa. Using binding inhibition and proliferative assays, we assessed the immunological properties of the recombinant allergens. The capacity of rLol p 1 to trigger basophil histamine release and to elicit a skin reaction was also assessed and compared to those of its natural counterpart. We found that the Lol p 1 gene has no introns since we amplified this gene directly from genomic DNA. We demonstrated that the binding sites of anti-Lol p 1 monoclonal antibody, specific human IgG and IgE antibody are well conserved on rLol p 1 as no difference in the binding inhibition profile was observed when using either natural or recombinant protein. At the T-cell level, rLol p 1 elicited a T-cell response in mice comparable to that observed with the natural protein. In addition, we demonstrated that the biological characteristics of rLol p 1 were comparable to those of the natural counterpart, in that rLol p 1 elicited a skin wheal reaction and induced basophil histamine release in grass-allergic patients only. The data indicate that natural Lol p 1 and rLol p 1 shared identical immunological and biological properties.

  5. Early hematological and immunological alterations in gasoline station attendants exposed to benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Angela M; Brucker, Natália; Charão, Mariele F; Sauer, Elisa; Freitas, Fernando; Durgante, Juliano; Bubols, Guilherme; Campanharo, Sarah; Linden, Rafael; Souza, Ana P; Bonorino, Cristina; Moresco, Rafael; Pilger, Diogo; Gioda, Adriana; Farsky, Sandra; Duschl, Albert; Garcia, Solange C

    2015-02-01

    Elucidation of effective biomarkers may provide tools for the early detection of biological alterations caused by benzene exposure and may contribute to the reduction of occupational diseases. This study aimed to assess early alterations on hematological and immunological systems of workers exposed to benzene. Sixty gasoline station attendants (GSA group) and 28 control subjects were evaluated. Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene exposure was performed in blood and urine. The potential effect biomarkers evaluated were δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity, CD80 and CD86 expression in lymphocytes and monocytes, and serum interleukin-8 (IL-8). The influence of confounding factors and toluene co-exposure were considered. Although exposures were below ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) limits, reduced ALA-D activity, decreased CD80 and CD86 expression in monocytes and increased IL-8 levels were found in the GSA group compared to the control subjects. Furthermore, according to multiple linear regression analysis, benzene exposure was associated to a decrease in CD80 and CD86 expression in monocytes. These findings suggest, for the first time, a potential effect of benzene exposure on ALA-D activity, CD80 and CD86 expression, IL-8 levels, which could be suggested as potential markers for the early detection of benzene-induced alterations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Allergenicity of bony and cartilaginous fish - molecular and immunological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J N; Sharp, M F; Ruethers, T; Taki, A; Campbell, D E; Lopata, A L

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to bony fish is common and probably increasing world-wide. The major heat-stable pan-fish allergen, parvalbumin (PV), has been identified and characterized for numerous fish species. In contrast, there are very few reports of allergic reactions to cartilaginous fish despite widespread consumption. The molecular basis for this seemingly low clinical cross-reactivity between these two fish groups has not been elucidated. PV consists of two distinct protein lineages, α and β. The α-lineage of this protein is predominant in muscle tissue of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), while β-PV is abundant in muscle tissue of bony fish (Osteichthyes). The low incidence of allergic reactions to ingested rays and sharks is likely due to the lack of molecular similarity, resulting in reduced immunological cross-reactivity between the two PV lineages. Structurally and physiologically, both protein lineages are very similar; however, the amino acid homology is very low with 47-54%. Furthermore, PV from ancient fish species such as the coelacanth demonstrates 62% sequence homology to leopard shark α-PV and 70% to carp β-PV. This indicates the extent of conservation of the PV isoforms lineages across millennia. This review highlights prevalence data on fish allergy and sensitization to fish, and details the molecular diversity of the two protein lineages of the major fish allergen PV among different fish groups, emphasizing the immunological and clinical differences in allergenicity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Assessment of immunological properties of neurofilament triplet proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, W W; Lee, V; Wu, H L

    1981-12-07

    The relationship between mammalian neurofilament triplet proteins was studied immunologically using rabbit and guinea pig antibodies to bovine neurofilament triplet proteins. Neurofilament proteins were separated by preparative electrophoresis, each protein being isolated and re-electrophoresed to enhance purification. Antisera to 68,000 (P68), 150,000 (P150) and 200,000 (P200) dalton neurofilament proteins showed greatest activity with the corresponding protein immunogen but also revealed cross-reactivity with the other two neurofilament proteins when assessed by the ELISA method. The same antigenic inoculum elicited variable cross-reactivity, more in the guinea pig than in the rabbit. Rabbit antisera to P68 was specific in that it did not cross-react with P150 or P200. Rabbit antisera to P150 and to P200 were rendered specific by absorption with P200 and P150, respectively. By electron microscopy, isolated neurofilaments became decorated with an uniform coat of antibodies when exposed to specific antisera for each of the neurofilament proteins. By indirect immunofluorescence, each antisera showed identical patterns of tissue localization, corresponding to the distribution of neurofilaments in peripheral nerve, spinal ganglia, spinal cord, cerebellum and cerebrum. Neurofilament antigens were not detected in liver, kidney, spleen, lung, bladder, intestine, aorta, heart or tongue.

  8. The alterations of immunological reactivity in heroin addicts and their normalization in patients maintained on methadone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajícová, Alena; Wilczek, H.; Holáň, Vladimír

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2004), s. 24-28 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF6824; GA MZd NJ6632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : heroin , cytokines, proliferation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2004

  9. Immunological properties of gene vaccines delivered by different routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene vaccines represent a new and promising approach to control infectious diseases, inducing a protective immune response in the appropriate host. Several routes and methods of genetic immunization have been shown to induce antibody production as well as T helper (Th cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation. However, few studies have compared the nature of the immune responses generated by different gene vaccination delivery systems. In the present study we reviewed some aspects of immunity induced by gene immunization and compared the immune responses produced by intramuscular (im DNA injection to gene gun-mediated DNA transfer into the skin of BALB/c mice. Using a reporter gene coding for ß-galactosidase, we have demonstrated that im injection raised a predominantly Th1 response with mostly IgG2a anti-ßgal produced, while gene gun immunization induced a mixed Th1/Th2 profile with a balanced production of IgG2a and IgG1 subclasses. Distinct types of immune responses were generated by different methods of gene delivery. These findings have important implications for genetic vaccine design. Firstly, a combination between these two systems may create optimal conditions for the induction of a broad-based immune response. Alternatively, a particular gene vaccine delivery method might be used according to the immune response required for host protection. Here, we describe the characteristics of the immune response induced by gene vaccination and the properties of DNA involved in this process.

  10. Thermal remediation alters soil properties - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M; Khan, Eakalak; Wick, Abbey F

    2018-01-15

    Contaminated soils pose a risk to human and ecological health, and thermal remediation is an efficient and reliable way to reduce soil contaminant concentration in a range of situations. A primary benefit of thermal treatment is the speed at which remediation can occur, allowing the return of treated soils to a desired land use as quickly as possible. However, this treatment also alters many soil properties that affect the capacity of the soil to function. While extensive research addresses contaminant reduction, the range and magnitude of effects to soil properties have not been explored. Understanding the effects of thermal remediation on soil properties is vital to successful reclamation, as drastic effects may preclude certain post-treatment land uses. This review highlights thermal remediation studies that have quantified alterations to soil properties, and it supplements that information with laboratory heating studies to further elucidate the effects of thermal treatment of soil. Notably, both heating temperature and heating time affect i) soil organic matter; ii) soil texture and mineralogy; iii) soil pH; iv) plant available nutrients and heavy metals; v) soil biological communities; and iv) the ability of the soil to sustain vegetation. Broadly, increasing either temperature or time results in greater contaminant reduction efficiency, but it also causes more severe impacts to soil characteristics. Thus, project managers must balance the need for contaminant reduction with the deterioration of soil function for each specific remediation project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in Immunologic Factors Among Patients Presenting with Altered Mental Status During Cryptococcal Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Sarah; Hullsiek, Kathy H; Morawski, Bozena M; Nabeta, Henry W; Kiggundu, Reuben; Taseera, Kabanda; Musubire, Abdu; Schutz, Charlotte; Abassi, Mahsa; Bahr, Nathan C; Tugume, Lillian; Muzoora, Conrad; Williams, Darlisha A; Rolfes, Melissa A; Velamakanni, Sruti S; Rajasingham, Radha; Meintjes, Graeme; Rhein, Joshua; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2017-03-01

    Altered mental status in cryptococcal meningitis results in poorer survival, but underlying causes of altered mentation are poorly understood. Within two clinical trials, we assessed risk factors for altered mental status (GCS scorecryptococcal antigen titers (P = .042) and CCL2 (P = .005) but higher opening pressures (320 vs. 269 mm H2O; P = .016), IL-10 (P = .044), and CCL3 (P = .008) compared with persons with GCS=15. Altered mental status may be associated with host immune response rather than Cryptococcus burden. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Correlation between the estimated molecular weight and the immunological properties of 125I-TSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga, S.E.; Ciscato, V.A.; Barmasch, M.; Kurcbart, H.; Veira de Giacomini, S.; Altschuler, N.; Caro, R.A.

    1976-09-01

    Thyrotropic Stimulating Hormone (TSH) was radioiodinated by the Chloramine T method in order to be used in radioimmu-noassay procedures. It was purified by gel filtration and each fraction of the eluate was analyzed in order to determine which one had the most suitable behaviour for that use. The molecular weight of each fraction was estimated, as well as its immunological reactivity and its non-specific binding. The 125 I-TSH fraction with better properties was the closest to the molecular weight of the native hormone, which is found at the posterior shoulder of the main proteic peak of the elution pattern. (author) [es

  13. Gender-specific behavioral and immunological alterations in an animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tomasz; Roman, Adam; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Schneider, Karolina; Przewłocki, Ryszard

    2008-07-01

    Autism is a severe behavioral disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotyped behaviors, with a four times higher incidence in boys than in girls. The core symptoms are frequently accompanied by a spectrum of neurobehavioral and immunological derangements, including: aberrant sensitivity to sensory stimulation, anxiety, and decreased cellular immune capacity. Recently, a new potential rodent model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA rats) has been proposed. In order to determine if gender has an influence on alterations observed in VPA rats, male and female rats have been evaluated in a battery of behavioral, immunological, and endocrinological tests. A plethora of aberrations has been found in male VPA rats: lower sensitivity to pain, increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity, higher anxiety, decreased level of social interaction, increased basal level of corticosterone, decreased weight of the thymus, decreased splenocytes proliferative response to concanavaline A, lower IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio, and increased production of NO by peritoneal macrophages. Female VPA rats exhibited only increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and decreased IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio. Sexual dimorphism characteristics for measured parameters have been observed in both groups of animals, except social interaction in VPA rats. Our results confirm existence of similarities between the observed pattern of aberrations in VPA rats and features of disturbed behavior and immune function in autistic patients, and suggest that they are gender-specific, which is intriguing in light of disproportion in boys to girls ratio in autism.

  14. Study of 60 Co gamma radiation effects on the biochemical, biological and immunological properties of the Bothrops jararaca venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarnieri, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma radiation, by including different modifications on the toxic, enzymatic and immunological activities of proteins, could be an useful implement for detoxification of snake venoms. The present work was done to study the mechanism of action and effects of gamma rays on the Bothrops jararaca venom, determining the radiation dose that attenuates the toxic and enzymatic activities maintaining the immunological properties of venom, and also the most important free radicals on this process. The results of immuno diffusion, immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, immunization of mice and rabbits, and neutralization tests, showed the maintenance of antigenic and immunogenic properties and decrease of neutralizing capacity of antibodies induced by 3,000 and 4,000 Gy irradiated venom. Since the immunological properties were the most radioresistant, it was possible to determine the dose of 2,000 Gy, as the ideal radiation dose in the treatment of venoms aiming the improvement of the immunization schedule to obtain bothropic antisera. (author). 164 refs, 19 tabs, 54 figs

  15. Comparative Multi-Epitope-Ligand-Cartography reveals essential immunological alterations in Barrett's metaplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Uta; Philipsen, Lars; Bartsch, Sebastian; Hu, Yuqin; Röcken, Christoph; Bertram, Wiedenmann; Hämmerle, Marcus; Rösch, Thomas; Sturm, Andreas

    2010-07-06

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is caused by gastroesophageal reflux with consecutive mucosal inflammation, predisposing patients to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We investigated changes in T cell-related mucosal combinatorial molecular protein patterns in both diseases using the novel Multi-Epitope-Ligand-Cartography, a unique robotic whole-cell imaging technology that simultaneously visualizes dozens of proteins in structurally intact tissues and correlates cellular localization of proteins with function. Biopsies were taken during endoscopy from BE, EAC, and normal control tissue, and proteomic microscopy was performed on 32 different epitopes. When the significance level was set to p < 0.0005 and the search depth to five antibody combinations, controls and BE can be differentiated by 63, controls and EAC by 3222, and BE from EAC by 1521 distinct protein combinations.For example, the number of activated apoptotic naïve and memory T cells was significantly increased only in BE, whereas the number of activated apoptotic helper and regulatory T cells was significantly elevated in BE and EAC. In contrast, the number of activated apoptotic cytotoxic T cells was significantly elevated only in EAC. Confirming different pathways in BE and EAC, the number of T lymphocytes with p53 expression and downregulation of bcl2 expression (CD3+p53+Bcl2-NfkB-) was significantly increased in EAC compared to BE and controls. Interestingly, the number of precursor T cells (CD7+) was significantly elevated only in EAC. These cells lack Bax and caspase-8, suggesting impaired apoptosis in the early stages of T cell differentiation. Proteomic analysis showed for the first time that proteins, which are critically involved in the mucosal immune system of the esophagus, are distinctly expressed in BE and EAC, whereas others are comparably altered in both diseases, suggesting that many pathogenic events might be shared by both diseases. Topological proteomic analysis

  16. Biochemical and immunological alterations of 60 Co irradiated Bothrops jararacussu venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Patrick J.

    1995-01-01

    Proteins irradiation leads to structural alterations resulting in activity and function loss. This process has been useful to detoxify animal venoms and toxins, resulting in low toxicity products which increased immunogenicity. The Bothrops jararacussu venom behaves as a weak immunogen and its lethal activity in not neutralized by either autologous, heterologous or bothropic polyvalent antisera. This venom is markedly myotoxic and and the commercial bothropic antiserum does not neutralize this activity, because of this low immunogenicity of the myotoxins. This present work was done in order to evaluate the possibility of irradiating Bothrops jararacussu, intending to increase the immunogenicity of the myotoxic components, leading to productions of myotoxins neutralizing antibodies. Bothrops jararacussu venom samples were irradiated with 500, 1000 and 2000 Gy of 60 Co gamma rays. A 2.3 folds decrease of toxicity was observed for the 1000 Gy irradiated samples while the 2000 Gy irradiated sample was at least 3.7 folds attenuated. On the other hand, the 500 Gy did not promote any detoxification. Electrophoresis and HPLC data indicate that the irradiation lead to the formation of high molecular weight products (aggregates). The proteolytic and phospholipasic activities decreased in a dose dependent manner, the phospholipases being more resistant than the proteases. Both the animals (rabbit) immunized with either native or 2000 Gy irradiated venom produced native venom binding antibodies, a slightly higher titer being obtained in the serum of the rabbit immunized with the irradiated samples. Western blot data indicate that the anti-irradiated venom Ig Gs recognised a greater amount of either autologous or heterologous venom bands, both sera behaving as genus specific. The anti-native serum did not neutralize the myotoxic activity of native venom, while the anti-irradiated one was able to neutralize this activity. (author)

  17. Epigenetic Regulation of Immunological Alterations Following Prenatal Exposure to Marijuana Cannabinoids and its Long Term Consequences in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbrun, Elizabeth E.; Sido, Jessica M.; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2015-01-01

    Use of marijuana during pregnancy is fairly commonplace and can be expected increase in frequency as more states legalize its recreational use. The cannabinoids present in marijuana have been shown to be immunosuppressive, yet the effect of prenatal exposure to cannabinoids on the immune system of the developing fetus, its long term consequences during adult stage of life, and transgenerational effects have not been well characterized. Confounding factors such as coexisting drug use make the impact of cannabis use on progeny inherently difficult to study in a human population. Data from various animal models suggests that in utero exposure to cannabinoids results in profound T cell dysfunction and a greatly reduced immune response to viral antigens. Furthermore, evidence from animal studies indicates that the immunosuppressive effects of cannabinoids can be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms such as altered microRNA, DNA methylation and histone modification profiles. Such studies support the hypothesis that that parental or prenatal exposure to cannabis can trigger epigenetic changes that could have significant immunological consequences for offspring as well as long term transgenerational effects. PMID:25618446

  18. Influence of gamma radiation on the immunological and immunochemical properties of cholera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedugova, G.I.; Rubtsov, I.V.; Samojlenko, I.I.

    1984-01-01

    Results of studying the effect of gamma-radiation on immunochemical properties and serologic activity of unpurified cholera exotoxin are presented. It is found that in irradiated toxin preparations physico-chemical alterations take place as the dose of ionizing radiation increases, which brings about the increase in electrophoretic mobility, aggregation of protein components. It is shown that serologic activity contained in antigene toxin preparations retains within the limits of radiation doses studied

  19. The Effect of UV-C Pasteurization on Bacteriostatic Properties and Immunological Proteins of Donor Human Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk possesses bacteriostatic properties, largely due to the presence of immunological proteins. Heat treatments such as Holder pasteurization reduce the concentration of immunological proteins in human milk and consequently increase the bacterial growth rate. This study investigated the bacterial growth rate and the immunological protein concentration of ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiated, Holder pasteurized and untreated human milk. Methods Samples (n=10) of untreated, Holder pasteurized and UV-C irradiated human milk were inoculated with E. coli and S. aureus and the growth rate over 2 hours incubation time at 37°C was observed. Additionally, the concentration of sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme of untreated and treated human milk was analyzed. Results The bacterial growth rate of untreated and UV-C irradiated human milk was not significantly different. The bacterial growth rate of Holder pasteurized human milk was double compared to untreated human milk (phuman milk preserves significantly higher levels of immunological proteins than Holder pasteurization, resulting in bacteriostatic properties similar to those of untreated human milk. PMID:24376898

  20. Immunological and pathogenic properties of poliovirus variants selected for resistance to antiviral drug V-073.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouiavskaia, Diana V; Dragunsky, Eugenia M; Liu, Hong-Mei; Oberste, M Steven; Collett, Marc S; Chumakov, Konstantin M

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council has recommended development of polio antiviral drugs to assist in management of outbreaks and to mitigate adverse consequences of vaccination. V-073 is a small molecule poliovirus capsid inhibitor that is being developed for these purposes. Antiviral use raises the potential of treatment-emergent resistance. Understanding virological consequences of resistance is important. Six independent laboratory-derived V-073-resistant poliovirus variants were characterized for their ability to be neutralized by conventional vaccine-induced immune sera, to elicit serum neutralizing antibodies upon CD-1 mouse immunization, and to replicate in and to cause paralysis of TgPVR21 mice. V-073-resistant variants were effectively neutralized by oral poliovirus vaccine and inactivated poliovirus vaccine human immune sera. All variants elicited virus neutralizing antibody titres in CD-1 mice that were comparable to drug-susceptible parental and Sabin vaccine strain viruses. Infection efficiency of TgPVR21 mice by variants was comparable to (1 of 6 variants) or considerably lower than (5 of 6 variants) parental viruses. Drug-resistant variants replicated to levels comparable to (1 of 6 variants) or substantially less than (5 of 6 variants) their drug-susceptible parental viruses and were on average 1.4 log(10) (range 0.3 to >2.8 log₁₀) less neurovirulent. Laboratory-derived V-073-resistant variants exhibit clear attenuation of pathogenic properties while maintaining immunological features of drug-susceptible viruses.

  1. Altering graphene line defect properties using chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Smitha; White, Carter; Gunlycke, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    First-principles calculations are presented of a fundamental topological line defect in graphene that was observed and reported in Nature Nanotech. 5, 326 (2010). These calculations show that atoms and smaller molecules can bind covalently to the surface in the vicinity of the graphene line defect. It is also shown that the chemistry at the line defect has a strong effect on its electronic and magnetic properties, e.g. the ferromagnetically aligned moments along the line defect can be quenched by some adsorbates. The strong effect of the adsorbates on the line defect properties can be understood by examining how these adsorbates affect the boundary-localized states in the vicinity of the Fermi level. We also expect that the line defect chemistry will significantly affect the scattering properties of incident low-energy particles approaching it from graphene.

  2. Antibiotic treatment of pregnant non-obese diabetic mice leads to altered gut microbiota and intestinal immunological changes in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormo-Badia, N; Håkansson, Å; Vasudevan, K; Molin, G; Ahrné, S; Cilio, C M

    2014-10-01

    The intestinal microbiota is important for tolerance induction through mucosal immunological responses. The composition of the gut microbiota of an infant is affected by environmental factors such as diet, disease and antibiotic treatment. However, already in utero, these environmental factors can affect the immunological development of the foetus and influence the future gut microbiota of the infant. To investigate the effects of antibiotic treatment of pregnant mothers on the offspring's gut microbiome and diabetes development, we treated non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with a cocktail of antibiotics during gestation and the composition of the gut microbiota, diabetes incidence and major gut-related T lymphocyte populations were investigated in the offspring. We observed a persistent reduction in the general diversity of the gut microbiota in the offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation compared with offspring from control mothers. In addition, by clustering the present bacterial taxa with principal component analysis, we found a differential clustering of gut microbiota in the offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation compared with offspring from control mothers. Offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation also showed some immunological alterations in the gut immune system, which could be related to the diversity of the gut microbiome and influence modulation of diabetes development at 20 weeks. Our data point out maternal derangement of the intestinal microbiota as a potential environmental risk factor for T1D development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Electrophoretic and immunological properties of folate-binding protein isolated from bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Kazuo; Tani, Masako; Fushiki, Tohru

    1983-01-01

    Changes of the folate-binding protein (FBP) concentration in bovine milk after parturition were investigated. The FBP was highly purified from mature milk by affinity chromatography. The purified FBP showed a single protein band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was immunologically homogenous in double immunodiffusion. However, in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the FBP was separated into several spots in isoelectric focusing in the first dimension, and each spot also showed two molecular weights in SDS-gel electrophoresis in the second dimension. But these FBP molecules were immunologically identical with each other. The neuraminidase treatment obviously diminished the number of isoelectric points of the FBP. Thus, the variety of FBP molecules was at least partially due to the variability of the sialic acid content in the carbohydrate moieties. Moreover, the milk FBP showed species-specificity among mammals immunologically as well as physicochemically. (author)

  4. Immunological properties of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase of normal human liver and of GM2-gangliosidosis liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M.; Robinson, D.

    1973-01-01

    Antisera were raised to a partially purified preparation of human liver hexosaminidase and to highly purified preparations of hexosaminidase isoenzymes A and B. All the antisera precipitated the enzyme in an enzymically active form, which could be located on immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoretic gels by using a histochemical substrate. The antisera to the purified isoenzymes were shown to react with hexosaminidase from human liver, kidney, brain and spleen, but did not cross-react with human liver β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, α-mannosidase, β-xylosidase, arylsulphatase or acid phosphatase. Hexosaminidases A and B were immunologically identical. The immunological properties of the hexosaminidases from livers of patients with three types of GM2-gangliosidoses were closely similar. No evidence could be found for cross-reacting material in enzyme-deficient states. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4198585

  5. Synthesis, biological, immunological and anticancer properties of a new brassinosteroid ligand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swaczynová, Jana; Šíša, Miroslav; Hniličková, Jaroslava; Kohout, Ladislav; Strnad, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 4 (2006), s. 629-635 ISSN 0137-5083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5038351 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Brassinosteroids * phytohormones * antibodies * structure-activity relationship Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2006

  6. Altered Circulating Levels of Serotonin and Immunological Changes in Laying Hens Divergently Selected for Feather Pecking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Kjaer, Jørgen B.; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in immunological parameters as well as changes with respect to plasma levels of serotonin and tryptophan in lines selected for and against feather pecking (FP) behavior [high FP (HP) line and low FP (LP) line] for 5 generations. The hens from...... compared with the control and HP lines. Selection for or against FP, therefore, changes the number of white blood cells and the expression of MHC class I molecules on T and B cells, which may influence the health status of the birds...

  7. Harnessing the properties of dendritic cells in the pursuit of immunological tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Horton

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of self-perpetuating, immunological tolerance specific for graft alloantigens has long been described as the “holy grail” of clinical transplantation. By removing the need for life-long immunosuppression following engraftment, the adverse consequences of immunosuppressive regimens, including chronic infections and malignancy, may be avoided. Furthermore, autoimmune diseases and allergy are, by definition, driven by aberrant immunological responses to ordinarily innocuous antigens. The re-establishment of permanent tolerance towards instigating antigens may, therefore, provide a cure to these common diseases. Whilst various cell types exhibiting a tolerogenic phenotype have been proposed for such a task, tolerogenic dendritic cells (tol-DCs are exquisitely adapted for antigen presentation and interact with many facets of the immune system: as such, they are attractive candidates for use in strategies for immune intervention. We review here our current understanding of tol-DC mediated induction and maintenance of immunological tolerance. Additionally, we discuss recent in vitro findings from animal models and clinical trials of tol-DC immunotherapy in the setting of transplantation, autoimmunity and allergy which highlight their promising therapeutic potential, and speculate how tol-DC therapy may be developed in the future.

  8. Immunological reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Materials on comparative characteristics of state of some immunological parameters under the effect of toxic radioactive and non-radioactive chemical substances on organism of experimental animas as well as data on possible role of disclosed immunological changes are presented. Data on the possible role of immunological mechanisms in shortening life span and distortions of reproduction function are given

  9. Continuous-time random walks that alter environmental transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, C; Henry, B I

    2011-12-01

    We consider continuous-time random walks (CTRWs) in which the walkers have a finite probability to alter the waiting-time and/or step-length transport properties of their environment, resulting in possibly transient anomalous diffusion. We refer to these CTRWs as transmogrifying continuous-time random walks (TCTRWs) to emphasize that they change the form of the transport properties of their environment, and in a possibly strange way. The particular case in which the CTRW waiting-time density has a finite probability to be permanently altered at a given site, following a visitation by a walker, is considered in detail. Master equations for the probability density function of transmogrifying random walkers are derived, and results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. An interesting finding is that TCTRWs can generate transient subdiffusion or transient superdiffusion without invoking truncated or tempered power law densities for either the waiting times or the step lengths. The transient subdiffusion or transient superdiffusion arises in TCTRWs with Gaussian step-length densities and exponential waiting-time densities when the altered average waiting time is greater than or less than, respectively, the original average waiting time.

  10. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  11. Blood: Tests Used to Assess the Physiological and Immunological Properties of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. G.; Tansey, E. A.; Johnson, C. D.; Roe, S. M.; Montgomery, L. E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of blood and the relative ease of access to which it can be retrieved make it an ideal source to gauge different aspects of homeostasis within an individual, form an accurate diagnosis, and formulate an appropriate treatment regime. Tests used to determine blood parameters such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin…

  12. Targeting dendritic cells through gold nanoparticles: A review on the cellular uptake and subsequent immunological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Suhana; Zamry, Anes Ateqah; Tan, Hern-Tze Tina; Wong, Kah Keng; Lim, JitKang; Mohamud, Rohimah

    2017-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been proposed as a highly potential tool in immunotherapies due to its advantageous properties including customizable size and shapes, surface functionality and biocompatibility. Dendritic cells (DCs), the sentinels of immune response, have been of interest to be manipulated by using gold NPs for targeted delivery of immunotherapeutic agent. Researches done especially in human DCs showed a variation of gold NPs effects on cellular uptake and internalization, DC maturation and subsequent T cells priming as well as cytotoxicity. In this review, we describe the synthesis and physiochemical properties of gold NPs as well as the importance of gold NPs in immunotherapies through their actions on human DCs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypoxia alters the physical properties of the tumor microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkes, Daniele

    Of all the deaths attributed to cancer, 90% are due to metastasis, or the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant organs, and treatments that prevent or cure metastasis remain elusive. Emerging data indicate that low oxygen states within a tumor, termed hypoxia, can alter the chemical and physical parameters of the extracellular matrix (ECM), or scaffold of the tumor tissue. These changes generate a microenvironment that may be more conducive for promoting metastasis. During tumor evolution, changes in the composition and the overall content of the ECM reflect both its biophysical and biological properties and these strongly influence the cells properties, such as cellular proliferation and cell motility. The talk will cover how hypoxia arises within normal tissue and also in tumors. We will cover the role of hypoxia in collagen biogenesis which influences compositional changes to the tumor microenvironment and discuss how these changes lead to a stiffer tumor stroma. The challenges in determining the influence of chemical versus physical cues on cancer progression will also be considered.

  14. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  15. Chromophore Deprotonation State Alters the Optical Properties of Blue Chromoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Chromoproteins (CPs have unique colors and can be used in biological applications. In this work, a novel blue CP with a maximum absorption peak (λmax at 608 nm was identified from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla gigantea (sgBP. In vivo expression of sgBP in zebrafish would change the appearance of the fishes to have a blue color, indicating the potential biomarker function. To enhance the color properties, the crystal structure of sgBP at 2.25 Å resolution was determined to allow structure-based protein engineering. Among the mutations conducted in the Gln-Tyr-Gly chromophore and chromophore environment, a S157C mutation shifted the λmax to 604 nm with an extinction coefficient (ε of 58,029 M-1·cm-1 and darkened the blue color expression. The S157C mutation in the sgBP chromophore environment could affect the color expression by altering the deprotonation state of the phenolic group in the chromophore. Our results provide a structural basis for the blue color enhancement of the biomarker development.

  16. Reproductive immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2013-01-01

    pathological pregnancy are suggested to predispose to adaptive immunological processes against alloantigens on the trophoblast that may further increase the risk of pathological pregnancy outcome. The best documented adaptive immune reaction against fetal alloantigens is directed against male-specific minor...

  17. Immunology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; Baron, P.A.; Drake, G.A.; LaBauve, P.M.; London, J.E.; Wilson, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The following studies were conducted in the field of immunology; a model system to determine toxic effects on the immune system using 3 H-uridine uptake by Feells of rats; and survival in lethally irradiatd mice receiving allogenic fetal liver and thymus

  18. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  19. Alterations of red cell membrane properties in neuroacanthocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Siegl

    Full Text Available Neuroacanthocytosis (NA refers to a group of heterogenous, rare genetic disorders, namely chorea acanthocytosis (ChAc, McLeod syndrome (MLS, Huntington's disease-like 2 (HDL2 and pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration (PKAN, that mainly affect the basal ganglia and are associated with similar neurological symptoms. PKAN is also assigned to a group of rare neurodegenerative diseases, known as NBIA (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, associated with iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and progressive movement disorder. Acanthocytosis, the occurrence of misshaped erythrocytes with thorny protrusions, is frequently observed in ChAc and MLS patients but less prevalent in PKAN (about 10% and HDL2 patients. The pathological factors that lead to the formation of the acanthocytic red blood cell shape are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether NA/NBIA acanthocytes differ in their functionality from normal erythrocytes. Several flow-cytometry-based assays were applied to test the physiological responses of the plasma membrane, namely drug-induced endocytosis, phosphatidylserine exposure and calcium uptake upon treatment with lysophosphatidic acid. ChAc red cell samples clearly showed a reduced response in drug-induced endovesiculation, lysophosphatidic acid-induced phosphatidylserine exposure, and calcium uptake. Impaired responses were also observed in acanthocyte-positive NBIA (PKAN red cells but not in patient cells without shape abnormalities. These data suggest an "acanthocytic state" of the red cell where alterations in functional and interdependent membrane properties arise together with an acanthocytic cell shape. Further elucidation of the aberrant molecular mechanisms that cause this acanthocytic state may possibly help to evaluate the pathological pathways leading to neurodegeneration.

  20. Altered plasma fibrin clot properties in essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, Rafał; Gacka, Małgorzata; Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, Małgorzata; Jakobsche-Policht, Urszula; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Adamiec, Rajmund; Undas, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    Patients with increased thromboembolic risk tend to form denser fibrin clots which are relatively resistant to lysis. We sought to investigate whether essential thrombocythemia (ET) is associated with altered fibrin clot properties in plasma. Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot permeability coefficient (Ks), turbidimetry and clot lysis time (CLT) were measured in 43 consecutive patients with ET (platelet count from 245 to 991 × 10(3)/µL) and 50 control subjects matched for age, sex and comorbidities. Fibrinolysis proteins and inhibitors together with platelet activation markers were determined. Reduced Ks (-38%, p < 0.0001) and prolonged CLT (+34%, p < 0.0001) were observed in ET. The differences remained significant after adjustment for fibrinogen and platelet count. ET was associated with a slightly shorter lag phase (-5%, p = 0.01) and higher maximum absorbency of the turbidimetric curve (+6%, p < 0.001). The ET patients had higher plasma P-selectin by 193% (p < 0.00001) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) by 173% (p < 0.00001), with higher P-selectin observed in 19 (44%) patients with JAK-2 gene V617F mutation. Higher t-PA (+20%, p < 0.001), 23% higher plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, PAI-1 (+23%, p < 0.01) and unaltered thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, plasminogen and α2-antiplasmin activity were found in the ET group. Ks inversely correlated with fibrinogen, PF4 and C-reactive protein. CLT positively correlated only with PAI-1. Patients with ET display prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype including impaired fibrinolysis, which represents a new prothrombotic mechanism in this disease.

  1. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  2. Influence of gamma radiation on the immunological and immunochemical properties of cholera. Comm. 3. Serological activity and immunochemical properties of irradiated nonpurified toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedugova, G.I.; Rubtsov, I.V.; Samojlenko, I.I. (Ministerstvo Zdravookhraneniya SSSR, Moscow. Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Ehpidemiologii)

    1984-06-01

    Results of studying the effect of gamma-radiation on immunochemical properties and serologic activity of unpurified cholera exotoxin are presented. It is found that in irradiated toxin preparations physico-chemical alterations take place as the dose of ionizing radiation increases, which brings about the increase in electrophoretic mobility, aggregation of protein components. It is shown that serologic activity contained in antigene toxin preparations retains within the limits of radiation doses studied.

  3. On alterations in the refractive index and scattering properties of biological tissue caused by histological processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Htet; DeAngelo, Bianca; Soldano, John; Kostyk, Piotr; Rodriguez, Braulio; Xu, M.

    2013-02-01

    Clinical tissue processing such as formalin fixing, paraffin-embedding and histological staining alters significantly the optical properties of the tissue. We document the alterations in the optical properties of prostate cancer tissue specimens in the 500nm to 700nm spectral range caused by histological processing with quantitative differential interference contrast (qDIC) microscopy. A simple model to explain these alterations is presented at the end.

  4. A review on tumor immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lalitha Kaja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of immune system to detect and destroy the altered/abnormal cells may inhibit the development of various cancers. The immune system had been proposed as a tactic in sustaining nonneoplastic state and also for the development of immunotherapy against cancer. Although the immune system exerts a protective role, under certain circumstances, it could be damaging in terms of modulating the oncogenic process. The failure of host's immunological responses against tumor growth and dissemination implicated that both immunologic and nonimmunologic factors may work together to affect tumorigenesis. Hence, understanding the aspects pertaining to tumor immunology which deals with the complex interactions between the host's immune system and neoplasm is essential. The current review focuses on the aspects concerned with tumor immunology, steps involved, and cancer immunotherapy as a probable therapeutic tool.

  5. ALTERATION OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BLOOD AT PATIENTS WITH TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Zaitseva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex research of rheological properties of blood at patients with lacunar tonsillitis lead depending on the period of disease. It is shown, that inflammatory process at patients to a great extent defines disturbances of rheological properties of blood. During normalization of a clinical presentation of disease there is no full recovery of rheological properties of blood due to preservation of blood raised viscosity and low deformability of erythrocytes membranes.

  6. Autoantibody profile and other immunological parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An autoimmune cause and related immunological alterations resulting in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) have been suggested in patients with unknown etiology. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated the autoantibody profile and other immunological parameters among RSA patients and normal ...

  7. Unwanted Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Supotnytskyi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the role of antigenic imprin­ting phenomena and antibody-dependent enhancement of infection in epidemic, infectious and postvaccinal processes. Based on published experimental data, it is shown that both phenomena are directly related to the laws of development and course of epide­mics, the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and safe use of vaccines. Their ignoring by researchers has led to failures in the design of vaccines against HIV/AIDS, dengue fever, influenza, malaria, hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis. These data show that, without taking into account the two phenomena, the further development of immunology and epidemiology in the direction of breakthrough discoveries in there areas of science are impossible.

  8. Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz eGuellich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal muscle dystrophies and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function.

  9. Elevation alters ecosystem properties across temperate treelines globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Jordan R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Classen, Aimée T.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Clément, Jean-Christophe; Fajardo, Alex; Lavorel, Sandra; Sundqvist, Maja K.; Bahn, Michael; Chisholm, Chelsea; Cieraad, Ellen; Gedalof, Ze'Ev; Grigulis, Karl; Kudo, Gaku; Oberski, Daniel L.; Wardle, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is a primary driver of the distribution of biodiversity as well as of ecosystem boundaries. Declining temperature with increasing elevation in montane systems has long been recognized as a major factor shaping plant community biodiversity, metabolic processes, and ecosystem dynamics. Elevational gradients, as thermoclines, also enable prediction of long-term ecological responses to climate warming. One of the most striking manifestations of increasing elevation is the abrupt transitions from forest to treeless alpine tundra. However, whether there are globally consistent above- and belowground responses to these transitions remains an open question. To disentangle the direct and indirect effects of temperature on ecosystem properties, here we evaluate replicate treeline ecotones in seven temperate regions of the world. We find that declining temperatures with increasing elevation did not affect tree leaf nutrient concentrations, but did reduce ground-layer community-weighted plant nitrogen, leading to the strong stoichiometric convergence of ground-layer plant community nitrogen to phosphorus ratios across all regions. Further, elevation-driven changes in plant nutrients were associated with changes in soil organic matter content and quality (carbon to nitrogen ratios) and microbial properties. Combined, our identification of direct and indirect temperature controls over plant communities and soil properties in seven contrasting regions suggests that future warming may disrupt the functional properties of montane ecosystems, particularly where plant community reorganization outpaces treeline advance.

  10. Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh L. Thangapazham

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices.

  11. Alterations in diffusion properties of white matter in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlinghaus, Lori R; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Dykens, Elisabeth M; Anderson, Adam W

    2011-11-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to investigate the involvement of brain white matter in Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder. Whole-brain DTIs were obtained from 16 young adults with WS and 16 normal controls. A voxel-based analysis was performed to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) values between the two groups. A tract-based analysis was also performed to compare FA values between the two groups along two major white matter tracts that pass through the external capsule: the uncinate and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi. Several regions of both increased and decreased FA were found within major white matter tracts that connect functional regions that have previously been implicated in the cognitive and neurological symptoms of the syndrome. The tract-based analysis provided additional insight into the involvement of specific white matter tracts implicated in the voxel-based analysis within the external capsule. The results from this study support previously reported changes in white matter diffusion properties in WS and demonstrate the potential usefulness for tract-based analysis in future studies of the disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Virtual Immunology: Software for Teaching Basic Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berçot, Filipe Faria; Fidalgo-Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thais; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2013-01-01

    As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching-learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces "Virtual Immunology," a software program available…

  13. Allergy-immunology glossary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahmed

    Allergy-immunology glossary. Zeinab A. El-Sayed, Nesrine Radwan. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Unit, Children's Hospital, Ain-Shams University. Towards a clear designation of some of the terms used in allergology and immunology. Natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells account for up to 15% of peripheral blood.

  14. Fcγ1 fragment of IgG1 as a powerful affinity tag in recombinant Fc-fusion proteins: immunological, biochemical and therapeutic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanpour, Saman; Hassannia, Tahereh; Motiee, Mahdieh; Amini, Abbas Ali; Rezaee, S A R

    2017-05-01

    Affinity tags are vital tools for the production of high-throughput recombinant proteins. Several affinity tags, such as the hexahistidine tag, maltose-binding protein, streptavidin-binding peptide tag, calmodulin-binding peptide, c-Myc tag, glutathione S-transferase and FLAG tag, have been introduced for recombinant protein production. The fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain of the IgG1 antibody is one of the useful affinity tags that can facilitate detection, purification and localization of proteins and can improve the immunogenicity, modulatory effects, physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties of proteins. Fcγ recombinant forms a group of recombinant proteins called Fc-fusion proteins (FFPs). FFPs are widely used in drug discovery, drug delivery, vaccine design and experimental research on receptor-ligand interactions. These fusion proteins have become successful alternatives to monoclonal antibodies for drug developments. In this review, the physicochemical, biochemical, immunological, pharmaceutical and therapeutic properties of recombinant FFPs were discussed as a new generation of bioengineering strategies.

  15. Immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija

    2014-12-01

    This review aims to recap recent published data on immunological mechanisms underlying sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Although several alternative noninvasive allergen application strategies have been investigated in allergen-specific immunotherapy, local intraoral allergen application to sublingual mucosa has been proven to be safe and effective. To date, SLIT is widely accepted by most allergists, especially in Europe as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Within the recent decades, much scientific effort focused on local and systemic immunological responses to SLIT in mice as well as humans. Among these studies, several investigated detailed mechanisms following allergen application to the oral mucosa as part of the sophisticated mucosal immunological network in which the protolerogenic character of local antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells play a central role. Moreover, immune responses to SLIT have also been studied in nasal and bronchial mucosa as well as on the systemic T cell immune alterations. Altogether, exiting data have been published providing a better understanding of immunological features of SLIT but far more basic research is necessary to further uncover key mechanisms of SLIT.

  16. Biochemical and immunological alterations of {sup 60} Co irradiated Bothrops jararacussu venom; Alteracoes bioquimicas e imunologicas do veneno de Bothrops jararacussu irradiado com {sup 60} Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Patrick J.

    1995-12-31

    Proteins irradiation leads to structural alterations resulting in activity and function loss. This process has been useful to detoxify animal venoms and toxins, resulting in low toxicity products which increased immunogenicity. The Bothrops jararacussu venom behaves as a weak immunogen and its lethal activity in not neutralized by either autologous, heterologous or bothropic polyvalent antisera. This venom is markedly myotoxic and and the commercial bothropic antiserum does not neutralize this activity, because of this low immunogenicity of the myotoxins. This present work was done in order to evaluate the possibility of irradiating Bothrops jararacussu, intending to increase the immunogenicity of the myotoxic components, leading to productions of myotoxins neutralizing antibodies. Bothrops jararacussu venom samples were irradiated with 500, 1000 and 2000 Gy of {sup 60} Co gamma rays. A 2.3 folds decrease of toxicity was observed for the 1000 Gy irradiated samples while the 2000 Gy irradiated sample was at least 3.7 folds attenuated. On the other hand, the 500 Gy did not promote any detoxification. Electrophoresis and HPLC data indicate that the irradiation lead to the formation of high molecular weight products (aggregates). The proteolytic and phospholipasic activities decreased in a dose dependent manner, the phospholipases being more resistant than the proteases. Both the animals (rabbit) immunized with either native or 2000 Gy irradiated venom produced native venom binding antibodies, a slightly higher titer being obtained in the serum of the rabbit immunized with the irradiated samples. Western blot data indicate that the anti-irradiated venom Ig Gs recognised a greater amount of either autologous or heterologous venom bands, both sera behaving as genus specific. The anti-native serum did not neutralize the myotoxic activity of native venom, while the anti-irradiated one was able to neutralize this activity. (author). 56 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Latex proteins from Calotropis procera: Toxicity and immunological tolerance revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Camila F; Mota, Érika F; Silva, Ana Claudia M; Tomé, Adriana R; Silva, Maria Z R; de Brito, Daniel; Porfírio, Camila T M N; Oliveira, Ariclécio C; Lima-Filho, José V; Ramos, Márcio V

    2017-08-25

    Many thousands of plants are disseminated worldwide in traditional and folk medicines based on the belief that their leaves, roots, seeds, bark or secretions, when adequately handled, can treat, alleviate or ameliorate numerous disease symptoms. Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) is a popular medicinal plant and the claims of this shrub's phytomedicinal properties have been scientifically validated. In this study, further prospects towards the in vivo toxicity and oral immunological tolerance of phytomodulatory proteins isolated from the latex of C. procera are reported. Acute toxicity was determined in mice by oral and intraperitoneal administration of latex proteins (LP) and was followed behavioral, hematological and histological analyses. Oral immunological tolerance to LP was assessed by intraperitoneal immunization in mice that had received LP orally before. Animals given 5000 mg/kg orally exhibited only discrete behavioral alterations and augmentation of monocytes. Death was not notified 14 days after exposure. However, all animals receiving LP 150 mg/kg by i.p. died in 1 h. Death (20%) was documented when LP (75 mg/kg) was given in the peritoneum and signs of harmful effects were observed in the survivors (80%). Oral immunological tolerance was observed in animals previously given LP orally, when they were further immunized/challenged with peritoneal exposure to different doses of LP. This was confirmed by the lowering of IgE and IgG in the serum, IL-4 and IFN-γ in spleen homogenates and the absence of anaphylaxis signs. It is therefore concluded that LP exhibited quite discrete adverse effects when orally administrated at higher concentrations and this route of administration did not stimulate adverse immunological reactions. Instead it was observed immunological tolerance. The present study contributes very important information concerning the safe use of C. procera as a phytotherapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The effect of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) deficient poplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özparpucu, Merve; Gierlinger, Notburga; Burgert, Ingo; Van Acker, Rebecca; Vanholme, Ruben; Boerjan, Wout; Pilate, Gilles; Déjardin, Annabelle; Rüggeberg, Markus

    2018-04-01

    CAD-deficient poplars enabled studying the influence of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties. Severe alterations in lignin composition did not influence the mechanical properties. Wood represents a hierarchical fiber-composite material with excellent mechanical properties. Despite its wide use and versatility, its mechanical behavior has not been entirely understood. It has especially been challenging to unravel the mechanical function of the cell wall matrix. Lignin engineering has been a useful tool to increase the knowledge on the mechanical function of lignin as it allows for modifications of lignin content and composition and the subsequent studying of the mechanical properties of these transgenics. Hereby, in most cases, both lignin composition and content are altered and the specific influence of lignin composition has hardly been revealed. Here, we have performed a comprehensive micromechanical, structural, and spectroscopic analysis on xylem strips of transgenic poplar plants, which are downregulated for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach. All parameters were evaluated on the same samples. Raman microscopy revealed that the lignin of the hpCAD poplars was significantly enriched in aldehydes and reduced in the (relative) amount of G-units. FTIR spectra indicated pronounced changes in lignin composition, whereas lignin content was not significantly changed between WT and the hpCAD poplars. Microfibril angles were in the range of 18°-24° and were not significantly different between WT and transgenics. No significant changes were observed in mechanical properties, such as tensile stiffness, ultimate stress, and yield stress. The specific findings on hpCAD poplar allowed studying the specific influence of lignin composition on mechanics. It can be concluded that the changes in lignin composition in hpCAD poplars did not affect the micromechanical tensile properties.

  19. The interplay between surfaces and soluble factors define the immunologic and angiogenic properties of myeloid dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansfield Kristen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs are antigen presenting cells capable of inducing specific immune responses against microbial infections, transplant antigens, or tumors. Interestingly, microenvironment conditions such as those present in tumor settings might induce a DC phenotype that is poorly immunogenic and with the capability of promoting angiogenesis. We hypothesize that this plasticity may be caused not only by the action of specific cytokines or growth factors but also by the properties of the surfaces with which they interact, such as extracellular matrix (ECM components. Results Herewith we studied the effect of different surfaces and soluble factors on the biology of DCs. To accomplish this, we cultured murine myeloid(m DCs on surfaces coated with fibronectin, collagen I, gelatin, and Matrigel using poly-D-lysine and polystyrene as non-biological surfaces. Further, we cultured these cells in the presence of regular DC medium (RPMI 10% FBS or commercially available endothelial medium (EGM-2. We determined that mDCs could be kept in culture up to 3 weeks in these conditions, but only in the presence of GM-CSF. We were able to determine that long-term DC cultures produce an array of angiogenic factors, and that some of these cultures still retain the capability to induce T cell responses. Conclusions Altogether these data indicate that in order to design DC-based vaccines or treatments focused on changing the phenotype of DCs associated with diseases such as cancer or atherosclerosis, it becomes necessary to fully investigate the microenvironment in which these cells are present or will be delivered.

  20. Historical overview of immunological tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ronald H

    2012-04-01

    A fundamental property of the immune system is its ability to mediate self-defense with a minimal amount of collateral damage to the host. The system uses several different mechanisms to achieve this goal, which is collectively referred to as the "process of immunological tolerance." This article provides an introductory historical overview to these various mechanisms, which are discussed in greater detail throughout this collection, and then briefly describes what happens when this process fails, a state referred to as "autoimmunity."

  1. Adhesion defective BHK cell mutant has cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan of altered properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Austria, R; Woods, A

    1988-01-01

    In the light of accumulating data that implicate cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) with a role in cell interactions with extracellular matrix molecules such as fibronectin, we have compared the properties of these molecules in wild-type BHK cells and an adhesion-defective ricin......-resistant mutant (RicR14). Our results showed that the mutant, unlike BHK cells, cannot form focal adhesions when adherent to planar substrates in the presence of serum. Furthermore, while both cell lines possess similar amounts of cell surface HSPG with hydrophobic properties, that of RicR14 cells had decreased...... sulfation, reduced affinity for fibronectin and decreased half-life on the cell surface when compared to the normal counterpart. Our conclusions based on this data are that these altered properties may, in part, account for the adhesion defect in the ricin-resistant mutant. Whether this results from...

  2. Altered network properties of the fronto-parietal network and the thalamus in impaired consciousness☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Julia Sophia; Soddu, Andrea; Höller, Yvonne; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Schurz, Matthias; Bergmann, Jürgen; Schmid, Elisabeth; Trinka, Eugen; Laureys, Steven; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of consciousness has been associated with connectivity in the frontal cortex and parietal regions modulated by the thalamus. To examine this model and to relate alterations to deficits in cognitive functioning and conscious processing, we investigated topological network properties in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness recovered from coma. Resting state fMRI data of 34 patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and 25 in minimally conscious state were compared to 28 healthy controls. We investigated global and local network characteristics. Additionally, behavioral measures were correlated with the local metrics of 28 regions within the fronto-parietal network and the thalamus. In chronic disorders of consciousness, modularity at the global level was reduced suggesting a disturbance in the optimal balance between segregation and integration. Moreover, network properties were altered in several regions which are associated with conscious processing (particularly, in medial parietal, and frontal regions, as well as in the thalamus). Between minimally conscious and unconscious patients the local efficiency of medial parietal regions differed. Alterations in the thalamus were particularly evident in non-conscious patients. Most of the regions affected in patients with impaired consciousness belong to the so-called ‘rich club’ of highly interconnected central nodes. Disturbances in their topological characteristics have severe impact on information integration and are reflected in deficits in cognitive functioning probably leading to a total breakdown of consciousness. PMID:24455474

  3. Suppression of glucan, water dikinase in the endosperm alters wheat grain properties, germination and coleoptile growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Andrew F; Newberry, Marcus; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Whan, Alex; Larroque, Oscar; Pritchard, Jenifer; Gubler, Frank; Howitt, Crispin A; Pogson, Barry J; Morell, Matthew K; Ral, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Starch phosphate ester content is known to alter the physicochemical properties of starch, including its susceptibility to degradation. Previous work producing wheat (Triticum aestivum) with down-regulated glucan, water dikinase, the primary gene responsible for addition of phosphate groups to starch, in a grain-specific manner found unexpected phenotypic alteration in grain and growth. Here, we report on further characterization of these lines focussing on mature grain and early growth. We find that coleoptile length has been increased in these transgenic lines independently of grain size increases. No changes in starch degradation rates during germination could be identified, or any major alteration in soluble sugar levels that may explain the coleoptile growth modification. We identify some alteration in hormones in the tissues in question. Mature grain size is examined, as is Hardness Index and starch conformation. We find no evidence that the increased growth of coleoptiles in these lines is connected to starch conformation or degradation or soluble sugar content and suggest these findings provide a novel means of increasing coleoptile growth and early seedling establishment in cereal crop species. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  5. Immunology Research in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-14

    leukemia virus transformation. lergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is genet- Mozes et al. are studying interleukin- ically controlled, both in guinea pigs ... experimental autoimmune I. Pecht (Department of Chemical myasthenia gravis (EAMG). These anti- " Immunology, Weizmann Institute) and his bodies block...production and expansion; genetics of autoimmunity and cancer; lymphokines and comple- ment; autoiminunity; tumor immunology; transplantation and tissue

  6. Immunological properties of gold nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Dykman, Lev A.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, gold nanoparticles have attracted strong interest from the nanobiotechnological community owing to the significant progress made in robust and easy-to-make synthesis technologies, in surface functionalization, and in promising biomedical applications. These include bioimaging, gene diagnostics, analytical sensing, photothermal treatment of tumors, and targeted delivery of various biomolecular and chemical cargos. For the last-named application, gold nanoparticles should be...

  7. Alteration of human serum albumin binding properties induced by modifications: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, Małgorzata; Szkudlarek, Agnieszka; Chudzik, Mariola; Pożycka, Jadwiga; Sułkowska, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Albumin, a major transporting protein in the blood, is the main target of modification that affects the binding of drugs to Sudlow's site I and II. These modification of serum protein moderates its physiological function, and works as a biomarker of some diseases. The main goal of the paper was to explain the possible alteration of human serum albumin binding properties induced by modifications such as glycation, oxidation and ageing, their origin, methods of evaluation and positive and negative meaning described by significant researchers.

  8. Microplastics Alter the Properties and Sinking Rates of Zooplankton Faecal Pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Penelope K; Fileman, Elaine; Clark, James; Lewis, Ceri; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S

    2016-03-15

    Plastic debris is a widespread contaminant, prevalent in aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Zooplankton readily ingest microscopic plastic (microplastic, microplastics on faecal pellet properties are currently unknown. Here we test the hypotheses that (1) faecal pellets are a vector for transport of microplastics, (2) polystyrene microplastics can alter the properties and sinking rates of zooplankton egests and, (3) faecal pellets can facilitate the transfer of plastics to coprophagous biota. Following exposure to 20.6 μm polystyrene microplastics (1000 microplastics mL(-1)) and natural prey (∼1650 algae mL(-1)) the copepod Calanus helgolandicus egested faecal pellets with significantly (P microplastics, encapsulated within egests of the copepod Centropages typicus, could be transferred to C. helgolandicus via coprophagy. Our results support the proposal that sinking faecal matter represents a mechanism by which floating plastics can be vertically transported away from surface waters.

  9. Modeling-Enabled Systems Nutritional Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna eVerma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to applying complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery and development through ‘use cases’ centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, that include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism.

  10. Development of radiation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yi; Dang Bingrong; Bing Tao; Zhang Hong; Li Wenjian; Liu Bing

    2005-01-01

    Radiation immunology as a new subject has made a great progress in recent years, especially in the radiation hormesis. At the same time, the research of radiobiological effect on heavy ions has played an important role in the cancer therapy, especially on the radiation immunology of heavy ions in the outer space. In this review, the authors summarized the status and development of radiation-immunology, and try to find out some better ways which can increase efficient killing on tumours, but reduce the damages on normal tissues. (authors)

  11. Alterations in Leg Extensor Muscle-Tendon Unit Biomechanical Properties With Ageing and Mechanical Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher McCrum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tendons transfer forces produced by muscle to the skeletal system and can therefore have a large influence on movement effectiveness and safety. Tendons are mechanosensitive, meaning that they adapt their material, morphological and hence their mechanical properties in response to mechanical loading. Therefore, unloading due to immobilization or inactivity could lead to changes in tendon mechanical properties. Additionally, ageing may influence tendon biomechanical properties directly, as a result of biological changes in the tendon, and indirectly, due to reduced muscle strength and physical activity. This review aimed to examine age-related differences in human leg extensor (triceps surae and quadriceps femoris muscle-tendon unit biomechanical properties. Additionally, this review aimed to assess if, and to what extent mechanical loading interventions could counteract these changes in older adults. There appear to be consistent reductions in human triceps surae and quadriceps femoris muscle strength, accompanied by similar reductions in tendon stiffness and elastic modulus with ageing, whereas the effect on tendon cross sectional area is unclear. Therefore, the observed age-related changes in tendon stiffness are predominantly due to changes in tendon material rather than size with age. However, human tendons appear to retain their mechanosensitivity with age, as intervention studies report alterations in tendon biomechanical properties in older adults of similar magnitudes to younger adults over 12–14 weeks of training. Interventions should implement tendon strains corresponding to high mechanical loads (i.e., 80–90% MVC with repetitive loading for up to 3–4 months to successfully counteract age-related changes in leg extensor muscle-tendon unit biomechanical properties.

  12. Role of immunological surveillance in radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sado, Toshihiko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The immune system is known to be highly susceptible to various physical, chemical, and biological insults. The studies on the immediate and long-term effects of radiation on immune system of mice indicated very clearly that there was a dose-dependent reduction in the number of T and B cells, depression of antibody and cytotoxic T cell responses as well as proliferative responses of spleen cells to T and B cell mitogens shortly after irradiation, but they all recovered to the control level within a few months. Immunosuppression observed shortly after irradiation had little influence on the development of radiogenic tumors. The effects of radiation on the incidence of Friend leukemia virus (FLV)-induced leukemias are examined by using young adult B6C3F{sub 1} male mice which are normally resistant to FLV-induced leukemogenesis. There was a clear threshold dose of 2 Gy below which the development of FLV induced leukemias was not observed but after exposure to >3 Gy high incidence of leukemias was observed. Fractionated, weekly exposure of young C57BL strain mice to 1.6 Gy of X-rays for four successive weeks causes most of the exposed mice to develop thymic lymphomas between 3 and 10 months. However, when the exposed mice are grafted with bone marrow cells from normal donors, the development of thymic lymphomas on the exposed mice is greatly inhibited. There was a clear dose response relationship between the number of bone marrow cells injected and the inhibition of the development of thymic lymphomas. It now appears clear that T cell-mediated immunological surveillance against newly arising neoplasms conceived by Thomas and Burnet does not hold true anymore in the original form, although virus-infected host cells and other host cells expressing altered-self' markers on their cell surfaces are constantly monitored by the immunological surveillance mechanism. A surveillance function against newly arising neoplasms may be a property of surrounding normal tissue

  13. Roitt's essential immunology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delves, Peter J; Roitt, Ivan M

    2011-01-01

    ... of the immune system, the hallmark easy-reading style of Roitt's Essential Immunology clearly explains the key principles needed by medical and health sciences students, from the basis of immunity to clinical applications...

  14. Invasive scotch broom alters soil chemical properties in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Timothy B. Harrington; Anthony W. D′Amato

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Scotch broom is an N-fixing invasive species that has high potential to alter soil properties. We compared soil from areas of Scotch broom invasion with nearby areas that had no evidence of invasion to assess the influence of broom on soil P fractions and other chemical properties. Methods The study was...

  15. Altered Myokine Secretion Is an Intrinsic Property of Skeletal Muscle in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore P Ciaraldi

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle secretes factors, termed myokines. We employed differentiated human skeletal muscle cells (hSMC cultured from Type 2 diabetic (T2D and non-diabetic (ND subjects to investigate the impact of T2D on myokine secretion. Following 24 hours of culture concentrations of selected myokines were determined to range over 4 orders of magnitude. T2D hSMC released increased amounts of IL6, IL8, IL15, TNFa, Growth Related Oncogene (GROa, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, and follistatin compared to ND myotubes. T2D and ND hSMC secreted similar levels of IL1ß and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Treatment with the inflammatory agents lipopolysaccharide (LPS or palmitate augmented the secretion of many myokines including: GROa, IL6, IL8, IL15, and TNFa, but did not consistently alter the protein content and/or phosphorylation of IkBa, p44/42 MAPK, p38 MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and NF-kB, nor lead to consistent changes in basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake or free fatty acid oxidation. Conversely, treatment with pioglitazone or oleate resulted in modest reductions in the secretion of several myokines. Our results demonstrate that altered secretion of a number of myokines is an intrinsic property of skeletal muscle in T2D, suggesting a putative role of myokines in the response of skeletal muscle to T2D.

  16. Comparison of immunological properties of bone marrow stromal cells and adipose tissue-derived stem cells before and after osteogenic differentiation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemeyer, Philipp; Kornacker, Martin; Mehlhorn, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    T cells in vitro. Therefore, BMSCs are said to be available for allogenic cell therapy. Although the immunological characteristics of BMSCs have been the subject of various investigations, those of stem cells isolated from adipose tissue (ASCs) have not been adequately described. In addition......Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from various tissues and represent an attractive cell population for tissue-engineering purposes. MSCs from bone marrow (bone marrow stromal cells [BMSCs]) are negative for immunologically relevant surface markers and inhibit proliferation of allogenic...... were sought. The pattern of surface antigen expression of BMSCs is the same as that of ASCs. Analogous to BMSCs, undifferentiated cells isolated from adipose tissue lack expression of MHC-II; this is not lost in the course of the osteogenic differentiation process. In co-culture with allogenic PBMCs...

  17. Rebooting Human Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark M; Brodin, Petter

    2018-02-28

    Recent progress in both conceptual and technological approaches to human immunology have rejuvenated a field that has long been dominated by the inbred mouse model. This is a healthy development both for the clinical relevance of immunology and for the fact that it is a way to gain access to the wealth of phenomenology in the many human diseases that involve the immune system. This is where we are likely to discover new immunological mechanisms and principals, especially those involving genetic heterogeneity or environmental influences that are difficult to model effectively in inbred mice. We also suggest that there are likely to be novel immunological mechanisms in long-lived, less fecund mammals such as human beings since they must remain healthy far longer than short-lived rodents in order for the species to survive. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology Volume 36 is April 26, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  18. Impact attenuation properties of jazz shoes alter lower limb joint stiffness during jump landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong Yan, Alycia; Smith, Richard M; Hiller, Claire E; Sinclair, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    To quantify the impact attenuation properties of the jazz shoes, and to investigate the in-vivo effect of four jazz shoe designs on lower limb joint stiffness during a dance-specific jump. Repeated measures. A custom-built mechanical shoe tester similar to that used by athletic shoe companies was used to vertically impact the forefoot and heel region of four different jazz shoe designs. Additionally, dancers performed eight sautés in second position in bare feet and the shoe conditions. Force platforms and 3D-motion capture were used to analyse the joint stiffness of the midfoot, ankle, knee and hip during the jump landings. Mechanical testing of the jazz shoes revealed significant differences in impact attenuation characteristics among each of the jazz shoe designs. Gross knee and midfoot joint stiffness were significantly affected by the jazz shoe designs in the dancers' jump landings. The tested jazz shoe designs altered the impact attenuating capacity of jump landing technique in dancers. The cushioned jazz shoes are recommended particularly for injured dancers to reduce impact on the lower limb. Jazz shoe design should consider the impact attenuation properties of the forefoot region, due to the toe-strike landing technique in dance movement. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sorghum starch altered by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Fan, Huanhuan; Cao, Rong; Blanchard, Christopher; Wang, Min

    2016-11-01

    A nonthermal processing technology, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment, was investigated to assess its influence on the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sorghum starch (SS). There was no change in the 'A'-type crystalline pattern of SS after the pressure treatments at 120-480MPa. However, treatment at 600MPa produced a pattern similar to 'B'-type crystalline. HHP treatment also resulted in SS granules with rough surfaces. Measured amylose content, water absorption capacity, alkaline water retention, pasting temperature and thermostability increased with increasing pressure levels, while the oil absorption capacity, swelling power, relative crystallinity and viscosity decreased. Compared with native starch, HHP-modified SS samples had lower in vitro hydrolysis, reduced amount of rapidly digestible starch, as well as increased levels of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. These results indicate that HHP treatment is an effective modification method for altering in vitro digestibility and physicochemical properties of SS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mutations in the SH1 helix alter the thermal properties of myosin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kotomi; Koyama, Tsubasa; Inde, Shohei; Iwai, Sosuke; Chaen, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The myosin II SH1 helix is a joint that links the converter subdomain to the rest of the myosin motor domain and possibly plays a key role in the arrangement of the converter/lever arm. Several point mutations within the SH1 helix in human myosin IIs have been shown to cause diseases. To reveal whether these SH1 helix mutations affect not only motile activities but also thermal properties of myosin II, here we introduced the E683K or R686C point mutation into the SH1 helix in Dictyostelium myosin II. Thermal inactivation as well as thermal aggregation rates of these mutant proteins demonstrated that these mutations decreased the thermal stability of myosin II. Temperature dependence of sliding velocities of actin filaments showed that these mutations also reduced the activation energy of a rate-limiting process involved in actin movement. Given that these mutations are likely to alter coupling between the subdomains, and thus their thermal fluctuations, we propose that the SH1 helix is a key structural element that determines the flexibility and thermal properties of the myosin motor. These characteristics of the SH1 helix may contribute to the pathogenesis of the human diseases caused by mutations within this structural element.

  1. Systems Theory in Immunology

    CERN Document Server

    Doria, Gino; Koch, Giorgio; Strom, Roberto

    1979-01-01

    This volume collects the contributions presented at the "Working Conference on System Theory in Immunology", held in Rome, May 1978. The aim of the Conference was to bring together immunologists on one side and experts in system theory and applied mathematics on the other, in order to identify problems of common interest and to establish a network of joint effort toward their solution. The methodologies of system theory for processing experimental data and for describing dynamical phenomena could indeed contribute significantly to the under­ standing of basic immunological facts. Conversely, the complexity of experimental results and of interpretative models should stimulate mathematicians to formulate new problems and to design appropriate procedures of analysis. The multitude of scientific publications in theoretical biology, appeared in recent years, confirms this trend and calls for extensive interaction between mat- matics and immunology. The material of this volume is divided into five sections, along ...

  2. Immunological memory is associative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  3. Electronic cigarette vapor alters the lateral structure but not tensiometric properties of calf lung surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Rebecca J; Wright, Jason; Parthiban, Rajan; Nazemidashtarjandi, Saeed; Kaya, Savas; Farnoud, Amir M

    2017-11-17

    Despite their growing popularity, the potential respiratory toxicity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) remains largely unknown. One potential aspect of e-cigarette toxicity is the effect of e-cigarette vapor on lung surfactant function. Lung surfactant is a mixture of lipids and proteins that lines the alveolar region. The surfactant layer reduces the surface tension of the alveolar fluid, thereby playing a crucial role in lung stability. Due to their small size, particulates in e-cigarette vapor can penetrate the deep lungs and come into contact with the lung surfactant. The current study sought to examine the potential adverse effects of e-cigarette vapor and conventional cigarette smoke on lung surfactant interfacial properties. Infasurf ® , a clinically used and commercially available calf lung surfactant extract, was used as lung surfactant model. Infasurf ® films were spread on top of an aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough with smoke particulates from conventional cigarettes or vapor from different flavors of e-cigarettes dispersed in the subphase. Surfactant interfacial properties were measured in real-time upon surface compression while surfactant lateral structure after exposure to smoke or vapor was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). E-cigarette vapor regardless of the dose and flavoring of the e-liquid did not affect surfactant interfacial properties. In contrast, smoke from conventional cigarettes had a drastic, dose-dependent effect on Infasurf ® interfacial properties reducing the maximum surface pressure from 65.1 ± 0.2 mN/m to 46.1 ± 1.3 mN/m at the highest dose. Cigarette smoke and e-cigarette vapor both altered surfactant microstructure resulting in an increase in the area of lipid multilayers. Studies with individual smoke components revealed that tar was the smoke component most disruptive to surfactant function. While both e-cigarette vapor and conventional cigarette smoke affect surfactant lateral structure

  4. Immunologic lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The term immunologic lung disease comprises a broad spectrum of disease. The authors have covered a few entities in which recent studies have been particularly helpful in elucidating pathophysiology though not in uncovering the inciting cause. Common to all of these entities is the problem of finding appropriate methods of defining disease activity and response to treatment. As exemplified by the improved outlook for Goodpasture's syndrome with elucidation of its underlying immunopathology, it is likely that better understanding of the immunologic basis of sarcoid and interstitial disease may be helpful in planning more effective treatment strategies. 44 references

  5. Comparative immunology of Galapagos iguana hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P J; Rand, C S

    1975-09-01

    The antigenic properties of the major hemoglobin component of the Galapgaos iguanas were studied using second-approximation qualitative and quantitative immunochemical techniques. Phylogenetic distances, relative to the Galapagos marine iguana. Amblyrhynchus cristatus, were established on the basis of immunological cross-reactions.

  6. Oral declines and mastication deficiencies cause alteration of food bolus properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, M-A; Santé-Lhoutellier, V; François, O; Hennequin, M

    2018-02-21

    In the elderly, masticatory function often presents failure in certain oral tasks due to impairment such as decline in muscular force, jaw or tongue motility, neuro-muscular coordination, tooth damage, malocclusion and saliva production. Great disparity is observed in the various and potentially cumulative oral declines that occur with ageing. Such difficulties may have an impact on food consumption and nutritional status. To obtain better understanding of the consequences of several oral deficiencies, a series of swallowable boluses were prepared in vitro with the AM 2 masticator apparatus with normal and deficient programming. Physiological normal mastication (NM) was simulated using in vivo data from healthy subjects. Chewing deficiencies were reproduced by alteration of NM programming to perform different levels and combinations of force loss, lack of saliva and decrease in the motility of oral elements. Poultry meatballs were used as test-food. Particle size distribution in the food bolus was measured by sieving and rheological features (hardness, cohesiveness and elasticity) were assessed with a TPA test. Compared to the NM outcome, significant and gradual deterioration of the food bolus was observed and associated with alteration in force, saliva and motility. Combinations of several failures led to greater or cumulative deficiencies in swallowable bolus properties. For the elderly presenting a high prevalence of various oral injuries, tailoring textured food cannot be ignored as a solution for remedying deficiencies and favoring the formation of a safe-swallowable bolus, which is an essential vector of nutrients. Knowing the impacts of oral injuries on the food bolus is obviously a requisite for developing diet strategies, including nutritional items for specific populations.

  7. Study of the confined solutions properties: case of gel formed during nuclear glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matar-Briman, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the thermodynamic properties, the structure and the dynamics of confined solutions in model gels and in a gel coming from glass alteration. The first step was to determine the structure and the dynamics of pure confined water in porous materials by using nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron scattering. Meso-porous silica was elaborated and grafted by sol-gel route to decrease the pore sizes from 2.7 to 2 nm and to modify pore surfaces to have Si-OH, Zr-OH and Al-OH. The second step involved determining the dynamics of water in leachate confined in the model gels and in the gel of altered glass by using neutron scattering. In the model gels and at a 10 -12 -10 -9 second timescale, two kinds of waters were highlighted: first, an interfacial water linked to the pore surfaces and second, a free water in the pore core. Their ratio depends on the pore size and pore surface composition. Whatever the pore surface, when the pore size decreases the free water ratio in the pore center also decreases. For pores smaller than 2.3 nm and pore surfaces with Zr-OH or Al-OH surfaces, water is strongly linked to the surface and few water molecules are mobile. This is due to the ability of alumina and zirconia to immobilize water molecules through chemical coordination bonds stronger than the physical bonds established between silica and water. The result also highlight that pore surface composition could be the predominant parameter affecting the fixed proton content. Moreover, the mobility of water confined in a leachate is not modified. The study of the water dynamics in a gel formed during alteration of glass constituted of SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and CaO, and having a porosity between 2 and 7 nm showed the same behavior as water confined in pores presenting an Al-OH surface. (author) [fr

  8. Functional properties of butter oil made from bovine milk with experimentally altered fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Jimenez-Flores, R; Bremmer, D R; Clark, J H; DePeters, E J; Schmidt, S J; Drackley, J K

    2007-11-01

    Modification of milk fat composition might be desirable to alter manufacturing characteristics or produce low saturated fat dairy products that more closely meet consumer dietary preferences. The aim of this research was to evaluate functional properties of butter oil obtained from milks with fat composition modified by altering the profile of long-chain fatty acids (FA) absorbed from the small intestine of cows. A control and 5 mixtures of long-chain free FA were infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows in a 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were 1) control (no FA infused), 2) mostly saturated FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 3) low-linoleic palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.85), 4) palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 5) soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.10), and 6) high-palmitic soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.68). All treatments included meat solubles and Tween 80 as emulsifiers. Solid fat content (from 0 to 40 degrees C), melting point, and force at fracture were determined in butter oil. Milk fat from cows infused with palm FA (treatment 4) exhibited functionality equal to or better than control butter oil. Infusion with palm FA increased amounts of triglyceride (TG) fractions with 48, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, 36, and 42 carbon numbers. Infusion with soy FA increased TG with 26, 38, 40, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 34, 42, and 46 carbons. Infusion of the mostly saturated FA increased TG with 38, 50, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, and 42 carbon numbers. These TG groups were consistently correlated with functional properties of butter oils from different treatments. The content of palmitic acid is important for maintaining functionality in the presence of increased polyunsaturated FA. The composition of milk fat may be able to be optimized through nutritional manipulation of diets for dairy cows if the optimal composition of FA and TG is defined for a particular dairy product.

  9. Regenerative immunology: the immunological reaction to biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravedi, Paolo; Farouk, Samira; Angeletti, Andrea; Edgar, Lauren; Tamburrini, Riccardo; Duisit, Jerome; Perin, Laura; Orlando, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Regenerative medicine promises to meet two of the most urgent needs of modern organ transplantation, namely immunosuppression-free transplantation and an inexhaustible source of organs. Ideally, bioengineered organs would be manufactured from a patient's own biomaterials-both cells and the supporting scaffolding materials in which cells would be embedded and allowed to mature to eventually regenerate the organ in question. While some groups are focusing on the feasibility of this approach, few are focusing on the immunogenicity of the scaffolds that are being developed for organ bioengineering purposes. This review will succinctly discuss progress in the understanding of immunological characteristics and behavior of different scaffolds currently under development, with emphasis on the extracellular matrix scaffolds obtained decellularized animal or human organs which seem to provide the ideal template for bioengineering purposes. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  10. Immunology & Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey R.; And Others

    This monograph was designed for the high school biology curriculum. The first section reviews the major areas of importance in immunology. Section three contains six instructional activities for the high school classroom and the second section contains teacher's materials for those activities. The activities address for students some of the major…

  11. The immunological synapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Thomas; Pedersen, Lars Ostergaard; Geisler, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    . A distinct 3-dimensional supramolecular structure at the T cell/APC interface has been suggested to be involved in the information transfer. Due to its functional analogy to the neuronal synapse, the structure has been termed the "immunological synapse" (IS). Here, we review molecular aspects concerning...

  12. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  13. Refresher Course in Immunology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 7. Refresher Course in Immunology. Information and Announcements Volume 7 Issue 7 July 2002 pp 92-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/07/0092-0092. Resonance – Journal ...

  14. Wettability alteration properties of fluorinated silica nanoparticles in liquid-loaded pores: An atomistic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehrinia, Kazem; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Properties of fluorinated silica nanoparticles were investigated in water or decane-loaded pores of mineral silica using molecular dynamics simulation. • The water or decane-loaded pores represent liquid bridging. • Addition of nanoparticles to liquid-loaded pores results in weakening of the liquid bridge. • The hydrophobicity of the pore wall increases in the presence of adsorbed fluorinated silica nanoparticles. - Abstract: Control over the wettability of reservoir rocks is of crucial importance for enhancing oil and gas recovery. In order to develop chemicals for controlling the wettability of reservoir rocks, we present a study of functionalized silica nanoparticles as candidates for wettability alteration and improved gas recovery applications. In this paper, properties of fluorinated silica nanoparticles were investigated in water or decane-loaded pores of mineral silica using molecular dynamics simulation. Trifluoromethyl groups as water and oil repellents were placed on the nanoparticles. Simulating a pore in the presence of trapped water or decane molecules leads to liquid bridging for both of the liquids. Adsorption of nanoparticles on the pore wall reduces the density of liquid molecules adjacent to the wall. The density of liquid molecules around the nanoparticles decreases significantly with increasing the number of trifluoromethyl groups on the nanoparticles’ surfaces. An increased hydrophobicity of the pore wall was observed in the presence of adsorbed fluorinated silica nanoparticles. Also, it is observed that increasing the number of the trifluoromethyl groups results in weakening of liquid bridges. Moreover, the free energy of adsorption on mineral surface was evaluated to be more favorable than that of aggregation of nanoparticles, which suggests nanoparticles adsorb preferably on mineral surface.

  15. HIV Molecular Immunology 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Korber, Bette Tina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Brander, Christian [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Division of Vaccine Research; de Boer, Rob [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Biology; Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Koup, Richard [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States). Vaccine Research Center; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watkins, David [Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-04-05

    The scope and purpose of the HIV molecular immunology database: HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2015 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as cross-reactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins

  16. Application of Glow Discharge Plasma to Alter Surface Properties of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Buhler, Charles R.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2005-01-01

    Some polymer materials that are considered important for spaceport operations are rendered noncompliant when subjected to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Standard electrostatic testing. These materials operate in stringent environmental conditions, such as high humidity. Treating materials that fail electrostatic testing and altering their surface properties so that they become compliant would result in considerable cost savings. Significant improvement in electrostatic dissipation of Saf-T-Vu PVC after treatment with air Atmospheric Plasma Glow Discharge (APGD) was observed and the material now passed the KSC electrostatic test. The O:C ratio on the surface, as monitored by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, increased from 0.165 tO 0.275 indicating enhanced oxidation, and surface contact angle measurements decreased from 107.5 to 72.6 showing increased hydrophilicity that accounted for the increased conductivity. Monitoring of the aging showed that the materials hydrophobic recovery resulted in it failing the electrostatic test 30 hours after treatment. This was probably due to the out-diffusion of the added Zn, Ba, and Cd salt stabilizers detected on the surface and/or diffusion of low molecular weight oligomers. On going work includes improving the long term hydrophilicity by optimizing the APGD process with different gas mixtures. Treatment of other spaceport materials is also presented.

  17. Altered immunomodulating and toxicological properties of degraded Quillaja saponaria Molina saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, D J; Pathak, A K; Reynolds, R C; Seitz, L; May, R D

    2001-04-01

    Quillaja saponins are readily hydrolyzed under physiological conditions, yielding deacylated forms that are significantly less toxic than their precursors. Yet, deacylated saponins are unable to stimulate a strong primary immune response. Although deacylated saponins elicit a strong total IgG response, their capacity to stimulate a Thl type IgG isotype profile (i.e. high levels of IgG2a and IgG2b) has been significantly diminished. Instead, an IgG profile closer to that of a Th2 immune response is stimulated (i.e. high IgG1 levels). Deacylated saponins have also lost their capacity to elicit an effective T cell immunity, as shown by their stimulation of a marginal lymphoproliferative response and their inability to elicit the production of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL). Modification of the immune-modulating properties brought by the degradation of quillaja saponins during vaccine storage may change the intended immune response from a Th1 to a Th2 type. This alteration would have negligible effects on vaccines depending on Th2 immunity mediated by neutralizing antibodies. However, the performance of vaccines directed against intracellular pathogens as well as therapeutic cancer vaccines may be seriously affected by the loss of their capacity to stimulate both a Th1 immune response and the production of CTL.

  18. HIV Molecular Immunology 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Koup, Richard [Vaccine Research Center National Institutes of Health (United States); de Boer, Rob [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Biology; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Brander, Christian [Institucioi Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-03

    HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2014 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as crossreactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins are provided.

  19. Local immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija

    2011-12-01

    To summarize novel insights into the immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Within the recent decades, several alternative noninvasive allergen application strategies have been investigated in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT), of which intra-oral allergen application to sublingual mucosa has been proven to be well tolerated and effective. To date, SLIT is widely accepted by most allergists as an alternative option to conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). Although detailed immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated, much scientific effort has been made to shed some light on local and systemic immunological responses to SLIT in mice as well as humans. Only a few studies focused on the detailed mechanisms following allergen application to the oral mucosa as part of the sophisticated mucosal immunological network. Within this network, the pro-tolerogenic properties of local antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells - which are able to enforce tolerogenic mechanisms and to induce T-cell immune responses - play a central role. Further on, basic research focused not only on the immune response in nasal and bronchial mucosa but also on the systemic T-cell immune response. Thus, much exiting data have been published providing a better understanding of immunological features of SLIT but far more investigations are necessary to uncover further exciting details on the key mechanisms of SLIT.

  20. Properties of altered soils by alkaline solution: contribution in the performance evaluation of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabria, Jaqueline Alves de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The radioactive wastes from nuclear technology applications must be properly disposed in a repository, during the necessary time to ensure the human and the environment protection. The surface systems are largely considered for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, but generally require the use of engineering barriers to control the radionuclides release. An important engineering barrier is the backfill which is situated between the package and structural material, and has the functions of reducing the water infiltration and to promote the retardation of the radionuclide migration, among others. Therefore, the material to be used as backfill such as clays, cement, soils, rocks, must has good sorption, permeability and mechanical properties. The selection of the material will depend also largely on the material availability and installation design. The concrete is also used in the construction of repository, and its interaction with water induces its degradation, resulting in a high pH solution. This solution interacts with the backfilling materials promoting mineralogical alterations that results in significant changes in their key properties and performance as safety component of the repository. In this work, five Brazilian soils of Minas Gerais state, selected according to their generic characteristics along with information from Sistema Brasileiro de Classificacao de Solos (SiBCS) were investigated concerning their potential use as backfilling material in a superficial repository by the determination of retention capacity for cesium and iodine. Sorption-related parameters, used in the performance assessment of the soils, were obtained from experimental data fitting to different sorption isotherms models. The soil that showed the best sorption of Cs, was a clay soil that presented distribution coefficient (K d ) of 90.5 mL.g -1 and maximum sorption capacity (Q max ) of 18.372 mg.g -1 . Regarding the iodine, the sorption was very low for all

  1. Carboxyl group modification significantly altered the kinetic properties of purified carboxymethylcellulase from Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui; Saqib; Rashid; Rajoka

    2000-10-01

    of active site residues with concomitant alteration in kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the modified CMCases.

  2. Mechanical muscle and tendon properties of the plantar flexors are altered even in highly functional children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Annika; Schranz, Christian; Svehlik, Martin; Tilp, Markus

    2017-12-01

    Recent ultrasound studies found increased passive muscle stiffness and no difference in tendon stiffness in highly impaired children and young adults with cerebral palsy. However, it is not known if muscle and tendon mechanical properties are already altered in highly functional children with cerebral palsy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical and material properties of the plantar flexors in highly functional children with cerebral palsy and typically developing children. Besides strength measurements, ultrasonography was used to assess gastrocnemius medialis and Achilles tendon elongation and stiffness, Achilles tendon stress, strain, and Young's modulus in twelve children with cerebral palsy (GMFCS levels I and II) and twelve typically developing peers during passive dorsiflexion rotations as well as maximum voluntary contractions. Despite no difference in ankle joint stiffness (P>0.05) between groups, passive but not active Achilles tendon stiffness was significantly decreased (-39%) and a tendency of increased passive muscle stiffness was observed even in highly functional children with cerebral palsy. However, material properties of the tendon were not altered. Maximum voluntary contraction showed reduced plantar flexor strength (-48%) in the cerebral palsy group. Even in children with mild spastic cerebral palsy, muscle and tendon mechanical properties are altered. However, it appears that the Achilles tendon stiffness is different only when low forces act on the tendon during passive movements. Although maximum voluntary force is already decreased, forces acting on the Achilles tendon during activity appear to be sufficient to maintain typical material properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolomics in Immunology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, Bart

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation that metabolic processes and individual metabolites can shape the function of immune cells and thereby play important roles in the outcome of immune responses. In this respect, the use of MS- and NMR spectroscopy-based platforms to characterize and quantify metabolites in biological samples has recently yielded important novel insights into how our immune system functions and has contributed to the identification of biomarkers for immune-mediated diseases. Here, these recent immunological studies in which metabolomics has been used and made significant contributions to these fields will be discussed. In particular the role of metabolomics to the rapidly advancing field of cellular immunometabolism will be highlighted as well as the future prospects of such metabolomic tools in immunology.

  4. Helminths and immunological tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Chris J C; McSorley, Henry J; Anderton, Stephen M; Wigmore, Stephen J; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Current immunosuppression regimens for solid-organ transplantation have shown disappointing efficacy in the prevention of chronic allograft rejection and carry unacceptable risks including toxicity, neoplasia, and life-threatening infection. Achievement of immunological tolerance (long-term antigen unresponsiveness in an immunocompetent host) presents the exciting prospect of freedom from immunosuppression for transplant recipients. It is now 60 years since the first demonstration of immunolo...

  5. Some notes on radiation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sado, Toshihiko

    1977-01-01

    Immunological movement related to radiation immunology were reviewed. Basic items about cell mechanism of immunological reaction were explained, and then, relationship between immunity and radiation was given an outline. As to radiation effects on immunological lymphatic system, radiosensitivity of lymphocytes and immunological reaction, radiation effects on T and B cells, and radiosensitivity of lymphatic system, especially thymus were mentioned, and furthermore, delayed effects of radiation on immunological system were described. Radiation effects on relationship between bone marrow transplantation and genesis of reticulum cell tumor and delayed effects of radiation on them were mentioned, and genetic resistance against hematopoietic cell transplantation and its radiosensitivity were also described. Relationship between carcinogenesis due to radiation and immunity, and a state of specific immunological in an individual non-responsiveness having cancer, were also referred to. (Kanao, N.)

  6. Immunology in Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Olivera J; Salter, Russell D

    2006-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine has a long tradition of excellence in immunology research and training. Faculty, students, and postdoctoral fellows walk through hallways that are pictorial reminders of the days when Dr. Jonas Salk worked here to develop the polio vaccine, or when Dr. Niels Jerne chaired the Microbiology Department and worked on perfecting the Jerne Plaque Assay for antibody-producing cells. Colleagues and postdoctoral fellows of Professor Salk are still on the faculty of the University of Pittsburgh Medical School as are graduate students of Professor Jerne. A modern research building, the 17 story high Biomedical Science Tower, is a vivid reminder of the day when Dr. Thomas Starzl arrived in Pittsburgh and started building the most prominent solid-organ-transplant program in the world. The immunology research that developed around the problem of graft rejection and tolerance induction trained numerous outstanding students and fellows. Almost 20 yr ago, the University of Pittsburgh founded the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) with the renowned immunologist Dr. Ronald Herberman at its helm. This started a number of new research initiatives in cancer immunology and immunotherapy. A large number of outstanding young investigators, as well as several well-established tumor immunologists, were recruited to Pittsburgh at that time.

  7. Immunology of Bee Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elieh Ali Komi, Daniel; Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Zwiener, Ricardo D

    2017-01-20

    Bee venom is a blend of biochemicals ranging from small peptides and enzymes to biogenic amines. It is capable of triggering severe immunologic reactions owing to its allergenic fraction. Venom components are presented to the T cells by antigen-presenting cells within the skin. These Th2 type T cells then release IL-4 and IL-13 which subsequently direct B cells to class switch to production of IgE. Generating venom-specific IgE and crosslinking FcεR1(s) on the surface of mast cells complete the sensitizing stage in allergic individuals who are most likely to experience severe and even fatal allergic reactions after being stung. Specific IgE for bee venom is a double-edged sword as it is a powerful mediator in triggering allergic events but is also applied successfully in diagnosis of the venom allergic patient. The healing capacity of bee venom has been rediscovered under laboratory-controlled conditions using animal models and cell cultures. The potential role of enzymatic fraction of bee venom including phospholipase A2 in the initiation and development of immune responses also has been studied in numerous research settings. Undoubtedly, having insights into immunologic interactions between bee venom components and innate/specific immune cells both locally and systematically will contribute to the development of immunologic strategies in specific and epitope-based immunotherapy especially in individuals with Hymenoptera venom allergy.

  8. Immunology and Epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hraba, Tomáš

    1986-01-01

    In February 1985 a small international meeting of scientists took place at the recreation resort of the Polish Academy of Sci­ ences in Mogilany, near Cracow, Poland. The initiative for holding the workshop came from a working meeting on mathematical immunology and related topics at the International Institute for Applied Sys­ tems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria, in November 1983. In addition to representatives of IIASA, delegates of the IIASA National Member Organizations (NMO) of Czechoslovakia, Italy, and the soviet Union took part in that working meeting. The participants came to the conclusion that IIASA could play an important role in facilitating the development of research in this field. The first step that they recommended to I IASA was to organize a workshop on mathematical immunology. The purpose of the workshop was to review the progress that has been made in applying mathematics to problems in immunology and to explore ways in which further progress might be achieved, especially by more efficie...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5160 - Beta-globulin immunolog-ical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-globulin immunolog-ical test system. 866.5160... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5160 Beta-globulin immunolog-ical test system. (a) Identification. A beta-globulin immunological test system is a...

  10. Surface alteration and physical properties of glass from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkatt, A.; Sang, J.C.; Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Talmy, I.G.; Norr, M.K.; Mazer, J.J.; Izett, G.; Sigurdsson, Haraldur

    1994-01-01

    The scalloped surface feature on Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary glass is often explained as being due to terrestrial aqueous leaching. Leaching of man-made glass results in a reduction in density of the glass. Also, Fe, because of its relative insolubility, is concentrated by the leaching process. Thus, the Haitian glass specimens which have been heavily altered should have a thin rim of less dense glass in which the Fe is concentrated compared to the core glass. The higher Fe concentration in the rim glass should cause it to have an enhanced Curie constant and a lower density compared to the unaltered glass. The magnetic Curie constant, density, and scanning electron microscopic studies were made on altered specimens of Haitian glass and also on specimens showing a minimum of alteration. The results show that the less altered samples have the highest density and the lowest Curie constant. The data substantiate the terrestrial hypothesis. ?? 1994.

  11. Alteration of the superconducting properties of A15 compounds and elementary composite superconductors by non-hydrostatic elastic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, D.O.

    1979-01-01

    Elastic strains alter (usually, but not always, adversely) the critical temperatures, magnetic fields, and current densities of superconducting A15 compounds; non-hydrostatic strain states are particularly effective in this regard. This paper is a review of the experimental evidence, obtained by a variety of techniques, concerning the strain dependence of the critical properties of a number of A15 compounds and a discussion of theoretical models for describing such effects

  12. Hematology and immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.

    1977-01-01

    A coordinated series of experiments were conducted to evaluate immunologic and hemotologic system responses of Skylab crewmen to prolonged space flights. A reduced PHA responsiveness was observed on recovery, together with a reduced number of T-cells, with both values returning to normal 3 to 5 days postflight. Subnormal red cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit values also returned gradually to preflight limits. Most pronounced changes were found in the shape of red blood cells during extended space missions with a rapid reversal of these changes upon reentry into a normal gravitational environment.

  13. Mucosal immunology and virology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyring, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    .... A third chapter focuses on the proximal end of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. the oral cavity). The mucosal immunology and virology of the distal end of the gastrointestinal tract is covered in the chapter on the anogenital mucosa. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) plays a role in protection against all viral (and other) infections except those that enter the body via a bite (e.g. yellow fever or dengue from a mosquito or rabies from a dog) or an injection or transfusion (e.g. HIV, Hepatitis B). ...

  14. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section......This textbook is based on the curricula for dental students in the Nordic countries, and the authors teach the subject at three universities in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Although primarily for undergraduates, the book may also appeal to Ph.D. students and general practitioners. In addition...

  15. Helminths and immunological tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Chris J C; McSorley, Henry J; Anderton, Stephen M; Wigmore, Stephen J; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-01-27

    Current immunosuppression regimens for solid-organ transplantation have shown disappointing efficacy in the prevention of chronic allograft rejection and carry unacceptable risks including toxicity, neoplasia, and life-threatening infection. Achievement of immunological tolerance (long-term antigen unresponsiveness in an immunocompetent host) presents the exciting prospect of freedom from immunosuppression for transplant recipients. It is now 60 years since the first demonstration of immunological tolerance in animal models of transplantation, but translation into routine clinical practice remains elusive. Helminth parasites may provide novel strategies toward achieving this goal. Helminths are remarkably successful parasites: they currently infect more than one quarter of the world's population. It is now well established that the parasites' success is the result of active immunomodulation of their hosts' immune response. Although this primarily secures ongoing survival of the parasites, helminth-induced immunomodulation can also have a number of benefits for the host. Significant reductions in the prevalence of allergy and autoimmune conditions among helminth-infected populations are well recognized and there is now a significant body of evidence to suggest that harmful immune responses to alloantigens may be abrogated as well. Here, we review all existing studies of helminth infection and transplantation, explore the mechanisms involved, and discuss possible avenues for future translation to clinical practice.

  16. Chemical and mechanical properties of wellbore cement altered by CO₂-rich brine using a multianalytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Harris E; Du Frane, Wyatt L; Walsh, Stuart D C; Dai, Zurong; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Carroll, Susan A

    2013-02-05

    Defining chemical and mechanical alteration of wellbore cement by CO(2)-rich brines is important for predicting the long-term integrity of wellbores in geologic CO(2) environments. We reacted CO(2)-rich brines along a cement-caprock boundary at 60 °C and pCO(2) = 3 MPa using flow-through experiments. The results show that distinct reaction zones form in response to reactions with the brine over the 8-day experiment. Detailed characterization of the crystalline and amorphous phases, and the solution chemistry show that the zones can be modeled as preferential portlandite dissolution in the depleted layer, concurrent calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) alteration to an amorphous zeolite and Ca-carbonate precipitation in the carbonate layer, and carbonate dissolution in the amorphous layer. Chemical reaction altered the mechanical properties of the core lowering the average Young's moduli in the depleted, carbonate, and amorphous layers to approximately 75, 64, and 34% of the unaltered cement, respectively. The decreased elastic modulus of the altered cement reflects an increase in pore space through mineral dissolution and different moduli of the reaction products.

  17. Ideernes epidemiologi og kulturens immunologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    , suggested by Sperber, is extended by an ‘immunology of cultural systems’. In addition to the selective forces described by Sperber and Boyer, the immunological approach argues that the relative success of new representations is largely dependent on how well they fit already existing cultural models...

  18. Fundamentals of vaccine immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Clem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s by which immunizations stimulate(s immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the adaptive system by the production of effector cells and memory cells. At least seven different types of vaccines are currently in use or in development that produce this effective immunity and have contributed greatly to the prevention of infectious disease around the world.

  19. [Immunological theory of senescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drela, Nadzieja

    2014-01-01

    Senescence can result from decreased potential of the immune system to respond to foreign and self antigens. The most common effect is the inhibition to destroy dying and cancer cells and the decrease of the immune response to pathogens. Aging is closely related to inflammatory phenotype, which facilitate the development of age-related diseases. The mammal immune system is highly organized and adapted to react to a wide range of antigens. According to the immunological theory, the causative agents of senescence are multilevel changes of development and functions of immune cells. Some of changes can be beneficial for the maintenance of homeostasis and lifespan in continuously changing endogenous environment and immune history of the organism.

  20. Immunology of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Luiza da Gama Coelho; Santulli, Pietro; Marcellin, Louis; Abrão, Mauricio Simões; Batteux, Frederic; Chapron, Charles

    2018-02-08

    The pathophysiology of endometriosis is not completely understood, but an aberrant immune response in the peritoneal environment seems to be crucial for the proliferation of ectopic endometrial cells - as those cells escape apoptosis and peritoneal cavity immunosurveillance. The growth of endometrial implants leads to the recruitment of a large number and diversity of immune cells and intense inflammation with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and angiogenesis. There is substantial evidence of aberrant function of almost all types of immune cells in women with endometriosis: decreased T cell reactivity and NK cytotoxicity, polyclonal activation of B cells and increased antibody production, increased number and activation of peritoneal macrophages, and changes in inflammatory mediators. New clinical treatments for endometriosis are an urgent need, especially nonhormonal drugs. The study of immunology may clarify its role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seismic properties of rocks affected by hydrothermal alteration: a case study from the Lalor Lake VMS mining camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, K.; Bellefleur, G.; Schetselaar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Global demand of base metals, uranium, diamonds, and precious metals has been pushing technological barrier to find and extract minerals at higher depth, which was not feasible in just a few decades ago. Seismic properties of rocks containing and surrounding ore bodies have been useful in characterizing and modeling geologic structures, and mapping high-resolution images of ore bodies. Although seismic surveys and drill hole sonic and density logs are essential for mineral exploration at depth, limited availability of seismic logs to link rock properties of different ore forming geologic structure is a hindrance to seismic interpretations. Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides (VMS) are rich in minerals and of primary interests among geologists and mining industries alike. VMS deposits occur due to focused discharge of metal-enriched fluids associated in the hydrothermal alteration process, and are rich in Zn, Cu, Pb, Ag, Au, etc. Alteration halos surrounding ore deposits can be widespread, and their locations are easier to determine than the deposits within them. Physical rock properties affected by alteration can provide clues on type and potentially size of ore deposits in the surrounding area. In this context, variations in seismic properties of rocks due to hydrothermal alteration near the deposits can help in improving modeling accuracy, and better interpretation of seismic data for economic mineral exploration. While reflection seismic techniques can resolve ore bodies at higher depths than other conventional geophysical techniques, they are relatively expensive both in terms of field data acquisition and post-processing, especially for high-resolution 3D surveys. Acoustic impedance contrasts of ore lenses with their hosting rock environment; geometry, size and spatial location relative to the surface affect their detection with seismic data. Therefore, apriori knowledge of seismic rock properties from drill hole logs and core samples in the potential survey area

  2. Alteration of corrosion and nanomechanical properties of pulse electrodeposited Ni/SiC nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarghami, V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, M., E-mail: Ghorbani@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • Preparing Ni/SiC coatings on the Cu substrate by using of rotating disk electrode. • Optimizing of pulse current density parameters. • Optimizing of SiC content in the bath. • Investigation the effect of codeposited SiC amount on the properties of coatings. - Abstract: Nickel/silicon carbide composite electrodeposits were prepared on a rotating disk electrode (RDE), under pulse current condition. The effect of pulse parameters, current density, SiC content in the electrolyte on the codeposition of SiC were studied. Afterwards, the effect of codeposited SiC amount was investigated on electrochemical behavior and nanomechanical properties of coatings. The coatings were analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), linear polarization, nanoindentation and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The Ni–SiC electrocomposites, prepared at optimum conditions, exhibited improved nanomechanical properties in comparison to pure nickel electrodeposits. With increasing current density the morphology changed from flat surface to cauliflower structure. The Ni–SiC electrocomposites exhibited improved nanomechanical properties and corrosion resistances in comparison to pure nickel electrodeposits and these properties were improving with increasing codeposited SiC particles in electrocomposites.

  3. Alteration in the response properties of primary somatosensory cortex related to differential aversive Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesch, Eugen; Flor, Herta

    2007-09-01

    The effects of differential aversive Pavlovian conditioning on the functional organization of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) were examined in 17 healthy participants. Neuroelectric source imaging from 60 electrodes was employed while nine subjects received an innocuous electric stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) to one finger (left or right) that was followed by painful electric shock to the lower back (unconditioned stimulus, US) and an innocuous stimulus to the other finger that was never followed by pain. Eight subjects received a presentation of the innocuous and painful stimuli with equal probability to both fingers (control group). The data included the electromyogram (EMG) from the left m. corrugator, and judgments of intensity, aversiveness, and CS-US contingency. Only the experimental group displayed EMG conditioning, differential contingency judgments, as well as a change of dipole orientation for the CS and an enhanced dipole moment for the US in the electroencephalogram. Intensity and unpleasantness ratings were altered in a more unspecific manner and did not differ between groups and stimulus conditions. The data suggest that SI contributes to memory processes in associative learning. Pavlovian conditioning of tactile responses might be important in the altered processing of painful stimuli in chronic pain patients where enhanced conditioning has been demonstrated.

  4. Altitude training induced alterations in erythrocyte rheological properties: a controlled comparison study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor-Kucukatay, Melek; Colak, Ridvan; Erken, Gülten; Kilic-Toprak, Emine; Kucukatay, Vural

    2014-01-01

    Altitude training is frequently used by athletes to improve sea-level performance. However, the objective benefits of altitude training are controversial. This study aimed to investigate the possible alterations in hemorheological parameters in response to altitude training. Sprague Dawley rats, were divided into 6 groups: live low-train low (LLTL), live high-train high (LHTH), live high-train low (LHTL) and their controls live high and low (LHALC), live high (LHC), live low (LLC). LHC and LHTH groups were exposed to hypoxia (15% O2, altitudes of 3000 m), 4 weeks. LHALC and LHTL were exposed to 12 hours hypoxia/normoxia per day, 4 weeks. Hypoxia was maintained by a hypoxic tent. The training protocol corresponded to 60-70% of maximal exercise capacity. Rats of training groups ran on treadmill for 20-30 min/day, 4 days/week, 4 weeks. Erythrocyte deformability of LHC group was increased compared to LHALC and LLC. Deformability of LHTH group was higher than LHALC and LLTL groups. No statistically significant alteration in erythrocyte aggregation parameters was observed. There were no significant relationships between RBC deformability and exercise performance. The results of this study show that, living (LHC) and training at altitude (LHTH) seems more advantageous in hemorheological point of view.

  5. Systems immunology: just getting started.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark M; Tato, Cristina M; Furman, David

    2017-06-20

    Systems-biology approaches in immunology take various forms, but here we review strategies for measuring a broad swath of immunological functions as a means of discovering previously unknown relationships and phenomena and as a powerful way of understanding the immune system as a whole. This approach has rejuvenated the field of vaccine development and has fostered hope that new ways will be found to combat infectious diseases that have proven refractory to classical approaches. Systems immunology also presents an important new strategy for understanding human immunity directly, taking advantage of the many ways the immune system of humans can be manipulated.

  6. Immunological methods for gentamicin determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugers Dagneauz, P.G.L.C.; Olthuis, F.M.F.G.

    1979-01-01

    For immunoassay, an antibody against the substance to the determined, the pure substance itself, and a labelled form or derivative of the substance are required. The principles and problems of the preparation of antibodies are discussed, some methods for the preparation of derivatives labelled with radioactive tracers or enzymes are reviewed, and homologous enzyme-immunological determination of gentamicin is discussed in detail. A comparison is mae of three radio-immunological determination methods, and the most suitable radio-immunological method is compared with two microbiological techniques. The results are found to be comparable. (Auth.)

  7. Unique immunologic patterns in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Frederick G; Gavin, Igor M; Karpenko, Oleksiy; Lindgren, Valerie; Gaitonde, Sujata; Gashkoff, Peter A; Gillis, Bruce S

    2012-12-17

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic pain and allodynia. The diagnosis of FM has been one of exclusion as a test to confirm the diagnosis is lacking. Recent data highlight the role of the immune system in FM. Aberrant expressions of immune mediators, such as cytokines, have been linked to the pathogenesis and traits of FM. We therefore determined whether cytokine production by immune cells is altered in FM patients by comparing the cellular responses to mitogenic activators of stimulated blood mononuclear cells of a large number of patients with FM to those of healthy matched individuals. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from 110 patients with the clinical diagnosis of FM and 91 healthy donors. Parallel samples of PBMC were cultured overnight in medium alone or in the presence of mitogenic activators; PHA or PMA in combination with ionomycin. The cytokine concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1β , MCP-1, and MIP1-α in plasma as well as in cultured supernatants were determined using a multiplex immunoassay using bead array technology. Cytokine levels of stimulated PBMC cultures of healthy control subjects were significantly increased as compared to matched non-stimulated PBMC cultures. In contrast, the concentrations of most cytokines were lower in stimulated samples from patients with FM compared to controls. The decreases of cytokine concentrations in patients samples ranged from 1.5-fold for MIP-1β to 10.2-fold for IL-6 in PHA challenges. In PMA challenges, we observed 1.8 to 4-fold decreases in the concentrations of cytokines in patient samples. The cytokine responses to mitogenic activators of PBMC isolated from patients with FM were significantly lower than those of healthy individuals, implying that cell-mediated immunity is impaired in FM patients. This novel cytokine assay reveals unique and valuable immunologic traits, which, when combined with clinical patterns, can offer

  8. Cytomechanical properties of papaver pollen tubes are altered after self-incompatibility challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geitmann, A.; McConnaughey, W.; Lang-Pauluzzi, I.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) in Papaver rhoeas triggers a ligand-mediated signal transduction cascade, resulting in the inhibition of incompatible pollen tube growth. Using a cytomechanical approach we have demonstrated that dramatic changes to the mechanical properties of incompatible pollen tubes are

  9. Spinal biomechanical properties are significantly altered with a novel embalming method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holewijn, Roderick M.; Faraj, Sayf S.A.; Kingma, Idsart; van Royen, Barend J.; de Kleuver, Marinus; van der Veen, Albert J.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro tests on the biomechanical properties of human spines are often performed using fresh frozen specimens. However, this carries the risk of pathogen transfer from specimen to the worker and the specimens can only be used for a limited amount of time. Human spinal specimens embalmed with

  10. Spinal biomechanical properties are significantly altered with a novel embalming method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holewijn, Roderick M; Faraj, Sayf S A; Kingma, Idsart; van Royen, Barend J; de Kleuver, Marinus; van der Veen, Albert J

    2017-04-11

    In vitro tests on the biomechanical properties of human spines are often performed using fresh frozen specimens. However, this carries the risk of pathogen transfer from specimen to the worker and the specimens can only be used for a limited amount of time. Human spinal specimens embalmed with formaldehyde carry an almost absent risk of transfer of pathogens and can be stored and used for a long time, but the tissue properties are strongly affected making this method inapplicable for biomechanical testing. In this study, a new embalming technique called Fix for Life (F4L), which claims to preserve the tissue properties, was tested. The range of motion (ROM) and stiffness of six fresh human spinal specimens was measured using a spinal motion simulator before and after F4L embalming. After F4L embalming, spinal stiffness increased in flexion-extension by 230%, in lateral bending by 284% and in axial rotation by 271%. ROM decreased by 46% in flexion-extension, 56% in lateral bending and 54% in axial rotation. In conclusion, based on this study, F4L does not maintain physiological spinal biomechanical properties, and we propose that this method should not be used for biomechanical studies. Nevertheless, the method may be an alternative to formaldehyde fixation in situations such as training and education because the effect on spinal biomechanics is less detrimental than formaldehyde and tissue color is maintained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spinal biomechanical properties are significantly altered with a novel embalming method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holewijn, R.M.; Faraj, S.S.; Kingma, I.; Royen, B.J. van; Kleuver, M. de; Veen, A.J. van der

    2017-01-01

    In vitro tests on the biomechanical properties of human spines are often performed using fresh frozen specimens. However, this carries the risk of pathogen transfer from specimen to the worker and the specimens can only be used for a limited amount of time. Human spinal specimens embalmed with

  12. Essential Neuroscience in Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Sangeeta S; Tracey, Kevin J

    2017-05-01

    The field of immunology is principally focused on the molecular mechanisms by which hematopoietic cells initiate and maintain innate and adaptive immunity. That cornerstone of attention has been expanded by recent discoveries that neuronal signals occupy a critical regulatory niche in immunity. The discovery is that neuronal circuits operating reflexively regulate innate and adaptive immunity. One particularly well-characterized circuit regulating innate immunity, the inflammatory reflex, is dependent upon action potentials transmitted to the reticuloendothelial system via the vagus and splenic nerves. This field has grown significantly with the identification of several other reflexes regulating discrete immune functions. As outlined in this review, the delineation of these mechanisms revealed a new understanding of immunity, enabled a first-in-class clinical trial using bioelectronic devices to inhibit cytokines and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis patients, and provided a mosaic view of immunity as the integration of hematopoietic and neural responses to infection and injury. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Antibody to gp41 MPER alters functional properties of HIV-1 Env without complete neutralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur S Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human antibody 10E8 targets the conserved membrane proximal external region (MPER of envelope glycoprotein (Env subunit gp41 and neutralizes HIV-1 with exceptional potency. Remarkably, HIV-1 containing mutations that reportedly knockout 10E8 binding to linear MPER peptides are partially neutralized by 10E8, producing a local plateau in the dose response curve. Here, we found that virus partially neutralized by 10E8 becomes significantly less neutralization sensitive to various MPER antibodies and to soluble CD4 while becoming significantly more sensitive to antibodies and fusion inhibitors against the heptad repeats of gp41. Thus, 10E8 modulates sensitivity of Env to ligands both pre- and post-receptor engagement without complete neutralization. Partial neutralization by 10E8 was influenced at least in part by perturbing Env glycosylation. With unliganded Env, 10E8 bound with lower apparent affinity and lower subunit occupancy to MPER mutant compared to wild type trimers. However, 10E8 decreased functional stability of wild type Env while it had an opposite, stabilizing effect on MPER mutant Envs. Clade C isolates with natural MPER polymorphisms also showed partial neutralization by 10E8 with altered sensitivity to various gp41-targeted ligands. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of virus neutralization by demonstrating how antibody binding to the base of a trimeric spike cross talks with adjacent subunits to modulate Env structure and function. The ability of an antibody to stabilize, destabilize, partially neutralize as well as alter neutralization sensitivity of a virion spike pre- and post-receptor engagement may have implications for immunotherapy and vaccine design.

  14. Antibody to gp41 MPER Alters Functional Properties of HIV-1 Env without Complete Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Arthur S.; Leaman, Daniel P.; Zwick, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Human antibody 10E8 targets the conserved membrane proximal external region (MPER) of envelope glycoprotein (Env) subunit gp41 and neutralizes HIV-1 with exceptional potency. Remarkably, HIV-1 containing mutations that reportedly knockout 10E8 binding to linear MPER peptides are partially neutralized by 10E8, producing a local plateau in the dose response curve. Here, we found that virus partially neutralized by 10E8 becomes significantly less neutralization sensitive to various MPER antibodies and to soluble CD4 while becoming significantly more sensitive to antibodies and fusion inhibitors against the heptad repeats of gp41. Thus, 10E8 modulates sensitivity of Env to ligands both pre- and post-receptor engagement without complete neutralization. Partial neutralization by 10E8 was influenced at least in part by perturbing Env glycosylation. With unliganded Env, 10E8 bound with lower apparent affinity and lower subunit occupancy to MPER mutant compared to wild type trimers. However, 10E8 decreased functional stability of wild type Env while it had an opposite, stabilizing effect on MPER mutant Envs. Clade C isolates with natural MPER polymorphisms also showed partial neutralization by 10E8 with altered sensitivity to various gp41-targeted ligands. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of virus neutralization by demonstrating how antibody binding to the base of a trimeric spike cross talks with adjacent subunits to modulate Env structure and function. The ability of an antibody to stabilize, destabilize, partially neutralize as well as alter neutralization sensitivity of a virion spike pre- and post-receptor engagement may have implications for immunotherapy and vaccine design. PMID:25058619

  15. Lathyrism-induced alterations in collagen cross-links influence the mechanical properties of bone material without affecting the mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, E.P.; Tatakis, D.N.; Robins, S.; Fratzl, P.; Manjubala, I.; Zoehrer, R.; Gamsjaeger, S.; Buchinger, B.; Roschger, A.; Phipps, R.; Boskey, A.L.; Dall'Ara, E.; Varga, P.; Zysset, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Roschger, P.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study a rat animal model of lathyrism was employed to decipher whether anatomically confined alterations in collagen cross-links are sufficient to influence the mechanical properties of whole bone. Animal experiments were performed under an ethics committee approved protocol. Sixty-four female (47 day old) rats of equivalent weights were divided into four groups (16 per group): Controls were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.6% calcium and 0.6% phosphorus for 2 or 4 weeks and β-APN treated animals were fed additionally with β-aminopropionitrile (0.1% dry weight). At the end of this period the rats in the four groups were sacrificed, and L2–L6 vertebra were collected. Collagen cross-links were determined by both biochemical and spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI)) analyses. Mineral content and distribution (BMDD) were determined by quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), and mineral maturity/crystallinity by FTIRI techniques. Micro-CT was used to describe the architectural properties. Mechanical performance of whole bone as well as of bone matrix material was tested by vertebral compression tests and by nano-indentation, respectively. The data of the present study indicate that β-APN treatment changed whole vertebra properties compared to non-treated rats, including collagen cross-links pattern, trabecular bone volume to tissue ratio and trabecular thickness, which were all decreased (p < 0.05). Further, compression tests revealed a significant negative impact of β-APN treatment on maximal force to failure and energy to failure, while stiffness was not influenced. Bone mineral density distribution (BMDD) was not altered either. At the material level, β-APN treated rats exhibited increased Pyd/Divalent cross-link ratios in areas confined to a newly formed bone. Moreover, nano-indentation experiments showed that the E-modulus and hardness were reduced only in newly formed bone areas under the influence

  16. Controlling the Photophysical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Arrays by Strategically Altering Their Surface Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ashley R.

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are interesting materials that, after less than 40 years of research, are used in commercial products. QDs are now found in displays, such as Samsung televisions and the Kindle Fire, and have applications in lighting, bio-imaging, quantum computing, and photovoltaics. They offer a large range of desirable properties: a controllable band gap, solution processability, controlled energy levels, and are currently the best materials for multiple exciton generation. The tunable optoelectronic properties of QDs can be controlled using size, shape, composition, and surface treatments--as shown here. Due to the quasi-spherical shape of QDs the surface to volume ratio is high, i.e. many of the constituent atoms are found on the QD surface. This makes QDs highly sensitive to surface chemistry modifications. This thesis encompasses the effects of surface treatments for QDs of two semiconducting materials: lead chalcogenides and CsPbI3. Our group developed a new synthetic technique for lead chalcogenide QDs via the cation exchange of cadmium chalcogenides. An in-depth chemical analysis is paired with optical and electrical studies and we find that metal halide residue contributes to the oxidative stability and decreased trap state density in cation-exchanged PbS QDs. We exploit these properties to make air-stable QD photovoltaic devices from both PbS and PbSe QD materials. Beyond the effects of residual atoms left from the synthetic technique, I investigated how to controllably add atoms onto the surface of QDs. I found that by introducing metal halides as a post-treatment in an electronically coupled array I am able to control the performance parameters in QD photovoltaic devices. These treatments fully infiltrate the assembled film, even under short exposure times and allow me to add controlled quantities of surface atoms to study their effects on film properties and photovoltaic device performance. Finally, I sought to apply the knowledge of

  17. Isolation and characterization of OmpC porin mutants with altered pore properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, R.; Benson, S.A.

    1988-02-01

    The LamB protien is normally required for the uptake of maltodextrins. Starting with a LamB/sup -/ OmpF/sup -/ strain, we have isolated mutants that will grow on maltodextrins. The mutation conferring the Dex/sup +/ phenotype in the majority of these mutants has been mapped to the ompC locus. These mutants, unlike LamB/sup -/ OmpF/sup -/ strains, grew on maltotriose and maltotetraose, but not on maltopentaose, and showed a significantly higher rate of (/sup 14/C) maltose uptake than the parent strain did. In addition, these mutants showed increased sensitivity to certain ..beta..-lactam antibiotics and sodium dodecyl sulfate, but did not exhibit an increase in sensitivity to other antibiotics and detergents. The nucleotide sequence of these mutants has been determined. In all cases, residue 74 (arginine) of the mature OmpC protein was affected. The results suggest that this region of the OmpC protein is involved in the pore domain and that the alterations lead to an increased pore size.

  18. Insights into the Alteration of Osteoblast Mechanical Properties upon Adhesion on Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia G. Moutzouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion on substrates is accompanied by significant changes in shape and cytoskeleton organization, which affect subsequent cellular and tissue responses, determining the long-term success of an implant. Alterations in osteoblast stiffness upon adhesion on orthopaedic implants with different surface chemical composition and topography are, thus, of central interest in the field of bone implant research. This work aimed to study the mechanical response of osteoblasts upon adhesion on chitosan-coated glass surfaces and to investigate possible correlations with the level of adhesion, spreading, and cytoskeleton reorganization. Using the micropipette aspiration technique, the osteoblast elastic modulus was found higher on chitosan-coated than on uncoated control substrates, and it was found to increase in the course of spreading for both substrates. The cell-surface contact area was measured throughout several time points of adhesion to quantify cell spreading kinetics. Significant differences were found between chitosan and control surfaces regarding the response of cell spreading, while both groups displayed a sigmoidal kinetical behavior with an initially elevated spreading rate which stabilizes in the second hour of attachment. Actin filament structural changes were confirmed after observation with confocal microscope. Biomaterial surface modification can enhance osteoblast mechanical response and induce favorable structural organization for the implant integration.

  19. Variations in the endogenous fluorescence of rabbit corneas after mechanical property alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Martinez, Antonio; Touchette, Genna; Zhu, Hong; Kochevar, Irene E.; Franco, Walfre

    2017-09-01

    Keratoconus is an eye disease in which the cornea progressively deforms due to loss of cornea mechanical rigidity, and thus causes deterioration of visual acuity. Techniques to characterize the mechanical characteristics of the cornea are important to better monitor changes and response to treatments. To investigate the feasibility of using the endogenous fluorescence of cornea for monitoring alterations of its mechanical rigidity, linear tensiometry was used to quantitate stiffness and Young's modulus (YM) after treatments that increase cornea stiffness (collagen photocross-linking) or decrease stiffness (enzymatic digestion). The endogenous ultraviolet fluorescence of cornea was also measured before and after these treatments. The fluorescence excitation/emission spectral ranges were 280 to 430/390 to 520 nm, respectively. A correlation analysis was carried out to identify fluorescence excitation/emission pairs whose intensity changes correlated with the stiffness. A positive correlation was found between variations in fluorescence intensity of the 415-/485-nm excitation/emission pair and YM of photocross-linked corneas. After treatment of corneas with pepsin, the YM decreased as the fluorescence intensity at 290-/390-nm wavelengths decreased. For weakening of corneas with collagenase, only qualitative changes in the fluorescence spectrum were observed. Changes in the concentration of native or newly created fluorescent molecular species contain information that may be directly or indirectly related to the mechanical structure of the cornea.

  20. Potential petrophysical and chemical property alterations in a compressed air energy storage porous rock reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Erikson, R.L.; Smith, R.P.

    1979-10-01

    Successful commercialization of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems depends on long-term stability of the underground reservoirs subjected to somewhat unique operating conditions. Specifically, these conditions include elevated and time varying temperatures, effective stresses, and air humidities. To minimize the requirements for premium fuels, it may be desirable to retain the thermal energy of compression. Porous media, e.g., sandstone, may hold promise as elevated temperature reservoirs. In this study, a reservoir composed of clean quartz sandstone and injection air temperatures of 300 to 575/sup 0/K are assumed. Numerical modeling is used to estimate temperature, stress, and humidity conditions within this reference porous media reservoir. A discussion on relative importance to CAES of several potential porous media damage mechanisms is presented. In this context, damage is defined as a reduction in intrinsic permeability (measure of air transport capability), a decrease in effective porosity (measure of storage capability), or an increase in elastic and/or inelastic deformation of the porous material. The potential damage mechanisms presented include: (1) disaggregation, (2) particulate plugging, (3) boundary layer viscosity anomalies, (4) inelastic microstructural consolidation, (5) clay swelling and dispersion, (6) hydrothermal mineral alteration, (7) oxidation reactions, and (8) well casing corrosion. These mechanisms are placed in perspective with respect to anticipated CAES conditions and mechanisms suggested are: (1) of academic interest only, (2) readily identified and controlled via engineering, or (3) potential problem areas requiring additional investigation.

  1. Altered Right Ventricular Mechanical Properties Are Afterload Dependent in a Rodent Model of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitandrakumar R. Patel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Infants born premature are at increased risk for development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, pulmonary hypertension (PH, and ultimately right ventricular (RV dysfunction, which together carry a high risk of neonatal mortality. However, the role alveolar simplification and abnormal pulmonary microvascular development in BPD affects RV contractile properties is unknown. We used a rat model of BPD to examine the effect of hyperoxia-induced PH on RV contractile properties. We measured in vivo RV pressure as well as passive force, maximum Ca2+ activated force, calcium sensitivity of force (pCa50 and rate of force redevelopment (ktr in RV skinned trabeculae isolated from hearts of 21-and 35-day old rats pre-exposed to 21% oxygen (normoxia or 85% oxygen (hyperoxia for 14 days after birth. Systolic and diastolic RV pressure were significantly higher at day 21 in hyperoxia exposed rats compared to normoxia control rats, but normalized by 35 days of age. Passive force, maximum Ca2+ activated force, and calcium sensitivity of force were elevated and cross-bridge cycling kinetics depressed in 21-day old hyperoxic trabeculae, whereas no differences between normoxic and hyperoxic trabeculae were seen at 35 days. Myofibrillar protein analysis revealed that 21-day old hyperoxic trabeculae had increased levels of beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC, atrial myosin light chain 1 (aMLC1; often referred to as essential light chain, and slow skeletal troponin I (ssTnI compared to age matched normoxic trabeculae. On the other hand, 35-day old normoxic and hyperoxic trabeculae expressed similar level of α- and β-MHC, ventricular MLC1 and predominantly cTnI. These results suggest that neonatal exposure to hyperoxia increases RV afterload and affect both the steady state and dynamic contractile properties of the RV, likely as a result of hyperoxia-induced expression of β-MHC, delayed transition of slow skeletal TnI to cardiac TnI, and expression of atrial MLC1. These

  2. Synthesis and immunological properties of Vi and di-O-acetyl pectin protein conjugates with adipic acid dihydrazide as the linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossaczka, Z; Bystricky, S; Bryla, D A; Shiloach, J; Robbins, J B; Szu, S C

    1997-06-01

    The Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi, a licensed vaccine for typhoid fever in individuals > or = 5 years old, induces low and short-lived antibodies in children, and reinjection does not elicit booster responses at any age. Its immunogenicity was improved by binding Vi to proteins by using N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate (SPDP) as a linker. Similar findings were observed with the structurally related, di-O-acetyl derivative of pectin [poly-alpha(1-->4)-D-GalpA] designated OAcP. Protein conjugates of Vi and OAcP were synthesized by carbodiimide-mediated synthesis with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as the linker. Hydrazide groups were introduced into proteins (bovine serum albumin or recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotein A) by treatment with ADH and 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC). The resultant adipic acid hydrazide derivatives (AH-proteins), containing 2.3 to 3.4% AH, had antigenic and physicochemical properties similar to those of the native proteins. The AH-proteins were bound to Vi and OAcP by treatment with EDC. The immunogenicity of Vi or OAcP, alone or as protein conjugates, was evaluated in young outbred mice and guinea pigs by subcutaneous injection of 2.5 and 5.0 microg, respectively, of polysaccharide, and antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All conjugates were significantly more immunogenic than Vi or OAcP alone and induced booster responses with 5- to 25-fold increases of antibodies. Vi conjugates were significantly more immunogenic than their OAcP analogs. A carboxymethyl derivative of yeast beta-glucan enhanced the anti-Vi response elicited by an OAcP conjugate but had no effect on the immunogenicity of Vi or of OAcP alone. Vi and OAcP conjugates synthesized by this scheme will be evaluated clinically.

  3. HIGH-IMPACT DROP EXERCISE ALTERS MECHANICAL PROPERTIES IN OSTEOPENIC BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Senishi Asano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Osteopenia is a reversible condition and precedes osteoporosis. Physical activity and mechanical loading appear to play an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis, without the side effects of targeted drug therapy. However, there is controversy as to which type of stimulus promotes more effective adaptations with respect to mechanical properties of bones. Objective: To investigate the effects of high-impact drop training on bone structure after ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in 40 10-week-old female Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty female rats (prevention program were randomly assigned into two groups (n=10: Ovariectomized sedentary (OVXs, and OVX trained (OVX+Dropt. OVX+Dropt animals began training 3 days after surgery. Another twenty female rats (treatment program were randomly assigned to two other groups (n=10: Ovariectomized sedentary (OVXs, and OVX trained (OVX+Dropt. OVX+Dropt animals began training 60 days after surgery. The rats in the trained groups were dropped from 40 cm height 20 times/day, 5 days/week over a period of 12 weeks period. At the end, the biomechanical tests were analyzed. Results: The final load and stiffness of the left tibia in the trained groups were higher than in the sedentary groups (p<0.05. Conclusions: Dropping exercise induced favorable changes in bone mechanical properties. High-impact drop exercise is effective to prevent bone loss after ovariectomy even when osteopenia is already established.

  4. Type 2 diabetes alters mesenchymal stem cell secretome composition and angiogenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Jonathan; Caliaperoumal, Guavri; Paquet, Joseph; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine; Petite, Herve; Anagnostou, Fani

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC) secretome and angiogenic properties. BMMSCs from Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF) (a T2DM model) and Zucker LEAN littermates (control) were cultured. The supernatant conditioned media (CM) from BMMSCs of diabetic and control rats were collected and analysed. Compared to results obtained using CM from LEAN-BMMSCs, the bioactive content of ZDF-BMMSC CM (i) differently affects endothelial cell (HUVEC) functions in vitro by inducing increased (3.5-fold; P CATD, FMOD LTBP1 and LTBP2, which are involved in angiogenesis and/or extracellular matrix composition. Addition of neutralizing antibodies against IGF-1, LTBP1 or LTBP2 in the CM of BMMSCs from diabetic rats decreased its stimulatory effect on HUVEC migration by approximately 60%, 40% or 40%, respectively. These results demonstrate that BMMSCs from T2DM rats have a unique secretome with distinct angiogenic properties and provide new insights into the role of BMMSCs in aberrant angiogenesis in the diabetic milieu. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  5. Human annulus fibrosus material properties from biaxial testing and constitutive modeling are altered with degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Grace D; Sen, Sounok; Elliott, Dawn M

    2012-03-01

    The annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disk undergoes large and multidirectional stresses and strains. Uniaxial tensile tests are limited for measuring AF material properties, because freely contracting edges can prevent fiber stretch and are not representative of in situ boundary conditions. The objectives of this study were to measure human AF biaxial tensile mechanics and to apply and validate a constitutive model to determine material properties. Biaxial tensile tests were performed on samples oriented along the circumferential-axial and the radial-axial directions. Data were fit to a structurally motivated anisotropic hyperelastic model composed of isotropic extra-fibrillar matrix, nonlinear fibers, and fiber-matrix interactions (FMI) normal to the fibers. The validated model was used to simulate shear and uniaxial tensile behavior, to investigate AF structure-function, and to quantify the effect of degeneration. The biaxial stress-strain response was described well by the model (R (2) > 0.9). The model showed that the parameters for fiber nonlinearity and the normal FMI correlated with degeneration, resulting in an elongated toe-region and lower stiffness with degeneration. The model simulations in shear and uniaxial tension successfully matched previously published circumferential direction Young's modulus, provided an explanation for the low values in previously published axial direction Young's modulus, and was able to simulate shear mechanics. The normal FMI were important contributors to stress and changed with degeneration, therefore, their microstructural and compositional source should be investigated. Finally, the biaxial mechanical data and constitutive model can be incorporated into a disk finite element model to provide improved quantification of disk mechanics.

  6. Extensor motoneurone properties are altered immediately before and during fictive locomotion in the adult decerebrate rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, C W; Power, K E; Chopek, J W; Gardiner, K R; Gardiner, P F

    2015-05-15

    This study examined motoneurone properties during fictive locomotion in the adult rat for the first time. Fictive locomotion was induced via electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region in decerebrate adult rats under neuromuscular blockade to compare basic and rhythmic motoneurone properties in antidromically identified extensor motoneurones during: (1) quiescence, before and after fictive locomotion; (2) the 'tonic' period immediately preceding locomotor-like activity, whereby the amplitude of peripheral flexor (peroneal) and extensor (tibial) nerves are increased but alternation has not yet occurred; and (3) locomotor-like episodes. Locomotion was identified by alternating flexor-extensor nerve activity, where the motoneurone either produced membrane oscillations consistent with a locomotor drive potential (LDP) or did not display membrane oscillation during alternating nerve activity. Cells producing LDPs were referred to as such, while those that did not were referred to as 'idle' motoneurones. LDP and idle motoneurones during locomotion had hyperpolarized spike threshold (Vth ; LDP: 3.8 mV; idle: 5.8 mV), decreased rheobase and an increased discharge rate (LDP: 64%; idle: 41%) during triangular ramp current injection even though the frequency-current slope was reduced by 70% and 55%, respectively. Modulation began in the tonic period immediately preceding locomotion, with a hyperpolarized Vth and reduced rheobase. Spike frequency adaptation did not occur in spiking LDPs or firing generated from sinusoidal current injection, but occurred during a sustained current pulse during locomotion. Input conductance showed no change. Results suggest motoneurone modulation occurs across the pool and is not restricted to motoneurones engaged in locomotion. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  7. Current considerations concerning endodontically treated teeth: alteration of hard dental tissues and biomechanical properties following endodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriu, Bogdan; Vârlan, Constantin; Suciu, Ioana; Vârlan, Virginia; Bodnar, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this general article is to present an overview of the current knowledge about composition and structural changes and also about specific biomechanical alterations related to vitality loss or endodontic therapy. For a long time, these issues have been controversially approached from a clinical standpoint and are therefore still confusing for many practitioners. Vitality loss or endodontic procedures seem to induce only negligible changes in hard dental tissue moisture. Physico-chemical properties of dentin can be modified by some of the endodontic chemical products used for chemo-mechanical debridement. On the other hand, tooth biomechanical behavior is affected, since tooth strength is reduced proportionally to coronal tissue loss, due to either pre-existent carious/non-carious lesions or cavity acces preparation, besides restorative procedures. The related literature shows the lack of accepted clinical standards and consensus regarding the optimal way of approaching the specific tooth biomechanics following endodontic therapy.

  8. Persistent alterations in active and passive electrical membrane properties of regenerated nerve fibers of man and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Alvarez Herrero, Susana; Rosberg, Mette R.

    2016-01-01

    patients with surgically repaired complete injuries of peripheral nerves of the arm 22 months-26 years prior to investigation, deviation of excitability measures was explained by a hyperpolarizing shift in the resting membrane potential and an increase in the passive 'Barrett and Barrett' conductance (GBB......Excitability of regenerated fibers remains impaired due to changes in both passive cable properties and alterations in the voltage-dependent membrane function. These abnormalities were studied by mathematical modeling in human regenerated nerves and experimental studies in mice. In three adult male...... activity protocol triggered partial Wallerian degeneration in regenerated nerves but not in control nerves from age-matched mice. The current data suggest that the nodal voltage-gated ion channel machinery is restored in regenerated axons, although the electrical separation from the internodal compartment...

  9. Pyrethroid receptor in the insect Na sup + channel: Alteration of its properties in pyrethroid-resistant flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauron, D.; Barhanin, J.; Amichot, M.; Pralavorio, M.; Berge, J.B.; Lazdunski, M. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Nice (France))

    1989-02-21

    Resistance to insecticides is a major problem in agriculture. ({sup 3}H)Saxitoxin binding experiments have shown that pyrethroid-sensitive and pyrethroid-resistant flies have the same amount of Na{sup +} channel protein in their brain membranes. Also, although flies are resistant to pyrethroids, they remain as sensitive to batrachotoxin, which is another type of Na{sup +} channel activators, as pyrethroid-sensitive flies. Pyrethroid binding sites have been characterized by use of the properties of pyrethroids to increase the specific ({sup 3}H)batrachotoxinin A 20{alpha}-benzoate binding component. K{sub 0.5} values for association of pyrethroids at the Na{sup +} channel of pyrethroid-sensitive flies are in the range of 0.15-0.25 {mu}M. Conversely, pyrethroids do not produce a significant increase of ({sup 3}H)batrachotoxinin A 20{alpha}-benzoate binding in pyrethroid-resistant flies even at high concentrations of the insecticide. It is concluded that linkage between pyrethroid and batrachotoxin binding sites is altered in the pyrethroid-resistant fly strains. This alteration is probably due to a drastically decreased affinity of the Na{sup +} channel for pyrethroids.

  10. Alteration of isolating properties of dense smectite clay in repository environment as exemplified by seven pre-quaternary clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.; Erlstroem, M.

    1987-12-01

    Seven pre-quaternary clays with a smectite content ranging between zero and about 25% were taken as possible reaction products resulting from chemical alteration of dense sodium bentonite. They were characterized with respect to the mineral composition and microstructural constitution and tested with reference to their hydraulic conductivity, swelling ability and creep properties. It was found that since they were all less permeable than a typical large granitic rock mass they would serve as flow barriers in a repository. Thus, even rather extreme chemical attack is not expected to eliminate the most important barrier function of Na bentonite in repository environment. However, slight mechanical disturbance of a heterogeneously altered smectite clay buffer or seal, may be critical. Thus, the investigated, less smectitic clays experienced a rather dramatic increase in hydraulic conductivity on expansion and remolding. This is explained by the inability of a microstructurally discontinuous smectite component - particularly in the Ca-form - to swell and fill voids. The minimum content of Na smectite to preserve the self-healing capacity is estimated at 15-25%. Slight or moderate cementation was indicated by two of the clays by the creep tests. At a smectite content of 15-25% it is probable that self-healing will take place after a mechanically induced breakage of the cementing bonds. The tests gave a good basis for future development of rational, routine tests as well as for a relevant characterization of buffer material candidates. (orig.)

  11. Psychological status and immunological parameters of institutionalized aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoloni, C; Guidi, L; Antico, L; Pariante, C M; Di Giovanni, A; Pili, R; Cursi, F; Tricerri, A; Tempesta, E; Frasca, D

    1991-01-01

    In the elderly, an impairment of the immune system could lead to increased incidence of infectious, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases; on the other hand, depression, which is the most common psychiatric problem in aged people, seems to be linked with alterations in immunological function. Thirteen institutionalized elderly subjects were studied to investigate the relationship between depression and immunological parameters. These subjects were selected as "healthy" according to the SENIEUR-EURAGE protocol and they belonged to a population already evaluated by our group--one year before--for psychological, endocrinological and immunological parameters. The lymphocyte mitotic response to PHA was greatly diminished in aged subjects, when compared to the adult controls. Depressed elderly showed impaired immunological function as compared with nondepressed ones, either "in vitro" or "in vivo". Lymphocyte stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), T cell growth factor (TCGF) production (induced by stimulation with PHA) and cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity (CDH) were reduced in depressed aged subjects. As far as lymphocyte proliferation with PHA in the whole group were concerned, no differences were found comparing the present results with those obtained in a former study. Although it is difficult to understand the significance of the immune imbalance associated with depression in the elderly, our results suggest that psychological status could influence the immunological functions in old people.

  12. Alterations in cancer cell mechanical properties after fluid shear stress exposure: a micropipette aspiration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivukula VK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Venkat Keshav Chivukula,1 Benjamin L Krog,1,2 Jones T Nauseef,2 Michael D Henry,2 Sarah C Vigmostad1 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Over 90% of cancer deaths result not from primary tumor development, but from metastatic tumors that arise after cancer cells circulate to distal sites via the circulatory system. While it is known that metastasis is an inefficient process, the effect of hemodynamic parameters such as fluid shear stress (FSS on the viability and efficacy of metastasis is not well understood. Recent work has shown that select cancer cells may be able to survive and possibly even adapt to FSS in vitro. The current research seeks to characterize the effect of FSS on the mechanical properties of suspended cancer cells in vitro. Nontransformed prostate epithelial cells (PrEC LH and transformed prostate cancer cells (PC-3 were used in this study. The Young's modulus was determined using micropipette aspiration. We examined cells in suspension but not exposed to FSS (unsheared and immediately after exposure to high (6,400 dyn/cm2 and low (510 dyn/cm2 FSS. The PrEC LH cells were ~140% stiffer than the PC-3 cells not exposed to FSS. Post-FSS exposure, there was an increase of ~77% in Young's modulus after exposure to high FSS and a ~47% increase in Young's modulus after exposure to low FSS for the PC-3 cells. There was no significant change in the Young's modulus of PrEC LH cells post-FSS exposure. Our findings indicate that cancer cells adapt to FSS, with an increased Young's modulus being one of the adaptive responses, and that this adaptation is specific only to PC-3 cells and is not seen in PrEC LH cells. Moreover, this adaptation appears to be graded in response to the magnitude of FSS experienced by the cancer cells. This is the first study

  13. Does Addition of Propolis to Glass Ionomer Cement Alter its Physicomechanical Properties? An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, P; Girish Babu, K L; Neeraja, G; Pillai, S

    Propolis is a natural resinous substance produced by honey bees. The antimicrobial effects of glass ionomer cement have been shown to improve with the addition of propolis; however its effect on the physicomechanical properties of the cement is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compressive strength and solubility of conventional restorative glass ionomer cement following the addition of propolis. Twenty half cylindrical samples were prepared with conventional restorative glass ionomer cement formed the control group. Another twenty samples were prepared with propolis added to conventional restorative glass ionomer cement formed the experimental group. The compressive strength was assessed using universal testing machine. To assess solubility, the samples were immersed in deionised water at room temperature, for 7 days. The solubility was measured as a difference in the weight of the sample; prior to immersion and following immersion at the end of each day. The control group had a significantly higher mean compressive strength of 146.26 Mpa as compared to the experimental group (135.06 Mpa). The solubility between the groups was significant. In comparison to the control group, incorporation of propolis to conventional restorative glass ionomer cement decreased the compressive strength significantly. The solubility of the cement in the experimental group increased significantly over 7day period as compared to the control group.

  14. Theoretical Investigations on the Influence of Artificially Altered Rock Mass Properties on Mechanical Excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlieb, Philipp; Bock, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a theoretical analysis of the influence of the rock mass rating on the cutting performance of roadheaders. Existing performance prediction models are assessed for their suitability for forecasting the influence of pre-damaging the rock mass with alternative methods like lasers or microwaves, prior to the mechanical excavation process. Finally, the RMCR model was chosen because it is the only reported model incorporating a range of rock mass properties into its calculations. The results show that even very tough rocks could be mechanically excavated if the occurrence, orientation and condition of joints are favourable for the cutting process. The calculated improvements in the cutting rate (m3/h) are up to 350% for the most favourable cases. In case of microwave irradiation of hard rocks with an UCS of 200 MPa, a reasonable improvement in the performance by 120% can be achieved with as little as an extra 0.7 kWh/m3 (= 1% more energy) compared to cutting only.

  15. Altered Biomechanical Properties of Gastrocnemius Tendons of Turkeys Infected with Turkey Arthritis Reovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A. Sharafeldin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV causes lameness and tenosynovitis in commercial turkeys and is often associated with gastrocnemius tendon rupture by the marketing age. This study was undertaken to characterize the biomechanical properties of tendons from reovirus-infected turkeys. One-week-old turkey poults were orally inoculated with O’Neil strain of TARV and observed for up to 16 weeks of age. Lameness was first observed at 8 weeks of age, which continued at 12 and 16 weeks. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, samples were collected from legs. Left intertarsal joint with adjacent gastrocnemius tendon was collected and processed for histological examination. The right gastrocnemius tendon’s tensile strength and elasticity modulus were analyzed by stressing each tendon to the point of rupture. At 16 weeks of age, gastrocnemius tendons of TARV-infected turkeys showed significantly reduced (P<0.05 tensile strength and modulus of elasticity as compared to those of noninfected control turkeys. Gastrocnemius tendons revealed lymphocytic tendinitis/tenosynovitis beginning at 4 weeks of age, continuing through 8 and 12 weeks, and progressing to fibrosis from 12 to 16 weeks of age. We propose that tendon fibrosis is one of the key features contributing to reduction in tensile strength and elasticity of gastrocnemius tendons in TARV-infected turkeys.

  16. Unique immunologic patterns in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behm Frederick G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic pain and allodynia. The diagnosis of FM has been one of exclusion as a test to confirm the diagnosis is lacking. Recent data highlight the role of the immune system in FM. Aberrant expressions of immune mediators, such as cytokines, have been linked to the pathogenesis and traits of FM. We therefore determined whether cytokine production by immune cells is altered in FM patients by comparing the cellular responses to mitogenic activators of stimulated blood mononuclear cells of a large number of patients with FM to those of healthy matched individuals. Methods Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected from 110 patients with the clinical diagnosis of FM and 91 healthy donors. Parallel samples of PBMC were cultured overnight in medium alone or in the presence of mitogenic activators; PHA or PMA in combination with ionomycin. The cytokine concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1β , MCP-1, and MIP1-α in plasma as well as in cultured supernatants were determined using a multiplex immunoassay using bead array technology. Results Cytokine levels of stimulated PBMC cultures of healthy control subjects were significantly increased as compared to matched non-stimulated PBMC cultures. In contrast, the concentrations of most cytokines were lower in stimulated samples from patients with FM compared to controls. The decreases of cytokine concentrations in patients samples ranged from 1.5-fold for MIP-1β to 10.2-fold for IL-6 in PHA challenges. In PMA challenges, we observed 1.8 to 4-fold decreases in the concentrations of cytokines in patient samples. Conclusion The cytokine responses to mitogenic activators of PBMC isolated from patients with FM were significantly lower than those of healthy individuals, implying that cell-mediated immunity is impaired in FM patients. This novel cytokine assay reveals unique and valuable

  17. The presence of serum alters the properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and lowers their accumulation by cultured brain astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Mark; Petters, Charlotte; Thiel, Karsten; Dringen, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Such particles are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and are taken up into brain cells. To test whether serum components affect the properties of IONPs and/or their uptake into brain cells, we have incubated dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic IONPs without and with fetal calf serum (FCS) and have exposed cultured brain astrocytes with IONPs in the absence or presence of FCS. Incubation with FCS caused a concentration-dependent increase in the average hydrodynamic diameter of the particles and of their zeta-potential. In the presence of 10 % FCS, the diameter of the IONPs increased from 57 ± 2 to 107 ± 6 nm and the zeta-potential of the particles from -22 ± 5 to -9 ± 1 mV. FCS affected also strongly the uptake of IONPs by cultured astrocytes. The efficient time- and temperature-dependent cellular accumulation of IONPs was lowered with increasing concentration of FCS by up to 90 %. In addition, in the absence of serum, endocytosis inhibitors did not alter the IONP accumulation by astrocytes, while chlorpromazine or wortmannin lowered significantly the accumulation of IONPs in the presence of FCS, suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis are involved in astrocytic IONP uptake from serum-containing medium. These data demonstrate that the presence of FCS strongly affects the properties of IONPs as well as their accumulation by cultured brain cells.

  18. The presence of serum alters the properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and lowers their accumulation by cultured brain astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geppert, Mark; Petters, Charlotte [University of Bremen, Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen (Germany); Thiel, Karsten [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (Germany); Dringen, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.dringen@uni-bremen.de [University of Bremen, Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Such particles are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and are taken up into brain cells. To test whether serum components affect the properties of IONPs and/or their uptake into brain cells, we have incubated dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic IONPs without and with fetal calf serum (FCS) and have exposed cultured brain astrocytes with IONPs in the absence or presence of FCS. Incubation with FCS caused a concentration-dependent increase in the average hydrodynamic diameter of the particles and of their zeta-potential. In the presence of 10 % FCS, the diameter of the IONPs increased from 57 {+-} 2 to 107 {+-} 6 nm and the zeta-potential of the particles from -22 {+-} 5 to -9 {+-} 1 mV. FCS affected also strongly the uptake of IONPs by cultured astrocytes. The efficient time- and temperature-dependent cellular accumulation of IONPs was lowered with increasing concentration of FCS by up to 90 %. In addition, in the absence of serum, endocytosis inhibitors did not alter the IONP accumulation by astrocytes, while chlorpromazine or wortmannin lowered significantly the accumulation of IONPs in the presence of FCS, suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis are involved in astrocytic IONP uptake from serum-containing medium. These data demonstrate that the presence of FCS strongly affects the properties of IONPs as well as their accumulation by cultured brain cells.

  19. A history of pediatric immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, E Richard; Johnston, Richard B

    2005-03-01

    Immunology has played a prominent role in the history of medicine. Pediatric immunologists have focused on immune aberrations in pediatric disorders, particularly those involving host defense mechanisms. These efforts have paid rich dividends in terms of fundamental knowledge of the immune system and major therapeutic advances, including 1) i.v. immunoglobulin therapy, 2) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and 3) gene therapy. Pediatric immunology as an organized discipline emerged in the early 1950s, when pediatricians and their basic scientist colleagues began to focus on clinical and basic research related to immunodeficiency. Since then, key organizations and infrastructure have been developed to support this research and the clinical care of immunodeficient patients. We review here the evolution of contemporary pediatric immunology, particularly in North America, from its roots in 19th-century Europe to its current expression as one of the fundamental scientific and clinical disciplines of pediatrics.

  20. Immunological Properties of Inulin-Type Fructans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, L.; Meyer, D.; Pullens, G.; Faas, M.M.; Smelt, M.J.; Venema, K.; Ramasamy, U.; Schols, H.A.; Vos, de P.

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of inulin-type fructans are discussed in view of studies that applied the oligosaccharides in colon cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, vaccination efficacy, and prevention of infection and allergy. In the present paper, we discuss their immunomodulating effects. It is

  1. Immunological properties of inulin-type fructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Leonie; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Faas, Marijke; Smelt, Maaike; Venema, Koen; Ramasamy, Uttara; Schols, Henk A; De Vos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of inulin-type fructans are discussed in view of studies that applied the oligosaccharides in colon cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, vaccination efficacy, and prevention of infection and allergy. In the present paper, we discuss their immunomodulating effects. It is suggested that immunomodulation is elicited through indirect and direct mechanisms. Indirect mechanisms encompass stimulation of growth and activity of lactic acid bacteria, but can also be caused by fermentation products of these bacteria, i.e., short chain fatty acids. Evidence for direct effects on the immune system generally remains to be confirmed. It is suggested that inulin-type fructans can be detected by gut dendritic cells (DCs), through receptor ligation of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors, nucleotide oligomerization domain containing proteins (NODs), C-type lectin receptors, and galectins, eventually inducing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. DCs may also exert antigen presenting capacity toward effector cells, such as B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells locally, or in the spleen. Inulin-type fructans may also ligate PRRs expressed on gut epithelium, which could influence its barrier function. Inulin-type fructans are potent immunomodulating food components that hold many promises for prevention of disease. However, more studies into the mechanisms, dose-effect relations, and structure-function studies are required.

  2. Citizens unite for computational immunology!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Orrin S; Baker, Sarah Catherine; Baker, Brian M

    2015-07-01

    Recruiting volunteers who can provide computational time, programming expertise, or puzzle-solving talent has emerged as a powerful tool for biomedical research. Recent projects demonstrate the potential for such 'crowdsourcing' efforts in immunology. Tools for developing applications, new funding opportunities, and an eager public make crowdsourcing a serious option for creative solutions for computationally-challenging problems. Expanded uses of crowdsourcing in immunology will allow for more efficient large-scale data collection and analysis. It will also involve, inspire, educate, and engage the public in a variety of meaningful ways. The benefits are real - it is time to jump in! Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunology of term and preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Morgan R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface and activates the parturition mechanism prematurely. Despite years of searching, there is still no broadly effective strategy for preventing preterm labor and most therapies are directed at inhibiting myometrial contractions and improving neonatal outcome. Recent studies with progestins and interleukin-10 (IL-10, however, are showing promise in randomized clinical trials and animal studies. Furthermore, the identification of the Toll-like receptors as upstream mediators of inflammation may offer alternative therapeutic targets for preventing this common pregnancy complication.

  4. Effects of altered catecholamine metabolism on pigmentation and physical properties of sclerotized regions in the silkworm melanism mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Qiao

    Full Text Available Catecholamine metabolism plays an important role in the determination of insect body color and cuticle sclerotization. To date, limited research has focused on these processes in silkworm. In the current study, we analyzed the interactions between catecholamines and melanin genes and their effects on the pigmentation patterns and physical properties of sclerotized regions in silkworm, using the melanic mutant melanism (mln silkworm strain as a model. Injection of β-alanine into mln mutant silkworm induced a change in catecholamine metabolism and turned its body color yellow. Further investigation of the catecholamine content and expression levels of the corresponding melanin genes from different developmental stages of Dazao-mln (mutant and Dazao (wild-type silkworm revealed that at the larval and adult stages, the expression patterns of melanin genes precipitated dopamine accumulation corresponding to functional loss of Bm-iAANAT, a repressive effect of excess NBAD on ebony, and upregulation of tan in the Dazao-mln strain. During the early pupal stage, dopamine did not accumulate in Dazao-mln, since upregulation of ebony and black genes led to conversion of high amounts of dopamine into NBAD, resulting in deep yellow cuticles. Scanning electron microscope analysis of a cross-section of adult dorsal plates from both wild-type and mutant silkworm disclosed the formation of different layers in Dazao-mln owing to lack of NADA, compared to even and dense layers in Dazao. Analysis of the mechanical properties of the anterior wings revealed higher storage modulus and lower loss tangent in Dazao-mln, which was closely associated with the altered catecholamine metabolism in the mutant strain. Based on these findings, we conclude that catecholamine metabolism is crucial for the color pattern and physical properties of cuticles in silkworm. Our results should provide a significant contribution to Lepidoptera cuticle tanning research.

  5. Ropivacaine alters the mechanical properties of hamstring tendons: In vitro controlled mechanical testing of tendons from living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, M; Sbihi, J; Sbihi, A; Pithioux, M; Parratte, S; Argenson, J-N

    2017-11-01

    -term alterations of the mechanical properties of hamstring tendons. If these results hold in vivo, this could lead to weakness of the soft tissues exposed to this product, particularly the tendons and ligaments around the injection area. Experimental study. Level 1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term reactive nitrogen loading alters soil carbon and microbial community properties in a subalpine forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Claudia M.; Hall, Ed K.; Denef, Karolien; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition due to increased fossil fuel combustion and agricultural practices has altered global carbon (C) cycling. Additions of reactive N to N-limited environments are typically accompanied by increases in plant biomass. Soil C dynamics, however, have shown a range of different responses to the addition of reactive N that seem to be ecosystem dependent. We evaluated the effect of N amendments on biogeochemical characteristics and microbial responses of subalpine forest organic soils in order to develop a mechanistic understanding of how soils are affected by N amendments in subalpine ecosystems. We measured a suite of responses across three years (2011–2013) during two seasons (spring and fall). Following 17 years of N amendments, fertilized soils were more acidic (control mean 5.09, fertilized mean 4.68), and had lower %C (control mean 33.7% C, fertilized mean 29.8% C) and microbial biomass C by 22% relative to control plots. Shifts in biogeochemical properties in fertilized plots were associated with an altered microbial community driven by reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal (control mean 3.2 mol%, fertilized mean 2.5 mol%) and saprotrophic fungal groups (control mean 17.0 mol%, fertilized mean 15.2 mol%), as well as a decrease in N degrading microbial enzyme activity. Our results suggest that decreases in soil C in subalpine forests were in part driven by increased microbial degradation of soil organic matter and reduced inputs to soil organic matter in the form of microbial biomass.

  7. Immunologic Targeting Of Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.; Chen, M. R.; Linden, R.

    1989-06-01

    A number of laboratories have demonstrated that immunoconjugates may have potential in phototherapy of cancer. The phototoxic effectiveness of these conjugates may be increased by manipulation of irradiation parameters and by biochemical and immunologic modulation. Results from experiments aimed at potentiation of immunoconjugate photosensitization are presented.

  8. CCL8 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of CCL8.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...

  9. Immunological aspects of Graves' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. van Ouwerkerk (Marcel)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractAssuming an autoimmune interested to know whether apart from restoring the immunologic parameters. Freshly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease were all similarly treated with MMI 10 mg t.i.d. and when euthyroidism was achieved, with substitution of thyroid hormone. At

  10. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Joint Congress Mark your calendars and head to Orlando for the premier event in allergy/immunology. You ... Of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Life Spectrum of Asthma Meeting School-based Asthma Management Program – (SAMPRO TM ) This ...

  11. Intensive educational course in allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, A; Perez, E E; Sriaroon, P; Nguyen, D; Lockey, R F; Dorsey, M J

    2012-09-01

    A one-day intensive educational course on allergy and immunology theory and diagnostic procedure significantly increased the competency of allergy and immunology fellows-in-training. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Mechano-growth factor induces migration of rat mesenchymal stem cells by altering its mechanical properties and activating ERK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiamin; Wu, Kewen; Lin, Feng; Luo, Qing; Yang, Li; Shi, Yisong [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Song, Guanbin, E-mail: song@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Sung, Kuo-Li Paul [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0412 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •MGF induced the migration of rat MSC in a concentration-dependent manner. •MGF enhanced the mechanical properties of rMSC in inducing its migration. •MGF activated the ERK 1/2 signaling pathway of rMSC in inducing its migration. •rMSC mechanics may synergy with ERK 1/2 pathway in MGF-induced rMSC migration. -- Abstract: Mechano-growth factor (MGF) generated by cells in response to mechanical stimulation has been identified as a mechano effector molecule, playing a key role in regulating mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) function, including proliferation and migration. However, the mechanism(s) underlying how MGF-induced MSC migration occurs is still unclear. In the present study, MGF motivated migration of rat MSCs (rMSCs) in a concentration-dependent manner and optimal concentration of MGF at 50 ng/mL (defined as MGF treatment in this paper) was demonstrated. Notably, enhancement of mechanical properties that is pertinent to cell migration, such as cell traction force and cell stiffness were found to respond to MGF treatment. Furthermore, MGF increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), ERK inhibitor (i.e., PD98059) suppressed ERK phosphorylation, and abolished MGF-induced rMSC migration were found, demonstrating that ERK is involved molecule for MGF-induced rMSC migration. These in vitro evidences of MGF-induced rMSC migration and its direct link to altering rMSC mechanics and activating the ERK pathway, uncover the underlying biomechanical and biological mechanisms of MGF-induced rMSC migration, which may help find MGF-based application of MSC in clinical therapeutics.

  13. Highly effective enhancement of waste activated sludge dewaterability by altering proteins properties using methanol solution coupled with inorganic coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiongying; Wang, Qiandi; Zhang, Weijun; Yang, Peng; Du, Youjing; Wang, Dongsheng

    2018-03-16

    approach to improving sludge dewaterability through the alteration of protein properties by use of physiochemical techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spaceflight on the Bion-M1 biosatellite alters cerebral artery vasomotor and mechanical properties in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronova, Svetlana I; Tarasova, Olga S; Gaynullina, Dina; Borzykh, Anna A; Behnke, Bradley J; Stabley, John N; McCullough, Danielle J; Maraj, Joshua J; Hanna, Mina; Muller-Delp, Judy M; Vinogradova, Olga L; Delp, Michael D

    2015-04-01

    Conditions during spaceflight, such as the loss of the head-to-foot gravity vector, are thought to potentially alter cerebral blood flow and vascular resistance. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the functional, mechanical, and structural properties of cerebral arteries. Male C57BL/6N mice were flown 30 days in a Bion-M1 biosatellite. Basilar arteries isolated from spaceflight (SF) (n = 6), habitat control (HC) (n = 6), and vivarium control (VC) (n = 16) mice were used for in vitro functional and mechanical testing and histological structural analysis. The results demonstrate that vasoconstriction elicited through a voltage-gated Ca(2+) mechanism (30-80 mM KCl) and thromboxane A2 receptors (10(-8) - 3 × 10(-5) M U46619) are lower in cerebral arteries from SF mice. Inhibition of Rho-kinase activity (1 μM Y27632) abolished group differences in U46619-evoked contractions. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation elicited by acetylcholine (10 μM, 2 μM U46619 preconstriction) was virtually absent in cerebral arteries from SF mice. The pressure-diameter relation was lower in arteries from SF mice relative to that in HC mice, which was not related to differences in the extracellular matrix protein elastin or collagen content or the elastin/collagen ratio in the basilar arteries. Diameter, medial wall thickness, and medial cross-sectional area of unpressurized basilar arteries were not different among groups. These results suggest that the microgravity-induced attenuation of both vasoconstrictor and vasodilator properties may limit the range of vascular control of cerebral perfusion or impair the distribution of brain blood flow during periods of stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Altered Soil Properties Inhibit Fruit Set but Increase Progeny Performance for a Foundation Tree in a Highly Fragmented Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya M. Llorens

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Failing to test multiple or non-standard variables in studies that investigate the effects of habitat fragmentation on plant populations may limit the detection of unexpected causative relationships. Here, we investigated the impacts of habitat fragmentation on the pollination, reproduction, mating system and progeny performance of Eucalyptus wandoo, a foundation tree that is bird and insect pollinated with a mixed-mating system. We explored a range of possible causative mechanisms, including soil properties that are likely to be altered in the agricultural matrix of a landscape that has naturally nutrient-poor soils and secondary soil salinization caused by the removal of native vegetation. We found very strong negative relationships between soil salinity and fruit production, thus providing some of the first evidence for the effects of salinity on reproduction in remnant plant populations. Additionally, we found unexpectedly higher rates of seedling survival in linear populations, most likely driven by increased soil P content from adjacent cereal cropping. Higher rates of seed germination in small populations were related to both higher pollen immigration and greater nutrient availability. Trees in small populations had unexpectedly much higher levels of pollination than in large populations, but they produced fewer seeds per fruit and outcrossing rates did not vary consistently with fragmentation. These results are consistent with small populations having much higher insect abundances but also increased rates of self-pollination, combined with seed abortion mechanisms that are common in the Myrtaceae. This study highlights the need to better understand and mitigate sub-lethal effects of secondary soil salinity in plants growing in agricultural remnants, and indicates that soil properties may play an important role in influencing seed quality.

  16. Mechano-growth factor induces migration of rat mesenchymal stem cells by altering its mechanical properties and activating ERK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiamin; Wu, Kewen; Lin, Feng; Luo, Qing; Yang, Li; Shi, Yisong; Song, Guanbin; Sung, Kuo-Li Paul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •MGF induced the migration of rat MSC in a concentration-dependent manner. •MGF enhanced the mechanical properties of rMSC in inducing its migration. •MGF activated the ERK 1/2 signaling pathway of rMSC in inducing its migration. •rMSC mechanics may synergy with ERK 1/2 pathway in MGF-induced rMSC migration. -- Abstract: Mechano-growth factor (MGF) generated by cells in response to mechanical stimulation has been identified as a mechano effector molecule, playing a key role in regulating mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) function, including proliferation and migration. However, the mechanism(s) underlying how MGF-induced MSC migration occurs is still unclear. In the present study, MGF motivated migration of rat MSCs (rMSCs) in a concentration-dependent manner and optimal concentration of MGF at 50 ng/mL (defined as MGF treatment in this paper) was demonstrated. Notably, enhancement of mechanical properties that is pertinent to cell migration, such as cell traction force and cell stiffness were found to respond to MGF treatment. Furthermore, MGF increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), ERK inhibitor (i.e., PD98059) suppressed ERK phosphorylation, and abolished MGF-induced rMSC migration were found, demonstrating that ERK is involved molecule for MGF-induced rMSC migration. These in vitro evidences of MGF-induced rMSC migration and its direct link to altering rMSC mechanics and activating the ERK pathway, uncover the underlying biomechanical and biological mechanisms of MGF-induced rMSC migration, which may help find MGF-based application of MSC in clinical therapeutics

  17. A new era in veterinary immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of

  18. 42 CFR 493.921 - Diagnostic immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic immunology. 493.921 Section 493.921... Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.921 Diagnostic immunology. The subspecialties under the specialty of immunology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are syphilis...

  19. Emerging immunological drugs for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robak, Pawel; Smolewski, Piotr; Robak, Tadeusz

    2015-09-01

    Over the last few years, several new immunological drugs, particularly monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), immunomodulatory drugs and B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway inhibitors have been developed and investigated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This article summarizes recent discoveries regarding their mechanism of action, pharmacological properties, clinical activity and toxicity, as well as the emerging role of these agents in CLL. A literature review of mAbs, BCR pathway inhibitors and immunomodulating drugs was conducted of the MEDLINE database via PubMed for articles in English. Publications from 2000 through February 2015 were scrutinized. The search terms used were alemtuzumab, BI 836826, duvelisib ibrutinib, idelalisib, lenalidomide, monoclonal antibodies, MEDI-551, MOR208, obinutuzumab, ocaratuzumab, ofatumumab, ONO-4059, otlertuzumab, spebrutinib, veltuzumab and XmAb5574 in conjunction with CLL. Conference proceedings from the previous 5 years of the American Society of Hematology, European Hematology Association, American Society of Clinical Oncology, and ACR/ARHP Annual Scientific Meetings were searched manually. Additional relevant publications were obtained by reviewing the references from the chosen articles. The use of mAbs, BCR inhibitors and immunomodulating drugs is a promising new strategy for chemotherapy-free treatment of CLL. However, definitive data from ongoing and future clinical trials will aid in better defining the status of immunological drugs in the treatment of this disease.

  20. IMMUNOLOGIC RESPONSE TO HIV INFECTION: MAIN IMMUNOPATHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Geraldelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The intense degradation of defense cells caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in an organism and the speed at which the viral genome mutates to escape the initial immune response are the prime difficulties in combating opportunistic diseases and in creating an efficient vaccine for this virus. The common opportunistic diseases observed for HIV positive patients include tuberculosis, candidiasis and toxoplasmosis. One of the risk factors is the decrease in CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and the high plasmatic viral load, rendering the organism susceptible to these pathogens. Despite the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy, this does not provide total elimination of the virus, only eliminating the virus present in the plasma. On treatment withdrawal, the infected latent CD4+ T-cells can re-establish the infection, conferring a large barrier to definitive HIV cure. Current studies have evaluated the inhibition of class I histone diacetylase (HDAC enzymes as a strategy to induce the viral gene expression and, consequently, the gradual emptying of latent reservoirs of the virus, improving the action of antiretroviral therapy. Thus, the monitoring of immune activation and counting of CD4+ T-lymphocytes are of fundamental importance to the prognosis of HIV patients, along with early diagnoses of opportunistic diseases, in order to avoid complications from these diseases.

  1. Immunologic assessment of patients with pulmonary metaplasia and neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.L.; Saccomanno, G.; Smith, D.M.; Saunders, R.; Thomas, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Immune profiles have been obtained on 206 individuals including 57 controls, 50 lung cancer patients, and 99 uranium miners with well-defined sputum cytologies ranging from normal to carcinoma in situ. Little effect of smoking, uranium mining or a combination of mining plus smoking on immune function was observed if sputum cytology was normal. In heavy smokers there was a suggestion that total T cells are increased while T cell function is slightly depressed. Immunologic abnormalities were noted in the moderate atypia group where 40% had one or more abnormal immunologic parameters. Immunologic abnormalities were detected in 68 to 70 patients with marked atypia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive carcinoma. Further sequential study of the uranium miner population is necessary to define more precisely the predictive value of immunologic testing, and the role of early identification of high risk individuals in the early institution of definitive therapy, such as surgery or immunotherapy. Long-term prospective analysis of this population may also provide the answer to the question of whether alterations in immune function precede, or result from the appearance of cells committed to the development of neoplasia

  2. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  3. Immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F; Simon, Jakub K; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Removable thermoplastic appliances modified by incisal cuts show altered biomechanical properties during tipping of a maxillary central incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipp Brockmeyer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed to evaluate the force delivery of removable thermoplastic appliances (RTAs, modified by different sized incisal cuts, during tipping of a maxillary central incisor in palatal and vestibular direction. Methods Forty-five RTAs from three different materials (Biolon®, Erkodur®, Ideal Clear® of the same thickness (1 mm were used. Analysis was performed on a separated maxillary central incisor which was part of a resin model with a complete dentition. In 15 RTAs, of different material, a cut was inserted at the incisal edge of tooth 11. In 15 other appliances, the cut was extended to teeth 12 and 21. Fifteen aligners remained uncut. The experimental tooth was tipped starting from the zero position in 0.05° steps to a maximal deflection of ± 0.42° of the incisal edge in vestibular and palatal direction, after positioning the RTA onto the model. Results The horizontal (Fx and the vertical (Fz force components were decreased by approximately half with increasing cut size. Fz values changed during palatal tipping from a weak intrusive force, for aligners without cut, to an extrusive force with increasing cut size. Compared to both other materials used (Erkodur® and Ideal Clear®, the Biolon® aligners showed significantly higher Fx and Fz values (p < 0.0001, respectively. Conclusions RTAs modified by different sized incisal cuts show altered biomechanical properties and an inversion of the vertical force component, during tipping of a maxillary central incisor.

  5. Removable thermoplastic appliances modified by incisal cuts show altered biomechanical properties during tipping of a maxillary central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Phillipp; Kramer, Katharina; Böhrnsen, Florian; Gruber, Rudolf Matthias; Batschkus, Sarah; Rödig, Tina; Hahn, Wolfram

    2017-08-28

    The present study aimed to evaluate the force delivery of removable thermoplastic appliances (RTAs), modified by different sized incisal cuts, during tipping of a maxillary central incisor in palatal and vestibular direction. Forty-five RTAs from three different materials (Biolon®, Erkodur®, Ideal Clear®) of the same thickness (1 mm) were used. Analysis was performed on a separated maxillary central incisor which was part of a resin model with a complete dentition. In 15 RTAs, of different material, a cut was inserted at the incisal edge of tooth 11. In 15 other appliances, the cut was extended to teeth 12 and 21. Fifteen aligners remained uncut. The experimental tooth was tipped starting from the zero position in 0.05° steps to a maximal deflection of ± 0.42° of the incisal edge in vestibular and palatal direction, after positioning the RTA onto the model. The horizontal (Fx) and the vertical (Fz) force components were decreased by approximately half with increasing cut size. Fz values changed during palatal tipping from a weak intrusive force, for aligners without cut, to an extrusive force with increasing cut size. Compared to both other materials used (Erkodur® and Ideal Clear®), the Biolon® aligners showed significantly higher Fx and Fz values (p < 0.0001, respectively). RTAs modified by different sized incisal cuts show altered biomechanical properties and an inversion of the vertical force component, during tipping of a maxillary central incisor.

  6. Persistent alterations in active and passive electrical membrane properties of regenerated nerve fibers of man and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Alvarez, Susana; Rosberg, Mette R; Krarup, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Excitability of regenerated fibers remains impaired due to changes in both passive cable properties and alterations in the voltage-dependent membrane function. These abnormalities were studied by mathematical modeling in human regenerated nerves and experimental studies in mice. In three adult male patients with surgically repaired complete injuries of peripheral nerves of the arm 22 months-26 years prior to investigation, deviation of excitability measures was explained by a hyperpolarizing shift in the resting membrane potential and an increase in the passive 'Barrett and Barrett' conductance (GBB) bridging the nodal and internodal compartments. These changes were associated with an increase in the 'fast' K(+) conductance and the inward rectifier conductance (GH). Similar changes were found in regenerated mouse tibial motor axons at 1 month after a sciatic crush lesion. During the first 5 months of regeneration, GH showed partial recovery, which paralleled that in GBB. The internodal length remained one-third of normal. Excitability abnormalities could be reversed by the energy-dependent Na(+)/K(+) pump blocker ouabain resulting in membrane depolarization. Stressing the Na(+) pumping system during a strenuous activity protocol triggered partial Wallerian degeneration in regenerated nerves but not in control nerves from age-matched mice. The current data suggest that the nodal voltage-gated ion channel machinery is restored in regenerated axons, although the electrical separation from the internodal compartment remains compromised. Due to the persistent increase in number of nodes, the increased activity-dependent Na(+) influx could lead to hyperactivity of the Na(+)/K(+) pump resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and neurotoxic energy insufficiency during strenuous activity. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Modeling and predictions of biphasic mechanosensitive cell migration altered by cell-intrinsic properties and matrix confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Amit

    2018-04-12

    Motile cells sense the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM) through adhesions and respond by modulating the generated forces, which in turn lead to varying mechanosensitive migration phenotypes. Through modeling and experiments, cell migration speed is known to vary with matrix stiffness in a biphasic manner, with optimal motility at an intermediate stiffness. Here, we present a two-dimensional cell model defined by nodes and elements, integrated with subcellular modeling components corresponding to mechanotransductive adhesion formation, force generation, protrusions and node displacement. On 2D matrices, our calculations reproduce the classic biphasic dependence of migration speed on matrix stiffness and predict that cell types with higher force-generating ability do not slow down on very stiff matrices, thus disabling the biphasic response. We also predict that cell types defined by lower number of total receptors require stiffer matrices for optimal motility, which also limits the biphasic response. For a cell type with robust biphasic migration on 2D surface, simulations in channel-like confined environments of varying width and height predict faster migration in more confined matrices. Simulations performed in shallower channels predict that the biphasic mechanosensitive cell migration response is more robust on 2D micro-patterns as compared to the channel-like 3D confinement. Thus, variations in the dimensionality of matrix confinement alters the way migratory cells sense and respond to the matrix stiffness. Our calculations reveal new phenotypes of stiffness- and topography-sensitive cell migration that critically depend on both cell-intrinsic and matrix properties. These predictions may inform our understanding of various mechanosensitive modes of cell motility that could enable tumor invasion through topographically heterogeneous microenvironments. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. The role of shear stress and altered tissue properties on endothelial to mesenchymal transformation and tumor-endothelial cell interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Sara G; Huang, Peter; Murray, Bruce T; Mahler, Gretchen J

    2017-07-01

    Tumor development is influenced by stromal cells in aspects including invasion, growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Activated fibroblasts are one group of stromal cells involved in cancer metastasis, and one source of activated fibroblasts is endothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EndMT). EndMT begins when the endothelial cells delaminate from the cell monolayer, lose cell-cell contacts, lose endothelial markers such as vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin), gain mesenchymal markers like alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and acquire mesenchymal cell-like properties. A three-dimensional (3D) culture microfluidic device was developed for investigating the role of steady low shear stress (1 dyne/cm 2 ) and altered extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and stiffness on EndMT. Shear stresses resulting from fluid flow within tumor tissue are relevant to both cancer metastasis and treatment effectiveness. Low and oscillatory shear stress rates have been shown to enhance the invasion of metastatic cancer cells through specific changes in actin and tubulin remodeling. The 3D ECM within the device was composed of type I collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. An increase in collagen and GAGs has been observed in the solid tumor microenvironment and has been correlated with poor prognosis in many different cancer types. In this study, it was found that ECM composition and low shear stress upregulated EndMT, including upregulation of mesenchymal-like markers (α-SMA and Snail) and downregulated endothelial marker protein and gene expression (VE-cadherin). Furthermore, this novel model was utilized to investigate the role of EndMT in breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. Cancer cell spheroids were embedded within the 3D ECM of the microfluidic device. The results using this device show for the first time that the breast cancer spheroid size is dependent on shear stress and that the cancer cell migration rate

  9. Some advances in radiation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuzheng

    1985-01-01

    This paper is an overview of some of the recent advances in the study of radiation effects on immunity with special emphasis on the relation between radiation immunology and radiation carcinogenesis. The first part of the paper discusses the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes, emphasizing the heterogeneity of the lymphocyte population, the relative radiosensitivity of different lymphocyte subpopulations and their subsets, and the effect of the state of activation on lymphocyte radiosensitivity. The second part deals with the essentials of the theory of immunological surveillance, the specific and nonspecific components of anti-tumor immunity, and the effects of radiation on them. The last part of the paper is concerned with the phenomenon of radiation-induced augmentation of the immune response and the expression of radiation hormesis in the immune system with brief descriptions of some of the data from the author's laboratory. The need for a more sophisticated study of the possible hormetic effects of low level radiation on the immune system and other defense and adaptive functions of the body is stressed

  10. Overview of spaceflight immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight and analogues of spaceflight are discussed here and in nine accompanying articles. In this summary we present spaceflight studies with human subjects, animal subjects, and cell cultures and we review ground-based systems used to model the observed effects of spaceflight on the immune system. Human paradigms include bed rest, academic or psychological stress, physical stress, hypobaric or high altitude stress, and confinement. Animal models include antiorthostatic and orthostatic suspension, hypobarism, and confinement. The ten manuscripts in this collection were selected to provide a summary that should give the reader an overview of the various activities of spaceflight immunology researchers throughout the history of space travel. This manuscript identifies the major contributors to the study of spaceflight immunology, explains what types of studies have been conducted, and how they have changed over the years. Also presented is a discussion of the unusual limitations associated with spaceflight research and the efforts to develop appropriate ground-based surrogate model systems. Specific details, data, and mechanistic speculations will be held to a minimum, because they will be discussed in depth in the other articles in the collection.

  11. Virological and Immunological Aspects of AIDS Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Conway

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common and serious problem associated with long term antiretroviral therapy is waning efficacy over time. To date. a number of studies has suggested an association between drug resistance and clinical deterioration. However. a precise causal relationship has yet to be demonstrated. In a large American clinical trial. resistance to zidovudine (ZDV was predictive of subsequent disease progression if this therapy was continued. Surprisingly. this was also predictive of deterioration if therapy was changed to didanosine (ddl. This suggests that other factors (perhaps virological and immunological which may be present in addition to resistance. were as important (if not more so in predicting clinical outcomes. It is likely that viral load. resistance. viral phenotype and alterations in immune function interact in this regard. Proper· studies may allow us to determine a “threshold” for a composite virological and immunological parameter beyond which disease progression will occur. As more antiretroviral agents become available. we will be in a position to intervene to “improve” laboratory markers and monitor them prospectively. potentially to maintain clinical latency for an indefinite period of time. In the authors' laboratories, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the evaluation of circulating proviral load has been developed. In an initial study of 70 patients. proviral load/ 106 CD4 cells was clearly associated with the severity of immune disease. with up to 9.6% of cells being infected in subjects with CD4 cell counts below 200/µL. However. large variability in proviral load among individuals with comparable or dissimilar CD4 cell counts precludes the use of this measurement as an individual marker of the severity of immune disease. More recent work evaluated the combined use of proviral load (expressed as a dichotomous variable based on values above or below one copy/a03 CD4 cells and resistance in a prospective

  12. [Bilharzial granuloma - immunological aspects (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, J P

    1981-01-01

    Living eggs of schistosoma are responsible for the tissular granulomatous reactions of the parasitized organism. It has been demonstrated that this process resorts to a reaction of delayed hypersensitivity related to the complex immunologic mechanisms involving egg specific antigens and immunocompetent cells (lympho-plasmocytic cells). In long duration infections, the granulomatous reaction disappears (endogenic desensitization by immunological processes).

  13. The ninth international veterinary immunology symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...

  14. Information and Announcements Refresher Course in Immunology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Refresher Course in Immunology will be held for college/university teachers at the Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 from 25 November to 7 December 2002. The course will consist of lectures and group discussions both on basic and clinical aspects of immunology with special.

  15. The immunology of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culshaw, Abigail; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Screaton, Gavin

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was initially thought to cause only mild, self-limiting symptoms. However, recent outbreaks have been associated with the autoimmune disease Guillain-Barré syndrome and causally linked to a congenital malformation known as microcephaly. This has led to an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine. A comprehensive understanding of the immunology of ZIKV infection is required to aid in the design of such a vaccine. Whilst details of both innate and adaptive immune responses to ZIKV are emerging, further research is needed. As immunopathogenesis has been implicated in poor outcomes following infection with the related dengue virus, identification of cross-reactive immune responses between flaviviruses and the impact they may have on disease progression is also of high importance.

  16. A roadmap towards personalized immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, Sylvie; Bode, Sebastian F N; Balling, Rudi; Ollert, Markus; He, Feng Q

    2018-01-01

    Big data generation and computational processing will enable medicine to evolve from a "one-size-fits-all" approach to precise patient stratification and treatment. Significant achievements using "Omics" data have been made especially in personalized oncology. However, immune cells relative to tumor cells show a much higher degree of complexity in heterogeneity, dynamics, memory-capability, plasticity and "social" interactions. There is still a long way ahead on translating our capability to identify potentially targetable personalized biomarkers into effective personalized therapy in immune-centralized diseases. Here, we discuss the recent advances and successful applications in "Omics" data utilization and network analysis on patients' samples of clinical trials and studies, as well as the major challenges and strategies towards personalized stratification and treatment for infectious or non-communicable inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune diseases or allergies. We provide a roadmap and highlight experimental, clinical, computational analysis, data management, ethical and regulatory issues to accelerate the implementation of personalized immunology.

  17. The immunology of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelhan, Marc; Pfister, Dominik; O'Connor, Tracy; Pikarsky, Eli; Heikenwalder, Mathias

    2018-03-01

    In contrast to most other malignancies, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which accounts for approximately 90% of primary liver cancers, arises almost exclusively in the setting of chronic inflammation. Irrespective of etiology, a typical sequence of chronic necroinflammation, compensatory liver regeneration, induction of liver fibrosis and subsequent cirrhosis often precedes hepatocarcinogenesis. The liver is a central immunomodulator that ensures organ and systemic protection while maintaining immunotolerance. Deregulation of this tightly controlled liver immunological network is a hallmark of chronic liver disease and HCC. Notably, immunotherapies have raised hope for the successful treatment of advanced HCC. Here we summarize the roles of specific immune cell subsets in chronic liver disease, with a focus on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and HCC. We review new advances in immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of HCC and discuss the challenges posed by the immunotolerant hepatic environment and the dual roles of adaptive and innate immune cells in HCC.

  18. A roadmap towards personalized immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delhalle, Sylvie; Bode, Sebastian F N; Balling, Rudi

    2018-01-01

    Big data generation and computational processing will enable medicine to evolve from a "one-size-fits-all" approach to precise patient stratification and treatment. Significant achievements using "Omics" data have been made especially in personalized oncology. However, immune cells relative......-centralized diseases. Here, we discuss the recent advances and successful applications in "Omics" data utilization and network analysis on patients' samples of clinical trials and studies, as well as the major challenges and strategies towards personalized stratification and treatment for infectious or non......-communicable inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune diseases or allergies. We provide a roadmap and highlight experimental, clinical, computational analysis, data management, ethical and regulatory issues to accelerate the implementation of personalized immunology....

  19. Immunological consideration for some aspects of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makidono, Atsushi; Makidono, Tohoru; Yoshimoto, Kiichiro.

    1978-01-01

    What immunology should be in radiology was considered from the modern immunological and radioimmunological point of view. In order to evaluate an immunological response to radiation at a cellular level, radiosensitivities of macrophage, T-cell, and B-cell were selectively described from a modern immunological stand point. On the basis of this knowledge, radioimmunology was explained; and in clinical field, diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumor, radiotherapy for suppressing immuno-lymphatic system, and reactivators for making the treatment effective were described. Immunoreaction in homo-transplantation of organs, relationship between radiation and auto-immunization, and relationship between carcinogenesis of radiation and immunity were explained so that the way of considering immunology in radiology will be summarized. (Ueda, J.)

  20. Magnetic minerals in Pliocene and Pleistocene marine marls from Southern Italy : rock magnetic properties and alteration during thermal demagnetization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Velzen, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The rock magnetic properties of two different Pliocene to Pleistocene marine marls from southern Italy are studied. Different conditions during sedimentation have led to two completely different magnetic mineralogies in these marls. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 examine the rock magnetic properties of the

  1. Regulatory T Cells in HIV-Infected Immunological Nonresponders Are Increased in Blood but Depleted in Lymphoid Tissue and Predict Immunological Reconstitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Ronit, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    . In contrast, responders resembled healthy controls. Finally, in INR, high level of Tregs in blood and Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue were associated with higher level of immunological reconstitution after 1 year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, altered distribution of Tregs was found in INR......BACKGROUND: HIV-infected immunological nonresponders fail to immune reconstitute despite optimal treatment. We hypothesized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in immunological reconstitution. Tregs and Treg subpopulations were measured in blood and Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue...... (CD4 T-cell count 200-500 cells/μL), 30 responders (CD4 T-cell count >500 cells/μL), and 34 healthy controls. Tregs, Treg subpopulations, and intracellular staining for interleukin 10 in peripheral blood were measured using flow cytometry. Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue were evaluated using...

  2. Recognition of higher order patterns in proteins: immunologic kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Bremel

    Full Text Available By applying analysis of the principal components of amino acid physical properties we predicted cathepsin cleavage sites, MHC binding affinity, and probability of B-cell epitope binding of peptides in tetanus toxin and in ten diverse additional proteins. Cross-correlation of these metrics, for peptides of all possible amino acid index positions, each evaluated in the context of a ±25 amino acid flanking region, indicated that there is a strongly repetitive pattern of short peptides of approximately thirty amino acids each bounded by cathepsin cleavage sites and each comprising B-cell linear epitopes, MHC-I and MHC-II binding peptides. Such "immunologic kernel" peptides comprise all signals necessary for adaptive immunologic cognition, response and recall. The patterns described indicate a higher order spatial integration that forms a symbolic logic coordinating the adaptive immune system.

  3. Characteristics of Endotoxin-Altering Fractions Derived from Normal Serum III. Isolation and Properties of Horse Serum alpha(2)-Macroglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, M; Konno, S

    1970-05-01

    The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an alpha(2)-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III(0), whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate.

  4. Characteristics of Endotoxin-Altering Fractions Derived from Normal Serum III. Isolation and Properties of Horse Serum α2-Macroglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Morimasa; Konno, Seishi

    1970-01-01

    The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an α2-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III0, whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate. Images PMID:16557754

  5. Induced ferromagnetic and gas sensing properties in ZnO-nanostructures by altering defect concentration of oxygen and zinc vacancies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the effect of the synthesis reaction-time on the structural, optical, magnetic and sensing properties of ZnO-nanostructures. Electron paramagnetic resonance and photoluminescence analyses reveal that singly ionized oxygen vacancies (Vþ...

  6. Czech Immunological Society (CIS): Immunological „enthusiasm“ that began in the 1950s and 60s

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říhová, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2012), s. 1658-1659 ISSN 0014-2980 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Czech Immunological Society * Immunology Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.970, year: 2012

  7. Outcomes of allergy/immunology follow-up after an emergency department evaluation for anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ronna L; Park, Miguel A; Kueber, Michael A; Lee, Sangil; Hagan, John B

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis guidelines currently recommend referring patients with anaphylaxis seen in the emergency department (ED) to an allergist for follow up. The objective of our study was to evaluate outcomes of allergy/immunology follow-up after an ED visit for anaphylaxis. A retrospective health records review was conducted from April 2008 to August 2012. Charts were reviewed independently by 2 allergists to determine outcomes. Descriptive statistics with corresponding 95% CIs were calculated. Among 573 patients seen in the ED who met anaphylaxis diagnostic criteria, 217 (38%) had a documented allergy/immunology follow-up. After allergy/immunology evaluation, 16 patients (7% [95% CI, 5%-12%]) had anaphylaxis ruled out. Among those with an unknown ED trigger (n = 74), 24 (32% [95% CI, 23%-44%]) had a trigger identified; and, among those who had a specific suspected ED trigger (n = 143), 9 (6% [95% CI, 3%-12%]) had a trigger identified in a category other than the one suspected in the ED, and 28 (20% [95% CI, 14%-27%]) had an unknown trigger. Thus, there were a total of 77 patients (35% [95% CI, 29%-42%]) who had an alteration in the diagnosis of anaphylaxis or trigger after allergy/immunology evaluation. Four patients (2% [95% CI, 0.7%-4.6%]) were diagnosed with a mast cell activation disorder, and 13 patients (6% [95% CI, 4%-10%]) underwent immunotherapy or desensitization. Overall, 35% of the patients with suspected anaphylaxis in the ED had an alteration in the diagnosis or suspected trigger after allergy/immunology evaluation. These results underscore the importance of allergy/immunology follow-up after an ED visit for anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Nutritional, immunological and microbiological profiles of burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASAA Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a lesion on an organic tissue resultant from direct or indirect action of heat on the organism. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional, immunological and microbiological status of burn patients at the Bauru State Hospital, São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2007. Eight patients, aged more than 18 years and injured up to 24 hours, were evaluated at the moment of hospitalization and seven days later. All victims were males with a mean age of 38 years. On average, 17.5% of their body surfaces were burned and 50% of the patients were eutrophic. There were significant alterations in levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total protein and albumin due to increased endothelial permeability, direct destruction of proteins in the heat-affected area and blood loss from lesions or debridement. At a second moment, cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α had augmented significantly, with IL-6 presenting elevated levels in relation to controls at the first moment. Microbiological analysis showed that 100% of the samples collected at hospital admission were negative and after one week Staphylococcus aureus was found in all cultures. Therefore, a burn patient may be considered immunosuppressed and these results indicate significant nutritional, immunological and microbiological alterations that can interfere in his recovery.

  10. Haematological and immunological indicators for radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehos, A.

    1990-01-01

    It is examined if haematological and immunological parameters can be used as biological indicators for radiation exposure. Additional criteria for biological indicators, apart from the dose dependence of the effect, are listed here. The state of the art concerning the development of haematological and immunological indicators is discussed. Several haematological indicators are currently used in diagnosis when excess radiation exposure has occurred (e.g., after the Chernobyl accident). However, further research work has to be done in the field of immunological indicators. (orig.) [de

  11. The sodium channel activator Lu AE98134 normalizes the altered firing properties of fast spiking interneurons in Dlx5/6+/- mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Schoubye, Nadia Lybøl; Frederiksen, Kristen; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2018-01-01

    Mental disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with impaired firing properties of fast spiking inhibitory interneurons (FSINs) causing reduced task-evoked gamma-oscillation in prefrontal cortex. The voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1 is highly expressed in PV-positive interneurons, but only...... facilitated the sodium current mediated by NaV1.1 expressed in HEK cells by shifting its activation to more negative values, decreasing its inactivation kinetics and promoting a persistent inward current. In a slice preparation from the brain of adult mice, Lu AE98134 promoted the excitability of fast spiking...... interneurons by decreasing the threshold for action potentials. We then tested if Lu AE98134 could normalize the altered firing properties of FSINs in Dlx5/6+/- mutant mice. FSINs of this model for schizophrenia are characterized by broader action potentials and higher spike threshold. We found...

  12. The immunology of animal papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, P K; Stanley, M A

    2000-02-25

    Papillomaviruses are species- and tissue-specific double-stranded DNA viruses. These viruses cause epithelial tumours in many animals, including man. Typically, the benign warts undergo spontaneous, immune-mediated regression, most likely effected by T-cells (especially CD4, but also CD8 subsets), whereas humoral immunity can prevent new infections. Some papillomavirus infections fail to regress spontaneously and others progress to malignant epithelial tumours. Additionally, the impact of these lesions is greater in immunosuppressed individuals. Many therapies are ineffective, and there is much interest in the potential for immunological intervention in papillomavirus infections of man and animals. Vaccination can be achieved with 'live' virus, formalin-inactivated virus, synthetic virus-like particles, and DNA vaccination. There has been much recent progress in the development of such vaccines for papillomavirus infections in the rabbit, ox and dog. Success in these animal models suggests that similar approaches may prove useful for prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination against the important human papillomaviruses involved in the development of cutaneous and anogenital warts, laryngeal papillomatosis, and cervical cancer.

  13. Immunology of Yersinia pestis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yujing

    2016-01-01

    As a pathogen of plague, Yersinia pestis caused three massive pandemics in history that killed hundreds of millions of people. Yersinia pestis is highly invasive, causing severe septicemia which, if untreated, is usually fatal to its host. To survive in the host and maintain a persistent infection, Yersinia pestis uses several stratagems to evade the innate and the adaptive immune responses. For example, infections with this organism are biphasic, involving an initial "noninflammatory" phase where bacterial replication occurs initially with little inflammation and following by extensive phagocyte influx, inflammatory cytokine production, and considerable tissue destruction, which is called "proinflammatory" phase. In contrast, the host also utilizes its immune system to eliminate the invading bacteria. Neutrophil and macrophage are the first defense against Yersinia pestis invading through phagocytosis and killing. Other innate immune cells also play different roles, such as dendritic cells which help to generate more T helper cells. After several days post infection, the adaptive immune response begins to provide organism-specific protection and has a long-lasting immunological memory. Thus, with the cooperation and collaboration of innate and acquired immunity, the bacterium may be eliminated from the host. The research of Yersinia pestis and host immune systems provides an important topic to understand pathogen-host interaction and consequently develop effective countermeasures.

  14. IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ENDOMETRIAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Slobodyanyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunological processes involving peritoneal macrophages could play a critical role in pathophysiology of external genital endometriosis.Aim: To assess levels of MCP-1, RANTES, and C-reactive protein and to identify their correlations with endometriosis.Materials and methods: Seventy two patients were evaluated: 26 healthy controls and 46 with endometriosis. Patients were divided into groups as follows: 17 with superficial endometriosis, 18 with endometriomas and 11 with deep infiltrative endometriosis. All patients underwent a laparoscopy during the proliferative phase of the cycle; levels of peritoneal and serum MCP-1, RANTES and C-reactive protein were measured using standard ELISA assays.Results: There were positive correlations between serum MCP-1 (p = 0.03 and C-reactive protein(p = 0.045 and severity of endometriosis, that could indicate malfunctioning of peritoneal macrophages in advanced stages of endometriosis. Conclusion: MCP-1 and C-reactive protein levels in peripheral blood can be used as markers of endometriosis activity.

  15. Immunological responses to parasitic arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, R W; Weintraub, J

    1987-03-01

    Parasitic arthropods are responsible for enormous economic losses to livestock producers throughout the world. These production losses may range from simple irritation caused by biting and non-biting flies to deaths and/or damage to carcass, fleece, or skin resulting from attack by myiasis flies. The estimated costs of these losses are colossal but even these usually include only direct losses and ignore those associated with pesticide application. In the USA alone (in 1976), these losses were conservatively estimated at more than 650 million US dollars. The long term use of chemical control measures for these pests has resulted in many serious problems including residues in meat and milk products, rapid development of insecticide resistance, the destruction of non-target organisms, environmental pollution, and mortality and morbidity of livestock. These concerns have prompted researchers to seek alternative methods of arthropod control, including the artificial induction of immunity. In this review, R. W. Baron and J. Weintraub discuss several examples of ectoparasites that can induce immunological resistance in the host, including Sarcoptes and Demodex mites, the sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus), Anopluran lice and myiasis-causing flies such as Hypoderma.

  16. Fluoxetine, a selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake, potentiates morphine analgesia without altering its discriminative stimulus properties or affinity for opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynes, M.D.; Lochner, M.A.; Bemis, K.G.; Hymson, D.L.

    1985-06-17

    The analgesic effect of morphine in the rat tail jerk assay was enhanced by the serotonin uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Tail jerk latency was not affected by fluoxetine alone. Morphine's affinity for opioid receptors labeled in vitro with /sup 3/H-naloxone or /sup 3/H-D-Ala/sup 2/-D-Leu/sup 5/-enkephalin was not altered by fluoxetine, which has no affinity for these sites at concentrations as high as 1000 nM. In rats trained to discriminate morphine from saline, fluoxetine at doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg were recognized as saline. Increasing the fluoxetine dose to 20 mg/kg did not result in generalization to either saline or morphine. The dose response curve for morphine generalization was not significantly altered by fluoxetine doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg. Those rats treated with the combination of morphine and 20 mg/kg of fluoxetine did not exhibit saline or morphine appropriate responding. Fluoxetine potentiates the analgesic properties of morphine without enhancing its affinity for opioid receptors or its discriminative stimulus properties. 30 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Edentulation alters material properties of cortical bone in the human craniofacial skeleton: functional implications for craniofacial structure in primate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Paul C.; Wang, Qian; Peterson, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal adaptations to reduced function are an important source of skeletal variation and may be indicative of environmental pressures that lead to evolutionary changes. Humans serve as a model animal to investigate the effects of loss of craniofacial function through edentulation. In the human maxilla, it is known that edentulation leads to significant changes in skeletal structure such as residual ridge resorption and loss of cortical thickness. However, little is known about changes in bone tissue structure and material properties, which are also important for understanding skeletal mechanics but are often ignored. The aims of this study were to determine cortical material properties in edentulous crania and to evaluate differences with dentate crania and thus examine the effects of loss of function on craniofacial structure. Cortical bone samples from fifteen edentulous human skulls were measured for thickness and density. Elastic properties and directions of maximum stiffness were determined by using ultrasonic techniques. These data were compared to those from dentate crania reported in a previous investigation. Cortical bone from all regions of the facial skeleton of edentulous individuals is thinner than in dentate skulls. Elastic and shear moduli, and density are similar or greater in the zygoma and cranial vault of edentulous individuals, while these properties are less in the maxilla. Most cortical bone, especially in edentulous maxillae, has reduced directional orientation. The loss of significant occlusal loads following edentulation may contribute to the change in material properties and the loss of orientation over time during the normal process of bone remodeling. These results suggest that area-specific cortical microstructural changes accompany bone resorption following edentulation. They also suggest that functional forces are important for maintaining bone mass throughout the craniofacial skeleton, even in areas such as the browridges, which

  18. Clinical immunology - Autoimmunity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical immunology is in the Netherlands a separate clinical specialty within internal medicine and pediatrics. Clinical immunologists work closely together with nephrologists, rheumatologists and many other medical specialists. Apart from research and teaching, clinical immunologists are taking

  19. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Immunological and hematological reference values for apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    negative adults in Bahir Dar Town,. Ethiopia. Bayeh Abera1, Atnaf Alem2, Ambahun Cherenet2, Mulugeta Kibret3. Abstract. Background: Immunological and hematological reference values differ among different human beings with respect to.

  1. The pluripotent history of immunology. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja Sankaran

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of immunology since 1999 is reviewed, in part as a response to claims by historians such as Thomas Söderqvist the field was still immature at the time (Söderqvist & Stillwell 1999. First addressed are the difficulties, past and present, surrounding the disciplinary definition of immunology, which is followed by a commentary on the recent scholarship devoted to the concept of the immune self. The new literature on broad immunological topics is examined and assessed, and specific charges leveled against the paucity of certain types of histories, e.g. biographical and institutional histories, are evaluated. In conclusion, there are compelling indications that the history of immunology has moved past the initial tentative stages identified in the earlier reviews to become a bustling, pluripotent discipline, much like the subject of its scrutiny, and that it continues to develop in many new and exciting directions.

  2. Biosensors in immunology: the story so far

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pathak, S.S.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Optical biosensors are finding a range of applications in immunology. They enable biomolecular interactions to be characterized in real time without the need to label reactants, and, because individual binding steps can be visualized, are particularly suited to complex assays

  3. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Hypoxia-inducing factors as master regulators of stemness properties and altered metabolism of cancer- and metastasis-initiating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating lines of experimental evidence have revealed that hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1α and HIF-2α, are key regulators of the adaptation of cancer- and metastasis-initiating cells and their differentiated progenies to oxygen and nutrient deprivation during cancer progression under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Particularly, the sustained stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), stem cell factor (SCF) receptor KIT, transforming growth factor-β receptors (TGF-βRs) and Notch and their downstream signalling elements such as phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR) may lead to an enhanced activity of HIFs. Moreover, the up-regulation of HIFs in cancer cells may also occur in the hypoxic intratumoral regions formed within primary and secondary neoplasms as well as in leukaemic cells and metastatic prostate and breast cancer cells homing in the hypoxic endosteal niche of bone marrow. The activated HIFs may induce the expression of numerous gene products such as induced pluripotency-associated transcription factors (Oct-3/4, Nanog and Sox-2), glycolysis- and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programme-associated molecules, including CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), snail and twist, microRNAs and angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These gene products in turn can play critical roles for high self-renewal ability, survival, altered energy metabolism, invasion and metastases of cancer cells, angiogenic switch and treatment resistance. Consequently, the targeting of HIF signalling network and altered metabolic pathways represents new promising strategies to eradicate the total mass of cancer cells and improve the efficacy of current therapies against aggressive and metastatic cancers and prevent disease relapse. PMID:23301832

  6. Immunology of root resorption: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Root resorption seems to be related to a complex combination of mechanical factors and biological activity, which comprehends the role of immunologic structures including specialized cells. The aim of this research was to explain the development of the process - from mineralization to the destruction of hard tissues - and the possible relationship between root resorption and immunology, along with discussing current concepts described in the literature.

  7. Alterations in the properties of the cell membrane due to glycosphingolipid accumulation in a model of Gaucher disease

    OpenAIRE

    Batta, Gyula; Soltész, Lilla; Kovács, Tamás; Bozó, Tamás; Mészár, Zoltán; Kellermayer, Miklós; Szöllősi, János; Nagy, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by the malfunction of glucocerebrosidase resulting in the accumulation of glucosylceramide and other sphingolipids in certain cells. Although the disease symptoms are usually attributed to the storage of undigested substrate in lysosomes, here we show that glycosphingolipids accumulating in the plasma membrane cause profound changes in the properties of the membrane. The fluidity of the sphingolipid-enriched membrane decreased accom...

  8. Tensile Mechanical Properties and Dynamic Collagen Fiber Re-Alignment of the Murine Cervix are Dramatically Altered Throughout Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Carrie E; Fey, Jennifer L; Weiss, Stephanie N; Barila, Guillermo; Brown, Amy G; Connizzo, Brianne K; Shetye, Snehal S; Elovitz, Michal A; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2017-06-01

    The cervix is a unique organ able to dramatically change its shape and function by serving as a physical barrier for the growing fetus and then undergoing dramatic dilation allowing for delivery of a term infant. As a result, the cervix endures changing mechanical forces from the growing fetus. There is an emerging concept that the cervix may change or remodel "early" in many cases of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). However, the mechanical role of the cervix in both normal and preterm birth remains unclear. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to determine the mechanical and structural responses of murine cervical tissue throughout a normal gestational time course. In this study, both tissue structural and material properties were determined via a quasi-static tensile load-to-failure test, while simultaneously obtaining dynamic collagen fiber re-alignment via cross-polarization imaging. This study demonstrated that the majority of the mechanical properties evaluated decreased at midgestation and not just at term, while collagen fiber re-alignment occurred earlier in the loading curve for cervices at term. This suggests that although structural changes in the cervix occur throughout gestation, the differences in material properties function in combination with collagen fiber re-alignment as mechanical precursors to regulate term gestation. This work lays a foundation for investigating cervical biomechanics and the role of the cervix in preterm birth.

  9. Unique immunologic patterns in fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Behm, Frederick G; Gavin, Igor M; Karpenko, Oleksiy; Lindgren, Valerie; Gaitonde, Sujata; Gashkoff, Peter A; Gillis, Bruce S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic pain and allodynia. The diagnosis of FM has been one of exclusion as a test to confirm the diagnosis is lacking. Recent data highlight the role of the immune system in FM. Aberrant expressions of immune mediators, such as cytokines, have been linked to the pathogenesis and traits of FM. We therefore determined whether cytokine production by immune cells is altered in FM patients by comparing the cellular res...

  10. Comparison of the aneugenic properties of nocodazole, paclitaxel and griseofulvin in vitro. Centrosome defects and alterations in protein expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharaki, Polyxeni; Stephanou, Georgia; Demopoulos, Nikos A

    2013-09-01

    We have comparatively investigated the aneugenic activity of two anticancer drugs, nocodazole (NOC) and paclitaxel (PTX), and the antifungal griseofulvin with promising role in cancer treatment (GF), which affect microtubule dynamics in different ways. The comparison was achieved in HFFF2 human fibroblasts, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and C2C12 mouse myoblasts, and focused on three issues: (i) induction of chromosome delay by estimation of MN frequency using CREST analysis; (ii) disturbance of spindle organization with Aurora-A/β-tubulin immunofluorescence; and (iii) alterations in the expression of Aurora-A, β- and γ-tubulin by western blotting. They induced chromosome delay, provoked metaphase arrest and promoted microtubule disorganization, reflecting their common characteristic of generating aneuploidy. In particular, NOC induced mainly monopolar metaphases, although PTX induced only multipolar metaphases. GF generated different types of abnormal metaphases, exhibiting cell specificity. Additionally, NOC decreased the expression of Aurora-A and β-tubulin, while the opposite held true for PTX and GF. γ-Tubulin expression was not modulated owing to NOC treatment, whereas PTX and GF increased γ-tubulin expression. Our findings throw a light on the manifestation of the aneugenicity of the studied compounds through centrosome proliferation/separation and protein expression, reflecting their different effects on microtubule dynamics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Elevated NT-proBNP is associated with unfavorably altered plasma fibrin clot properties in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusik, Paweł T; Matusik, Patrycja S; Kornacewicz-Jach, Zdzisława; Małecka, Barbara; Ząbek, Andrzej; Undas, Anetta

    2017-09-15

    Dense fibrin clot formation and hypofibrinolysis have been reported in atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unclear which factors affect fibrin clot properties in AF. We investigated plasma fibrin clot permeability (K s ), clot lysis time (CLT), endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) as well as other coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters along with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in 160 AF patients (median age, 70.5years). Previous stroke (n=15; 9.4%) was associated with decreased K s (P=0.04) and longer CLT (P=0.005), together with higher antiplasmin (P=0.03) and lower tissue-type plasminogen activator (P=0.01). Lower K s (P=0.04) and tendency towards longer CLT (P=0.10) were observed in patients with a left atrium diameter>40mm. Patients with a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score of 3 or more (82.5%) were characterized by higher thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor antigen (P=0.009). K s was inversely correlated with log NT-proBNP (r=-0.34, PCLT was positively correlated with log NT-proBNP (R=0.61, PCLT (the top quartile,≥109min). In AF patients prothrombotic fibrin clot properties assessed ex vivo are determined by PAI-1 and NT-proBNP and this phenotype is associated with prior ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Humidity-Induced Phase Transitions of Surfactants Embedded in Latex Coatings Can Drastically Alter Their Water Barrier and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Gonzalez-Martinez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Latex coatings are environmentally friendly i.e., they are formed from aqueous polymer dispersions, are cheap to produce and provide exceptional mechanical properties. Therefore, they are ubiquitous and can be found in a wide range of different applications such as paints and varnishes, pressure-sensitive adhesives, textiles, construction materials, paper coatings and inks. However, they also have weaknesses and their surfactant content is among them. Surfactants are often needed to stabilize polymer particles in the aqueous latex dispersions. These surfactants also form part of the coatings formed from these dispersions, and it is well-known that they can lower their performance. This work further explores this aspect and focuses on the role that embedded surfactant domains play in the response of latex coatings to humid environments. For this purpose, we made use of several experimental techniques where humidity control was implemented: quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, atomic force microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. By means of this multimethodological approach, we report that surfactants embedded in latex coatings can undergo humidity-induced transitions towards more hydrated and softer phases, and that this results in a drastic decrease of the mechanical and water barrier properties of the whole coatings. Subsequently, this work highlights the potential of taking into account the phase behavior of surfactants when choosing which ones to use in the synthesis of latex dispersions as this would help in predicting their performance under different environmental conditions.

  13. IL-33 dysregulates regulatory T cells and impairs established immunologic tolerance in the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Kobayashi, Takao; Iijima, Koji; Hsu, Fan-Chi; Kita, Hirohito

    2017-11-01

    Airway exposure to environmental antigens generally leads to immunologic tolerance. A fundamental question remains: Why is airway tolerance compromised in patients with allergic airway diseases? IL-33 promotes innate and adaptive type 2 immunity and might provide the answer to this question. The goal of this study was to investigate the roles played by IL-33 in altering regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lungs and in affecting previously established airway immunologic tolerance. We analyzed CD4 + forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) + Treg cells that were isolated from the lungs of naive BALB/c mice and those treated with IL-33. Airway tolerance and allergen-induced airway inflammation models in mice were used to investigate how IL-33 affects established immunologic tolerance in vivo. CD4 + Foxp3 + Treg cells in the lungs expressed the IL-33 receptor ST2. When exposed to IL-33, Treg cells upregulated their expression of the canonical T H 2 transcription factor GATA3, as well as ST2, and produced type 2 cytokines. Treg cells lost their ability to suppress effector T cells in the presence of IL-33. Airway administration of IL-33 with an antigen impaired immunologic tolerance in the lungs that had been established by prior exposure to the antigen. Dysregulated Foxp3 + Treg cells with distinct characteristics of T H 2 cells increased in the lungs of mice undergoing IL-33-dependent allergen-driven airway inflammation. IL-33 dysregulated lung Treg cells and impaired immunologic tolerance to inhaled antigens. Established airway tolerance might not be sustained in the presence of an innate immunologic stimulus, such as IL-33. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alterations in mechanical properties of the patellar tendon is associated with pain in athletes with patellar tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W C; Zhang, Z J; Masci, L; Ng, G Y F; Fu, Siu Ngor

    2017-05-01

    To compare tendon strain and stiffness between athletes with patellar tendinopathy and healthy controls, and explore whether the intensity of pain and dysfunction were related to the mechanical properties of the tendon. Thirty-four male athletes with patellar tendinopathy and 13 healthy controls matched by age and activity levels were recruited. The in vivo mechanical properties of the patellar tendon were examined by ultrasonography and dynamometry. In subjects with patellar tendinopathy, the intensities of self-perceived pain (maximal pain in the past 7 days and pain during a single-legged declined-squat test) using the visual analogue scale and the assessment of functional disability using the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-patellar questionnaire, were collected. In subjects with patellar tendinopathy, tendon strain was significantly reduced by 22% (8.9 ± 3.7 vs. 14.3 ± 4.7%, P = 0.005) when compared with healthy controls. There was no significant group difference in tendon stiffness (P = 0.27). Significant negative correlations between tendon strain and the maximal self-perceived pain over 7 days (r = -0.37, P = 0.03), and pain during a single-legged declined-squat test (r = -0.37, P = 0.03) were detected. A trend of significant positive correlation was found between tendon stiffness and pain during a single-legged declined-squat test (r = 0.30, P = 0.09). Our findings show that tendon strain is reduced in athletes with patellar tendinopathy, and a lower tendon strain is associated with a greater magnitude of pain perceived.

  15. Repeated stimulation, inter-stimulus interval and inter-electrode distance alters muscle contractile properties as measured by Tensiomyography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah V Wilson

    Full Text Available The influence of methodological parameters on the measurement of muscle contractile properties using Tensiomyography (TMG has not been published.To investigate the; (1 reliability of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum muscle displacement (Dm, (2 effect of changing inter-stimulus interval on Dm (using a fixed stimulus amplitude and contraction time (Tc, (3 the effect of changing inter-electrode distance on Dm and Tc.Within subject, repeated measures.10 participants for each objective.Dm and Tc of the rectus femoris, measured using TMG.The coefficient of variance (CV and the intra-class correlation (ICC of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum Dm was 5.7% and 0.92 respectively. Dm was higher when using an inter-electrode distance of 7cm compared to 5cm [P = 0.03] and when using an inter-stimulus interval of 10s compared to 30s [P = 0.017]. Further analysis of inter-stimulus interval data, found that during 10 repeated stimuli Tc became faster after the 5th measure when compared to the second measure [P<0.05]. The 30s inter-stimulus interval produced the most stable Tc over 10 measures compared to 10s and 5s respectively.Our data suggest that the stimulus amplitude producing maximum Dm of the rectus femoris is reliable. Inter-electrode distance and inter-stimulus interval can significantly influence Dm and/ or Tc. Our results support the use of a 30s inter-stimulus interval over 10s or 5s. Future studies should determine the influence of methodological parameters on muscle contractile properties in a range of muscles.

  16. SPECIAL ISSUE VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS 8TH INTERNATIONAL VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the Special Issue of Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. that summarizes the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto, Brazil. The 8 th IVIS highlighted the importance of veterinary immunology for animal health, vaccinology, reproducti...

  17. Altered physiochemical properties in industrially synthesized ZnO nanoparticles regulate oxidative stress; induce in vivo cytotoxicity in embryonic zebrafish by apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Suresh K; Panda, Pritam Kumar; Jha, Ealisha; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Parashar, S K S

    2017-10-24

    This study investigates the in vivo cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized at industrial scale with embryonic Zebrafish. Industrial synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles was mimicked at lab scale by high energy ball milling technique by milling bulk ZnO particles for 15 h. Synthesized 7 h and 10 h ZnO nanoparticles showed significant alteration of size, zeta potential and optical properties in comparison to Bulk ZnO. Mortality and hatching rate in Zebrafish embryos were influenced by these alterations. Size and charge dependent effect of ZnO nanoparticles exposure on physiology and development of Zebrafish embryos were evident by malfunctioned organ development and abnormal heartbeat rate. Similar dependency on quenching of ROS due to influential hydrogen bond interaction with glycine residue of Sod1 oxidative stress protein and increased apoptosis were observed in cells. The study revealed the mechanism of cytotoxicity in exposed embryonic Zebrafish as an effect of accumulation and internalization inside cells instigating to generation of hypoxic condition and interference with the normal adaptive stress regulation signaling pathways leading towards enhanced apoptosis. The study revealed hidden size and charge dependent in vivo cytotoxicity mechanism of ZnO nanoparticles in Zebrafish embryos insight of the environmental and clinical importance of attention on industrially synthesized ZnO nanoparticles.

  18. Genetic deletion of TREK-1 or TWIK-1/TREK-1 potassium channels does not alter the basic electrophysiological properties of mature hippocampal astrocytes in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixing eDu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that a linear current-to-voltage (I-V relationship of membrane conductance (passive conductance reflects the intrinsic property of K+ channels in mature astrocytes. While passive conductance is known to underpin a highly negative and stable membrane potential (VM essential for the basic homeostatic function of astrocytes, a complete repertoire of the involved K+ channels remains elusive. TREK-1 two-pore domain K+ channel (K2P is highly expressed in astrocytes, and covalent association of TREK-1 with TWIK-1, another highly expressed astrocytic K2P, has been reported as a mechanism underlying the trafficking of this heterodimer channel to the membrane and contributing to astrocytes’ passive conductance. To decipher the individual contribution of TREK-1 and address whether the appearance of passive conductance is conditional to the co-expression of TWIK-1/TREK-1 in astrocytes, TREK-1 single and TWIK-1/TREK-1 double gene knockout mice were used in the present study. The relative quantity of mRNA encoding other astrocyte K+ channels, such as Kir4.1, Kir5.1, and TREK-2, was not altered in these gene knockout mice. Whole-cell recording from hippocampal astrocytes in situ revealed no detectable changes in astrocyte passive conductance, VM, or membrane input resistance (Rin in either kind of gene knockout mouse. Additionally, TREK-1 proteins were mainly located in the intracellular compartments of the hippocampus. Altogether, genetic deletion of TREK-1 alone or together with TWIK-1 produced no obvious alteration in the basic electrophysiological properties of hippocampal astrocytes. Thus, future research focusing on other K+ channels may shed light on this long-standing and important question in astrocyte physiology.

  19. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos

    2013-03-01

    After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Hydrodynamic properties of the gonadotropin receptor from a murine Leydig tumor cell line are altered by desensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebois, R.V.; Bradley, R.M.; Titlow, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    The murine Leydig tumor cell line 1 (MLTC-1) contains gonadotropin receptors (GR) that are coupled to adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein (G/sub s/). The binding of human choriogonadotropin (hGC) causes MLTC-1 cells to accumulate cAMP. With time, the ability of MLTC-1 cells to respond to hCG is attenuated by a process called desensitization. The hydrodynamic properties of GR from control and desensitized MLTC-1 cells were studied. Sucrose density gradient sedimentation in H 2 O and D 2 O and gel filtration chromatography were used to estimate the Stokes radius (a), partial specific volume (v/sub c/), sedimentation coefficient (s/sub 20,w/), and molecular weight (M/sub r/) of the detergent-solubilized hormone-receptor complex (hCG-GR). [ 125 I]hCG was bound to MLTC-1 cells under conditions that allow (37 0 C) or prevent (0 0 C) desensitization, and hCG-GR was solubilized in Triton X-100. In the absence of desensitization, control hCG-GR had a M/sub r/ of 213,000, whereas desensitized hCG-GR had a M/sub r/ of 158,000. Deglycosylated hCG (DG-HCG) is an antagonist that binds to GR with high affinity but fails to stimulate adenylate cyclase or cause desensitization. [ 125 I]DG-hCG was bound to MLTC-1 cells and DG-hCG-GR solubilized in Triton X-100. The hydrodynamic properties of DG-hCG-GR were the same as that for control hCG-GR. There was no evidence for the association of adenylate cyclase or G/sub s/ with GR in Triton X-100 solubilized preparations. When hCG was cross-linked to GR and solubilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the M/sub r/ was found to be 116,000, which was similar to that determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and less than that of the Triton X-100 solubilized control hCG-GR

  1. Alterations in the Elasticity, Pliability, and Viscoelastic Properties of Facial Skin After Injection of Onabotulinum Toxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaparte, James P; Ellis, David

    2015-01-01

    This prospective cohort study provides evidence and information on the mechanism of action of onabotulinum toxin A on the reduction of skin elasticity and pliability. Understanding the natural course that onabotulinum toxin A has on the elasticity of skin may help physicians understand why there appears to be a progressive reduction in wrinkle levels with repeated treatments. To determine whether onabotulinum toxin A increases skin pliability and elasticity with a corresponding decrease in the contribution of the viscoelastic component of skin resistance. From October 1, 2012, through June 31, 2013, this prospective cohort study enrolled 48 onabotulinum toxin A-naive women (mean [SD] age, 55.2 [11.3] years) with a minimum of mild wrinkle levels at the glabella and lateral orbit (43 completed the study). Patients were treated at a private cosmetic surgery clinic with onabotulinum toxin A and assessed at baseline and 2 weeks, 2 months, 3 months, and 4 months after injection. Standardized onabotulinum toxin A was administered to patients' glabella, supraorbit, and lateral orbit. Skin pliability, elastic recoil, and the ratio of viscoelastic resistance (Uv) to elastic resistance (Ue). For the supraorbit, there was a significant effect of time on pliability (F = 20.5), elastic recoil (F = 6.92), and Uv/Ue ratio (F = 5.6) (P elastic recoil (F = 31.66), and Uv/Ue ratio (F = 10.11) (P elastic recoil (F = 11.43, P tissue edema suggestive of an inflammatory reaction within the skin. However, it remains unclear whether this is due to an intrinsic property of the medication or another unrecognized mechanism. 2.

  2. The immunological consequences of injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, N

    2012-02-03

    Immediate and early trauma death rates are determined by "first hits" such as hypoxia, hypotension and organ injury, while late mortality correlates closely with "second hits" such as infection. An imbalance between the early systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and the later compensatory counter-inflammatory response (CARS), is considered to be responsible for much post-traumatic morbidity and mortality. From a clinical perspective, this remains a significant healthcare problem, which has stimulated decades of experimental and clinical research aimed at understanding the functional effects of injury on the immune system. This review describes the impact of injury on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Though it is worth noting that the features of the immune response to injury overlap in many areas with immune dysregulation in sepsis, we attempt here to elucidate the mechanism by which injury predisposes to infection rather than to describe the alterations in host immunity consequent to established sepsis.

  3. The immunological consequences of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Choileain, N; Redmond, H P

    2006-02-01

    Immediate and early trauma death rates are determined by "first hits" such as hypoxia, hypotension and organ injury, while late mortality correlates closely with "second hits" such as infection. An imbalance between the early systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and the later compensatory counter-inflammatory response (CARS), is considered to be responsible for much post-traumatic morbidity and mortality. From a clinical perspective, this remains a significant healthcare problem, which has stimulated decades of experimental and clinical research aimed at understanding the functional effects of injury on the immune system. This review describes the impact of injury on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Though it is worth noting that the features of the immune response to injury overlap in many areas with immune dysregulation in sepsis, we attempt here to elucidate the mechanism by which injury predisposes to infection rather than to describe the alterations in host immunity consequent to established sepsis.

  4. [Immunological surrogate endpoints to evaluate vaccine efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pengfei; Li, Jingxin; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Fengcai

    2015-12-01

    An immunological surrogate endpoints is a vaccine-induced immune response (either humoral or cellular immune) that predicts protection against clinical endpoints (infection or disease), and can be used to evaluate vaccine efficacy in clinical vaccine trials. Compared with field efficacy trials observing clinical endpoints, immunological vaccine trials could reduce the sample size or shorten the duration of a trial, which promote the license and development of new candidate vaccines. For these reasons, establishing immunological surrogate endpoints is one of 14 Grand Challenges of Global Health of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. From two parts of definition and statistical methods for evaluation of surrogate endpoints, this review provides a more comprehensive description.

  5. Comparative anatomy of phagocytic and immunological synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eNiedergang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of phagocytic cups and immunological synapses are crucial events of the innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively. They are triggered by distinct immune receptors and performed by different cell types. However, growing experimental evidence shows that a very close series of molecular and cellular events control these two processes. Thus, the tight and dynamic interplay between receptor signaling, actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, and targeted vesicle traffic are all critical features to build functional phagosomes and immunological synapses. Interestingly, both phagocytic cups and immunological synapses display particular spatial and temporal patterns of receptors and signaling molecules, leading to the notion of phagocytic synapse. Here we discuss both types of structures, their organization and the mechanisms by which they are generated and regulated.

  6. Qualitative Alterations of Bacterial Metabolome after Exposure to Metal Nanoparticles with Bactericidal Properties: A Comprehensive Workflow Based on (1)H NMR, UHPLC-HRMS, and Metabolic Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimitakos, Theodoros G; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2016-09-02

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) have proven to be more toxic than bulk analogues of the same chemical composition due to their unique physical properties. The NPs, lately, have drawn the attention of researchers because of their antibacterial and biocidal properties. In an effort to shed light on the mechanism through which the bacteria elimination is achieved and the metabolic changes they undergo, an untargeted metabolomic fingerprint study was carried out on Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria species. The (1)H NMR spectroscopy, in conjunction with high resolution mass-spectrometry (HRMS) and an unsophisticated data processing workflow were implemented. The combined NMR/HRMS data, supported by an open-access metabolomic database, proved to be efficacious in the process of assigning a putative annotation to a wide range of metabolite signals and is a useful tool to appraise the metabolome alterations, as a consequence of bacterial response to NPs. Interestingly, not all the NPs diminished the intracellular metabolites; bacteria treated with iron NPs produced metabolites not present in the nonexposed bacteria sample, implying the activation of previously inactive metabolic pathways. In contrast, copper and iron-copper NPs reduced the annotated metabolites, alluding to the conclusion that the metabolic pathways (mainly alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, beta-alanine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism) were hindered by the interactions of NPs with the intracellular metabolites.

  7. Immunologic Abnormalities, Treatments, and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nathalie F; Kolte, Astrid M; Larsen, Elisabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss, depending on the definition, affects 1% to 3% of women aiming to have a child. Little is known about the direct causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, and the condition is considered to have a multifactorial and complex pathogenesis. The aim of this review was to summarize ...... the evaluation and the management of the condition with specific emphasis on immunologic biomarkers identified as risk factors as well as current immunologic treatment options. The review also highlights and discusses areas in need of further research....

  8. The early history of Stanford Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia P; Herzenberg, Leonore A

    2014-05-01

    From its 1960 beginnings in a pair of windowless Genetics Department laboratories under the Stanford Medical School Dean's Office to its current broad-based program, which joins faculty members from departments across the Medical School, the Stanford Immunology Program has played a central role in shaping both basic and clinical immunology thinking. In this article, we tell the story of the beginnings of this odyssey in a reminiscence-based format that brings the flavor of the time in the words of people who lived and built the history.

  9. SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN CERVICAL PATHOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Savchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. To study immunological indices and functional activity of neutrophils in women with human papillomavirus infection (HPV, as well as their dependence on severity of cervical morphological alterations, we examined sixty-seven female patients in their reproductive age. It was found that, regardless of severity of pathological changes in uterine cervix, the women with HPV infection show decreased numbers of NK cells and CD4+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood, along with increased contents of gd T cells. In cases of combined sub-clinical infection with leukoplakia and endocervicosis, more severe disorders of cellular immunity were detectable than in CIN I and CIN II. It is assumed, that initial neoplastic processes with HPV background are accompanied by a more pronounced immune response. Meanwhile, functional activity of neutrophilic granulocytes varies in an inverse manner, being, generally, increased in common HPV infection, followed by most significant changes in CIN I and CIN II.

  10. Imagining 'reactivity': allergy within the history of immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Michelle

    2010-12-01

    An allergy is commonly understood to be an overreaction of the immune system to harmless substances that are misrecognised as foreign. This concept of allergy as an abnormal, misdirected immune response-a biological fault-stems from the idea that the immune system is an inherently defensive operation designed to protect the individual through an innate capacity to discriminate between the benign and toxic, or self and nonself. However, this definition of allergy represents a radical departure from its original formulation. Literally meaning 'altered reactivity', the term was coined in 1906 by Austrian paediatrician Clemens von Pirquet, to describe the fundamentally mutable nature of the immune response. This paper argues that the conventional interpretation of allergy-as-pathology derives from specific concepts of 'organism', 'response', and 'normal' immune function that have-for over a century-governed the perception and study of immune phenomena within immunology. Through an examination of Louis Pasteur's conceptualisation of the host body/microorganism relationship, I argue that immunology is founded on a view of the organism as a discrete, autonomous entity, and on a concomitant notion of the immune response as essentially reactive. Revisiting the concept of 'altered reactivity', this paper points to the fact that allergy was initially posited as a general theory of immune responsiveness and, importantly, one that poses a significant challenge to orthodox notions of immunopathology. It suggests that Pirquet's unique view of immune responsiveness presents an account of organismic or biological identity that encapsulates, rather than reduces, its ecological complexity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between CNS and immunology, in relation to psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Azhar, Asim; Ali, Ashraf; Rehan, Mohd; Zia, Qamar; Owais, Mohammad; Alexiou, Athanasios; Rauf, Ahmar; Ganash, Magdah; Kamal, Muhammad Amjad

    2018-01-29

    Higher animals, especially the human beings have the privilege of employing advanced central nervous system (CNS) as well as the evolved immune system to ward off various onslaughts throughout their life. Alterations in inflammatory and neural regulatory pathways lead to several disorders that are now becoming the cause of concern across the world. Deregulation in bidirectional network, particularly in aging population, leads to several neurodegenerative diseases such as having dementia as a one of the major characteristics. Interestingly, research updates have signified the role of abrupt immune regulation in several brain diseases, establishing a link between altered immune system and CNS related diseases. In the later period of life time, the role has altered the immune response in the pathogenesis of major psychiatric disorders, which has become more visible. Recent research advances have indicated a close relationship between emotion and psychology to diseases and immunology, proclaiming the need of providing enhanced attention on mechanistic aspect of psychoneuroimmunological disorders. In the present manuscript, we present a synopsis on the linkage of CNS and immune system with respect to psychology, with the aim to further understand the biological machinery of psychoneuroimmunological disorders. The immune system of human beings plays an important role in keeping pathogen onslaughts on bay. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Altered white matter tract property related to impaired focused attention, sustained attention, cognitive impulsivity and vigilance in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Huey-Ling; Chen, Yu-Jen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Gau, Susan S

    2015-09-01

    The neural substrate for clinical symptoms and neuropsychological performance in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has rarely been studied and has yielded inconsistent results. We sought to compare the microstructural property of fibre tracts associated with the prefrontal cortex and its association with ADHD symptoms and a wide range of attention performance in youth with ADHD and healthy controls. We assessed youths with ADHD and age-, sex-, handedness-, coil- and intelligence-matched controls using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT) for attention performance and MRI. The 10 target tracts, including the bilateral frontostriatal tracts (caudate to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle were reconstructed using diffusion spectrum imaging tractography. We computed generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) values to indicate tract-specific microstructural property. We included 50 youths with ADHD and 50 healthy controls in our study. Youths with ADHD had lower GFA in the left frontostriatal tracts, bilateral SLF and right cingulum bundle and performed worse in the CCPT than controls. Furthermore, alteration of the right SLF GFA was most significantly associated with the clinical symptom of inattention in youths with ADHD. Finally, youths with ADHD had differential association patterns of the 10 fibre tract GFA values with attention performance compared with controls. Ten of the youths with ADHD were treated with methylphenidate, which may have long-term effects on microstructural property. Our study highlights the importance of the SLF, cingulum bundle and frontostriatal tracts for clinical symptoms and attention performance in youths with ADHD and demonstrates the involvement of different fibre tracts in attention performance in these individuals.

  13. IP-I0 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of IP-10.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other s...

  14. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Immunology of Paratuberculosis Infection and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of host immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is complicated by a number of factors, including the protracted nature of the disease and the stealthy nature of the pathogen. Improved tools for the measurement of immunologic responses in ruminant species, par...

  16. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  17. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormali- ties was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39 ...

  18. The Immunological Relationship between Typanosoma evansi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax show very high cross-reactivity in serology. This suggests that there is a close immunological relationship between the two parasite species and the possibility that antiserum against one species contains lytic antibodies against the other species was investigated. T. evansi and ...

  19. THE IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF SOUTH AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot muscle antigens of the diploid Bulinus nala/ensis from Lake Sibayi showed complete immunological correspondence with antiserum prepared from foot muscle tissues of the diploid B. Iropicus. On the other hand, strong "non-identity" reactions occurred when B. nala/ensis antigens were tested with the antiserum ...

  20. Immunological and hematological reference values for apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Immunological and hematological reference values differ among different human beings with respect to sex, ethnicity, nutrition, altitude and health conditions. These could not be exceptional in the Ethiopian heterogeneous population. However, there are no nationally established reference values. Objective: ...

  1. IP-I0 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of IP-10.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...

  2. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  3. Haematological and immunological effect of coadministration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of co-administration of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (VA) and Azadirachta indica Linn.(AI) on haemapoietic and immunological indices of normal and diabetic rats. White blood cells which were non-significantly decreased (p>0.05) in diabetic control rats relative to the normal control, ...

  4. Trypanosoma evansi : A clinical, parasitological and immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the clinical, parasitological and immunological effects of a Venezuelan strain of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) throughout in experimentally inoculated rabbits over the course of infection and compared them with the same aspect in healthy animals. Body temperature was recorded in degrees Celsius, animal ...

  5. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Trypanosoma evansi: A clinical, parasitological and immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2012-08-13

    Aug 13, 2012 ... “Mal des Cadeiras” in Brazil, “Derrengadera” in. Venezuela (Desquesnes, 2004). In South America T. evansi principally affects equines although the ..... immunological response of the host and the migration of the parasites to various tissues within the organism. (Desquesnes, 2004). Regarding body weight ...

  12. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods. Computation of Ab/Ag Concentration from EISA data. Graphical Method; Raghava et al., 1992, J. Immuno. Methods 153: 263. Determination of affinity of Monoclonal Antibody. Using non-competitive ...

  13. House dust extracts contain potent immunological adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukelman, C.J.; Dijk, H. van; Aerts, P.C.; Rademaker, P.M.; Berrens, L.; Willers, J.M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A crude aqueous extract of house dust and two house dust subfractions were tested for adjuvant activity in a sensitivity assay performed in mice. Evidence is presented that house dust contains at least two potent immunological adjuvants. One of these, present in both subfractions, was probably

  14. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Archives: Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 30 of 30 ... Archives: Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home > Archives: Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): About this journal. Journal Home > Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Immunological comparison of the NADH:nitrate reductase from different cucumber tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Marciniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble nitrate reductase from cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L. was isolated and purified with blue-Sepharose 4B. Specific antibodies against the NR protein were raised by immunization of a goat. Using polyclonal antibodies anti-NR properties of the nitrate reductase from various cucumber tissues were examined. Experiments showed difference in immuno-logical properties of nitrate reductase (NR from cotyledon roots and leaves.

  19. 21 CFR 866.5090 - Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the antimitochondrial antibodies in human serum. The measurements aid in the diagnosis... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antimitochondrial antibody immunological test... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test...

  20. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. This journal is the official journal of the Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. It is he first Egyptian Journal specialized in the field of allergy and immunology in the pediatric age group. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new researches in the field of allergy and immunology, ...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1208 - Condition: General immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General immunology. 493.1208 Section 493....1208 Condition: General immunology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of General immunology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§ 493...

  2. 42 CFR 493.833 - Condition: Diagnostic immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Diagnostic immunology. 493.833 Section..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.833 Condition: Diagnostic immunology. The specialty of diagnostic immunology includes for purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of syphilis serology...

  3. America's first department of immunology: an informal history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Noel R

    2010-07-01

    America's first organized department devoted to the study of immunology was founded at Johns Hopkins University in 1916 by William Henry Welch. It has since generated multiple centers distributed throughout the university, which continue to promote education and conduct research in immunology to the present day. A review of its history may foretell future developments and directions of immunology in this and other institutions.

  4. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal is the official journal of the Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. It is he first Egyptian Journal specialized in the field of allergy and immunology in the pediatric age group. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new researches in the field of allergy and immunology, for maintaining ...

  5. Cell source determines the immunological impact of biomimetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulos, Michael; Parodi, Alessandro; Martinez, Jonathan O; Yazdi, Iman K; Cevenini, Armando; van de Ven, Anne L; Quattrocchi, Nicoletta; Boada, Christian; Taghipour, Nima; Corbo, Claudia; Brown, Brandon S; Scaria, Shilpa; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-03-01

    Recently, engineering the surface of nanotherapeutics with biologics to provide them with superior biocompatibility and targeting towards pathological tissues has gained significant popularity. Although the functionalization of drug delivery vectors with cellular materials has been shown to provide synthetic particles with unique biological properties, these approaches may have undesirable immunological repercussions upon systemic administration. Herein, we comparatively analyzed unmodified multistage nanovectors and particles functionalized with murine and human leukocyte cellular membrane, dubbed Leukolike Vectors (LLV), and the immunological effects that may arise in vitro and in vivo. Previously, LLV demonstrated an avoidance of opsonization and phagocytosis, in addition to superior targeting of inflammation and prolonged circulation. In this work, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of the importance of the source of cellular membrane in increasing their systemic tolerance and minimizing an inflammatory response. Time-lapse microscopy revealed LLV developed using a cellular coating derived from a murine (i.e., syngeneic) source resulted in an active avoidance of uptake by macrophage cells. Additionally, LLV composed of a murine membrane were found to have decreased uptake in the liver with no significant effect on hepatic function. As biomimicry continues to develop, this work demonstrates the necessity to consider the source of biological material in the development of future drug delivery carriers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Correlation of wireline log characteristics with hydrothermal alteration and other reservoir properties of the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal fields, Imperial Valley, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramoto, F.S.; Elders, W.A.

    1984-05-01

    A detailed study of wireline logs from 11 wells in the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal systems was undertaken in order to determine the effects of hydrothermal alteration on the response of electrical and gamma-gamma density well logs. For the Salton Sea geothermal field, definite correspondence between log responses and hydrothermal mineralogy is evident, which in turn is related to the physical properties of the rocks. Three hydrothermal and one unaltered zone can be identified from log data on shales. These are: (1) the unaltered montmorillonite zone (<100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C); (2) the illite zone (100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C to 230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C); (3) the chlorite zone (230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C to 290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C); and (4) the feldspar zone (>290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C). The characteristic responses on well logs by which these zones are identified result primarily from changes in clay mineralogy of the shales and increases in density with progressive hydrothermal metamorphism. In the Westmorland geothermal field, differentiating mineral zones from log responses was only partially successful. However, analyses of both well log and petrologic data for wells Landers 1 and Kalin Farms 1 suggest that the former is heating up and the latter is cooling.

  7. Utility of hesperidinase for food function research: enzymatic digestion of botanical extracts alters cellular antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Huang, Haiqiu; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2014-08-27

    Food-derived phytochemicals, many known for their health beneficial effects, often exist in conjugated forms containing sugar moieties such as glucose or rhamnose in foods. The uptake of these compounds requires colonic bacterial cleavage of sugar moieties. However, most studies involved in screening extracts for biological activities do not take this process into account. This study seeks to determine the utility of commercially available hesperidinase to mimic colonic digestion and to test the effects of this treatment on the biological properties of extracts. Using hesperidinase resulted in efficient hydrolysis of Engelhardia roxburghiana Wall. extract containing rhamnose conjugates. Enzymatic digestion enhanced the extract's cellular antioxidant ability by 2-fold in HepG2/C3A and the anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 expression in mouse macrophage J774A.1 and human monocyte THP-1 cells. Enzymatic digestion also efficiently processed extracts with mixed rhamnose and glucose conjugates and altered their biological activities. Results of the present study supported the importance of considering enzymatic digestion during the biological activity studies of botanicals.

  8. Potential immunological benefits of Echinacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M.M.; Mahmoud, A.H.; Sharoud, M.N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, herbal remedy is becoming as the spotlight which capture the public attention. Echinacea is marketed as a dietary supplement to promote the immune system and it is currently one of the best-selling herbs according to the Nutrition Business Journal, and is touted as a favourite botanical remedy among herbal and alternative medicine experts. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral application of a commercially available Echinacea preparation on the immune system in Egyptian male and female volunteers. For this purpose, 25 healthy male and female adults, 23-45 years, will receive Echinacea preparation. The total daily dose 125 mg for consecutive 10 days. Blood was withdrawn to assess some immune markers just before beginning the study and after completing the course of medication. The herb extract induced a significant increase in IgG level and the percentage of immune cell populations, including CD4 and CD8 in both male and female volunteers. Also, there is a significant increase in CD4/CD8 ratio. In addition, there is a significant increase in the total leucocyte. In regard to the differential leucocyte, the Echinacea preparation significantly increased the lymphocytes in peripheral blood. For other leucocyte subpopulations (neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil), no significant difference was observed after Echinacea treatment. The erythrocytic counts, the haemoglobin concentration and the haematocrit were in significantly increased in male but insignificantly in female. No remarkable change was noted in the platelets count after the treatment of Echinacea. These findings demonstrated that the plant Echinacea have immune-enhancing properties in male and female Egyptian volunteers

  9. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  10. Properties of altered soils by alkaline solution: contribution in the performance evaluation of repositories; Propriedades de solos alterados por solucao alcalina: contribuicao na avaliacao de desempenho de repositorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabria, Jaqueline Alves de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    The radioactive wastes from nuclear technology applications must be properly disposed in a repository, during the necessary time to ensure the human and the environment protection. The surface systems are largely considered for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, but generally require the use of engineering barriers to control the radionuclides release. An important engineering barrier is the backfill which is situated between the package and structural material, and has the functions of reducing the water infiltration and to promote the retardation of the radionuclide migration, among others. Therefore, the material to be used as backfill such as clays, cement, soils, rocks, must has good sorption, permeability and mechanical properties. The selection of the material will depend also largely on the material availability and installation design. The concrete is also used in the construction of repository, and its interaction with water induces its degradation, resulting in a high pH solution. This solution interacts with the backfilling materials promoting mineralogical alterations that results in significant changes in their key properties and performance as safety component of the repository. In this work, five Brazilian soils of Minas Gerais state, selected according to their generic characteristics along with information from Sistema Brasileiro de Classificacao de Solos (SiBCS) were investigated concerning their potential use as backfilling material in a superficial repository by the determination of retention capacity for cesium and iodine. Sorption-related parameters, used in the performance assessment of the soils, were obtained from experimental data fitting to different sorption isotherms models. The soil that showed the best sorption of Cs, was a clay soil that presented distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) of 90.5 mL.g{sup -1} and maximum sorption capacity (Q{sub max}) of 18.372 mg.g{sup -1}. Regarding the iodine, the sorption was

  11. HPV Infection: Immunological Aspects and Their Utility in Future Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthimios Deligeoroglou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence and mortality rates of cervical cancer create an imperative need to clarify the uniqueness of HPV (Human Papillomavirus infection, which serves as the key causative factor in cervical malignancies. Understanding the immunological details and the microenvironment of the infection can be a useful tool for the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Chronic infection and progression to carcinogenesis are sustained by immortalization potential of HPV, evasion techniques, and alterations in the microenvironment of the lesion. Inside the lesion, Toll-like receptors expression becomes irregular; Langerhans cells fail to present the antigens efficiently, tumor-associated macrophages aggregate resulting in an unsuccessful immune response by the host. HPV products also downregulate the expression of microenvironment components which are necessary for natural-killer cells response and antigen presentation to cytotoxic cells. Additionally HPV promotes T-helper cell 2 (Th2 and T-regulatory cell phenotypes and reduces Th1 phenotype, leading to suppression of cellular immunity and lesion progression to cancer. Humoral response after natural infection is inefficient, and neutralizing antibodies are not adequate in many women. Utilizing this knowledge, new endeavors, such as therapeutic vaccination, aim to stimulate cellular immune response against the virus and alter the milieu of the lesion.

  12. Immunological effects of ayahuasca in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rafael Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a botanical hallucinogen traditionally used by indigenous groups of the northwest Amazon. In the last decade, the use of ayahuasca has spread from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru to the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Africa. Despite acute and long-term evidence of good tolerability and safety for ayahuasca administered in the laboratory or ritually consumed in religious contexts, little is known about the immunological impact of ayahuasca on humans. Since ayahuasca is used by an increasing number of consumers, and considering its therapeutic potential, more information is needed regarding ayahuasca potential risks. This article presents a brief overview of the available data regarding the immunological impact of ayahuasca in humans.

  13. The immunological mechanisms that control pneumococcal carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Jochems

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the human nasopharynx by pneumococcus is extremely common and is both the primary reservoir for transmission and a prerequisite for disease. Current vaccines targeting the polysaccharide capsule effectively prevent colonization, conferring herd protection within vaccinated communities. However, these vaccines cover only a subset of all circulating pneumococcal strains, and serotype replacement has been observed. Given the success of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV in preventing colonization in unvaccinated adults within vaccinated communities, reducing nasopharyngeal colonization has become an outcome of interest for novel vaccines. Here, we discuss the immunological mechanisms that control nasopharyngeal colonization, with an emphasis on findings from human studies. Increased understanding of these immunological mechanisms is required to identify correlates of protection against colonization that will facilitate the early testing and design of novel vaccines.

  14. Engineering antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.

  15. [Immunological background and pathomechanisms of food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in immunology have greatly improved our understanding of the pathomechanisms of food allergies. Food allergies are caused and maintained by complex interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system involving antigen-presenting cells (APC), T cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), epithelial cells (EC) and effectors cells. Additionally, epigenetic factors, the intestinal microbiome and nutritional factors modulating the gastrointestinal lymphatic tissue probably have a significant impact on allergy development. However, why certain individuals develop tolerance while others mount allergic responses, the factors defining the allergenicity of food proteins, as well as the immunological mechanisms triggering allergy development have yet to be analyzed in detail.

  16. Astrocyte membrane properties are altered in a rat model of developmental cortical malformation but single-cell astrocytic glutamate uptake is robust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Elizabeth; Danbolt, Niels Christian; Dulla, Chris G

    2016-05-01

    Developmental cortical malformations (DCMs) are linked with severe epilepsy and are caused by both genetic and environmental insults. DCMs include several neurological diseases, such as focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, and others. Human studies have implicated astrocyte reactivity and dysfunction in the pathophysiology of DCMs, but their specific role is unknown. As astrocytes powerfully regulate glutamate neurotransmission, and glutamate levels are known to be increased in human epileptic foci, understanding the role of astrocytes in the pathological sequelae of DCMs is extremely important. Additionally, recent studies examining astrocyte glutamate uptake in DCMs have reported conflicting results, adding confusion to the field. In this study we utilized the freeze lesion (FL) model of DCM, which is known to induce reactive astrocytosis and cause significant changes in astrocyte morphology, proliferation, and distribution. Using whole-cell patch clamp recording from astrocytes, we recorded both UV-uncaging and synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents (TCs), widely accepted assays of functional glutamate transport by astrocytes. With this approach, we set out to test the hypothesis that astrocyte membrane properties and glutamate transport were disrupted in this model of DCM. Though we found that the developmental maturation of astrocyte membrane resistance was disrupted by FL, glutamate uptake by individual astrocytes was robust throughout FL development. Interestingly, using an immunolabeling approach, we observed spatial and developmental differences in excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) expression in FL cortex. Spatially specific differences in EAAT2 (GLT-1) and EAAT1 (GLAST) expression suggest that the relative contribution of each EAAT to astrocytic glutamate uptake may be altered in FL cortex. Lastly, we carefully analyzed the amplitudes and onset times of both synaptically- and UV uncaging-evoked TCs. We found that in

  17. Can myofascial techniques modify immunological parameters?

    OpenAIRE

    Fern??ndez-P??rez, Antonio Manuel; Peralta-Ram??rez, Mar??a Isabel; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Pilat, Andrzej; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Villaverde-Guti??rrez, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to determine the effect of myofascial techniques on the modulation of immunological variables. Design: Thirty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. Interventions: The experimental group underwent three manual therapy modalities: suboccipital muscle release, so-called fourth intracranial ventricle compression, and deep cervical fascia release. The control group remained in a resting position for the sa...

  18. History of immunology in Australia: events and identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, I R

    2006-06-01

    Immunology originated in Europe during the latter 1900s, and applications can be discerned in colonial Australia. The actual beginnings of immunology in Australia followed Burnet's enunciation of two fundamental principles: natural immune tolerance as an acquired characteristic in 1948 and clonal selection theory in 1957. Laboratory and clinical immunology flourished at various centres from the 1950s. The Australian Society of Immunology was founded in 1971. The merger of clinical immunology with allergy in 1991 created the Australian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, exemplary for the reamalgamation of these related specialties. Australian immunology over the past 50 years has become recognized nationally and abroad as a highly visible component of the academic, research and biomedical scene and is still on a rising trajectory.

  19. Enhancement of immunological activity after mild hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Tohru

    2002-01-01

    At present, hyperthermia is clinically very important as interdisciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumors. We evaluated the effects of hyperthermia under temperature of 42.5C and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect cabn be obtained in this studies. We used animals were C3H mice (male,7W) bearing SCC-VII tumor on femur skin. Then, the mice were divided to 10 mice in each group, and only femur region was immersed in warm water for thermal treatment. Also we measured the tumor growth, changes of blood cell fraction and NK cell activity. The results of the present study confirmed: (1) Anti-tumor effect can be given by thermal treatment at relatively mild temperature (mild temperature at 39C-42C); (2) The increase of neutrophils is dependent on the quantity of heat added; (3) Immunological response of monocytes and lymphocytes is associated with it; (4) Activity of the immunological potency as a whole such as activation of NK cells was also confirmed

  20. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Panel 5: Microbiology and immunology panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M

    2013-04-01

    The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media.

  2. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  3. Immunological studies relating to the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballester, J.M.; Cruz, C.; Inclan, G.; Maclas, C.; Suarez, L.; Rivero, R.; Borres, I.M.; Ustariz, C.; Del Valle, L.; Villegas, R.; Martinez, E.; Rorrajero, I.; Guevara, V.; Leon, A.; Paz, L.; Pelaez, J.C.; Roque, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    In order to know the effects of ultra-violet radiations on the integrity of their immunological system, a hematologic and immunological study was carried out in 30 clinically healthy children aged between 10 and 15; 15 of each sex, who come from a region in Bielorussia that was affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, and who received medical and recreational services at the 'Jose Marti' Pioneers'City, located Tarara Beach (Havana, Cuba) from July 9,1990 to August 27,1990. Data from the initial evaluations upon their arrival in Cuba were compared whit the final results before their return to Bielorussia, in the following variables: haemoglobin, leucocytes, platelets, absolute counts of lymphocytes and neutrophylous polymorphonuclears, levels of sericeus of Igs G, A, M, and E sericas and (CH50), as well as the presence of circulating immuno complexes; besides spot-forming cellular clusters (spontaneous, active, and medial by the receptor Fc in neutrophylous) and the cells identified with monoclonal antibodies against CD2, CD3, CD8 and CD4/CD8 quotient. Cutaneous response to antigen and lymphoblastic transformation in the presence of PHA and PwN were also assessed. Results of this research allow to infer that the adequate and monitored position against ultra-violet rays from the solar radiation in children exposed to low doses of ionizing irradiation does not deteriorate the human immunological system, and do favor its regulation and normal performance

  4. Can myofascial techniques modify immunological parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Antonio Manuel; Peralta-Ramírez, Maria Isabel; Pilat, Andrzej; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of myofascial techniques on the modulation of immunological variables. Thirty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. The experimental group underwent three manual therapy modalities: suboccipital muscle release, so-called fourth intracranial ventricle compression, and deep cervical fascia release. The control group remained in a resting position for the same time period under the same environmental conditions. Changes in counts of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, and natural killer (NK) cells (as immunological markers) between baseline and 20 minutes post-intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant time × groups interaction (F(1,35)=9.33; p=0.004) for CD19. There were no significant time × group interaction effects on CD3, CD4, CD8, or NK cell counts. Intrasubject analyses showed a higher CD19 count in the experimental group post-intervention versus baseline (t=-4.02; p=0.001), with no changes in the control group (t=0.526; p=0.608). A major immunological modulation, with an increased B lymphocyte count, was observed at 20 minutes after the application of craniocervical myofascial induction techniques.

  5. Chapter 17: Occupational immunologic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Bradley R; Grammer, Leslie C

    2012-01-01

    Occupational immunologic lung disease is characterized by an immunologic response in the lung to an airborne agent inhaled in the work environment and can be subdivided into immunologically mediated occupational asthma (OA) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Irritant-induced OA, a separate nonimmunologic entity, can be caused by chronic exposure to inhaled irritants or reactive airways dysfunction syndrome, defined as an asthma-like syndrome that persists for >3 months and occurs abruptly after a single exposure to a high concentration of an irritating industrial agent. High-risk fields for OA include farmers, printers, woodworkers, painters, plastic workers, cleaners, spray painters, electrical workers, and health care workers. OA can be triggered by high molecular weight (HMW) proteins that act as complete allergens or low molecular weight (LMW) sensitizers that act as haptens. HMW proteins (>10 kDa) are generally derived from microorganisms (such as molds and bacteria, including thermophilic actinomycetes), plants (such as latex antigens and flour proteins), or animals (such as animal dander, avian proteins, and insect scales) and are not specifically regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). LMW haptens that bind to proteins in the respiratory mucosa include some OSHA-regulated substances such as isocyanates, anhydrides, and platinum. HP can present in an acute, a chronic, or a subacute form. The acute, subacute, and early chronic form is characterized by a CD4(+) T(H)1 and CD8(+) lymphocyte alveolitis. Classically, the bronchoalveolar lavage will show a CD4/CD8 ratio of <1.

  6. Immunological Approaches to Biomass Characterization and Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Avci, Utku; Zhang, Tiantian; Cardenas, Claudia L; Hahn, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass is the major renewable feedstock resource for sustainable generation of alternative transportation fuels to replace fossil carbon-derived fuels. Lignocellulosic cell walls are the principal component of plant biomass. Hence, a detailed understanding of plant cell wall structure and biosynthesis is an important aspect of bioenergy research. Cell walls are dynamic in their composition and structure, varying considerably among different organs, cells, and developmental stages of plants. Hence, tools are needed that are highly efficient and broadly applicable at various levels of plant biomass-based bioenergy research. The use of plant cell wall glycan-directed probes has seen increasing use over the past decade as an excellent approach for the detailed characterization of cell walls. Large collections of such probes directed against most major cell wall glycans are currently available worldwide. The largest and most diverse set of such probes consists of cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies (McAbs). These McAbs can be used as immunological probes to comprehensively monitor the overall presence, extractability, and distribution patterns among cell types of most major cell wall glycan epitopes using two mutually complementary immunological approaches, glycome profiling (an in vitro platform) and immunolocalization (an in situ platform). Significant progress has been made recently in the overall understanding of plant biomass structure, composition, and modifications with the application of these immunological approaches. This review focuses on such advances made in plant biomass analyses across diverse areas of bioenergy research.

  7. The parallel evolution of immunology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, A A

    2010-01-01

    Immunology is the systematic evaluation of the means through which human beings protect themselves and respond to the attack of internal and external agents, and Edward Jenner (1749-1823) and Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) are considered pioneers of this field. Jenner observed the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox and inoculated the cowpox in human beings to protect them from the often lethal smallpox. Pasteur developed in his laboratory a vaccine against rabies and elaborated methods for attenuating the virulence of pathogenic microorganisms while maintaining their immunogenicity. Pharmacology is the area of medical science dealing with drugs and their uses, and it was during the nineteenth century that it assumed its status of scientific specialty, mainly in German-speaking Europe, through the establishment of pharmacological institutes and dedicated laboratories. The discovery and the synthesis of drugs and the systematic evaluation of their activity have constituted through time a scientific field in which immunology and pharmacology have met and given origin to notable progress in the history of science. The development of chemotherapy, as well as of organ and tissue transplantation, in the twentieth century has been decisively promoted by both immunology and pharmacology. In the last three decades the relationship between these two scientific branches has become increasingly closer in basic research, clinical science, medical education and also editorial scientific activity, as documented by the Journal hosting this paper.

  8. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome): Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Celińska-Lӧwenhoff, Magdalena; Krawiec, Piotr; Batko, Bogdan; Tłustochowicz, Witold; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome), we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA. Methods Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male), aged 48 (range, 21–80) years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers. Results Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10−9 cm2), faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s), thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07), higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L), and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min); all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%. Conclusion This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease. PMID:26540111

  9. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome: Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Mastalerz

    Full Text Available Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome, we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA.Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male, aged 48 (range, 21-80 years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers.Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10-9 cm2, faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s, thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07, higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L, and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min; all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%.This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease.

  10. A systematic study on the alteration in physiochemical and metal retention properties of radiolytically degraded TBP-DD-HNO3 and TBP-NPH-HNO3 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Satyabrata; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2014-01-01

    PUREX (Plutonium Uranium EXtraction) process using 30% TBP in NPH (n-paraffin hydrocarbon) or DD (dodecane) as the solvent is widely adopted for the selective extraction of Pu and U from a feed containing highly radioactive fission and activation products in about 3-4 M HNO 3 solution in the reprocessing of spent fuels of Fast Breeder Reactors. During extraction the solvent comes in contact with acid and intense radiation. Nitric acid also gets extracted into the solvent. The acid induced radiolytic transformations in the solvent result in the formation of a number of hydrophobic compounds that are normally not removed efficiently from the solvent by alkaline wash before recycling. As a consequence, the extraction and stripping behaviour of actinides as well as hydrodynamic properties such as density, viscosity, and phase disengagement time (PDT) are greatly altered. Published data on the radiation-chemical degradation of the solvent in different diluents are contradictory, as the irradiation procedures are not identical. For instance, Tripathi and Ramanujam have reported values of 0.837 and 0.841 g/cc for the density and 1.96 and 2.16 mPa.s for the viscosity of 30 % TBP-DD + 3 M HNO 3 before and after exposure to 12 MRad respectively. The density and viscosity measured by Venkatesan et al. for 30 % TBP-NPH and 30 % TBP-NPH + 4 M HNO 3 after irradiating to 10 MRad were 0.812 and 0.842 g/cc and 1.844 and 1.945 mPa.s respectively. Hence, a systematic study has been undertaken to compare the physiochemical transformations in 30 TBP-DD/NPH-HNO 3 system during accelerated radiolysis as a function of radiation dose. Radiolytic degradation of different sets of solutions comprising 30 % TBP-DD (I), 30 % TBP-DD + 4 M HNO 3 (v/v) (II), 30 % TBP-NPH (III) and 30 % TBP-NPH + 4 M HNO 3 (v/v) (IV) was carried out using 60 Co gamma source up to 20 MRad absorbed dose. Physiochemical properties and metal retention behaviour of the samples were measured after regular intervals of 5

  11. Mutation I136V alters electrophysiological properties of the NaV1.7 channel in a family with onset of erythromelalgia in the second decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib-Hajj Sulayman D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary erythromelalgia is an autosomal dominant pain disorder characterized by burning pain and skin redness in the extremities, with onset of symptoms during the first decade in the families whose mutations have been physiologically studied to date. Several mutations of voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.7 have been linked with primary erythromelalgia. Recently, a new substitution NaV1.7/I136V has been reported in a Taiwanese family, in which pain appeared at later ages (9–22 years, with onset at 17 years of age or later in 5 of 7 family members, with relatively slow progression (8–10 years to involvement of the hands. The proband reported onset of symptoms first in his feet at the age of 11, which then progressed to his hands at the age of 19. The new mutation is located in transmembrane segment 1 (S1 of domain I (DI in contrast to all NaV1.7 mutations reported to date, which have been localized in the voltage sensor S4, the linker joining segments S4 and S5 or pore-lining segments S5 and S6 in DI, II and III. Results In this study, we characterized the gating and kinetic properties of I136V mutant channels in HEK293 cells using whole-cell patch clamp. I136V shifts the voltage-dependence of activation by -5.7 mV, a smaller shift in activation than the other erythromelalgia mutations that have been characterized. I136V also decreases the deactivation rate, and generates larger ramp currents. Conclusion The I136V substitution in NaV1.7 alters channel gating and kinetic properties. Each of these changes may contribute to increased excitability of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons, which underlies pain in erythromelalgia. The smaller shift in voltage-dependence of activation of NaV1.7, compared to the other reported cases of inherited erythromelalgia, may contribute to the later age of onset and slower progression of the symptoms reported in association with this mutation.

  12. Ham and belly processing characteristics of immunological castrated barrows (Improvest) fed ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Overholt, M F; Gerlemann, G D; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Schroeder, A L; Petry, D B; McKeith, F K; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C

    2016-02-01

    Effects of sex class (physically castrated, PC or immunologically castrated, IC) and diet (0 or 5mg/kg ractopamine hydrochloride, RAC) on characteristics of ham and bellies were determined from pigs slaughtered in three groups with similar ending live weights. One carcass per pen per marketing group (n=8) was selected to evaluate further processing characteristics. Data were analyzed as a 2×2 factorial design with a split plot in time and fixed effects of sex, diet, marketing group, and their interactions. IC fresh bellies were thinner (P0.05) fresh ham or belly characteristics but decreased (P<0.01) fat in cured PC bellies. Marketing group affected (P<0.05) fresh quality, processing characteristics, and composition of hams and bellies. Immunological castration and RAC produced leaner finished products but did not alter processing yield of hams or bacon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunological and physical properties of allergen solutions. Effects of nebulization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, L; Poulsen, L K; Heinig, J H

    1991-01-01

    Lyophilised birch pollen allergen extracts, reconstituted with different diluents (H2O, saline, Albumin diluent (AD] were investigated to determine whether the allergen activity and quality of the extracts deteriorated by nebulization with different nebulizers (Pari, Wright, and Sandoz). Allergen...

  14. Immunological properties of meningococcal lipopolysaccharide from serogroups A, B & C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T J; Kharazmi, A; Shand, G

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure and compare the oxidative burst, chemotaxis and cytokine production of human white blood cells, stimulated with meningococcal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from three different serogroups (A, B and C) of Neisseria meningitidis, and to evaluate whether...

  15. Immunologic reaction and viability of cryopreserved homografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischlein, T; Schütz, A; Haushofer, M; Frey, R; Uhlig, A; Detter, C; Reichart, B

    1995-08-01

    Homograft cell viability after cryopreservation was investigated and cytoimmunologic monitoring was performed during the early postoperative course to research possible immunologic reactions after allograft aortic valve replacement. After cryopreservation, morphologic observations were made, a nonradioactive cell proliferation assay was used, and prostaglandin I2 secretion of the remaining endothelial cells was determined. Cytoimmunologic monitoring was performed daily within the first 3 weeks postoperatively. An increase of the activation index greater than 1 was rated as an immunologic reaction. Maintained metabolic activity of graft endothelial cells after cryopreservation was confirmed by prostaglandin I2 release (9.24 +/- 3.48 ng/cm2 basic release and 20.1 +/- 5.76 ng/cm2 when stimulated with 25 mumol/L Na arachidonic acid). Cell proliferation was indicated after graft incubation with the nonradioactive viability kit (0.27 +/- 0.9 at 450 nm). Cytoimmunologic examinations (n = 861) after homograft implantation showed a more intense activation in patients with ABO-incompatible grafts (activation index 2.1 +/- 1.6, n = 16) than in those with ABO-compatible grafts (activation index 1.3 +/- 0.8, n = 17). In these groups, the duration of activation by cytoimmunologic monitoring was 2.8 +/- 1.5 days and 1.3 +/- 0.6 days, respectively (p < 0.041). No activation was observed in 8 patients after xenograft valve replacement (p < 0.01). Our data indicate that cryopreservation of homograft valves represents a cell- and tissue-protective preservation method. Postoperatively, all homograft valves caused immunologic reactions, which were reversible without immunosuppression treatment.

  16. Immunology and immunity against infection: General rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2005-12-01

    Simplified and generalizable rules of immune responses against infections or vaccines have been summarized into 20 statements previously (Scand. J. Immunol. 60 (2004) 9-13) and are restated in a slightly different form here. The key terms of immunology (e.g. specificity, tolerance and memory) are explained in terms of their co-evolutionary importance in the equilibrium between infectious agents and diseases with higher vertebrate hosts. Specificity is best defined by protective antibodies or protective activated T cells; e.g. serotype specific neutralizing antibodies against polio viruses represent the discriminatory power of an immune response very well indeed. Tolerance is reviewed in terms of reactivity rather than self-nonself discrimination. Immune respones are deleted against antigens expressed at sufficient levels within the lymphoheamopoetic system, but may well exist at both, the T and the B cell level against antigens strictly outside of secondary lymphatic organs. In this respect the immune system behaves identically against virus infections and against self antigens. Persistent virus infections delete responsive T cells, once eliminated immune T cell responses wane, if a virus keeps outside of secondary lymphatic tissues no immune response is induced. Immunological memory is usually defined as earlier and greater responses but this does not correlate with protective immunity stringently. It is summarized here that pre-existing titers of protective neutralizing antibodies or pre-existence of activated T cells are the correlates of protection acute cytopathic lethal infections and toxins or against intracellular parasites. It is concluded that many discrepancies and uncertainties in immunological research derive from model situations and experimental results that are correctly measured but cannot be related to co-evolutionary contexts, i.e. survival.

  17. Cutaneous drug hypersensitivity : Immunological and genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisalay Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.

  18. Immunological Deregulation in Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandra; Vetro, Calogero; Caocci, Giovanni; Greco, Marianna; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Di Raimondo, Francesco; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) has a unique histology since only a few neoplastic cells are surrounded by inflammatory accessory cells that in the last years have emerged as crucial players in sustaining the course of disease. In addition, recent studies suggest that the abnormal activity of these inflammatory cells (such as deregulation in regulatory T cells signaling, expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells, HLA-G signaling and natural killer cells dysfunction) may have prognostic significance. This review is focused on summarizing recent advanced in immunological defects in cHL with translational implications. PMID:24959336

  19. Immunology of the Uterine and Vaginal Mucosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jordan Z; Way, Sing Sing; Chen, Kang

    2018-04-01

    Along with the maintenance of symbiotic mutualism with commensal microbes and protection against invasive infections common to all mucosal barrier tissues, female reproductive tissues have additional, unique tasks that include dynamic cyclic cellular turnover in menstruation and immunological tolerance to genetically foreign fetal antigens in pregnancy. Here we review current knowledge on distinct features of the immune cells in female reproductive tissue with regard to antimicrobial host defense and adaptations to accommodate the fetus during pregnancy. Outstanding areas for future research to obtain new functional insights on this enigmatic mucosal barrier are also highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immigrants in immunology: the benefits of lax borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagaman, Keaton; Martinez, Emily S; Guillemin, Karen

    2015-05-01

    The field of immunology has a long history of illuminating fundamental biological processes of critical importance to human health. From an outsider's perspective, the questions are profoundly philosophical and the experimental approaches are elegantly precise. Yet immunology can also appear impenetrable. Here we recount the experience of two graduate students from the fields of ecology and computer science, who have immigrated into immunological terrain attracted by systems-level questions. We argue that such migrations enrich the field of immunology, and that cultural and institutional changes are needed to promote more interdisciplinary explorations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Intricate Link among Gut “Immunological Niche,” Microbiota, and Xenobiotics in Intestinal Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Pagliari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are diseases characterized by various degrees of inflammation involving the gastrointestinal tract. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are characterized by a dysregulated immune response leading to structural gut alterations in genetically predisposed individuals. Diverticular disease is characterized by abnormal immune response to normal gut microbiota. IBDs are linked to a lack of physiological tolerance of the mucosal immune system to resident gut microbiota and pathogens. The disruption of immune tolerance involves inflammatory pathways characterized by an unbalance between the anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells and the proinflammatory Th1/Th17 cells. The interaction among T cell subpopulations and their related cytokines, mediators of inflammation, gut microbiota, and the intestinal mucosa constitute the gut “immunological niche.” Several evidences have shown that xenobiotics, such as rifaximin, can positively modulate the inflammatory pathways at the site of gut immunological niche, acting as anti-inflammatory agents. Xenobiotics may interfere with components of the immunological niche, leading to activation of anti-inflammatory pathways and inhibition of several mediators of inflammation. In summary, xenobiotics may reduce disease-related gut mucosal alterations and clinical symptoms. Studying the complex interplay between gut immunological niche and xenobiotics will certainly open new horizons in the knowledge and therapy of intestinal pathologies.

  2. Effect of 137Cs on immunological reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    An important role of 137 Cs as a new ecological factor was shown by analyzing 31 different studies. The radioisotope may at present be detected in the organisms of all inhabitants of this planet. The migration of 137 Cs along the chain lichen-deer-man leads to its accumulation in the organism of humans living in the Extreme North and taking venison in their food. Although the high sensitivity of immunological reactions to various unfavourable environmental factors is well known, data on the effect of incorporated 137 Cs on immunity are scanty. Experiments on animals showed changes in factors of nonspecific immunity (phagocytic reaction of blood neutrophils, bactericidal activity, lysozyme and complement titres of blood serum) and specific immunity (formation of antiviral antibodies). The blood of animals injured by the isotope displays complete and incomplete autoantibodies. The dependence of immunobiological changes on the dose absorbed by the organism is shown. The 137 Cs intake of inhabitants of the Extreme North who eat venison did not, with the absorbed dose equalling up to 50 Mrem per year, lead to changes in their immunological reactivity. (author)

  3. Importance of exercise immunology in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, J C Rosa; Lira, F S; de Mello, M T; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T

    2011-11-01

    Chronic physical exercise with adequate intensity and volume associated with sufficient recovery promotes adaptations in several physiological systems. While intense and exhaustive exercise is considered an important immunosuppressor agent and increases the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), moderate regular exercise has been associated with significant disease protection and is a complementary treatment of many chronic diseases. The effects of chronic exercise occur because physical training can induce several physiological, biochemical and psychological adaptations. More recently, the effect of acute exercise and training on the immunological system has been discussed, and many studies suggest the importance of the immune system in prevention and partial recovery in pathophysiological situations. Currently, there are two important hypotheses that may explain the effects of exercise and training on the immune system. These hypotheses including (1) the effect of exercise upon hormones and cytokines (2) because exercise can modulate glutamine concentration. In this review, we discuss the hypothesis that exercise may modulate immune functions and the importance of exercise immunology in respect to chronic illnesses, chronic heart failure, malnutrition and inflammation.

  4. Uncertainty of measurement: an immunology laboratory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sarah C; Lock, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    'Measurement uncertainty of measured quantity values' (ISO15189) requires that the laboratory shall determine the measurement uncertainty for procedures used to report measured quantity values on patients' samples. Where we have numeric data measurement uncertainty can be expressed as the standard deviation or as the co-efficient of variation. However, in immunology many of the assays are reported either as semi-quantitative (i.e. an antibody titre) or qualitative (positive or negative) results. In the latter context, measuring uncertainty is considerably more difficult. There are, however, strategies which can allow us to minimise uncertainty. A number of parameters can contribute to making measurements uncertain. These include bias, precision, standard uncertainty (expressed as standard deviation or coefficient of variation), sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reproducibility and verification. Closely linked to these are traceability and standardisation. In this article we explore the challenges presented to immunology with regard to measurement uncertainty. Many of these challenges apply equally to other disciplines working with qualitative or semi-quantitative data. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Immunology and Homeopathy. 4. Clinical Studies—Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavite, Paolo; Ortolani, Riccardo; Pontarollo, Francesco; Piasere, Valeria; Benato, Giovanni; Conforti, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The clinical studies on the effectiveness of homeopathy in respiratory allergy (18 randomized trials and 9 observational studies) are described. The literature of common immunologic disorders including also upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and otorhinolaryngology (reported in part 1), is evaluated and discussed. Most of initial evidence-based research was addressed to the question of whether homeopathic high dilutions are placebos or possess specific effects, but this question has been often equivocal and is still a matter of debate. The evidence demonstrates that in some conditions homeopathy shows significant promise, e.g. Galphimia glauca (low dilutions/potencies) in allergic oculorhinitis, classical individualized homeopathy in otitis and possibly in asthma and allergic complaints, and a few low-potency homeopathic complexes in sinusitis and rhinoconjunctivitis. A general weakness of evidence derives from lack of independent confirmation of reported trials and from presence of conflicting results, as in case of homeopathic immunotherapy and of classical homeopathy for URTI. The suitable methods to evaluate homeopathy effectiveness, without altering the setting of cure, are also analyzed. PMID:17173103

  6. Preeclampsia and health risks later in life: an immunological link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi-Bin; Sharma, Surendra

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy represents a period of physiological stress, and although this stress is experienced for a very modest portion of life, it is now recognized as a window to women's future health, often by unmasking predispositions to conditions that only become symptomatic later in life. In normal pregnancy, the mother experiences mild metabolic syndrome-like condition through week 20 of gestation. A pronounced phenotype of metabolic syndrome may program pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a serious complication with a myriad of manifestations for mother and offspring. This pregnancy syndrome is a polygenic disease and has been now linked to higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and several other disorders associated with vulnerable organs. Furthermore, the offspring born to preeclamptic mothers also exhibit an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and mental disorders during adulthood. This suggests that preeclampsia not only exposes the mother and the fetus to complications during pregnancy but also programs chronic diseases in later life. The etiology of preeclampsia is thought to be primarily associated with poor placentation and entails excessive maternal inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. It is well established now that the maternal immune system and the placenta are involved in a highly choreographed cross-talk that underlies adequate spiral artery remodeling required for uteroplacental perfusion and free flow of nutrients to the fetus. Since normal pregnancy is associated with a sequence of events represented by temporal events of inflammation (implantation), anti-inflammation (gestation), and inflammation (parturition), it is quite possible that unscheduled alterations in these regulatory responses may lead to pathologic consequences. Although it is not clear whether immunological alterations occur early in pregnancy, it is proposed that dysregulated systemic and placental immunity contribute to impaired

  7. Alteration in the inherent metallic and surface properties of nickel-titanium root canal instruments to enhance performance, durability and safety: a focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, J L; Gao, Y

    2012-02-01

    The expanded use of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments in root canal procedures has led to the development of a wide variety of shapes, designs and applications. Root canal anatomy has not changed, however, and the same challenges exist in both initial treatment and the revision of unacceptable treatment. These challenges include application with high levels of achievement and low to no levels of adverse effects, such as instrument fracture, root canal wall ledging, dentine wall perforation and so forth. To that end, many manufacturers have been seeking ways to alter the presently available and wide range of root canal instrument designs, with a focus on altering the surface of the alloy or altering the alloy microstructure with post-machining or post-twisting heat treatment. This focused review will address the impact that these modifications have had on instrument flexibility, resistance to cyclic fatigue and cutting efficiency. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  8. Immunologic characteristics of HIV-infected individuals who make broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, Persephone; Moody, M Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) capable of inhibiting infection with diverse variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a key, as-yet-unachieved goal of prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine strategies. However, some HIV-infected individuals develop bnAbs after approximately 2-4 years of infection, enabling analysis of features of these antibodies and the immunological environment that enables their induction. Distinct subsets of CD4 + T cells play opposing roles in the regulation of humoral responses: T follicular helper (Tfh) cells support germinal center formation and provide help for affinity maturation and the development of memory B cells and plasma cells, while regulatory CD4 + (Treg) cells including T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells inhibit the germinal center reaction to limit autoantibody production. BnAbs exhibit high somatic mutation frequencies, long third heavy-chain complementarity determining regions, and/or autoreactivity, suggesting that bnAb generation is likely to be highly dependent on the activity of CD4 + Tfh cells, and may be constrained by host tolerance controls. This review discusses what is known about the immunological environment during HIV-1 infection, in particular alterations in CD4 + Tfh, Treg, and Tfr populations and autoantibody generation, and how this is related to bnAb development, and considers the implications for HIV-1 vaccine design. © 2017 The Authors. Immunological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prospects for Therapeutic Targeting of MicroRNAs in Human Immunological Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Marisa E; Muljo, Stefan A; Collins, Colm B

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous oligoribonucleotides with exciting therapeutic potential. Early studies established a clear role for miRNAs in leukocyte biology. The first miRNA-based therapy, miravirsen, is now in phase 2 clinical trials, making the reality of these therapies undeniable. The capacity for miRNAs to fine-tune inflammatory signaling make them attractive treatment targets for immunological diseases. Nonetheless, the degree of redundancy among miRNAs, coupled with the promiscuity of miRNA binding sites in the transcriptome, require consideration when designing miRNA-directed interventions. Altered miRNA expression occurs across a range of inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, and diabetes. However, very few studies successfully treated murine models of immunological diseases with miRNA-based approaches. While discussing recent studies targeting miRNAs to treat immunological conditions, we also reflect on the risks of miRNA targeting and showcase some newer delivery systems that may improve the pharmacological profile of this class of therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. 21 CFR 866.5500 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the immunoglobulin antibodies in serum which react specifically with organic dust derived from fungal or animal protein sources. When these antibodies react with such dusts in the lung... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test...

  11. 42 CFR 493.837 - Standard; General immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; General immunology. 493.837 Section 493.837 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.837 Standard; General immunology. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent...

  12. Veterinary Immunology Committee Toolkit Workshop 2010: Progress and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) Toolkit Workshop took place at the Ninth International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (IVIS) in Tokyo, Japan on August 18, 2020. The Workshop built on previous Toolkit Workshops and covered various aspects of reagent development, commercialisation an...

  13. Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1 Infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: CD4+ T-lymphocyte count is an indicator of immune status used as the eligibility criterion for initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and for monitoring of immunological response to ART in HIV-infected patients in resource limited settings. Objective: To describe the immunological response to ART in HIV-1 ...

  14. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  15. Effect of surgical and immunological castration on haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PCV and HB of dogs surgically castrated increased progressively up to16th week after castration but only up to10 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. Both PCV and HB decreased progressively after 10 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. Similarly, the WBC of dogs surgically castrated steadily increased ...

  16. Origins and evolution of reproductive immunology: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, W David

    2015-04-01

    This is a brief personal assessment of the origins and development of the field of reproductive immunology from the 19th century to the present day, with special reference to the founding of the Journal of Reproductive Immunology in 1979. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunological comparison of ovarian and colonic CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtin, P.; Gendron, M.C.; Maunoury, M.T.; Lamerz, R.; Schnabel, G.

    1982-01-01

    Ovarian and colonic CEA were compared immunologically by means of antisera prepared against each of them. CEAs of both origins were found identical by immunodiffusion methods. In radioimmunological experiments, slight differences were observed between some but not all ovarian CEAs and colonic CEAs and also between different preparations of colonic CEA: no organ specificity of ovarian CEA could be demonstrated. Finally, CEA level was measured in 41 sera of patients with ovarian carcinoma by two radioimmunoassays, one using colonic CEA as tracer and standard and anti-colonic CEA serum, the other using ovarian CEA and anti-ovarian CEA serum: the values given by the two assays were highly correlated (rsub(s) = 0.8107), meaning that an organ specific assay for ovarian CEA is not needed. (Auth.)

  18. [Current immunologic aspects of kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, V; Dreikorn, K; Opelz, G

    1982-09-01

    The results of clinical kidney transplantation are mainly dependent on immunologic factors many of which are unknown or of unspecified importance. Blood transfusions have a favorable effect on graft prognosis, although our knowledge about optimal transfusion protocols and transfusion-induced mechanisms is still incomplete. The value of HLA-typing is controversial: whereas compatibility of the "classical" HLA-A,B,C antigens improves graft survival only moderately, HLA-DR typing, routinely performed for the last 3 years only, might be of greater importance. In addition, non-HLA systems, such as endothelial/monocytic antigens or the Lewis blood group system, appear to play a role in graft rejection. The individual immune reactivity a recipient to a large extent determines the fate of a graft. The multifactorial dependence of graft prognosis is discussed in this report.

  19. Update in clinical allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, S; Marsland, B J; von Garnier, C; Simon, D

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, a tremendous body of studies has addressed a broad variety of distinct topics in clinical allergy and immunology. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide clinically and pathogenetically relevant insights or identify potential novel targets and strategies for therapy. The role of the microbiome in shaping allergic immune responses and molecular, as well as cellular mechanisms of disease, is discussed separately and in the context of atopic dermatitis, as an allergic model disease. Besides summarizing novel evidence, this update highlights current areas of uncertainties and debates that, as we hope, shall stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. The Immunological Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca A. R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are chronic ailments, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis being the most important. These diseases present an inflammatory profile and they differ according to pathophysiology, the affected area in the gastrointestinal tract, and the depth of the inflammation in the intestinal wall. The immune characteristics of IBD arise from abnormal responses of the innate and adaptive immune system. The number of Th17 cells increases in the peripheral blood of IBD patients, while Treg cells decrease, suggesting that the Th17/Treg proportion plays an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation. The purpose of this review was to determine the current state of knowledge on the immunological basis of IBD. Many studies have shown the need for further explanation of the development and maintenance of the inflammatory process.

  1. Maximal frustration as an immunological principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, F Vistulo; Mostardinha, P

    2009-03-06

    A fundamental problem in immunology is that of understanding how the immune system selects promptly which cells to kill without harming the body. This problem poses an apparent paradox. Strong reactivity against pathogens seems incompatible with perfect tolerance towards self. We propose a different view on cellular reactivity to overcome this paradox: effector functions should be seen as the outcome of cellular decisions which can be in conflict with other cells' decisions. We argue that if cellular systems are frustrated, then extensive cross-reactivity among the elements in the system can decrease the reactivity of the system as a whole and induce perfect tolerance. Using numerical and mathematical analyses, we discuss two simple models that perform optimal pathogenic detection with no autoimmunity if cells are maximally frustrated. This study strongly suggests that a principle of maximal frustration could be used to build artificial immune systems. It would be interesting to test this principle in the real adaptive immune system.

  2. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  3. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  4. Lignin properties in topsoils of a beech/oak forest after 8 years of manipulated litter fall: relevance of altered input and oxidation of lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotzbücher, T.; Strohmeier, S.; Kaiser, K.; Bowden, R.D.; Lajtha, K.; Ohm, H.; Kalbitz, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims We studied the response of lignin oxidation in soils of a beech/oak forest to changes in litter fall. Additionally we considered possible factors in lignin oxidation, including altered (i) input of fresh organic matter and (ii) fungi-to-bacteria ratios. Methods The field-based

  5. Adsorption orientations and immunological recognition of antibodies on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, J. G.; Dumitru, A. C.; Herruzo, Elena T.; Mendieta-Moreno, Jesús I.; Garcia, Ricardo; Serena, P. A.; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid are combined to characterize the adsorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies over a hydrophobic surface modeled with a three-layer graphene slab. We consider explicitly the water solvent, simulating systems with massive sizes (up to 770 000 atoms), for four different adsorption orientations. Protocols based on steered MD to speed up the protein diffusion stage and to enhance the dehydration process are combined with long simulation times (>150 ns) in order to make sure that the final adsorption states correspond to actual stable configurations. Our MD results and the AFM images demonstrate that the IgG antibodies are strongly adsorbed, do not unfold, and retain their secondary and tertiary structures upon deposition. Statistical analysis of the AFM images shows that many of the antibodies adopt vertical orientations, even at very small coverages, which expose at least one Fab binding site for recognition events. Single molecule force spectroscopy experiments demonstrate the immunological response of the deposited antibodies by recognizing its specific antigens. The above properties together with the strong anchoring and preservation of the secondary structure, make graphene an excellent candidate for the development of immunosensors.Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid are combined to characterize the adsorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies over a hydrophobic surface modeled with a three-layer graphene slab. We consider explicitly the water solvent, simulating systems with massive sizes (up to 770 000 atoms), for four different adsorption orientations. Protocols based on steered MD to speed up the protein diffusion stage and to enhance the dehydration process are combined with long simulation times (>150 ns) in order to make sure that the final adsorption states correspond to actual stable configurations. Our

  6. Peptide and Peptide-Dependent Motions in MHC Proteins: Immunological Implications and Biophysical Underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Cory M; Corcelli, Steven A; Baker, Brian M

    2017-01-01

    Structural biology of peptides presented by class I and class II MHC proteins has transformed immunology, impacting our understanding of fundamental immune mechanisms and allowing researchers to rationalize immunogenicity and design novel vaccines. However, proteins are not static structures as often inferred from crystallographic structures. Their components move and breathe individually and collectively over a range of timescales. Peptides bound within MHC peptide-binding grooves are no exception and their motions have been shown to impact recognition by T cell and other receptors in ways that influence function. Furthermore, peptides tune the motions of MHC proteins themselves, which impacts recognition of peptide/MHC complexes by other proteins. Here, we review the motional properties of peptides in MHC binding grooves and discuss how peptide properties can influence MHC motions. We briefly review theoretical concepts about protein motion and highlight key data that illustrate immunological consequences. We focus primarily on class I systems due to greater availability of data, but segue into class II systems as the concepts and consequences overlap. We suggest that characterization of the dynamic "energy landscapes" of peptide/MHC complexes and the resulting functional consequences is one of the next frontiers in structural immunology.

  7. Mechanical compliance and immunological compatibility of fixative-free decellularized/cryopreserved human pericardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Vinci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pericardial tissue is commonly used to produce bio-prosthetic cardiac valves and patches in cardiac surgery. The procedures adopted to prepare this tissue consist in treatment with aldehydes, which do not prevent post-graft tissue calcification due to incomplete xeno-antigens removal. The adoption of fixative-free decellularization protocols has been therefore suggested to overcome this limitation. Although promising, the decellularized pericardium has not yet used in clinics, due to the absence of proofs indicating that the decellularization and cryopreservation procedures can effectively preserve the mechanical properties and the immunologic compatibility of the tissue. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the present work was to validate a procedure to prepare decellularized/cryopreserved human pericardium which may be implemented into cardiovascular homograft tissue Banks. The method employed to decellularize the tissue completely removed the cells without affecting ECM structure; furthermore, uniaxial tensile loading tests revealed an equivalent resistance of the decellularized tissue to strain, before and after the cryopreservation, in comparison with the fresh tissue. Finally, immunological compatibility, showed a minimized host immune cells invasion and low levels of systemic inflammation, as assessed by tissue transplantation into immune-competent mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate, for the first time, that fixative-free decellularized pericardium from cadaveric tissue donors can be banked according to Tissue Repository-approved procedures without compromising its mechanical properties and immunological tolerance. This tissue can be therefore treated as a safe homograft for cardiac surgery.

  8. Peptide and Peptide-Dependent Motions in MHC Proteins: Immunological Implications and Biophysical Underpinnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory M. Ayres

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural biology of peptides presented by class I and class II MHC proteins has transformed immunology, impacting our understanding of fundamental immune mechanisms and allowing researchers to rationalize immunogenicity and design novel vaccines. However, proteins are not static structures as often inferred from crystallographic structures. Their components move and breathe individually and collectively over a range of timescales. Peptides bound within MHC peptide-binding grooves are no exception and their motions have been shown to impact recognition by T cell and other receptors in ways that influence function. Furthermore, peptides tune the motions of MHC proteins themselves, which impacts recognition of peptide/MHC complexes by other proteins. Here, we review the motional properties of peptides in MHC binding grooves and discuss how peptide properties can influence MHC motions. We briefly review theoretical concepts about protein motion and highlight key data that illustrate immunological consequences. We focus primarily on class I systems due to greater availability of data, but segue into class II systems as the concepts and consequences overlap. We suggest that characterization of the dynamic “energy landscapes” of peptide/MHC complexes and the resulting functional consequences is one of the next frontiers in structural immunology.

  9. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi

    2013-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune

  10. Immunology of fibrotic lung disease: managing infections whilst preventing autoimmunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hügle

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Thomas HügleDepartment of Rheumatology, Felix-Platter-Spital, University of Basel, Basel, SwitzerlandAbstract: Interstitial lung disease (ILD and lung fibrosis are characterized by different grades of fibrosis and inflammation. Persistent low-grade inflammation is believed to play a major pathogenic role, leading to an imbalance of cytokines, growth factors, and tissue proteinases. Recruited monocytes and macrophages play a pivotal role through their cytokine expression and possibly differentiation into fibrocytes, pericytes, or myofibroblasts. Atypical bacterial infections can cause ILD, although not usually in the form of usual interstitial pneumonia. On the other hand, bacterial colonization is frequently encountered in patients with chronic fibrotic lung disorders, and patients regularly undergo antibacterial treatment. As demonstrated in patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis and other chronic respiratory disorders, treatment with macrolides can be beneficial. This is partly explained by their antimicrobial effects but, for macrolides, immunomodulatory properties have been identified which might also be beneficial in patients with ILD or lung fibrosis. This article reviews the immunology of lung fibrogenesis and putative implications of macrolides for reinstallation of tolerance.Keywords: lung fibrosis, inflammation, pneumonia

  11. Immunologic basis for adverse reactions to radiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, V.; Nilsson, R.; Grepe, A.; Stockholm Univ.; Stockholm Univ.; Danderyds Sjukhus, Danderyd

    1990-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) was used to elucidate whether certain side effects induced by radiographic contrast media have an immunologic etiology. Groups studied were: 8 patients who had previously experienced adverse reactions in association with urography, 6 patients who underwent urography without notable side reactions, 17 occupationally exposed nurses, and 9 unexposed controls. The lymphocytes from 2 hypersensitive patients and from 11 nurses exhibited a positive proliferative response to amidotrizoate. Five nurses who had shown a positive response, had a previous history of hypersensitivity reactions when handling contrast media, whereas the remaining 6 were free of symptoms. Amidotrizoatespecific memory cells were absent in patients who underwent urography without signs of hypersensitivity and in 7/9 of unexposed control subjects. Lymphocytes from patients sensitive to amidotrizoate cross-reacted to structurally related ionic contrast media while nonionic contrast agents did not induce proliferation of the lymphocytes. Thus, ionic radiographic contrast agents have antigenic properties in man. Irradiated mixtures of radiographic contrast media and serum proteins were, in general, not effective in inducing an LTT response. (orig.)

  12. Critical immunological pathways are downregulated in APECED patient dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöntynen, Nora; Strengell, Mari; Sillanpää, Niko; Saharinen, Juha; Ulmanen, Ismo; Julkunen, Ilkka; Peltonen, Leena

    2008-10-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a monogenic autoimmune disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. AIRE functions as a transcriptional regulator, and it has a central role in the development of immunological tolerance. AIRE regulates the expression of ectopic antigens in epithelial cells of the thymic medulla and has been shown to participate in the development of peripheral tolerance. However, the mechanism of action of AIRE has remained elusive. To further investigate the role of AIRE in host immune functions, we studied the properties and transcript profiles in in vitro monocyte-differentiated dendritic cells (moDCs) obtained from APECED patients and healthy controls. AIRE-deficient monocytes showed typical DC morphology and expressed DC marker proteins cluster of differentiation 86 and human leukocyte antigen class II. APECED patient-derived moDCs were functionally impaired: the transcriptional response of cytokine genes to pathogens was drastically reduced. Interestingly, some changes were observable already at the immature DC stage. Pathway analyses of transcript profiles revealed that the expression of the components of the host cell signaling pathways involved in cell-cell signalling, innate immune responses, and cytokine activity were reduced in APECED moDCs. Our observations support a role for AIRE in peripheral tolerance and are the first ones to show that AIRE has a critical role in DC responses to microbial stimuli in humans.

  13. Study of gamma radiation from 60Co effects on Apis mellifera venom: biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Helena

    2001-01-01

    Africanized honeybees are very common insects in Brazil and frequently cause accidents followed by important immunological reactions and even deaths. Their venoms are composed of a complex mixture of substances of general biological actions. Ionizing radiation is able to modify molecular structures affecting the biological properties of proteins. It decreases toxic and enzymatic activities and so, it appears promising as a venom detoxification tool. The main objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma radiation on bee venom, regarding biochemical, pharmacological and immunological aspects. Africanized Apis mellifera whole venom (2 mg/ml) in 0.15 M NaCl solution was irradiated with 2 kGy in a 60 Co source. Native and irradiated bee venoms were submitted to high performance size exclusion chromatography (Tosohaas G2000SW column), high performance reversed phase chromatography in a C-18 column under water/acetonitrile gradient, SDS-PAGE. For both venoms studies have been carried out in UV absorption spectrum, protein concentration, hemolytic activity, and PLA 2 activity analysis, lethality assay (LD 50 ). Biodistribution studies was carried out after labelling native and irradiated bee venom with 99m Tc. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration nor its immunogenicity, although it could be observed that irradiated bee venom UV spectrum and SDS-PAGE profile presented differences when compared to native bee venom. This suggests that some structural alterations in bee venom components could have occurred after irradiation. HPLC-RP profiles showed that gamma radiation could have caused conformational changes, such as unfolding of molecule chains, changing their hydrophobic groups exposuring. The hemolytic and the PLA 2 activities of irradiated bee venom were smaller than the native ones. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of bee venom, but did not abolish its bioactivity, like hemolysis. Biodistribution studies

  14. Property (

    CERN Document Server

    Ershov, Mikhail; Kassabov, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The authors introduce and study the class of groups graded by root systems. They prove that if \\Phi is an irreducible classical root system of rank \\geq 2 and G is a group graded by \\Phi, then under certain natural conditions on the grading, the union of the root subgroups is a Kazhdan subset of G. As the main application of this theorem the authors prove that for any reduced irreducible classical root system \\Phi of rank \\geq 2 and a finitely generated commutative ring R with 1, the Steinberg group {\\mathrm St}_{\\Phi}(R) and the elementary Chevalley group \\mathbb E_{\\Phi}(R) have property (T). They also show that there exists a group with property (T) which maps onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank \\geq 2, thereby providing a "unified" proof of expansion in these groups.

  15. Ecological immunology mediated by diet in herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael S; Mason, Peri A; Smilanich, Angela M

    2014-11-01

    A rapidly advancing area of ecological immunology concerns the effects of diet on animals' immunological responses to parasites and pathogens. Here, we focus on diet-mediated ecological immunology in herbivorous insects, in part because these organisms commonly experience nutritional limitations from their diets of plants. Nutritional immunology highlights nutrient-based trade-offs between immunological and other physiological processes as well as trade-offs among distinct immunological processes. This field reveals that nutrition influences the quality and quantity of immunological defense in herbivorous insects, and conversely that nutritional intake by herbivorous insects can be an adaptive response to the specific types of immune-challenge they face in the context of other physiological processes. Because the diets of herbivores challenge them physiologically with plants' secondary metabolites, another area of study analyzes constraints on immunological defense imposed by secondary metabolites of plants in the diets of herbivorous insects. Alternatively, some herbivores can use secondary metabolites as medicine against parasites or pathogens. Animal-medication theory makes an important contribution to ecological immunology by distinguishing prophylactic and therapeutic mechanisms of anti-parasite defense. Integrating ideas from animal-medication and nutritional immunology, we outline a conceptual framework in which the immunological role of the diet consists of mechanisms of prophylaxis, therapy, compensation, and combinations thereof. Then, we use this framework to organize findings from our own research on diet-mediated ecological immunology of woolly bear caterpillars. We show evidence that the woolly bear caterpillar, Grammia incorrupta (Hy. Edwards) (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, and Arctiinae), can employ both diet-mediated prophylaxis and therapy. First, increased consumption of carbohydrate-biased food prior to immune-challenge increased its melanization

  16. 50 years of Dutch immunology--founders, institutions, highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmelig-Meyling, Frits H J; Meyaard, Linde; Mebius, Reina E

    2014-12-01

    At the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Dutch Society for Immunology (DSI, de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Immunologie), this contribution deals with some highlights of 50 years of Immunology in the Netherlands. It narrates about the founders and first board members of the DSI, their institutes, progeny and patrimony, describes major centers of immunological activities, mentions key persons in the field, and touches upon some events dear to the Society and its members. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Methods for microbiological and immunological studies of space flight crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R. (Editor); Zaloguev, S. N. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Systematic laboratory procedures compiled as an outgrowth of a joint U.S./U.S.S.R. microbiological-immunological experiment performed during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project space flight are presented. Included are mutually compatible methods for the identification of aerobic and microaerophilic bacteria, yeast and yeastlike microorganisms, and filamentous fungi; methods for the bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus; and methods for determining the sensitivity of S. aureus to antibiotics. Immunological methods using blood and immunological and biochemical methods using salivary parotid fluid are also described. Formulas for media and laboratory reagents used are listed.

  18. From immunology to MRI data anlysis: Problems in mathematical biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Ryan Samuel

    This thesis represents a collection of four distinct biological projects rising from immunology and metabolomics that required unique and creative mathematical approaches. One project focuses on understanding the role IL-2 plays in immune response regulation and exploring how these effects can be altered. We developed several dynamic models of the receptor signaling network which we analyze analytically and numerically. In a second project focused also on MS, we sought to create a system for grading magnetic resonance images (MRI) with good correlation with disability. The goal is for these MRI scores to provide a better standard for large-scale clinical drug trials, which limits the bias associated with differences in available MRI technology and general grader/participant variability. The third project involves the study of the CRISPR adaptive immune system in bacteria. Bacterial cells recognize and acquire snippets of exogenous genetic material, which they incorporate into their DNA. In this project we explore the optimal design for the CRISPR system given a viral distribution to maximize its probability of survival. The final project involves the study of the benefits for colocalization of coupled enzymes in metabolic pathways. The hypothesized kinetic advantage, known as `channeling', of putting coupled enzymes closer together has been used as justification for the colocalization of coupled enzymes in biological systems. We developed and analyzed a simple partial differential equation of the diffusion of the intermediate substrate between coupled enzymes to explore the phenomena of channeling. The four projects of my thesis represent very distinct biological problems that required a variety of techniques from diverse areas of mathematics ranging from dynamical modeling to statistics, Fourier series and calculus of variations. In each case, quantitative techniques were used to address biological questions from a mathematical perspective ultimately providing

  19. BIOCHEMICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL MARKERS OF OVER-TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gleeson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletes fail to perform to the best of their ability if they become infected, stale, sore or malnourished. Excessive training with insufficient recovery can lead to a debilitating syndrome in which performance and well being can be affected for months. Eliminating or minimizing these problems by providing advice and guidelines on training loads, recovery times, nutrition or pharmacological intervention and regular monitoring of athletes using an appropriate battery of markers can help prevent the development of an overtraining syndrome in athletes. The potential usefulness of objective physiological, biochemical and immunological markers of overtraining has received much attention in recent years. Practical markers would be ones that could be measured routinely in the laboratory and offered to athletes as part of their sports science and medical support. The identification of common factors among overtrained athletes in comparison with well-trained athletes not suffering from underperformance could permit appropriate intervention to prevent athletes from progressing to a more serious stage of the overtraining syndrome. To date, no single reliable objective marker of impending overtraining has been identified. Some lines of research do, however, show promise and are based on findings that overtrained athletes appear to exhibit an altered hormonal response to stress. For example, in response to a standardized bout (or repeated bouts of high intensity exercise, overtrained athletes show a lower heart rate, blood lactate and plasma cortisol response. Several immune measures that can be obtained from a resting blood sample (e.g. the expression of specific cell surface proteins such as CD45RO+ on T-lymphocytes also seem to offer some hope of identifying impending overtraining. If an athlete is suspected of suffering from overtraining syndrome, other measures will also required, if only to exclude other possible causes of underperformance including

  20. Immunological monitoring of the tumor immunoenvironment for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyguine, Anatoli M; Strobl, Susan L; Shurin, Michael R

    2012-02-01

    Monitoring of immunotherapeutic clinical trials has undergone a considerable change in the last decade resulting in a general agreement that immune monitoring should guide the development of cancer vaccines. The emphasis on immune cell functions and quantitation of antigen-specific T cells have been playing a major role in the attempts to establish meaningful correlations between therapy-induced alterations in immune responses and clinical endpoints. However, one significant unresolved issue in modern immunotherapy is that when a tumor-specific cellular immune response is observed following the course of immunotherapy, it does not always lead to clinically proven cancer regression. This disappointing lack of a correlation between the tumor-specific cytotoxic immune responses and the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy may be explained, among other reasons, by the notion that the analysis of any single immunological parameter is not sufficient to provide clinically feasible information about the complex interactions between different cell subsets in the peripheral blood and immune, tumor, and stromal cells in the tumor milieu. By contrast, a systemic approach is required for improving the quality of a serial monitoring to ensure that it adequately and reliably measures potential changes induced in patients by administered vaccines or immunomodulators. Comprehensive evaluation of the balance between the immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive compartments of the immune system could be critical for a better understanding of how a given immunotherapy works or does not work in a particular clinical trial. New approaches to characterize tumor-infiltrating leukocytes, their phenotypic, biochemical, and genetic characteristics within the tumor microenvironment need to be developed and validated and should complement current monitoring techniques. These immune-monitoring assays for the local tumor immunoenvironment should be developed, validated, and standardized for

  1. Immunologic and renal markers among photogravure printers exposed to toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, B; Cénée, S; Limasset, J C; Diebold, F; Michard, D; Druet, P; Hémon, D

    1998-08-01

    This study assessed immunologic and early renal effects of chronic toluene exposure. In a longitudinal study of 92 printers and 74 referents, 145 subjects had pre- and poststudy samples of blood and urine taken for the following measurements: immunoglobulin E (IgE), antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) and antilaminin (anti-LAM) antibodies in blood; creatinine and beta2-microglobulin in blood and urine; and microalbumin, N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and alanine-aminopeptidase in urine. Creatinine clearance was calculated according to the Cockroft-Gault formula. Eight-hour personal air samples were collected twice to assess present exposure to toluene. A job-exposure matrix was developed to estimate past cumulative exposure. Information about potential confounders was recorded by questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis was performed to study dose-effect relations adjusted for age and smoking. No subject was positive for anti-GBM antibodies, and only 12 were positive for anti-LAM. No relation was observed between the markers studied and present exposure to toluene except that creatinine clearance was higher among the exposed subjects than among the referents. A dose-response relation was observed between cumulative toluene exposure and both IgE and NAG excretion. No interaction was observed between hypertension and exposure, but the relationship with NAG did not persist when subjects with hypertension were excluded. Past or present exposure did not alter the 2-year trend of any marker studied. According to the results of this study, toluene at 50 ppm is not related to detectable renal dysfunction. The increased IgE levels associated with present and past exposure require further investigation.

  2. Immunologic evaluation of immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye-Soo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Nam, Young-Hee; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-11-01

    Cefaclor is widely prescribed for various infectious diseases. As its consumption increases, the number of hypersensitivity reactions to cefaclor has increased. This study aimed to evaluate the immunologic findings of immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor. We enrolled 47 patients with immediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor from Ajou University Hospital and Asan Medical Center. Serum specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 antibodies to cefaclor-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most common phenotype was anaphylaxis (Group I, 78.7%), followed by urticaria (Group II, 21.3%). The detection of specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 to cefaclor-HSA conjugate by ELISA tended to be higher in Group I (40.5%, 41.7%, 21.6%) than in Group II (20.0%, 20.0%, 0%) with no statistical significance. Significant associations were found between specific IgE and IgG1 or IgG4 (pimmediate hypersensitivity to cefaclor was anaphylaxis, most of which was mediated by IgE; however, a non-IgE mediated direct basophil activation mechanism was suggested in a subset of anaphylaxis patients.

  3. Pediatric allergy and immunology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gary W K; Li, Jing; Bao, Yi-Xiao; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Leung, Ting Fan; Li, Luan-Luan; Shao, Jie; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Liu, En-Mei; Shen, Kun-Ling; Chen, Yu-Zhi

    2018-03-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has enjoyed rapid economic development along with urbanization at a massive scale that the world has not experienced before. Such development has also been associated with a rapid rise in the prevalence of allergic disorders. Because of the large childhood population in the country, the burden of childhood allergic disorders has become one of the major challenges in the healthcare system. Among the Chinese centers participating in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, the data clearly showed a continuing rise in the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema. However, the discipline of pediatric allergy in mainland China is still in its infancy due to the lack of formal training program and subspecialty certification. Clinicians and researchers are increasingly interested in providing better care for patients with allergies by establishing pediatric allergy centers in different regions of the country. Many of them have also participated in national or international collaborative projects hoping to answer the various research questions related to the discipline of pediatric allergy and immunology. It is our hope that the research findings from China will not only improve the quality of care of affected children within this country but also the millions of patients with allergies worldwide. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of hypergravity on immunologic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Koebel, D. A.; Davis, S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of hypergravity exposure (2g) with those of exposure to space flight in the Cosmos 2044 flight. To do so, rats were centrifuged continuously for 14 days. Two different experiments were carried out on tissue obtained from the centrifuged rats. In the first experiment, rat bone marrow cells were examined for their response to recombinant murine colony stimulating factor-granulocyte/monocyte (GM-CSF). In the second experiment, rat spleen and bone marrow cells were stained in with a variety of antibodies directed against cell surface antigenic markers. These cells were preserved and analyzed on a flow cytometer. The results of the studies indicated that bone marrow cells from centrifuged rats showed no significant change in response to GM-CSF as compared to bone marrow cells from control rats. Spleen cells from flown rats showed some statistically significant changes in leukocytes subset distribution, but no differences that appeared to be of biological significance. These results indicate that hypergravity did not greatly affect the same immunological parameters affected by space flight in the Cosmos 2044 mission.

  5. Immunological pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory state of the gastrointestinal tract and can be classified into 2 main clinical phenomena: Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. The pathogenesis of IBD, including CD and UC, involves the presence of pathogenic factors such as abnormal gut microbiota, immune response dysregulation, environmental changes, and gene variants. Although many investigations have tried to identify novel pathogenic factors associated with IBD that are related to environmental, genetic, microbial, and immune response factors, a full understanding of IBD pathogenesis is unclear. Thus, IBD treatment is far from optimal, and patient outcomes can be unsatisfactory. As result of massive studying on IBD, T helper 17 (Th17 cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are investigated on their effects on IBD. A recent study of the plasticity of Th17 cells focused primarily on colitis. ILCs also emerging as novel cell family, which play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. IBD immunopathogenesis is key to understanding the causes of IBD and can lead to the development of IBD therapies. The aim of this review is to explain the pathogenesis of IBD, with a focus on immunological factors and therapies.

  6. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kuriyama

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-γ and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA. Psychological measures including the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS between recipients (n = 11 of carrier oil massage and aromatherapy massage, which includes sweet almond oil, lavender oil, cypress oil and sweet marjoram oil. Though both STAI and SDS showed a significant reduction (P 0.05 increase in PBLs, possibly due to an increase in CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, which had significantly increased post-treatment (P < 0.01. Consequently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased significantly (P < 0.01. The paucity of such differences after carrier oil massage suggests that aromatherapy massage could be beneficial in disease states that require augmentation of CD8+ lymphocytes. While this study identifies the immunological benefits of aromatherapy massage, there is a need to validate the findings prospectively in a larger cohort of patients.

  7. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-γ and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA). Psychological measures including the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) between recipients (n = 11) of carrier oil massage and aromatherapy massage, which includes sweet almond oil, lavender oil, cypress oil and sweet marjoram oil. Though both STAI and SDS showed a significant reduction (P aromatherapy and carrier massage, no difference between the aromatherapy and control massage was observed for STAI and SDS. Aromatherapy, in contrast to control massage, did not significantly reduce RBC count or hematocrit. However, aromatherapy massage showed a significant (P > 0.05) increase in PBLs, possibly due to an increase in CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, which had significantly increased post-treatment (P aromatherapy massage could be beneficial in disease states that require augmentation of CD8+ lymphocytes. While this study identifies the immunological benefits of aromatherapy massage, there is a need to validate the findings prospectively in a larger cohort of patients. PMID:15937558

  8. Louis Pasteur, the father of immunology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late 19th century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur’s presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so, he focused attention on immunity, preparing the ground for others who followed. This review chronicles Pasteur’s remarkable metamorphosis from organic chemist to microbiologist to immunologist, and from basic science to medicine.

  9. Development of the discipline of exercise immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the influence of exercise upon the human white cell population dates back more than a 100 years. Thus, when introducing the third meeting of the International Society of Exercise Immunology in Brussels, Dr. Bente Klarlund-Pedersen noted that Schulte had already described an exercise-induced leukocytosis as early as 1893. However, for much of the following century interest remained strictly clinical, with physicians assessing the possible changes in vulnerability to bacterial and viral diseases that were induced by various forms of physical activity. In the absence of specific remedies, bed rest was a common medical recommendation for infectious disease, and if the patient recovered from the immediate infection there was often a substantial residual loss of physical condition. Army hospitals in particular were thus anxious to know whether recovery would be compromised if physical activity were to be encouraged during convalescence. Prominent concerns of this era were the influence of exercise upon anterior poliomyelitis and viral hepatitis. The paralysis resulting from the anterior poliomyelitis virus was generally localized to body parts that had been active, and it seemed most likely to develop in those who continued to engage in vigorous exercise in the face of early symptoms (46, 57, 119, 120). Data on viral hepatitis also suggested a need for rest in the acute phase of the disease (1, 65, 115, 128), although most authors concluded that in this condition exercise could be resumed during convalescence, provided that the patient was no longer severely jaundiced (5, 32, 136).

  10. Immunological characterization of plant ornithine transcarbamylases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Williamson, C. L.; Poggenburg, C. A.; Lynes, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) antisera were used to investigate the immunological relatedness of several plant and animal OTC enzymes. The antisera immunoprecipitated OTC activity in all monocot and dicot species tested, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of immunoprecipitated protein revealed monomeric proteins ranging from 35,200 to 36,800 daltons in size. Pea OTC antisera did not recognize mammalian OTC protein. OTC activity and protein levels detected on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoblots from homogenates of green leaf, etiolated epicotyl and cotyledon, and root tissues of pea were poorly correlated. This might result from differences in amounts of enzymatically active OTC protein in the homogenates. Alternatively, the antisera may fail to recognize different isozyme forms of OTC, which have been reported for some plant species. A putative cytosolic precursor OTC (pOTC) polypeptide exhibiting and Mr = 39,500 to 40,000 daltons was immunoprecipitated from in vitro translation mixtures of total pea leaf poly(A)+ RNA. The size of the pOTC polypeptide, as compared with mature OTC monomer (36,000 daltons), suggests that a 4 kilodalton N-terminal leader sequence, like that responsible for mitochondrial targeting of the mammalian enzyme, may be involved in organellar import of the plant enzyme.

  11. Immunologic methods for monitoring carcinogen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Regina M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Zhang, Yu J.; Chen, Chen J.; Young, Tie L.

    1993-03-01

    Immunologic methods have been developed for monitoring human exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens. These methods involve the development of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera which specifically recognize the carcinogens themselves or their DNA or protein adducts. Antisera recognizing the DNA adducts of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides have been used in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to monitor adducts in tissue or blood samples. Elevated levels of DNA adducts have been seen in mononuclear cells of smokers and in total white blood cells of foundry and coke oven workers. Environmental exposure to PAH has been measured in individuals living in a highly polluted region of Poland. Antisera recognizing PAH-DNA adducts have also been used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor adducts in specific cells of biopsy samples. The DNA adducts of aflatoxin B1 have been monitored in liver tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Taiwan. Detectable adducts were seen in 50 - 70% of the patients suggesting that dietary exposure to this carcinogen may be a risk factor for cancer induction. Thus, immunoassays for monitoring exposure to carcinogens are an important tool in epidemiologic studies.

  12. Polio, terror and the immunological worldview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Robert

    2018-02-01

    This paper adopts a socio-historical perspective to explore when, how and why the eradication of poliomyelitis has become politicised to the extent that health workers and security personnel are targeted in drive-by shootings. Discussions of the polio crisis in Afghanistan and Pakistan have tended to focus on Taliban suspicions of a US-led public health intervention and the denunciation of 'modernity' by Islamic 'extremists'. In contrast, this paper considers a broader history of indigenous hostility and resistance to colonial immunisation on the subcontinent, suggesting how interconnected public health and political crises today have reactivated the past and created a continuity between events. The paper explores how the biomedical threat posed by polio has become intertwined with military and governmental discourses premised on the 'preemptive strike'. Here, the paper tracks the connections between biological immunity and a postcolonial politics that posits an immunological rationale for politico-military interventions. The paper concludes by reflecting on the consequences for global public health of this entanglement of infectious disease with terror.

  13. The immunological burden of human cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naeem

    2007-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a persistent DNA virus that has evolved with humans to establish a finely balanced host-virus relationship. This balance is maintained by host immune surveillance since deficiencies in these processes can result in life-threatening disease, as observed in immunologically immature neonates and pharmacologically immunosuppressed transplant recipients. Both T cells and natural killer cells are intimately involved in maintaining asymptomatic infection by specific and non-specific recognition of infected cells. Under pressure from such host immune responses, CMV appears to have evolved elaborate strategies to subvert these responses in order to persist in the host. CMV target antigens are well characterized, with many CD8 T cell and CD4 T cell epitopes reported. This information is now being exploited to treat immunocompromised patients in order to boost virus-specific immunity. This review also discusses our current understanding of how virus carriage may skew lymphocyte populations in immunocompetent subjects and the association of CMV-seropositivity with immunosenescence.

  14. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  15. Immobilization and long-term recovery results in large changes in bone structure and strength but no corresponding alterations of osteocyte lacunar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Wittig, Nina Kølln; Brüel, Annemarie; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    The ability of osteocytes to demineralize the perilacunar matrix, osteocytic osteolysis, and thereby participate directly in bone metabolism, is an aspect of osteocyte biology that has received increasing attention during the last couple of years. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether osteocyte lacunar properties change during immobilization and subsequent recovery. A rat cortical bone model with negligible Haversian remodeling effects was used, with temporary immobilization of one hindlimb induced by botulinum toxin. Several complementary techniques covering multiple length scales enabled correlation of osteocyte lacunar properties to changes observed on the organ and tissue level of femoral bone. Bone structural parameters measured by μCT and mechanical properties were compared to sub-micrometer resolution SR μCT data mapping an unprecedented number (1.85 million) of osteocyte lacunae. Immobilization induced a significant reduction in aBMD, bone volume, tissue volume, and load to fracture, as well as the muscle mass of rectus femoris. During the subsequent recovery period, the bone structural and mechanical properties were only partly regained in spite of a long-term (28weeks) study period. No significant changes in osteocyte lacunar volume, density, oblateness, stretch, or orientation were detected upon immobilization or subsequent recovery. In conclusion, the bone architecture and not osteocyte lacunar properties or bone material characteristics dominate the immobilization response as well as the subsequent recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium extract on selected immunological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ahmadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium is a medical plant containing diverse chemically-active substances with biological properties. The present study was conducted to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of watercress extract on immunological and hematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish were fed for 21 days with diet supplemented with 0.1% and 1% of watercress extract per 1 kg food and with a normal diet as control. Hematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBC and white blood cells (WBC, hematocrit (Hct, hemoglobin (Hb, RBC index like mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC as well as immunological parameters such as peroxidase, lysozyme and complement activities, total protein, albumin and globulin levels were measured after 21 days of watercress extract treatment. The results indicated that oral administration of 1 % watercress extract in fish may enhance some hematological and immunological parameters including Hb and MCHC, lysozyme and complement activities, total protein and globulin levels, compared to the controls after 21 days of experimental period. In conclusion, on the basis of these results, oral administration of watercress extract may be useful to improve fish’s immune system.

  17. Immunological commonalities and distinctions between airway and digestive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisawa, Jun; Nochi, Tomonori; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    Airway and digestive tissues are the frontlines of the body's defense, being continuously exposed to the outside environment and encountering large numbers of antigens and microorganisms. To achieve immunosurveillance and immunological homeostasis in the harsh environments of the mucosal surfaces, the mucosal immune system tightly regulates a state of opposing but harmonized immune activation and quiescence. Recently, accumulating evidence has revealed that although the respiratory and intestinal immune systems share common mucosa-associated immunological features that are different from those of the systemic immune system, they also show distinctive immunological phenotypes, functions, and developmental pathways. We describe here the common and distinct immunological features of respiratory and intestinal immune systems and its application to the development of mucosal vaccines.

  18. The Immunology Database and Analysis Portal (ImmPort)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The ImmPort system serves as a long-term, sustainable archive of immunology research data generated by investigators mainly funded through the NIAID/DAIT. The core...

  19. Tumor Biology and Immunology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor Biology and Immunology The Comparative Brain Tumor Consortium is collaborating with National Center for Advanced Translational Sciences to complete whole exome sequencing on canine meningioma samples. Results will be published and made publicly available.

  20. The immunological response created by interstitial and non-invasive laser immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Feifan; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; West, Connor L.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is an innovative cancer modality that uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to treat late-stage, metastatic cancers. LIT can be performed through either interstitial or non-invasive laser irradiation. Although LIT is still in development, recent clinical trials have shown that it can be used to successfully treat patients with late-stage breast cancer and melanoma. The development of LIT has been focused on creating an optimal immune response created by irradiating the tumor. One important factor that could enhance the immune response is the duration of laser irradiation. Irradiating the tumor for a shorter or longer amount of time could weaken the immune response created by LIT. Another factor that could weaken this immune response is the proliferation of regulatory T cells (TRegs) in response to the laser irradiation. However, low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) can help suppress the proliferation of TRegs and help create a more optimal immune response. An additional factor that could weaken the effectiveness of LIT is the selectivity of the laser. If LIT is performed non-invasively, then deeply embedded tumors and highly pigmented skin could cause an uneven temperature distribution inside the tumor. To solve this problem, an immunologically modified carbon nanotube system was created by using an immunoadjuvant known as glycated chitosan (GC) as a surfactant for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to immunologically modify SWNTs. SWNT-GC retains the optical properties of SWNTs and the immunological functions of GC to help increase the selectivity of the laser and create a more optimal immune response. In this preliminary study, tumor-bearing rats were treated with LIT either interstitially by an 805-nm laser with GC and low-dose CY, or non-invasively by a 980-nm laser with SWNT-GC. The goal was to observe the effects of CY on the immune response induced by LIT and to also determine the effect of irradiation duration for

  1. Remembrance of immunology past: conversations with Herman Eisen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Herman N; Schlesinger, Sondra

    2015-01-01

    Herman Eisen and Sondra Schlesinger spent several days together in September 2007 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, talking about immunology, focusing on his remembrances of the field over the more than 60 years of his involvement. This article is an abridged version of those discussions (the full version is available on the Annual Reviews website). It is both an oral history and a written memory of some important but selected areas of immunology.

  2. Impairment of lysophospholipid metabolism in obesity: altered plasma profile and desensitization to the modulatory properties of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bas, Josep M; Caimari, Antoni; Rodriguez-Naranjo, Maria Isabel; Childs, Caroline E; Paras Chavez, Carolina; West, Annette L; Miles, Elizabeth A; Arola, Lluis; Calder, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    Plasma lysophospholipids have emerged as signaling molecules with important effects on inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease, each of which is linked closely to obesity. Dietary n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may be able to improve these conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the response of plasma lysophospholipids to obesity, n-3 PUFA consumption, and a high-fat meal challenge to better understand the role of lysophospholipid metabolism in the progression of obesity-related disorders. We determined the concentrations of 8 lysophosphatidylcholines, 11 lysophosphatidylethanolamines, and 7 lysophosphatidylinositols in the plasma of 34 normal-weight and 38 obese subjects randomly assigned to consume corn oil (control) or n-3 PUFA-rich fish oil (3 g/d; n = 15-19/group) for 90 d. Blood samples were collected on the last day of the study under fasting conditions and 6 h after a high-fat meal (1135 kcal, 86 g fat) challenge. The profile of secreted lysophospholipids was studied in HepG2 cells under palmitate-induced steatosis. Obese and normal-weight subjects had different profiles of plasma lysophospholipids. A multivariate combination of the 26 lysophospholipids could discriminate between normal-weight and obese subjects with an accuracy of 98%. The high-fat meal challenge altered the concentration of plasma lysophosphatidylcholines in an oil treatment-dependent manner in normal-weight but not obese subjects, suggesting that obesity impairs the sensitivity of lysophospholipid metabolism to n-3 PUFAs. Noncytotoxic steatosis in HepG2 cells affected the secretion pattern of lysophospholipids, partially resembling the changes observed in the plasma of obese subjects. Obesity has a substantial impact on lysophospholipid metabolism, altering the plasma lysophospholipid profile and abolishing its sensitivity to dietary n-3 PUFAs. These effects could contribute to the onset or progression of alterations associated with obesity

  3. IMMUNOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo Zver

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. ALL is a malignant blood disease and lymphoblasts have origin in B or T lymphatic cell line. In 1997 established new World Health Organisation classification (WHO classification of malignant haematological diseases realizes the importance of cellular immunological markers (immunophenotype and chromosomal abnormalities (cytogenetics. Based on both findings we may distribute the patients in low, intermediate and high risk groups and the outcome of such distribution is risk adopted ALL treatment strategy. On Clinical department of haematology (CDH we have decided to overview immunophenotype characteristics of all ALL patients during the January 1, 1995–December 31, 2001 period.Methods and results. During the January 1, 1995–December 31, 2001 period on CDH we have treated 44 patients: 22 males and 22 females. With flow cytometer Coulter Epics XL MCS we have performed first primary antibody panel for acute leukemias antigens (CD2, CD7, CD10, CD19, CD34, cCD3, cCD13, cCD22, MPO, TdT, followed by secondary panel. The later have included antigen CD20, CD23, membrane and/or cytoplasmatic immunoglobulins or their light chains monoclonal antibodies for B-ALL and antigen CD3, CD4, CD5 and CD8 monoclonal antibodies for T-ALL subsets. Besides immunophenotyping we have evaluated all ALL patients also morphologically according to FAB classification (French-AmericanBritish classification, which is an old classification based solely on morphology.32/44 (73% patients have had immunophenotypic B-ALL, and 12/44 (27% T-ALL. Subgroups distribution of B-ALL immunophenotype were: pro-B 4/44 (9%, »common«-B 18/44 (41%, pre-B 5/44 (11.5% and mature B 5744 (11.5% and for T-ALL immunophenotype were: pro-T 2/44 (4.5%, pre-T 5/44 (11.5%, cortical-T 4/44 (9% and mature-T 1/44 (2%. Our results are quite comparable with the available data from the literature, despite the fact that newest immunological markers such as CD1a, CD79a and CD22 were not available

  4. Immunologic features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyonouchi, Soma; Orange, Jordan; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Krantz, Ian; Deardorff, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a genetic syndrome with multisystem abnormalities. Infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The goals of our study were to identify the frequency and types of infections in CdLS and to determine if underlying immunodeficiency contributes to the clinical spectrum of this syndrome. We assessed infectious histories in 45 patients with CdLS and evaluated conventional immunologic screening tests in 27 patients. Among these 27 subjects, additional phenotypic enumeration of T-cell subsets, expression of activation markers in T cells, and production of cytokines in response to T-cell stimulants were studied in 12 CdLS subjects compared with 12 normal case control subjects. Recurrent infections were reported at high frequency in CdLS patients and included chronic ear infections (53%), chronic viral respiratory infections (46%), pneumonia (42%), sinus infections (33%), oral candidiasis (13%), sepsis (6%), and bacterial skin infections (4%). Full immune evaluation in 27 subjects led to identification of 9 cases of antibody deficiency syndrome in patients with severe forms of CdLS. Subjects with CdLS had decreased percentages of T regulatory cells and T follicular helper cells compared with normal control subjects (P < .05). This study identified for the first time a high frequency of antibody deficiency in CdLS subjects, indicating a critical need for screening and management of immunodeficiency in CdLS patients with a history of well-documented severe or recurrent infections. Furthermore, our results indicate that impaired T-cell populations may be associated with antibody deficiency in CdLS.

  5. Cholera in pregnancy: Clinical and immunological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashraful I; Chowdhury, Fahima; Leung, Daniel T; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the clinical and immunological features of cholera in pregnancy. Women of reproductive age presenting to the icddr,b Dhaka hospital with cholera, and enrolled as part of a larger cohort study, were tested for pregnancy on admission. We compared initial clinical features and immune responses of pregnant patients with non-pregnant female patients at days 2, 7 and 21 after infection. Among reproductive age women enrolled between January 2001 and May 2006, 9.7% (14/144) were pregnant. The duration of diarrhoea prior to admission tended to be higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant patients (p=0.08), but other clinical characteristics did not differ. Antibody responses to cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB), toxin-coregulated pilus A (TcpA), Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and serum vibriocidal antibody responses, were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. There were no deaths among the pregnant cases or non-pregnant controls, and no adverse foetal outcomes, including stillbirths, during 21 days of follow up of pregnant cases. To our knowledge, this is the first report of immune responses in pregnant women with cholera. We found that pregnant woman early in pregnancy has comparable clinical illness and subsequent immune responses compared to non-pregnant women. These findings suggest that the evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines in pregnancy should be an area of future investigations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Soy Isoflavones Altered the Immunological Parameters in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaid, Hala M; Elgawish, Rania Abdel Rahman; Abdelrazek, Heba M A; Gaffer, Ghada; Tag, Hend M

    2016-05-01

    Information on the effects of phytoestrogens on animals has increased recently; however, there were only few studies on prenatal exposure on cellular immune response. Pregnant rats were assigned to 3 groups (12 rats per group), the first was fed control diet, the second was fed low-dose (6.5 g/100 g of diet) soy isoflavones, while the third was fed high-dose (26 g/100 g of diet) soy isoflavones. The female offspring cell-mediated immune response was determined using phytohemagglutinin (PHA) injection, and intumesce index was calculated on postnatal day 50. After 24 hours of PHA injection, blood samples were collected for tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ (IFN-γ), and interleukin (IL)-12 determination. Spleen, thymus, and PHA-injected footpads were fixed for histopathology. Intumesce index was significantly (P prenatal period had immunosuppressive effect on female offspring after PHA stimulation. This effect was mediated through reduced IFN-γ that interplayed in IL-12 production pathway thus reducing its level. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Is Alteration of Tuning Property in Cervical Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potential Specific for Ménière’s Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihisa Murofushi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to show sensitivity and specificity of cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP tuning property test to Ménière’s disease (MD in comparison with healthy controls (HC and patients with other vestibular diseases.SubjectsTotally 92 subjects (50 women and 42 men, 20–77 years of age were enrolled in this study. Subjects were composed of 38 definite unilateral MD patients, 11 unilateral benign paroxysmal positional vertigo patients, 14 vestibular migraine patients, 19 unilateral vestibular neuritis patients, and 10 HC.MethodsThe subjects underwent cVEMP testing to 500 and 1,000 Hz short tone bursts (125 dBSPL. The corrected amplitudes of the first biphasic responses (p13–n23 (cVEMP were measured. Then, a tuning property index (the 500–1,000 Hz cVEMP slope was calculated.ResultsThe area of under the ROC curve (AUC was 0.75 in comparison with other vestibular disease patients, while AUC was 0.77 in comparison with other vestibular disease patients plus HC. The best cutoff point of the 500–1,000 Hz cVEMP slope was −19.9. Sensitivity of the tuning property test to MD was 0.74, while specificity was 0.76 to other vestibular disease patients.ConclusionThe tuning property test of cVEMP is useful as a screening test of MD.

  8. Immunological low-dose radiation modulates the pediatric medulloblastoma antigens and enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arabinda; McDonald, Daniel; Lowe, Stephen; Bredlau, Amy-Lee; Vanek, Kenneth; Patel, Sunil J; Cheshier, Samuel; Eskandari, Ramin

    2017-03-01

    Immunotherapy can be an effective treatment for pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) patients. However, major subpopulations do not respond to immunotherapy, due to the lack of antigenic mutations or the immune-evasive properties of MB cells. Clinical observations suggest that radiation therapy (RT) may expand the therapeutic reach of immunotherapy. The aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of low-dose X-ray radiation (LDXR, 1 Gy) on the functional immunological responses of MB cells (DAOY, D283, and D341). Induction of MB cell death was examined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by fluorescent probes. Changes in the expression of  human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules and caspase-3 activities during treatment were analyzed using Western blotting and caspase-3 assay. Western blot analysis demonstrated that LDXR upregulated the expression of HLA class I and HLA II molecules by more than 20% compared with control and high-dose (12 Gy) groups in vitro. Several of these HLA subtypes, such as MAGE C1, CD137, and ICAM-1, have demonstrated upregulation. In addition, LDXR increases ROS production in association with phosphorylation of NF-κB and cell surface expression of mAb target molecules (HER2 and VEGF). These data suggest that a combined LDXR and mAb therapy can create a synergistic effect in vitro. These results suggest that LDXR modulates HLA molecules, leading to alterations in T-cell/tumor-cell interaction and enhancement of T-cell-mediated MB cell death. Also, low-dose radiotherapy combined with monoclonal antibody therapy may one day augment the standard treatment for MB, but more investigation is needed to prove its utility as a new therapeutic combination for MB patients.

  9. Host Adaptation and the Alteration of Viral Properties of the First Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 Virus Isolated in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ainai

    Full Text Available A/Narita/1/2009 (A/N was the first H1N1 virus from the 2009 pandemic (H1pdm to be isolated in Japan. To better understand and predict the possible development of this virus strain, the effect of passaging A/N was investigated in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, chicken eggs and mice. A/N that had been continuously passaged in cells, eggs, or mice obtained the ability to grow efficiently in each host. Moreover, A/N grown in mice had both a high level of pathogenicity in mice and an increased growth rate in cells and eggs. Changes in growth and pathogenicity were accompanied by amino acid substitutions in viral hemagglutinin (HA and PB2. In addition, the adapted viruses exhibited a reduced ability to react with ferret antisera against A/N. In conclusion, prolonged passaging allowed influenza A/N to adapt to different hosts, as indicated by a high increase in proliferative capacity that was accompanied by an antigenic alteration leading to amino acid substitutions.

  10. Innate immune humoral factors, C1q and factor H, with differential pattern recognition properties, alter macrophage response to carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondman, Kirsten M; Pednekar, Lina; Paudyal, Basudev; Tsolaki, Anthony G; Kouser, Lubna; Khan, Haseeb A; Shamji, Mohamed H; Ten Haken, Bennie; Stenbeck, Gudrun; Sim, Robert B; Kishore, Uday

    2015-11-01

    Interaction between the complement system and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can modify their intended biomedical applications. Pristine and derivatised CNTs can activate complement primarily via the classical pathway which enhances uptake of CNTs and suppresses pro-inflammatory response by immune cells. Here, we report that the interaction of C1q, the classical pathway recognition molecule, with CNTs involves charge pattern and classical pathway activation that is partly inhibited by factor H, a complement regulator. C1q and its globular modules, but not factor H, enhanced uptake of CNTs by macrophages and modulated the pro-inflammatory immune response. Thus, soluble complement factors can interact differentially with CNTs and alter the immune response even without complement activation. Coating CNTs with recombinant C1q globular heads offers a novel way of controlling classical pathway activation in nanotherapeutics. Surprisingly, the globular heads also enhance clearance by phagocytes and down-regulate inflammation, suggesting unexpected complexity in receptor interaction. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) maybe useful in the clinical setting as targeting drug carriers. However, it is also well known that they can interact and activate the complement system, which may have a negative impact on the applicability of CNTs. In this study, the authors functionalized multi-walled CNT (MWNT), and investigated the interaction with the complement pathway. These studies are important so as to gain further understanding of the underlying mechanism in preparation for future use of CNTs in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intermittent fasting promotes prolonged associative interactions during synaptic tagging/capture by altering the metaplastic properties of the CA1 hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Ananya; Kim, Joonki; Manakkadan, Anoop; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2017-12-19

    Metaplasticity is the inherent property of a neuron or neuronal population to undergo activity-dependent changes in neural function that modulate subsequent synaptic plasticity. Here we studied the effect of intermittent fasting (IF) in governing the interactions of associative plasticity mechanisms in the pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal area CA1. Late long-term potentiation and its associative mechanisms such as synaptic tagging and capture at an interval of 120 min were evaluated in four groups of animals, AL (Ad libitum), IF12 (daily IF for 12 h), IF16 (daily IF for 16 h) and EOD (every other day IF for 24 h). IF had no visible effect on the early or late plasticity but it manifested a critical role in prolonging the associative interactions between weak and strong synapses at an interval of 120 min in IF16 and EOD animals. However, both IF12 and AL did not show associativity at 120 min. Plasticity genes such as Bdnf and Prkcz, which are well known for their expressions in late plasticity and synaptic tagging and capture, were significantly upregulated in IF16 and EOD in comparison to AL. Specific inhibition of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) prevented the prolonged associativity expressed in EOD. Thus, daily IF for 16 h or more can be considered to enhance the metaplastic properties of synapses by improving their associative interactions that might translate into animprovedmemoryformation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Drying Methods Alter Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity, Antioxidant Properties, and Phenolic Constituents of African Mistletoe (Loranthus bengwensis L) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi Seun; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the most appropriate drying method (sun drying, oven drying, or air drying) for mistletoe leaves obtained from almond tree. The phenolic constituents were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector, while the inhibitory effect of the aqueous extracts of the leaves on angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) was determined in vitro as also the antioxidant properties. Oven-dried extract (kidney [276.09 μg/mL] and lungs [303.41 μg/mL]) had the highest inhibitory effect on ACE, while air-dried mistletoe extract (kidney [304.47 μg/mL] and lungs [438.72 μg/mL]) had the least. Furthermore, the extracts dose-dependently inhibited Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in rat's heart and kidney. Also, all extracts exhibited antioxidative properties as typified by their radical scavenging and Fe-chelating ability. Findings from this study revealed that oven drying is the best of the 3 drying methods used for mistletoe obtained from almond host tree, thus confirming that diversity in drying methods leads to variation in phenolic constituents and biological activity of plants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The Multiscale Systems Immunology project: software for cell-based immunological simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepler Thomas B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer simulations are of increasing importance in modeling biological phenomena. Their purpose is to predict behavior and guide future experiments. The aim of this project is to model the early immune response to vaccination by an agent based immune response simulation that incorporates realistic biophysics and intracellular dynamics, and which is sufficiently flexible to accurately model the multi-scale nature and complexity of the immune system, while maintaining the high performance critical to scientific computing. Results The Multiscale Systems Immunology (MSI simulation framework is an object-oriented, modular simulation framework written in C++ and Python. The software implements a modular design that allows for flexible configuration of components and initialization of parameters, thus allowing simulations to be run that model processes occurring over different temporal and spatial scales. Conclusion MSI addresses the need for a flexible and high-performing agent based model of the immune system.

  14. Intrinsic cellular and molecular properties of in vivo hippocampal synaptic plasticity are altered in the absence of key synaptic matrix molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Stephan; Gottschling, Christine; Faissner, Andreas; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2017-08-01

    Hippocampal synaptic plasticity comprises a key cellular mechanism for information storage. In the hippocampus, both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are triggered by synaptic Ca 2+ -elevations that are typically mediated by the opening of voltage-gated cation channels, such as N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), in the postsynaptic density. The integrity of the post-synaptic density is ensured by the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, we explored whether synaptic plasticity is affected in adult behaving mice that lack the ECM proteins brevican, neurocan, tenascin-C, and tenascin-R (KO). We observed that the profiles of synaptic potentiation and depression in the dentate gyrus (DG) were profoundly altered compared to plasticity profiles in wild-type littermates (WT). Specifically, synaptic depression was amplified in a frequency-dependent manner and although late-LTP (>24 hr) was expressed following strong afferent tetanization, the early component of LTP (4 hr) elicited by weaker tetanization was equivalent in WT and KO animals. Furthermore, this latter form of LTP was NMDAR-dependent in WT but not KO mice. Scrutiny of DG receptor expression revealed significantly lower levels of both the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, of the metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGlu5 and of the L-type calcium channel, Ca v 1.3 in KO compared to WT animals. Homer 1a and of the P/Q-type calcium channel, Ca v 1.2 were unchanged in KO mice. Taken together, findings suggest that in mice that lack multiple ECM proteins, synaptic plasticity is intact, but is fundamentally different. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. In vitro characterization of six STUB1 variants in spinocerebellar ataxia 16 reveals altered structural properties for the encoded CHIP proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdaman, Yasaman; Sanchez-Guixé, Monica; Kleppe, Rune; Erdal, Sigrid; Bustad, Helene J; Bjørkhaug, Lise; Haugarvoll, Kristoffer; Tzoulis, Charalampos; Heimdal, Ketil; Knappskog, Per M; Johansson, Stefan; Aukrust, Ingvild

    2017-04-30

    Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 16 (SCAR16) is caused by biallelic mutations in the STIP1 homology and U-box containing protein 1 ( STUB1 ) gene encoding the ubiquitin E3 ligase and dimeric co-chaperone C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP). It has been proposed that the disease mechanism is related to CHIP's impaired E3 ubiquitin ligase properties and/or interaction with its chaperones. However, there is limited knowledge on how these mutations affect the stability, folding, and protein structure of CHIP itself. To gain further insight, six previously reported pathogenic STUB1 variants (E28K, N65S, K145Q, M211I, S236T, and T246M) were expressed as recombinant proteins and studied using limited proteolysis, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and circular dichroism (CD). Our results reveal that N65S shows increased CHIP dimerization, higher levels of α-helical content, and decreased degradation rate compared with wild-type (WT) CHIP. By contrast, T246M demonstrates a strong tendency for aggregation, a more flexible protein structure, decreased levels of α-helical structures, and increased degradation rate compared with WT CHIP. E28K, K145Q, M211I, and S236T also show defects on structural properties compared with WT CHIP, although less profound than what observed for N65S and T246M. In conclusion, our results illustrate that some STUB1 mutations known to cause recessive SCAR16 have a profound impact on the protein structure, stability, and ability of CHIP to dimerize in vitro. These results add to the growing understanding on the mechanisms behind the disorder. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Passive muscle properties are altered in children with cerebral palsy before the age of 3 years and are difficult to distinguish clinically from spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lorentzen, Jakob; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2013-07-01

    Clinical determination of spasticity is confounded by the difficulty in distinguishing reflex from passive contributions to muscle stiffness. There is, therefore, a risk that children with cerebral palsy (CP) receive antispasticity treatment unnecessarily. To investigate this, we aimed to determine the contribution of reflex mechanisms to changes in the passive elastic properties of muscles and tendons in children with CP. Biomechanical and electrophysiological measures were used to determine the relative contribution of reflex and passive mechanisms to ankle muscle stiffness in 35 children with spastic CP (21 males, 14 females; mean age 9 y, SD 3 y 4 mo; range 3-15 y) and 28 control children without CP (19 males, nine females; mean age 8 y 11 mo, SD 2 y 10 mo; range 3-15 y). Twenty-seven children were diagnosed as having spastic hemiplegia, six with spastic diplegia, and two with spastic tetraplegia. According to the Gross Motor Function Classification System, 31 children were classified in level I, two in level II, and two in level III. Only seven children with spastic CP showed reflex stiffness outside the range of the control children. In contrast, 20 children with spastic CP showed abnormal passive muscle stiffness (p<0.001). No correlation between increased reflex or increased passive muscle stiffness and age was observed within the age range studied. These data suggest that increased reflex-mediated muscle stiffness is difficult to distinguish clinically from changes in passive muscle stiffness and that signs of changes in muscle properties are already present from the age of 3 years in children with CP. This emphasizes the importance of accurately distinguishing different contributions to muscle stiffness to avoid unnecessary antispasticity treatment. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  17. Recovery of immune competence following sublethal X irradiation of young and old mice: a model for studying age-related loss of immunologic homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, W.J.; Perkins, E.H.; Makinodan, T.

    1982-01-01

    Age-related alteration in lymphohematopoietic homeostasis was assessed kinetically by determining immunologic and stem-cell regenerating capacities of young (5-7 months), middle-aged (13 months), and old (23-24 months) C3H and C57BL/6 mice following their exposure to 500 R. Immunologic activities were based on the ability of spleen cells to respond to sheep erythrocytes, phytohemagglutinin, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Stem-cell activity was based on the ability of splenic and bone marrow cells to form colonies in vivo. Reflective of age-related homeostatic imbalance was alteration in the (a) time of recovery, (b) rate of regeneration, and (c) capacity of the regenerating system to overshoot the preirradition steady-state level. Most of the immunologic parameters showed a delay in the time of recovery in old mice. In contrast, the time of recovery of stem cells in old mice was equal to or faster than that in young mice. Furthermore, the magnitude of regeneration of stem cells was greater in old than young mice. These results suggest that recovery of immunologic activities in old mice is delayed partly because of the inability of their stem cells to rapidly generate immunocompetent progenies

  18. Properties of human gonadotrophins eluted from human corpus luteum and mouse luteoma LH-HCG receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, F.E.; Arquembourg, P.C.; Rice, B.F.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were performed to try to determine if gonadotrophins are altered during their interaction with tissue receptors. Immunologic, electrophoretic and binding properties of lactoperoxidase labelled [ 125 I]HLH and [ 125 I]HCG were examined before and after elution from mouse lutomea and human corpora lutea receptor preparations. The anti-HCG used in these studies at a 1:10 000 dilution precipitated 92% of a freshly iodinated [ 125 I]HCG preparation. Receptor eluted [ 125 I]HCG, derived from the same batch of labelled ligand, was virtually quantitatively precipitated by the same dilution of anti-HCG. [ 125 I]HCG eluted from the human corpus luteum was electrophoretically more homogeneous when compared to its heterogenous parent labelled preparation and migrated to a position similar to that of native HCG. In Ouchterlony double diffusion experiments against anti-HCG antiserum, corpus lutheum eluted [ 125 I]HCG and [ 125 I]HLH showed immunologic identity with each other as well as with native HCG and HLH. Receptor eluted [ 125 I]HCG from the mouse luteoma, following in vivo administration via tail vein injection or after incubation in vitro with labelled hormones, was immunologically indistinguishable from native HCG. The electrophoretic mobility of HCG was retarded when HCG was added to extracts of mouse luteoma, liver and kidney. Eluates of mouse luteoma, applied to Bio-Gel columns previously equilibrated with [ 125 I]HCG showed the ability to concentrate [ 125 I]HCG in the high molecular weight column fractions. (author)

  19. Leukocyte inclusion within a platelet rich plasma-derived fibrin scaffold stimulates a more pro-inflammatory environment and alters fibrin properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Anitua

    Full Text Available One of the main differences among platelet-rich plasma (PRP products is the inclusion of leukocytes that may affect the biological efficacy of these autologous preparations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of leukocytes modified the morphological, biomechanical and biological properties of PRP under normal and inflammatory conditions. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF and leukocyte-platelet rich plasma (L-PRP scaffolds was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and was significantly increased under an inflammatory condition when leukocytes were included in the PRP. Fibroblasts and osteoblasts treated with L-PRP, under an inflammatory situation, underwent a greater activation of NFĸB pathway, proliferated significantly less and secreted a higher concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These cellular events were assessed through Western blot and fluorimetric and ELISA methods, respectively. Therefore, the inclusion of leukocytes induced significantly higher pro-inflammatory conditions.

  20. La Alters the Response Properties of Neurons in the Mouse Primary Somatosensory Cortex to Low-Temperature Noxious Stimulation of the Dental Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjiao Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dental pain is a serious health issue with high incidence among the human population, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Transient receptor potential (TRP channels are assumed to be involved in the generation of dental pain. However, most of the studies were conducted with molecular biological or histological methods. In vivo functional studies on the role of TRP channels in the mechanisms of dental pain are lacking. This study uses in vivo cellular electrophysiological and neuropharmacological method to directly disclose the effect of LaCl 3 , a broad spectrum TRP channel blocker, on the response properties of neurons in the mouse primary somatosensory cortex to low-temperature noxious stimulation of the dental pulp. It was found that LaCl 3 suppresses the high-firing-rate responses of all nociceptive neurons to noxious low-temperature stimulation and also inhibits the spontaneous activities in some nonnociceptive neurons. The effect of LaCl 3 is reversible. Furthermore, this effect is persistent and stable unless LaCl 3 is washed out. Washout of LaCl 3 quickly revitalized the responsiveness of neurons to low-temperature noxious stimulation. This study adds direct evidence for the hypothesis that TRP channels are involved in the generation of dental pain and sensation. Blockade of TRP channels may provide a novel therapeutic treatment for dental pain.

  1. Brucella ovis PA mutants for outer membrane proteins Omp10, Omp19, SP41, and BepC are not altered in their virulence and outer membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu-Muñoz, Rebeca S; Sancho, Pilar; Vizcaíno, Nieves

    2016-04-15

    Mutants in several genes have been obtained on the genetic background of virulent rough (lacking O-polysaccharide) Brucella ovis PA. The target genes encode outer membrane proteins previously associated with the virulence of smooth (bearing O-polysaccharide chains in the lipopolysaccharide) Brucella strains. Multiple attempts to delete omp16, coding for a homologue to peptidoglycan-associated lipoproteins, were unsuccessful, which suggests that Omp16 is probably essential for in vitro survival of B. ovis PA. Single deletion of omp10 or omp19-that encode two other outer membrane lipoproteins--was achieved, but the simultaneous removal of both genes failed, suggesting an essential complementary function between both proteins. Two other deletion mutants, defective in the Tol-C-homologue BepC or in the SP41 adhesin, were also obtained. Surprisingly when compared to previous results obtained with smooth Brucella, none of the B. ovis mutants showed attenuation in the virulence, either in the mouse model or in cellular models of professional and non-professional phagocytes. Additionally, and in contrast to the observations reported with smooth Brucella strains, several properties related to the outer membrane remained almost unaltered. These results evidence new distinctive traits between naturally rough B. ovis and smooth brucellae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Readthrough of long-QT syndrome type 1 nonsense mutations rescues function but alters the biophysical properties of the channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Stephen C; Mohal, Jagdeep S; Kemp, Duncan; Tinker, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The nonsense mutations R518X-KCNQ1 and Q530X-KCNQ1 cause LQT1 (long-QT syndrome type 1) and result in a complete loss of I(Ks) channel function. In the present study we attempted to rescue the function of these mutants, in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells, by promoting readthrough of their PTCs (premature termination codons) using the pharmacological agents G-418, gentamicin and PTC124. Gentamicin and G-418 acted to promote full-length channel protein expression from R518X at 100 μM and from Q530X at 1 mM. In contrast, PTC124 did not, at any dose tested, induce readthrough of either mutant. G-418 (1 mM) treatment also acted to significantly (Pbiophysical properties of the currents produced from R518X, while similar, were not identical with wild-type as the voltage-dependence of activation was significantly (P<0.05) shifted by +25 mV. Overall, these findings indicate that although functional rescue of LQT1 nonsense mutations is possible, it is dependent on the degree of readthrough achieved and the effect on channel function of the amino acid substituted for the PTC. Such considerations will determine the success of future therapies.

  3. Reinforcing the inner phase of the filled hydrogels with CNTs alters drug release properties and human keratinocyte morphology: A study on the gelatin- tamarind gum filled hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharana, Vivek; Gaur, Deepanjali; Nayak, Suraj K; Singh, Vinay K; Chakraborty, Subhabrata; Banerjee, Indranil; Ray, Sirsendu S; Anis, Arfat; Pal, Kunal

    2017-11-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of gelatin-tamarind gum (TG) based filled hydrogels for drug delivery applications. In this study, three different types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated within the dispersed TG phase of the filled hydrogels. The prepared hydrogels were thoroughly characterised using bright field microscope, FESEM, FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimeter, and mechanical tester. The swelling and the drug (salicylic acid) release properties of the filled hydrogels were also evaluated. The micrographs revealed the formation of biphasic systems. The internal phase appeared as agglomerates, and the CNTs were confined within the dispersed TG phase. FTIR and XRD studies revealed that CNTs promoted associative interactions among the components of the hydrogel, which promoted the formation of large crystallite size. The mechanical study indicated better resistance to the breakdown of the architecture of the CNT-containing filled hydrogels. Drug release studies, both passive and iontophoretic, suggested that the non-Fickian diffusion of the drug was prevalent during its release from hydrogel matrices. The prepared hydrogels were cytocompatible with human keratinocytes. The results suggested the probable use of such hydrogels in wound healing, tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunological condition in population living near Semipalatinsk tests site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Ueda, Masafumi.

    1992-01-01

    This is the brief introduction of the immunological survey at Pavlodar, Kazakhstan SSR, a 300 km away from the Semipalatinsk test site, originally reported by Beysembaev E.A.,Valivach M.N. (Course of Clinical Immunology in Pavlodar Dzerzhynsky str., 166), Molochanov N.E. (Pavlodar Regional Hospital), Kazakav, V.M. (Radiologist Lab. of Regional Sanitary and Epidemiology Station), Ounusov B.A. and Osorodnikova O.P. (Clinical Immunology Centre in Pavlodar). The comparative investigations on (1) 150 preschool age children in Pavlodar before and 6 months after the cessation of nuclear tests, (2) 25 children suffering from frequent respiratory infections before the cessation and 25 analogous children after the cessation, and (3) 69 children (age 1 - 7) and 70 adults (age 28 - 58) inhabitants of Maysky district, where radioactivity is especially high, and 50 children and 50 adults of Pavlodar inhabitants, are reported. Erythrocyte rosette-forming cells, immunoglobulins G, A, and M, etc. are tested. (A.Y.)

  5. Intermittent Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alters Electrical Properties of Fast-Spiking Neocortical Interneurons in an Age-Dependent Fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eHoppenrath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of human cortical excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS appears to be in part related to changed activity of inhibitory systems. Our own studies showed that intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS applied via rTMS to rat cortex primarily affects the parvalbumin-expressing (PV fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs, evident via a strongly reduced PV expression. We further found the iTBS effect on PV to be age-dependent since no reduction in PV could be induced before the perineuronal nets (PNNs of FSIs start to grow around postnatal day 30. To elucidate possible iTBS-induced changes in the electrical properties of FSIs and cortical network activity during cortical critical period, we performed ex vivo – in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from pre-labelled FSIs in the current study. FSIs of verum iTBS-treated rats displayed a higher excitability than sham-treated controls at PD29-38, evident as higher rates of induced action potential firing at low current injections (100-200 pA and a more depolarized resting membrane potential. This effect was absent in younger (PD26-28 and older animals (PD40-62. Slices of verum iTBS-treated rats further showed higher rates of spontaneous EPSCs. Based on these and previous findings we conclude that FSIs are particularly sensitive to theta-burst stimulation during early cortical development, when FSIs show an activity-driven step of maturation which is paralleled by intense growth of the PNNs and subsequent closure of the cortical critical period. Although to be proven further, rTMS may be a possible early intervention to compensate for hypo-activity related mal-development of cortical neuronal circuits.

  6. Intermittent Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alters Electrical Properties of Fast-Spiking Neocortical Interneurons in an Age-Dependent Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenrath, Kathrin; Härtig, Wolfgang; Funke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of human cortical excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be in part related to changed activity of inhibitory systems. Our own studies showed that intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied via rTMS to rat cortex primarily affects the parvalbumin-expressing (PV) fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), evident via a strongly reduced PV expression. We further found the iTBS effect on PV to be age-dependent since no reduction in PV could be induced before the perineuronal nets (PNNs) of FSIs start to grow around postnatal day (PD) 30. To elucidate possible iTBS-induced changes in the electrical properties of FSIs and cortical network activity during cortical critical period, we performed ex vivo-in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from pre-labeled FSIs in the current study. FSIs of verum iTBS-treated rats displayed a higher excitability than sham-treated controls at PD29-38, evident as higher rates of induced action potential firing at low current injections (100-200 pA) and a more depolarized resting membrane potential. This effect was absent in younger (PD26-28) and older animals (PD40-62). Slices of verum iTBS-treated rats further showed higher rates of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Based on these and previous findings we conclude that FSIs are particularly sensitive to TBS during early cortical development, when FSIs show an activity-driven step of maturation which is paralleled by intense growth of the PNNs and subsequent closure of the cortical critical period. Although to be proven further, rTMS may be a possible early intervention to compensate for hypo-activity related mal-development of cortical neuronal circuits.

  7. Bacteria in the vaginal microbiome alter the innate immune response and barrier properties of the human vaginal epithelia in a species-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerflinger, Sylvie Y; Throop, Andrea L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2014-06-15

    Bacterial vaginosis increases the susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and negatively affects women's reproductive health. To investigate host-vaginal microbiota interactions and the impact on immune barrier function, we colonized 3-dimensional (3-D) human vaginal epithelial cells with 2 predominant species of vaginal microbiota (Lactobacillus iners and Lactobacillus crispatus) or 2 prevalent bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (Atopobium vaginae and Prevotella bivia). Colonization of 3-D vaginal epithelial cell aggregates with vaginal microbiota was observed with direct attachment to host cell surface with no cytotoxicity. A. vaginae infection yielded increased expression membrane-associated mucins and evoked a robust proinflammatory, immune response in 3-D vaginal epithelial cells (ie, expression of CCL20, hBD-2, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and tumor necrosis factor α) that can negatively affect barrier function. However, P. bivia and L. crispatus did not significantly upregulate pattern-recognition receptor-signaling, mucin expression, antimicrobial peptides/defensins, or proinflammatory cytokines in 3-D vaginal epithelial cell aggregates. Notably, L. iners induced pattern-recognition receptor-signaling activity, but no change was observed in mucin expression or secretion of interleukin 6 and interleukin 8. We identified unique species-specific immune signatures from vaginal epithelial cells elicited by colonization with commensal and bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria. A. vaginae elicited a signature that is consistent with significant disruption of immune barrier properties, potentially resulting in enhanced susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections during bacterial vaginosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Long-lasting alterations in membrane properties, K+ currents and glutamatergic synaptic currents of nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons in a rat model of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor eSpigelman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure causes marked changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state that are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Although the NAcc plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced neuroadaptive changes in NAcc function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE treatment, a rat model of alcohol withdrawal and dependence, on intrinsic electrical membrane properties and glutamatergic synaptic transmission of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the NAcc core during protracted withdrawal. We show that CIE treatment followed by prolonged withdrawal increased the inward rectification of MSNs observed at hyperpolarized potentials. In addition, MSNs from CIE-treated animals displayed a lower input resistance, faster action potentials (APs and larger fast afterhyperpolarizations (fAHPs than MSNs from vehicle-treated animals, all suggestive of increases in K+-channel conductances. Significant increases in the Cs+-sensitive inwardly-rectifying K+-current accounted for the increased input resistance, while increases in the A-type K+-current accounted for the faster APs and increased fAHPs in MSNs from CIE rats. We also show that the amplitude and the conductance of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR-mediated mEPSCs were enhanced in CIE-treated animals due to an increase in a small fraction of functional postsynaptic GluA2-lacking AMPARs. These long-lasting modifications of excitability and excitatory synaptic receptor function of MSNs in the NAcc core could play a critical role in the neuroadaptive changes underlying alcohol withdrawal and dependence.

  9. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    The report on the influence of seasonal factors on thymic size in early life describes a pattern of ultrasonographically measured thymic growth in Gambian infants including the finding of a smaller thymus in the hungry season. These factors raise a number of important questions: Is the size...... of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  10. Immunologic competence in adults following thymic irradiation in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, A.J.; Wara, W.M.; Wara, D.W.; Phillips, T.L.

    1977-07-01

    Removal of, or irradiation to, the thymus during the neonatal period in man has resulted in no reported adverse effects on cellular immunity, although thymectomy in neonatal experimental animals is known to produce profound immunological disturbances. Adverse effects in humans may not be recognized until several decades have passed. The immunological capabilities of 7 adults with histories of thymic irradiation as infants were evaluated; normal tests results indicated intact immune systems in all cases. The 3 women tested, however, had abnormal clinical histories, including 2 with multiple tumors and 1 with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  11. Immunologic competence in adults following thymic irradiation in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, A.J.; Wara, W.M.; Wara, D.W.; Phillips, T.L.

    1977-01-01

    Removal of, or irradiation to, the thymus during the neonatal period in man has resulted in no reported adverse effects on cellular immunity, although thymectomy in neonatal experimental animals is known to produce profound immunological disturbances. Adverse effects in humans may not be recognized until several decades have passed. The immunological capabilities of 7 adults with histories of thymic irradiation as infants were evaluated; normal tests results indicated intact immune systems in all cases. The 3 women tested, however, had abnormal clinical histories, including 2 with multiple tumors and 1 with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

  12. Immunologic mapping of glycomes: implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dapeng; Levery, Steven B; Hsu, Fong-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Cancer associated glycoconjugates are important biomarkers, as exemplified by globo-H, CA125, CA15.3 and CA27.29. However, the exact chemical structures of many such biomarkers remain unknown because of technological limitations. In this article, we propose the "immunologic mapping" of cancer...... glycomes based on specific immune recognition of glycan structures, which can be hypothesized theoretically, produced chemically, and examined biologically by immuno-assays. Immunologic mapping of glycans not only provides a unique perspective on cancer glycomes, but also may lead to the invention...

  13. Cancer Immunology in an Inducible Model of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0361 TITLE: Cancer Immunology in an Inducible Model of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Khashayarsha Khazaie, Ph.D...Leave blank) April 2005 Final (1 Apr 2002 - 31 Mar 2005) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cancer Immunology in an Inducible Model of Breast Cancer...ndont Pvn~rlrn~ntq Chen t al. PNAS I January 11, 2005 I vol. 102 I no. 2 I 421 a CT4400) "T26("-) b a % H- pem b man -sdal-n q!" N,~ CD8 T celia

  14. [Immunologic in vivo and in vitro studies on Echinacea extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, V R; Jurcic, K; Puhlmann, J; Wagner, H

    1988-02-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida and E. angustifolia roots were examined for immunological activity in the carbon clearance test with mice and in the granulocyte test. In the in vivo experiment all extracts, administered orally, were found to enhance phagocytosis significantly. These results correlate with the stimulation of phagocytosis in the in vitro granulocyte test. The lipophilic fractions of the extracts appeared to be more active than the polar fractions. All extracts were analyzed by HPLC in order to correlate the chemical constituents with the immunological activities.

  15. Nutrient tasting and signaling mechanisms in the gut V. Mechanisms of immunologic sensation of intestinal contents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Immune perception of intestinal contents reflects a functional dualism with systemic hyporesponsiveness to dietary antigens and resident microflora (oral tolerance) and active immune responses to mucosal pathogens. This facilitates optimal absorption of dietary nutrients while conserving immunologic resources for episodic pathogenic challenge. Discrimination between dangerous and harmless antigens within the enteric lumen requires continual sampling of the microenvironment by multiple potential pathways, innate and adaptive recognition mechanisms, bidirectional lymphoepithelial signaling, and rigorous control of effector responses. Errors in these processes disrupt mucosal homeostasis and are associated with food hypersensitivity and mucosal inflammation. Mechanisms of mucosal immune perception and handling of dietary proteins and other antigens have several practical and theoretical implications including vaccine design, therapy of systemic autoimmunity, and alteration of enteric flora with probiotics.

  16. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  17. German Society for Immunology and Australasian Society for Immunology joint Workshop 3(rd) -4(th) December 2015 - Meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurts, Christian; Gottschalk, Catherine; Bedoui, Sammy; Heinzel, Susanne; Godfrey, Dale; Enders, Anselm

    2016-02-01

    The German Society for Immunology (DGfI) and the Australasian Society for Immunology (ASI) hosted the first DGfI-ASI joint workshop from December 3-4, 2015 in Canberra, Australia. A delegation of 15 distinguished German immunologists discussed the workshop topic "immune regulation in infections and immune mediated diseases" with the aim to establish new German-Australasian collaborations, discuss new concepts in the field of immune regulation and build a scientific network to create more utilizable resources for excellent (trans-border) immunological research. The workshop was associated with the 45(th) Annual Scientific Meeting of the ASI held from Nov 29-Dec 3, 2015, opening up even more opportunities for finding new collaboration partners. A return meeting will be linked to the annual DGfI meeting that will take place in 2017 in Erlangen. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Immunological change in a parasite-impoverished environment: divergent signals from four island taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon S Beadell

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic declines of native Hawaiian avifauna due to the human-mediated emergence of avian malaria and pox prompted an examination of whether island taxa share a common altered immunological signature, potentially driven by reduced genetic diversity and reduced exposure to parasites. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing parasite prevalence, genetic diversity and three measures of immune response in two recently-introduced species (Neochmia temporalis and Zosterops lateralis and two island endemics (Acrocephalus aequinoctialis and A. rimitarae and then comparing the results to those observed in closely-related mainland counterparts. The prevalence of blood parasites was significantly lower in 3 of 4 island taxa, due in part to the absence of certain parasite lineages represented in mainland populations. Indices of genetic diversity were unchanged in the island population of N. temporalis; however, allelic richness was significantly lower in the island population of Z. lateralis while both allelic richness and heterozygosity were significantly reduced in the two island-endemic species examined. Although parasite prevalence and genetic diversity generally conformed to expectations for an island system, we did not find evidence for a pattern of uniformly altered immune responses in island taxa, even amongst endemic taxa with the longest residence times. The island population of Z. lateralis exhibited a significantly reduced inflammatory cell-mediated response while levels of natural antibodies remained unchanged for this and the other recently introduced island taxon. In contrast, the island endemic A. rimitarae exhibited a significantly increased inflammatory response as well as higher levels of natural antibodies and complement. These measures were unchanged or lower in A. aequinoctialis. We suggest that small differences in the pathogenic landscape and the stochastic history of mutation and genetic drift are likely to be important in

  19. Immunological effects and tolerability of a new fast updosed immunologically enhanced subcutaneous immunotherapy formulation with optimized allergen/adjuvant ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Jung, K; Wolf, H; Decot, E; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Klimek, L; Wüstenberg, E

    2012-05-01

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) traditionally includes an updosing phase injecting increasing doses of allergen over a period of several weeks, followed by a maintenance phase. To establish shorter and more convenient updosing schedules, a fast updosed immunologically enhanced SCIT formulation has been developed by optimizing the allergen/adjuvant (aluminium hydroxide) ratio. In a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial, patients with grass pollen induced rhinoconjunctivitis with/without asthma were treated with an immunologically enhanced SCIT formulation (AVANZ, ALK, Denmark). The trial included updosing with five injections (300, 600, 3000, 6000 and 15,000 SQ+) injected either in weekly interval (Group 1) or in 3-4 days interval (Group 2) followed by two maintenance injections (15,000 SQ+), approximately 10 weeks treatment. The immunological effects (primary endpoint) and tolerability (secondary endpoint) of the updosing schedules were evaluated. Four hundred patients were treated (Group 1: 201, Group 2: 199). In both groups, an immunological response with statistically significant increases in levels of IgE-blocking factor, IgG(4) and IgE (P trial. Most frequently reported adverse events were local injection site reactions such as injection site swellings (Group 1: 30% of patients, Group 2: 41% of patients). Other frequently reported adverse events included systemic reactions (Group 1: 21% of patients, Group 2: 33% of patients), primarily mild to moderate allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Fast updosed immunologically enhanced SCIT with an optimized allergen/adjuvant ratio induced significant immunological effects and had an acceptable safety profile. Clinical efficacy will be investigated in future clinical trials. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Immunological hazards from nutritional imbalance in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R J; Shek, P N

    1998-01-01

    This review examines the influences of nutritional imbalance on immune function of competitive athletes, who may adopt an unusual diet in an attempt to enhance performance. A major increase in body fat can have adverse effects on immune response. In contrast, a negative energy balance and reduction of body mass are likely to impair immune function in an already thin athlete. A moderate increase in polyunsaturated fat enhances immune function, but excessive consumption can be detrimental. Since endurance exercise leads to protein catabolism, an athlete may need 2.0 g/kg protein rather than the 0.7-1.0 g/kg recommended for a sedentary individual. Both sustained exercise and overtraining reduce plasma glutamine levels, which may contribute to suppressed immune function postexercise. A large intake of carbohydrate counters glutamine depletion but may also modify immune responses by altering the secretion of glucose-regulating hormones. Vitamins are important to immune function because of their antioxidant role. However, the clinical benefits of vitamin C supplementation are not enhanced by the use of more complex vitamin mixtures, and excessive vitamin E can have negative effects. Iron, selenium, zinc, calcium, and magnesium ion all influence immune function. Supplements may be required after heavy sweating, but an excessive intake of iron facilitates bacterial growth. In making dietary recommendations to athletes, it is important to recognize that immune response can be jeopardized not only by deficiencies but also by excessive intake of certain nutrients. The goal should be a well-balanced diet.

  1. Effect of the economic crisis on the production of immunology patents managed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty agreement from 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Elena; Campos, Adolfo

    2015-07-01

    To determine the evolution of patents in immunology, as a result of research and innovation in the years 2004-2011. The search for patents published internationally in immunology was made by using the SCOPUSTM database. SCOPUS gives information about over 23 million patents. The extracted data from patents were: inventors and applicants; their nationalities; sections, classes and subclasses of the International Patent Classification. 89 countries. Data have been obtained from the database SCOPUS. It has been used for the international patent classification. Patents by country, Productive sectors, Productive areas. A total of 17,281 patents were applied for immunology during 2004-2011 of which 16,811 were from 30 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, and 5326 from 28 countries in the European Union. These patents were granted in 89 countries and 13,699 of them were submitted by researchers from only one country. Private entities applied for 62.45% of all patents, universities 17.48%, hospitals 3.40% and public research organisations and private applicants applied for the rest. The university that made more applications was the University of California with 315 and the company was Genentech Inc. (US) with 302. The reduction in the number of applications of international patents in all disciplines of science also affected the area of immunology. Collaboration in immunology between universities, companies and hospitals is hard because their interests are different. It is shown in patent applications that the majority of patents in immunology are applied for by only one entity. Patents in immunology are developed, mainly, in aspects such as medical preparations, peptides, mutation or genetic engineering, therapeutic activity of chemical compounds and analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties.

  2. Effect of the economic crisis on the production of immunology patents managed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty agreement from 2004–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the evolution of patents in immunology, as a result of research and innovation in the years 2004–2011. Design The search for patents published internationally in immunology was made by using the SCOPUSTM database. SCOPUS gives information about over 23 million patents. The extracted data from patents were: inventors and applicants; their nationalities; sections, classes and subclasses of the International Patent Classification. Participants 89 countries Setting Data have been obtained from the database SCOPUS. It has been used for the international patent classification. Main outcome measures Patents by country, Productive sectors, Productive areas Results A total of 17,281 patents were applied for immunology during 2004–2011 of which 16,811 were from 30 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, and 5326 from 28 countries in the European Union. These patents were granted in 89 countries and 13,699 of them were submitted by researchers from only one country. Private entities applied for 62.45% of all patents, universities 17.48%, hospitals 3.40% and public research organisations and private applicants applied for the rest. The university that made more applications was the University of California with 315 and the company was Genentech Inc. (US) with 302. The reduction in the number of applications of international patents in all disciplines of science also affected the area of immunology. Conclusions Collaboration in immunology between universities, companies and hospitals is hard because their interests are different. It is shown in patent applications that the majority of patents in immunology are applied for by only one entity. Patents in immunology are developed, mainly, in aspects such as medical preparations, peptides, mutation or genetic engineering, therapeutic activity of chemical compounds and analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties. PMID:28008369

  3. A review of the basis of the immunological diagnosis of ruminant brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Blasco, José María; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria of the genus Brucella cause brucellosis, the most common bacterial zoonosis worldwide. The diagnosis of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis ruminant brucellosis is based on bacteriological and immunological tests, the latter being routinely used in control and eradication and surveillance programs. Infections by smooth and rough Brucella spp., the use of smooth and rough vaccines, and the false-positive serological reactions caused by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and other cross-reacting bacteria represent the immunological contexts in which those tests are used. This complex context explains the large number of brucellosis tests that have been developed, and that vary in antigen type, antigen presentation, antibody and conditions for the reaction, the response detected and the sample required. This wealth of information and an imperfect understanding of Brucella antigens and of the peculiarities of the immunoresponse to Brucella has created confusion and led to several misconceptions on the usefulness and limitations of the brucellosis diagnostic tests. In this review, Brucella antigens are examined focusing on cellular topology, supramolecular properties, epitopic structure and lipopolysaccharide and protein cross-reactivity in the various contexts of the immune response in ruminants. Then, the significance of these features in diagnostic tests that use whole bacteria is discussed with respect to the activities of ruminant immunoglobulins, and the effect of pH on unspecific agglutinations, non-agglutinating and blocking antibodies, pseudo-prozones and complement activation. Similarly, the bacterial surface lipopolysaccharides and cognate polysaccharides are discussed with regards to topological effects, epitope exposure, ionic strength and antibody avidity in immunoprecipitation, immunosorbent and fluorescence polarization assays. Finally, the search for immunodominant protein antigens and their use in immunological tests is reviewed. Critical review

  4. Prevalence of immunological failure and durability of first line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all patients on ART from 2005 attending BMC CTC clinic. Using standard data collection form all demographic data, adherence levels, and CD4 + counts were recorded and analyzed using SPSS 11.5 computer software to determine the prevalence and predictors of immunological failure. Results: A total of 2975 patients ...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the autoimmune antibodies in serum, other body fluids, and tissues that react with cellular nuclear... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. 866.5100 Section 866.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5660 - Multiple autoantibodies immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the autoantibodies (antibodies produced against the body's own tissues) in serum and other body fluids... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple autoantibodies immunological test system. 866.5660 Section 866.5660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  7. Allergy-immunology glossary | El-Sayed | Egyptian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a clear designation of some of the terms used in allergology and immunology. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  8. Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The): Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Contact: Professor Ihab Z. El-Hakim. Email ihab.elhakim@gmail.com. Phone +201111224974. Fax … +202 33045060. Children's Hospital, Ain Shams University, Ramses Street, Abbassiya, Cairo 11566, Egypt. The Egyptian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology ...

  9. Prevalence of clinical, immunological and irological failure among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is increasing evidence that the current clinical and immunological monitoring tools are not sufficient to identify early enough patients who are failing on treatment. Development of resistance to the limited treatment options for children and premature switching are the dangers. The objective of this study ...

  10. Immunological studies on the mechanism of resistance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using laboratory rodents as models for immunological studies of onchocerciasis. Living adult Onchocerca (O.) armillata and O. volvulus were surgically transplanted into the peritoneal cavities of rats, after initial immunizations or transplantations, in order to investigate ...

  11. Highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary immunologists have expanded understanding of the immune systems for our companion animals and developed new vaccines and therapeutics. This manuscript summarizes the highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto,...

  12. Big data analytics in immunology: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Sun, Jing; Chitkushev, Lou; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  13. Immunological and Virological Response to HAART in HIV-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Among the countries highly endemic for viral hepatitis, Nigeria is found. Information on how triple infected persons (HIV, HBV, and HCV) fare on HAART in the country is lacking. Laboratory based investigation was carried out to assess the virological and immunological parameters of HIV-1 infected patients ...

  14. Immunological cross-reactivity of venoms from some Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immunological cross-reactivity among the Elapidae, Viperidae and Buthidae venoms was detected in dot blot and western blot assays and quantified in ELISA as percentage of absorbance of heterologous versus homologous reaction. Mutual cross-reactivity between the Elapidae and Viperidae venoms was ...

  15. The immunological response of South African Bulinus natalensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot muscle antigens of the diploid Bulinus natalensis from Lake Sibayi showed complete immunological correspondence with antiserum prepared from foot muscle tissues of the diploid B. tropicus. On the other hand, strong “non-identity” reactions occurred when B. natalensis antigens were tested with the antiserum ...

  16. Evaluation of HIV therapeutic agents on immunological, lipid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to evaluate the effect of these therapeutic agents on weight, immunological, lipid and lipoprotein changes as well as the atherogenic indices of Ghanaian HIV-1 infected patients. This observational study was carried out at the ART clinic of the Regional Hospital, Bolgatanga in the Upper-East region of ...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thyroid autoantibodies may aid in the diagnosis of certain thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto's disease (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system...

  18. Big Data Analytics in Immunology: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  19. The pattern of immunologic and virologic responses to Highly Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To achieve the goals of ART, national ART programmes focus on the vital patient monitoring systems including clinical, immunologic, virologic, adherence, lost to follow-up and mortality. Objectives: This review is aimed at addressing the profile of immunovirological responses to HAART and the factors associated with, with ...

  20. Influence of gut microbiota on immunological maturation in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    8+ T-cells as well as NK-cells similar to those found in adult mice, while splenocytes expressed severely reduced levels of these markers and were impaired in their ability to proliferate in response to anti-CD3/anti-CD28. To further characterize the development of immunological maturation...

  1. Immunologic and haematologic effects of methanolic stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the weight, haematologic and immunologic effects of crude methanolic stem bark extract of Azadihiracta indica stem bark on vaccinated chickens experimentally challenged with the velogenic Newcastle disease virus. One hundred day old cockerels were randomly divided into four equal ...

  2. Baseline values of immunologic parameters in the lizard Salvator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the aim of established baseline values for four immunologic biomarkers widely used, 36 tegu lizards were evaluated tacking into account different age classes and both sexes. Total leukocyte counts were not different between age classes. Of the leucocytes count, eosinophils levels were higher in neonates compared ...

  3. Experimental photoimmunology: immunologic ramifications of UV-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daynes, R.A.; Bernhard, E.J.; Gurish, M.F.; Lynch, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of animal model systems to investigate the sequence of events which lead to the induction and progression of skin tumors following chronic ultraviolet light (UVL) exposure has clearly shown that the direct mutagenic effects of UVL is only one of the components involved in this process. In spite of the fact that overt carcinogenesis is only one of the many effects produced by UV light, most hypotheses as to the mechanism by which UVL can cause the mutations necessary to achieve the transformed phenotype have focused on the direct effects of UVL on DNA and the generation of carcinogenic compounds. Investigations during the last 5 yr, however, have clearly demonstrated that immunologic factors are also critically important in the pathogenesis of UV-induced skin cancers. A complete understanding of UV-carcinogenesis must therefore consider the mechanisms which allow the transformed cell to evade immunologic rejection by the host in addition to those aspects which deal with conversion of a normal cell to a cancer cell. It is the object of this review to provide both a historical account of the work which established the immunologic consequences of chronic UVL exposure and the results of recent experiments designed to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms by which UVL affects the immunologic apparatus. In addition, a hypothetical model is presented to explain the sequence of events which ultimately lead to the emergence of the suppressor T-cells which regulate antitumor immune responses

  4. Current status of immunologic studies in human lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.L.

    1978-06-01

    Several aspects of the immunology of human malignancy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on relevant findings in lung cancer. The existence of tumor-specific cell-mediated immune responses in patients with cancer has been demonstrated in numerous tumor types. Of more relevance in clinical situations is the association of generalized immunologic depression with malignancy. In the vast majority of cases, progressive declines in both tumor-specific and nonspecific immunologic parameters are observed with advancing disease. The approach to the immunologic evaluation of cancer patients and the potential usefulness of this approach to the diagnosis, prognosis, management, and assessment of therapeutic response are discussed. Evidence aimed at elucidating the mechanism of immunosuppression in malignancy, such as serum-blocking factors, immunoregulatory alpha globulins, and suppressor cells, is presented. Finally, emphasis is placed on the various forms of immunotherapy, including both specific active methods such as tumor cell or tumor antigen vaccines and nonspecific active immunotherapy involving agents like Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and levamisole. Early results from clinical immunotherapeutic trials are discussed.

  5. Allergy-immunology glossary | El-Sayed | Egyptian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Peptide modification in T cell immunology - from molecule to animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Ellen Christine de

    2003-01-01

    Chemical knowledge can be applied in the field of immunology. It provides a better understanding of how a peptide interacts with proteins and cells of the immune system. However, it is not possible to predict the outcome of peptide administration in an animal. Peptides are used in experimental

  7. Prevalence and predictors of Immunological failure among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at assessing the magnitude and factors associated with immunological failure among HIV infected patients on HAART. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Bugando Medical centre HIV care and treatment centre between February-July 2011, involving HIV-infected patients on first line ART ...

  8. Immunological response in the mouse melanoma model after local hyperthemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubeš, J.; Svoboda, Jan; Rosina, J.; Starec, M.; Fišerová, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2008), s. 459-465 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020403; GA AV ČR IAA500200620 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : local hyperthermia * melanoma * monocytes Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  9. Regulation of immunological and inflammatory functions by biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu

    2015-12-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin and is well-known as a co-factor for 5 indispensable carboxylases. Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) catalyzes the biotinylation of carboxylases and other proteins, whereas biotinidase catalyzes the release of biotin from biotinylated peptides. Previous studies have reported that nutritional biotin deficiency and genetic defects in either HLCS or biotinidase induces cutaneous inflammation and immunological disorders. Since biotin-dependent carboxylases involve various cellular metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids, metabolic abnormalities may play important roles in immunological and inflammatory disorders caused by biotin deficiency. Transcriptional factors, including NF-κB and Sp1/3, are also affected by the status of biotin, indicating that biotin regulates immunological and inflammatory functions independently of biotin-dependent carboxylases. An in-vivo analysis with a murine model revealed the therapeutic effects of biotin supplementation on metal allergies. The novel roles of biotinylated proteins and their related enzymes have recently been reported. Non-carboxylase biotinylated proteins induce chemokine production. HLCS is a nuclear protein involved in epigenetic and chromatin regulation. In this review, comprehensive knowledge on the regulation of immunological and inflammatory functions by biotin and its potential as a therapeutic agent is discussed.

  10. prevalence of clinical, immunological and virological failure among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: There is increasing evidence that the current clinical and immunological monitoring tools are not sufficient to identify early enough patients who are failing on treatment. Development of resistance to the limited treatment options for children and premature switching are the dangers. The objective of ...

  11. Polish scientists in fish immunology: a short history : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.B.; Pilarczyk, A.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later

  12. Immunological Response of Hiv-Infected Children to Highly Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in children has not been well studied specially in developing countries where the burden of HIV is high. This study was aimed to assess the immunologic response of HIV-infected children to HAART at Pediatric ART Clinic Gondar University ...

  13. CHARGE syndrome : a review of the immunological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Monica T. Y.; Scholvinck, Elisabeth H.; Lambeck, Annechien J. A.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.

    2015-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is caused by a dominant variant in the CHD7 gene. Multiple organ systems can be affected because of haploinsufficiency of CHD7 during embryonic development. CHARGE syndrome shares many clinical features with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Immunological abnormalities have been

  14. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological ...

  15. Immunological consequences of trauma and shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, R A; Chaudry, I H

    1999-01-01

    The immune system is a powerful, complex entity composed of numerous cell types and regulated by autocrine, paracrine, and hormonal mechanisms. Trauma and haemorrhagic shock induce numerous changes within this system which are ultimately deleterious and contribute to the high incidence of organ dysfunction and infectious complications seen following injury. Regional hypoxia and depletion of intracellular energy stores occur in response to diminished microcirculatory blood flow, and these changes alter cellular signalling and result in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostanoids which mediate further suppression of immune function. Neutrophil priming serves to induce tissue damage in critical organ systems such as the lungs, heart, liver, and gut, further insulting the injured organism. Depression of antigen presentation and cytokine elaboration by macrophages and other antigen presenting cells effectively prevents a normal response from the acquired immune system, and lymphocyte-monocyte interactions are squelched. The resulting depression in cell mediated and humoral immunity renders the organism susceptible to microbial infection and contributes to the morbidity and mortality associated with nosocomial infections. Hormonal modulation of the immune response is highly evident following trauma and haemorrhage, and the preponderance of male morbidity associated with sepsis can be explained by the depression in immune function seen in males, but not females in the pro-oestrous state. Despite the multitude of changes induced by trauma and haemorrhage, experimental studies have revealed several promising pharmacologic interventions which may serve to blunt the effect of injury on the immune system, and render the host competent to withstand the bacterial and viral challenges responsible for so much of the late mortality following severe injury.

  16. What vaccination studies tell us about immunological memory within the innate immune system of cultured shrimp and crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Kumar, Ramya; Ng, Tze Hann; Wang, Han-Ching

    2018-03-01

    The possibility of immunological memory in invertebrates is a topic that has recently attracted a lot of attention. Today, even vertebrates are known to exhibit innate immune responses that show memory-like properties, and since these responses are triggered by cells that are involved in the innate immune system, it seems that immune specificity and immune memory do not necessarily require the presence of B cells and T cells after all. This kind of immune response has been called "immune priming" or "trained immunity". In this report, we review recent observations and our current understanding of immunological memory within the innate immune system in cultured shrimp and crayfish after vaccination with live vaccine, killed vaccine and subunit vaccines. We also discuss the possible mechanisms involved in this immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prognostic value of immunologic abnormalities and HIV antigenemia in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals: proposal of immunologic staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Dickmeiss, E

    1989-01-01

    The prognostic value of various immunologic tests was investigated in 150 HIV-seropositive homosexual men, who were initially without HIV-related symptoms or AIDS and who were followed for a median of 12 months (range 3-28 months). The laboratory investigations included HIV antigen in serum, total...

  18. Gamma rays application in veterinary immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulkhanov, R.U.; Butaev, M.K.; Mirzaev, B.Sh.; Ryasnyanskiy, I.V.; Yuldashev, R.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The process based on stimulated action of ionized radiation, change of quality of agricultural goods and row materials, biocides including bactericide action of ionized radiation are among the methods of radiation biotechnology, which can be applied in agriculture. We used the bactericide action of ionized radiation in technological process for creation of fundamentally new preparation possessed by by immunogenic properties and named as 'radio vaccine'. This term is well known and frequently used in scientific papers in the field of applied radiobiology. It is well known that physical (thermal) and chemical actions are used for preparation of vaccine for veterinary. It was noted that this process resulted in destruction of antigenic structure of bacteria cells, with are responsible for immunity creation. The possibility of virulence reduction at constant immunogenic properties of microorganism and keeping its antigenic structure can be achieved by using ionized radiation as one of the factor, which influences on bacteria. Taking into account the necessity of vaccine improvement and increase of quantity of associated vaccine one of the most important problems of veterinary science and particle is creation of vaccines of new generation which are characterized by the ability to form immunity against several diseases of agricultural animals. As a result of many-years investigations using gamma rays radiations in UzSRIV (laboratory of radiobiology) the radiation biotechnology of vaccine preparation was developed. These vaccines are necessary for practical application. Radiation biotechnology allows to prepare high-effective mono-, associated and polyvalent radio vaccines against widespread infection diseases of agricultural animals especially cubs (calves, lambs, young pigs). On the basis of developed radiation biotechnology there were prepared the following vaccines: 'Associated radio vaccine against colibacteriosis and salmonellosis of small horned cattle

  19. 21 CFR 866.5820 - Systemic lupus erythema-tosus immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5820 Systemic lupus erythema-tosus immunological test system. (a) Identification. A systemic... with cellular nuclear double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or other nuclear constituents that...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5510 - Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological... Test Systems § 866.5510 Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system is a device that consists of the...

  1. Current immunological and molecular biological perspectives on seafood allergy: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Nicki Y H; Wai, Christine Y Y; Shu, ShangAn; Wang, Jinjun; Kenny, Thomas P; Chu, Ka Hou; Leung, Patrick S C

    2014-06-01

    Seafood is an important component in human diet and nutrition worldwide. However, seafood also constitutes one of the most important groups of foods in the induction of immediate (type I) food hypersensitivity, which significantly impacts the quality of life and healthcare cost. Extensive efforts within the past two decades have revealed the molecular identities and immunological properties of the major fish and shellfish allergens. The major allergen involved in allergy and cross-reactivity among different fish species was identified as parvalbumin while that responsible for shellfish (crustaceans and mollusks) allergy was identified as tropomyosin. The cloning and expression of the recombinant forms of these seafood allergens facilitate the investigation on the detailed mechanisms leading to seafood allergies, mapping of IgE-binding epitopes, and assessment of their allergenicity and stability. Future research focusing on the immunological cross-reactivity and discovery of novel allergens will greatly facilitate the management of seafood allergies and the design of effective and life-long allergen-specific immunotherapies.

  2. Immunological Consequences of Antihelminthic Treatment in Preschool Children Exposed to Urogenital Schistosome Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rujeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital schistosomiasis, due to Schistosoma haematobium, is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Control is by targeted treatment with praziquantel but preschool age children are excluded from control programs. Immunological studies on the effect of treatment at this young age are scarce. In light of studies in older individuals showing that praziquantel alters antischistosome immune responses and responses to bystander antigens, this study aims to investigate how these responses would be affected by treatment at this young age. Antibody responses directed against schistosome antigens, Plasmodium falciparum crude and recombinant antigens, and the allergen house dust mite were measured in children aged 3 to 5 years before and 6 weeks after treatment. The change in serological recognition of schistosome proteins was also investigated. Treatment augmented antischistosome IgM and IgE responses. The increase in IgE responses directed against adult worm antigens was accompanied by enhanced antigen recognition by sera from the children. Antibody responses directed against Plasmodium antigens were not significantly affected by praziquantel treatment nor were levels of allergen specific responses. Overall, praziquantel treatment enhanced, quantitatively and qualitatively, the antiworm responses associated with protective immunity but did not alter Plasmodium-specific responses or allergen-specific responses which mediate pathology in allergic disease.

  3. Inflammation, Self-Regulation, and Health: An Immunologic Model of Self-Regulatory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Slavich, George M

    2017-07-01

    Self-regulation is a fundamental human process that refers to multiple complex methods by which individuals pursue goals in the face of distractions. Whereas superior self-regulation predicts better academic achievement, relationship quality, financial and career success, and lifespan health, poor self-regulation increases a person's risk for negative outcomes in each of these domains and can ultimately presage early mortality. Given its centrality to understanding the human condition, a large body of research has examined cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of self-regulation. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to specific biologic processes that may underlie self-regulation. We address this latter issue in the present review by examining the growing body of research showing that components of the immune system involved in inflammation can alter neural, cognitive, and motivational processes that lead to impaired self-regulation and poor health. Based on these findings, we propose an integrated, multilevel model that describes how inflammation may cause widespread biobehavioral alterations that promote self-regulatory failure. This immunologic model of self-regulatory failure has implications for understanding how biological and behavioral factors interact to influence self-regulation. The model also suggests new ways of reducing disease risk and enhancing human potential by targeting inflammatory processes that affect self-regulation.

  4. Lichen planus: immunologic and morphologic identification of the submucosal infiltrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Deegan, M J; Hayward, J R

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to specifically identify T cells, B cells, and histiocytes in the infiltrate typically seen in lichen planus. In frozen tissue sections, AET-treated sheep erythrocytes formed immunologic rosettes with the lymphocytes in the infiltrate, designating them as T cells. Rosette assays with reagent erythrocytes, IgGEA, IgMEA, IgMEAC, and E resulted in nonadherence, indicating a lack of B cells and macrophages, and indirectly implicating them as T cells. Scanning electron microscopy of the cellular infiltrate, in situ, showed that the cells had smooth, nonvillous surfaces. These observations were consistent with a T cell origin and were considered supportive of the immunologic data. The results of this investigation support the hypothesis that lichen planus is a disease mediated by thymus-dependent lymphocytes.

  5. Advances in mechanisms of asthma, allergy, and immunology in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Joshua A; Bochner, Bruce; Finkelman, Fred D; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2012-02-01

    2011 was marked by rapid progress in the identification of basic mechanisms of allergic disease and the translation of these mechanisms into human cell systems. Studies published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology this year provided new insights into the molecular determinants of allergenicity, as well as the environmental, cellular, and genetic factors involved in sensitization to allergens. Several articles focused on mechanisms of allergen immunotherapy and the development of novel strategies to achieve tolerance to allergens. Additional studies identified substantial contributions from T(H)17-type cells and cytokines to human disease pathogenesis. Finally, new therapeutic applications of anti-IgE were identified. The highlights of these studies and their potential clinical implications are summarized in this review. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Advances in mechanisms of asthma, allergy, and immunology in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broide, David H; Finkelman, Fred; Bochner, Bruce S; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2011-03-01

    2010 was marked by rapid progress in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation and asthma. Studies published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology described advances in our knowledge of cells associated with allergic inflammation (mast cells, eosinophils, dendritic cells, and T cells), as well as IgE, cytokines, receptors, signaling molecules, and pathways. Studies used animal models, as well as human cells and tissues, to advance our understanding of mechanisms of asthma, eosinophilic esophagitis, food allergy, anaphylaxis and immediate hypersensitivity, mast cells and their disorders, atopic dermatitis, nasal polyposis, and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Additional studies provided novel information about the induction and regulation of allergic inflammation and the genetic contribution to allergic inflammation. Critical features of these studies and their potential effects on human atopic disorders are summarized here. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Controlling the Immunological Crosstalk during Conception and Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge Nilsson, Line; Djurisic, Snezana; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2014-01-01

    of immune cells. As the expression of HLA-G primarily is limited to gestation, this has given rise to the hypothesis that HLA-G plays an important role in the immunological tolerance of the fetus by the mother. In keeping with this, it might not be surprising that polymorphisms in the HLA-G gene, and levels...... of HLA-G expression, have been linked to reproductive failure and pre-eclampsia. Based on recent studies, we speculate that HLA-G might be involved in mechanisms in reproductive immunology even before conception because HLA-G can be detected in the genital tract and in the blood of non-pregnant women...

  8. Therapeutic Effects of Bee Venom on Immunological and Neurological Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Deok-Sang; Kim, Sun Kwang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2015-06-29

    Bee Venom (BV) has long been used in Korea to relieve pain symptoms and to treat inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of BV have been proved to some extent. Additionally, recent clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that BV and BV-derived active components are applicable to a wide range of immunological and neurodegenerative diseases, including autoimmune diseases and Parkinson's disease. These effects of BV are known to be mediated by modulating immune cells in the periphery, and glial cells and neurons in the central nervous system. This review will introduce the scientific evidence of the therapeutic effects of BV and its components on several immunological and neurological diseases, and describe their detailed mechanisms involved in regulating various immune responses and pathological changes in glia and neurons.

  9. [Immunologic risk analysis of blood transfusion: 1991-1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P; Le Pennec, P Y; Noizat-Pirenne, F

    2000-02-01

    The immunologic risk associated to erythrocyte transfusions is bound to the polymorphism of blood group systems and to the respect of blood transfusion regulations. The results of three studies are presented, which were carried out respectively by the French Society of Blood Transfusion, the National Institute of Blood Transfusion and the National Haemovigilance Network. Two hundred and twenty-seven cases of immunologic accidents are analysed using the Kaplan's interpretation model and the traditional method of process analysis. The results show three critical factors in the occurrence of this type of incident: the relevance of the clinical examinations prescribed, the way in which the biological results are taken into account, and the relationship/exchange of information between private and public hospitals, and blood transfusion centers.

  10. Immunological Indicators in Dogs Affected by Deep Pyoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Špruček

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the immune state of dogs with deep pyoderma to elucidate the relationship between clinical symptoms and immunological processes. We measured selected immunological parameters in control dogs (n = 10 and dogs of various breeds (German Shepherds were not included affected by deep pyoderma (n = 25. We found that the affected dogs had increased relative counts of neutrophils, decreased relative and absolute counts of lymphocytes, higher relative counts of CD3+ lymphocytes and CD8+ lymphocytes but lower relative counts of CD21+ lymphocytes and CD4+ lymphocytes. The affected dogs exhibited a reduced activity of nonstimulated as well as mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes. Lower values of circulating immune complexes (CIC in affected dogs were conditioned by the young age of animals. Nevertheless, the changes found in our study were not expressed in all animals.

  11. Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajeswara Rao

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the changes in the properties of water when exposed to sunlight for 40 days. We hypothesize and prove that solar irradiation to water entraps electromagnetic radiation as potential energy, which becomes kinetic energy in various systems. It is postulated that photochemically-induced energy transfers, associated with individual spectral emission of visible spectrum of solar light, exert diverse influences on biological systems. Bottles of distilled water, individually wrapped in spectral-colored cellophane were exposed to sunlight and compared to an unwrapped bottle to determine chemical and physical changes as well as modifications of biological properties. Each bottle of water was named according to the color of cellophane paper with letter E (stands for exposed as a prefix with (E-violet, E-indigo, E-blue, E-green, E-yellow, E-orange, and Ered. E-control (without wrap was exposed to polychromatic sunlight. This study addresses two main issues viz., the chemical and physical changes in E-water and its effect on biological activities. Chemical and physical composition analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry; physical conductance by a Wheatstone Bridge type conductivity meter; osmolarity by a vapor pressure osmometer; and, salt solubility profile of 10% sodium bicarbonate were determined. Furthermore, testing the effect of E-waters on human lymphocyte proliferation, mosquito larvae hatching and seed germination determined the functional role of solar radiation through specific spectrum/s of visible light on various biological processes. We found that water exposed to visible spectral emissions of sunlight had an altered elemental composition, electrical conductance, osmolarity and salt-solubility, as well as differences in bio-modulatory effects. A gradual increase in leaching of Boron from Eviolet to E-red was noted. E-indigo showed maximal increase in electrical conductance and maximal salt

  12. The immunological relationship between canine herpesvirus and four other herpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, A; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R; Durham, J; Thompson, H

    1988-07-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV) was compared with four other herpesviruses by several serological techniques. Cross-neutralization was demonstrated between CHV and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and pseudorabies virus. Non-neutralizing cross-reactions were found with these viruses and also with equine abortion virus and bovine mammillitis virus. The data suggest that CHV is immunologically more closely related to herpes simplex virus than to the other viruses used in this study.

  13. Immunological Considerations in In Utero Hematopoetic Stem Cell Transplantation (IUHCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ivonne Loewendorf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In utero hematopoetic Stem cell transplantation (IUHCT is an attractive approach and a potentially curative surgery for several congenical hematopoetic diseases. In practice, this application has succeeded only in the context of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorders. Here, we review potential immunological hurdles for the long-term establishment of chimerism and discuss relevant models and findings from both postnatal hematopoetic stem cell transplantation and IUHCT.

  14. Postpericardiotomy syndrome in pediatric heart transplant recipients. Immunologic characteristics.

    OpenAIRE

    Cabalka, A K; Rosenblatt, H M; Towbin, J A; Price, J K; Windsor, N T; Martin, A B; Louis, P T; Frazier, O H; Bricker, J T

    1995-01-01

    Clinical features of postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) occur in pediatric heart transplant recipients despite immunosuppression, which raises questions about the mechanism of PPS. We studied the clinical and immunologic characteristics of 15 pediatric heart transplant patients, ages 1.1 to 17.8 years (mean, 7.5 years); 7 had clinical evidence of PPS (PPS+), and 8 were without clinical features of PPS (PPS-). Indicators of PPS included fever, irritability, pericardial friction rub, leukocytosi...

  15. Immunological mechanisms in atopic dermatitis : clinical and experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tengvall Linder, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate immunological mechanisms in atopic dermatitis. Serum IgE levels are elevated in 80% of atopic dermatitis patients and CD4+ T cells and environmental allergens are known to be of importance in the pathogenesis of the disease. It was therefore of interest to further elucidate the role of these factors in atopic dermatitis. Cyclosporin A (CSA) was used as a tool for exploring the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, with emphasis on the...

  16. A role for Waldeyer's ring in immunological response to allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masieri, Simonetta; Trabattoni, Daria; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; De Luca, Maria Cristina; Dell'Albani, Ilaria; Leo, Gualtiero; Frati, Franco

    2014-02-01

    Adenoids, tubal tonsil, palatine tonsil, and lingual tonsil are immunological organs included in the Waldeyer's ring, the basic function of which is the antibody production to common environmental antigens. Adenoidal hypertrophy (AH) is a major medical issue in children, and adenoidectomy is still the most used treatment worldwide. The response of adenoids to allergens is a good model to evaluate their immunological function. This report assessed the immunological changes in adenoid tissues from children with allergic rhinitis (AR) undergoing sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Adenoid samples from 16 children (seven males, nine females, mean age 7.12 years) with AH and clinical indication to adenoidectomy were collected. Of them, five children were not allergic and 11 had house dust mite and grass pollen-induced AR. Among allergic children, in four AR was treated by antihistamines while in seven AR was treated by high-dose SLIT during 4-6 months. The evaluation addressed the T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th3 cells by performing a PCR array on mRNA extracted from adenoid samples. In non-allergic children, a typical Th1 pattern was found. SLIT induced a strong down-regulation of genes involved in Th2 and Th1 activation and function. In particular, in SLIT-treated allergic children IL-4, CCR2, CCR3, and PTGDR2 (Th2 related genes) and CD28, IL-2, and INHA (Th1 related genes) expression was reduced, compared with children treated with antihistamines. These preliminary findings warrant investigation in trials including larger numbers of patients, but indicate that hypertrophic adenoids of allergic children have the typical response to the specific allergen administered by SLIT. This should suggest that one should reconsider the immunological role of adenoids.

  17. Immunological monitoring of anticancer vaccines in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Chizuru; Aruga, Atsushi

    2013-08-01

    Therapeutic anticancer vaccines operate by eliciting or enhancing an immune response that specifically targets tumor-associated antigens. Although intense efforts have been made for developing clinically useful anticancer vaccines, only a few Phase III clinical trials testing this immunotherapeutic strategy have achieved their primary endpoint. Here, we report the results of a retrospective research aimed at clarifying the design of previously completed Phase II/III clinical trials testing therapeutic anticancer vaccines and at assessing the value of immunological monitoring in this setting. We identified 17 anticancer vaccines that have been investigated in the context of a completed Phase II/III clinical trial. The immune response of patients receiving anticancer vaccination was assessed for only 8 of these products (in 15 distinct studies) in the attempt to identify a correlation with clinical outcome. Of these studies, 13 were supported by a statistical correlation study (Log-rank test), and no less than 12 identified a positive correlation between vaccine-elicited immune responses and disease outcome. Six trials also performed a Cox proportional hazards analysis, invariably demonstrating that vaccine-elicited immune responses have a positive prognostic value. However, despite these positive results in the course of early clinical development, most therapeutic vaccines tested so far failed to provide any clinical benefit to cancer patients in Phase II/III studies. Our research indicates that evaluating the immunological profile of patients at enrollment might constitute a key approach often neglected in these studies. Such an immunological monitoring should be based not only on peripheral blood samples but also on bioptic specimens, whenever possible. The evaluation of the immunological profile of cancer patients enrolled in early clinical trials will allow for the identification of individuals who have the highest chances to benefit from anticancer vaccination

  18. Ecological immunology and genetic diversity of the endangered Mauritius parakeet

    OpenAIRE

    Tollington, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Studies of avian ecological immunology attempt to describe the biotic and abiotic factors which explain natural variation in immune function within and among free-living bird species. Understanding this variation and the trade-offs associated with maintaining appropriate immune defences and individual life history variables has important implications for the conservation of endangered species, many of which are characterised by small population size and reduced genetic diversity. Such species...

  19. The immunology of Zika Virus [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Culshaw; Juthathip Mongkolsapaya; Gavin Screaton

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was initially thought to cause only mild, self-limiting symptoms. However, recent outbreaks have been associated with the autoimmune disease Guillain-Barré syndrome and causally linked to a congenital malformation known as microcephaly. This has led to an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine. A comprehensive understanding of the immunology of ZIKV infection is required to aid in the design of such a vaccine. Whilst details of both innate and adaptive immune responses...

  20. Multiomics strategy in clinical immunology aiding unsolved antibody deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Abolhassani, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Clinical and immunological phenotyping of a cohort of consecutive dysgammaglobulinemic patients with unknown genetic defects underwent genomic (e.g. whole-exome sequencing) and other relative multiomics (e.g. transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics and immunomics) investigations after having been subjected to classical targeted sequencing. Exome sequencing analysis was performed on 126 PAD probands (55.5% male, 95.2% childhood onset) born to predominantly consanguineous...

  1. Non-inflammatory destructive periodontal disease: a clinical, microbiological, immunological and genetic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Repeke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis comprises a group of multifactorial diseases in which periodontopathogens accumulate in dental plaque and trigger host chronic inflammatory and immune responses against periodontal structures, which are determinant to the disease outcome. Although unusual cases of non-inflammatory destructive periodontal disease (NIDPD are described, their pathogenesis remains unknown. A unique NIDPD case was investigated by clinical, microbiological, immunological and genetic tools. The patient, a non-smoking dental surgeon with excessive oral hygiene practice, presented a generalized bone resorption and tooth mobility, but not gingival inflammation or occlusion problems. No hematological, immunological or endocrine alterations were found. No periodontopathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum and T. denticola or viruses (HCMV, EBV-1 and HSV-1 were detected, along with levels of IL-1β and TNF-a in GCF compatible with healthy tissues. Conversely ALP, ACP and RANKL GCF levels were similar to diseased periodontal sites. Genetic investigation demonstrated that the patient carried some SNPs, as well HLA-DR4 (*0404 and HLA-B27 alleles, considered risk factors for bone loss. Then, a less vigorous and diminished frequency of toothbrushing was recommended to the patient, resulting in the arrest of alveolar bone loss, associated with the return of ALP, ACP and RANKL in GCF to normality levels. In conclusion, the unusual case presented here is compatible with the previous description of NIDPD, and the results that a possible combination of excessive force and frequency of mechanical stimulation with a potentially bone loss prone genotype could result in the alveolar bone loss seen in NIDPD.

  2. A Window on the Study of Aversive Instrumental Learning: Strains, Performance, Neuroendocrine and Immunologic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cruz Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The avoidance response is present in pathological anxiety and interferes with normal daily functions. The aim of this article is to shed light on performance markers of active avoidance (AA using two different rat strains, Sprague-Dawley (SD and Wistar. Specifically, good and poor performers were evaluated regarding anxiety traits exhibited in the elevated plus maze (EPM and corticosterone levels and motor activity in the open field test. In addition, the plasma levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Interleukin-1Beta (IL-1beta, Nerve Growth Factor Beta (NGF-beta, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-alpha and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1 were compared in the good and poor performers to better understand the role of the immunologic system in aversive learning. Behavioral criteria were employed to identify subpopulations of SD and Wistar rats based on their behavioral scores during a two-way AA test. The animals were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and motor activity in the open-field test. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured at the end of the avoidance test. Cytokine levels of IL-6, IL-1beta, NGF-beta, TNF-alpha and CINC-1 were measured in the plasma of the Wistar rats. Sixty-six percent of the Wistar rats and 35% of the SD rats exhibited a poor performance. This feature was associated with a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in the EPM. The poor and good performers exhibited lower levels of corticosterone compared with the control animals, which suggests that training alters corticosterone levels, thereby leading to hypocortisolism, independent of the performance. The CINC-1 levels were increased in the poor performers, which reinforces the role of immunologic system activation in learning deficits. Our study provides a better understanding of the complex interactions that underlie neuroimmune consequences and their implications for performance.

  3. Immunologic progression of canine leishmaniosis following vertical transmission in United States dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Blake; Toepp, Angela; Schaut, Robert G; Esch, Kevin J; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Shimak, Raeann M; Petersen, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is caused by Leishmania infantum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, endemic in U.S. hunting dog populations. CanL has been found in dogs in 28 states and two Canadian provinces. Previous studies by our group, (Boggiatto et al., 2011), demonstrated that vertical transmission of Leishmania was the predominant means of transmission within U.S. dogs. Very little is known regarding how this alternative means of transmission, alters the long-term immunity and clinical presentation of leishmaniosis in dogs born to a positive bitch. This study follows the immunological progression of CanL in three pups after birth to an infected bitch. During the course of the study, these dogs were tested every six months over the course of six years. Both immunologic (IFN-γ, T cell proliferation, antibody production) and parasitological parameters (qPCR) of vertically-infected dogs were measured. Within the six years after birth to an L. infantum-infected, oligosymptomatic bitch, all dogs had at least one L. infantum PCR-positive test. Interestingly, despite living in the same location for their entire lives and being full siblings, these pups demonstrate three different disease progression patterns of L. infantum infection. One dog progressed to oligosymptomatic disease, maintaining a positive titer and had intermittent positive PCR results. One asymptomatic dog had positive serological titers and demonstrated a robust CD4(+) immune response to infection. The third dog had a negligible response to L. infantum antigen and was healthy. This work demonstrates the biologic variability associated with vertically-transmitted infection similar to the variety of presentations observed during vector-borne leishmaniosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunology in wild nonmodel rodents: an ecological context for studies of health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J A

    2015-05-01

    Transcriptomic methods are set to revolutionize the study of the immune system in naturally occurring nonmodel organisms. With this in mind, the present article focuses on ways in which the use of 'nonmodel' rodents (not the familiar laboratory species) can advance studies into the classical, but ever relevant, epidemiologic triad of immune defence, infectious disease and environment. For example, naturally occurring rodents are an interesting system in which to study the environmental stimuli that drive the development and homeostasis of the immune system and, by extension, to identify where these stimuli are altered in anthropogenic environments leading to the formation of immunopathological phenotypes. Measurement of immune expression may help define individual heterogeneity in infectious disease susceptibility and transmission and facilitate our understanding of infection dynamics and risk in the natural environment; furthermore, it may provide a means of surveillance that can filter individuals carrying previously unknown acute infections of potential ecological or zoonotic importance. Finally, the study of immunology in wild animals may reveal interactions within the immune system and between immunity and other organismal traits that are not observable under restricted laboratory conditions. Potentiating much of this is the possibility of combining gene expression profiles with analytical tools derived from ecology and systems biology to reverse engineer interaction networks between immune responses, other organismal traits and the environment (including symbiont exposures), revealing regulatory architecture. Such holistic studies promise to link ecology, epidemiology and immunology in natural systems in a unified approach that can illuminate important problems relevant to human health and animal welfare and production. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Immunological and toxicological risk assessment of e-cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the long-term toxicological and immunological effects of e-cigarette (e-cig aerosols remains elusive due to the relatively short existence of vaping. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of articles published in public databases and analysed the research evidence in order to provide critical information regarding e-cig safety. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (or e-cigs are an alternative to traditional cigarettes for the delivery of nicotine and are typically filled with glycerol or propylene glycol-based solutions known as e-liquids. Though present in lower quantities, e-cig aerosols are known to contain many of the harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke. However, due to the paucity of experimental data and contradictory evidence, it is difficult to draw conclusive outcomes regarding toxicological, immunological and clinical impacts of e-cig aerosols. Excessive vaping has been reported to induce inflammatory responses including mitogen-activated protein kinase, Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription and nuclear factor-κB signalling, similar to that induced by tobacco smoke. Based on recent evidence, prolonged exposure to some constituents of e-cig aerosols might result in respiratory complications such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and inflammation. Future studies are warranted that focus on establishing correlations between e-cig types, generations and e-liquid flavours and immunological and toxicological profiles to broaden our understanding about the effects of vaping.

  6. Immunological analysis of aerobic bioreactor bovine theileriosis vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Habibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the pilot production of aerobic bioreactor tropical theileriosis vaccine was optimized with the aim of immunological assays for further mass production.We have shown earlier the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH assay could be used for evaluating the immunity and memory cells against specific Theileria antigen in vaccinated animals. In addition, TNF-α is the principle cytokine in modulating the cytotoxic activity of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL. Immunological analysis of the vaccine was performed by using two cell mediated immunity (CMI in vitro and in vivo DTH test (Theilerin and TNF-α assay.The results of immune responses of susceptible immunized cattle by bioreactor vaccine in comparison with conventional flask vaccine revealed a significant stimulation of immune cells by transcription of high level of TNF-α and positive reaction against Theileria antigen in Theilerin skin test (DTH.The equal immunological results achieved in both above mentioned vaccines verified the satisfactory immunity for aerobic bioreactor theileriosis vaccine for advance mass vaccination in the field on a large-scale.

  7. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX (P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

  8. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young-Choon [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon 302-718 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young-Jeong [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju 660-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-{alpha} and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX (P<0.05). In vivo study on the tumor mass inhibition, gamma-irradiated DOX showed a considerable inhibition of tumor mass and this effect was statistically non-significant as compared with non-irradiated DOX. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be regarded as a potential method for reducing the immunological toxicity of DOX. Further researches is needed to reveal the formation and activity of radiolysis products by gamma irradiation.

  9. Immunologic Changes Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kronbichler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a histological pattern on renal biopsy caused by diverse mechanisms. In its primary form, a circulatory factor is implicated in disease onset and recurrence. The natural history of primary FSGS is unpredictable, since some patients are unresponsive towards immunosuppressive measures. Immunologic changes, leading to a proinflammatory or profibrotic milieu, have been implicated in disease progression, namely, glomerular scarring, eventually leading to end-stage renal disease. Among these, interleukin-1ß, tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1 have emerged as important factors. Translating these findings into clinical practice dampened the enthusiasm, since both TNF-α and TGF-ß1 blockade failed to achieve significant control of the disease. More recently, a role of the complement system has been demonstrated which in fact may be another attractive target in clinical practice. Rituximab, blocking CD20-bearing cells, demonstrated conflicting data regarding efficacy in FSGS. Finally, the T-cell costimulating molecule B7-1 (CD80 is implicated in development of proteinuria in general. Blockade of this target demonstrated significant benefits in a small cohort of resistant patients. Taken together, this review focuses on immunology of FSGS, attributable to either the disease or progression, and discusses novel therapeutic approaches aiming at targeting immunologic factors.

  10. Recommended Immunological Assays to Screen for Ricin-Containing Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Simon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, a toxin from the plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most toxic biological agents known. Due to its availability, toxicity, ease of production and absence of curative treatments, ricin has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as category B biological weapon and it is scheduled as a List 1 compound in the Chemical Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT was conducted to evaluate detection and quantification capabilities of 17 expert laboratories. In this exercise one goal was to analyse the laboratories’ capacity to detect and differentiate ricin and the less toxic, but highly homologuous protein R. communis agglutinin (RCA120. Six analytical strategies are presented in this paper based on immunological assays (four immunoenzymatic assays and two immunochromatographic tests. Using these immunological methods “dangerous” samples containing ricin and/or RCA120 were successfully identified. Based on different antibodies used the detection and quantification of ricin and RCA120 was successful. The ricin PT highlighted the performance of different immunological approaches that are exemplarily recommended for highly sensitive and precise quantification of ricin.

  11. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Nanci do

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of γ-rays from 60 Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  12. Antiradiation Vaccine: Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    . Material and Methods: The SRD molecules were isolated from Lymphatic Systems of animals that were irradiated with high doses of irradiation and had a clinical and laboratory picture of the Cerebral Acute Radia-tion Syndrome, Cardiovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome, Gastrointestinal Acute Radiation Syndrome, and Hematological Acute Radiation Syndrome. Our classification of radiation tox-ins includes 4 major groups: 1.SRD-1, Cerebrovascular neurotoxic Radiation Toxins (CvARS); 2.SRD-2, Cardiovascular Radiation Toxins(CrARS); 3.SRD-3,Gastrointestinal neurotoxic Ra-diation Toxins (GiARS); 4.SRD-4, Hematopietic Radiation Toxins (HpARS). Radiation tox-ins possess both toxic and immunological properties. But mechanisms of immune-toxicity by which radiation toxins stimulate development of the ARS are poorly understood. We have studied lethal toxicity of radiation toxins and an ability of specific antibodies to neutralize toxic activity of radiation toxins by specific antibodies. Results: The Blocking Antiradiation Antibodies induce an immunologically specific effect and inhibiting effects on radiation induced neuro-toxicity, vascular-toxicity, gastrointestinal toxcity, hematopoietic toxicity. Antiradiation Antibodies prevent the radiation induced cytolysis of selected groups of cells that are sensitive to radiation. The Blocking Antiradiation Antibodies are immunologically specific and can be produced by immunization with the different radiation toxins isolated from irradiated mam-mals. We propose that Specific Antiradiation Antibodies targeted against the radiation induced Toxins. Specific Antiradiation Antibodies neutralize toxic properties of radiation toxins. Anti-radiation Antibodies in different phases of the Acute Radiation Syndromes can compete with cytotoxic lymphocytes and prevent cytolysis mediated by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Conclusions: Immunological inhibition of cytotoxic and neurotoxic properties of Specific Radiation Toxins are significant factors for improving

  13. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioengenharia

    1996-07-01

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of gamma-rays from {sup 60} Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular weight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies, known to react with conformational epitopes in native crotoxin. Linear epitopes are also preserved, as demonstrated by peptide mapping of the aggregates. These same aggregates can function as antigens to raise antisera which cross-react and neutralize crotoxin. Compared with crotoxin, the aggregates appear to be less myotoxic, largely devoid of phospholipase activity and virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that the irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  14. Immunological detection of modified DNA bases in irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.H.H.; Tyreman, A.L.; Deeble, D.J.; Jones, M.; Smith, C.J.; Christiansen, J.F.; Beaumont, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    Ionising radiation is fatal to all known life forms given sufficient exposure in terms of dose and duration. This property has been used beneficially to sterilise a range of materials, particularly medical products where the removal of all contaminating organisms is deemed essential. Irradiation has long been used to sterilise food for consumption by certain categories of patients. The method is attractive because all potentially contaminating organisms can be removed by one simple treatment. Irradiation also slows down or stops certain processes such as sprouting. There are, however, disadvantages to irradiating food. It is not only DNA that is affected as alterations in lipid and protein components of the food may lead to a loss of quality. Although irradiation will kill bacteria it will probably not affect any toxin produced by those bacteria prior to treatment. Irradiation achieves its effects by damaging molecules, particularly nucleic acids. Consequently, if any of the damage to nucleic acids could be shown to by by a process unique to irradiation, and the products of this unique process could be measured, then there is the basis for a detection system. Furthermore, if the damage could be shown to be proportional to the dose of radiation received then the dose could also be quantified. Legislation, therefore, requires that assays be developed for use in different countries, those which totally ban irradiated food, those which require irradiated food to be labelled and those which have selective laws relating to specific foods and specific levels of irradiation. (author)

  15. Human genetics of infectious diseases: Unique insights into immunological redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    For almost any given human-tropic virus, bacterium, fungus, or parasite, the clinical outcome of primary infection is enormously variable, ranging from asymptomatic to lethal infection. This variability has long been thought to be largely determined by the germline genetics of the human host, and this is increasingly being demonstrated to be the case. The number and diversity of known inborn errors of immunity is continually increasing, and we focus here on autosomal and X-linked recessive traits underlying complete deficiencies of the encoded protein. Schematically, four types of infectious phenotype have been observed in individuals with such deficiencies, each providing information about the redundancy of the corresponding human gene, in terms of host defense in natural conditions. The lack of a protein can confer vulnerability to a broad range of microbes in most, if not all patients, through the disruption of a key immunological component. In such cases, the gene concerned is of low redundancy. However, the lack of a protein may also confer vulnerability to a narrow range of microbes, sometimes a single pathogen, and not necessarily in all patients. In such cases, the gene concerned is highly redundant. Conversely, the deficiency may be apparently neutral, conferring no detectable predisposition to infection in any individual. In such cases, the gene concerned is completely redundant. Finally, the lack of a protein may, paradoxically, be advantageous to the host, conferring resistance to one or more infections. In such cases, the gene is considered to display beneficial redundancy. These findings reflect the current state of evolution of humans and microbes, and should not be considered predictive of redundancy, or of a lack of redundancy, in the distant future. Nevertheless, these observations are of potential interest to present-day biologists testing immunological hypotheses experimentally and physicians managing patients with immunological or infectious

  16. Immunological mechanisms of sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Natalija; Bieber, T; Allam, J-P

    2011-06-01

    Within the last 100 years of allergen-specific immunotherapy, many clinical and scientific efforts have been made to establish alternative noninvasive allergen application strategies. Thus, intra-oral allergen delivery to the sublingual mucosa has been proven to be safe and effective. As a consequence, to date, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is widely accepted by most allergists as an alternative to conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy. Although immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated in detail, several studies in mice and humans within recent years provided deeper insights into local as well as systemic immunological features in response to SLIT. First of all, it was shown that the target organ, the oral mucosa, harbours a sophisticated immunological network as an important prerequisite for SLIT, which contains among other cells, local antigen-presenting cells (APC), such as dendritic cells (DCs), with a constitutive disposition to enforce tolerogenic mechanisms. Further on, basic research on local DCs within the oral mucosa gave rise to possible alternative strategies to deliver the allergens to other mucosal regions than sublingual tissue, such as the vestibulum oris. Moreover, characterization of oral DCs led to the identification of target structures for both allergens as well as adjuvants, which could be applied during SLIT. Altogether, SLIT came a long way since its very beginning in the last century and some, but not all questions about SLIT could be answered so far. However, recent research efforts as well as clinical approaches paved the way for another exciting 100 years of SLIT. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Systematic alteration induced in mice by ultraviolet light irradiation and its relationship to ultraviolet carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.S.; Kripke, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Chronic irradiation of mice with ultraviolet (uv) light produces a systemic alteration of an immunologic nature. This alteration is detectable in mice long before primary skin cancers induced by uv light begin to appear. The alteration results in the failure of uv-irradiated mice to reject highly antigenic, transplanted uv-induced tumors that are rejected by unirradiated syngeneic recipients. The immunologic aspect of this systemic alteration was demonstrated by transferring lymphoid cells from uv-irradiated mice to lethally x-irradiated recipients. These recipients were unable to resist a later challenge with a syngeneic uv-induced tumor, whereas those given lymphoid cells from normal donors were resistant to tumor growth. Parabiosis of normal mice with uv-irradiated mice, followed by tumor challenge of both parabionts with a uv-induced tumor, resulted in the growth of the challenge tumors in both uv-irradiated and unirradiated mice. Splenic lymphocytes from tumor-implanted uv-treated mice were not cytotoxic in vitro against uv-induced tumors, whereas under identical conditions cells from tumor-implanted, unirradiated mice were highly cytotoxic. Our findings suggest that repeated uv irradiation can circumvent an immunologic mechanism that might otherwise destroy nascent uv-induced primary tumors that are strongly antigenic

  18. Immunological processes related to cognitive impairment in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T

    2016-09-01

    In this review, the immune-to-brain communication pathways are briefly summarized, with emphasis on the impact of immune cells and their mediators on learning, memory and other cognitive domains. Further, the acute response of the central nervous system to peripherally generated inflammatory stimuli - termed as sickness behaviour - is described, and the central role of microglia in this immune-to-brain crosstalk in physiological and pathological conditions is highlighted. Finally, the role and consequences of immunological processes related to cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hematology and immunology studies - The second manned Skylab mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Johnson, P. C.; Ritzman, S. E.; Mengel, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    The hematologic and immunologic functions of the Skylab 3 astronauts were monitored during the preflight, inflight, and postflight phases of the mission. Plasma protein profiles showed high consistency in all phases. A transient suppression of lymphocyte responsiveness was observed postflight. A reduction in the circulating blood volume due to drops in both the plasma volume and red cell mass was found. The loss of red cell mass is most likely a suppressed erythrypoiesis. The functional integrity of the circulating red cells did not appear to be compromised in the course of flight.

  20. Serum Leptin Levels in Women with Immunological Recurrent Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Saeed; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh; Arefi, Soheila; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Idali, Farah; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Savadi Shiraz, Elham; Moshref Behzad, Narges; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recurrent abortion (RA) may be a consequence of aberrant expression of immunological factors during pregnancy. Although the relative importance of immunological factors in human reproduction remains controversial, substantial evidence suggests that autoantibodies contribute to reproductive failure. Production of such antibodies is under the control of cytokines; and leptin, besides its role in reproductive success, has a profound effect on directing the cytokine profile toward Th1 (cellular) pattern. Therefore, the present study was performed to assess serum leptin levels in women with immunological recurrent abortion. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 250 women who attended Avicenna Infertility Clinic with RA were screened for known causes of abortion from July to December 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Eighty-one patients with normal karyotypes and hormonal profile with normal ovaries and uterus and no signs of infection were categorized as patients with immunological (IRA, n = 39) or unexplained (URA, n = 42) recurrent abortion based on presence or absence of autoantibodies. After blood sampling, levels of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), lupus anti-coagulant antibody (LACAb), anti-phospholipid antibody (APA), anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACA), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and anti-thrombin III antibody (ATIIIAb) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Results In IRA group, 9 (23.1%), 24 (61.5%), 25(64.1%) and 1 (2.6%) women were above the normal cut-off point for ANA, TgAbs, TPOAbs and AT-III Abs, respectively. IRA patients had normal values of LACAbs, APA and ACA. With normal level of fasting blood sugar (FBS), IRA and URA groups had similar serum leptin levels (23.7 ± 13.2 ng/ml vs. 22.7 ± 12.5 ng/ml, respectively). Serum leptin concentrations showed a positive correlation with weight