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Sample records for altered immunological properties

  1. Structure alteration and immunological properties of {sup 60}Co gamma rays irradiated bothropstoxin-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Janaina A.; Yonamine, Camila Myiagui; Caproni, Priscila; Casare, Murilo; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: janabap@gmail.com; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de; Vieira, Daniel Perez; Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia

    2007-07-01

    About 20000 ophidic accidents are registered every year in Brazil. Serum therapy with equine antisera is the only efficient treatment. The venoms employed for immunization are fairly toxic and some venoms present low immunogenicity. Thus, the obtention of modified antigens with lower toxicity and preserved or improved immunogenicity would be useful. These toxins, when submitted to gamma radiation, in aqueous solution, present structural modifications. This occurs due to reactions with the radiolysis products of water. Some scavenger substances, such as NaNO{sub 3} and t-butanol, remove selectively the water radiolysis products. Ionizing radiation has proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venoms toxicity without affecting and even increasing their immunogenic properties. However, the immune mechanisms involved in recognition, processing and presentation of irradiated antigens are yet unclear. In the present work, we investigated the immunological behavior of bothropstoxin-I (Bthx-1), before and after irradiation, in the presence of selective scavengers. Isogenic mice were immunized with either the native or the irradiated toxin, either with or without scavengers. After three immunizations, serum samples were collected and the antibody titers and isotypes were determined by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay. The antigenic characterization of native and irradiated bothropstoxin-I was performed by Western blot. The detection of expression of murine cytokines (IFN-{gamma} and IL-10) was analyzed by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction). According to our data, irradiation process has promoted structural modifications in the toxin, characterized by higher molecular weight forms of the protein (aggregates and oligomers). Our data also indicate that irradiated toxins, alone or in the presence of NaNO{sub 3}, an aqueous electron scavenger, were immunogenic and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin. On the other

  2. Immunological alterations in hepatitis C virus infection.

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    Calvaruso, Vincenza; Craxì, Antonio

    2013-12-21

    A higher prevalence of immunological processes has recently been reported in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, focusing the attention of physicians and researchers on the close association between HCV and immune disorders. HCV lymphotropism represents the most important step in the pathogenesis of virus-related immunological diseases and experimental, virologic, and clinical evidence has demonstrated a trigger role for HCV both in systemic autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome, hemolytic anemia and severe thrombocytopenia, and in organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune hepatitis, thyroid disorders and diabetes. This review will outline the principal aspects of such HCV-induced immunological alterations, focusing on the prevalence of these less characterized HCV extrahepatic manifestations.

  3. The influence of iodine on the immunological properties of thyroglobulin and its immunological complexes.

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    Gardas, A

    1991-01-01

    Several papers described different immunological properties of thyroglobulin (Tg) after iodination. The influence of iodine-iodide solution on the immunological properties of hTg and its immunological complexes with autoantibodies (aAbs) were studied. Human Tg coated to polystyrene plates, incubated for 30 min with iodine-iodide solution at concentration from 1 to 200 microM at pH 9.0 lost its ability to bind aAbs. Preincubation with iodine (2 microM), decreased aAbs binding by 50%. Tg epitope inactivation induced by iodine depended on the buffer pH and the presence of carbonate ions. The binding of rabbit Tg-antibodies to iodine pretreated Tg was only slightly changed. Thyroglobulin preincubation with iodine solutions decreased aAbs binding from all tested sera (67) of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Excess of iodide (0.2 M KJ) or equimolar concentration of diiodotyrosine protects the Tg molecule from iodine induced inactivation. Immunological complexes of Tg with aAbs dissociate at low iodine concentrations. The results suggest that a product of iodine disproportionation reaction induces changes in the Tg molecule and Tg-aAb's complexes leading to complex dissociation or epitope inactivation.

  4. Altered immunological reactivity in HIV-1-exposed uninfected neonates.

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    Hygino, Joana; Lima, Patrícia G; Filho, Renato G S; Silva, Agostinho A L; Saramago, Carmen S M; Andrade, Regis M; Andrade, Daniel M; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Brindeiro, Rodrigo; Tanuri, Amilcar; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2008-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate immune events in HIV-1-exposed uninfected neonates born from mothers who control (G1) or not (G2) the plasma viral load, using unexposed neonates as controls. Cord blood from each neonate was collected, plasma and mononuclear cells were separated and the lymphoproliferation and cytokine pattern were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the in vitro lymphoproliferation induced by polyclonal activators was higher in the G2 neonates. Nevertheless, no cell culture responded to poll synthetic HIV-1 envelope peptides. The cytokine dosage in the plasma and supernatants of polyclonally-activated cultures demonstrated that, while IL-4 and IL-10 were the dominant cytokines produced in G1 and control groups, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were significantly higher in G2 neonates. Systemic levels of IL-10 observed among the G1 neonates were higher in those born from anti-retroviral treated mothers. In summary, our results indicate an altered immune responsiveness in neonates exposed in utero to HIV and support the role of maternal anti-retroviral treatment to attenuate it.

  5. Immunological alteration and changes of gut microbiota after dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration in mice.

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    Håkansson, Å; Tormo-Badia, N; Baridi, A; Xu, J; Molin, G; Hagslätt, M-L; Karlsson, C; Jeppsson, B; Cilio, C M; Ahrné, S

    2015-02-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. Administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to animals is a frequently used model to mimic human colitis. Deregulation of the immune response to the enteric microflora or pathogens as well as increased intestinal permeability have been proposed as disease-driving mechanisms. To enlarge the understanding of the pathogenesis, we have studied the effect of DSS on the immune system and gut microbiota in mice. Intestinal inflammation was verified through histological evaluation and myeloperoxidase activity. Immunological changes were assessed by flow cytometry in spleen, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes and through multiplex cytokine profiling. In addition, quantification of the total amount of bacteria on colonic mucosa as well as the total amount of lactobacilli, Akkermansia, Desulfovibrio and Enterobacteriaceae was performed by the use of quantitative PCR. Diversity and community structure were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) patterns, and principal component analysis was utilized on immunological and T-RFLP patterns. DSS-induced colitis show clinical and histological similarities to UC. The composition of the colonic microflora was profoundly changed and correlated with several alterations of the immune system. The results demonstrate a relationship between multiple immunological changes and alterations of the gut microbiota after DSS administration. These data highlight and improve the definition of the immunological basis of the disease and suggest a role for dysregulation of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of colitis.

  6. Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    3.1 Autoimmume disease 2006019 The study of inhibitory peptides on T cell activation in rheumatoid arthritis LI Xia(李霞) , Dept Rheumatol & Immunol, People’s Hosp, Peking Univ, Beijing 100044. Natl Med J China 2005;85(24) :1679 -1682. Objective:To study the inhibitory role of altered HA308 -317 peptides in T cell responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods :Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from 27 HLA -

  7. The role of psychoneuroendocrine factors on spaceflight-induced immunological alterations

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    Meehan, R.; Whitson, P.; Sams, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes previous in-flight infections and novel conditions of spaceflight that may suppress immune function. Granulocytosis, monocytosis, and lymphopenia are routinely observed following short duration orbital flights. Subtle changes within the monocyte and T cell populations can also be noted by flow cytometric analysis. The similarity between the immunological changes observed after spaceflight and other diverse environmental stressors suggest that most of these alterations may be neuroendocrine-mediated. Available data support the hypothesis that spaceflight and other environmental stressors modulate normal immune regulation via stress hormones, other than exclusively glucocorticoids. It will be essential to simultaneously collect in-flight endocrine, immunologic, and infectious illness data to determine the clinical significance of these results. Additional research that delineates the neuroendocrine mechanisms of stress-induced changes in normal immune regulation will allow clinicians in the future to initiate prophylactic immunomodulator therapy to restore immune competence altered by the stress of long-duration spaceflight and therefore reduce morbidity from infectious illness, autoimmune disease, or malignancy.

  8. INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN IMMUNOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS AND VIRAL LOAD IN ACUTE HEPATITIS B

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    A. A. Savchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A group of seventy-six patients with acute viral hepatitis B (HB was under study, in order to evaluate immunological parameters, and ability of blood mononuclear cells to produce cytokines, as dependent on individual viral loads. The immune parameters were less affected in cases of low viral load. Meanwhile, the immune profiles exhibited maximal alterations in the patients with medium and high viral loads. Most expressed changes of immune parameters are found in patients with moderate and high  virus load. Meanwhile, moderate  HB  viral  loads  are  associated  with  higher  functional  activity  of  B-cells  and  lower  NK  numbers, whereas high viral loads correlated with increased amounts of peripheral B cells and higher CD25+ lymphocyte levels. Increased background cytokine synthesis is revealed in mononuclear cells of the patients with acute HB, being, however, suppressed upon additional functional induction. An increased viral load is associated with decreased basal levels of TNFα synthesis. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 2-3, pp 181-188 

  9. Colon cancer and gene alterations: their immunological implications and suggestions for prognostic indices and improvements in biotherapy.

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    Contasta, Ida; Pellegrini, Patrizia; Berghella, Anna Maria; Del Beato, Tiziana; Adorno, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    Studies have shown that changes occur in c-Ki-ras, p53, and Bcl2 gene structure and function during the various stages of human colon carcinogenesis. Alterations of these genes are responsible for the establishment of a state of continuous stimulus for cell division and apoptotic inhibition at physiological and pharmacological levels. This paper focuses on the results of our research aimed at investigating how these gene alterations influence tumoral mechanisms on an immunological level and how immunological parameters can be used as prognostic markers for the passage of normal tissue to adenoma and adenoma to carcinoma. Overall, our data suggest that an alteration in the c-Ki-ras gene results in a switch to a suppressive type of immune response, determining an impairment of immune cell activation at both antigen- presenting-cell and T-cell levels. c-Ki-ras gene mutations, p53 deletions, and Bc12 expression, on the other hand, can be used as prognostic markers for the passage of normal tissue to adenoma and adenoma to carcinoma. The p53 oncogene does not appear to impair patients' immunological response further. In conclusion, an evaluation of c-Ki-ras, rather than p53 gene alterations, would seem to be more relevant in colon cancer prevention programs and biotherapy improvement.

  10. Allergenicity of bony and cartilaginous fish - molecular and immunological properties.

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    Stephen, J N; Sharp, M F; Ruethers, T; Taki, A; Campbell, D E; Lopata, A L

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to bony fish is common and probably increasing world-wide. The major heat-stable pan-fish allergen, parvalbumin (PV), has been identified and characterized for numerous fish species. In contrast, there are very few reports of allergic reactions to cartilaginous fish despite widespread consumption. The molecular basis for this seemingly low clinical cross-reactivity between these two fish groups has not been elucidated. PV consists of two distinct protein lineages, α and β. The α-lineage of this protein is predominant in muscle tissue of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), while β-PV is abundant in muscle tissue of bony fish (Osteichthyes). The low incidence of allergic reactions to ingested rays and sharks is likely due to the lack of molecular similarity, resulting in reduced immunological cross-reactivity between the two PV lineages. Structurally and physiologically, both protein lineages are very similar; however, the amino acid homology is very low with 47-54%. Furthermore, PV from ancient fish species such as the coelacanth demonstrates 62% sequence homology to leopard shark α-PV and 70% to carp β-PV. This indicates the extent of conservation of the PV isoforms lineages across millennia. This review highlights prevalence data on fish allergy and sensitization to fish, and details the molecular diversity of the two protein lineages of the major fish allergen PV among different fish groups, emphasizing the immunological and clinical differences in allergenicity.

  11. Adrenaline-induced immunological changes are altered in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kittner, JM; Jacobs, R; Pawlak, CR; Heijnen, CJ; Schedlowski, M; Schmidt, RE

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients the immunological changes induced by adrenaline are different from healthy controls (HC). Methods. Fifteen female RA patients and 14 HC were infused with 1 mug/kg adrenaline over 20 min. Blood was drawn before, immediately after

  12. Different degrees of malnutrition and immunological alterations according to the aetiology of cirrhosis: a prospective and sequential study

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    Carrilho Flair

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives In this work we investigated how immunological dysfunction and malnutrition interact in alcoholic and viral aetiologies of cirrhosis. Methods To investigate the matter, 77 cirrhotic patients divided in three aetiologies [Alcohol, HCV and Alcohol + HCV and 32 controls were prospectivelly and sequentially studied. Parameters of humoral immunity (Components 3 and 4 of seric complement and immunoglobulins A M, G and E and of cellular immunity (total leukocytes and lymphocytes in peripheral blood, T lymphocytes subpopulations, CD4+ and CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ ratio and intradermic tests of delayed hypersensitivity, as well as nutrititional parameters: anthropometric measures, serum albumin and transferrin were evaluated. Results Multiple statistical comparisons showed that IgM was higher in HCV group; IgG was significantly elevated in both HCV and Alcohol + HCV, whereas for the Alcohol group, IgE was found at higher titles. The analysis of T- lymphocytes subpopulations showed no aetiologic differences, but intradermic tests of delayed hypersensitivity did show greater frequency of anergy in the Alcohol group. For anthropometric parameters, the Alcohol +HCV group displayed the lowest triceps skinfold whereas creatinine – height index evaluation was more preserved in the HCV group. Body mass index, arm muscle area and arm fat area showed that differently from alcohol group, the HCV group was similar to control. Conclusion Significant differences were found among the main aetiologies of cirrhosis concerning immunological alterations and nutritional status: better nutrition and worse immunology for HCV and vice-versa for alcohol.

  13. Investigation of epididymal immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Zong-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Immunology is the study of the structure and function of the immune system. The immune system consists of an earlier-stage innate immunity and a later-stage adaptive immunity. The task of the immune system is to efficiently respond to non-self antigens and the invasion of pathogens, thereby protecting the host's homeostasis. This review article discusses the structure and function of the epididymis, including the composition of the epithelial cells of the epididymis and their relationship to the immune system, through the assessment of alterations in the immune cells of the epididymis. The review also shows the anti-inflammatory properties of rat epididymal defensin and the description of the blood-epididymis barrier, immune barrier, epididymitis and pathological mechanisms of infertility in males. Taken together, we see that the epididymis possesses a close link with immunology. Finally, this review discusses the future of studies involving epididymal immunology.

  14. Immunological Properties of Hepatitis B Core Antigen Fusion Proteins

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    Francis, Michael J.; Hastings, Gillian Z.; Brown, Alan L.; Grace, Ken G.; Rowlands, David J.; Brown, Fred; Clarke, Berwyn E.

    1990-04-01

    The immunogenicity of a 19 amino acid peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been shown to approach that of the inactivated virus from which it was derived after multimeric particulate presentation as an N-terminal fusion with hepatitis B core antigen. In this report we demonstrate that rhinovirus peptide-hepatitis B core antigen fusion proteins are 10-fold more immunogenic than peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and 100-fold more immunogenic than uncoupled peptide with an added helper T-cell epitope. The fusion proteins can be readily administered without adjuvant or with adjuvants acceptable for human and veterinary application and can elicit a response after nasal or oral dosing. The fusion proteins can also act as T-cell-independent antigens. These properties provide further support for their suitability as presentation systems for "foreign" epitopes in the development of vaccines.

  15. Gender-specific behavioral and immunological alterations in an animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

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    Schneider, Tomasz; Roman, Adam; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Schneider, Karolina; Przewłocki, Ryszard

    2008-07-01

    Autism is a severe behavioral disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotyped behaviors, with a four times higher incidence in boys than in girls. The core symptoms are frequently accompanied by a spectrum of neurobehavioral and immunological derangements, including: aberrant sensitivity to sensory stimulation, anxiety, and decreased cellular immune capacity. Recently, a new potential rodent model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA rats) has been proposed. In order to determine if gender has an influence on alterations observed in VPA rats, male and female rats have been evaluated in a battery of behavioral, immunological, and endocrinological tests. A plethora of aberrations has been found in male VPA rats: lower sensitivity to pain, increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity, higher anxiety, decreased level of social interaction, increased basal level of corticosterone, decreased weight of the thymus, decreased splenocytes proliferative response to concanavaline A, lower IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio, and increased production of NO by peritoneal macrophages. Female VPA rats exhibited only increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and decreased IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio. Sexual dimorphism characteristics for measured parameters have been observed in both groups of animals, except social interaction in VPA rats. Our results confirm existence of similarities between the observed pattern of aberrations in VPA rats and features of disturbed behavior and immune function in autistic patients, and suggest that they are gender-specific, which is intriguing in light of disproportion in boys to girls ratio in autism.

  16. Preparation of human hepatocellular carcinoma-targeted liposome microbubbles and their immunological properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Na Bian; Yun-Hua Gao; Kai-Bin Tan; Ping Liu; Gong-Jun Zeng; Xin Zhang; Zheng Liu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To prepare the human hepatocellular carcinoma.(HCC)-targeted liposome microbubbles and to investigate their immunological properties.METHODS: Human hepatocarcinoma specific monoclonal antibody HAb18 was attached to the surface of home-made liposome microbubbles by static attraction to prepare the targeted liposome microbubbles. The combination of HAb18 with liposome microbubbles was confirmed by the slide agglutination test and immunofluorescent assay. Their immunological activity was measured by ELISA. Rosette formation test, rosette formation blocking test and immunofluorescent assay were used to identify the specific binding of targeted liposome microbubbles to SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells, and cytotoxicity assay was used to detect their effect on human hepatocytes.RESULTS: The targeted liposome microbubbles were positive in the slide agglutination test and immunofluorescent assay. ELISA indicated that the immunological activity of HAb18 on the liposome microbubbles was similar to that of free HAb18. SMMC-7721 cells were surrounded by the targeting liposome microbubbles to form rosettes, while the control SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells were not. Proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells and normal human hepatocytes was not influenced by the targeted liposome microbubbles.CONCLUSION: The targeted liposome microbubbles with a high specific biological activity have been successfully prepared, which specifically bind to human hepatocarcinoma cells, and are non-cytotoxic to hepatocytes. These results indicate that the liposome microbubbles can be used as a HCC-targeted ultrasound contrast agent that may enhance ultrasound images and thus improve the diagnosis of HCC,especially at the early stage.

  17. Psychoneuroendocrine immunology: perception of stress can alter body temperature and natural killer cell activity.

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    Hiramoto, R N; Solvason, H B; Hsueh, C M; Rogers, C F; Demissie, S; Hiramoto, N S; Gauthier, D K; Lorden, J F; Ghanta, V K

    1999-01-01

    Psychoimmunology has been credited with using the mind as a way to alter immunity. The problem with this concept is that many of the current psychoimmunology techniques in use are aimed at alleviating stress effects on the immune system rather than at direct augmentation of immunity by the brain. Studies in animals provide a model that permits us to approach the difficulties associated with gaining an understanding of the CNS-immune system connection. A particular advantage of using animals over humans is that psychological and social contributions play a less prominent role for animals than for human subjects, since the animals are all inbred and reared under identical controlled conditions. If the insightful information provided by animal studies is correct, then psychotherapy for the treatment of diseases might be made more effective if some aspect of this knowledge is included in the design of the treatment. We emphasize conditioning as a regimen and an acceptable way to train the brain to remember an output pathway to raise immunity. We propose that a specific drug or perception (mild stress, represented by rotation, total body heating or handling) could substitute and kindle the same output pathway without the need for conditioning. If this view is correct, then instead of using conditioning, it may be possible to use an antigen to activate desired immune cells, and substitute a drug or an external environmental sensory stimulus (perception) to energize the output pathway to these cells. Alternatively, monitoring alterations of body temperature in response to a drug or perception might allow us to follow how effectively the brain is performing in altering immunity. Studies with animals suggest that there are alternative ways to use the mind to raise natural or acquired immunity in man.

  18. Protective effect of Labisia pumila on stress-induced behavioral, biochemical, and immunological alterations.

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    Kour, Kiranjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Chandan, Bal Krishan; Koul, Surrinder; Sangwan, Payare Lal; Bani, Sarang

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antistress potential of LABISIA PUMILA aqueous extract (LPPM/A003) using a battery of tests widely employed in different stressful situations. Pretreatment of experimental animals with LPPM/A003 caused an increase in the swimming endurance and hypoxia time and also showed the recovery of physical stress-induced depletion of neuromuscular coordination and scopolamine induced memory deficit. LPPM/A003 at graded doses reversed the chronic restraint stress (RST), induced depletion of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T lymphocytes, NK cell population, and corresponding cytokines expression besides downregulating the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone, a major stress hormone. In addition, LPPM/A003 reversed the chronic stress-induced increase in adrenal gland weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LP) levels and augmented the RST induced decrease in hepatic glutathione (GSH), thymus and spleen weight. Thus, we conclude that LPPM/A003 has the ability to reverse the alterations produced by various stressful stimuli and therefore restores homeostasis.

  19. Stabilization of the dimeric birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 impacts its immunological properties.

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    Kofler, Stefan; Ackaert, Chloé; Samonig, Martin; Asam, Claudia; Briza, Peter; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta; Cabrele, Chiara; Ferreira, Fatima; Duschl, Albert; Huber, Christian; Brandstetter, Hans

    2014-01-03

    Many allergens share several biophysical characteristics, including the capability to undergo oligomerization. The dimerization mechanism in Bet v 1 and its allergenic properties are so far poorly understood. Here, we report crystal structures of dimeric Bet v 1, revealing a noncanonical incorporation of cysteine at position 5 instead of genetically encoded tyrosine. Cysteine polysulfide bridging stabilized different dimeric assemblies, depending on the polysulfide linker length. These dimers represent quaternary arrangements that are frequently observed in related proteins, reflecting their prevalence in unmodified Bet v 1. These conclusions were corroborated by characteristic immunologic properties of monomeric and dimeric allergen variants. Hereby, residue 5 could be identified as an allergenic hot spot in Bet v 1. The presented results refine fundamental principles in protein chemistry and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity.

  20. Altered Circulating Levels of Serotonin and Immunological Changes in Laying Hens Divergently Selected for Feather Pecking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Kjaer, Jørgen B.; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in immunological parameters as well as changes with respect to plasma levels of serotonin and tryptophan in lines selected for and against feather pecking (FP) behavior [high FP (HP) line and low FP (LP) line] for 5 generations. The hens from...

  1. Antibiotic treatment of pregnant non-obese diabetic mice leads to altered gut microbiota and intestinal immunological changes in the offspring.

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    Tormo-Badia, N; Håkansson, Å; Vasudevan, K; Molin, G; Ahrné, S; Cilio, C M

    2014-10-01

    The intestinal microbiota is important for tolerance induction through mucosal immunological responses. The composition of the gut microbiota of an infant is affected by environmental factors such as diet, disease and antibiotic treatment. However, already in utero, these environmental factors can affect the immunological development of the foetus and influence the future gut microbiota of the infant. To investigate the effects of antibiotic treatment of pregnant mothers on the offspring's gut microbiome and diabetes development, we treated non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with a cocktail of antibiotics during gestation and the composition of the gut microbiota, diabetes incidence and major gut-related T lymphocyte populations were investigated in the offspring. We observed a persistent reduction in the general diversity of the gut microbiota in the offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation compared with offspring from control mothers. In addition, by clustering the present bacterial taxa with principal component analysis, we found a differential clustering of gut microbiota in the offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation compared with offspring from control mothers. Offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation also showed some immunological alterations in the gut immune system, which could be related to the diversity of the gut microbiome and influence modulation of diabetes development at 20 weeks. Our data point out maternal derangement of the intestinal microbiota as a potential environmental risk factor for T1D development.

  2. The M Protein of SARS-CoV: Basic Structural and Immunological Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongwu Hu; Jianping Shi; Xiangjun Tian; Feng Jiang; Xiaoqian Zhao; Jun Wang; Siqi Liu; Changqing Zeng; Jian Wang; Huanming Yang; Jie Wen; Lin Tang; Haijun Zhang; Xiaowei Zhang; Yan Li; Jing Wang; Yujun Han; Guoqing Li

    2003-01-01

    We studied structural and immunological properties of the SARS-CoV M (mem-brane) protein, based on comparative analyses of sequence features, phylogeneticinvestigation, and experimental results. The M protein is predicted to contain atriple-spanning transmembrane (TM) region, a single N-glycosylation site near itsN-terminus that is in the exterior of the virion, and a long C-terminal region inthe interior. The M protein harbors a higher substitution rate (0.6% correlated toits size) among viral open reading frames (ORFs) from published data. The foursubstitutions detected in the M protein, which cause non-synonymous changes,can be classified into three types. One of them results in changes of pI (isoelectricpoint) and charge, affecting antigenicity. The second changes hydrophobicity of theTM region, and the third one relates to hydrophilicity of the interior structure.Phylogenetic tree building based on the variations of the M protein appears tosupport the non-human origin of SARS-CoV. To investigate its immunogenicity,we synthesized eight oligopeptides covering 69.2% of the entire ORF and screenedthem by using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) with sera from SARSpatients. The results confirmed our predictions on antigenic sites.

  3. Perfluorocarbon particle size influences magnetic resonance signal and immunological properties of dendritic cells.

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    Helmar Waiczies

    Full Text Available The development of cellular tracking by fluorine ((19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has introduced a number of advantages for following immune cell therapies in vivo. These include improved signal selectivity and a possibility to correlate cells labeled with fluorine-rich particles with conventional anatomic proton ((1H imaging. While the optimization of the cellular labeling method is clearly important, the impact of labeling on cellular dynamics should be kept in mind. We show by (19F MR spectroscopy (MRS that the efficiency in labeling cells of the murine immune system (dendritic cells by perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether (PFCE particles increases with increasing particle size (560>365>245>130 nm. Dendritic cells (DC are professional antigen presenting cells and with respect to impact of PFCE particles on DC function, we observed that markers of maturation for these cells (CD80, CD86 were also significantly elevated following labeling with larger PFCE particles (560 nm. When labeled with these larger particles that also gave an optimal signal in MRS, DC presented whole antigen more robustly to CD8+ T cells than control cells. Our data suggest that increasing particle size is one important feature for optimizing cell labeling by PFCE particles, but may also present possible pitfalls such as alteration of the immunological status of these cells. Therefore depending on the clinical scenario in which the (19F-labeled cellular vaccines will be applied (cancer, autoimmune disease, transplantation, it will be interesting to monitor the fate of these cells in vivo in the relevant preclinical mouse models.

  4. Electrophoretic and immunological properties of folate-binding protein isolated from bovine milk

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    Iwai, Kazuo; Tani, Masako; Fushiki, Tohru (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1983-07-01

    Changes of the folate-binding protein (FBP) concentration in bovine milk after parturition were investigated. The FBP was highly purified from mature milk by affinity chromatography. The purified FBP showed a single protein band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was immunologically homogenous in double immunodiffusion. However, in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the FBP was separated into several spots in isoelectric focusing in the first dimension, and each spot also showed two molecular weights in SDS-gel electrophoresis in the second dimension. But these FBP molecules were immunologically identical with each other. The neuraminidase treatment obviously diminished the number of isoelectric points of the FBP. Thus, the variety of FBP molecules was at least partially due to the variability of the sialic acid content in the carbohydrate moieties. Moreover, the milk FBP showed species-specificity among mammals immunologically as well as physicochemically.

  5. Variable alterations of the microbiota, without metabolic or immunological change, following faecal microbiota transplantation in patients with chronic pouchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, J; Walker, A W; Li, J V; Al-Hassi, H O; Ronde, E; English, N R; Mann, E R; Bernardo, D; McLaughlin, S D; Parkhill, J; Ciclitira, P J; Clark, S K; Knight, S C; Hart, A L

    2015-08-12

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, where efficacy correlates with changes in microbiota diversity and composition. The effects of FMT on recipient microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) remain unclear. We assessed the effects of FMT on microbiota composition and function, mucosal immune response, and clinical outcome in patients with chronic pouchitis. Eight patients with chronic pouchitis (current PDAI ≥7) were treated with FMT via nasogastric administration. Clinical activity was assessed before and four weeks following FMT. Faecal coliform antibiotic sensitivities were analysed, and changes in pouch faecal and mucosal microbiota assessed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Lamina propria dendritic cell phenotype and cytokine profiles were assessed by flow cytometric analysis and multiplex assay. Following FMT, there were variable shifts in faecal and mucosal microbiota composition and, in some patients, changes in proportional abundance of species suggestive of a "healthier" pouch microbiota. However, there were no significant FMT-induced metabolic or immunological changes, or beneficial clinical response. Given the lack of clinical response following FMT via a single nasogastric administration our results suggest that FMT/bacteriotherapy for pouchitis patients requires further optimisation.

  6. Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukari, Ammar; Nagasaka, Misako; Al-Hadidi, Ameer; Lum, Lawrence G

    2016-11-01

    Hanahan and Weinberg described six distinct biological properties of cancer cells that enable tumor growth and metastasis. These properties were referred to as the traditional hallmarks of cancer. Recent discoveries further elucidated hallmarks including evasion of immune destruction by tumor cells that disrupt anticancer response pathways. This review discusses cancer immunology and new treatment strategies aimed at restoration of antitumor immune responses.

  7. Physical properties of ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica as immunological adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano-Neto, F.; Matos, J. R.; Cides da Silva, L. C.; Carvalho, L. V.; Scaramuzzi, K.; Sant'Anna, O. A.; Oliveira, C. P.; Fantini, M. C. A.

    2014-10-01

    This work reports a detailed analysis of the ordered mesoporous SBA-15 silica synthesis procedure that provides a matrix with mean pore diameter around 10 nm. The encapsulation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by four different methods allowed the determination of the best imbibition condition, which is keeping the mixture under rest and solvent evaporation. Simulation of the in situ SAXS scattered intensity of the BSA release in potassium buffer solution, gastrointestinal fluids revealed a slow evolution of BSA content, independent of the media. Proton induced x-ray emission results obtained in calcined mouse organs revealed that silica is only present in the spleen after 35 days and is completely eliminated from all mouse organs after 10 weeks. Biological studies showed that Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 is an effective adjuvant when compared to the traditional Al(OH)3, and is non-toxic to mice, rats, dogs and even cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. Recent studies showed that the immunological response is improved by enhancing the inflammatory response and the recruitment of immune competent cells to the site of injection as by the oral route and, most importantly, by increasing the number of phagocytes of a particulate antigen by antigen presenting cells. This research is under the scope of the International Patent WO 07030901, IN248654,ZA2008/02277, KR 1089400, MX297263, JP5091863, CN101287491B.

  8. Cosmos-1989 immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The number of flight experiments has been small, and the full breadth of immunological alterations occurring after space flight remains to be established. Among the major effects on immune responses after space flight that have been reported are: alterations in lymphocyte blastogenesis and natural killer cell activity, alterations in production of cytokines, changes in leukocyte sub-population distribution, and decreases in the ability in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors. Changes have been reported in immunological parameters of both humans and rodents. The significance of these alterations in relation to resistance to infection remains to be established. The current study involved a determination of the effects of flight on Cosmos mission 2044 on leukocyte subset distribution and the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factor-GM. A parallel study with antiorthostatic suspension was also carried out. The study involved repetition and expansion of studies carried out on Cosmos 1887.

  9. Altered plasma fibrin clot properties in essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, Rafał; Gacka, Małgorzata; Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, Małgorzata; Jakobsche-Policht, Urszula; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Adamiec, Rajmund; Undas, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    Patients with increased thromboembolic risk tend to form denser fibrin clots which are relatively resistant to lysis. We sought to investigate whether essential thrombocythemia (ET) is associated with altered fibrin clot properties in plasma. Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot permeability coefficient (Ks), turbidimetry and clot lysis time (CLT) were measured in 43 consecutive patients with ET (platelet count from 245 to 991 × 10(3)/µL) and 50 control subjects matched for age, sex and comorbidities. Fibrinolysis proteins and inhibitors together with platelet activation markers were determined. Reduced Ks (-38%, p Ks inversely correlated with fibrinogen, PF4 and C-reactive protein. CLT positively correlated only with PAI-1. Patients with ET display prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype including impaired fibrinolysis, which represents a new prothrombotic mechanism in this disease.

  10. Blood: Tests Used to Assess the Physiological and Immunological Properties of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. G.; Tansey, E. A.; Johnson, C. D.; Roe, S. M.; Montgomery, L. E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of blood and the relative ease of access to which it can be retrieved make it an ideal source to gauge different aspects of homeostasis within an individual, form an accurate diagnosis, and formulate an appropriate treatment regime. Tests used to determine blood parameters such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin…

  11. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  12. Harnessing the immunological properties of stem cells as a therapeutic option for diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addio, Francesca; Trevisani, Alessio; Ben Nasr, Moufida; Bassi, Roberto; El Essawy, Basset; Abdi, Reza; Secchi, Antonio; Fiorina, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading and possibly the most devastating complication of diabetes, with a prevalence ranging from 25 to 40 % in diabetic individuals, and as such represents an important challenge for public health worldwide. As a major cause of end-stage renal disease, diabetic nephropathy also accounts for a large proportion of deaths in diabetic individuals. To date, therapeutic options for overt diabetic nephropathy include medical interventions to reduce blood glucose levels and to control blood pressure and proteinuria. Recent evidence suggests a strong role for inflammation in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Various immune cells, cytokines and chemokines have been implicated in the onset of diabetic nephropathy, while immune-related transcription factors and adhesion molecules have been correlated with the establishment of a renal proinflammatory microenvironment. Both inflammation and immune activation may promote severe distress in the kidney, with subsequent increased local fibrosis, ultimately leading to the development of end-stage renal disease. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells capable of regenerating virtually any organ or tissue and bearing important immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Due to the aforementioned considerations, significant interest has been ignited with regard to the use of stem cells as novel therapeutics for diabetic nephropathy. Here, we will be examining in detail how anti-inflammatory properties of different populations of stem cells may offer novel therapy for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  13. Oxidative stress alters physiological and morphological neuronal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Sonia M; Joe, Mary; Alshuaib, Waleed B

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the effects of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress on the delayed-rectifier current (IK(DR)), neuronal physiological and morphological properties. Measurements were obtained from hippocampal CA1 neurons in control solution and from the same neurons after exposure to oxidative stress (short- and long-term H(2)O(2) external applications at 0.1, 1, and 10 mM). With short-term (6 min) H(2)O(2) (1 mM) treatment, IK(DR) measured in the H(2)O(2)-containing solution (778 +/- 23 pA, n=20), was smaller than that measured in the control Ca(2+)-free Hepes solution (1,112 +/- 38 pA, n=20). Coenzyme Q(10) (0.1 mM) pretreatment prevented the H(2)O(2)-induced inhibition of IK(DR). With long-term (40, 80 min) H(2)O(2) (0.1, 10 mM) treatment, the neuron lost its distinctive shape (rounded up) and the neurite almost disappeared. These results suggest that oxidative stress, which inhibits IK(DR), can alter neural activity. The morphological changes caused by H(2)O(2) support the idea that oxidative stress causes intracellular damage and compromises neural function.

  14. Chromophore Deprotonation State Alters the Optical Properties of Blue Chromoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Chromoproteins (CPs have unique colors and can be used in biological applications. In this work, a novel blue CP with a maximum absorption peak (λmax at 608 nm was identified from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla gigantea (sgBP. In vivo expression of sgBP in zebrafish would change the appearance of the fishes to have a blue color, indicating the potential biomarker function. To enhance the color properties, the crystal structure of sgBP at 2.25 Å resolution was determined to allow structure-based protein engineering. Among the mutations conducted in the Gln-Tyr-Gly chromophore and chromophore environment, a S157C mutation shifted the λmax to 604 nm with an extinction coefficient (ε of 58,029 M-1·cm-1 and darkened the blue color expression. The S157C mutation in the sgBP chromophore environment could affect the color expression by altering the deprotonation state of the phenolic group in the chromophore. Our results provide a structural basis for the blue color enhancement of the biomarker development.

  15. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  16. The immunologic revolution: photoimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Stephen E; Byrne, Scott N

    2012-03-01

    UV radiation targets the skin and is a primary cause of skin cancer (both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer). Exposure to UV radiation also suppresses the immune response, and UV-induced immune suppression is a major risk factor for skin cancer induction. The efforts of dermatologists and cancer biologists to understand how UV radiation exposure suppresses the immune response and contributes to skin cancer induction led to the development of the subdiscipline we call photoimmunology. Advances in photoimmunology have generally paralleled advances in immunology. However, there are a number of examples in which investigations into the mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression reshaped our understanding of basic immunological concepts. Unconventional immune regulatory roles for Langerhans cells, mast cells, and natural killer T (NKT) cells, as well as the immune-suppressive function of lipid mediators of inflammation and alarmins, are just some examples of how advances in immunodermatology have altered our understanding of basic immunology. In this anniversary issue celebrating 75 years of cutaneous science, we provide examples of how concepts that grew out of efforts by immunologists and dermatologists to understand immune regulation by UV radiation affected immunology in general.

  17. Primary identification, biochemical characterization, and immunologic properties of the allergenic pollen cyclophilin cat R 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debajyoti; Mueller, Geoffrey A; Schramm, Gabriele; Edwards, Lori L; Petersen, Arnd; London, Robert E; Haas, Helmut; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2014-08-01

    Cyclophilin (Cyp) allergens are considered pan-allergens due to frequently reported cross-reactivity. In addition to well studied fungal Cyps, a number of plant Cyps were identified as allergens (e.g. Bet v 7 from birch pollen, Cat r 1 from periwinkle pollen). However, there are conflicting data regarding their antigenic/allergenic cross-reactivity, with no plant Cyp allergen structures available for comparison. Because amino acid residues are fairly conserved between plant and fungal Cyps, it is particularly interesting to check whether they can cross-react. Cat r 1 was identified by immunoblotting using allergic patients' sera followed by N-terminal sequencing. Cat r 1 (∼ 91% sequence identity to Bet v 7) was cloned from a cDNA library and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant Cat r 1 was utilized to confirm peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerase (PPIase) activity by a PPIase assay and the allergenic property by an IgE-specific immunoblotting and rat basophil leukemia cell (RBL-SX38) mediator release assay. Inhibition-ELISA showed cross-reactive binding of serum IgE from Cat r 1-allergic individuals to fungal allergenic Cyps Asp f 11 and Mala s 6. The molecular structure of Cat r 1 was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The antigenic surface was examined in relation to its plant, animal, and fungal homologues. The structure revealed a typical cyclophilin fold consisting of a compact β-barrel made up of seven anti-parallel β-strands along with two surrounding α-helices. This is the first structure of an allergenic plant Cyp revealing high conservation of the antigenic surface particularly near the PPIase active site, which supports the pronounced cross-reactivity among Cyps from various sources.

  18. Computer immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephanie; Beauchemin, Catherine

    2007-04-01

    This review describes a body of work on computational immune systems that behave analogously to the natural immune system. These artificial immune systems (AIS) simulate the behavior of the natural immune system and in some cases have been used to solve practical engineering problems such as computer security. AIS have several strengths that can complement wet lab immunology. It is easier to conduct simulation experiments and to vary experimental conditions, for example, to rule out hypotheses; it is easier to isolate a single mechanism to test hypotheses about how it functions; agent-based models of the immune system can integrate data from several different experiments into a single in silico experimental system.

  19. Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity: the adverse consequences of altered membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, B P; Briggs, J P; Schnermann, J

    1995-08-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) has been in clinical use for more than 30 yr but has remained the most effective drug for treatment of serious fungal infections. Its use has increased in recent years, as the result of increases in aggressive intensive care support and increased numbers of immunocompromised patients. Nephrotoxic manifestations are common, and this is the major factor limiting the clinical use of the drug. A number of recent studies have contributed to a better understanding of the mechanism by which AmB exerts its nephrotoxic effect. AmB alters cell membrane permeability and probably as a consequence alters tubular and vascular smooth muscle cell function, leading to various tubular transport defects and vasoconstriction. Decreased RBF appears to play a major role in AmB-induced reduction GFR, and recurrent ischemia may be the basis of permanent structural nephrotoxic effects. Salt loading is the only measure proven by controlled prospective study to ameliorate AmB nephrotoxicity in humans. Liposomal AmB and the formulation of an emulsion of AmB in lipid may provide a protective effect based on altering the affinity of AmB for mammalian cell membranes, while preserving high efficacy against fungal cells. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these new AmB formulations.

  20. Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellich, Aziz; Negroni, Elisa; Decostre, Valérie; Demoule, Alexandre; Coirault, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies (MDs) have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal MDs and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function. PMID:25352808

  1. Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellich, Aziz; Negroni, Elisa; Decostre, Valérie; Demoule, Alexandre; Coirault, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca(2+) through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies (MDs) have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal MDs and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function.

  2. Altered cross-bridge properties in skeletal muscle dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz eGuellich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Force and motion generated by skeletal muscle ultimately depends on the cyclical interaction of actin with myosin. This mechanical process is regulated by intracellular Ca2+ through the thin filament-associated regulatory proteins i.e.; troponins and tropomyosin. Muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic affections characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of loss of muscle tissue which directly reduces the number of potential myosin cross-bridges involved in force production. Mutations in genes responsible for skeletal muscle dystrophies have been shown to modify the function of contractile proteins and cross-bridge interactions. Altered gene expression or RNA splicing or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins such as those related to oxidative stress, may affect cross-bridge function by modifying key proteins of the excitation-contraction coupling. Micro-architectural change in myofilament is another mechanism of altered cross-bridge performance. In this review, we provide an overview about changes in cross-bridge performance in skeletal muscle dystrophies and discuss their ultimate impacts on striated muscle function.

  3. Elevation alters ecosystem properties across temperate treelines globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Jordan R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Classen, Aimée T.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Clément, Jean-Christophe; Fajardo, Alex; Lavorel, Sandra; Sundqvist, Maja K.; Bahn, Michael; Chisholm, Chelsea; Cieraad, Ellen; Gedalof, Ze’Ev; Grigulis, Karl; Kudo, Gaku; Oberski, Daniel L.; Wardle, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is a primary driver of the distribution of biodiversity as well as of ecosystem boundaries. Declining temperature with increasing elevation in montane systems has long been recognized as a major factor shaping plant community biodiversity, metabolic processes, and ecosystem dynamics. Elevational gradients, as thermoclines, also enable prediction of long-term ecological responses to climate warming. One of the most striking manifestations of increasing elevation is the abrupt transitions from forest to treeless alpine tundra. However, whether there are globally consistent above- and belowground responses to these transitions remains an open question. To disentangle the direct and indirect effects of temperature on ecosystem properties, here we evaluate replicate treeline ecotones in seven temperate regions of the world. We find that declining temperatures with increasing elevation did not affect tree leaf nutrient concentrations, but did reduce ground-layer community-weighted plant nitrogen, leading to the strong stoichiometric convergence of ground-layer plant community nitrogen to phosphorus ratios across all regions. Further, elevation-driven changes in plant nutrients were associated with changes in soil organic matter content and quality (carbon to nitrogen ratios) and microbial properties. Combined, our identification of direct and indirect temperature controls over plant communities and soil properties in seven contrasting regions suggests that future warming may disrupt the functional properties of montane ecosystems, particularly where plant community reorganization outpaces treeline advance.

  4. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, Susan C; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-02-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature.

  5. Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh L. Thangapazham

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices.

  6. Peritoneal culture alters Streptococcus pneumoniae protein profiles and virulence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, C. J.; Janssen, R.; Robb, C. W.; Watson, D. A.; Niesel, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    We have examined the properties of Streptococcus pneumoniae cultured in the murine peritoneal cavity and compared its virulence-associated characteristics to those of cultures grown in vitro. Analysis of mRNA levels for specific virulence factors demonstrated a 2.8-fold increase in ply expression and a 2.2-fold increase in capA3 expression during murine peritoneal culture (MPC). Two-dimensional gels and immunoblots using convalescent-phase patient sera and murine sera revealed distinct differences in protein production in vivo (MPC). MPC-grown pneumococci adhered to A549 epithelial cell lines at levels 10-fold greater than those cultured in vitro.

  7. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ševčíková, Klára, E-mail: klarak.sevcikova@seznam.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); NIMS Beamline Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nehasil, Václav, E-mail: nehasil@mbox.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vorokhta, Mykhailo, E-mail: vorohtam@gmail.com [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Haviar, Stanislav, E-mail: stanislav.haviar@gmail.com [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Matolín, Vladimír, E-mail: matolin@mbox.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce{sup 4+} and Ce{sup 3+} and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh{sup 3+} and Rh{sup n+}. We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties.

  8. Resveratrol: preventing properties against vascular alterations and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Dominique; Jannin, Brigitte; Latruffe, Norbert

    2005-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in developed countries where the common pathological substrate underlying this process is atherosclerosis. Several new concepts have emerged in relation to mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of the vascular diseases and associated inflammatory effects. Recently, potential antioxidants (vitamin E, polyphenols) have received much attention as potential anti-atherosclerotic agents. Among the polyphenols with health benefic properties, resveratrol, a phytoalexin of grape, seem to be a good candidate protecting the vascular walls from oxidation, inflammation, platelet aggregation, and thrombus formation. In this review, we focus on the mechanism of resveratrol cardiovascular benefic effects. We analyze, in relation with the different steps of atherosclerotic process, the resveratrol properties at multiple levels, such as cellular signaling, enzymatic pathways, apoptosis, and gene expression. We show and discuss the relationship with reactive oxygen species, regulation of pro-inflammatory genes including cycloxygenases and cytokines in molecular inflammatory and aging processes, and how the regulation of these activites by resveratrol can lead to a prevention of vascular diseases.

  9. Role and properties of the gel formed during nuclear glass alteration: importance of gel formation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, S.; Ribet, I.; Couillard, M.

    2001-09-01

    A French SON 68 nuclear glass sample was experimentally altered to assess the mechanisms limiting the glass alteration kinetics, especially during the transition phase between the initial rate r0 and the final rate under silicon saturation conditions. A glass specimen was altered at the initial rate for one week to form a silicon-depleted non-protective gel; the specimen was then leached under static conditions at a glass-surface-to-solution-volume ( S/ V) ratio of 500 m-1 and the alteration kinetics were compared with those of a pristine glass specimen altered under the same conditions. Unexpectedly, after static leaching the previously leached glass was 2.7 times as altered as the pristine specimen, and the steady-state silicon concentration was twice as high for the previously leached specimen. STEM characterization of the alteration films showed that the initial non-protective gel constituted a silicon pump with respect to the glass, and that the glass alteration kinetics were limited only when a fraction of the gel became saturated with silicon, and exhibited protective properties. This work also shows that silicon recondensation was uniform at micrometer scale: the silicon hydrolyzed at the reaction interface then diffused before recondensing over a length comparable to the gel thickness. In addition to these findings, this investigation suggests a reinterpretation of the effect of the S/ V ratio on the glass alteration kinetics and on the steady-state dissolved silicon concentration.

  10. Virtual Immunology: Software for Teaching Basic Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berçot, Filipe Faria; Fidalgo-Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thais; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2013-01-01

    As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching-learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces "Virtual Immunology," a software program available…

  11. Altered multiaxial mechanical properties of the porcine anterior lens capsule cultured in high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrigi, R M; Staff, E; David, G; Glenn, S; Humphrey, J D

    2007-02-01

    Hyperglycemia can alter the mechanical properties of tissues through the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in matrix proteins that have long half-lives. We used a custom experimental system and subdomain finite element method to quantify alterations in the regional multiaxial mechanical properties of porcine lens capsules that were cultured for 8 or 14 weeks in high glucose versus control media. Findings revealed that high glucose significantly stiffened the capsules in both the circumferential and the meridional directions, but it did not affect the known regional variations in anisotropy. Such information could be important in the design of both improved clinical procedures and intraocular implants for diabetic patients.

  12. Immunological Detection of Arbutin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The relative molecular mass of Arbutin is small.Both fluorolabeling and radiolabeling may affect its properties and functions.Therefore, the immunoassay of Arbutin was studied.Arbutin was coupled to bovine serum albumin to get the Arbutin-BSA conjugate with high molar ratio of Arbutin to BSA.Two rabbits were injected with the conjugate to develop the anti-Arbutin serum.Ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography were used to purify the antibody.Double agar diffusion test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were adopted to identify the antibody titer.The results demonstrated that the purity and activity of the antibody are high.The method proposed is satisfactory for the immunological detection of Arbutin.

  13. Virtual Immunology: Software for Teaching Basic Immunology

    OpenAIRE

    Berçot', Filipe Faria; Fidalgo Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thaís; Alves,Luiz Anastacio

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this publication are on ResearchGate and have made the full-text available on their profiles. As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching–learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces “Virtual Immunology,” a software program available free of charge in Portuguese...

  14. Altered cell wall properties are responsible for ammonium-reduced aluminium accumulation in rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xue Qiang; Chen, Rong Fu; Dong, Xiao Ying; Lan, Ping; Ma, Jian Feng; Shen, Ren Fang

    2015-07-01

    The phytotoxicity of aluminium (Al) ions can be alleviated by ammonium (NH4(+)) in rice and this effect has been attributed to the decreased Al accumulation in the roots. Here, the effects of different nitrogen forms on cell wall properties were compared in two rice cultivars differing in Al tolerance. An in vitro Al-binding assay revealed that neither NH4(+) nor NO3(-) altered the Al-binding capacity of cell walls, which were extracted from plants not previously exposed to N sources. However, cell walls extracted from NH4(+)-supplied roots displayed lower Al-binding capacity than those from NO3(-)-supplied roots when grown in non-buffered solutions. Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy analysis revealed that, compared with NO3(-)-supplied roots, NH4(+)-supplied roots possessed fewer Al-binding groups (-OH and COO-) and lower contents of pectin and hemicellulose. However, when grown in pH-buffered solutions, these differences in the cell wall properties were not observed. Further analysis showed that the Al-binding capacity and properties of cell walls were also altered by pHs alone. Taken together, our results indicate that the NH4(+)-reduced Al accumulation was attributed to the altered cell wall properties triggered by pH decrease due to NH4(+) uptake rather than direct competition for the cell wall binding sites between Al(3+) and NH4(+).

  15. Modelling Immunological Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Garret, Simon; Walker, Joanne; Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Accurate immunological models offer the possibility of performing highthroughput experiments in silico that can predict, or at least suggest, in vivo phenomena. In this chapter, we compare various models of immunological memory. We first validate an experimental immunological simulator, developed by the authors, by simulating several theories of immunological memory with known results. We then use the same system to evaluate the predicted effects of a theory of immunological memory. The resulting model has not been explored before in artificial immune systems research, and we compare the simulated in silico output with in vivo measurements. Although the theory appears valid, we suggest that there are a common set of reasons why immunological memory models are a useful support tool; not conclusive in themselves.

  16. Cyclic AMP stimulates neurite outgrowth of lamprey reticulospinal neurons without substantially altering their biophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale, T; Frisch, E B; McClellan, A D

    2013-08-15

    Reticulospinal (RS) neurons are critical for initiation of locomotor behavior, and following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, the axons of these neurons regenerate and restore locomotor behavior within a few weeks. For lamprey RS neurons in culture, experimental induction of calcium influx, either in the growth cone or cell body, is inhibitory for neurite outgrowth. Following SCI, these neurons partially downregulate calcium channel expression, which would be expected to reduce calcium influx and possibly provide supportive conditions for axonal regeneration. In the present study, it was tested whether activation of second messenger signaling pathways stimulates neurite outgrowth of lamprey RS neurons without altering their electrical properties (e.g. spike broadening) so as to possibly increase calcium influx and compromise axonal growth. First, activation of cAMP pathways with forskolin or dbcAMP stimulated neurite outgrowth of RS neurons in culture in a PKA-dependent manner, while activation of cGMP signaling pathways with dbcGMP inhibited outgrowth. Second, neurophysiological recordings from uninjured RS neurons in isolated lamprey brain-spinal cord preparations indicated that dbcAMP or dbcGMP did not significantly affect any of the measured electrical properties. In contrast, for uninjured RS neurons, forskolin increased action potential duration, which might have increased calcium influx, but did not significantly affect most other electrical properties. Importantly, for injured RS neurons during the period of axonal regeneration, forskolin did not significantly alter their electrical properties. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of cAMP signaling by dbcAMP stimulates neurite outgrowth, but does not alter the electrical properties of lamprey RS neurons in such a way that would be expected to induce calcium influx. In conclusion, our results suggest that activation of cAMP pathways alone, without compensation for possible

  17. Effects of Chemotherapy-Induced Alterations in Cell Mechanical Properties on Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathivadhi, Sruti; Ekpenyong, Andrew; Nichols, Michael; Taylor, Carolyn; Ning, Jianhao

    Biological cells can modulate their mechanical properties to suit their functions and in response to changes in their environment. Thus, mechanical phenotyping of cells has been employed for tracking stem cell differentiation, bacterial infection, cell death, etc. Malignant transformation of cells also involves changes in mechanical properties. However, the extent to which mechanical properties of cancer cells contribute to metastasis is not well understood. Yet, more than 90% of all cancer deaths are directly related to metastasis. Transit of cells through the microcirculation is one of the key features of metastasis. We hypothesize that cancer treatment regimens do inadvertently alter cell mechanical properties in ways that might promote cancer metastasis. We use a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic (MMM) platform which mimics the capillary constrictions of the pulmonary and peripheral microcirculation to determine if in-vivo-like mechanical stimuli can evoke different responses from cells subjected to various cancer drugs. In particular, we show that cancer cells treated with chemotherapeutic drugs such as daunorubicin, become more deformable at short timescales (0.1 s) and transit faster through the device. Our results are first steps in evaluating the pro- or anti-metastatic effects of chemotherapeutic drugs based on their induced alterations in cell mechanical properties.

  18. The immunology of filariasis*

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the available information on the immunology of filariasis, and discusses immunodiagnosis and the immunological factors influencing the host—parasite relationship in lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Several areas that require further research are identified, particularly concerning the development of new serological techniques, and the fractionation of specific antigens. The problems associated with vaccine development are considered and the importance of finding...

  19. The interplay between surfaces and soluble factors define the immunologic and angiogenic properties of myeloid dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansfield Kristen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs are antigen presenting cells capable of inducing specific immune responses against microbial infections, transplant antigens, or tumors. Interestingly, microenvironment conditions such as those present in tumor settings might induce a DC phenotype that is poorly immunogenic and with the capability of promoting angiogenesis. We hypothesize that this plasticity may be caused not only by the action of specific cytokines or growth factors but also by the properties of the surfaces with which they interact, such as extracellular matrix (ECM components. Results Herewith we studied the effect of different surfaces and soluble factors on the biology of DCs. To accomplish this, we cultured murine myeloid(m DCs on surfaces coated with fibronectin, collagen I, gelatin, and Matrigel using poly-D-lysine and polystyrene as non-biological surfaces. Further, we cultured these cells in the presence of regular DC medium (RPMI 10% FBS or commercially available endothelial medium (EGM-2. We determined that mDCs could be kept in culture up to 3 weeks in these conditions, but only in the presence of GM-CSF. We were able to determine that long-term DC cultures produce an array of angiogenic factors, and that some of these cultures still retain the capability to induce T cell responses. Conclusions Altogether these data indicate that in order to design DC-based vaccines or treatments focused on changing the phenotype of DCs associated with diseases such as cancer or atherosclerosis, it becomes necessary to fully investigate the microenvironment in which these cells are present or will be delivered.

  20. Acanthus montanus: An experimental evaluation of the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunological properties of a traditional remedy for furuncles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwoye Anthonia C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acanthus montanus (Nees T. Anderson (Acanthaceae is a shrub widespread in Africa, the Balkans, Romania, Greece and Eastern Mediterranean. It is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of urogenital infections, urethral pain, endometritis, urinary disease, cystitis, leucorrhoea, aches and pains. In southeastern Nigeria, the root is popular and acclaimed highly effective in the treatment of furuncles. This study was undertaken to experimentally evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of the root extract as well as its effect on phagocytosis and specific cell-mediated immune response which may underlie the usefulness of the roots in treatment of furuncles. Methods The aqueous root extract (obtained by hot water maceration of the root powder was studied for effects on the growth of clinically isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using acute topical edema of the mouse ear induced by xylene, acute paw edema induced by agar in rats, formaldehyde arthritis in rats, vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in mice and heat- and hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of ox red blood cells (RBCs. Also evaluated were the effects on in vivo leukocyte migration induced by agar, phagocytic activity of macrophages on Candida albicans and specific cell-mediated immune responses (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR induced by sheep red blood cell (SRBC. The acute toxicity and lethality (LD50 in mice and phytochemical constituents of the extract were also determined. Results The extract moderately inhibited the growth of the test organisms and significantly (P P P P C. albicans at 800 mg/kg dose, and significantly (P 50 greater than 5,000 mg/kg. Conclusion The effectiveness of the root of A. montanus in the treatment of furuncles may largely derive from mobilization of leukocytes to the site of the infection and activation

  1. Alteration kinetics of a simplified nuclear glass in an aqueous medium: effects of solution chemistry and of protective gel properties on diminishing the alteration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégou, C.; Gin, S.; Larché, F.

    2000-07-01

    The alteration kinetics of the French SON 68 nuclear glass simplified to its three major constituent elements (Si, B and Na) were investigated by static experiments at 90°C in order to deconvolute the effects of the solution chemistry and of the protective properties of the alteration gel on the diminishing alteration rate over time. A glass dissolution experiment in static conditions showed that the initial rate r0 was maintained even after silicon saturation of the solution. As the reaction progressed, the glass alteration rate gradually diminished over time. These results show that the driving force behind the alteration of this glass cannot be defined by the difference from saturation with respect to amorphous silica, and that reaching saturation is not a criterion for the end of alteration. The drop in the dissolution rate observed at a high degree of reaction progress is correlated with the formation of the silica gel that develops at the glass/solution interface. Confronting the experimental data with a model taking into account a diffusion boundary layer shows that the conventional tools of chemical thermodynamics are ill adapted to describing the formation and development of the silica gel layer over time. This study reveals that only a dynamic process of hydrolysis and condensation of silicon at the glass/gel interface can account for the formation of the gel layer. The glass alteration rate under silica saturation conditions would thus be highly dependent on the silicon recondensation rate in this `dynamic percolation' concept.

  2. Modeling-Enabled Systems Nutritional Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna eVerma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to applying complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery and development through ‘use cases’ centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, that include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism.

  3. Hematologic and immunological indicators are altered by chronic intake of flaxseed in Wistar rats Indicadores hematológicos e inmunológicos alterados por el consumo crónico de linaza en ratas Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ferreira Medeiros de França Cardozo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work sought to evaluate the effects of chronic intake of flaxseed upon hematologic parameters and immunological findings on body development of Wistar rats. Female Wistar rats were used after gestation. They were randomly assigned into two groups during lactation period: Control group (CG, fed with casein based diet, made up of 17% protein and flaxseed group (FG, fed with casein based diet with the addition of 25% flaxseed. At weaning, 12 male pups of each group continued to receive the experimental diets of their mothers (with only 10% of protein until adult age, when they were killed at 250 days of life aiming at blood collection. At 250 days old FG presented significant reduction in body mass (p Este trabajo pretendía evaluar el efecto de la ingestión crónica de linaza sobre parámetros hematológicos y hallazgos inmunológicos del desarrollo corporal de ratas Wistar. Se emplearon ratas hembra Wistar tras la gestación. Se las distribuyó al azar en dos grupos durante el período de lactancia: grupo control (GC, alimentado con una dieta basada en caseína, con un 17% de proteína y el grupo linaza (GF, alimentado con una dieta basada en caseína con la adición de un 25% de linaza. En el destete, 12 ratas macho continuaron recibiendo las dietas experimentales consumidas por sus madres (con sólo el 10% de proteína hasta la edad adulta, en que fueron sacrificados a los 250 días de vida para la recogida de las muestras. A los 250 días de edad, el GF presentaba una reducción significativa de la masa corporal (p < 0,000 y mayores concentraciones de hemoglobina (p = 0,019 y albúmina (p = 0,030 que el GC. Se observó un menor porcentaje de linfocitos segmentados (p = 0,016 en las ratas del GF y un mayor porcentaje de leucocitos segmentados (p = 0,023 en comparación con el GC. El consumo crónico de linaza alteró los indicadores hematológicos e inmunológicos en las ratas Wistar adultas. La suplementación con linaza parece ser

  4. Comparison of immunological properties of bone marrow stromal cells and adipose tissue-derived stem cells before and after osteogenic differentiation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemeyer, Philipp; Kornacker, Martin; Mehlhorn, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from various tissues and represent an attractive cell population for tissue-engineering purposes. MSCs from bone marrow (bone marrow stromal cells [BMSCs]) are negative for immunologically relevant surface markers and inhibit proliferation of allogenic...... T cells in vitro. Therefore, BMSCs are said to be available for allogenic cell therapy. Although the immunological characteristics of BMSCs have been the subject of various investigations, those of stem cells isolated from adipose tissue (ASCs) have not been adequately described. In addition......, the influence of osteogenic differentiation in vitro on the immunological characteristics of BMSCs and ASCs is the subject of this article. Before and after osteogenic induction, the influence of BMSCs and ASCs on the proliferative behavior of resting and activated allogenic peripheral blood mononuclear cells...

  5. Saturated fatty acids alter the late secretory pathway by modulating membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Laurie-Anne; Pineau, Ludovic; Snyder, Ellen C R; Colas, Jenny; Moussa, Ahmed; Vannier, Brigitte; Bigay, Joelle; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Becq, Frédéric; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Vandebrouck, Clarisse; Ferreira, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    Saturated fatty acids (SFA) have been reported to alter organelle integrity and function in many cell types, including muscle and pancreatic β-cells, adipocytes, hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes. SFA accumulation results in increased amounts of ceramides/sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids (PL). In this study, using a yeast-based model that recapitulates most of the trademarks of SFA-induced lipotoxicity in mammalian cells, we demonstrate that these lipid species act at different levels of the secretory pathway. Ceramides mostly appear to modulate the induction of the unfolded protein response and the transcription of nutrient transporters destined to the cell surface. On the other hand, saturated PL, by altering membrane properties, directly impact vesicular budding at later steps in the secretory pathway, i.e. at the trans-Golgi Network level. They appear to do so by increasing lipid order within intracellular membranes which, in turn, alters the recruitment of loose lipid packing-sensing proteins, required for optimal budding, to nascent vesicles. We propose that this latter general mechanism could account for the well-documented deleterious impacts of fatty acids on the last steps of the secretory pathway in several cell types.

  6. Cancer immunotherapy and immunological memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kenji; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

      Human immunological memory is the key distinguishing hallmark of the adaptive immune system and plays an important role in the prevention of morbidity and the severity of infection. The differentiation system of T cell memory has been clarified using mouse models. However, the human T cell memory system has great diversity induced by natural antigens derived from many pathogens and tumor cells throughout life, and profoundly differs from the mouse memory system constructed using artificial antigens and transgenic T cells. We believe that only human studies can elucidate the human immune system. The importance of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy has been pointed out, and the trafficking properties and long-lasting anti-tumor capacity of memory T cells play a crucial role in the control of malignant tumors. Adoptive cell transfer of less differentiated T cells has consistently demonstrated superior anti-tumor capacity relative to more differentiated T cells. Therefore, a human T cell population with the characteristics of stem cell memory is thought to be attractive for peptide vaccination and adoptive cell transfer. A novel human memory T cell population that we have identified is closer to the naive state than previous memory T cells in the T cell differentiation lineage, and has the characteristics of stem-like chemoresistance. Here we introduce this novel population and describe the fundamentals of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy.

  7. Noninvasive induction implant heating: an approach for contactless altering of mechanical properties of shape memory implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Ronny; Hustedt, Michael; Wesling, Volker; Hurschler, Christoph; Olender, Gavin; Mach, Martin; Gösling, Thomas; Müller, Christian W

    2013-01-01

    This article shows an approach to change the properties of an orthopaedic shape memory implant within biological tissue, using contactless induction heating. Due to inducing the one way-memory effect, triggered by the rise of temperature within the implant, the geometry and hence the mechanical properties of the implant itself, are altered. The power uptake of the implant, depending on the induction parameters as well as on its position within the induction coil, is shown. Thermographic measurements are carried out in order to determine the surface temperature distribution of the implant. In order to simulate biological tissue, the implant was embedded in agarose gel. Suitable heating parameters, in terms of a short heating process in combination with a reduced heat impact on the surrounding environment, were determined.

  8. Altered goblet cell differentiation and surface mucus properties in Hirschsprung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R Thiagarajah

    Full Text Available Hirschsprung disease-associated enterocolitis (HAEC leads to significant mortality and morbidity, but its pathogenesis remains unknown. Changes in the colonic epithelium related to goblet cells and the luminal mucus layer have been postulated to play a key role. Here we show that the colonic epithelium of both aganglionic and ganglionic segments are altered in patients and in mice with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR. Structurally, goblet cells were altered with increased goblet cell number and reduced intracellular mucins in the distal colon of biopsies from patients with HSCR. Endothelin receptor B (Ednrb mutant mice showed increased goblet cell number and size and increased cell proliferation compared to wild-type mice in aganglionic segments, and reduced goblet cell size and number in ganglionic segments. Functionally, compared to littermates, Ednrb-/- mice showed increased transepithelial resistance, reduced stool water content and similar chloride secretion in the distal colon. Transcript levels of goblet cell differentiation factors SPDEF and Math1 were increased in the distal colon of Ednrb-/- mice. Both distal colon from Ednrb mice and biopsies from HSCR patients showed reduced Muc4 expression as compared to controls, but similar expression of Muc2. Particle tracking studies showed that mucus from Ednrb-/- mice provided a more significant barrier to diffusion of 200 nm nanoparticles as compared to wild-type mice. These results suggest that aganglionosis is associated with increased goblet cell proliferation and differentiation and subsequent altered surface mucus properties, prior to the development of inflammation in the distal colon epithelium. Restoration of normal goblet cell function and mucus layer properties in the colonic epithelium may represent a therapeutic strategy for prevention of HAEC.

  9. Preacclimation alters Salmonella Enteritidis surface properties and its initial attachment to food contact surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yishan; Kumar, Amit; Zheng, Qianwang; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2015-04-01

    Exposure of Salmonella to environmental stress, prior to its adherence to a food contact surface, may change the cell surface properties and consequently affect its initial attachment and biofilm formation. This study investigated the influence of temperature and pH preacclimation on the initial attachment of Salmonella Enteritidis to acrylic and stainless steel. Besides, changes in physicochemical properties of cells were examined; and their surface attachment was modeled by xDLVO theory. Results showed that control cells pre-grown at 37°C had significantly (P0.05) different from control cells pre-grown at pH 7.3, but they were significantly higher compared to cells pre-grown at pH 8.3 and 9.0. No significant difference was observed between cell attachment to acrylic and stainless steel, although they had different physicochemical properties. The xDLVO theory successfully explained higher attachment for cells pre-grown at optimal condition on both contact surfaces. However, the xDLVO theory could not explain the similar attachment of cells to acrylic and stainless steel. This study elucidates that commonly used intervention technologies including cold storage, thermal treatment, and alkaline antimicrobial agents might alter the physicochemical properties of S. Enteritidis cells and result in varied initial attachment levels.

  10. Immunological findings in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohly, Hari Har Parshad; Panja, Asit

    2005-01-01

    elevated in autistic brains. In measles virus infection, it has been postulated that there is immune suppression by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and maturation and downregulation MHC class II expression. Cytokine alteration of TNF-alpha is increased in autistic populations. Toll-like-receptors are also involved in autistic development. High NO levels are associated with autism. Maternal antibodies may trigger autism as a mechanism of autoimmunity. MMR vaccination may increase risk for autism via an autoimmune mechanism in autism. MMR antibodies are significantly higher in autistic children as compared to normal children, supporting a role of MMR in autism. Autoantibodies (IgG isotype) to neuron-axon filament protein (NAFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are significantly increased in autistic patients (Singh et al., 1997). Increase in Th2 may explain the increased autoimmunity, such as the findings of antibodies to MBP and neuronal axonal filaments in the brain. There is further evidence that there are other participants in the autoimmune phenomenon. (Kozlovskaia et al., 2000). The possibility of its involvement in autism cannot be ruled out. Further investigations at immunological, cellular, molecular, and genetic levels will allow researchers to continue to unravel the immunopathogenic mechanisms' associated with autistic processes in the developing brain. This may open up new avenues for prevention and/or cure of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder.

  11. Conjugation of D-glucosamine to bovine trypsin increases thermal stability and alters functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizurarson, Jóhann Grétar Kröyer; Filippusson, Hörður

    2015-01-01

    D-Glucosamine was conjugated to bovine trypsin by carbodiimide chemistry, involving a water-soluble carbodiimide and a succinimide ester, with the latter being to increase the yield of the conjugation. Mass spectrometric data suggested that several glycoforms were formed, with around 12 D-glucosamine moieties coupled to each trypsin molecule on average. The moieties were probably coupled to eight carboxyl groups (of glutamyl and aspartyl residues) and to four tyrosyl residues on the surface of the enzyme. The glycated trypsin possessed increased thermal stability. When compared with its unmodified counterpart, T50% was increased by 7 °C, thermal inactivation of the first step was increased 34%, and long-term stability assay revealed 71-times higher residual activity at 25 °C (without stabilizing Ca(2+) ions in aqueous buffer) after 67 days. Furthermore, resistance against autolysis was increased almost two-fold. Altered functional properties of the glycated trypsin were also observed. The glycated trypsin was found to become increasingly basophilic, and was found to be slightly structurally altered. This was indicated by 1.2 times higher catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) than unmodified trypsin against the substrate N-α-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide. Circular dichroism spectropolarimetry suggested a minor change in spatial arrangement of α-helix/helices, resulting in an increased affinity of the glycated trypsin for this small synthetic substrate.

  12. Vector-averaged gravity does not alter acetylcholine receptor single channel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitstetter, R.; Gruener, R.

    1994-01-01

    To examine the physiological sensitivity of membrane receptors to altered gravity, we examined the single channel properties of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), in co-cultures of Xenopus myocytes and neurons, to vector-averaged gravity in the clinostat. This experimental paradigm produces an environment in which, from the cell's perspective, the gravitational vector is "nulled" by continuous averaging. In that respect, the clinostat simulates one aspect of space microgravity where the gravity force is greatly reduced. After clinorotation, the AChR channel mean open-time and conductance were statistically not different from control values but showed a rotation-dependent trend that suggests a process of cellular adaptation to clinorotation. These findings therefore suggest that the ACHR channel function may not be affected in the microgravity of space despite changes in the receptor's cellular organization.

  13. Alteration of time-resolved autofluorescence properties of rat aorta, induced by diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uherek, M.; Uličná, O.; Vančová, O.; Muchová, J.; Ďuračková, Z.; Šikurová, L.; Chorvát, D.

    2016-10-01

    Changes in autofluorescence properties of isolated rat aorta, induced by diabetes mellitus, were detected using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with pulsed ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation. We demonstrated that time-resolved spectroscopy was able to detect changes in aorta tissues related to diabetes and unambiguously discriminate diabetic (τ 1 0.63  ±  0.05 ns, τ 2 3.66  ±  0.10 ns) samples from the control (τ 1 0.76  ±  0.03 ns, τ 2 4.48  ±  0.15 ns) group. We also report changes in the ratio of relative amplitudes of the two lifetime component in aorta tissue during diabetes, most likely related to the pseudohypoxic state with altered NADH homeostasis.

  14. Altered proliferation and differentiation properties of primary mammary epithelial cells from BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burga, Laura N; Tung, Nadine M; Troyan, Susan L; Bostina, Mihnea; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Fountzilas, Helena; Spentzos, Dimitrios; Miron, Alexander; Yassin, Yosuf A; Lee, Bernard T; Wulf, Gerburg M

    2009-02-15

    Female BRCA1 mutation carriers have a nearly 80% probability of developing breast cancer during their life-time. We hypothesized that the breast epithelium at risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers harbors mammary epithelial cells (MEC) with altered proliferation and differentiation properties. Using a three-dimensional culture technique to grow MECs ex vivo, we found that the ability to form colonies, an indication of clonality, was restricted to the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1-positive fraction in MECs but not in HCC1937 BRCA1-mutant cancer cells. Primary MECs from BRCA1 mutation carriers (n = 9) had a 28% greater ability for clonal growth compared with normal controls (n = 6; P = 0.006), and their colonies were significantly larger. Colonies in controls and BRCA1 mutation carriers stained positive for BRCA1 by immunohistochemistry, and 79% of the examined single colonies from BRCA1 carriers retained heterozygosity for BRCA1 (ROH). Colonies from BRCA1 mutation carriers frequently showed high epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression (71% EGFR positive versus 44% in controls) and were negative for estrogen receptor (ERalpha; 32% ER negative, 44% mixed, 24% ER positive versus 90% ER positive in controls). Expression of CK14 and p63 were not significantly different. Microarray studies revealed that colonies from BRCA1-mutant PMECs anticipate expression profiles found in BRCA1-related tumors, and that the EGFR pathway is up-regulated. We conclude that BRCA1 haploinsufficiency leads to an increased ability for clonal growth and proliferation in the PMECs of BRCA1 mutation carriers, possibly as a result of EGFR pathway activation. These altered growth and differentiation properties may render BRCA1-mutant PMECs vulnerable to transformation and predispose to the development of ER-negative, EGFR-positive breast cancers.

  15. Immunology of methanogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, A.J.L.; Macario, E.C. de (New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States). Wadsworth Center for Labs. and Research School of Public Health, Albany, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to highlight some findings using immunologic methods and antibody probes developed for analysis of methanogens directly in samples from bioreactors, avoiding culture isolation. A considerable diversity of methanogens was revealed by antigenic fingerprinting in bioreactors, larger than previously suspected. It was also found that the number and immunologic characteristics of the methanogenic subpopulations form a pattern distinctive of bioreactor type, feedstocks and operating conditions. This pattern changed in response to perturbations and to temperature shifts. Time course quantitative measurements of methanogenic subpopulations demonstrated that these subpopulations undergo sequential changes during bioreactor operation. Parallel microbiologic, physiologic, and chemical determinations demonstrated the reliability of the immunologic methods and their potential for bioreactor monitoring and for manipulating microprobes (e.g. to exclude a strain from a bioreactor). (author)

  16. Immunological memory is associative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  17. Evolution of Immunological Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaín Alonso Remedios

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the mechanisms involved in the "decision" of the immune system to promote an essentially effector response or a tolerant response are not fully known. Throughout history, immunological thinking has changed as the available technologies have led to a better understanding of the immune system. For these reasons, the present literature review was conducted to summarize the changes in immunological thinking regarding the fundamental problem of immunology. The concept of horror autotoxicus proposed by Erlich and the meaning of the clonal selection theory for understanding central tolerance were discussed. The two-signal model, Jerne’s contributions and his immune network theory were also addressed. Finally, the danger model and the theory of dominant tolerance were analyzed. The contributions of each theory to understanding how the immune system works were included.

  18. Systems Theory in Immunology

    CERN Document Server

    Doria, Gino; Koch, Giorgio; Strom, Roberto

    1979-01-01

    This volume collects the contributions presented at the "Working Conference on System Theory in Immunology", held in Rome, May 1978. The aim of the Conference was to bring together immunologists on one side and experts in system theory and applied mathematics on the other, in order to identify problems of common interest and to establish a network of joint effort toward their solution. The methodologies of system theory for processing experimental data and for describing dynamical phenomena could indeed contribute significantly to the under­ standing of basic immunological facts. Conversely, the complexity of experimental results and of interpretative models should stimulate mathematicians to formulate new problems and to design appropriate procedures of analysis. The multitude of scientific publications in theoretical biology, appeared in recent years, confirms this trend and calls for extensive interaction between mat- matics and immunology. The material of this volume is divided into five sections, along ...

  19. Pathogenic, Molecular, and Immunological Properties of a Virus Associated with Sea Turtle Fibropapillomatosis. Phase II : Viral Pathogenesis and Development of Diagnostic Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Paul A.; Ehrhart, Llewellyn; Brown, Daniel R.; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Coberley, Sadie; Bolten, Alan; Moretti, Ritchie H.; Herbst, Lawrence H.; Lackovich, Joel K.

    2000-01-01

    Research conducted under this RWO from July 1, 1997 through June 30, 2000 has provided important new information about the pathogenesis, virology, and immunology of marine turtle fibropapillomatosis. In particular, we have provided strong evidence for the association of a herpesvirus with fibropapillomatosis of the green turtle,Chelonia mydas, and the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, in Florida. In addition we have provided new evidence for the absence of papillomaviruses fr...

  20. Hydrothermal alteration of surficial rocks at Solfatara (Campi Flegrei): Petrophysical properties and implications for phreatic eruption processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Montanaro, Cristian; Yilmaz, Tim I.; Isaia, Roberto; Aßbichler, Donjá; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-06-01

    Solfatara crater is located within the Campi Flegrei caldera to the west of Naples (Italy). It is one of the largest fumarolic manifestations known, and the rocks hosting the hydrothermal system are affected by intense hydrothermal alteration. Alteration can result in changes of degassing behavior, and in the formation of a cap rock thereby increasing the probability of phreatic eruptions. Here, we investigate the effects of alunitic (solfataric) alteration on the mineralogy, the physical properties (porosity, density, permeability) and the mechanical properties (strength) of the rocks involved, as well as its influence on fragmentation and ejection behavior. Our results show that the pristine mineralogy of deposits from the vicinity of the Solfatara cryptodome and from Pisciarelli is almost completely replaced by amorphous silica and alunite. The differences in the degree of alteration among the samples series are reflected in the investigated properties and behavior as well as in the analysis of the experimentally generated particles. Alunitic alteration increases porosity and permeability, whereas it reduces density, elastic wave velocity and strength leading to higher fragmentation and ejection speeds for the sample series examined in this study. Our results also show that alteration results in the generation of a high fraction of fines (particle sizes < 10 μm) during fragmentation, mainly composed of alunite crystals. Due to their potential for inducing chronic disease, dispersion of such material should represent a serious health hazard on a local scale and the evaluation of precautions should be considered.

  1. Immunological Treatments for Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sudhir

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses research findings that indicate immunological abnormalities in children with autism, including the dysregulation of the immune system, and concludes that there are sufficient data to suggest a role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of autism. Various biological therapies are analyzed, including intravenous…

  2. Immunology & Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey R.; And Others

    This monograph was designed for the high school biology curriculum. The first section reviews the major areas of importance in immunology. Section three contains six instructional activities for the high school classroom and the second section contains teacher's materials for those activities. The activities address for students some of the major…

  3. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  4. RADIOECOLOGY AND ECOLOGICAL IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's investigations results are presented in comparing with literary materials concerning the application of principles and methods of ecological immunology for solving radioecological questions. The data on characteristic of immunity and health of human population affected with radiation factors of the environment is given as well as animals' population state as the links offood ecological chains.

  5. Immunology's theories of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Alfred I

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary immunology has established its fundamental theory as a biological expression of personal identity, wherein the "immune self" is defended by the immune system. Protection of this agent putatively requires a cognitive capacity by which the self and the foreign are perceived and thereby discriminated; from such information, discernment of the environment is achieved and activation of pathways leading to an immune response may be initiated. This so-called cognitive paradigm embeds such functions as "perception," "recognition," "learning," and "memory" to characterize immune processes, but the conceptual character of such functions has meanings that vary with the particular theory adopted. When different formulations of cognition are considered, immunology's conceptual infrastructure shifts: Extensions of conventional psychological understanding of representational cognition based on a subject-object dichotomy support notions of immune agency; alternatively, formulations of perception that dispense with representations and attendant notions of agency reconfigure the predicate epistemology dominating current immune theory. Reviewing immunological literature of the past five decades, these two understandings of perception--representational and non-representational (considered here from ecological, enactivist, and autopoietic perspectives)--offer competing views of immune cognitive functions. These, in turn, provide competing philosophical understandings of immunology's conceptual foundations, which reflect parallel controversies dominating current debates in philosophy of mind and attendant discussions about personal identity.

  6. Altered distributions of bone tissue mineral and collagen properties in women with fragility fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen Xiang; Lloyd, Ashley A; Burket, Jayme C; Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Donnelly, Eve

    2016-03-01

    Heterogeneity of bone tissue properties is emerging as a potential indicator of altered bone quality in pathologic tissue. The objective of this study was to compare the distributions of tissue properties in women with and without histories of fragility fractures using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging. We extended a prior study that examined the relationship of the mean FTIR properties to fracture risk by analyzing in detail the widths and the tails of the distributions of FTIR properties in biopsies from fracture and non-fracture cohorts. The mineral and matrix properties of cortical and trabecular iliac crest tissue were compared in biopsies from women with a history of fragility fracture (+Fx; n=21, age: mean 54±SD 15y) and with no history of fragility fracture (-Fx; n=12, age: 57±5y). A subset of the patients included in the -Fx group were taking estrogen-plus-progestin hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (-Fx+HRT n=8, age: 58±5y) and were analyzed separately from patients with no history of HRT (-Fx-HRT n=4, age: 56±7y). When the FTIR parameter mean values were examined by treatment group, the trabecular tissue of -Fx-HRT patients had a lower mineral:matrix ratio (M:M) and collagen maturity (XLR) than that of -Fx+HRT patients (-22% M:M, -18% XLR) and +Fx patients (-17% M:M, -18% XLR). Across multiple FTIR parameters, tissue from the -Fx-HRT group had smaller low-tail (5th percentile) values than that from the -Fx+HRT or +Fx groups. In trabecular collagen maturity and crystallinity (XST), the -Fx-HRT group had smaller low-tail values than those in the -Fx+HRT group (-16% XLR, -5% XST) and the +Fx group (-17% XLR, -7% XST). The relatively low values of trabecular mineral:matrix ratio and collagen maturity and smaller low-tail values of collagen maturity and crystallinity observed in the -Fx-HRT group are characteristic of younger tissue. Taken together, our data suggest that the presence of newly formed tissue that includes small/imperfect crystals

  7. HIV Molecular Immunology 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Korber, Bette Tina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Brander, Christian [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Division of Vaccine Research; de Boer, Rob [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Biology; Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Koup, Richard [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States). Vaccine Research Center; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watkins, David [Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-04-05

    The scope and purpose of the HIV molecular immunology database: HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2015 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as cross-reactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins

  8. HIV Molecular Immunology 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Koup, Richard [Vaccine Research Center National Institutes of Health (United States); de Boer, Rob [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Biology; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Brander, Christian [Institucioi Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-03

    HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2014 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as crossreactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins are provided.

  9. Functional properties of butter oil made from bovine milk with experimentally altered fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Jimenez-Flores, R; Bremmer, D R; Clark, J H; DePeters, E J; Schmidt, S J; Drackley, J K

    2007-11-01

    Modification of milk fat composition might be desirable to alter manufacturing characteristics or produce low saturated fat dairy products that more closely meet consumer dietary preferences. The aim of this research was to evaluate functional properties of butter oil obtained from milks with fat composition modified by altering the profile of long-chain fatty acids (FA) absorbed from the small intestine of cows. A control and 5 mixtures of long-chain free FA were infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows in a 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were 1) control (no FA infused), 2) mostly saturated FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 3) low-linoleic palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.85), 4) palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 5) soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.10), and 6) high-palmitic soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.68). All treatments included meat solubles and Tween 80 as emulsifiers. Solid fat content (from 0 to 40 degrees C), melting point, and force at fracture were determined in butter oil. Milk fat from cows infused with palm FA (treatment 4) exhibited functionality equal to or better than control butter oil. Infusion with palm FA increased amounts of triglyceride (TG) fractions with 48, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, 36, and 42 carbon numbers. Infusion with soy FA increased TG with 26, 38, 40, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 34, 42, and 46 carbons. Infusion of the mostly saturated FA increased TG with 38, 50, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, and 42 carbon numbers. These TG groups were consistently correlated with functional properties of butter oils from different treatments. The content of palmitic acid is important for maintaining functionality in the presence of increased polyunsaturated FA. The composition of milk fat may be able to be optimized through nutritional manipulation of diets for dairy cows if the optimal composition of FA and TG is defined for a particular dairy product.

  10. Alterations of hydraulic soil properties influenced by land-use changes and agricultural management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weninger, Thomas; Kreiselmeier, Janis; Chandrasekhar, Parvathy; Jülich, Stefan; Schwärzel, Kai; Schwen, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Estimation and modeling of soil water movement and the hydrologic balance of soils requires sound knowledge about hydraulic soil properties (HSP). The soil water characteristics, the hydraulic conductivity function and the pore size distribution (PSD) are commonly used instruments for the mathematical representation of HSP. Recent research highlighted the temporal variability of these functions caused by meteorological or land-use influences. State of the art modeling software for the continuous simulation of soil water movement uses a stationary approach for the HSP which means that their time dependent alterations and the subsequent effects on soil water balance is not considered. Mathematical approaches to describe the evolution of PSD are nevertheless known, but there is a lack of sound data basis for parameter estimation. Based on extensive field and laboratory measurements at 5 locations along a climatic gradient across Austria and Germany, this study will quantify short-term changes in HSP, detect driving forces and introduce a method to predict the effects of soil and land management actions on the soil water balance. Amongst several soil properties, field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities will be determined using a hood infiltration experiments in the field as well as by evaporation and dewpoint potentiometer method in the lab. All measurements will be carried out multiple times over a span of 2 years which will allow a detailed monitoring of changes in HSP. Experimental sites where we expect significant inter-seasonal changes will be equipped with sensors for soil moisture and matric potential. The choice of experimental field sites follows the intention to involve especially the effects of tillage operations, different cultivation strategies, microclimatically effective structures and land-use changes. The international project enables the coverage of a broad range of soil types as well as climate conditions and hence will have broad

  11. Alteration in cell surface properties of Burkholderia spp. during surfactant-aided biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Mukherji, Suparna [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering (CESE)

    2012-04-15

    Chemical surfactants may impact microbial cell surface properties, i.e., cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and cell surface charge, and may thus affect the uptake of components from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). This work explored the impact of Triton X-100, Igepal CA 630, and Tween 80 (at twice the critical micelle concentration, CMC) on the cell surface characteristics of Burkholderia cultures, Burkholderia cepacia (ES1, aliphatic degrader) and Burkholderia multivorans (NG1, aromatic degrader), when grown on a six-component model NAPL. In the presence of Triton X-100, NAPL biodegradation was enhanced from 21% to 60% in B. cepacia and from 18% to 53% in B. multivorans. CSH based on water contact angle (50-52 ) was in the same range for both strains while zeta potential at neutral pH was -38 and -31 mV for B. cepacia and B. multivorans, respectively. In the presence of Triton X-100, their CSH increased to greater than 75 and the zeta potential decreased. This induced a change in the mode of uptake and initiated aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation by B. multivorans and increased the rate of aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation in B. cepacia. Igepal CA 630 and Tween 80 also altered the cell surface properties. For B. cepacia grown in the presence of Triton X-100 at two and five times its CMC, CSH increased significantly in the log growth phase. Growth in the presence of the chemical surfactants also affected the abundance of chemical functional groups on the cell surface. Cell surface changes had maximum impact on NAPL degradation in the presence of emulsifying surfactants, Triton X-100 and Igepal CA630.

  12. High temperatures alter physiological properties of pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons in hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eKim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperature has multiple effects on neurons, yet little is known about the effects of high temperature on the physiology of mammalian central neurons. Hyperthermia can influence behavior and cause febrile seizures. We studied the effects of acute hyperthermia on the immature hippocampus in vitro by recording from pyramidal neurons and inhibitory oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM interneurons (identified by green fluorescent protein expression in the GIN mouse line. Warming to 41°C caused depolarization, spontaneous action potentials, reduced input resistance and membrane time constant, and increased spontaneous synaptic activity of most pyramidal cells and O-LM interneurons. Pyramidal neurons of area CA3 were more strongly excited by hyperthermia than those of area CA1. About 90% of O-LM interneurons in both CA1 and CA3 increased their firing rates at hyperthermic temperatures; interneurons in CA3 fired faster than those in CA1 on average. Blockade of fast synaptic transmission did not abolish the effect of hyperthermia on neuronal excitability. Our results suggest that hyperthermia increases hippocampal excitability, particularly in seizure-prone area CA3, by altering the intrinsic membrane properties of pyramidal cells and interneurons.

  13. High temperatures alter physiological properties of pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jennifer A; Connors, Barry W

    2012-01-01

    Temperature has multiple effects on neurons, yet little is known about the effects of high temperature on the physiology of mammalian central neurons. Hyperthermia can influence behavior and cause febrile seizures. We studied the effects of acute hyperthermia on the immature hippocampus in vitro by recording from pyramidal neurons and inhibitory oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons (identified by green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in the GIN mouse line). Warming to 41°C caused depolarization, spontaneous action potentials, reduced input resistance and membrane time constant, and increased spontaneous synaptic activity of most pyramidal cells and O-LM interneurons. Pyramidal neurons of area CA3 were more strongly excited by hyperthermia than those of area CA1. About 90% of O-LM interneurons in both CA1 and CA3 increased their firing rates at hyperthermic temperatures; interneurons in CA3 fired faster than those in CA1 on average. Blockade of fast synaptic transmission did not abolish the effect of hyperthermia on neuronal excitability. Our results suggest that hyperthermia increases hippocampal excitability, particularly in seizure-prone area CA3, by altering the intrinsic membrane properties of pyramidal cells and interneurons.

  14. Properties of Plasma Membrane from Pea Root Seedlings under Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D.; Baranenko, V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Kurylenko, I.; Chyzhykova, O.; Dubovoy, V.

    In this study, the properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plasma membrane were examined to determine how the membrane structure and functions are regulated in response to clinorotation (2 rev/min) conditions. Membrane preparations enriched by plasma membrane vesicles were obtained by aqueous two-phase partitioning from 6-day seedling roots. The specific characteristics of H^+-ATPase, lípid composition and peroxidation intensity as well as fluidity of lipid bilayer were analysed. ATP hydrolytic activity was inhibited by ortovanadate and was insensitive to aside and nitrate in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from both clinorotated and control seedlings. Plasma membrane vesicles from clinorotated seedlings in comparison to controls were characterised by increase in the total lipid/protein ratio, ATP hydrolytic activity and intensifying of lipid peroxidation. Sitosterol and campesterol were the predominant free sterol species. Clinorotated seedlings contained a slightly higher level of unsaturated fatty acid than controls. Plasma membrane vesicles were labelled with pyrene and fluorescence originating from monomeric (I_M) molecules and excimeric (I_E) aggregates were measured. The calculated I_E/I_M values were higher in clinorotated seedlings compared with controls reflecting the reduction in membrane microviscosity. The involvement of the changes in plasma membrane lipid content and composition, fluidity and H^+-ATPase activity in response of pea seedlings to altered gravity is discussed.

  15. Influence of diet-mediated maternal thyroid alterations on functional properties of turkey eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, V L; Ort, J F

    1990-09-01

    Maternal thyroid status was altered by means of diet to determine its effect on functional properties of turkey eggshells. Hens were fed a control diet (CON), the CON diet containing .5 ppm triiodothyronine (T3), the CON diet containing 2.1 ppm iodine as potassium iodide (KI) or the CON diet containing .1% thiouracil (THIO). Feeding T3 decreased plasma thyroxine but elevated plasma T3 concentrations compared to CON. The KI diet had no effect on plasma thyroid hormone concentrations, but feeding THIO depressed plasma thyroxine with no effect on T3, resulting in an elevated ratio of the two hormones compared to the CON ratio. Feeding KI decreased egg volume and T3 increased egg density compared to CON, but no effects on egg weight, surface area, width, or length were noted. Dietary T3 depressed eggshell water vapor conductance compared to CON. Dietary iodine resulted in thinner eggshells with fewer pores than the CON, whereas THIO caused significantly more pores in eggshells than CON but had no effects on shell thickness. Dietary KI had no effects on maternal plasma thyroid hormone concentrations, suggesting that the effects were due to iodine availability rather than to thyroid hormones. It is concluded that the availability of iodine to turkey breeder hens may influence eggshell characteristics.

  16. Altered synaptic properties during integration of adult-born hippocampal neurons following a seizure insult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Jackson

    Full Text Available Pathological conditions affect several stages of neurogenesis in the adult brain, including proliferation, survival, cell fate, migration, and functional integration. Here we explored how a pathological environment modulates the heterogeneous afferent synaptic input that shapes the functional properties of newly formed neurons. We analyzed the expression of adhesion molecules and other synaptic proteins on adult-born hippocampal neurons formed after electrically-induced partial status epilepticus (pSE. New cells were labeled with a GFP-retroviral vector one week after pSE. One and three weeks thereafter, synaptic proteins were present on dendritic spines and shafts, but without differences between pSE and control group. In contrast, at six weeks, we found fewer dendritic spines and decreased expression of the scaffolding protein PSD-95 on spines, without changes in expression of the adhesion molecules N-cadherin or neuroligin-1, primarily located at excitatory synapses. Moreover, we detected an increased expression of the inhibitory scaffolding protein gephyrin in newborn but not mature neurons after SE. However, this increase was not accompanied by a difference in GABA expression, and there was even a region-specific decrease in the adhesion molecule neuroligin-2 expression, both in newborn and mature neurons. Neuroligin-2 clusters co-localized with presynaptic cholecystokinin terminals, which were also reduced. The expression of neuroligin-4 and glycine receptor was unchanged. Increased postsynaptic clustering of gephyrin, without an accompanying increase in GABAergic input or neuroligin-2 and -4 expression, the latter important for clustering of GABA(A and glycine receptors, respectively, could imply an increased but altered inhibitory connectivity specific for newborn neurons. The changes were transient and expression of both gephyrin and NL-2 was normalized 3 months post-SE. Our findings indicate that seizure-induced brain pathology alters

  17. Immunology and Epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hraba, Tomáš

    1986-01-01

    In February 1985 a small international meeting of scientists took place at the recreation resort of the Polish Academy of Sci­ ences in Mogilany, near Cracow, Poland. The initiative for holding the workshop came from a working meeting on mathematical immunology and related topics at the International Institute for Applied Sys­ tems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria, in November 1983. In addition to representatives of IIASA, delegates of the IIASA National Member Organizations (NMO) of Czechoslovakia, Italy, and the soviet Union took part in that working meeting. The participants came to the conclusion that IIASA could play an important role in facilitating the development of research in this field. The first step that they recommended to I IASA was to organize a workshop on mathematical immunology. The purpose of the workshop was to review the progress that has been made in applying mathematics to problems in immunology and to explore ways in which further progress might be achieved, especially by more efficie...

  18. Acid weathering of basalt and basaltic glass: 2. Effects of microscopic alteration textures on spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca J.; Horgan, Briony H. N.; Mann, Paul; Cloutis, Edward A.; Christensen, Philip R.

    2017-01-01

    Acid alteration has long been proposed for the Martian surface, and so it is important to understand how the resulting alteration textures affect surface spectra. Two basaltic materials of varying crystallinity were altered in two different H2SO4 solutions (pH 1 and pH 3) for 220 days. The unaltered and altered samples were studied in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR), and select samples were chosen for scanning electron microscopy analysis. Materials altered in pH 3 solutions showed little to no physical alteration, and their spectral signatures changed very little. In contrast, all materials altered in pH 1 acid displayed silica-rich alteration textures, and the morphology differed based on starting material crystallinity. The more crystalline material displayed extensive alteration reaching into the sample interiors and had weaker silica spectral features. The glass sample developed alteration layers tens of microns thick, exhibiting amorphous silica-rich spectral features that completely obscured the substrate. Thus, the strong absorption coefficient of silica effectively decreases the penetration depth of TIR spectral measurements, causing silica abundances to be grossly overestimated in remote sensing data. Additionally, glass samples with silica layers exhibited distinct concave up blue spectral slopes in the VNIR. Spectra from the northern lowland plains of Mars are modeled with high abundances of amorphous silica and exhibit concave up blue spectral slopes and are thus consistent with acid altered basaltic glass. Therefore, we conclude that large regions of the Martian surface may have formed through the interaction of basaltic glass with strongly acidic fluids.

  19. Seismic properties and effects of hydrothermal alteration on Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) deposits at the Lalor Lake in Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Khalid H.; Bellefleur, Gilles; Schetselaar, Ernst; Potter, David K.

    2015-12-01

    Borehole sonic and density logs are essential for mineral exploration at depth, but its limited availability to link rock properties of different ore forming geologic structure is a hindrance to seismic data interpretations. In situ density and velocity logs provide first order control on the reflectivity of various lithologic units. We analyzed borehole logs from 12 drill holes over and around the Lalor VMS deposits geographically located in the northern Manitoba, Canada, in an attempt to characterize lithologic units based on its seismic properties. The Lalor Lake deposit is part of the Paleoproterozoic Flin Flon Belt, and associated with an extensive hydrothermal alteration system. Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) zones are distributed in several ore lenses with relatively shallower facies comprise solid to solid sulfides, tend to be disseminated or Stringer sulfides, while deeper lenses are gold and silver enriched and occurred in the highly altered footwall region. Our analysis suggests that massive sulfide and diorite have higher acoustic impedance than other rock units, and can produce useful reflection signatures in seismic data. Bivariate distributions of P-wave velocity, density, acoustic impedance and Poisson's ratio in end-member mineral cones were used for qualitative assessment of the extent of alteration of various lithologic units. It can be inferred that hydrothermal alteration has considerably increased P-wave velocity and density of altered argillite and felsic volcanic rocks in comparison to their corresponding unaltered facies. Amphibole, garnet, kyanite, pyrite, sphalerite and staurolite are the dominant end-member alteration minerals affecting seismic rock properties at the VMS site.

  20. ALTERATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF RED BLOOD CELLS MEMBRANES PROTEINS OF DIFFERENT AGE AND SEX VOLUNTEERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruidze, N; Khetsuriani, R; Sujashvili, R; Ioramashvili, I; Arabuli, M; Sanikidze, T

    2015-01-01

    disorders of protein-protein interaction mechanisms, their ubiquitinylation or oligomerisation and formation of high molecular weight complexes of inactivated proteins in aged RBCs. These processes play important role in regulation of the RBCs shape and stability. Identified sex- and age-related alterations in RBCs membranes proteins affect the rheological properties of blood and can be considered as the etiologic and pathogenic markers of various diseases.

  1. Dynamic wettability alteration in immiscible two-phase flow in porous media: Effect on transport properties and critical slowing down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard eFlovik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The change in contact angles due to the injection of low salinity water or any other wettability altering agent in an oil-rich porous medium is modeled by a network model of disordered pores transporting two immiscible fluids. We introduce a dynamic wettability altering mechanism, where the time dependent wetting property of each pore is determined by the cumulative flow of water through it. Simulations are performed to reach steady-state for different possible alterations in the wetting angle (θ. We find that deviation from oil-wet conditions re-mobilizes the stuck clusters and increases the oil fractional flow. However, the rate of increase in the fractional flow depends strongly on θ and as θ → 90◦ , a critical angle, the system shows critical slowing down which is characterized by two dynamic critical exponents.

  2. Dynamic wettability alteration in immiscible two-phase flow in porous media: Effect on transport properties and critical slowing down

    CERN Document Server

    Flovik, Vegard; Hansen, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The change in contact angles due to the injection of low salinity water or any other wettability altering agent in an oil-rich porous medium is modeled by a network model of disordered pores transporting two immiscible fluids. We introduce a dynamic wettability altering mechanism, where the time dependent wetting property of each pore is determined by the cumulative flow of water through it. Simulations are performed to reach steady-state for different possible alterations in the wetting angle ($\\theta$). We find that deviation from oil-wet conditions re-mobilizes the stuck clusters and increases the oil fractional flow. However, the rate of increase in the fractional flow depends strongly on $\\theta$ and as $\\theta\\to 90^\\circ$, a critical angle, the system shows critical slowing down which is characterized by two dynamic critical exponents.

  3. Kinetics Modeling of Cancer Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-09

    CANCER IMMUNOLOGY -1 DTICS ELECTED SEP 9 8 UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND V ,1986 %,e docment ha le approved for public A." I and sale...1986 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED KINETICS MODELING OF CANCER IMMUNOLOGY Final: 1985/1986 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...137 (1986) "Kinetics Modeling of Cancer Immunology " A Trident Scholar Project Report by Midn I/C Scott Helmers, Class of 1986 United States Naval

  4. Immunology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cose, Stephen; Bagaya, Bernard; Nerima, Barbara; Joloba, Moses; Kambugu, Andrew; Tweyongyere, Robert; Dunne, David W; Mbidde, Edward; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Elliott, Alison M

    2015-12-01

    Africa is a continent with a large burden of both infectious and non-communicable diseases. If we are to move forward as a continent, we need to equip our growing cadre of exceptional young scientists with the skills needed to tackle the diseases endemic to this continent. For this, immunology is among the key disciplines. Africans should be empowered to study and understand the diseases that affect them, and to perform their cutting-edge research in their country of origin. This requires a multifaceted approach, with buy-in from funders, overseas partners and perhaps, most important of all, African governments themselves.

  5. Islet transplantation: immunological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverardi, Luca; Kenyon, Norma S; Ricordi, Camillo

    2003-10-01

    Clinical trials of islet transplantation are showing remarkable success, but they require administration of chronic immunosuppression, and are underscoring the large gap that exists between the number of human donors available and the number of patients that could benefit from the procedure. Recent progress has been made in the definition of key immunological mechanisms that are involved in determining islet transplant outcome. Clinical and preclinical studies, and studies in small animal model systems, will all eventually contribute to the definition of efficient and safe protocols for islet transplantation. If the use of xenografts is successful, it might represent a solution to the shortage of human organs.

  6. Mathematics in modern immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mario; Lythe, Grant; Molina-París, Carmen; Ribeiro, Ruy M

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical and statistical methods enable multidisciplinary approaches that catalyse discovery. Together with experimental methods, they identify key hypotheses, define measurable observables and reconcile disparate results. We collect a representative sample of studies in T-cell biology that illustrate the benefits of modelling-experimental collaborations and that have proven valuable or even groundbreaking. We conclude that it is possible to find excellent examples of synergy between mathematical modelling and experiment in immunology, which have brought significant insight that would not be available without these collaborations, but that much remains to be discovered.

  7. Broadening the translational immunology landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peakman, M

    2012-12-01

    It is just over 5 years since Clinical and Experimental Immunology came under the direction of a new team of Editors and made a concerted effort to refresh its approach to promoting clinical and applied immunology through its pages. There were two major objectives: to foster papers in a field which, at the time, we loosely termed 'translational immunology'; and to create a forum for the presentation and discussion of immunology that is relevant to clinicians operating in this space. So, how are we doing with these endeavours? This brief paper aims to summarize some of the key learning points and successes and highlight areas in which translational gaps remain.

  8. Immunology of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Palmeira

    Full Text Available Summary In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk’s immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant’s ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant’s secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  9. Altered topological properties of functional network connectivity in schizophrenia during resting state: a small-world brain network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingbao; Sui, Jing; Rachakonda, Srinivas; He, Hao; Gruner, William; Pearlson, Godfrey; Kiehl, Kent A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant topological properties of small-world human brain networks in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) have been documented in previous neuroimaging studies. Aberrant functional network connectivity (FNC, temporal relationships among independent component time courses) has also been found in SZ by a previous resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. However, no study has yet determined if topological properties of FNC are also altered in SZ. In this study, small-world network metrics of FNC during the resting state were examined in both healthy controls (HCs) and SZ subjects. FMRI data were obtained from 19 HCs and 19 SZ. Brain images were decomposed into independent components (ICs) by group independent component analysis (ICA). FNC maps were constructed via a partial correlation analysis of ICA time courses. A set of undirected graphs were built by thresholding the FNC maps and the small-world network metrics of these maps were evaluated. Our results demonstrated significantly altered topological properties of FNC in SZ relative to controls. In addition, topological measures of many ICs involving frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar areas were altered in SZ relative to controls. Specifically, topological measures of whole network and specific components in SZ were correlated with scores on the negative symptom scale of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). These findings suggest that aberrant architecture of small-world brain topology in SZ consists of ICA temporally coherent brain networks.

  10. Nitrogen deposition alters soil chemical properties and bacterial communities in the Inner Mongolia grassland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ximei Zhang; Xingguo Han

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition has dramatically altered biodiversity and ecosystem functioning on the earth; however,its effects on soil bacterial community and the underlying mechanisms of these effects have not been thoroughly examined.Changes in ecosystems caused by nitrogen deposition have traditionally been attributed to increased nitrogen content.In fact,nitrogen deposition not only leads to increased soil total N content,but also changes in the NH4+-N content,NO3--N content and pH,as well as changes in the heterogeneity of the four indexes.The soil indexes for these four factors,their heterogeneity and even the plant community might be routes through which nitrogen deposition alters the bacterial community.Here,we describe a 6-year nitrogen addition experiment conducted in a typical steppe ecosystem to investigate the ecological mechanism by which nitrogen deposition alters bacterial abundance,diversity and composition.We found that various characteristics of the bacterial community were explained by different environmental factors.Nitrogen deposition decreased bacterial abundance that is positively related to soil pH value.In addition,nitrogen addition decreased bacterial diversity,which is negatively related to soil total N content and positively related to soil NO3--N heterogeneity.Finally,nitrogen.addition altered bacterial composition that is significantly related to soil NH4+-N content.Although nitrogen deposition significantly altered plant biomass,diversity and composition,these characteristics of plant community did not have a significant impact on processes of nitrogen deposition that led to alterations in bacterial abundance,diversity and composition.Therefore,more sensitive molecular technologies should be adopted to detect the subtle shifts of microbial community structure induced by the changes of plant community upon nitrogen deposition.

  11. Deletion of PsbM in tobacco alters the QB site properties and the electron flow within photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umate, Pavan; Schwenkert, Serena; Karbat, Izhar; Dal Bosco, Cristina; Mlcòchová, Lada; Volz, Stefanie; Zer, Hagit; Herrmann, Reinhold G; Ohad, Itzhak; Meurer, Jörg

    2007-03-30

    Photosystem II, the oxygen-evolving complex of photosynthetic organisms, includes an intriguingly large number of low molecular weight polypeptides, including PsbM. Here we describe the first knock-out of psbM using a transplastomic, reverse genetics approach in a higher plant. Homoplastomic Delta psbM plants exhibit photoautotrophic growth. Biochemical, biophysical, and immunological analyses demonstrate that PsbM is not required for biogenesis of higher order photosystem II complexes. However, photosystem II is highly light-sensitive, and its activity is significantly decreased in Delta psbM, whereas kinetics of plastid protein synthesis, reassembly of photosystem II, and recovery of its activity are comparable with the wild type. Unlike wild type, phosphorylation of the reaction center proteins D1 and D2 is severely reduced, whereas the redox-controlled phosphorylation of photosystem II light-harvesting complex is reversely regulated in Delta psbM plants because of accumulation of reduced plastoquinone in the dark and a limited photosystem II-mediated electron transport in the light. Charge recombination in Delta psbM measured by thermoluminescence oscillations significantly differs from the 2/6 patterns in the wild type. A simulation program of thermoluminescence oscillations indicates a higher Q(B)/Q(-)(B) ratio in dark-adapted mutant thylakoids relative to the wild type. The interaction of the Q(A)/Q(B) sites estimated by shifts in the maximal thermoluminescence emission temperature of the Q band, induced by binding of different herbicides to the Q(B) site, is changed indicating alteration of the activation energy for back electron flow. We conclude that PsbM is primarily involved in the interaction of the redox components important for the electron flow within, outward, and backward to photosystem II.

  12. Ideernes epidemiologi og kulturens immunologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    , suggested by Sperber, is extended by an ‘immunology of cultural systems’. In addition to the selective forces described by Sperber and Boyer, the immunological approach argues that the relative success of new representations is largely dependent on how well they fit already existing cultural models...

  13. Immunological effects of vasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotolongo, J R

    1982-06-01

    It is only recently that the adverse effects of vasectomy have become the subject of numerous scientific and at times speculative articles in medical and in lay periodicals. In this review of the literature on the immunological effects of vasectomy, attention is directed to the following: immunological response; cellular immunity; effects on testes and epididymis, and systemic effects of sperm autoantibodies. In 1970, 50% of vasectomized men were found to have circulating spermatozoal antibodies. A more recent survey provides confirmation for this finding and presents an incidence of only 2% of agglutinating antibodies and 0% of immobilizing antibodies in a fertile control population. Some recent and convincing studies have shown sperm agglutinating and immobilizing antibodies to remain either at the same titer level or actually to increase 5-12 years postoperatively. Titers range from 2 to 2048 among different patients. The highest incidence of titers is 1 year after vasectomy, but titers can be found as early as 6 months or as late as 20 years postoperatively. The wide range in titers can be explained in terms of technical problems in immune assays, since only immunoglobulins and not those antibodies part of immune complex systems can be measured. Since sperm antigens are in abundant supply in vasectomized men because of the continuous resorption of spermatozoa after vasectomy, possibly undetectable antibody titers actually reflect high levels of antisperm antibodies circulating in the form of immune complexes. Also it may be possible that the variety in measured titers of autoantibodies, as well as the nonuniversal (70%) antibody response in a vasectomized population, is a variable dependent on genetic content and, therefore, an individual characteristic. The fact that hormonal reponse takes place rather readily after vasectomy makes at least some degree of cellular response a necessary occurrence. Studies by Alexander and Anderson, which show delayed

  14. Immunological, physiological and behavioral effects of Salmonella enterica carriage and shedding in experimentally infected finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. This study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and associated immunological, physiological, and behavioral alterations, by longitudinally ...

  15. The immunological synapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Thomas; Pedersen, Lars Ostergaard; Geisler, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    The induction of a proper adaptive immune response is dependent on the correct transfer of information between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and antigen-specific T cells. Defects in information transfer may result in the development of diseases, e.g. immunodeficiencies and autoimmunity. A disti......The induction of a proper adaptive immune response is dependent on the correct transfer of information between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and antigen-specific T cells. Defects in information transfer may result in the development of diseases, e.g. immunodeficiencies and autoimmunity....... A distinct 3-dimensional supramolecular structure at the T cell/APC interface has been suggested to be involved in the information transfer. Due to its functional analogy to the neuronal synapse, the structure has been termed the "immunological synapse" (IS). Here, we review molecular aspects concerning...

  16. Fundamentals of vaccine immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Clem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s by which immunizations stimulate(s immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the adaptive system by the production of effector cells and memory cells. At least seven different types of vaccines are currently in use or in development that produce this effective immunity and have contributed greatly to the prevention of infectious disease around the world.

  17. Photothermal effects of immunologically modified carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Ryan T.; Henderson, Brock; Goddard, Jessica; Tan, Yongqiang; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes have a great potential in the biomedical applications. To use carbon nanotubes in the treatment of cancer, we synthesized an immunologically modified single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) using a novel immunomodifier, glycated chitosan (GC), as an effective surfactant for SWNT. This new composition SWNT-GC was stable due to the strong non-covalent binding between SWNT and GC. The structure of SWNT-GC is presented in this report. The photothermal effect of SWNT-GC was investigated under irradiation of a near-infrared laser. SWNT-GC retained the optical properties of SWNT and the immunological properties of GC. Specifically, the SWNT-GC could selectively absorb a 980-nm light and induce desirable thermal effects in tissue culture and in animals. It could also induce tumor cell destruction, controlled by the laser settings and the doses of SWNT and GC. Laser+SWNT-GC treatment could also induce strong expression of heat shock proteins on the surface of tumor cells. This immunologically modified carbon nanotube could be used for selective photothermal interactions in noninvasive tumor treatment.

  18. Mineralogy and thermodynamic properties of magnesium phyllosilicates formed during the alteration of a simplified nuclear glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debure, Mathieu; De Windt, Laurent; Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane; Vieillard, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The precipitation of crystallized magnesium phyllosilicates generally sustains the alteration rate of nuclear waste containment glass. However, glass alteration slows down to a residual rate as soon as Mg disappears from the solution. The identification of the phyllosilicates formed is therefore crucial for modeling the long-term behavior of nuclear glass. This study deals with batch alteration of the simplified nuclear glass ISG in presence of magnesium, and the characterization of the secondary phases. Morphological, chemical and structural analyses (MET, EDX, XRD) were performed to determine the nature and structure of the precipitated phases identified as trioctahedral smectites. Analyses conducted on the secondary phases proved the presence of Al, Na and Ca in the Mg-phyllosilicate phases. Such elements had been suspected but never quantitatively measured. The experimental results were then used to determine the thermodynamic solubility constants for each precipitated secondary phase at various temperatures. The calculated values were consistent with those available for sodium and magnesium saponites in the existing thermodynamic databases.

  19. Noncoding RNAs in Cancer Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunology is the study of interaction between cancer cells and immune system by the application of immunology principle and theory. With the recent approval of several new drugs targeting immune checkpoints in cancer, cancer immunology has become a very attractive field of research and is thought to be the new hope to conquer cancer. This chapter introduces the aberrant expression and function of noncoding RNAs, mainly microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, in tumor-infiltrating immune cells, and their significance in tumor immunity. It also illustrates how noncoding RNAs are shuttled between tumor cells and immune cells in tumor microenvironments via exosomes or other microvesicles to modulate tumor immunity.

  20. Does Addition of Propolis to Glass Ionomer Cement Alter its Physicomechanical Properties? An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, P; Girish Babu, K L; Neeraja, G; Pillai, S

    Propolis is a natural resinous substance produced by honey bees. The antimicrobial effects of glass ionomer cement have been shown to improve with the addition of propolis; however its effect on the physicomechanical properties of the cement is not known.

  1. Maternal mobile phone exposure alters intrinsic electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavinasab, Moazamehosadat; Moazzami, Kasra; Shabani, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Some studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) may result in structural damage to neurons. In this study, we have elucidated the alteration in the hippocampal function of offspring Wistar rats (n = 8 rats in each group) that were chronically exposed to mobile phones during their gestational period by applying behavioral, histological, and electrophysiological tests. Rats in the EMF group were exposed to 900 MHz pulsed-EMF irradiation for 6 h/day. Whole cell recordings in hippocampal pyramidal cells in the mobile phone groups did show a decrease in neuronal excitability. Mobile phone exposure was mostly associated with a decrease in the number of action potentials fired in spontaneous activity and in response to current injection in both male and female groups. There was an increase in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in mobile phone rats compared with the control. The results of the passive avoidance and Morris water maze assessment of learning and memory performance showed that phone exposure significantly altered learning acquisition and memory retention in male and female rats compared with the control rats. Light microscopy study of brain sections of the control and mobile phone-exposed rats showed normal morphology.Our results suggest that exposure to mobile phones adversely affects the cognitive performance of both female and male offspring rats using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques.

  2. Biochemical evaluation of a 108-member deglycobleomycin library: viability of a selection strategy for identifying bleomycin analogues with altered properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Xu, Zhidong; Schroeder, Benjamin R; Sun, Wenyue; Wei, Fang; Hashimoto, Shigeki; Konishi, Kazuhide; Leitheiser, Christopher J; Hecht, Sidney M

    2007-10-17

    The bleomycins (BLMs) are clinically used glycopeptide antitumor antibiotics that have been shown to mediate the sequence-selective oxidative damage of both DNA and RNA. Previously, we described the solid-phase synthesis of a library of 108 unique analogues of deglycoBLM A6, a congener that cleaves DNA analogously to BLM itself. Each member of the library was assayed for its ability to effect single- and double-strand nicking of duplex DNA, sequence-selective DNA cleavage, and RNA cleavage in the presence and absence of a metal ion cofactor. All of the analogues tested were found to mediate concentration-dependent plasmid DNA relaxation to some extent, and a number exhibited double-strand cleavage with an efficiency comparable to or greater than deglycoBLM A6. Further, some analogues having altered linker and metal-binding domains mediated altered sequence-selective cleavage, and a few were found to cleave a tRNA3Lys transcript both in the presence and in the absence of a metal cofactor. The results provide insights into structural elements within BLM that control DNA and RNA cleavage. The present study also permits inferences to be drawn regarding the practicality of a selection strategy for the solid-phase construction and evaluation of large libraries of BLM analogues having altered properties.

  3. Alteration of corrosion and nanomechanical properties of pulse electrodeposited Ni/SiC nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarghami, V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, M., E-mail: Ghorbani@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • Preparing Ni/SiC coatings on the Cu substrate by using of rotating disk electrode. • Optimizing of pulse current density parameters. • Optimizing of SiC content in the bath. • Investigation the effect of codeposited SiC amount on the properties of coatings. - Abstract: Nickel/silicon carbide composite electrodeposits were prepared on a rotating disk electrode (RDE), under pulse current condition. The effect of pulse parameters, current density, SiC content in the electrolyte on the codeposition of SiC were studied. Afterwards, the effect of codeposited SiC amount was investigated on electrochemical behavior and nanomechanical properties of coatings. The coatings were analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), linear polarization, nanoindentation and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The Ni–SiC electrocomposites, prepared at optimum conditions, exhibited improved nanomechanical properties in comparison to pure nickel electrodeposits. With increasing current density the morphology changed from flat surface to cauliflower structure. The Ni–SiC electrocomposites exhibited improved nanomechanical properties and corrosion resistances in comparison to pure nickel electrodeposits and these properties were improving with increasing codeposited SiC particles in electrocomposites.

  4. IMMUNOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN CANCER: A LINK BETWEEN INFLAMMATION AND IMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jacob Victorino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide issue and one of the most relevant death causes in child and adults. There are several causes that can lead to cancer development. It is well known that inflammation is one known hallmark of cancer and it favors tumor cells growth. Several alterations in immunological and inflammatory processes are caused in response to tumor presence and both innate and adaptive immunity have effective mechanism to destroy tumor cells. Nevertheless, distinct tumor types developed mechanisms to evade anti-tumor immunological responses. Here, we revise researches regarding inflammation and immune response during cancer development, as well as cancer signaling pathways and immunotherapy that have been performed in Brazil. The better understanding of the mechanisms regarding cancer and immunological processes is of huge importance and it may support the development of new cancer targets.

  5. Dynamic Alterations in Microarchitecture, Mineralization and Mechanical Property of Subchondral Bone in Rat Medial Meniscal Tear Model of Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The properties of subchondral bone influence the integrity of articular cartilage in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA. However, the characteristics of subchondral bone alterations remain unresolved. The present study aimed to observe the dynamic alterations in the microarchitecture, mineralization, and mechanical properties of subchondral bone during the progression of OA. Methods: A medial meniscal tear (MMT operation was performed in 128 adult Sprague Dawley rats to induce OA. At 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following the MMT operation, cartilage degeneration was evaluated using toluidine blue O staining, whereas changes in the microarchitecture indices and tissue mineral density (TMD, mineral-to-collagen ratio, and intrinsic mechanical properties of subchondral bone plates (BPs and trabecular bones (Tbs were measured using micro-computed tomography scanning, confocal Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation testing, respectively. Results: Cartilage degeneration occurred and worsened progressively from 2 to 12 weeks after OA induction. Microarchitecture analysis revealed that the subchondral bone shifted from bone resorption early (reduced trabecular BV/TV, trabecular number, connectivity density and trabecular thickness [Tb.Th], and increased trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp at 2 and 4 weeks to bone accretion late (increased BV/TV, Tb.Th and thickness of subchondral bone plate, and reduced Tb.Sp at 8 and 12 weeks. The TMD of both the BP and Tb displayed no significant changes at 2 and 4 weeks but decreased at 8 and 12 weeks. The mineral-to-collagen ratio showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks for the Tb and from 8 weeks for the BP after OA induction. Both the elastic modulus and hardness of the Tb showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks after OA induction. The BP showed a significant decrease in its elastic modulus from 8 weeks and its hardness from 4 weeks. Conclusion: The microarchitecture, mineralization and mechanical

  6. Adhesion defective BHK cell mutant has cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan of altered properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Austria, R; Woods, A;

    1988-01-01

    In the light of accumulating data that implicate cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) with a role in cell interactions with extracellular matrix molecules such as fibronectin, we have compared the properties of these molecules in wild-type BHK cells and an adhesion-defective ricin......-resistant mutant (RicR14). Our results showed that the mutant, unlike BHK cells, cannot form focal adhesions when adherent to planar substrates in the presence of serum. Furthermore, while both cell lines possess similar amounts of cell surface HSPG with hydrophobic properties, that of RicR14 cells had decreased...

  7. Fatigue Induced Alteration of the Superficial Strength Properties of 2024 Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.-D. Bouzakis; I. Mirisidis; Sp. G. Pantelakis; A.N. Chamos

    2011-01-01

    aluminum alloy 2024 T3 specimens have been subjected to constant amplitude fatigue loading at R=0.1. During fatigue, an appreciable increase of the surface hardness of the material at the meso-scale can be observed and captured by means of nanoindentations. Surface hardness increases with increasing fatigue stress amplitude and advancing number of applied fatigue cycles. Observed increase of specimen surface hardening degree during fatigue causes an evolution of superficial mechanical strength properties of the alloy. Stress-strain curves associated with the evoluting superficial mechanical properties are derived, employing a developed finite element method (FEM)-supported evaluation procedure of nanoindentation experimental results.

  8. Antibody to gp41 MPER alters functional properties of HIV-1 Env without complete neutralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur S Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human antibody 10E8 targets the conserved membrane proximal external region (MPER of envelope glycoprotein (Env subunit gp41 and neutralizes HIV-1 with exceptional potency. Remarkably, HIV-1 containing mutations that reportedly knockout 10E8 binding to linear MPER peptides are partially neutralized by 10E8, producing a local plateau in the dose response curve. Here, we found that virus partially neutralized by 10E8 becomes significantly less neutralization sensitive to various MPER antibodies and to soluble CD4 while becoming significantly more sensitive to antibodies and fusion inhibitors against the heptad repeats of gp41. Thus, 10E8 modulates sensitivity of Env to ligands both pre- and post-receptor engagement without complete neutralization. Partial neutralization by 10E8 was influenced at least in part by perturbing Env glycosylation. With unliganded Env, 10E8 bound with lower apparent affinity and lower subunit occupancy to MPER mutant compared to wild type trimers. However, 10E8 decreased functional stability of wild type Env while it had an opposite, stabilizing effect on MPER mutant Envs. Clade C isolates with natural MPER polymorphisms also showed partial neutralization by 10E8 with altered sensitivity to various gp41-targeted ligands. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of virus neutralization by demonstrating how antibody binding to the base of a trimeric spike cross talks with adjacent subunits to modulate Env structure and function. The ability of an antibody to stabilize, destabilize, partially neutralize as well as alter neutralization sensitivity of a virion spike pre- and post-receptor engagement may have implications for immunotherapy and vaccine design.

  9. Partial Decay of Thiamine Signal Transduction Pathway Alters Growth Properties of Candida glabrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Noor F.; Neal, Erin M.; Leone, Sarah G.; Cali, Brian J.; Peel, Michael T.; Grannas, Amanda M.; Wykoff, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    The phosphorylated form of thiamine (Vitamin B1), thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is essential for the metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates in all organisms. Plants and microorganisms, such as yeast, synthesize thiamine de novo whereas animals do not. The thiamine signal transduction (THI) pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well characterized. The ~10 genes required for thiamine biosynthesis and uptake are transcriptionally upregulated during thiamine starvation by THI2, THI3, and PDC2. Candida glabrata, a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen, is closely related to S. cerevisiae but is missing half of the biosynthetic pathway, which limits its ability to make thiamine. We investigated the changes to the THI pathway in C. glabrata, confirming orthologous functions. We found that C. glabrata is unable to synthesize the pyrimidine subunit of thiamine as well as the thiamine precursor vitamin B6. In addition, THI2 (the gene encoding a transcription factor) is not present in C. glabrata, indicating a difference in the transcriptional regulation of the pathway. Although the pathway is upregulated by thiamine starvation in both species, C. glabrata appears to upregulate genes involved in thiamine uptake to a greater extent than S. cerevisiae. However, the altered regulation of the THI pathway does not alter the concentration of thiamine and its vitamers in the two species as measured by HPLC. Finally, we demonstrate potential consequences to having a partial decay of the THI biosynthetic and regulatory pathway. When the two species are co-cultured, the presence of thiamine allows C. glabrata to rapidly outcompete S. cerevisiae, while absence of thiamine allows S. cerevisiae to outcompete C. glabrata. This simplification of the THI pathway in C. glabrata suggests its environment provides thiamine and/or its precursors to cells, whereas S. cerevisiae is not as reliant on environmental sources of thiamine. PMID:27015653

  10. Cytomechanical properties of papaver pollen tubes are altered after self-incompatibility challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geitmann, A.; McConnaughey, W.; Lang-Pauluzzi, I.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) in Papaver rhoeas triggers a ligand-mediated signal transduction cascade, resulting in the inhibition of incompatible pollen tube growth. Using a cytomechanical approach we have demonstrated that dramatic changes to the mechanical properties of incompatible pollen tubes are

  11. Induction of advanced glycation end products and alterations of the tensile properties of articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.C.; Temple, M.M.; Ng, D.M.; Verzijl, N.; Groot, J. de; TeKoppele, J.M.; Sah, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether increasing advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in bovine articular cartilage to levels present in aged human cartilage modulates the tensile biomechanical properties of the tissue. Methods. Adult bovine articular cartilage samples were incubated in a buffer solutio

  12. Differences in Age-Related Alterations in Muscle Contraction Properties in Rat Tongue and Hindlimb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Nadine P.; Ota, Fumikazu; Nagai, Hiromi; Russell, John A.; Leverson, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Because of differences in muscle architecture and biomechanics, the purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle contractile properties of rat hindlimb and tongue were differentially affected by aging. Method: Deep peroneal and hypoglossal nerves were stimulated in 6 young and 7 old Fischer 344-Brown Norway rats to allow…

  13. Lathyrism-induced alterations in collagen cross-links influence the mechanical properties of bone material without affecting the mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, E.P.; Tatakis, D.N.; Robins, S.; Fratzl, P.; Manjubala, I.; Zoehrer, R.; Gamsjaeger, S.; Buchinger, B.; Roschger, A.; Phipps, R.; Boskey, A.L.; Dall'Ara, E.; Varga, P.; Zysset, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Roschger, P.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study a rat animal model of lathyrism was employed to decipher whether anatomically confined alterations in collagen cross-links are sufficient to influence the mechanical properties of whole bone. Animal experiments were performed under an ethics committee approved protocol. Sixty-four female (47 day old) rats of equivalent weights were divided into four groups (16 per group): Controls were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.6% calcium and 0.6% phosphorus for 2 or 4 weeks and β-APN treated animals were fed additionally with β-aminopropionitrile (0.1% dry weight). At the end of this period the rats in the four groups were sacrificed, and L2–L6 vertebra were collected. Collagen cross-links were determined by both biochemical and spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI)) analyses. Mineral content and distribution (BMDD) were determined by quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), and mineral maturity/crystallinity by FTIRI techniques. Micro-CT was used to describe the architectural properties. Mechanical performance of whole bone as well as of bone matrix material was tested by vertebral compression tests and by nano-indentation, respectively. The data of the present study indicate that β-APN treatment changed whole vertebra properties compared to non-treated rats, including collagen cross-links pattern, trabecular bone volume to tissue ratio and trabecular thickness, which were all decreased (p < 0.05). Further, compression tests revealed a significant negative impact of β-APN treatment on maximal force to failure and energy to failure, while stiffness was not influenced. Bone mineral density distribution (BMDD) was not altered either. At the material level, β-APN treated rats exhibited increased Pyd/Divalent cross-link ratios in areas confined to a newly formed bone. Moreover, nano-indentation experiments showed that the E-modulus and hardness were reduced only in newly formed bone areas under the influence

  14. Preparation of whey protein hydrolysates using a single- and two-stage enzymatic membrane reactor and their immunological and antioxidant properties: characterization by multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Wang, Zhang; Xu, Shi-Ying

    2007-05-16

    An initial 5% (w/v), followed thereafter with replacement aliquots of 3% (w/v), whey protein isolate (WPI) (ca. 86.98% Kjeldahl N x 6.38), was hydrolyzed using Protease N Amano G (IUB 3.4.24.28, Bacillus subtilis) in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) fitted with either a 10 or 3 kDa nominal molecular weight cutoff (NMWCO) tangential flow filter (TFF) membrane. The hydrolysates were desalted by adsorption onto a styrene-based macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) and washed with deionized water to remove the alkali, and the peptides were desorbed with 25, 50, and 95% (v/v) ethyl alcohol. The desalted hydrolysates were analyzed for antibody binding, free radical scavenging, and molecular mass analysis as well as total and free amino acids (FAA). For the first time a quantity called IC50, the concentration of peptides causing 50% inhibition of the available antibody, is introduced to quantify inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data reduction. The hydrolysate molecular mass provided the most prominent influence (PC1 = 57.35%), followed by inhibition ELISA (PC2 = 18.90%) and the antioxidant properties (PC3 = 10.43%). Ash was significantly reduced in the desalted fractions; the protein adsorption recoveries were high, whereas desorption with alcohol was prominently influenced by the hydrophobic/ hydrophilic amino acid balance. After hydrolysis, some hydrolysates showed increased ELISA reactivity compared with the native WPI.

  15. Induction of advanced glycation end products and alterations of the tensile properties of articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, A C; Temple, M.M.; Ng, D.M.; Verzijl, N; de Groot, J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Sah, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether increasing advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in bovine articular cartilage to levels present in aged human cartilage modulates the tensile biomechanical properties of the tissue. Methods. Adult bovine articular cartilage samples were incubated in a buffer solution with ribose to induce the formation of AGEs or in a control solution. Portions of cartilage samples were assayed for biochemical indices of AGEs and tested to assess their tensile biomechanical p...

  16. RNA editing of the GABAA receptor α3 subunit alters the functional properties of recombinant receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Nimmich, Mitchell L.; Heidelberg, Laura S.; Fisher, Janet L.

    2009-01-01

    RNA editing provides a post-transcriptional mechanism to increase structural heterogeneity of gene products. Recently, the α3 subunit of the GABAA receptors has been shown to undergo RNA editing. As a result, a highly conserved isoleucine residue in the third transmembrane domain is replaced with a methionine. To determine the effect of this structural change on receptor function, we compared the GABA sensitivity, pharmacological properties and macroscopic kinetics of recombinant receptors co...

  17. Computer analysis of effects of altering jet fuel properties on refinery costs and yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, T.; Dunbar, D.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the adequacy of future U.S. jet fuel supplies, the potential for large increases in the cost of jet fuel, and to what extent a relaxation in jet fuel properties would remedy these potential problems. The results of the study indicate that refiners should be able to meet jet fuel output requirements in all regions of the country within the current Jet A specifications during the 1990-2010 period. The results also indicate that it will be more difficult to meet Jet A specifications on the West Coast, because the feedstock quality is worse and the required jet fuel yield (jet fuel/crude refined) is higher than in the East. The results show that jet fuel production costs could be reduced by relaxing fuel properties. Potential cost savings in the East (PADDs I-IV) through property relaxation were found to be about 1.3 cents/liter (5 cents/gallon) in January 1, 1981 dollars between 1990 and 2010. However, the savings from property relaxation were all obtained within the range of current Jet A specifications, so there is no financial incentive to relax Jet A fuel specifications in the East. In the West (PADD V) the potential cost savings from lowering fuel quality were considerably greater than in the East. Cost savings from 2.7 to 3.7 cents/liter (10-14 cents/gallon) were found. In contrast to the East, on the West Coast a significant part of the savings was obtained through relaxation of the current Jet A fuel specifications.

  18. Polymeric tannins significantly alter properties and in vitro digestibility of partially gelatinized intact starch granule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, Derrick B; Awika, Joseph M

    2016-10-01

    Excess calorie intake is a growing global problem. This study investigated effect of complexing partially gelatinized starch with condensed tannins on in vitro starch digestibility. Extracts from tannin and non-tannin sorghum, and cellulose control, were reacted with normal and waxy maize starch in 30% (30E) and 50% ethanol (50E) solutions at 70°C/20min. More tannins complexed with the 30E than 50E starches (mean 6.2 vs 3.5mg/g, respectively). In the 30E treatments, tannins significantly increased crystallinity, pasting temperature, peak viscosity, and slow digesting starch (from 100 to 274mg/g) in normal, but not waxy starch, suggesting intragranular cross-linking with amylose. Tannins doubled resistant starch (RS) to approx. 300mg/g in both starches. In 50E treatments, tannins made both maize starches behave like raw potato starch (>90% RS), suggesting granule surface interactions dominated. Non-tannin treatments generally behaved similar to cellulose. Condensed tannins could be used to favorably alter starch digestion profile.

  19. Altered small-world properties of gray matter networks in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini S M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer survivors, particularly those treated with chemotherapy, are at significantly increased risk for long-term cognitive and neurobiologic impairments. These deficits tend to involve skills that are subserved by distributed brain networks. Additionally, neuroimaging studies have shown a diffuse pattern of brain structure changes in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors that might impact large-scale brain networks. Methods We therefore applied graph theoretical analysis to compare the gray matter structural networks of female breast cancer survivors with a history of chemotherapy treatment and healthy age and education matched female controls. Results Results revealed reduced clustering coefficient and small-world index in the brain network of the breast cancer patients across a range of network densities. In addition, the network of the breast cancer group had less highly interactive nodes and reduced degree/centrality in the frontotemporal regions compared to controls, which may help explain the common impairments of memory and executive functioning among these patients. Conclusions These results suggest that breast cancer and chemotherapy may decrease regional connectivity as well as global network organization and integration, reducing efficiency of the network. To our knowledge, this is the first report of altered large-scale brain networks associated with breast cancer and chemotherapy.

  20. Functional and structural alterations of epithelial barrier properties of rat ileum following X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dublineau, I. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la RadioProtection de l' Homme, Service de Radiobiologie et d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France)]. E-mail: isabelle.dublineau@irsn.fr; Lebrun, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Dept. de Radiopathologie et de Radiobiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France); Grison, S.; Griffiths, N.M. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de la RadioProtection de l' Homme, Service de Radiobiologie et d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France)

    2004-02-01

    Irradiation of the digestive system leads to alterations of the small intestine. We have characterized the disruption of the barrier integrity in rat ileum from 1 to 14 days following irradiation ranging from 6 to 12 Gy. The intestinal permeability to {sup 14}C-mannitol and {sup 3}H-dextran 70,000 was measured in vitro in Ussing chambers. In parallel to these functional studies, immunohistochemical analyses of junctional proteins (ZO-1 and {beta}-catenin) of ileal epithelium were performed by confocal microscopy. Irradiation with 10 Gy induced a marked decrease in epithelial tissue resistance at three days and a fivefold increase in mannitol permeability, without modifications of dextran permeability. A disorganization of the localization for ZO-1 and {beta}-catenin was also observed. At 7 days after irradiation, we observed a recovery of the organization of junctional proteins in parallel to a return of intestinal permeability to control value. In addition to these time-dependent effects, a gradual effect on epithelial integrity of the radiation doses was observed 3 days after irradiation. This study shows a disruption of the integrity of the intestinal barrier in rat ileum following abdominal X-irradiation, depending on the time postirradiation and on the delivered dose. The loss of barrier integrity was characterized by a disorganization of proteins of tight and adherent junctions, leading to increased intestinal permeability to mannitol. (author)

  1. Doping of TiO2 Polymorphs for Altered Optical and Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Nie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent investigations of the influence of dopants on the optical properties of TiO2 polymorphs. The common undoped polymorphs of TiO2 are discussed and compared. The results of recent doping efforts are tabulated, and discussed in the context of doping by elements of the same chemical group. Dopant effects on the band gap and photocatalytic activity are interpreted with reference to a simple qualitative picture of the TiO2 electronic structure, which is supported with first-principles calculations.

  2. Coated fatty acids alter virulence properties of Salmonella Typhimurium and decrease intestinal colonization of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Vanparys, A; Volf, J; Mahu, M; Van Immerseel, F; Rychlik, I; Dewulf, J; Ducatelle, R; Pasmans, F

    2008-12-10

    Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs are a major source of human foodborne salmonellosis. To reduce the number of infected pigs, acidification of feed or drinking water is a common practice. The aim of the present study was to determine whether some frequently used short- (SCFA) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are able to alter virulence gene expression and to decrease Salmonella Typhimurium colonization and shedding in pigs using well established and controlled in vitro and in vivo assays. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 4 SCFA (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) and 2 MCFA (caproic and caprylic acid) were determined using 54 porcine Salmonella Typhimurium field strains. MIC values increased at increasing pH-values and were two to eight times lower for MCFA than for SCFA. Expression of virulence gene fimA was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth supplemented with sub-MIC concentrations of caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). Expression of hilA and invasion in porcine intestinal epithelial cells was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth containing sub-MIC concentrations of butyric acid or propionic acid (10 mM) and caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). When given as feed supplement to pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, coated butyric acid decreased the levels of faecal shedding and intestinal colonization, but had no influence on the colonization of tonsils, spleen and liver. Uncoated fatty acids, however, did not influence fecal shedding, intestinal or tonsillar colonization in pigs. In conclusion, supplementing feed with certain coated fatty acids, such as butyric acid, may help to reduce the Salmonella load in pigs.

  3. Alterations in the properties of neonatal thalamocortical synapses with time in in vitro slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Liliana L; Currie, Stephen P; Daw, Michael I

    2017-01-01

    New synapses are constantly being generated and lost in the living brain with only a subset of these being stabilized to form an enduring component of neuronal circuitry. The properties of synaptic transmission have primarily been established in a variety of in vitro neuronal preparations. It is not clear, however, if newly-formed and persistent synapses contribute to the results of these studies consistently throughout the lifespan of these preparations. In neonatal somatosensory, barrel, cortex we have previously hypothesized that a population of thalamocortical synapses displaying unusually slow kinetics represent newly-formed, default-transient synapses. This clear phenotype would provide an ideal tool to investigate if such newly formed synapses consistently contribute to synaptic transmission throughout a normal experimental protocol. We show that the proportion of synapses recorded in vitro displaying slow kinetics decreases with time after brain slice preparation. However, slow synapses persist in vitro in the presence of either minocycline, an inhibitor of microglia-mediated synapse elimination, or the TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone a promoter of synapse formation. These findings show that the observed properties of synaptic transmission may systematically change with time in vitro in a standard brain slice preparation.

  4. Immunological techniques in viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehermann, Barbara; Naoumov, Nikolai V

    2007-03-01

    The need to quantitate and monitor immune responses of large patient cohorts with standardized techniques is increasing due to the growing range of treatment options for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, the development of combination therapies, and candidate experimental vaccines for HCV. In addition, advances in immunological techniques have provided new tools for detailed phenotypic and functional analysis of cellular immune responses. At present, there is substantial variation in laboratory protocols, reagents, controls and analysis and presentation of results. Standardization of immunological assays would therefore allow better comparison of results amongst individual laboratories and patient cohorts. The EASL-sponsored and AASLD-endorsed Monothematic Conference on Clinical Immunology in Viral Hepatitis was held at the University College London, United Kingdom, Oct 7-8, 2006 to bring together investigators with research experience in clinical immunology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections for in-depth discussion, critical evaluation and standardization of immunological assays. This report summarizes the information presented and discussed at the conference, but is not intended to represent a consensus statement. Our aim is to highlight topics and issues that were supported by general agreement and those that were controversial, as well as to provide suggestions for future work.

  5. RNS60, a charge-stabilized nanostructure saline alters Xenopus Laevis oocyte biophysical membrane properties by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Kim, Duk-Soo; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2015-03-01

    We have examined the effects of RNS60, a 0.9% saline containing charge-stabilized oxygen nanobubble-based structures. RNS60 is generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. This study, implemented in Xenopus laevis oocytes, addresses both the electrophysiological membrane properties and parallel biological processes in the cytoplasm. Intracellular recordings from defolliculated X. laevis oocytes were implemented in: (1) air oxygenated standard Ringer's solution, (2) RNS60-based Ringer's solution, (3) RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen)-based Ringer's, and (4) ONS60 (saline containing high pressure oxygen without TCP modification)-based Ringer's. RNS60-based Ringer's solution induced membrane hyperpolarization from the resting membrane potential. This effect was prevented by: (1) ouabain (a blocker of the sodium/potassium ATPase), (2) rotenone (a mitochondrial electron transfer chain inhibitor preventing usable ATP synthesis), and (3) oligomycin A (an inhibitor of ATP synthase) indicating that RNS60 effects intracellular ATP levels. Increased intracellular ATP levels following RNS60 treatment were directly demonstrated using luciferin/luciferase photon emission. These results indicate that RNS60 alters intrinsic the electrophysiological properties of the X. laevis oocyte membrane by increasing mitochondrial-based ATP synthesis. Ultrastructural analysis of the oocyte cytoplasm demonstrated increased mitochondrial length in the presence of RNS60-based Ringer's solution. It is concluded that the biological properties of RNS60 relate to its ability to optimize ATP synthesis.

  6. Alteration of membrane lipid biophysical properties and resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to cisplatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Alterations of membrane lipid biophysical properties of sensitiveA549 and resistant A549/DDP cells to the Cis-dichlorodiammine platinum (Cisplatin) were performed by measurements of fluorescence and flow cytometry approaches using fluorescence dyes of DPH, N-AS and Merocyanine 540 (MC 540) respectively. Fatty acids of membrane lipid of the two cell lines were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results indicated clearly that fluorescence polarization (P) of the DPH probe is 0.169 for the sensitive A549 cell and 0.194 for the resistant A549/DDP cells. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between the two cell lines. The polarizations of 2-AS and 7-AS which reflect the fluidity of surface and middle of lipid bilayer are 0.134 and 0.144 for the sensitive A549 cells as well as 0.171 and 0.178 for the resistant A549/DDP cells respectively, but there is no significant difference of the polarization of 12-AS between the two cell lines. This shows that altera-tions of the membrane fluidity of both cells were mainly located on the surface and middle of the lipid bilayer. In addition, the packing density of phospholipid molecules in the membrane of the two cell lines detected by MC540 probe indicated that lipid packing of A549 cell membranes was looser than that of the A549/DDP cells. And unsaturation degree of plasma membrane fatty acids of the A549/DDP cells was also lower than that of A549 cells. Taken together, it was proposed that the al-teration of membrane lipid biophysical state may be involved in the resistance of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin.

  7. Selenium-enriched durum wheat improves the nutritional profile of pasta without altering its organoleptic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Pasquale; Platani, Cristiano; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Colecchia, Salvatore Antonio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Petrozza, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted over three growing seasons (2006-07, 2008-09 and 2009-10) to evaluate Se-enriched pasta through foliar fertilization at various rates and timing of application on 4 durum wheat varieties. Our findings confirm the effectiveness of foliar Se fertilization to increase Se concentrations in durum wheat grain, even at high Se rates (120gSeha(-1)). Se fortification was significant across different genotypes, with greater Se accumulation in landraces ('Timilia') and obsolete varieties ('Cappelli'), with respect to modern varieties. The Se content in the grain was increased by up to 35-fold that of the untreated control. The Se concentration decreased during milling (11%), while processing and cooking of pasta did not show significant decreases. This biofortification stategy had no effects on grain quality parameters, except for reduced gluten index in the high-gluten variety PR22D89, as well as for the sensorial properties of the spaghetti.

  8. Diminished A-type potassium current and altered firing properties in presympathetic PVN neurones in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonner, Patrick M; Filosa, Jessica A; Stern, Javier E

    2008-03-15

    Accumulating evidence supports a contribution of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to sympathoexcitation and elevated blood pressure in renovascular hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in altered neuronal function in hypertensive rats remain largely unknown. Here, we aimed to address whether the transient outward potassium current (I(A)) in identified rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)-projecting PVN neurones is altered in hypertensive rats, and whether such changes affected single and repetitive action potential properties and associated changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Patch-clamp recordings obtained from PVN-RVLM neurons showed a reduction in I(A) current magnitude and single channel conductance, and an enhanced steady-state current inactivation in hypertensive rats. Morphometric reconstructions of intracellularly labelled PVN-RVLM neurons showed a diminished dendritic surface area in hypertensive rats. Consistent with a diminished I(A) availability, action potentials in PVN-RVLM neurons in hypertensive rats were broader, decayed more slowly, and were less sensitive to the K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine. Simultaneous patch clamp recordings and confocal Ca(2+) imaging demonstrated enhanced action potential-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) transients in hypertensive rats. Finally, spike broadening during repetitive firing discharge was enhanced in PVN-RVLM neurons from hypertensive rats. Altogether, our results indicate that diminished I(A) availability constitutes a contributing mechanism underlying aberrant central neuronal function in renovascular hypertension.

  9. Using deposition rate as a means to alter the properties of small molecule organic glasses for OLED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Kenneth; Krzyskowski, Paige; Devereaux, Zachary

    2015-03-01

    Organic light emitting diode (OLED) devices rely on vapor-deposited, small molecule organic glasses. Recent work has shown that deposition condition plays a critical role in altering OLED device performance. Here it will be shown that the deposition rate alters the onset and fictive temperatures measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the deposited glass. Glasses of the common hole transport materials NPD and TPD were prepared with onset temperatures 17 and 16 K higher, respectively, than the ordinary glass prepared by cooling the supercooled liquid. The thermal stability of glasses in functioning devices can be underestimated due to increases in onset temperature relative to Tg. The fictive temperatures for NPD and TPD were 32 and 27 K lower, respectively, than the Tg of the ordinary glass. These results are consistent with literature reports on other non-OLED glasses where enhanced surface mobility allowed for glasses with similar properties to be made. Ellipsometry studies on NPD showed that the fictive and onset temperatures were consistent with the DSC results. Additionally, the modeled birefringence of the as-deposited NPD glass was non-zero and quickly decreased upon heating above the onset temperature, which has implications for device performance. Formerly at Department of Chemistry, Saginaw Valley State University.

  10. Abnormal physiological properties and altered cell wall composition in Streptococcus pneumoniae grown in the presence of clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, A; Severina, E; Tomasz, A

    1997-01-01

    Subinhibitory concentrations of clavulanate caused premature induction of stationary-phase autolysis, sensitization to lysozyme, and reductions in the MICs of deoxycholate and penicillin for Streptococcus pneumoniae. In the range of clavulanate concentrations producing these effects, this beta-lactam compound was selectively bound to PBP 3. Cell walls isolated from pneumococci grown in the presence of clavulanate showed increased sensitivity to the hydrolytic action of purified pneumococcal autolysin in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the peptidoglycan isolated from the clavulanate-grown cells showed major qualitative and quantitative changes in stem peptide composition, the most striking feature of which was the accumulation of peptide species carrying intact D-alanyl-D-alanine residues at the carboxy termini. The altered biological and biochemical properties of the clavulanate-grown pneumococci appear to be the consequences of suppressed D,D-carboxypeptidase activity. PMID:9055983

  11. Current considerations concerning endodontically treated teeth: alteration of hard dental tissues and biomechanical properties following endodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriu, Bogdan; Vârlan, Constantin; Suciu, Ioana; Vârlan, Virginia; Bodnar, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this general article is to present an overview of the current knowledge about composition and structural changes and also about specific biomechanical alterations related to vitality loss or endodontic therapy. For a long time, these issues have been controversially approached from a clinical standpoint and are therefore still confusing for many practitioners. Vitality loss or endodontic procedures seem to induce only negligible changes in hard dental tissue moisture. Physico-chemical properties of dentin can be modified by some of the endodontic chemical products used for chemo-mechanical debridement. On the other hand, tooth biomechanical behavior is affected, since tooth strength is reduced proportionally to coronal tissue loss, due to either pre-existent carious/non-carious lesions or cavity acces preparation, besides restorative procedures. The related literature shows the lack of accepted clinical standards and consensus regarding the optimal way of approaching the specific tooth biomechanics following endodontic therapy.

  12. Sarcoidosis: Immunopathogenesis and Immunological Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sheng Joshua Loke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder invariably affecting the lungs. It is a disease with noteworthy variations in clinical manifestation and disease outcome and has been described as an “immune paradox” with peripheral anergy despite exaggerated inflammation at disease sites. Despite extensive research, sarcoidosis remains a disease with undetermined aetiology. Current evidence supports the notion that the immune response in sarcoidosis is driven by a putative antigen in a genetically susceptible individual. Unfortunately, there currently exists no reliable biomarker to delineate the disease severity and prognosis. As such, the diagnosis of sarcoidosis remains a vexing clinical challenge. In this review, we outline the immunological features of sarcoidosis, discuss the evidence for and against various candidate etiological agents (infective and noninfective, describe the exhaled breath condensate, a novel method of identifying immunological biomarkers, and suggest other possible immunological biomarkers to better characterise the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis.

  13. Immunology of term and preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Morgan R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface and activates the parturition mechanism prematurely. Despite years of searching, there is still no broadly effective strategy for preventing preterm labor and most therapies are directed at inhibiting myometrial contractions and improving neonatal outcome. Recent studies with progestins and interleukin-10 (IL-10, however, are showing promise in randomized clinical trials and animal studies. Furthermore, the identification of the Toll-like receptors as upstream mediators of inflammation may offer alternative therapeutic targets for preventing this common pregnancy complication.

  14. Aspectos patológicos, imunológicos e propriedades moleculares do TT vírus Pathological and immunological aspects and molecular properties of TT virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O TT vírus (TTV foi primeiramente descrito no Japão, em 1997, por T. Nishizawa, no soro de pacientes com hepatite, pós-transfusão, não-A-G. Tem sido intensivamente investigado, desde então, como uma possível adição à lista dos vírus indutores de hepatite. O TTV é um vírus DNA não-envelopado, de fita simples. Uma considerável variabilidade genética tem sido demonstrada por parte do TTV, o que tem levado pesquisadores a agrupar isolados do vírus em inúmeros genótipos e subtipos. No entanto a significância clínica da infecção por TTV permanece desconhecida. Ele é freqüentemente detectado em fluidos corporais e seu componente mais bem elucidado atualmente é o genoma. Conhecimentos relacionados ao TTV têm aumentado constantemente, porém vários aspectos fundamentais permanecem obscuros. Esta revisão apresenta algumas das propriedades moleculares do TT vírus.TT virus (TTV was first reported in Japan in 1997 by T. Nishizawa in sera from non-A to non-G post-transfusion hepatitis patients. It has been intensively investigated, ever since, as a possible addition to the list of hepatitis-inducing viruses. The TTV is an unenveloped, single-stranded DNA virus. Considerable genetic variability of TTV has been demonstrated and has led investigators to group its isolates into numerous genotypes and subtypes. However, the clinical significance of TTV infection remains unknown. It is frequently detected in the serum and in other body fluids of humans. The component of TTV currently best understood is its genome. Knowledge related to TTV has increased rapidly, but many fundamental aspects remain unclear. This review shows some of the molecular properties of TT virus.

  15. Dynamic Alterations in Microarchitecture, Mineralization and Mechanical Property of Subchondral Bone in Rat Medial Meniscal Tear Model of Osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Gang Yu; Shao-Bo Nie; Feng-Xiang Liu; Chuan-Long Wu; Bo Tian; Wen-Gang Wang; Xiao-Qing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background:The properties of subchondral bone influence the integrity of articular cartilage in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA).However,the characteristics of subchondral bone alterations remain unresolved.The present study aimed to observe the dynamic alterations in the microarchitecture,mineralization,and mechanical properties of subchondral bone during the progression of OA.Methods:A medial meniscal tear (MMT) operation was performed in 128 adult Sprague Dawley rats to induce OA.At 2,4,8,and 12 weeks following the MMT operation,cartilage degeneration was evaluated using toluidine blue O staining,whereas changes in the microarchitecture indices and tissue mineral density (TMD),mineral-to-collagen ratio,and intrinsic mechanical properties of subchondral bone plates (BPs) and trabecular bones (Tbs) were measured using micro-computed tomography scanning,confocal Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation testing,respectively.Results:Cartilage degeneration occurred and worsened progressively from 2 to 12 weeks after OA induction.Microarchitecture analysis revealed that the subchondral bone shifted from bone resorption early (reduced trabecular BV/TV,trabecular number,connectivity density and trabecular thickness [Tb.Th],and increased trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) at 2 and 4 weeks) to bone accretion late (increased BV/TV,Tb.Th and thickness of subchondral bone plate,and reduced Tb.Sp at 8 and 12 weeks).The TMD of both the BP and Tb displayed no significant changes at 2 and 4 weeks but decreased at 8 and 12 weeks.The mineral-to-collagen ratio showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks for the Tb and from 8 weeks for the BP after OA induction.Both the elastic modulus and hardness of the Tb showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks after OA induction.The BP showed a significant decrease in its elastic modulus from 8 weeks and its hardness from 4 weeks.Conclusion:The microarchitecture,mineralization and mechanical properties of subchondral bone changed in a time

  16. Alterations in cancer cell mechanical properties after fluid shear stress exposure: a micropipette aspiration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivukula VK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Venkat Keshav Chivukula,1 Benjamin L Krog,1,2 Jones T Nauseef,2 Michael D Henry,2 Sarah C Vigmostad1 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Over 90% of cancer deaths result not from primary tumor development, but from metastatic tumors that arise after cancer cells circulate to distal sites via the circulatory system. While it is known that metastasis is an inefficient process, the effect of hemodynamic parameters such as fluid shear stress (FSS on the viability and efficacy of metastasis is not well understood. Recent work has shown that select cancer cells may be able to survive and possibly even adapt to FSS in vitro. The current research seeks to characterize the effect of FSS on the mechanical properties of suspended cancer cells in vitro. Nontransformed prostate epithelial cells (PrEC LH and transformed prostate cancer cells (PC-3 were used in this study. The Young's modulus was determined using micropipette aspiration. We examined cells in suspension but not exposed to FSS (unsheared and immediately after exposure to high (6,400 dyn/cm2 and low (510 dyn/cm2 FSS. The PrEC LH cells were ~140% stiffer than the PC-3 cells not exposed to FSS. Post-FSS exposure, there was an increase of ~77% in Young's modulus after exposure to high FSS and a ~47% increase in Young's modulus after exposure to low FSS for the PC-3 cells. There was no significant change in the Young's modulus of PrEC LH cells post-FSS exposure. Our findings indicate that cancer cells adapt to FSS, with an increased Young's modulus being one of the adaptive responses, and that this adaptation is specific only to PC-3 cells and is not seen in PrEC LH cells. Moreover, this adaptation appears to be graded in response to the magnitude of FSS experienced by the cancer cells. This is the first study

  17. Citizens unite for computational immunology!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Orrin S; Baker, Sarah Catherine; Baker, Brian M

    2015-07-01

    Recruiting volunteers who can provide computational time, programming expertise, or puzzle-solving talent has emerged as a powerful tool for biomedical research. Recent projects demonstrate the potential for such 'crowdsourcing' efforts in immunology. Tools for developing applications, new funding opportunities, and an eager public make crowdsourcing a serious option for creative solutions for computationally-challenging problems. Expanded uses of crowdsourcing in immunology will allow for more efficient large-scale data collection and analysis. It will also involve, inspire, educate, and engage the public in a variety of meaningful ways. The benefits are real - it is time to jump in!

  18. Altered Biomechanical Properties of Gastrocnemius Tendons of Turkeys Infected with Turkey Arthritis Reovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A. Sharafeldin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV causes lameness and tenosynovitis in commercial turkeys and is often associated with gastrocnemius tendon rupture by the marketing age. This study was undertaken to characterize the biomechanical properties of tendons from reovirus-infected turkeys. One-week-old turkey poults were orally inoculated with O’Neil strain of TARV and observed for up to 16 weeks of age. Lameness was first observed at 8 weeks of age, which continued at 12 and 16 weeks. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, samples were collected from legs. Left intertarsal joint with adjacent gastrocnemius tendon was collected and processed for histological examination. The right gastrocnemius tendon’s tensile strength and elasticity modulus were analyzed by stressing each tendon to the point of rupture. At 16 weeks of age, gastrocnemius tendons of TARV-infected turkeys showed significantly reduced (P<0.05 tensile strength and modulus of elasticity as compared to those of noninfected control turkeys. Gastrocnemius tendons revealed lymphocytic tendinitis/tenosynovitis beginning at 4 weeks of age, continuing through 8 and 12 weeks, and progressing to fibrosis from 12 to 16 weeks of age. We propose that tendon fibrosis is one of the key features contributing to reduction in tensile strength and elasticity of gastrocnemius tendons in TARV-infected turkeys.

  19. Corticosteroid administration alters the mechanical properties of isolated collagen fascicles in rat-tail tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, B T; Aagaard, P; Crafoord-Larsen, D; Kjaer, M; Magnusson, S P

    2009-10-01

    Overload tendon injuries are frequent in recreational and elite sports. The optimal treatment strategy remains unknown, but local administration of corticosteroids is one common treatment option. The direct effects of the corticosteroid administration on the tissue are not fully understood. The present study examined the biomechanical effects of intratendinous corticosteroid injections on healthy rat-tail tendon collagen fascicles. A total of 24 Wistar male rats were divided into (A) a corticosteroid group where the animals were injected in the tail tendon with methylprednisolone acetate, 1.0 mL of 40 mg/mL mixed with 1.0 mL 9% saline (n=12), and (B) a control group that was injected with 9% saline (n=12). Three days after the injections, the animals were sacrificed and single individual collagen fascicles were collected and underwent displacement to failure. Corticosteroid administration significantly reduced tensile fascicle yield strength by 16% and Young's modulus by 14% compared with sham treatment (10.5+/-0.8 vs 12.4+/-0.5 MPa, P< or =0.05, and 537+/-27 vs 641+/-30 MPa, P<0.05, respectively), while the strain properties were unaffected. Peak stress was similar between the two groups. There was no difference in fascicle diameter between the two groups.

  20. Designed synthesis and chiroptical properties of regioregular poly(p-phenyleneethynylene-alter-m-phenyleneethynylene) bearing (-)-trans-rnyrtanoxyl side groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangfeng LI; Chusheng LI; Jiang LU; Hui LIANG

    2009-01-01

    Two regioregular poly(p-phenyleneethyny-lene-alter-m-phenyleneethynylene)s bearing (-)-trans-myrtanoxyl side groups with different substitution patterns were designed and synthesized, e.g. Myr-PMPE-1 and Myr-PMPE-2. In Myr-PMPE-1, the side chiral groups are distributed uniformly along the backbone. In Myr-PMPE-2, the distribution of the side chiral groups is alternatively crowded and loose. Both of these two polymers show no CD signal in solutions because of their good solubility. The investigations of chiroptical properties of these two polymers were carried out in the form of spin-coated films. The films were annealed above the glass temperature of the corresponding polymer, and the effects of annealing temperature and time on the properties of the films were investigated by UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra. The results show that annealing treatment had no significant effect on the properties of Myr-PMPE-1, including UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and optical activity. The maximum absolute value of dissymmetry factor (|gmax|) was 1.62 × 10-4. On the other hand, annealing treatment significantly affected the proper-ties of Myr-PMPE-2. Without annealing or being annealed below 100℃, Myr-PMPE-2 films show almost no Cotton effect. In contrast, when annealed above 120℃, the absorption and emission of Myr-PMPE-2 films slightly red shifted with increasing annealing temperature and annealing time. Most importantly, the intensity of CD signals increased significantly and the optical activity of Myr-PMPE-2 films markedly increased. After annealing at 140℃ for 4h, the |gmax| of Myr-PMPE-2 films was increased up to 3.07 x 10 3, about one order of magnitude higher than that of Myr-PMPE-1 films.

  1. Ex vivo stretch reveals altered mechanical properties of isolated dystrophin-deficient hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Barnabei

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a progressive and fatal disease of muscle wasting caused by loss of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. In the heart, DMD results in progressive cardiomyopathy and dilation of the left ventricle through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Previous reports have shown that loss of dystrophin causes sarcolemmal instability and reduced mechanical compliance of isolated cardiac myocytes. To expand upon these findings, here we have subjected the left ventricles of dystrophin-deficient mdx hearts to mechanical stretch. Unexpectedly, isolated mdx hearts showed increased left ventricular (LV compliance compared to controls during stretch as LV volume was increased above normal end diastolic volume. During LV chamber distention, sarcomere lengths increased similarly in mdx and WT hearts despite greater excursions in volume of mdx hearts. This suggests that the mechanical properties of the intact heart cannot be modeled as a simple extrapolation of findings in single cardiac myocytes. To explain these findings, a model is proposed in which disruption of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex perturbs cell-extracellular matrix contacts and promotes the apparent slippage of myocytes past each other during LV distension. In comparison, similar increases in LV compliance were obtained in isolated hearts from β-sarcoglycan-null and laminin-α(2 mutant mice, but not in dysferlin-null mice, suggesting that increased whole-organ compliance in mdx mice is a specific effect of disrupted cell-extracellular matrix contacts and not a general consequence of cardiomyopathy via membrane defect processes. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel and cell-death independent mechanism for the progressive pathological LV dilation that occurs in DMD.

  2. Physical Properties of Blood Are Altered in Young and Lean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Michael J.; Milne, Nikki; Ong, Kee; Brotherton, Emily; McNamee, Antony P.; Horobin, Jarod; Sabapathy, Surendran

    2016-01-01

    Classic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) include derangement of metabolic and cardiovascular health, and vascular dysfunction is commonly reported. These comorbidities indicate impaired blood flow; however, other than limited reports of increased plasma viscosity, surprisingly little is known regarding the physical properties of blood in PCOS. We aimed to investigate whether haemorheology was impaired in women with PCOS. We thus measured a comprehensive haemorheological profile, in a case-control design, of lean women with PCOS and age-matched healthy controls. A clinical examination determined similar cardiovascular risk for the two groups. Whole blood and plasma viscosity was measured using a cone-plate viscometer. The magnitude and rate of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation was determined using a light-transmission aggregometer, and the degree of RBC deformability was measured via laser-diffraction ektacytometry. Plasma viscosity was significantly increased in women with PCOS. Blood viscosity was also increased for PCOS at lower-to-moderate shear rates in both native and standardised haematocrit samples. The magnitude of RBC aggregation–a primary determinant of low-shear blood viscosity–was significantly increased in PCOS at native and 0.4 L·L-1 haematocrit. No difference was detected between PCOS and CON groups for RBC deformability measurements. A novel measure indicating the effectiveness of oxygen transport by RBC (i.e., the haematocrit-to-viscosity ratio; HVR) was decreased at all shear rates in women with PCOS. In a group of young and lean women with PCOS with an unremarkable cardiovascular risk profile based on clinical data, significant haemorheological impairment was observed. The degree of haemorheological derangement observed in the present study reflects that of overt chronic disease, and provides an avenue for future therapeutic intervention in PCOS. PMID:27902766

  3. Physical and chemical modifications of surface properties lead to alterations in osteoblast behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorst, Kathryn Elizabeth

    Proper formation of the bone extracellular matrix (ECM), or osteoid, depends on the surface properties of pre-existing tissue and the aqueous chemical environment. Both of these factors greatly influence osteoblast migration, cytoskeletal organization, and calcium nodule production, important aspects when considering the biocompatibility of bone implants. By perturbing the physical and/or chemical micro-environment, it may be possible to elucidate effects on cellular function. To examine these factors, murine pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 subclones 4 and 24) were seeded on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates containing "wide" micro-patterned ridges (20 mum width, 30 mum pitch, & 2 mum height), "narrow" micro-patterned ridges (2 mum width, 10 mum pitch, 2 mum height), no patterns (flat PDMS), and standard tissue culture (TC) polystyrene as a control. Zinc concentration was adjusted to mimic deficient (0.23 muM), serum-level (3.6 muM), and zinc-rich (50 muM) conditions. It was found that cells exhibited distinct anisotropic migration in serum-level zinc and zinc-deficient media on the wide PDMS patterns, however this was disrupted under zinc-rich conditions. Production of differentiation effectors, activated metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and transforming growth factor - beta 1 (TGF-beta1), was increased with the addition of exogenous zinc. Early stage differentiation, via alkaline phosphatase, was modified by zinc levels on patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces, but not on flat PDMS or tissue culture polystyrene (TC). Late stage differentiation, visualized through calcium phosphate nodules, was markedly different at various zinc levels when the cells were cultured on TC substrates. This susceptibility to zinc content can lead to differences in bone mineral production on certain substrates if osteoblasts are not able to maintain and remodel bone effectively, a process vital to successful biomaterial integration.

  4. Muscle cramp in Machado-Joseph disease: altered motor axonal excitability properties and mexiletine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Kazuaki; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Arai, Kimihito; Sung, Jia-Ying; Ogawara, Kazue; Hattori, Takamichi

    2003-04-01

    Machado-Joseph disease is one of the most common hereditary spinocerebellar degenerative disorders with a wide range of clinical manifestations. Pathology studies have shown mild to moderate loss of anterior horn cells and, in terms of spinal pathology, Machado-Joseph disease is regarded as a type of lower motoneuron disease. Muscle cramps are often associated with lower motoneuron disorders, but features of cramps in Machado-Joseph disease patients have never been studied. We investigated the incidence and nature of muscle cramps in Machado-Joseph disease patients, the excitability properties of motor axons [strength-duration time constant (tau(SD)), threshold electrotonus, refractoriness and supernormality] using threshold tracking and the effects of mexiletine hydrochloride on those cramps. Of 20 consecutive patients, 16 (80%) had frequent, severe muscle cramps in the legs, trunk or arms that disturbed their daily activities. The frequency of pathological muscle cramps was similar to that for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (68%) and higher than those for patients with spinal muscular atrophy (33%) or peripheral axonal neuropathy (24%). Threshold-tracking studies showed that tau(SD), which in part reflects Na(+) conductance at the resting membrane potential, was significantly greater in the Machado-Joseph disease patients than in normal subjects; severe muscle cramps were associated with a longer tau(SD). Threshold electrotonus, refractoriness and supernormality were not significantly different between Machado-Joseph disease patients and normal subjects. Eight Machado-Joseph disease patients with severe cramps, who received mexiletine treatment, experienced nearly complete relief with a partial normalization of tau(SD) (P = 0.08). Muscle cramps are a very frequent and disabling factor in Machado-Joseph disease. Pathological muscle cramps responded well to mexiletine treatment, and this is consistent with the hypothesis that they are caused by an

  5. Characterization and petrophysical properties of hydrothemally altered lacustrine volcanistic rock in Geyser Valley (Kamchatka) and its transformation by weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdeva, Irina; Zerkal, Oleg; Samarin, Evgeny

    2013-04-01

    content of clay minerals (to 90%), decreasing the content of zeolites (not to exceed 10%). Quartz and plagioclase form sans fraction. Physical and mechanical properties vary widely: the density of the soil increases slightly up to 1,57-1,59 g/cm3 for sands, 1,2-1,79 g/cm3 for clays, porosity of 51-52% and 49-78% respectively, moisture 22-23% and 43-98/ Clays are in a state of semi-solid to fluid. The high content of smectite determines high plastic properties. Plasticity Index varies widely from 11 to 57. Cohesion and the internal friction angle obtained from shear tests also change widely. For clayey sand grip reaches 137 kPa, internal friction angle - 17 degrees. In clay grip ranges from 13 kPa to 120 kPa, and the internal friction angle - from 11 degrees to 31 degrees. Large variation of properties of the investigated soils is explained by the inhomogeneity of volcano-sedimentary formations both vertically and laterally, varying degrees of hydrothermal alteration and of weathering, fracturing and cracks filling The obtained datas can adequately characterize the volcanic-lacustrine sediments in the valley of the Geysernaya river and use them in calculations of slope stability and for and geological mapping.

  6. The presence of serum alters the properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and lowers their accumulation by cultured brain astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geppert, Mark; Petters, Charlotte [University of Bremen, Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen (Germany); Thiel, Karsten [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (Germany); Dringen, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.dringen@uni-bremen.de [University of Bremen, Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Such particles are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and are taken up into brain cells. To test whether serum components affect the properties of IONPs and/or their uptake into brain cells, we have incubated dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic IONPs without and with fetal calf serum (FCS) and have exposed cultured brain astrocytes with IONPs in the absence or presence of FCS. Incubation with FCS caused a concentration-dependent increase in the average hydrodynamic diameter of the particles and of their zeta-potential. In the presence of 10 % FCS, the diameter of the IONPs increased from 57 {+-} 2 to 107 {+-} 6 nm and the zeta-potential of the particles from -22 {+-} 5 to -9 {+-} 1 mV. FCS affected also strongly the uptake of IONPs by cultured astrocytes. The efficient time- and temperature-dependent cellular accumulation of IONPs was lowered with increasing concentration of FCS by up to 90 %. In addition, in the absence of serum, endocytosis inhibitors did not alter the IONP accumulation by astrocytes, while chlorpromazine or wortmannin lowered significantly the accumulation of IONPs in the presence of FCS, suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis are involved in astrocytic IONP uptake from serum-containing medium. These data demonstrate that the presence of FCS strongly affects the properties of IONPs as well as their accumulation by cultured brain cells.

  7. Exopolymer alteration of physical properties of sea ice and implications for ice habitability and biogeochemistry in a warmer Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krembs, Christopher; Eicken, Hajo; Deming, Jody W

    2011-03-01

    The physical properties of Arctic sea ice determine its habitability. Whether ice-dwelling organisms can change those properties has rarely been addressed. Following discovery that sea ice contains an abundance of gelatinous extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), we examined the effects of algal EPS on the microstructure and salt retention of ice grown from saline solutions containing EPS from a culture of the sea-ice diatom, Melosira arctica. We also experimented with xanthan gum and with EPS from a culture of the cold-adapted bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H. Quantitative microscopic analyses of the artificial ice containing Melosira EPS revealed convoluted ice-pore morphologies of high fractal dimension, mimicking features found in EPS-rich coastal sea ice, whereas EPS-free (control) ice featured much simpler pore geometries. A heat-sensitive glycoprotein fraction of Melosira EPS accounted for complex pore morphologies. Although all tested forms of EPS increased bulk ice salinity (by 11-59%) above the controls, ice containing native Melosira EPS retained the most salt. EPS effects on ice and pore microstructure improve sea ice habitability, survivability, and potential for increased primary productivity, even as they may alter the persistence and biogeochemical imprint of sea ice on the surface ocean in a warming climate.

  8. Cancer immunology: the search for specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Old, L J

    1982-01-01

    The major focus of cancer immunology has shifted away from arguments about the validity of the immunosurveillance theory of cancer to the more basic question of tumor-specific antigens. Despite vast effort aimed at demonstrations of such antigens, their existence in the generality of cancer remains unproved. Serological analysis of 3 tumor types, mouse leukemia and sarcoma and human malignant melanoma, has received the most attention, and a rudimentary classification of the surface antigens expressed by these tumors has begun to emerge. The prime candidates for antigens that can be considered tumor specific are the few instances of Class 1 antigens that have now been serologically defined on mouse and human tumors. These antigens show an absolute restriction to individual tumors and are not demonstrable on any other normal or malignant cell type. Biochemical and genetic characterizations of Class 1 antigens represent an essential next step in an evaluation of the significance of these antigens. The surprising features of the thymus leukemia (TL) antigens of the mouse provide insight into the genetic origin of another key class of tumor antigens, i.e., those with characteristic properties of both differentiation and tumor-specific antigens. In normal mice, TL antigens are restricted to cells in the thymus, and strains differ with regard to expression versus nonexpression of TL antigens. Genetic information for TL is universal in mice, however, as leukemias that develop in mice normally lacking TL are found to express TL. What is clear from the past two decades of research in cancer immunology is that a far more detailed knowledge of surface antigens of tumor cells will be necessary before we can begin to assess the possibility of immunological control of cancer.

  9. Immunology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily a malignancyof the liver, advancing from a damaged, cirrhoticliver to HCC. Globally, HCC is the sixth most prevalentcancer and the third-most prevalent reason for neoplasticdisease-related deaths. A diverse array ofinfiltrating immunocytes regulates the developmentand progression of HCC, as is the case in many othercancers. An understanding of the various immunecomponents during HCC becomes necessary so thatnovel therapeutic strategies can be designed to combatthe disease. A dysregulated immune system (includingchanges in the number and/or function of immunecells, cytokine levels, and the expression of inhibitoryreceptors or their ligands) plays a key role in thedevelopment of HCC. Alterations in either the innateor adaptive arm of the immune system and cross-talkbetween them make the immune system tolerant totumors, leading to disease progression. In this review,we have discussed the status and roles of variousimmune effector cells (e.g. , dendritic cells, natural killercells, macrophages, and T cells), their cytokine profile,and the chemokine-receptor axis in promoting orimpeding HCC.

  10. CCL8 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of CCL8.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...

  11. Effects of altered catecholamine metabolism on pigmentation and physical properties of sclerotized regions in the silkworm melanism mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Qiao

    Full Text Available Catecholamine metabolism plays an important role in the determination of insect body color and cuticle sclerotization. To date, limited research has focused on these processes in silkworm. In the current study, we analyzed the interactions between catecholamines and melanin genes and their effects on the pigmentation patterns and physical properties of sclerotized regions in silkworm, using the melanic mutant melanism (mln silkworm strain as a model. Injection of β-alanine into mln mutant silkworm induced a change in catecholamine metabolism and turned its body color yellow. Further investigation of the catecholamine content and expression levels of the corresponding melanin genes from different developmental stages of Dazao-mln (mutant and Dazao (wild-type silkworm revealed that at the larval and adult stages, the expression patterns of melanin genes precipitated dopamine accumulation corresponding to functional loss of Bm-iAANAT, a repressive effect of excess NBAD on ebony, and upregulation of tan in the Dazao-mln strain. During the early pupal stage, dopamine did not accumulate in Dazao-mln, since upregulation of ebony and black genes led to conversion of high amounts of dopamine into NBAD, resulting in deep yellow cuticles. Scanning electron microscope analysis of a cross-section of adult dorsal plates from both wild-type and mutant silkworm disclosed the formation of different layers in Dazao-mln owing to lack of NADA, compared to even and dense layers in Dazao. Analysis of the mechanical properties of the anterior wings revealed higher storage modulus and lower loss tangent in Dazao-mln, which was closely associated with the altered catecholamine metabolism in the mutant strain. Based on these findings, we conclude that catecholamine metabolism is crucial for the color pattern and physical properties of cuticles in silkworm. Our results should provide a significant contribution to Lepidoptera cuticle tanning research.

  12. Mutations in ionotropic AMPA receptor 3 alter channel properties and are associated with moderate cognitive impairment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Arai, Amy C; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Srivastava, Anand K; Turner, Gillian; Hayashi, Takashi; Suzuki, Erika; Jiang, Yuwu; Zhang, Lilei; Rodriguez, Jayson; Boyle, Jackie; Tarpey, Patrick; Raymond, F Lucy; Nevelsteen, Joke; Froyen, Guy; Stratton, Mike; Futreal, Andy; Gecz, Jozef; Stevenson, Roger; Schwartz, Charles E; Valle, David; Huganir, Richard L; Wang, Tao

    2007-11-13

    Ionotropic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors (iGluRs) mediate the majority of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS and are essential for the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation and long-term depression, two cellular models of learning and memory. We identified a genomic deletion (0.4 Mb) involving the entire GRIA3 (encoding iGluR3) by using an X-array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and four missense variants (G833R, M706T, R631S, and R450Q) in functional domains of iGluR3 by sequencing 400 males with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Three variants were found in males with moderate MR and were absent in 500 control males. Expression studies in HEK293 cells showed that G833R resulted in a 78% reduction of iGluR3 due to protein misfolding. Whole-cell recording studies of iGluR3 homomers in HEK293 cells revealed that neither iGluR3-M706T (S2 domain) nor iGluR3-R631S (near channel core) had substantial channel function, whereas R450Q (S1 domain) was associated with accelerated receptor desensitization. When forming heteromeric receptors with iGluR2 in HEK293 cells, all four iGluR3 variants had altered desensitization kinetics. Our study provides the genetic and functional evidence that mutant iGluR3 with altered kinetic properties is associated with moderate cognitive impairment in humans.

  13. Long-term reactive nitrogen loading alters soil carbon and microbial community properties in a subalpine forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Claudia M; Hall, Ed K.; Denef, Karolien; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition due to increased fossil fuel combustion and agricultural practices has altered global carbon (C) cycling. Additions of reactive N to N-limited environments are typically accompanied by increases in plant biomass. Soil C dynamics, however, have shown a range of different responses to the addition of reactive N that seem to be ecosystem dependent. We evaluated the effect of N amendments on biogeochemical characteristics and microbial responses of subalpine forest organic soils in order to develop a mechanistic understanding of how soils are affected by N amendments in subalpine ecosystems. We measured a suite of responses across three years (2011–2013) during two seasons (spring and fall). Following 17 years of N amendments, fertilized soils were more acidic (control mean 5.09, fertilized mean 4.68), and had lower %C (control mean 33.7% C, fertilized mean 29.8% C) and microbial biomass C by 22% relative to control plots. Shifts in biogeochemical properties in fertilized plots were associated with an altered microbial community driven by reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal (control mean 3.2 mol%, fertilized mean 2.5 mol%) and saprotrophic fungal groups (control mean 17.0 mol%, fertilized mean 15.2 mol%), as well as a decrease in N degrading microbial enzyme activity. Our results suggest that decreases in soil C in subalpine forests were in part driven by increased microbial degradation of soil organic matter and reduced inputs to soil organic matter in the form of microbial biomass.

  14. A new era in veterinary immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of man. The

  15. Half a century of Dutch transplant immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rood, Jon J; Claas, Frans H J; Brand, Anneke; Tilanus, Marcel G J; van Kooten, Cees

    2014-01-01

    The sixties have not only witnessed the start of the Dutch Society for Immunology (NvvI), but were also the flourishing beginning of the discipline of transplant immunology. The interest in immunology in the Netherlands had its start in the context of blood transfusions and not for instance in the f

  16. Immunological properties of inulin-type fructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Leonie; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Faas, Marijke; Smelt, Maaike; Venema, Koen; Ramasamy, Uttara; Schols, Henk A; De Vos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of inulin-type fructans are discussed in view of studies that applied the oligosaccharides in colon cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, vaccination efficacy, and prevention of infection and allergy. In the present paper, we discuss their immunomodulating effects. It is suggested that immunomodulation is elicited through indirect and direct mechanisms. Indirect mechanisms encompass stimulation of growth and activity of lactic acid bacteria, but can also be caused by fermentation products of these bacteria, i.e., short chain fatty acids. Evidence for direct effects on the immune system generally remains to be confirmed. It is suggested that inulin-type fructans can be detected by gut dendritic cells (DCs), through receptor ligation of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors, nucleotide oligomerization domain containing proteins (NODs), C-type lectin receptors, and galectins, eventually inducing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. DCs may also exert antigen presenting capacity toward effector cells, such as B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells locally, or in the spleen. Inulin-type fructans may also ligate PRRs expressed on gut epithelium, which could influence its barrier function. Inulin-type fructans are potent immunomodulating food components that hold many promises for prevention of disease. However, more studies into the mechanisms, dose-effect relations, and structure-function studies are required.

  17. Immunological Properties of Inulin-Type Fructans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Leonie; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Faas, Marijke; Smelt, Maaike; Venema, Koen; Ramasamy, Uttara; Schols, Henk A.; de Vos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of inulin-type fructans are discussed in view of studies that applied the oligosaccharides in colon cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, vaccination efficacy, and prevention of infection and allergy. In the present paper, we discuss their immunomodulating effects. It is suggeste

  18. Periodontal disease, inflammatory alterations and preeclampsia : clinical and immunological evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: Introdução: A doença periodontal, afecção que pode acometer os tecidos de sustentação dos dentes, induz à liberação local e sistêmica de mediadores inflamatórios. A pré-eclâmpsia, caracterizada pela hipertensão e proteinúria em gestantes, também parece ter sua etiopatogenia parcialmente relacionada ao sistema imunológico, com aumento dos níveis plasmáticos de algumas citocinas. Objetivos: Esta pesquisa teve os seguintes objetivos: revisar a literatura quanto à associação entre doença ...

  19. Altering the structure and properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and graphene oxide/iron oxide composites by urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghdi, Samira [Physics department, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65174 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jaleh, Babak [Physics department, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65174 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, Colloge of Natural Science, Inha University, 402-751 Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were directly grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a facile microwave assistant method. • The effect of urea concentration on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite was examined. • Increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. • The increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. • The increase in urea concentration led to decreased thermal stability of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. - Abstract: Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a simple microwave-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite were examined. The as-prepared samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were uniformly developed on GO sheets. The results showed that urea affects both Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} morphology and particle size. In the absence of urea, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures exhibited a rod-like morphology. However, increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. The Raman results of GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed that the intensity ratio of D band to G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) was decreased by addition of urea, indicating that urea can preserve the GO sheets during synthesis of the composite from exposing more defects. The surface area and thermal stability of GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were compared using the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results showed that the increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. However, the increase in urea

  20. Altering the structure and properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and graphene oxide/iron oxide composites by urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Samira; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Jaleh, Babak; Park, Soo Jin

    2016-02-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles were grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a simple microwave-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration on Fe2O3 nanoparticles and GO/Fe2O3 composite were examined. The as-prepared samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe2O3 nanoparticles were uniformly developed on GO sheets. The results showed that urea affects both Fe2O3 morphology and particle size. In the absence of urea, the Fe2O3 nanostructures exhibited a rod-like morphology. However, increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. The Raman results of GO/Fe2O3 showed that the intensity ratio of D band to G band (ID/IG) was decreased by addition of urea, indicating that urea can preserve the GO sheets during synthesis of the composite from exposing more defects. The surface area and thermal stability of GO/Fe2O3 and Fe2O3 were compared using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results showed that the increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe2O3 nanoparticles. However, the increase in urea concentration led to decreased thermal stability of the Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The magnetic properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometer and results revealed that the magnetic properties of Fe2O3 nanoparticles are affected by the morphology.

  1. Mechano-growth factor induces migration of rat mesenchymal stem cells by altering its mechanical properties and activating ERK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiamin; Wu, Kewen; Lin, Feng; Luo, Qing; Yang, Li; Shi, Yisong [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Song, Guanbin, E-mail: song@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Sung, Kuo-Li Paul [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0412 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •MGF induced the migration of rat MSC in a concentration-dependent manner. •MGF enhanced the mechanical properties of rMSC in inducing its migration. •MGF activated the ERK 1/2 signaling pathway of rMSC in inducing its migration. •rMSC mechanics may synergy with ERK 1/2 pathway in MGF-induced rMSC migration. -- Abstract: Mechano-growth factor (MGF) generated by cells in response to mechanical stimulation has been identified as a mechano effector molecule, playing a key role in regulating mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) function, including proliferation and migration. However, the mechanism(s) underlying how MGF-induced MSC migration occurs is still unclear. In the present study, MGF motivated migration of rat MSCs (rMSCs) in a concentration-dependent manner and optimal concentration of MGF at 50 ng/mL (defined as MGF treatment in this paper) was demonstrated. Notably, enhancement of mechanical properties that is pertinent to cell migration, such as cell traction force and cell stiffness were found to respond to MGF treatment. Furthermore, MGF increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), ERK inhibitor (i.e., PD98059) suppressed ERK phosphorylation, and abolished MGF-induced rMSC migration were found, demonstrating that ERK is involved molecule for MGF-induced rMSC migration. These in vitro evidences of MGF-induced rMSC migration and its direct link to altering rMSC mechanics and activating the ERK pathway, uncover the underlying biomechanical and biological mechanisms of MGF-induced rMSC migration, which may help find MGF-based application of MSC in clinical therapeutics.

  2. Immunology for the toxicologic pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    The immune system functions primarily as a defense mechanism to provide protective immunity against microbial pathogens and cancer. The resulting protective responses occur through the complex interaction of tissues, cells, proteins, and molecular pathways that act in concert with other systems (e.g., nervous and endocrine) to provide the host with immunologic responses that cause pathologic processes seen primarily as inflammatory reactions. The pathologic responses can be attributed to either normal responses to infectious organisms and cancer cells, misdirected responses as in the case of hypersensitivity or autoimmune diseases, or deficient responses attributable to deficiencies or defects in components of the immune system. Pathologists need to have a basic understanding of the immune system to not only interpret findings as to their likely pathogenesis, but also to predict when the immune system may be a potential target. This review will be limited to a general overview of the basic immunologic responses and primary components involved.

  3. Mucosal Immunology of HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicti...

  4. Immunological impact of Taekwondo competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y W; Shin, K W; Paik, I-Y; Jung, W M; Cho, S-Y; Choi, S T; Kim, H D; Kim, J Y

    2012-01-01

    Immunological changes in elite adolescent female athletes during Taekwondo competitions were investigated on-field. 6 female athletes (16.7 ± 0.8 year-old) volunteered and performed 5 bouts of demonstration Taekwondo competitions simulating real tournaments in intensity, duration, and break-time intervals on the same day. Blood samples were taken before, after the competitions and during the recovery, respectively. Immunological changes and oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated by flow-cytometry. During the competitions, exercise intensity was 92.2 ± 3.8% (86.1~95.7) of the maximal heart rate. Blood lactate increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0165) and decreased to baseline during recovery. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the peripheral blood increased continuously during recovery (pTaekwondo competitions. Further large-scaled Taekwondo studies on immunologic and apoptotic changes related to oxidative stress should be performed for improving and protecting the health of adolescent athletes.

  5. A prospect on cancer immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H

    1979-11-01

    There are several factors involved in studying cancer immunology. For convenience, those factors can be consolidated into two. Firstly, no definite tumor-specific or -associated antigen has been ascertained as yet, except for certain types of tumor. Secondly, there is no definite pattern of immune response of the host against weak antigenic tumor cells. Nobody knows as to what is the nature of the tumor-specific antigen even if it exists, and nobody knows the escape mechanism of tumor cells from the immune defence of the host. There have been a number of approaches for cancer immunotherapy, but so far there has been no definite answer as to whether immunotherapy is a promising approach for cancer treatment. In this review, cancer immunology is divided into three separate subjects. The first of these is tumor antigen; the second, the immune response against tumor antigen; and the third, methods of attacking tumor cells by immunological means including how to increase the antigenicity of tumor cells (xenogenization), and how to increase the immune response of the host (immunotherapy).

  6. Low concentrations of the solvent dimethyl sulphoxide alter intrinsic excitability properties of cortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tamagnini

    Full Text Available Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO is a widely used solvent in biology. It has many applications perhaps the most common of which is in aiding the preparation of drug solutions from hydrophobic chemical entities. Recent studies have suggested that this molecule may be able to induce apoptosis in neural tissues urging caution regarding its introduction into humans, for example as part of stem cell transplants. Here we have used in vitro electrophysiological methods applied to murine brain slices to examine whether a few hours treatment with 0.05% DMSO (a concentration regarded by many as innocuous alters intrinsic excitability properties of neurones. We investigated pyramidal neurones in two distinct brain regions, namely area CA1 of the hippocampus and layer 2 of perirhinal cortex. In the former there was no effect on resting potential but input resistance was decreased by DMSO pre-treatment. In line with this action potential count for any level of depolarizing current stimulus was reduced by ∼25% following DMSO treatment. Ih-mediated "sag" was also increased in CA1 pyramids and action potential waveform analysis demonstrated that DMSO treatment moved action potential threshold towards resting potential. In perirhinal cortex a decreased action potential output for various depolarizing current stimuli was also seen. In these cells action potential threshold was unaltered by DMSO but a significant increase in action potential width was apparent. These data indicate that pre-treatment with this widely employed solvent can elicit multifaceted neurophysiological changes in mammalian neurones at concentrations below those frequently encountered in the published literature.

  7. IMMUNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    5.1 Autoimmune disease2004189 Serum levels of matrix metallopro-teinases-9 in patients with systemic lupus erythemato-sus. YIN Wenhao (殷文浩), et al. Dept Dermatol 2nd Affili Hosp, Med Sch Zhejiang Univ, Hangzhou 310009. Chin J Dermatol 2004;37(2):77-79.Objective: To determine the serum levels of matrix

  8. IMMUNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    3.1 Autoimmune disease2004022 BL-2, IL-6 and their receptors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. QIAN Qihong (钱齐宏), et al. Dept Dermatol & Venereol, 1st Affili Hosp, Suzhou Univ, Suzhou 215006. Chin J Dermatol 2003; 36 (12): 696-698.

  9. IMMUNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    5.1 Autoimmune disease2003029 A linkage study of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 gene and Graves’ disease in northern Chinese Han ethnic. JIN Ying ( 金迎 ), et al. Dept Endocrinol, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110001. Chin J Intern Med 2002; 41 (12): 809-812. Objective: To determine if the cytotoxic T lympho-

  10. [Immunological markers of rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewska, Agnieszka; Madej, Marta; Wiland, Piotr

    2016-03-25

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common connective tissue disease of autoimmune origin. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation leading to bone erosions and organ involvement. RA is a progressive disease. It affects the quality of life, leading to disability and death mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for prognosis and quality of life improvement. In 2010 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) established new RA classification criteria. Besides clinical symptoms it includes two immunologic criteria: rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP antibodies). RF is the first well-known RA immunologic marker. It is observed in 80-85% of patients with RA. Elevated serum level of RF has been associated with increased disease activity, radiographic progression, and the presence of extraarticular manifestations. The sensitivity of RF is 50-90%, and specificity is 50-95%. Anti-CCP antibodies appear to be a more specific marker than RF. They are often present at the very beginning of the disease, or even years before the first symptoms. The prognostic value of anti-CCP antibodies is well established. High serum level of anti-CCP correlates with poor prognosis and early erosions of the joints. The sensitivity of anti-CCP2 is 48-80%, and specificity is 96-98%. New immunologic markers include anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP) and antibodies against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (anti-hnRNP A2/B1, RA33). Scientists aim to identify a highly sensitive and specific biomarker of the disease that not only has diagnostic and prognostic value but also may predict the response to treatment.

  11. Purinergic signaling at immunological synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubyak, G R

    2000-07-01

    The early studies and hypotheses of Geoffrey Burnstock catalyzed intensive characterization of roles for nucleotides and P2 nucleotide receptors in neurotransmission and neuromodulation. These latter analyses have focused on the mechanisms of nucleotide release and action in the microenvironments of nerve endings and synapses. However, studies of various white blood cells, such as monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, suggest that locally released nucleotides also modulate intercellular signaling at so-called 'immunological synapses'. This communication describes recent findings and speculations regarding nucleotide release and signaling in several key phases of the immune and inflammatory responses.

  12. Immunological aspects of cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitvogel, Laurence; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the innate and adaptive immune systems make a crucial contribution to the antitumour effects of conventional chemotherapy-based and radiotherapy-based cancer treatments. Moreover, the molecular and cellular bases of the immunogenicity of cell death that is induced by cytotoxic agents are being progressively unravelled, challenging the guidelines that currently govern the development of anticancer drugs. Here, we review the immunological aspects of conventional cancer treatments and propose that future successes in the fight against cancer will rely on the development and clinical application of combined chemo- and immunotherapies.

  13. Alterations in composition of sterols and in properties of erythrocyte membranes in rats with Shvetz experimental leukosis and after UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palamarchyuk, V.I.; Trikash, I.O. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Biokhimii)

    1983-05-01

    Sterol composition of erythrocyte membrane is studied in experimental Schwetz leukosis. Interconnections of alteration in sterol composition and membrane properties are investigated, as well as the effect of UV-radiation on the alteration of sterol composition of erythrocyte membrane and lifetime of animals With leukosis. The effect of UV-radiation on survival of the leukosis animals has been studied which showed that irradiation of rats in the dose of 8 mWt/min/cm/sup 2/ for 12 days increases the lifetime of animals by several days, i.e. increases resistance of animals to leukosis. In the case of short-time UV-radiation of rats the cholesterine amount in erythrocyte membranes increases by 9% as compared with the norm, simultaneously, other substances appear. Acidic resistance of erythrocytes of irradiated animals also increases. The supposition is made that alterations promote the increase of organism resistance to leukosis.

  14. The microbiota: an exercise immunology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermon, Stéphane; Petriz, Bernardo; Kajėnienė, Alma; Prestes, Jonato; Castell, Lindy; Franco, Octavio L

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota consists of a cluster of microorganisms that produces several signaling molecules of a hormonal nature which are released into the blood stream and act at distal sites. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that microbiota may be modulated by several environmental conditions, including different exercise stimulus, as well some pathologies. Enriched bacterial diversity has also been associated with improved health status and alterations in immune system, making multiple connections between host and microbiota. Experimental evidence has shown that reduced levels and variations in the bacterial community are associated with health impairments, while increased microbiota diversity improves metabolic profile and immunological responses. So far, very few controlled studies have focused on the interactions between acute or chronic exercise and the gut microbiota. However, some preliminary experimental data obtained from animal studies or probiotics studies show some interesting results at the immune level, indicating that the microbiota also acts like an endocrine organ and is sensitive to the homeostatic and physiological changes associated with exercise. Thus, our review intends to shed some light on the interaction between gut microbiota, exercise and immunomodulation.

  15. Alteration of membrane lipid biophysical properties and resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to cisplatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Xingjie; (

    2001-01-01

    , 1146(1): 136.[12] Howlett, N. G., Avery, S. V., Relationship between cadmium sensitivity and degree of plasma membrane fatty acid unsatu-ration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 1997, 48(4): 539.[13] Petriz, J., Oconnor, J. E., Carmona, M. et al., Is Rhodamine-123 an appropriate fluorescent probe to assess P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance in vinblastine-resistant CHO cells? Analytical Cellular Pathology, 1997, 14(3): 129.[14] Leonce, S., Burbridge, M., Flow cytometry: a useful technique in the study of multidrug resistance, J. Bio. Cell, 1993, 78(1-2): 63.[15] Le Moyec, L., Tatoud, R., Degorges, A. et al., Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals cellular lipids in-volved in resistance to Adriamycin and Taxol by the K562 Leukemia cell line, Cancer Res., 1996, 56: 3461.[16] Callaghan, R., Stafford, A., Epand, R. M., Increased accumulation of drugs in a multidrug resistant cell line by alteration of membrane biophysical properties, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1993, 1175(3): 277.[17] Sinicrope, F. A., Dudeia, P. K., Bissommette, B. M. et al., Modulation of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport by al-terations in lipid fluidity of rat liver canlicular membrane vesicles, J. Biol. Chem., 1992, 267(35): 24995.[18] Romsicki, Y., Sharom, F. J., The membrane lipid environment modulates drug interactions with the P-glycoprotein multi-drug transporter, Biochemistry, 1999, 38(21): 6887.[19] Garel, O., Lecureur, V., Guillouzo, A., The P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter, Gen. Pharmacol., 1996, 27(8): 1283.[20] Aran, J. M., Pastan, I., Gottesman, M. M., Therapeutic strategies involving the multidrug resistance phenotype: the MDR1 gene as target, chemoprotectant, and selectable marker in gene therapy, Adv. Pharmacol., 1999, 46: 1.[21] Zaman, G. J., Flens, M. J., Vanleusden, M. R. et al., The human multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) is a plasma membrane drug efflux pump, Proc. Natl. Acad

  16. Virological and Immunological Aspects of AIDS Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Conway

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common and serious problem associated with long term antiretroviral therapy is waning efficacy over time. To date. a number of studies has suggested an association between drug resistance and clinical deterioration. However. a precise causal relationship has yet to be demonstrated. In a large American clinical trial. resistance to zidovudine (ZDV was predictive of subsequent disease progression if this therapy was continued. Surprisingly. this was also predictive of deterioration if therapy was changed to didanosine (ddl. This suggests that other factors (perhaps virological and immunological which may be present in addition to resistance. were as important (if not more so in predicting clinical outcomes. It is likely that viral load. resistance. viral phenotype and alterations in immune function interact in this regard. Proper· studies may allow us to determine a “threshold” for a composite virological and immunological parameter beyond which disease progression will occur. As more antiretroviral agents become available. we will be in a position to intervene to “improve” laboratory markers and monitor them prospectively. potentially to maintain clinical latency for an indefinite period of time. In the authors' laboratories, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the evaluation of circulating proviral load has been developed. In an initial study of 70 patients. proviral load/ 106 CD4 cells was clearly associated with the severity of immune disease. with up to 9.6% of cells being infected in subjects with CD4 cell counts below 200/µL. However. large variability in proviral load among individuals with comparable or dissimilar CD4 cell counts precludes the use of this measurement as an individual marker of the severity of immune disease. More recent work evaluated the combined use of proviral load (expressed as a dichotomous variable based on values above or below one copy/a03 CD4 cells and resistance in a prospective

  17. Evolution and conservation of immunological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Vaz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraphrasing what Gregory Bateson says on evolution, we might say that: "Immunology has long been badly taught. In particular, students - and even professional immunologists - acquire theories of immunological activity without any deep understanding of what problems these theories attempt to solve."

  18. Evolution and conservation of immunological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, N M

    2006-12-01

    Paraphrasing what Gregory Bateson says on evolution, we might say that: "Immunology has long been badly taught. In particular, students--and even professional immunologists--acquire theories of immunological activity without any deep understanding of what problems these theories attempt to solve."

  19. The cognitive paradigm and the immunological homunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I R

    1992-12-01

    In last month's issue of Immunology Today, Irun Cohen discussed the inadequacies of the clonal selection paradigm and proposed a cognitive paradigm in which preformed internal images guide and restrict the process of clonal activation. Here he clarifies the nature of these internal images, during on concrete examples from the image of infection and the image of self, the immunological homunculus.

  20. Immunology of the gastrointestinal tract and liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyworth, M.F.; Jones, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: T cells and Other Non-B Lymphocytes; Mucosal Mast Cells and IgE; Genetic Aspects of Gastrointestinal Immunology; Immunological Functions of the Liver; Lymphocyte Migration and Mucosal Immunity; and Immunoglobulin Circulation and Secretion.

  1. Molecular imaging applications for immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Isabel Junie; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2004-05-01

    The use of multimodality molecular imaging has recently facilitated the study of molecular and cellular events in living subjects in a noninvasive and repetitive manner to improve the diagnostic capability of traditional assays. The noninvasive imaging modalities utilized for both small animal and human imaging include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT). Techniques specific to small-animal imaging include bioluminescent imaging (BIm) and fluorescent imaging (FIm). Molecular imaging permits the study of events within cells, the examination of cell trafficking patterns that relate to inflammatory diseases and metastases, and the ability to rapidly screen new drug treatments for distribution and effectiveness. In this paper, we will review the current field of molecular imaging assays (especially those utilizing PET and BIm modalities) and examine how they might impact animal models and human disease in the field of clinical immunology.

  2. Overview of Johne's disease immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Wadhwa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Johne's disease or paratuberculosis is one of the most economically important diseases of the livestock. Most of the economiclosses associated with paratuberculosis are related to decreased milk production, reduced fertility and higher rates of culling.Understanding the immunology of the disease is very important for better understanding of the interplay between the host andthe causative agent, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. After uptake of MAPby macrophages residing inhost's intestinal tissue, two possible scenarios may emerge; MAP may be destroyed or may establish persistent infectionwithin the macrophages. If MAPpersists in the infected macrophage, it continuously modulates adaptive immune responsesof the animal. In this short review we describe the host-pathogen interactions in Johne's disease and highlights potentialprotective mechanisms in order for future design of more effective diagnostic method and vaccine.

  3. Immunological treatment of liver tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati; Fabio Grizzi; Cynthia A Jumper; Everardo Cobos; Paul L Hermonat; Eldo E Frezza

    2005-01-01

    Although multiple options for the treatment of liver tumors have often been described in the past, including liver resection, radiofrequency ablation with or without hepatic pump insertion, laparoscopic liver resection and the use of chemotherapy, the potential of immunotherapy and gene manipulation is still largely unexplored.Immunological therapy by gene manipulation is based on the interaction between virus-based gene delivery systems and dendritic cells. Using viruses as vectors, it is possible to transduce dendritic cells with genes encoding tumor-associated antigens, thus inducing strong humoral and cellular immunity against the antigens themselves.Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy have the disadvantage of destroying healthy cells, thus causing severe side-effects. We need more precisely targeted therapies capable of killing cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. Our goal is to establish a new treatment for solid liver tumors based on the concept of cytoreduction,and propose an innovative algorithm.

  4. Immunological treatments for occupational allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellaro, M; Senna, G; Marcer, G; Passalacqua, G

    2013-01-01

    Although avoidance of occupational triggers remains the primary step in the management of work-related allergies, immunological treatments (including biological agents and specific immunotherapy) can be regarded as potential therapeutic options for IgE-mediated diseases; for example, many studies with allergen-specific immunotherapy have been carried out on latex allergy, showing overall favorable results, at least with sublingual immunotherapy. On the other hand, only few case reports have suggested the efficacy of immunotherapy in baker's asthma as well as in laboratory animal-induced asthma. The new technologies, including component-resolved diagnosis and recombinant allergens, are expected to improve the quality and efficacy of specific immunotherapy in the future. Also the use of omalizumab may represent a suitable therapeutic choice in very selected cases of occupational allergy, as well as an approach to reduce side effects of venom immunotherapy in subjects with previous severe reactions to the treatment.

  5. Insights into magmatic processes and hydrothermal alteration of in situ superfast spreading ocean crust at ODP/IODP site 1256 from a cluster analysis of rock magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Mark J.; Heslop, David; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Acton, Gary; Krasa, David

    2014-08-01

    analyze magnetic properties from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)/Integrated ODP (IODP) Hole 1256D (6°44.1' N, 91°56.1' W) on the Cocos Plate in ˜15.2 Ma oceanic crust generated by superfast seafloor spreading, the only drill hole that has sampled all three oceanic crust layers in a tectonically undisturbed setting. Fuzzy c-means cluster analysis and nonlinear mapping are utilized to study down-hole trends in the ratio of the saturation remanent magnetization and the saturation magnetization, the coercive force, the ratio of the remanent coercive force and coercive force, the low-field magnetic susceptibility, and the Curie temperature, to evaluate the effects of magmatic and hydrothermal processes on magnetic properties. A statistically robust five cluster solution separates the data predominantly into three clusters that express increasing hydrothermal alteration of the lavas, which differ from two distinct clusters mainly representing the dikes and gabbros. Extensive alteration can obliterate magnetic property differences between lavas, dikes, and gabbros. The imprint of thermochemical alteration on the iron-titanium oxides is only partially related to the porosity of the rocks. Thus, the analysis complements interpretation based on electrofacies analysis. All clusters display rock magnetic characteristics compatible with an ability to retain a stable natural remanent magnetization suggesting that the entire sampled sequence of ocean crust can contribute to marine magnetic anomalies. Paleointensity determination is difficult because of the propensity of oxyexsolution during laboratory heating and/or the presence of intergrowths. The upper part of the extrusive sequence, the granoblastic dikes, and moderately altered gabbros may contain a comparatively uncontaminated thermoremanent magnetization.

  6. Stem Cell Niche, the Microenvironment and Immunological Crosstalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Law Sujata; S. Chaudhuri

    2008-01-01

    The concept of stem cells, their physiological existence, the intricate anatomical localization, the known and the unknown functions, and their exclusive utility for the purpose of regenerative medicine, are all now encompassed within an emergent question, 'how compatible these cells are immunologically?'Indeed, the medical aspects of stem cells are dependent on a large number of queries based on the basic properties of the cells. It has greatly been emphasized to probe into the basic research on stem cells before any successful therapeutic attempts are made. One of the intricate aspects of the adult stem cells is its immunological behavior in relation to the microenvironmental associates, the stromal ceils in the presence of a suitable target.

  7. Recognition of higher order patterns in proteins: immunologic kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Bremel

    Full Text Available By applying analysis of the principal components of amino acid physical properties we predicted cathepsin cleavage sites, MHC binding affinity, and probability of B-cell epitope binding of peptides in tetanus toxin and in ten diverse additional proteins. Cross-correlation of these metrics, for peptides of all possible amino acid index positions, each evaluated in the context of a ±25 amino acid flanking region, indicated that there is a strongly repetitive pattern of short peptides of approximately thirty amino acids each bounded by cathepsin cleavage sites and each comprising B-cell linear epitopes, MHC-I and MHC-II binding peptides. Such "immunologic kernel" peptides comprise all signals necessary for adaptive immunologic cognition, response and recall. The patterns described indicate a higher order spatial integration that forms a symbolic logic coordinating the adaptive immune system.

  8. The 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunney, Joan K; Kai, Chieko; Inumaru, Shigeki; Onodera, Takashi

    2012-07-15

    This special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune systems of numerous food animals and wildlife, probing basic immunity and the influence of stress, genetics, nutrition, endocrinology and reproduction. Major presentations addressed defense against pathogens and alternative control and prevention strategies including vaccines, adjuvants and novel biotherapeutics. A special Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme Sponsored Conference on "Vaccination and Diagnosis for Food Safety in Agriculture" highlighted the particular issue of "Immunology in Bovine Paratuberculosis". In April 2010 there was an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the southern part of Japan. This stimulated a special 9th IVIS session on FMD, sponsored by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan, to discuss improvements of FMD vaccines, their use in FMD control, and risk assessment for decision management. The 9th IVIS was supported by the Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) and included workshops for its MHC and Toolkit Committees. Finally VIC IUIS presented its 2010 Distinguished Service Award to Dr. Kazuya Yamanouchi for "outstanding contributions to the veterinary immunology community" and its 2010 Distinguished Veterinary Immunologist Award to Dr. Douglas F. Antczak for "outstanding research on equine immunology".

  9. Birth of the science of immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalstieg, Frank C; Goldman, Armond S

    2010-05-01

    The science of immunology emerged in the last of the 19th and the first of the 20th century. Substantial progress in physics, chemistry and microbiology was essential for its development. Indeed, microorganisms became one of the principal investigative tools of the major founders of that science - Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, Ilya Ilich Metchnikoff, Paul Ehrlich and Jules Bordet. It is pertinent that these pioneering scientists were born when questioning and exploration were encouraged because of the legacies of the previous century of enlightenment. Mentors greatly aided their development. Their discoveries were shaped by their individual personalities. In turn they developed other contributors to the nascent field. Their discoveries included the types of leukocytes, the roles of neutrophils in inflammation and defence, cellular lysis due to complement, the principles of humoral and cellular immunology, passive and active immunization, tissue antigens, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reactions and autoimmunity. Their work formed the basis of modern immunology that developed many decades later. Immunology has enormously impacted our understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of infections, immune-mediated disorders and inflammation. Burgeoning advances forecast further important clinical applications of immunology. Yet, their applications will be problematic because few physicians sufficiently understand the science. We propose that understanding modern immunology requires a grasp of how that science developed - who made the discoveries, how they were made, their successes and failures, their interactions and debates all reveal the foundation of modern immunology.

  10. Cosmos 2229 immunology study (Experiment K-8-07)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to further validate use of the rhesus monkey as a model for humans in future space flight testing. The areas of immunological importance examined in the Cosmos 2229 flight were represented by two sets of studies. The first set of studies determined the effect of space flight on the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). GM-CSF is an important regulator in the differentiation of bone marrow cells of both monocyte/macrophage and granulocyte lineages and any change in the ability of these cells to respond to GM-CSF can result in altered immune function. A second set of studies determined space flight effects on the expression of cell surface markers on both spleen and bone marrow cells. Immune cell markers included in this study were those for T-cell, B-cell, natural killer cell, and interleukin-2 populations. Variations from a normal cell population percentage, as represented by these markers, can be correlated with alterations in immunological function. Cells were stained with fluorescein-labelled antibodies directed against the appropriate antigens, and then analyzed using a flow cytometer.

  11. Nutritional, immunological and microbiological profiles of burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASAA Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a lesion on an organic tissue resultant from direct or indirect action of heat on the organism. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional, immunological and microbiological status of burn patients at the Bauru State Hospital, São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2007. Eight patients, aged more than 18 years and injured up to 24 hours, were evaluated at the moment of hospitalization and seven days later. All victims were males with a mean age of 38 years. On average, 17.5% of their body surfaces were burned and 50% of the patients were eutrophic. There were significant alterations in levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total protein and albumin due to increased endothelial permeability, direct destruction of proteins in the heat-affected area and blood loss from lesions or debridement. At a second moment, cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α had augmented significantly, with IL-6 presenting elevated levels in relation to controls at the first moment. Microbiological analysis showed that 100% of the samples collected at hospital admission were negative and after one week Staphylococcus aureus was found in all cultures. Therefore, a burn patient may be considered immunosuppressed and these results indicate significant nutritional, immunological and microbiological alterations that can interfere in his recovery.

  12. Imagining 'reactivity': allergy within the history of immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Michelle

    2010-12-01

    An allergy is commonly understood to be an overreaction of the immune system to harmless substances that are misrecognised as foreign. This concept of allergy as an abnormal, misdirected immune response-a biological fault-stems from the idea that the immune system is an inherently defensive operation designed to protect the individual through an innate capacity to discriminate between the benign and toxic, or self and nonself. However, this definition of allergy represents a radical departure from its original formulation. Literally meaning 'altered reactivity', the term was coined in 1906 by Austrian paediatrician Clemens von Pirquet, to describe the fundamentally mutable nature of the immune response. This paper argues that the conventional interpretation of allergy-as-pathology derives from specific concepts of 'organism', 'response', and 'normal' immune function that have-for over a century-governed the perception and study of immune phenomena within immunology. Through an examination of Louis Pasteur's conceptualisation of the host body/microorganism relationship, I argue that immunology is founded on a view of the organism as a discrete, autonomous entity, and on a concomitant notion of the immune response as essentially reactive. Revisiting the concept of 'altered reactivity', this paper points to the fact that allergy was initially posited as a general theory of immune responsiveness and, importantly, one that poses a significant challenge to orthodox notions of immunopathology. It suggests that Pirquet's unique view of immune responsiveness presents an account of organismic or biological identity that encapsulates, rather than reduces, its ecological complexity.

  13. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011.

  14. Immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Vasconcellos Machado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bone marrow is the main source, mesenchymal stem cells have already been isolated from various other tissues, such as the liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, peripheral blood and dental pulp. These plastic adherent cells are morphologically similar to fibroblasts and have a high proliferative potential. This special group of cells possesses two essential characteristics: self-renewal and differentiation, with appropriate stimuli, into various cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered immunologically privileged, since they do not express costimulatory molecules, required for complete T cell activation, on their surface. Several studies have shown that these cells exert an immunosuppressive effect on cells from both innate and acquired immunity systems. Mesenchymal stem cells can regulate the immune response in vitro by inhibiting the maturation of dendritic cells, as well as by suppressing the proliferation and function of T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. These special properties of mesenchymal stem cells make them a promising strategy in the treatment of immune mediated disorders, such as graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. The understanding of immune regulation mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells, and also those involved in the differentiation of these cells in various lineages is primordial for their successful and safe application in different areas of medicine.

  15. Instructive selection and immunological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederberg, Joshua

    2002-07-01

    The turning point of modern immunological theory was the advent of the clonal selection theory (Burnet, Talmage - 1957). A useful heuristic in the classification of theoretical models was the contrast of 'instructive' with 'selective' models of the acquisition of information by biological systems. The neo-Darwinian synthesis of the 1940s had consolidated biologists' model of evolution based on prior random variation and natural selection, viz. differential fecundity. While evolution in the large was by then pretty well settled, controversy remained about examples of cellular adaptation to chemical challenges, like induced drug-resistance, enzyme formation and the antibody response. While instructive theories have been on the decline, some clear cut examples can be found of molecular imprinting in the abiotic world, leading, e.g. to the production of specific sorbents. Template-driven assembly, as in DNA synthesis, has remained a paradigm of instructive specification. Nevertheless, the classification may break down with more microscopic scrutiny of the processes of molecular fit of substrates with enzymes, of monomers to an elongating polymer chain, as the reactants often traverse a state space from with activated components are appropriately selected. The same process may be 'instructive' from a holistic, 'selective' from an atomic perspective.

  16. IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY OF SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Meenupriya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spongiform encephalopathies, categorized as a subclass of neuro-degenerative diseases and commonly known as prion diseases, are a group of progressive conditions that affect the brain and nervous system of many animals, including humans. Prion diseases are common among cannibalistic communities; further research has revealed that the infected or malformed prion protein (named PrPsc spreads its virulence to the normal, healthy prion protein (named PrPc when people consume infected tissues. Knowing that a small interaction between normal and infected prion protein creates virulence, this relationship can be studied as a simple antigen-antibody interaction to understand the series of events that transform a normal prion protein into a virulent misfolded protein. Thoroughly modeled and validated structures of both PrPsc and PrPc can be effectively used to map the epitopes and thereby screen the antigen-antibody interaction using docking studies for a particular organism of concern. This simple immunological approach is used to understand the vital interaction between the normal and malformed proteins that is involved in the disease-spreading mechanism. Clarification of this mechanism could be used in various immune- and bioinformatics algorithms to map the interaction epitopes, furthering an understanding of these pathologies.

  17. Immunology of the mammary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Miodrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammary gland is an organ of specific structure whose elementary task is to supply offspring with nutritive and other biologically active substances during the first weeks, or, depending on the species, the first months of life. This prolongs the period of close contact between the mother and her young, which is necessary for their regular growth. Most mammal offspring are born with physiological agammaglobulinaemia, because of the specific structure of the placenta, so that they receive the first specific protection against pathogenic microorganisms through colostrum. Furthermore, this gland is in direct contact with the outer environment through the secretary ducts, so that there are great possibilities for the occurrence of infections. It is therefore necessary to secure protective mechanisms which would prevent such infections. It is clear that there is a distinct connection between the immunological system and the mammary gland, and that link is the central topic of this paper. It presents the basic mechanisms of mammary gland defense which are divided into two categories: nonspecific (innate and specific immune response. The mammary gland secretion contains several types of leukocytes, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophiles, as well as 2% epithelial cells. On the average, there are 0.2 x 106 somatic cells in one mililiter of milk. Macrophages account for most of these (58%, as well as lymphocytes (28%, while a smaller number of somatic cells (12% are polymorphonuclears (PMN. The paper considers the characteristics and main functions of these cell types.

  18. The immunological barriers to xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadori, M; Cozzi, E

    2015-10-01

    The availability of cells, tissues and organs from a non-human species such as the pig could, at least in theory, meet the demand of organs necessary for clinical transplantation. At this stage, the important goal of getting over the first year of survival has been reported for both cellular and solid organ xenotransplantation in relevant preclinical primate models. In addition, xenotransplantation is already in the clinic as shown by the broad use of animal-derived medical devices, such as bioprosthetic heart valves and biological materials used for surgical tissue repair. At this stage, however, prior to starting a wide-scale clinical application of xenotransplantation of viable cells and organs, the important obstacle represented by the humoral immune response will need to be overcome. Likewise, the barriers posed by the activation of the innate immune system and coagulative pathway will have to be controlled. As far as xenogeneic nonviable xenografts, increasing evidence suggests that considerable immune reactions, mediated by both innate and adaptive immunity, take place and influence the long-term outcome of xenogeneic materials in patients, possibly precluding the use of bioprosthetic heart valves in young individuals. In this context, the present article provides an overview of current knowledge on the immune processes following xenotransplantation and on the possible therapeutic interventions to overcome the immunological drawbacks involved in xenotransplantation.

  19. Altered age-related changes in bioenergetic properties and mitochondrial morphology in fibroblasts from sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott P; Duffy, Lynn M; Shaw, Pamela J; Grierson, Andrew J

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in aging, which is a well-established risk factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have previously modeled metabolic dysregulation in ALS using fibroblasts isolated from sporadic ALS (SALS) and familial ALS patients. In the present study, we show that fibroblasts from SALS patients have an altered metabolic response to aging. Control fibroblasts demonstrated increased mitochondrial network complexity and spare respiratory capacity with age which was not seen in the SALS cases. SALS cases displayed an increase in uncoupled mitochondrial respiration, which was not evident in control cases. Unlike SALS cases, controls showed a decrease in glycolysis and an increase in the oxygen consumption rate/extracellular acidification rate ratio, indicating an increased reliance on mitochondrial function. Switching to a more oxidative state by removing glucose with in the culture media resulted in a loss of the mitochondrial interconnectivity and spare respiratory capacity increases observed in controls grown in glucose. Glucose removal also led to an age-independent increase in glycolysis in the SALS cases. This study is, to the best our knowledge, the first to assess the effect of aging on both mitochondrial and glycolytic function simultaneously in intact human fibroblasts and demonstrates that the SALS disease state shifts the cellular metabolic response to aging to a more glycolytic state compared with age-matched control fibroblasts. This work highlights that ALS alters the metabolic equilibrium even in peripheral tissues outside the central nervous system. Elucidating at a molecular level how this occurs and at what stage in the disease process is crucial to understanding why ALS affects cellular energy metabolism and how the disease alters the natural cellular response to aging.

  20. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Professionals Find an Allergist American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Seeking Relief? Find an Allergist ... shots? View All Postings Ask the Allergist Index Allergy & Asthma News Are tree nut allergies diagnosed too ...

  1. Multiscale modelling in immunology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Antonio; Tieri, Paolo; Castiglione, Filippo

    2016-05-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biomedicine is to get a unified view of observations made from the molecular up to the organism scale. Towards this goal, multiscale models have been highly instrumental in contexts such as the cardiovascular field, angiogenesis, neurosciences and tumour biology. More recently, such models are becoming an increasingly important resource to address immunological questions as well. Systematic mining of the literature in multiscale modelling led us to identify three main fields of immunological applications: host-virus interactions, inflammatory diseases and their treatment and development of multiscale simulation platforms for immunological research and for educational purposes. Here, we review the current developments in these directions, which illustrate that multiscale models can consistently integrate immunological data generated at several scales, and can be used to describe and optimize therapeutic treatments of complex immune diseases.

  2. Half a century of Dutch transplant immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rood, Jon J; Claas, Frans H J; Brand, Anneke; Tilanus, Marcel G J; van Kooten, Cees

    2014-12-01

    The sixties have not only witnessed the start of the Dutch Society for Immunology (NvvI), but were also the flourishing beginning of the discipline of transplant immunology. The interest in immunology in the Netherlands had its start in the context of blood transfusions and not for instance in the field of infectious disease, as in many other countries. It began in the 1950-ties thanks to Joghem van Loghem at that time director of the Central Laboratory of Blood Transfusion in Amsterdam. The discoveries of these times have had major impact for transfusion medicine, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and organ transplantation. In this review we will look back at some early highlights of Dutch transplant immunology and put them in the perspective of some recent developments.

  3. Immunologic, hemodynamic, and adrenal incompetence in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise Madeleine; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

    2015-01-01

    dysfunction, but is not responsive to volume expansion. Recent research indicates that development of hepatic nephropathy represents a continuous spectrum of functional and structural dysfunction and may be precipitated by the inherent immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence in cirrhosis. New...... research explores several new markers of renal dysfunction that may replace serum creatinine in the future and give new insight on the hepatic nephropathy. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence, and the impact on renal...

  4. Alteration of Mesoscopic Properties and Mechanical Behavior of Sandstone Due to Hydro-Physical and Hydro-Chemical Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liping; Wang, Zhechao; Huang, Anda

    2017-02-01

    The hydro-physical and hydro-chemical interactions between groundwater and a rock mass can lead to changes in the mineral composition and structure of the rock (e.g., generation of voids and dissolution pores and an increase in the porosity), thereby altering the macroscopic mechanical characteristics of the rock mass. Sandstone specimens were saturated with distilled water and five aqueous solutions characterized by various ion concentrations and pH values for several months, and their porosity was measured in real time. Simultaneously, the concentration and pH of each aqueous solution were monitored every 30 days. The results indicate that after immersion in the aqueous solutions for 180 days, the porosity of the sandstone specimens and the ion concentrations and pH of the aqueous solutions tended to stabilize. Then, the immersed sandstone specimens were analyzed in thin section and subjected to computerized tomography scanning. It turns out that the mineral composition and structure of the specimens had all changed to various degrees. Finally, the uniaxial compression tests were conducted on the sandstone specimens to analyze the effects of the hydro-physical and hydro-chemical alteration on the macroscopic mechanical characteristics of the rock (e.g., the stress-strain relationship, elastic modulus, and peak strength). The results of this study can serve as a reference for investigations into theories and applications of water-rock interactions and for research in related fields.

  5. Density, porosity, mineralogy, and internal structure of cosmic dust and alteration of its properties during high velocity atmospheric entry

    CERN Document Server

    Kohout, T; Suuronen, J -P; Rochette, P; Hutzler, A; Gattacceca, J; Skála, D D Badjukov R; Böhmová, V; Čuda, J

    2014-01-01

    X-ray microtomography (XMT), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic hysteresis measurements were used to determine micrometeorite internal structure, mineralogy, crystallography, and physical properties at ~{\\mu}m resolution. The study samples include unmelted, partially melted (scoriaceous) and completely melted (cosmic spherules) micrometeorites. This variety not only allows comparison of the mineralogy and porosity of these three micrometeorite types, but also reveals changes in meteoroid properties during atmospheric entry at various velocities. At low entry velocities, meteoroids do not melt, and their physical properties do not change. The porosity of unmelted micrometeorites varies considerably (0-12%) with one friable example having porosity around 50%. At higher velocities, the range of meteoroid porosity narrows, but average porosity increases (to 16-27%) due to volatile evaporation and partial melting (scoriaceous phase). Metal distribution seems to be mostly unaffected at this stage. At even higher ...

  6. An immunologic portrait of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroncek David F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The advent of high-throughput technology challenges the traditional histopathological classification of cancer, and proposes new taxonomies derived from global transcriptional patterns. Although most of these molecular re-classifications did not endure the test of time, they provided bulk of new information that can reframe our understanding of human cancer biology. Here, we focus on an immunologic interpretation of cancer that segregates oncogenic processes independent from their tissue derivation into at least two categories of which one bears the footprints of immune activation. Several observations describe a cancer phenotype where the expression of interferon stimulated genes and immune effector mechanisms reflect patterns commonly observed during the inflammatory response against pathogens, which leads to elimination of infected cells. As these signatures are observed in growing cancers, they are not sufficient to entirely clear the organism of neoplastic cells but they sustain, as in chronic infections, a self-perpetuating inflammatory process. Yet, several studies determined an association between this inflammatory status and a favorable natural history of the disease or a better responsiveness to cancer immune therapy. Moreover, these signatures overlap with those observed during immune-mediated cancer rejection and, more broadly, immune-mediated tissue-specific destruction in other immune pathologies. Thus, a discussion concerning this cancer phenotype is warranted as it remains unknown why it occurs in immune competent hosts. It also remains uncertain whether a genetically determined response of the host to its own cancer, the genetic makeup of the neoplastic process or a combination of both drives the inflammatory process. Here we reflect on commonalities and discrepancies among studies and on the genetic or somatic conditions that may cause this schism in cancer behavior.

  7. Cancer immunology for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Louis M

    2015-05-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is coming of age. It has become abundantly clear that immunotherapy-which has been described as treating the body's immune system so the immune system can treat the cancer-can be routinely effective, and may indeed cure advanced cancers. Accordingly, it is important to understand the basic, clinically relevant principles of cancer immunology to better prepare for an increasingly exciting future. The host immune system is the only active enemy faced by a malignant cell population as it develops. So it is helpful to think of the battle between the cancer cell population and the developing cancer as a Darwinian crucible in which only the malignant cells most fit to thrive in the face of active immune system attack are able to survive in the reluctant host. All successful cancers thus have overcome the defenses mounted by host immune systems by actively thwarting the evolution of anticancer immunity. A malignant cell population that has "solved" the riddle of the host immune system need not employ all of these mechanisms in order to survive in a particular host. Hence, it may be that the dominant mechanism or mechanisms of immune evasion in fact represent potential Achilles' heels that can be therapeutically attacked to restore immune control of a cancer. To better understand where opportunities exist for immunotherapy, it is important to first consider how developing cancers overcome host immunity: by overwhelming, hiding from, subverting, shielding from, defending against, and outlasting the host immune response. Clearly, more than one of these mechanisms may be present in any particular patient, but it is likely that many cancer types employ dominant immune defense mechanisms. There can be no doubt that mobilizing the immune system to attack a cancer, remember the enemy, and continually target emerging clones represents an extremely promising path to cancer prevention and cure.

  8. Immunology of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tončić, Ružica Jurakić; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Martinac, Ivana; Gregurić, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a T-cell mediated skin inflammation caused by repeated skin exposure to contact allergens. This review summarizes current knowledge on the immunology of ACD. Different phases in ACD are distinguished, i.e. sensitization, elicitation and resolution phases. We discuss contact allergen presentation and the central role of antigen presenting cells during sensitization phase. There is an extremely complex interaction of different kinds of immune cells, such as antigen presenting cells, T, B, NK lymphocytes, keratinocytes (KCs), endothelium, mast cells (MCs) and platelets, and this complex interaction is guided through orchestration of numerous cytokines and chemokines. The role of adaptive immunity has been recognized in contact hypersensitivity but we also discuss the important role of some parts of innate immunity such as natural killer T lymphocytes (NKT) and complement system. Cooperation of innate and adaptive immunity, in this case NK cells and B cells, initiates elicitation phase by complement cascade activation, vasoactive substance release and endothelial activation. KCs are not only innocent bystanders, on the contrary, they are involved in all phases of ACD, from the early phase of initiation through sending "danger" signals and activation of innate immunity, through their role in Langerhans cells (LCs) migration, T-cell trafficking, through the height of the inflammatory phase with direct interactions with epidermotropic T-cells, and finally through the resolution phase with the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and tolerogenic presentation to effector T-cells. Th-1 and Th-17 cells are the main effector cells responsible for tissue damage. At the end, we point out several subsets of T regulatory cells, which exert down-regulatory function and regulate the magnitude and duration of inflammatory reaction.

  9. Fluoxetine, a selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake, potentiates morphine analgesia without altering its discriminative stimulus properties or affinity for opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynes, M.D.; Lochner, M.A.; Bemis, K.G.; Hymson, D.L.

    1985-06-17

    The analgesic effect of morphine in the rat tail jerk assay was enhanced by the serotonin uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Tail jerk latency was not affected by fluoxetine alone. Morphine's affinity for opioid receptors labeled in vitro with /sup 3/H-naloxone or /sup 3/H-D-Ala/sup 2/-D-Leu/sup 5/-enkephalin was not altered by fluoxetine, which has no affinity for these sites at concentrations as high as 1000 nM. In rats trained to discriminate morphine from saline, fluoxetine at doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg were recognized as saline. Increasing the fluoxetine dose to 20 mg/kg did not result in generalization to either saline or morphine. The dose response curve for morphine generalization was not significantly altered by fluoxetine doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg. Those rats treated with the combination of morphine and 20 mg/kg of fluoxetine did not exhibit saline or morphine appropriate responding. Fluoxetine potentiates the analgesic properties of morphine without enhancing its affinity for opioid receptors or its discriminative stimulus properties. 30 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  10. 21 CFR 866.5210 - Ceruloplasmin immunolog-ical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ceruloplasmin immunolog-ical test system. 866.5210 Section 866.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... aid in the diagnosis of copper metabolism disorders. (b) Classification. Class II...

  11. Sulfation of a polysaccharide produced by a marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108 alters its antioxidant properties in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X B; Gao, X D; Han, F; Tan, R X

    2005-08-30

    Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by all aerobic cells and are widely believed to play a significant role in aging as well as a number of degenerative or pathological diseases. This study compared the free radical-scavenging properties and antioxidant activity of YCP, a polysaccharide from the mycelium of a marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS 4108 and its two chemically sulfated derivatives YCP-S1 and YCP-S2. Sulfation, which masks hydroxyl groups of YCP polysaccharide molecule, could introduce new antioxidant activity, such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity, metal chelating action, lipid peroxidation and linoleic acid oxidation inhibition capability. Furthermore, sulfated YCP was more potent than YCP at protecting erythrocytes against oxidative damage hemolysis. The current data suggest for the first time that sulfation of polysaccharide significantly increases its antioxidant activity and the chemical modification of polysaccharides may allow the preparation of derivatives with new properties and a variety of applications.

  12. Exercise Training after Spinal Cord Injury Selectively Alters Synaptic Properties in Neurons in Adult Mouse Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jamie R.; Dunn, Lynda R.; Galea, Mary P.; Callister, Robin; Rank, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Following spinal cord injury (SCI), anatomical changes such as axonal sprouting occur within weeks in the vicinity of the injury. Exercise training enhances axon sprouting; however, the exact mechanisms that mediate exercised-induced plasticity are unknown. We studied the effects of exercise training after SCI on the intrinsic and synaptic properties of spinal neurons in the immediate vicinity (<2 segments) of the SCI. Male mice (C57BL/6, 9–10 weeks old) received a spinal hemisection (T10) and after 1 week of recovery, they were randomized to trained (treadmill exercise for 3 weeks) and untrained (no exercise) groups. After 3 weeks, mice were killed and horizontal spinal cord slices (T6–L1, 250 μm thick) were prepared for visually guided whole cell patch clamp recording. Intrinsic properties, including resting membrane potential, input resistance, rheobase current, action potential (AP) threshold and after-hyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude were similar in neurons from trained and untrained mice (n=67 and 70 neurons, respectively). Neurons could be grouped into four categories based on their AP discharge during depolarizing current injection; the proportions of tonic firing, initial bursting, single spiking, and delayed firing neurons were similar in trained and untrained mice. The properties of spontaneous excitatory synaptic currents (sEPSCs) did not differ in trained and untrained animals. In contrast, evoked excitatory synaptic currents recorded after dorsal column stimulation were markedly increased in trained animals (peak amplitude 78.9±17.5 vs. 42.2±6.8 pA; charge 1054±376 vs. 348±75 pA·ms). These data suggest that 3 weeks of treadmill exercise does not affect the intrinsic properties of spinal neurons after SCI; however, excitatory synaptic drive from dorsal column pathways, such as the corticospinal tract, is enhanced. PMID:23320512

  13. Morphological alteration and exceptional magnetic properties of air-stable FeCo nanocubes prepared by a chemical reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chokprasombat, K., E-mail: komkrich28@gmail.com [School of Physics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Harding, P. [Molecular Technology Research Unit, School of Science, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80161 (Thailand); Pinitsoontorn, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maensiri, S. [School of Physics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2014-11-15

    FeCo nanocubes are of great interest due to their outstanding magnetic properties and larger contact area compared to the spherical particles. Herein, the FeCo nanocubes could be obtained by the reduction of metal ions by hydrazine hydrate under a concentrated basic condition. It was found that shape of the FeCo nanocubes varied from cubic with a mean edge length of 130±3 nm to polyhedron (diameter around 500–700 nm) depending on the concentration of using polymer. A lot of irregular nanoplates were also obtained when used the excessive polymer. In addition, the as-synthesized particles were air-stable which might be related to the formation of thin polymer shells on particle surfaces. The FeCo nanocubes also possessed exceptional magnetic properties at room temperature, including a very high saturation magnetization (217.14 emu/g) and low coercivity (85.95 Oe). - Highlights: • We report the synthesis of FeCo nanocubes by a chemical reduction method. • Shape of the particles clearly depended on the amount of polymer used. • The particles were air-stable and possessed excellent magnetic properties.

  14. The adrenal specific toxicant mitotane directly interacts with lipid membranes and alters membrane properties depending on lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Holger A; Haralampiev, Ivan; Theisgen, Stephan; Schirbel, Andreas; Sbiera, Silviu; Huster, Daniel; Kroiss, Matthias; Müller, Peter

    2016-06-15

    Mitotane (o,p'.-DDD) is an orphan drug approved for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. The mechanisms, which are responsible for this activity of the drug, are not completely understood. It can be hypothesized that an impact of mitotane is mediated by the interaction with cellular membranes. However, an interaction of mitotane with (lipid) membranes has not yet been investigated in detail. Here, we characterized the interaction of mitotane and its main metabolite o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroacetic acid (o,p'-DDA) with lipid membranes by applying a variety of biophysical approaches of nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. We found that mitotane and o,p'-DDA bind to lipid membranes by inserting into the lipid-water interface of the bilayer. Mitotane but not o,p'-DDA directly causes a disturbance of bilayer structure leading to an increased permeability of the membrane for polar molecules. Mitotane induced alterations of the membrane integrity required the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine and/or cholesterol. Collectively, our data for the first time characterize the impact of mitotane on the lipid membrane structure and dynamics, which may contribute to a better understanding of specific mitotane effects and side effects.

  15. Prenatal drug exposure to illicit drugs alters working memory-related brain activity and underlying network properties in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Julie B; Riggins, Tracy; Liang, Xia; Gallen, Courtney; Kurup, Pradeep K; Ross, Thomas J; Black, Maureen M; Nair, Prasanna; Salmeron, Betty Jo

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of effects of prenatal drug exposure (PDE) on brain functioning during adolescence is poorly understood. We explored neural activation to a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) versus a control task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in adolescents with PDE and a community comparison group (CC) of non-exposed adolescents. We applied graph theory metrics to resting state data using a network of nodes derived from the VSWM task activation map to further explore connectivity underlying WM functioning. Participants (ages 12-15 years) included 47 adolescents (27 PDE and 20 CC). All analyses controlled for potentially confounding differences in birth characteristics and postnatal environment. Significant group by task differences in brain activation emerged in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6) with the CC group, but not the PDE group, activating this region during VSWM. The PDE group deactivated the culmen, whereas the CC group activated it during the VSWM task. The CC group demonstrated a significant relation between reaction time and culmen activation, not present in the PDE group. The network analysis underlying VSWM performance showed that PDE group had lower global efficiency than the CC group and a trend level reduction in local efficiency. The network node corresponding to the BA 6 group by task interaction showed reduced nodal efficiency and fewer direct connections to other nodes in the network. These results suggest that adolescence reveals altered neural functioning related to response planning that may reflect less efficient network functioning in youth with PDE.

  16. Age- and gender-related distribution of bone mineral density and mechanical properties of the proximal humerus; Alters- und geschlechtsabhaengige Knochenmineraldichteverteilung und mechanische Eigenschaften des proximalen Humerus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, H.; Hepp, P.; Korner, J.; Josten, C. [Klinik fuer Unfall- und Wiederherstellungschirurgie, Univ. Leipzig (Germany); Gowin, W. [Center of Muscle and Bone Research, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Oestmann, J.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Charite, Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Haas, N.P.; Duda, G.N. [Klinik fuer Unfall- und Wiederherstellungschirurgie, Charite, Virchow-Klinikum Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate age- and gender-related mechanical properties and bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal humerus at different levels and regions. Materials and methods: Mechanical indentation testing, DXA, QCT, pQCT and the radiogrammetry (Cortical Index, CI) were carried out in 70 freshly harvested humeri from 46 human cadavers (23 females, 23-males; median age 70.5 years). Results: In the female group, a high correlation between age and BMD was found ({rho}=0.62 to -0.70, p<0.01) with statistically significant differences between specimens of patients 69 years or younger, and 70 years or older (p<0.05). In the group of female specimens of age 70 years or older, BMD values were found to be significantly lower compared to their male counterparts (p<0.05). Regardless of the specimen's age, the highest BMD and bone strength were found in the proximal aspect and in the medial and dorsal regions of the proximal humerus. Conclusion: These findings provide an insight into the fracture mechanism of the proximal humerus and should be the basis for designing structure-oriented implants with improved implant-bone stability in osteoporotic patients. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die alters- und geschlechtsspezifische Analyse der mechanischen Eigenschaften und der Knochenmineraldichte (BMD) des proximalen Humerus in verschiedenen Hoehen und Regionen. Methoden: Folgende Verfahren wurden angewandt: Mechanische Indentation Testung, DXA, QCT, pQCT und die Radiogrammetrie (Cortical Index, CI). Die Untersuchungen wurden an 70 frischen Humeri von 46 humanen Praeparaten (23 weiblich, 23 maennlich; Alter median: 70,5 Jahre) durchgefuehrt. Ergebnisse: In der Gruppe der weiblichen Humeri fand sich eine hohe Korrelation zwischen Alter und Knochenmineraldichte ({rho}=-0,62 to -0,70 p<0,01) mit statistisch signifikanten Unterschieden zwischen Praeparaten juenger als 69 Jahre und aelter als 70 Jahre (p<0.05). In der Gruppe der weiblichen Praeparate

  17. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos

    2013-03-01

    After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology.

  18. Reduced Neck Muscle Strength and Altered Muscle Mechanical Properties in Cervical Dystonia Following Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustalampi, Sirpa; Ylinen, Jari; Korniloff, Katariina; Weir, Adam; Häkkinen, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in the strength and mechanical properties of neck muscles and disability in patients with cervical dystonia (CD) during a 12-week period following botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections. Methods Eight patients with CD volunteered for this prospective clinical cohort study. Patients had received BoNT injections regularly in neck muscles at three-month intervals for several years. Maximal isometric neck strength was measured by a dynamometer, and the mechanical properties of the splenius capitis were evaluated using two myotonometers. Clinical assessment was performed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) before and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the BoNT injections. Results Mean maximal isometric neck strength at two weeks after the BoNT injections decreased by 28% in extension, 25% in rotation of the affected side and 17% in flexion. At four weeks, muscle stiffness of the affected side decreased by 17% and tension decreased by 6%. At eight weeks, the muscle elasticity on the affected side increased by 12%. At two weeks after the BoNT injections, the TWSTRS-severity and TWSTRS-total scores decreased by 4.3 and 6.4, respectively. The strength, muscle mechanical properties and TWSTRS scores returned to baseline values at 12 weeks. Conclusions Although maximal neck strength and muscle tone decreased after BoNT injections, the disability improved. The changes observed after BoNT injections were temporary and returned to pre-injection levels within twelve weeks. Despite having a possible negative effect on function and decreasing neck strength, the BoNT injections improved the patients reported disability. PMID:26828215

  19. Reduced Neck Muscle Strength and Altered Muscle Mechanical Properties in Cervical Dystonia Following Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpa Mustalampi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate changes in the strength and mechanical properties of neck muscles and disability in patients with cervical dystonia (CD during a 12-week period following botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT injections. Methods Eight patients with CD volunteered for this prospective clinical cohort study. Patients had received BoNT injections regularly in neck muscles at three-month intervals for several years. Maximal isometric neck strength was measured by a dynamometer, and the mechanical properties of the splenius capitis were evaluated using two myotonometers. Clinical assessment was performed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS before and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the BoNT injections. Results Mean maximal isometric neck strength at two weeks after the BoNT injections decreased by 28% in extension, 25% in rotation of the affected side and 17% in flexion. At four weeks, muscle stiffness of the affected side decreased by 17% and tension decreased by 6%. At eight weeks, the muscle elasticity on the affected side increased by 12%. At two weeks after the BoNT injections, the TWSTRS-severity and TWSTRS-total scores decreased by 4.3 and 6.4, respectively. The strength, muscle mechanical properties and TWSTRS scores returned to baseline values at 12 weeks. Conclusions Although maximal neck strength and muscle tone decreased after BoNT injections, the disability improved. The changes observed after BoNT injections were temporary and returned to pre-injection levels within twelve weeks. Despite having a possible negative effect on function and decreasing neck strength, the BoNT injections improved the patients reported disability.

  20. Behavioral and molecular neuroepigenetic alterations in prenatally stressed mice: relevance for the study of chromatin remodeling properties of antipsychotic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, E; Tueting, P; Matrisciano, F; Grayson, D R; Guidotti, A

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported that mice born from dams stressed during pregnancy (PRS mice), in adulthood, have behavioral deficits reminiscent of behaviors observed in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP) disorder patients. Furthermore, we have shown that the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus of adult PRS mice, like that of postmortem chronic SZ patients, are characterized by increases in DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), ten-eleven methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) and exhibit an enrichment of 5-methylcytosine (5MC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5HMC) at neocortical GABAergic and glutamatergic gene promoters. Here, we show that the behavioral deficits and the increased 5MC and 5HMC at glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (Gad1), reelin (Reln) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) promoters and the reduced expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and proteins corresponding to these genes in FC of adult PRS mice is reversed by treatment with clozapine (5 mg kg−1 twice a day for 5 days) but not by haloperidol (1 mg kg−1 twice a day for 5 days). Interestingly, clozapine had no effect on either the behavior, promoter methylation or the expression of these mRNAs and proteins when administered to offspring of nonstressed pregnant mice. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, reduced the elevated levels of DNMT1 and TET1, as well as the elevated levels of DNMT1 binding to Gad1, Reln and Bdnf promoters in PRS mice suggesting that clozapine, unlike haloperidol, may limit DNA methylation by interfering with DNA methylation dynamics. We conclude that the PRS mouse model may be useful preclinically in screening for the potential efficacy of antipsychotic drugs acting on altered epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, PRS mice may be invaluable for understanding the etiopathogenesis of SZ and BP disorder and for predicting treatment responses at early stages of the illness allowing for early detection and remedial intervention. PMID:26756904

  1. Temperature modulates the cell wall mechanical properties of rice coleoptiles by altering the molecular mass of hemicellulosic polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukiko; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanism inducing the difference in the cell wall extensibility of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Koshihikari) coleoptiles grown under various temperature (10-50 degrees C) conditions. The growth rate and the cell wall extensibility of rice coleoptiles exhibited the maximum value at 30-40 degrees C, and became smaller as the growth temperature rose or dropped from this temperature range. The amounts of cell wall polysaccharides per unit length of coleoptile increased in coleoptiles grown at 40 degrees C, but not at other temperature conditions. On the other hand, the molecular size of hemicellulosic polysaccharides was small at temperatures where the cell wall extensibility was high (30-40 degrees C). The autolytic activities of cell walls obtained from coleoptiles grown at 30 and 40 degrees C were substantially higher than those grown at 10, 20 and 50 degrees C. Furthermore, the activities of (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-glucanases extracted from coleoptile cell walls showed a similar tendency. When oat (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-glucans with high molecular mass were incubated with the cell wall enzyme preparations from coleoptiles grown at various temperature conditions, the extensive molecular mass downshifts were brought about only by the cell wall enzymes obtained from coleoptiles grown at 30-40 degrees C. There were close correlations between the cell wall extensibility and the molecular mass of hemicellulosic polysaccharides or the activity of beta -glucanases. These results suggest that the environmental temperature regulates the cell wall extensibility of rice coleoptiles by modifying mainly the molecular mass of hemicellulosic polysaccharides. Modulation of the activity of beta-glucanases under various temperature conditions may be involved in the alteration of the molecular size of hemicellulosic polysaccharides.

  2. Alterations in energy properties of eucalyptus wood and bark subjected to torrefaction: the potential of mass loss as a synthetic indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, G; Brito, J O; Perré, P

    2010-12-01

    Torrefaction is a mild pyrolysis process (usually up to 300 degrees C) that changes the chemical and physical properties of biomass. This process is a possible pre-treatment prior to further processes (transport, grinding, combustion, gasification, etc) to generate energy or biofuels. In this study, three eucalyptus wood species and bark were subjected to different torrefaction conditions to determine the alterations in their structural and energy properties. The most severe treatment (280 degrees C, 5h) causes mass losses of more than 35%, with severe damage to anatomical structure, and an increase of about 27% in the specific energy content. Bark is more sensitive to heat than wood. Energy yields are always higher than mass yields, thereby demonstrating the benefits of torrefaction in concentrating biomass energy. The overall mass loss is proposed as a relevant parameter to synthesize the effect of torrefaction conditions (temperature and duration). Accordingly, all results are summarised by analytical expressions able to predict the energy properties as a function of the overall mass loss. These expressions are intended to be used in any optimization procedure, from production in the field to the final use.

  3. Comparative anatomy of phagocytic and immunological synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eNiedergang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of phagocytic cups and immunological synapses are crucial events of the innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively. They are triggered by distinct immune receptors and performed by different cell types. However, growing experimental evidence shows that a very close series of molecular and cellular events control these two processes. Thus, the tight and dynamic interplay between receptor signaling, actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, and targeted vesicle traffic are all critical features to build functional phagosomes and immunological synapses. Interestingly, both phagocytic cups and immunological synapses display particular spatial and temporal patterns of receptors and signaling molecules, leading to the notion of phagocytic synapse. Here we discuss both types of structures, their organization and the mechanisms by which they are generated and regulated.

  4. Genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel MUÑOZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available clinicians and researchers due to its rapid progression and its evidences of genetic character. Different theories have tried to explain the individual differences in susceptibility, where genetic and immunological assays have assumed great importance. The purpose of this study was to review the literature in order to comprehend the genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis. Literature review: Articles were examined, specifically the ones dealing with information regarding genetic and/or immunological studies of individuals related to their disease susceptibility. Conclusions: In the presence of dental biofilm, host susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis varies among regions, countries and races. Immune-inflammatory processes that seem to be modified in aggressive periodontitis patients may be transmitted vertically, explaining familial aggregation associated with this disease.

  5. Sensing Danger: Innate Immunology for Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Uwe, Aickelin

    2008-01-01

    The immune system provides an ideal metaphor for anomaly detection in general and computer security in particular. Based on this idea, artificial immune systems have been used for a number of years for intrusion detection, unfortunately so far with little success. However, these previous systems were largely based on immunological theory from the 1970s and 1980s and over the last decade our understanding of immunological processes has vastly improved. In this paper we present two new immune inspired algorithms based on the latest immunological discoveries, such as the behaviour of Dendritic Cells. The resultant algorithms are applied to real world intrusion problems and show encouraging results. Overall, we believe there is a bright future for these next generation artificial immune algorithms.

  6. SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN CERVICAL PATHOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Savchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. To study immunological indices and functional activity of neutrophils in women with human papillomavirus infection (HPV, as well as their dependence on severity of cervical morphological alterations, we examined sixty-seven female patients in their reproductive age. It was found that, regardless of severity of pathological changes in uterine cervix, the women with HPV infection show decreased numbers of NK cells and CD4+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood, along with increased contents of gd T cells. In cases of combined sub-clinical infection with leukoplakia and endocervicosis, more severe disorders of cellular immunity were detectable than in CIN I and CIN II. It is assumed, that initial neoplastic processes with HPV background are accompanied by a more pronounced immune response. Meanwhile, functional activity of neutrophilic granulocytes varies in an inverse manner, being, generally, increased in common HPV infection, followed by most significant changes in CIN I and CIN II.

  7. Immunologic parameters evaluations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to sublethal concentrations of diazinon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón-Pérez, M I; Velázquez-Fernández, J; Díaz-Resendiz, K; Díaz-Salas, F; Canto-Montero, C; Medina-Díaz, I; Robledo-Marenco, M; Rojas-García, A; Zaitseva, G

    2009-08-01

    Fish resistance to microorganisms depends basically on the immune response. Although there are several studies on the diazinon mammalian immunotoxicity, in the case of fish there are only few. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of diazinon on immunological parameters (relative spleen weight, splenocytes count, lysozyme activity, respiratory burst and IgM concentration) in Nile tilapia. Diazinon at sublethal concentrations (0.39 and 0.78 mg/L) did not alter RSW, splenocytes count or lysozyme activity. However, at the highest concentration tested (1.96 mg/L) diazinon significantly increased respiratory burst and IgM concentration. In summary, diazinon (and perhaps other pesticides) could alter immunological response and induce oxidative stress.

  8. A high mixed protein diet reduces body fat without altering the mechanical properties of bone in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Kathleen M; Wakefield, Andrew P; Aukema, Harold M; House, James D; Ogborn, Malcolm R; Weiler, Hope A

    2009-11-01

    Long-term consumption of high-protein (HP) diets at 35% of energy is postulated to negatively influence bone health. Previous studies have not comprehensively examined the biochemical, physical, and biomechanical properties of bone required to arrive at this conclusion. Our objective in this study was to examine the long-term effect of a HP diet on bone metabolism, mass, and strength in rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomized to receive for 4, 8, 12, or 17 mo a normal-protein (NP) control diet (15% of energy) or a HP diet (35% of energy). Diets were balanced for calcium because the protein sources were rich in calcium. At each time point, measurements included weight, body composition, and bone mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, mechanical strength at the mid-diaphysis of femur and tibia, microarchitecture of femurs using microcomputerized tomography and serum osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal crosslinks of type I collagen (CTX), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), leptin, and adiponectin. Effects of diet, time, and their interaction were tested using factorial ANOVA. The HP diet resulted in lower body weight, total body, and abdominal fat and higher lean mass. Serum leptin and adiponectin were greater in HP-fed than in NP-fed rats, but IGF-1 did not differ between the groups. Whereas the HP diet resulted in higher relative bone mineral content (g/kg) in the femur, tibia, and vertebrae, serum osteocalcin and CTX and bone internal architecture and biomechanical strength were unaffected. In conclusion, HP diets at 35% of energy lower body fat content without hindering the mechanical and weight-bearing properties of bone.

  9. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HaoWen; LI dinZhi; ZHAO GuoPing; WANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics, both conceptually and technologically. It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology, the large genomic database, and bioinformatic power in the immunology research. The fast development in the fields of basic immunology, clinical immunology (tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy. We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  10. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics,both conceptually and technologically.It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology,the large genomic database,and bioinformatic power in the immunology research.The fast development in the fields of basic immunology,clinical immunology(tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy.We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  11. E series prostaglandins alter the proliferative, apoptotic and migratory properties of T98G human glioma cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Renata N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many types of cancer, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is associated with tumour related processes including proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and apoptosis. However in gliomas the role of this prostanoid is poorly understood. Here, we report on the proliferative, migratory, and apoptotic effects of PGE1, PGE2 and Ibuprofen (IBP observed in the T98G human glioma cell line in vitro. Methods T98G human glioma cells were treated with IBP, PGE1 or PGE2 at varying concentrations for 24–72 hours. Cell proliferation, mitotic index and apoptotic index were determined for each treatment. Caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity was measured using fluorescent probes in live cells (FITC-LEHD-FMK and FITC-DEVD-FMK respectively. The migratory capacity of the cells was quantified using a scratch migration assay and a transwell migration assay. Results A significant decrease was seen in cell number (54% in the presence of 50 μM IBP. Mitotic index and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation were also decreased 57% and 65%, respectively, by IBP. The apoptotic index was increased (167% and the in situ activity of caspase-9 and caspase-3 was evident in IBP treated cells. The inhibition of COX activity by IBP also caused a significant inhibition of cell migration in the monolayer scratch assay (74% and the transwell migration assay (36%. In contrast, the presence of exogenous PGE1 or PGE2 caused significant increases in cell number (37% PGE1 and 45% PGE2. When mitotic index was measured no change was found for either PG treatment. However, the BrdU incorporation rate was significantly increased by PGE1 (62% and to a greater extent by PGE2 (100%. The apoptotic index was unchanged by exogenous PGs. The addition of exogenous PGs caused an increase in cell migration in the monolayer scratch assay (43% PGE1 and 44% PGE2 and the transwell migration assay (28% PGE1 and 68% PGE2. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that treatments which alter PGE1 and PGE

  12. Evaluation of surface properties and atmospheric disturbances caused by post-dam alterations of land use/land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemichael, A. T.; Hossain, F.; Pielke, R., Sr.

    2014-09-01

    This study adopted a differential land-use/land-cover (LULC) analysis to evaluate dam-triggered land-atmosphere interactions for a number of LULC scenarios. Two specific questions were addressed: (1) can dam-triggered LULC heterogeneities modify surface and energy budget, which, in turn, change regional convergence and precipitation patterns? (2) How extensive is the modification in surface moisture and energy budget altered by dam-triggered LULC changes occurring in different climate and terrain features? The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 6.0) was set up for two climatologically and topographically contrasting regions: the American River watershed (ARW), located in California, and the Owyhee River watershed (ORW), located in eastern Oregon. For the selected atmospheric river precipitation event of 29 December 1996 to 3 January 1997, simulations of three pre-defined LULC scenarios are performed. The definition of the scenarios are (1) the "control" scenario, representing the contemporary land use, (2) the "pre-dam" scenario, representing the natural landscape before the construction of the dams and (3) the "non-irrigation" scenario, representing the condition where previously irrigated landscape in the control is transformed to the nearby land-use type. Results indicated that the ARW energy and moisture fluxes were more extensively affected by dam-induced changes in LULC than the ORW. Both regions, however, displayed commonalities in the modification of land-atmosphere processes due to LULC changes, with the control-non-irrigation scenario creating more change than the control-pre-dam scenarios. These commonalities were: (1) the combination of a decrease in temperature (up to 0.15 °C) and an increase at dew point (up to 0.25 °C) was observed; (2) there was a larger fraction of energy partitioned to latent heat flux (up to 10 W m-2) that increased the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere and resulted in a larger convective available

  13. Evaluation of surface properties and atmospheric disturbances caused by post-dam alterations of land-use/land-cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemichael, A. T.; Hossain, F.; Pielke, R., Sr.

    2014-05-01

    This study adopted a differential land-use/land-cover (LULC) analysis to evaluate dam-triggered land-atmosphere interactions for a number of LULC scenarios. Two specific questions were addressed: (1) can dam-triggered LULC heterogeneities modify surface and energy budget which, in turn, change regional convergence and precipitation patterns? and (2) how extensive is the modification in surface moisture and energy budget altered by dam-triggered LULC changes occurring in different climate and terrain features? The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 6.0) was set up for two climatologically and topographically contrasting regions: the American River Watershed (ARW) located in California and the Owyhee River Watershed (ORW) located in eastern Oregon. For the selected atmospheric river precipitation event of 29 December 1996 to 3 January 1997, simulations of three pre-defined LULC scenarios are performed. The definition of the scenarios are: (1) the control scenario representing the contemporary land-use, (2) the pre-dam scenario representing the natural landscape before the construction of the dams and (3) the non-irrigation scenario representing the condition where previously irrigated landscape in the control is transformed to the nearby land-use type. Results indicated that the ARW energy and moisture fluxes were more extensively affected by dam-induced changes in LULC than the ORW. Both regions, however, displayed commonalities in the modification of land-atmosphere processes due to LULC changes, with the control-non-irrigation scenario creating more change than the control-pre-dam scenarios. These commonalities were: (1) the combination of a decrease in temperature (up to 0.15 °C) and an increase in dewpoint (up to 0.25 °C) was observed, (2) there was a larger fraction of energy partitioned to latent heat flux (up to 10 W m-2) that increased the amount of water vapor to the atmosphere and resulted in a larger convective available potential

  14. Evaluation of surface properties and atmospheric disturbances caused by post-dam alterations of land-use/land-cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Woldemichael

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted a differential land-use/land-cover (LULC analysis to evaluate dam-triggered land–atmosphere interactions for a number of LULC scenarios. Two specific questions were addressed: (1 can dam-triggered LULC heterogeneities modify surface and energy budget which, in turn, change regional convergence and precipitation patterns? and (2 how extensive is the modification in surface moisture and energy budget altered by dam-triggered LULC changes occurring in different climate and terrain features? The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 6.0 was set up for two climatologically and topographically contrasting regions: the American River Watershed (ARW located in California and the Owyhee River Watershed (ORW located in eastern Oregon. For the selected atmospheric river precipitation event of 29 December 1996 to 3 January 1997, simulations of three pre-defined LULC scenarios are performed. The definition of the scenarios are: (1 the control scenario representing the contemporary land-use, (2 the pre-dam scenario representing the natural landscape before the construction of the dams and (3 the non-irrigation scenario representing the condition where previously irrigated landscape in the control is transformed to the nearby land-use type. Results indicated that the ARW energy and moisture fluxes were more extensively affected by dam-induced changes in LULC than the ORW. Both regions, however, displayed commonalities in the modification of land–atmosphere processes due to LULC changes, with the control–non-irrigation scenario creating more change than the control–pre-dam scenarios. These commonalities were: (1 the combination of a decrease in temperature (up to 0.15 °C and an increase in dewpoint (up to 0.25 °C was observed, (2 there was a larger fraction of energy partitioned to latent heat flux (up to 10 W m−2 that increased the amount of water vapor to the atmosphere and resulted in a larger convective available

  15. Synthetic immunology: modulating the human immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geering, Barbara; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Humans have manipulated the immune system to dampen or boost the immune response for thousands of years. As our understanding of fundamental immunology and biotechnological methodology accumulates, we can capitalize on this combined knowledge to engineer biological devices with the aim of rationally manipulating the immune response. We address therapeutic approaches based on the principles of synthetic immunology that either ameliorate disorders of the immune system by interfering with the immune response, or improve diverse pathogenic conditions by exploiting immune cell effector functions. We specifically highlight synthetic proteins investigated in preclinical and clinical trials, summarize studies that have used engineered immune cells, and finish with a discussion of possible future therapeutic concepts.

  16. What Can Vampires Teach Us about Immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David S

    2016-04-01

    Speculative fiction examines the leading edge of science and can be used to introduce ideas into the classroom. For example, most students are already familiar with the fictional infectious diseases responsible for vampire and zombie outbreaks. The disease dynamics of these imaginary ailments follow the same rules we see for real diseases and can be used to remind students that they already understand the basic rules of disease ecology and immunology. By engaging writers of this sort of fiction in an effort to solve problems in immunology we may be able to perform a directed evolution experiment where we follow the evolution of plots rather than genetic traits.

  17. Cancer immunology and colorectal cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Luca

    2011-06-01

    The recurrence of a cancer - local or distant (metastasis) - is manifested by the persistence of cancer cells in the organism after the ablation of the primary lesion, an ineffective anticancer immune response, and by the activity of biological/immunological factors that can stimulate and sustain its development. This review focuses on colorectal carcinoma and discusses some aspects of cancer immunology regarding cancer development and its recurrence. It is addressed also to the clinician to provide new insights helpful for designing better therapeutic strategies and patient's follow up. Therapeutic approaches used during and after surgical treatments, found capable of modulating immunity (differently affecting disease outcome), will also be described.

  18. [Regional anesthesia and cancer immunology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toru; Mori, Katsuya; Inoue, Kei; Suzuki, Takeshi; Morisaki, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Regional anesthesia has been widely applied as an excellent method for perioperative analgesia. Recent studies suggested that regional anesthesia is a promising approach to minimize the risk of surgical site infection and postoperative cancer recurrence, subsequently providing the benefits to the long-term outcome. In particular, it is of great interest that regional anesthesia might be able to reduce cancer recurrence. In cancer patients, innate immunity against cancer could be depressed, resulting in the predisposition to evoke metastasis. Besides, during the perioperative periods, tumor immunity is significantly depressed due to surgical pain, activation of sympathetic nervous system, inflammatory responses, and others. In this review article, we discuss the tumor immunity during the perioperative period, with focus on the alterations of tumor immunity and regional anesthesia.

  19. The immunological consequences of injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, N

    2012-02-03

    Immediate and early trauma death rates are determined by "first hits" such as hypoxia, hypotension and organ injury, while late mortality correlates closely with "second hits" such as infection. An imbalance between the early systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and the later compensatory counter-inflammatory response (CARS), is considered to be responsible for much post-traumatic morbidity and mortality. From a clinical perspective, this remains a significant healthcare problem, which has stimulated decades of experimental and clinical research aimed at understanding the functional effects of injury on the immune system. This review describes the impact of injury on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Though it is worth noting that the features of the immune response to injury overlap in many areas with immune dysregulation in sepsis, we attempt here to elucidate the mechanism by which injury predisposes to infection rather than to describe the alterations in host immunity consequent to established sepsis.

  20. Genetic deletion of TREK-1 or TWIK-1/TREK-1 potassium channels does not alter the basic electrophysiological properties of mature hippocampal astrocytes in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixing eDu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that a linear current-to-voltage (I-V relationship of membrane conductance (passive conductance reflects the intrinsic property of K+ channels in mature astrocytes. While passive conductance is known to underpin a highly negative and stable membrane potential (VM essential for the basic homeostatic function of astrocytes, a complete repertoire of the involved K+ channels remains elusive. TREK-1 two-pore domain K+ channel (K2P is highly expressed in astrocytes, and covalent association of TREK-1 with TWIK-1, another highly expressed astrocytic K2P, has been reported as a mechanism underlying the trafficking of this heterodimer channel to the membrane and contributing to astrocytes’ passive conductance. To decipher the individual contribution of TREK-1 and address whether the appearance of passive conductance is conditional to the co-expression of TWIK-1/TREK-1 in astrocytes, TREK-1 single and TWIK-1/TREK-1 double gene knockout mice were used in the present study. The relative quantity of mRNA encoding other astrocyte K+ channels, such as Kir4.1, Kir5.1, and TREK-2, was not altered in these gene knockout mice. Whole-cell recording from hippocampal astrocytes in situ revealed no detectable changes in astrocyte passive conductance, VM, or membrane input resistance (Rin in either kind of gene knockout mouse. Additionally, TREK-1 proteins were mainly located in the intracellular compartments of the hippocampus. Altogether, genetic deletion of TREK-1 alone or together with TWIK-1 produced no obvious alteration in the basic electrophysiological properties of hippocampal astrocytes. Thus, future research focusing on other K+ channels may shed light on this long-standing and important question in astrocyte physiology.

  1. STUDIES ON PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND IMMUNOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF POLYSACCHARIDES FROM PLEUROTUS FERULAE%阿魏蘑多糖理化性质及免疫活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘勇; 吕作舟

    2001-01-01

    以阿魏蘑PleurotusferulaeLanzi子实体和菌丝体为试验材料,采用水浸法提取阿魏蘑多糖,分别得到子实体粗多糖A和菌丝体粗多糖B。将A经Sevag法去蛋白、透析、CTAB络合、乙醇沉淀、NaCl溶液溶解、透析,得到多糖A1。紫外光谱分析鉴定多糖A1为均一组分。苯酚-硫酸法测得多糖A1糖含量为82.9%。凝胶渗透色谱法测得多糖A1数均分子量Mn=141088,重均分子量Mw=142897。气相色谱分析多糖A1单糖组成及其摩尔比为Xyl∶Gla∶Glc=1∶1.102∶2.899。巨噬细胞吞噬作用试验、迟发型变态反应试验、白细胞介素-2(IL-2)的诱生与检测试验测得粗多糖A、粗多糖B具有免疫活性。%Crude polysaccharides A and B were extracted separately from thefruiting body and cultured mycelium of Pleurotus ferulae Lanzi with water-extracted method. For obtaining polysaccharide A1,protein was removed from crude polysaccharide A with Sevag method, dialysed with water, precipitated with CTAB and alcohol, dissolved with NaCl solution and then dialysed again . Identification of ultraviolet spectrum showed that the polysaccharide A1 was a homogeneous composition, and the purity of polysaccharide was 82.9% ,judging by the Phenol-H2SO4 method analysis. GPC (gel permeation chromatography)detection showed that the number average molecular weight of polysaccharide A1 was 141,088 and the weight average molecular weight of polysaccharide A1 was 142,897. GC (gas chromatography) analysis indicated the monosaccharides' composition and molar ratio of polysaccharide A1 were:Xyl∶Gla∶Glc=1∶1.102∶2.899.It was proved the crude polysaccharide A and B had immunological activities according to the experiments of macrophage phagocytosis, delayed type hypersensitivity and induction and detection of IL-2.

  2. Housing conditions alter properties of the tibia and humerus during the laying phase in Lohmann white Leghorn hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, P; Smith, N; Nelson, N; Haut, R C; Orth, M W; Karcher, D M

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis in caged hens is one driving factor for the United States egg industry to explore options regarding alternative housing systems for laying hens. The aim of our research was to study the influence of housing systems on tibiae and humeri of 77-week-old Lohmann White hens. Pullets raised in an aviary system were either continued in aviary hen systems (AV) or conventional cages (AC) whereas pullets reared in conventional cages continued in conventional hen cages (CC) or enriched colony cages (EN) at 19 weeks. From each group, 120 hens were randomly euthanized and right and left tibae and humeri were excised for structural and mechanical analysis. Volumetric density of the cortical bone was measured using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Aviary (AV) hens had greater cortical thickness and density but similar outer dimensions to AC hens (P Hens in EN system had humeri with similar cortical thickness and density but wider outer dimensions than the humeri of CC hens (P hens, whereas EN hens had denser tibial cortex than CC hens (P hens in the AV system were better able to protect their structure from endosteal resorption during the laying phase. Humeri of AV and EN hens had increased second moment of area compared to the AC and CC hens; however, the changes were not observed in tibiae. Mechanical property differences were observed, with bones of AV hens having greater failure moment and stiffness than AC hens and the same difference was observed between the EN and CC hens, (P hens.

  3. Electrophysiological properties of rat retinal Müller (glial) cells in postnatally developing and in pathologically altered retinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmy, F; Pannicke, T; Richt, J A; Reichenbach, A; Guenther, E

    2001-05-01

    Retinal glial Müller cells are characterized by dominant K(+) conductances. The cells may undergo changes of their membrane currents during ontogeny and gliosis as described in rabbit and man. Although the rat retina is often used in physiological experiments, the electrophysiology of rat Müller cells is less well studied. The aim of the present study was to characterize their membrane currents in postnatal development and in two models of retinal degeneration. Freshly isolated cells were subjected to whole-cell patch clamp recordings. During the first 4 weeks after birth of rats, their Müller cells displayed an increase in all membrane currents, particularly in the inward currents elicited at hyperpolarizing potentials. The decrease of the membrane resistance from more than 760 MOmega to less than 50 MOmega was accompanied by a shift of the zero current potential from about -20 mV to -80 mV, similar as earlier observed in developing rabbit Müller cells. These developmental changes were found in pigmented Brown Norway rats as well as in rats with inherited retinal dystrophy (RCS rats). Moreover, an infection of Lewis rats with the Borna disease virus caused substantial neuroretinal degeneration but did not result in a strong reduction of inward currents and of the zero current potential of the Müller cells. Thus, rat Müller cells fail to change their basic membrane properties in two different models of retinal pathology. This is in contrast to human and rabbit Müller cells, which have been shown to undergo dramatic changes of their membrane physiology in response to retinal diseases and injuries.

  4. Starch with a slow digestion property produced by altering its chain length, branch density, and crystalline structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Zihua; Simsek, Senay; Zhang, Genyi; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2007-05-30

    The hypothesis of increasing the branch density of starch to reduce its digestion rate through partial shortening of amylopectin exterior chains and the length of amylose was investigated. Starch products prepared using beta-amylase, beta-amylase and transglucosidase, maltogenic alpha-amylase, and maltogenic alpha-amylase and transglucosidase showed significant reduction of rapidly digested starch by 14.5%, 29.0%, 19.8%, and 31.0% with a concomitant increase of slowly digested starch by 9.0%, 19.7%, 5.7%, and 11.0%, respectively. The resistant starch content increased from 5.1% to 13.5% in treated starches. The total contents of the prebiotics isomaltose, isomaltotriose, and panose (Isomaltooligosaccharides) were 2.3% and 5.5%, respectively, for beta-amylase/transglucosidase- and maltogenic alpha-amylase/transglucosidase-treated starches. The molecular weight distribution of enzyme-treated starches and their debranched chain length distributions, analyzed using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering and refractive index detection (HPSEC-MALLS-RI) and HPSEC-RI, showed distinctly different patterns among starches with different enzyme treatments. A larger proportion of low molecular weight fractions appeared in starches treated additionally with transglucosidase. All enzyme-treated starches showed a mixture of B- and V-type X-ray diffraction patterns, and 1H NMR spectra showed a significant increase of alpha-1,6 linkages. Both the increase of the starch branch density and the crystalline structure in the treated starches likely contribute to their slow digestion property.

  5. Origins and evolution of reproductive immunology: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, W David

    2015-04-01

    This is a brief personal assessment of the origins and development of the field of reproductive immunology from the 19th century to the present day, with special reference to the founding of the Journal of Reproductive Immunology in 1979.

  6. Frontiers in Clinical Immunology and Immunoregulation 2010: The Highlight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiming Fan; Song Guo Zheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 10th meeting of the Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) was held in Boston during 23-27 June 2010. As usual, this conference hightights the greatest advancements in the field of clinical immunology over the previous year.

  7. Comparison of physical and photophysical properties of monometallic and bimetallic ruthenium(II) complexes containing structurally altered diimine ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macatangay, A.; Jackman, D.C.; Merkert, J.W. [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States)] [and others

    1996-11-06

    The physical and photophysical properties of a series of monometallic, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(dmb)]{sup 2+}, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(BPY)]{sup 2+}, [Ru(bpy)(Obpy)]{sup 2+} and [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(Obpy)] {sup 2+}, and bimetallic, [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}(BPY)]{sup 4+} and [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}(Obpy)]{sup 4+}, complexes are examined, where bpy is 2,2{prime}-bipyridine, dmb is 4,4{prime}-dimethyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine, BPY is 1,2-bis(4-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridin-4{prime}-yl)ethane, and Obpy is 1,2-bis(2,2{prime}-bipyridin-6-yl)ethane. The complexes display metal-to-ligand charge transfer transitions in the 450 nmn region, intraligand {pi}{yields}{pi}* transitions at energies greater than 300 nm, a reversible oxidation of the ruthenium(II) center in the 1.25-1.40 V vs SSCE region, a series of three reductions associated with each coordinated ligand commencing at {minus}1.3 V and ending at {approximately}{minus}1.9 V, and emission from a {sup 3}MLCT state having energy maxima between 598 and 610 nm. The Ru{sup III}/Ru{sup II} oxidation of the two bimetallic complexes is a single, two one-electron process. Relative to [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(BPY)]{sup 2+}, the Ru{sup III}/Ru{sup II} potential for [Ru-(bpy){sub 2}(Obpy)]{sup 2+} increases from 1.24 to 1.35 V, the room temperature emission lifetime decreases from 740 to 3ns, and the emission quantum yield decreases from 0.078 to 0.000 23. Similarly, relative to [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}(BPY)]{sup 4+}, the Ru{sup III}/Ru{sup II} potential for [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}(Obpy)]{sup 4+} increases from 1.28 to 1.32 V, the room temperature emission lifetime decreases from 770 to 3 ns, and the room temperature emission quantum yield decreases from 0.079 to 0.000 26.

  8. IP-I0 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of IP-10.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...

  9. House dust extracts contain potent immunological adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukelman, C.J.; Dijk, H. van; Aerts, P.C.; Rademaker, P.M.; Berrens, L.; Willers, J.M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A crude aqueous extract of house dust and two house dust subfractions were tested for adjuvant activity in a sensitivity assay performed in mice. Evidence is presented that house dust contains at least two potent immunological adjuvants. One of these, present in both subfractions, was probably endot

  10. Immunological aspects of oral vaccination in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, P.H.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis immunological consequences of oral vaccination in fish have been described. The efficacy of oral vaccination can be increased by protection of the antigen against degradation in the foregut, in order to reach the hindgut in sufficient quantities for uptake and subsequent activation of

  11. Immunological Effects of Silica and Asbestos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takemi Otsuki; Fuminori Hyodoh; Ayako Ueki; Yasumitsu Nishimura; Megumi Maeda; Shuko Murakami; Hiroaki Hayashi; Yoshie Miura; Masayasu Kusaka; Takashi Nakano; Kazuya Fukuoka; Takumi Kishimoto

    2007-01-01

    Silicosis patients (SILs) and patients who have been exposed to asbestos develop not only respiratory diseases but also certain immunological disorders. In particular, SIL sometimes complicates autoimmune diseases such as systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis (known as Caplan syndrome), and systemic lupus erythematoses. In addition, malignant complications such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma often occurr in patients exposed to asbestos, and may be involved in the reduction of tumor immunity. Although silica-induced disorders of autoimmunity have been explained as adjuvant-type effects of silica, more precise analyses are needed and should reflect the recent progress in immunomolecular findings. A brief summary of our investigations related to the immunological effects of silica/asbestos is presented. Recent advances in immunomolecular studies led to detailed analyses of the immunological effects of asbestos and silica. Both affect immuno-competent cells and these effects may be associated with the pathophysiological development of complications in silicosis and asbestos-exposed patients such as the occurrence of autoimmune disorders and malignant tumors, respectively. In addition,immunological analyses may lead to the development of new clinical tools for the modification of the pathophysiological aspects of diseases such as the regulation of autoimmunity or tumor immunity using cellmediated therapies, various cytokines, and molecule-targeting therapies. In particular, as the incidence of asbestosrelated malignancies is increasing and such malignancies have been a medical and social problem since the summer of 2005 in Japan, efforts should be focused on developing a cure for these diseases to eliminate nationwide anxiety.

  12. Effects of fault-controlled CO2 alteration on mineralogical and geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal rocks, Crystal Geyser, Green River, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Urquhart, A.; Dewers, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the coupled chemical and mechanical properties of reservoir and seal units undergoing CO2 injection is critical for modeling reservoir behavior in response to the introduction of CO2. The implementation of CO2 sequestration as a mitigation strategy for climate change requires extensive risk assessment that relies heavily on computer models of subsurface reservoirs. Numerical models are fundamentally limited by the quality and validity of their input parameters. Existing models generally lack constraints on diagenesis, failing to account for the coupled geochemical or geomechanical processes that affect reservoir and seal unit properties during and after CO2 injection. For example, carbonate dissolution or precipitation after injection of CO2 into subsurface brines may significantly alter the geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal units and thus lead to solution-enhancement or self-sealing of fractures. Acidified brines may erode and breach sealing units. In addition, subcritical fracture growth enhanced by the presence of CO2 could ultimately compromise the integrity of sealing units, or enhance permeability and porosity of the reservoir itself. Such unknown responses to the introduction of CO2 can be addressed by laboratory and field-based observations and measurements. Studies of natural analogs like Crystal Geyser, Utah are thus a critical part of CO2 sequestration research. The Little Grand Wash and Salt Wash fault systems near Green River, Utah, host many fossil and active CO2 seeps, including Crystal Geyser, serving as a faulted anticline CO2 reservoir analog. The site has been extensively studied for sequestration and reservoir applications, but less attention has been paid to the diagenetic and geomechanical aspects of the fault zone. XRD analysis of reservoir and sealing rocks collected along transects across the Little Grand Wash Fault reveal mineralogical trends in the Summerville Fm (a siltstone seal unit) with calcite and

  13. Preface to the Publication of Cellular & Molecular Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Feng Chen; Kuang-Yen Chou

    2004-01-01

    @@ Immunology has made numerous important advances over the past decades and is at the forefront in uncovering the mechanisms of human immunological disorders and in eradicating pandemic infectious diseases. Immunological advances have also revealed the mystery of life and death and provided insights into creating a better environment for contemporary human existence.

  14. Preface to the Publication of Cellular & Molecular Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-FengChen; Kuang-YenChou

    2004-01-01

    Immunology has made numerous important advances over the past decades and is at the forefront in uncovering the mechanisms of human immunological disorders and in eradicating pandemic infectious diseases. Immunological advances have also revealed the mystery of life and death and

  15. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866.5230... Colostrum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A colostrum immunological test system is a device... colostrum. Colostrum is a substance excreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and until production...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5470 - Hemoglobin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin immunological test system. 866.5470... Hemoglobin immunological test system. (a) Indentification. A hemoglobin immunological test system is a device... hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells) in blood, urine, plasma, or other body...

  17. Thermal alteration of soil organic matter properties: a systematic study to infer response of Sierra Nevada climosequence soils to forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Samuel N.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Asefaw Berhe, Asmeret

    2017-02-01

    Fire is a major driver of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics, and contemporary global climate change is changing global fire regimes. We conducted laboratory heating experiments on soils from five locations across the western Sierra Nevada climosequence to investigate thermal alteration of SOM properties and determine temperature thresholds for major shifts in SOM properties. Topsoils (0 to 5 cm depth) were exposed to a range of temperatures that are expected during prescribed and wild fires (150, 250, 350, 450, 550, and 650 °C). With increase in temperature, we found that the concentrations of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decreased in a similar pattern among all five soils that varied considerably in their original SOM concentrations and mineralogies. Soils were separated into discrete size classes by dry sieving. The C and N concentrations in the larger aggregate size fractions (2-0.25 mm) decreased with an increase in temperature, so that at 450 °C the remaining C and N were almost entirely associated with the smaller aggregate size fractions ( physical, chemical, elemental, and isotopic changes occurred at the mid-intensity fire temperatures, i.e., 350 and 450 °C. The magnitude of the observed changes in SOM composition and distribution in three aggregate size classes, as well as the temperature thresholds for critical changes in physical and chemical properties of soils (such as specific surface area, pH, cation exchange capacity), suggest that transformation and loss of SOM are the principal responses in heated soils. Findings from this systematic investigation of soil and SOM response to heating are critical for predicting how soils are likely to be affected by future climate and fire regimes.

  18. ALDH1A1 maintains ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair network signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhong Meng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH expressing cells have been characterized as possessing stem cell-like properties. We evaluated ALDH+ ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties and their role in platinum resistance. METHODS: Isogenic ovarian cancer cell lines for platinum sensitivity (A2780 and platinum resistant (A2780/CP70 as well as ascites from ovarian cancer patients were analyzed for ALDH+ by flow cytometry to determine its association to platinum resistance, recurrence and survival. A stable shRNA knockdown model for ALDH1A1 was utilized to determine its effect on cancer stem cell-like properties, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair mediators. RESULTS: ALDH status directly correlated to platinum resistance in primary ovarian cancer samples obtained from ascites. Patients with ALDHHIGH displayed significantly lower progression free survival than the patients with ALDHLOW cells (9 vs. 3 months, respectively p<0.01. ALDH1A1-knockdown significantly attenuated clonogenic potential, PARP-1 protein levels, and reversed inherent platinum resistance. ALDH1A1-knockdown resulted in dramatic decrease of KLF4 and p21 protein levels thereby leading to S and G2 phase accumulation of cells. Increases in S and G2 cells demonstrated increased expression of replication stress associated Fanconi Anemia DNA repair proteins (FANCD2, FANCJ and replication checkpoint (pS317 Chk1 were affected. ALDH1A1-knockdown induced DNA damage, evidenced by robust induction of γ-H2AX and BAX mediated apoptosis, with significant increases in BRCA1 expression, suggesting ALDH1A1-dependent regulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair networks in ovarian cancer stem-like cells. CONCLUSION: This data suggests that ovarian cancer cells expressing ALDH1A1 may maintain platinum resistance by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair network signaling.

  19. Alterations of mass density and 3D osteocyte lacunar properties in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrotic human jaw bone, a synchrotron µCT study.

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    Bernhard Hesse

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the jaw, in association with bisphosphonates (BRONJ used for treating osteoporosis or cancer, is a severe and most often irreversible side effect whose underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Osteocytes are involved in bone remodeling and mineralization where they orchestrate the delicate equilibrium between osteoclast and osteoblast activity and through the active process called osteocytic osteolysis. Here, we hypothesized that (i changes of the mineralized tissue matrix play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of BRONJ, and (ii the osteocyte lacunar morphology is altered in BRONJ. Synchrotron µCT with phase contrast is an appropriate tool for assessing both the 3D morphology of the osteocyte lacunae and the bone matrix mass density. Here, we used this technique to investigate the mass density distribution and 3D osteocyte lacunar properties at the sub-micrometer scale in human bone samples from the jaw, femur and tibia. First, we compared healthy human jaw bone to human tibia and femur in order to assess the specific differences and address potential explanations of why the jaw bone is exclusively targeted by the necrosis as a side effect of BP treatment. Second, we investigated the differences between BRONJ and control jaw bone samples to detect potential differences which could aid an improved understanding of the course of BRONJ. We found that the apparent mass density of jaw bone was significantly smaller compared to that of tibia, consistent with a higher bone turnover in the jaw bone. The variance of the lacunar volume distribution was significantly different depending on the anatomical site. The comparison between BRONJ and control jaw specimens revealed no significant increase in mineralization after BP. We found a significant decrease in osteocyte-lacunar density in the BRONJ group compared to the control jaw. Interestingly, the osteocyte-lacunar volume distribution was not altered after

  20. Autoantibody profile and other immunological parameters in recurrent spontaneous abortion patients

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    U Shankarkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An autoimmune cause and related immunological alterations resulting in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA have been suggested in patients with unknown etiology. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated the autoantibody profile and other immunological parameters among RSA patients and normal pregnant women from Mumbai western India. Fifty RSA patients with unknown cause and greater than three consecutive abortions along with 50 normal pregnant women were studied for various auto antibodies such as ANA, anti-dsDNA, ANCA, AECA, 2 micro globulin, anti-HLA antibodies and ACLA using immunofluorescence microlymphocytotoxicity and ELISA. Immunological parameters such as HLA class I monoclonal antibody expression, CD3 (T cell, CD19 (B cell, and CD56 (NK cell were estimated by flow cytometry. Results: The results revealed 34% positivity of all auto antibodies tested among patients. ANA(12%, ANCA (20%, AECA (24%, ACLA (8%, anti-dsDNA(0%, β2 microglobulin (14%, and anti-HLA antibodies(10% among RSA patients were identified. An increased expression of HLA class I specific monoclonal antibody (10% with HLA A3 (16% specificity were found to correlate with shared HLA alleles among the RSA couples. Among normal pregnant (control group ANA (2%, ANCA (2%, AECA (3%, ACLA (4% and increased expression of CD56 with reduced HLA class I monoclonal were observed. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a possible role of various autoantibodies along with the related immunological parameters underlying RSA.

  1. Immunological comparison of the NADH:nitrate reductase from different cucumber tissues

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    Jolanta Marciniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble nitrate reductase from cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L. was isolated and purified with blue-Sepharose 4B. Specific antibodies against the NR protein were raised by immunization of a goat. Using polyclonal antibodies anti-NR properties of the nitrate reductase from various cucumber tissues were examined. Experiments showed difference in immuno-logical properties of nitrate reductase (NR from cotyledon roots and leaves.

  2. Immunology of cancer stem cells in solid tumours. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccalli, Cristina; Volontè, Andrea; Cimminiello, Carolina; Parmiani, Giorgio

    2014-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a minor subpopulation of tumour cells that share some features with the normal stem cells of the tissue from which tumour derives and have the properties of self-renewal, multiple differentiation and tumour initiation (tumour-initiating cells, TICs). Thus CSCs/TICs need to survive cancer therapies in order to provide new, more differentiated, metastatic-prone tumour cells. This occurs through different signals delivered within the tumour microenvironment. The immune system of cancer patients may recognise CSCs/TICs and kill them though it is unclear whether this may occur in vivo during spontaneous tumour growth. This review summarises findings on the immunological profile of CSCs/TICs as compared with neoplastic non-stem cells and discusses the possible antigens recognised by the patients' immune system, the in vitro and the potential in vivo immunogenicity of such antigens and the ability of human CSCs/TICs to down-regulate the immune response by the release of a variety of suppressive factors. We conclude that available data on immunological characterisation of CSCs/TICs may be useful in the perspective of designing new translational immunotherapy protocols targeting CSCs/TICs.

  3. IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFECT PRODUCED BY VACCINATION WITH «PNEUMO 23» OF CHILDREN WITH CARRIAGE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIA

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    A. L. Sizonenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Sixteen children from 3 to 6 years old with complicated premorbid background, carrying S. pneumoniae, who had inflammation markers (altered IL-6 and TNFα amounts in peripheral blood analysisтalong with immunological deficiency, were vaccinated with a «Pneumo 23» preparation. A good tolerance of «Pneumo 23» vaccine was determined. A significant increase of specific antibodies was established both to pneumococcal polysaccharides and to polysaccharides, containing in «Pneumo 23». A tendency to diminished inflammatory events and activated immunological response was revealed, that was expressed as a decrease of serum IL-6 and increase in TNFα.

  4. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  5. HPV Infection: Immunological Aspects and Their Utility in Future Therapy

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    Efthimios Deligeoroglou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence and mortality rates of cervical cancer create an imperative need to clarify the uniqueness of HPV (Human Papillomavirus infection, which serves as the key causative factor in cervical malignancies. Understanding the immunological details and the microenvironment of the infection can be a useful tool for the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Chronic infection and progression to carcinogenesis are sustained by immortalization potential of HPV, evasion techniques, and alterations in the microenvironment of the lesion. Inside the lesion, Toll-like receptors expression becomes irregular; Langerhans cells fail to present the antigens efficiently, tumor-associated macrophages aggregate resulting in an unsuccessful immune response by the host. HPV products also downregulate the expression of microenvironment components which are necessary for natural-killer cells response and antigen presentation to cytotoxic cells. Additionally HPV promotes T-helper cell 2 (Th2 and T-regulatory cell phenotypes and reduces Th1 phenotype, leading to suppression of cellular immunity and lesion progression to cancer. Humoral response after natural infection is inefficient, and neutralizing antibodies are not adequate in many women. Utilizing this knowledge, new endeavors, such as therapeutic vaccination, aim to stimulate cellular immune response against the virus and alter the milieu of the lesion.

  6. Thermal alteration of soil physico-chemical properties: a systematic study to infer response of Sierra Nevada climosequence soils to forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Samuel N.; Meding, Mercer; Asefaw Berhe, Asmeret

    2016-07-01

    Fire is a common ecosystem perturbation that affects many soil properties. As global fire regimes continue to change with climate change, we investigated thermal alteration of soils' physical and chemical properties after they are exposed to a range of temperatures that are expected during prescribed and wildland fires. For this study, we used topsoils collected from a climosequence transect along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada that spans from 210 to 2865 m a.s.l. All the soils we studied were formed on a granitic parent material and had significant differences in soil organic matter (SOM) concentration and mineralogy owing to the effects of climate on soil development. Topsoils (0-5 cm depth) from the Sierra Nevada climosequence were heated in a muffle furnace at six set temperatures that cover the range of major fire intensity classes (150, 250, 350, 450, 550 and 650 °C). We determined the effects of heating temperature on soil aggregate strength, aggregate size distribution, specific surface area (SSA), mineralogy, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations. With increasing temperature, we found significant reduction of total C, N and CEC. Aggregate strength also decreased with further implications for loss of C protected inside aggregates. Soil pH and SSA increased with temperature. Most of the statistically significant changes (p soils that developed under different climate regimes. Our findings will be of interest to studies of inferences for how soils are likely to respond to different fire intensities under anticipated climate change scenarios.

  7. Engineering antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.

  8. Understanding liver immunology using intravital microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Pedro Elias; Oliveira, André Gustavo; Chang, Lynne; Paula-Neto, Heitor Affonso; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-09-01

    The liver has come a long way since it was considered only a metabolic organ attached to the gastrointestinal tract. The simultaneous ascension of immunology and intravital microscopy evidenced the liver as a central axis in the immune system, controlling immune responses to local and systemic agents as well as disease tolerance. The multiple hepatic cell populations are organized in a vascular environment that promotes intimate cellular interactions, including initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses, rapid leukocyte recruitment, pathogen clearance and production of a variety of immune mediators. In this review, we focus on the advances in liver immunology supported by intravital microscopy in diseases such as isquemia/reperfusion, acute liver injury and infections.

  9. Findings of interest from immunology and psychoneuroimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Les

    2007-05-01

    The biopsychosocial paradigm is now the main model when dealing with most human health disorders. One of the strengths of this model is that it encourages broader thinking when assessing and managing patients. It also encourages broader reading into areas not traditionally associated with manual therapy. Immunology and neuroscience are amongst the fastest growing medical sciences. These fields come together in the relatively new area of psychoneuroimmunolgy. This article examines some findings from these fields that are not widely discussed in the physical therapy professions. These findings are of relevance to many of the disciplines within the physical therapies. It is the authors aim to stimulate further interest in the relevant, yet often under explored areas of immunology and psychoneuroimmunology.

  10. Immunological effects of ayahuasca in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rafael Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a botanical hallucinogen traditionally used by indigenous groups of the northwest Amazon. In the last decade, the use of ayahuasca has spread from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru to the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Africa. Despite acute and long-term evidence of good tolerability and safety for ayahuasca administered in the laboratory or ritually consumed in religious contexts, little is known about the immunological impact of ayahuasca on humans. Since ayahuasca is used by an increasing number of consumers, and considering its therapeutic potential, more information is needed regarding ayahuasca potential risks. This article presents a brief overview of the available data regarding the immunological impact of ayahuasca in humans.

  11. Correlation of wireline log characteristics with hydrothermal alteration and other reservoir properties of the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal fields, Imperial Valley, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramoto, F.S.; Elders, W.A.

    1984-05-01

    A detailed study of wireline logs from 11 wells in the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal systems was undertaken in order to determine the effects of hydrothermal alteration on the response of electrical and gamma-gamma density well logs. For the Salton Sea geothermal field, definite correspondence between log responses and hydrothermal mineralogy is evident, which in turn is related to the physical properties of the rocks. Three hydrothermal and one unaltered zone can be identified from log data on shales. These are: (1) the unaltered montmorillonite zone (<100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C); (2) the illite zone (100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C to 230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C); (3) the chlorite zone (230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C to 290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C); and (4) the feldspar zone (>290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C). The characteristic responses on well logs by which these zones are identified result primarily from changes in clay mineralogy of the shales and increases in density with progressive hydrothermal metamorphism. In the Westmorland geothermal field, differentiating mineral zones from log responses was only partially successful. However, analyses of both well log and petrologic data for wells Landers 1 and Kalin Farms 1 suggest that the former is heating up and the latter is cooling.

  12. Rapid Advancement of Immunology Study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The world-renowned Cell Press recently released a new informational supplement--Spotlight on Chi- na-to introduce the rapid developments in the basic and clinical researches in immunology in China. The electronic version of the supplement can be viewed or downloaded for free on the website of the Cell Press (http://www. cell. com/spotlightonchina), and the hard copy will be published along with the new issue of Immunity in November.

  13. Proteomics in immunological reactions to drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ariza, Adriana; Montañez, M. I.; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review: To discuss the avenues that proteomic techniques are opening for the study of the chemical basis and cellular mechanisms of immunological reactions to drugs. Recent findings: Technical developments in recent years are allowing a detailed characterization of drug–protein interactions. In addition, novel metabolic pathways for drug biotransformation are being uncovered and potential targets for protein haptenation are being proposed that may help in the understanding of t...

  14. Louis Pasteur, the Father of Immunology?

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-01-01

    Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late nineteenth century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such ...

  15. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  16. Advances in cancer immunology and cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voena, Claudia; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    After decades of setbacks, cancer immunology is living its Golden Age. Recent advances in cancer immunology have provided new therapeutic approaches to treat cancer. The objective clinical response observed in patients treated with antibodies that block the immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell-death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathways, has led to their FDA approval for the treatment of melanoma in 2011 and in 2014, respectively. The anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab has received the FDA-approval in March 2015 for squamous lung cancer treatment. In addition, antibodies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 have demonstrated their efficacy and safety in additional tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Almost at the same time, the field of adoptive cell transfer has exploded. The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T technology has provided strong evidence of efficacy in the treatment of B cell malignancies, and different T cell based treatments are currently under investigation for different types of tumors. In this review we will discuss the latest advances in cancer immunology and immunotherapy as well as new treatments now under development in the clinic and potential strategies that have shown promising results in preclinical models.

  17. From Immunologically Archaic to Neoteric Glycovaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cavallari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides (PS are present in the outermost surface of bacteria and readily come in contact with immune cells. They interact with specific antibodies, which in turn confer protection from infections. Vaccines with PS from pneumococci, meningococci, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Salmonella typhi may be protective, although with the important constraint of failing to generate permanent immunological memory. This limitation has in part been circumvented by conjugating glycovaccines to proteins that stimulate T helper cells and facilitate the establishment of immunological memory. Currently, protection evoked by conjugated PS vaccines lasts for a few years. The same approach failed with PS from staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Klebsiella. All those germs cause severe infections in humans and often develop resistance to antibiotic therapy. Thereby, prevention is of increasing importance to better control outbreaks. As only 23 of more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes and 4 of 13 clinically relevant Neisseria meningitidis serogroups are covered by available vaccines there is still tremendous clinical need for PS vaccines. This review focuses on glycovaccines and the immunological mechanisms for their success or failure. We discuss recent advances that may facilitate generation of high affinity anti-PS antibodies and confer specific immunity and long-lasting protection.

  18. Studies on Immunological Effect and Immunological Mechanism Avian Encephalomyelitis Oil Emulsion Inactivated Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zi-qiang; ZHAO Zhen-hua; RI Mudema

    2002-01-01

    Oil emulsion inactivated vaccine was prepared by susceptible embryos, with different strains of AEV. Four groups of normal chickens of 2 - 7 days of age were given injections for immunization, respectively. Another group was used as control. This study was expected to evaluate the immunological effect and discuss the immunological mechanism by means of five different experiments, i.e. the agar-gel precipitin test,the isolation of lymphokine, the isolation, purification and analysis of blood serum IgG, embryo-susceptibility test, and clinical and pathological examination. The results of these experiments indicated that oil emulsion inactivated vaccine is safe and effective. The chickens were normal when inoculated with AE strong virus after immunity at 4 and 37 weeks. Immunological mechanism is that the humoral immunity played an important role and celluar immunity exists, but it is not important in the process of the resistance to AEV.

  19. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome: Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia.

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    Lucyna Mastalerz

    Full Text Available Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome, we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA.Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male, aged 48 (range, 21-80 years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers.Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10-9 cm2, faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s, thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07, higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L, and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min; all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%.This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease.

  20. Mutation I136V alters electrophysiological properties of the NaV1.7 channel in a family with onset of erythromelalgia in the second decade

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    Dib-Hajj Sulayman D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary erythromelalgia is an autosomal dominant pain disorder characterized by burning pain and skin redness in the extremities, with onset of symptoms during the first decade in the families whose mutations have been physiologically studied to date. Several mutations of voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.7 have been linked with primary erythromelalgia. Recently, a new substitution NaV1.7/I136V has been reported in a Taiwanese family, in which pain appeared at later ages (9–22 years, with onset at 17 years of age or later in 5 of 7 family members, with relatively slow progression (8–10 years to involvement of the hands. The proband reported onset of symptoms first in his feet at the age of 11, which then progressed to his hands at the age of 19. The new mutation is located in transmembrane segment 1 (S1 of domain I (DI in contrast to all NaV1.7 mutations reported to date, which have been localized in the voltage sensor S4, the linker joining segments S4 and S5 or pore-lining segments S5 and S6 in DI, II and III. Results In this study, we characterized the gating and kinetic properties of I136V mutant channels in HEK293 cells using whole-cell patch clamp. I136V shifts the voltage-dependence of activation by -5.7 mV, a smaller shift in activation than the other erythromelalgia mutations that have been characterized. I136V also decreases the deactivation rate, and generates larger ramp currents. Conclusion The I136V substitution in NaV1.7 alters channel gating and kinetic properties. Each of these changes may contribute to increased excitability of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons, which underlies pain in erythromelalgia. The smaller shift in voltage-dependence of activation of NaV1.7, compared to the other reported cases of inherited erythromelalgia, may contribute to the later age of onset and slower progression of the symptoms reported in association with this mutation.

  1. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  2. Concepts of neuroendocrine cardiology and neuroendocrine immunology, chemistry and biology of signal molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galoyan, Armen

    2010-12-01

    Discovery of neurosecretion of cardioactive neurohormones produced by hypothalamic nuclei (NSO and NPV), as well as the biosynthesis of several immunomodulators (signal molecules of the neuroendocrine immune system of brain), deciphering of their chemical structure and study of their biological properties led to the foundation of two important trends of neurobiology: neuroendocrine immunology and cardiology. Hormone formation by atrium ganglionary nerve cells and auriculum establishment of neurohumoral interactions between hypothalamic and atrium neurosecretion indicated the existence of the system neuroendocrine hypothalamus--endocrine heart. Study of their biological properties promoted creation of powerful neurohormonal preparations for the treatment of immune, cardio-vascular, neurodegenerative, infectious and tumor diseases. Concepts suggested by us on neuroendocrine cardiology and immunology, create large perspectives for development of the theory and its implementation in medicine.

  3. Update in clinical allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, S; Marsland, B J; von Garnier, C; Simon, D

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, a tremendous body of studies has addressed a broad variety of distinct topics in clinical allergy and immunology. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide clinically and pathogenetically relevant insights or identify potential novel targets and strategies for therapy. The role of the microbiome in shaping allergic immune responses and molecular, as well as cellular mechanisms of disease, is discussed separately and in the context of atopic dermatitis, as an allergic model disease. Besides summarizing novel evidence, this update highlights current areas of uncertainties and debates that, as we hope, shall stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field.

  4. Cutaneous drug hypersensitivity : Immunological and genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisalay Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.

  5. Parasitic Helminths: New Weapons against Immunological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Osada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases is increasing in developed countries, possibly due to reduced exposure to microorganisms in childhood (hygiene hypothesis. Epidemiological and experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis is accumulating. In this context, parasitic helminths are now important candidates for antiallergic/anti-inflammatory agents. Here we summarize antiallergic/anti-inflammatory effects of helminths together along with our own study of the effects of Schistosoma mansoni on Th17-dependent experimental arthritis. We also discuss possible mechanisms of helminth-induced suppression according to the recent advances of immunology.

  6. Immunological response to hepatitis B vaccine in polytransfused thalassemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavian, Seyed-Moayed; Tabatabaei, Seyed-Vahid

    2010-05-01

    Hepatitis B is an important infection in thalassemia patients and prevention by vaccination is needed. Immunological response to hepatitis B vaccine in polytransfused thalassmia patients needs more attention.

  7. Immigrants in immunology: the benefits of lax borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagaman, Keaton; Martinez, Emily S; Guillemin, Karen

    2015-05-01

    The field of immunology has a long history of illuminating fundamental biological processes of critical importance to human health. From an outsider's perspective, the questions are profoundly philosophical and the experimental approaches are elegantly precise. Yet immunology can also appear impenetrable. Here we recount the experience of two graduate students from the fields of ecology and computer science, who have immigrated into immunological terrain attracted by systems-level questions. We argue that such migrations enrich the field of immunology, and that cultural and institutional changes are needed to promote more interdisciplinary explorations.

  8. Immunological considerations for embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Craig J; Bolton, Eleanor M; Bradley, J Andrew

    2011-08-12

    Recent advances in stem cell technology have generated enthusiasm for their potential to study and treat a diverse range of human disease. Pluripotent human stem cells for therapeutic use may, in principle, be obtained from two sources: embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which are capable of extensive self-renewal and expansion and have the potential to differentiate into any somatic tissue, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are derived from differentiated tissue such as adult skin fibroblasts and appear to have the same properties and potential, but their generation is not dependent upon a source of embryos. The likelihood that clinical transplantation of hESC- or iPSC-derived tissues from an unrelated (allogeneic) donor that express foreign human leucocyte antigens (HLA) may undergo immunological rejection requires the formulation of strategies to attenuate the host immune response to transplanted tissue. In clinical practice, individualized iPSC tissue derived from the intended recipient offers the possibility of personalized stem cell therapy in which graft rejection would not occur, but the logistics of achieving this on a large scale are problematic owing to relatively inefficient reprogramming techniques and high costs. The creation of stem cell banks comprising HLA-typed hESCs and iPSCs is a strategy that is proposed to overcome the immunological barrier by providing HLA-matched (histocompatible) tissue for the target population. Estimates have shown that a stem cell bank containing around 10 highly selected cell lines with conserved homozygous HLA haplotypes would provide matched tissue for the majority of the UK population. These simulations have practical, financial, political and ethical implications for the establishment and design of stem cell banks incorporating cell lines with HLA types that are compatible with different ethnic populations throughout the world.

  9. Cancer immunology - development of novel anti-cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Sacha I; Thommen, Daniela S; Moersig, Wolfgang; Müller, Philipp; Zippelius, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of tumours are characterised by high frequencies of genetic and epigenetic alterations resulting in tumour-specific antigens, which may, in principle, be recognised by cytotoxic T cells. Though early clinical immunotherapy trials have yielded mixed results with ambiguous clinical benefit, cancer immunotherapy is now attracting increasing attention as a viable therapeutic option, mainly in melanoma and lung cancer, but increasingly also in other malignancies. In particular, recent therapeutic efforts targeting inhibitory receptors on T cells to overcome tumour-induced immune dysfunction have the potential to reshape current treatment standards in oncology. The clinical development has been pioneered by the antibody ipilimumab, which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and has demonstrated survival benefit in two randomised landmark trials in melanoma. Capitalising on this success, the research on the clinical implication of T cell checkpoint inhibition has been boosted. Early clinical trials have demonstrated meaningful response rates, sustained clinical benefits with encouraging survival rates and good tolerability of next-generation checkpoint inhibitors, including programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, across multiple cancer types. Attractive perspectives include the concurrent blockade of immunological (non-redundant) checkpoints, which has recently been demonstrated using combinations of immune checkpoint modulators themselves or with other therapies, such as chemotherapy, targeted therapy or radiotherapy. This article summarises the mechanism of action and subsequent clinical studies of immune checkpoint antibodies in oncology with a particular focus on melanoma and lung cancer.

  10. The Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on Lung Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbs, Sushma K; Fontenot, Andrew P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) continues to cause a major impact worldwide. HIV-induced lung disease continues to represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality, although the spectrum of pulmonary diseases has changed. HIV significantly affects the lung, causing acute and chronic cellular changes in the alveolar space. The impact of ART on lung immunology still needs to be fully elucidated. Similar to the periphery, ART affects HIV viral load and reconstitutes CD4(+) T cells in the lung. ART has been associated with significant decreases in bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytes and increases in B-cell numbers and functionality, resulting in improved immune responses to vaccinations. There are substantial clinical implications of these ART-induced alterations, including the emergence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and the increased incidences of noninfectious lung diseases, such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive lung disease. There continues to be many unanswered questions regarding the effects of ART on lung health and, in particular, the immune system. Growing knowledge in this area will hopefully diminish the incidence of these noninfectious lung diseases and further improve the health of individuals living with HIV.

  11. Sleep after vaccination boosts immunological memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Tanja; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Bollinger, Thomas; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2011-07-01

    Sleep regulates immune functions. We asked whether sleep can influence immunological memory formation. Twenty-seven healthy men were vaccinated against hepatitis A three times, at weeks 0, 8, and 16 with conditions of sleep versus wakefulness in the following night. Sleep was recorded polysomnographically, and hormone levels were assessed throughout the night. Vaccination-induced Th cell and Ab responses were repeatedly monitored for 1 y. Compared with the wake condition, sleep after vaccination doubled the frequency of Ag-specific Th cells and increased the fraction of Th1 cytokine-producing cells in this population. Moreover, sleep markedly increased Ag-specific IgG1. The effects were followed up for 1 y and were associated with high sleep slow-wave activity during the postvaccination night as well as with accompanying levels of immunoregulatory hormones (i.e., increased growth hormone and prolactin but decreased cortisol release). Our findings provide novel evidence that sleep promotes human Th1 immune responses, implicating a critical role for slow-wave sleep in this process. The proinflammatory milieu induced during this sleep stage apparently acts as adjuvant that facilitates the transfer of antigenic information from APCs to Ag-specific Th cells. Like the nervous system, the immune system takes advantage of the offline conditions during sleep to foster adaptive immune responses resulting in improved immunological memory.

  12. Uncertainty of measurement: an immunology laboratory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sarah C; Lock, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    'Measurement uncertainty of measured quantity values' (ISO15189) requires that the laboratory shall determine the measurement uncertainty for procedures used to report measured quantity values on patients' samples. Where we have numeric data measurement uncertainty can be expressed as the standard deviation or as the co-efficient of variation. However, in immunology many of the assays are reported either as semi-quantitative (i.e. an antibody titre) or qualitative (positive or negative) results. In the latter context, measuring uncertainty is considerably more difficult. There are, however, strategies which can allow us to minimise uncertainty. A number of parameters can contribute to making measurements uncertain. These include bias, precision, standard uncertainty (expressed as standard deviation or coefficient of variation), sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reproducibility and verification. Closely linked to these are traceability and standardisation. In this article we explore the challenges presented to immunology with regard to measurement uncertainty. Many of these challenges apply equally to other disciplines working with qualitative or semi-quantitative data.

  13. Immunological and toxinological responses to jellyfish stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibballs, James; Yanagihara, Angel A; Turner, Helen C; Winkel, Ken

    2011-10-01

    Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment.

  14. Immunological aspects on IDDM in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, J

    1989-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus in childhood is connected to several immunological phenomena which per se do not prove that immunological mechanisms do cause the beta cell destruction, as such mechanisms could be just secondary. However, there is now evidence which strongly supports the autoimmune hypothesis, like the beta-cell destruction in the transplant given from a healthy twin to the diabetic monozygotic co-twin, the effect in newly-diagnosed diabetes of immunosuppression, the passive transfer in experimental animals of an immune process creating diabetes etc. Several facts such as presence of activated T-cells in the insulitis indicate that the cell-mediated immunity is important, while it is still debatable whether humoral factors, and if so which, alone could be responsible for the beta cell destruction. Recently interleukins and other lymphokines have shown to be of great interest as well as the release of free radicals. This knowledge opens new views on the possibility to put an end to or even prevent the beta cell destruction. Rough immunosuppression with cytostatics or cyclosporin has such severe side-effects that such therapy is contra-indicated at least in children. Until more specific therapies are discovered e.g. vaccination with lymphoblasts or blocking the autoantigens with monoclonal antibodies, supportive measures to protect the beta cells may be one practical way.

  15. Bioinformatics for cancer immunology and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoentong, Pornpimol; Angelova, Mihaela; Efremova, Mirjana; Gallasch, Ralf; Hackl, Hubert; Galon, Jerome; Trajanoski, Zlatko

    2012-11-01

    Recent mechanistic insights obtained from preclinical studies and the approval of the first immunotherapies has motivated increasing number of academic investigators and pharmaceutical/biotech companies to further elucidate the role of immunity in tumor pathogenesis and to reconsider the role of immunotherapy. Additionally, technological advances (e.g., next-generation sequencing) are providing unprecedented opportunities to draw a comprehensive picture of the tumor genomics landscape and ultimately enable individualized treatment. However, the increasing complexity of the generated data and the plethora of bioinformatics methods and tools pose considerable challenges to both tumor immunologists and clinical oncologists. In this review, we describe current concepts and future challenges for the management and analysis of data for cancer immunology and immunotherapy. We first highlight publicly available databases with specific focus on cancer immunology including databases for somatic mutations and epitope databases. We then give an overview of the bioinformatics methods for the analysis of next-generation sequencing data (whole-genome and exome sequencing), epitope prediction tools as well as methods for integrative data analysis and network modeling. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can predict and explain important patterns in the genetic and clinical progression of cancer. Therefore, a survey of mathematical models for tumor evolution and tumor-immune cell interaction is included. Finally, we discuss future challenges for individualized immunotherapy and suggest how a combined computational/experimental approaches can lead to new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cancer, improved diagnosis, and prognosis of the disease and pinpoint novel therapeutic targets.

  16. From Injectivity to Integrity Studies of CO{sub 2} Geological Storage Chemical Alteration Effects on Carbonates Petrophysical and Geomechanical Properties; Caracterisation de l'injectivite et de l'integrite d'un stockage geologique de CO{sub 2}: Effets d'une alteration chimique sur les proprietes petrophysiques et geomecaniques des roches carbonatees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemer, E.; Lombard, J.M. [Institut francais du petrole, IFP, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2010-05-15

    The technical and economical success of a CO{sub 2} geological storage project requires the preservation of the site injectivity and integrity properties over its lifetime. Unlike conventional hydrocarbon gas injection, CO{sub 2} injection implies geochemical reactions between the reactive brine and the in situ formations (reservoir and cap rock) leading to modifications of their petrophysical and geomechanical properties. This paper underlines the experimental difficulties raised by the low permeability of samples representative either of the cap rock itself or at least of transition zones between the reservoir and the effective cap rock. Acidification effects induced by CO{sub 2} injection have been studied using an experimental procedure of chemical alteration, which ensures a homogeneous dissolution pattern throughout the rock sample and especially avoids any worm-holing process that would lead to erroneous measurements at the core scale. Porosity, permeability and geomechanical properties of outcrop and field carbonate samples of various permeability levels have been measured under their native state and different levels of alteration. The present work has been conducted within the framework of ANR GeoCarbone-INJECTIVITY and GeoCarbone-INTEGRITY projects. Each experimental step: chemical alteration, petrophysical measurements and geomechanical testing, is considered from the point of view of injectivity and integrity issues. The obtained experimental data show clear trends of chemically induced mechanical weakening. (authors)

  17. ETHNIC AND POPULATION-SPECIFIC FEATURES OF SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN CHRONIC HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Ageeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Immunophenotype profile of lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ from peripheral blood in gastric ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori, chronic gastritis and stomach cancer has been studied in Khakassian aboriginals and migrants. Apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was also evaluated. Some alterations of immunological indexes were revealed in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori, as compared to healthy donors and migrants. The changes were characterized by a more intense apoptotic death of lymphocytes in the patients, when compared with numbers of apoptotic cells in control group. Probable role of apoptotic events in regulation of local and system immunity in Helicobacter pylori infection is discussed.

  18. [Characteristics of immunologic changes and clinical manifestations of allergy in children with impaired thyroid function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illek, Ia Iu; Ganiev, A G; Makhmudzhanova, K A; Alimdzhanova, I I

    1990-01-01

    The majority of children with allergic diathesis, living in the Andizhan region of the Uzbek SSR manifest the signs of stable abnormalities of thyroid function, that aggravate immunological alterations and the course of the process. This prompts the use in these children of therapeutic measures aimed at correction of the activity of the thyroid apparatus. With this purpose in view, the children with allergic diathesis associated with increased thyroid function may be administered aqueous solution of potassium iodide whereas those with functional thyroid deficiency may be given thyroidin in proper age-associated doses.

  19. Immunological and physical properties of allergen solutions. Effects of nebulization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, L; Poulsen, L K; Heinig, J H;

    1991-01-01

    Lyophilised birch pollen allergen extracts, reconstituted with different diluents (H2O, saline, Albumin diluent (AD] were investigated to determine whether the allergen activity and quality of the extracts deteriorated by nebulization with different nebulizers (Pari, Wright, and Sandoz). Allergen...... activity was measured by IgG4 RAST inhibition technique and allergen quality was analysed by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE). The distribution of particle sizes of aerosols of different allergen solutions was determined by a TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. A significant difference (P less than 0.......05) in allergen activity was found between the AD and H2O diluents before and after using a Sandoz nebulizer and a Wright nebulizer equipped with a small chamber. This suggested greater allergen activity in AD-diluted solutions, and the pattern was repeated with the other two nebulizers, but was not statistically...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5240 - Complement components immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement components immunological test system....5240 Complement components immunological test system. (a) Identification. A complement components... complement components C1q, C1r, C1s, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9, in serum, other body fluids,...

  1. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  2. 21 CFR 866.5180 - Fecal calprotectin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fecal calprotectin immunological test system. 866....5180 Fecal calprotectin immunological test system. (a) Identification. A fecal calprotectin... measure, by immunochemical techniques, fecal calprotectin in human stool specimens. The device is...

  3. Molecular and cellular aspects of immunologic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossal, G J

    1991-12-18

    This review seeks to explain the most exciting recent data concerning the nature of self/non-self discrimination by the immune system in a manner accessible to a biochemical readership. The nature of recognition in the two great lymphocyte families, B cells and T cells, is described with special emphasis on the nature of the ligands recognized by each. The history of the field of immunologic tolerance is surveyed, as are the key experiments on conventional mice which provided a conceptual framework. This suggested that tolerance was essentially due to 'holes' in the recognition repertoires of both the T and B cell populations so that lymphocytes competent to react to self antigens were not part of the immunologic dictionary. There were essentially two ways to achieve this situation. On the one hand, self antigens might 'catch' developing lymphocytes early in their ontogeny and delete the cell, a process of clonal abortion. On the other hand, self antigens might signal lymphocytes (particularly immature cells) in a negative manner, reducing or abolishing their capacity for later responses, without causing death. This process is referred to as clonal anergy. Evidence for both processes exists. Special emphasis is placed on a wave of experimentation beginning in 1988 which imaginatively uses transgenic mouse technology to study tolerance. Transgenic manipulations can produce mice which synthesize foreign antigens in a constitutive and/or inducible manner, sometimes only in specific locations; mice which possess T or B lymphocytes almost all expressing a given receptor of known specificity; and mice which are an immunologic time bomb in that the antigen is present and so too are lymphocytes all endowed with receptors for that antigen. These experiments have vindicated the possibility of both clonal abortion and clonal anergy in both T and B cell populations, the choice of which phenomenon occurs depending on a number of operational circumstances. For T cell tolerance

  4. The clinical significance of immunological contact urticaria to processed grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact urticaria, is characterized by an urticarial wheal-and-flare reaction at the site of contact by an allergen. Immunological contact urticaria, while less common than non-immunological contact urticaria, has more potentially serious consequences, and therefore, its recognition and treatment is important. Immunological contact urticaria is a type I hypersensitivity reaction. Potential complications include organ system involvement other than skin and even anaphylaxis and death. A vast majority of immunological contact urticaria is work-related. We will discuss the definition of immunological contact urticaria, the mechanism of the contact urticarial reaction, contact urticaria in the occupational setting, and the role of grains in contact urticaria. Testing and treatment are also briefly discussed.

  5. Immunological HCV-Associated Thrombocytopenia: Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Dimitroulis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV is affecting about 3% of the world's population, leading to liver damage, end-stage liver disease, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma, being thus the first indication for liver transplantation in the USA. Apart from the cirrhotic-liver-derived clinical signs and symptoms several conditions with immunological origin can also arise, such as, glomerulonephritis, pulmonary fibrosis, and thrombocytopenia. HCV-related autoimmune thrombocytopenia shows specific pathogenetic characteristics as well as symptoms and signs that differ in severity and frequency from symptoms in patients that are not HCV infected. Aim of this short paper is to estimate the epidemiological characteristics of the disease, to investigate the pathogenesis and clinical manifestation, and to propose treatment strategies according to the pertinent literature.

  6. The Immunological Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca A. R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs are chronic ailments, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis being the most important. These diseases present an inflammatory profile and they differ according to pathophysiology, the affected area in the gastrointestinal tract, and the depth of the inflammation in the intestinal wall. The immune characteristics of IBD arise from abnormal responses of the innate and adaptive immune system. The number of Th17 cells increases in the peripheral blood of IBD patients, while Treg cells decrease, suggesting that the Th17/Treg proportion plays an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation. The purpose of this review was to determine the current state of knowledge on the immunological basis of IBD. Many studies have shown the need for further explanation of the development and maintenance of the inflammatory process.

  7. Clinical and immunological responses in ocular demodecosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and immunological responses to Demodex on the ocular surface. Thirteen eyes in 10 patients with Demodex blepharitis and chronic ocular surface disorders were included in this study and treated by lid scrubbing with tea tree oil for the eradication of Demodex. We evaluated ocular surface manifestations and Demodex counts, and analyzed IL-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β in tear samples before and after the treatment. All patients exhibited ocular surface manifestations including corneal nodular opacity, peripheral corneal vascularization, refractory corneal erosion and infiltration, or chronic conjunctival inflammatory signs before treatment. After treatment, Demodex was nearly eradicated, tear concentrations of IL-1β and IL-17 were significantly reduced and substantial clinical improvement was observed in all patients. In conclusion, we believe that Demodex plays an aggravating role in inflammatory ocular surface disorders.

  8. Thyroid carcinoma: immunology, irradiation, and lymphocytic infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, J.H.; Sharon, N.; Victor, T.A.; Scanlon, E.F.

    1979-06-01

    Patients undergoing thyroidectomies at Evanston (I11) Hospital, during a six-month period had immunological studies performed preoperatively. No differential could be found between those with carcinoma or benign pathologic findings. T- and B-cell distribution and lymphocytic response to mitogens varied widely. Quantitative immunoglobulins showed slightly increased levels of IgG in patients wih carcinoma and thyroiditis in comparison with those patients with adenomas. Antithyroglobulin antibodies were negative in all patients. Pathology slides from 107 patients with thyroid carcinoma between 1972 and 1978 at Evanston Hospital were reviewed for the presence of thyroiditis, either focal or diffuse. It was found that 50% of all carcinomas had either diffuse or focal thyroiditis. Diffuse thyroiditis was more common in patients with no history of irradiation and papillary carcinoma, and in younger age groups.

  9. Myasthenia gravis: a clinical-immunological update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Sophie; Vincent, Angela; Palace, Jacqueline

    2016-04-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the archetypic disorder of both the neuromuscular junction and autoantibody-mediated disease. In most patients, IgG1-dominant antibodies to acetylcholine receptors cause fatigable weakness of skeletal muscles. In the rest, a variable proportion possesses antibodies to muscle-specific tyrosine kinase while the remainder of seronegative MG is being explained through cell-based assays using a receptor-clustering technique and, to a lesser extent, proposed new antigenic targets. The incidence and prevalence of MG are increasing, particularly in the elderly. New treatments are being developed, and results from the randomised controlled trial of thymectomy in non-thymomatous MG, due for release in early 2016, will be of particular clinical value. To help navigate an evidence base of varying quality, practising clinicians may consult new MG guidelines in the fields of pregnancy, ocular and generalised MG (GMG). This review focuses on updates in epidemiology, immunology, therapeutic and clinical aspects of GMG in adults.

  10. Anterior uveitis and diabetes mellitus: immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, I; Famà, F; Salmeri, G

    1995-01-01

    The association between anterior uveitis (AU) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has always been known. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of this association and to consider a possible role of the cell-mediated immune system. During the years 1989-1992, 196 diabetics (66 patients affected by type I DM and 130 by type II DM) were studied. The study of the lymphocytic subsets and the measurement of the circulating immunocomplexes and autoantibodies (ANA, AMA, ADNA, ASMA, APCA) were carried out, and the results were compared with those of a control group. The results underline the correlation between AU and type I DM. Many immunological reactions could play a crucial role: the high levels of CD8 subsets found could be an expression of the unstable lymphocytic equilibrium.

  11. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  12. A Global Approach to Tumor Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnaWang; MonicaCPanelli; VladiaMonsurró; FrancescoMMarincola

    2004-01-01

    Biological and clinical advances in the understanding of tumor immunology suggest that immune responsiveness of human tumors is a complex biological phenomenon that could be best studied by a real-time comparison of tumor/host interactions in the tumor microenvironment through a high-throughput discovery-driven approach. This conclusion is derived from our recognition that too many hypotheses or, in other words, no solid single hypothesis exist, based on experimental results, to further drive experimentation in human subjects. Functional genomic studies entertained during the last few years consolidated the belief that in humans the interactions between tumor and immune cells are too complex to be approached exclusively with a hypothesis driven method. We believe that immune cells suit cancer cells in a Yin and Yang balance by opposing and yet mutually depending on each other. Indeed, immune infiltration in tumors may play a dual role modulating in different circumstances cancer cell growth or destruction through a physiological modulation of inflammation. It is reasonable to question what induces inflammation at the tumor site. We hypothesize that inflammation is primarily driven by the phenotype of tumor cells that can modulate theirmicroenvironment through cell-to-cell interactions or the secretion of soluble factors. Thus, in analogy the observation of immune cells within tumors parallels the presence of paramedics, police and firemen at thescene of an accident, which is reactive to and not causative of the occurrence. In this review we will explore this hypothesis by reporting and summarizing most of our recent work in the frame of available literature on the subject. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  13. Adsorption orientations and immunological recognition of antibodies on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, J. G.; Dumitru, A. C.; Herruzo, Elena T.; Mendieta-Moreno, Jesús I.; Garcia, Ricardo; Serena, P. A.; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid are combined to characterize the adsorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies over a hydrophobic surface modeled with a three-layer graphene slab. We consider explicitly the water solvent, simulating systems with massive sizes (up to 770 000 atoms), for four different adsorption orientations. Protocols based on steered MD to speed up the protein diffusion stage and to enhance the dehydration process are combined with long simulation times (>150 ns) in order to make sure that the final adsorption states correspond to actual stable configurations. Our MD results and the AFM images demonstrate that the IgG antibodies are strongly adsorbed, do not unfold, and retain their secondary and tertiary structures upon deposition. Statistical analysis of the AFM images shows that many of the antibodies adopt vertical orientations, even at very small coverages, which expose at least one Fab binding site for recognition events. Single molecule force spectroscopy experiments demonstrate the immunological response of the deposited antibodies by recognizing its specific antigens. The above properties together with the strong anchoring and preservation of the secondary structure, make graphene an excellent candidate for the development of immunosensors.Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid are combined to characterize the adsorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies over a hydrophobic surface modeled with a three-layer graphene slab. We consider explicitly the water solvent, simulating systems with massive sizes (up to 770 000 atoms), for four different adsorption orientations. Protocols based on steered MD to speed up the protein diffusion stage and to enhance the dehydration process are combined with long simulation times (>150 ns) in order to make sure that the final adsorption states correspond to actual stable configurations. Our

  14. Lignin properties in topsoils of a beech/oak forest after 8 years of manipulated litter fall: relevance of altered input and oxidation of lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Klotzbücher; S. Strohmeier; K. Kaiser; R.D. Bowden; K. Lajtha; H. Ohm; K. Kalbitz

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims We studied the response of lignin oxidation in soils of a beech/oak forest to changes in litter fall. Additionally we considered possible factors in lignin oxidation, including altered (i) input of fresh organic matter and (ii) fungi-to-bacteria ratios. Methods The field-based ex

  15. Reversible Li-insertion in nanoscaffolds: A promising strategy to alter the hydrogen sorption properties of Li-based complex hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, Peter; Verkuijlen, Margriet H. W.; Barre, Charlotte; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; de Jongh, Petra E.

    2016-01-01

    Intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium into graphene layers is a well-established phenomenon in Li-ion battery technology. Here we show how this phenomenon can be exploited to destabilize, and alter the hydrogen sorption behaviour of Li-based metal hydrides (LiBH4 and LiAlH4), thereby achievi

  16. Primary Sjögren syndrome in Spain: clinical and immunologic expression in 1010 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Solans, Roser; Rosas, Jose; Camps, María Teresa; Gil, Antonio; Del Pino-Montes, Javier; Calvo-Alen, Jaime; Jiménez-Alonso, Juan; Micó, Maria-Luisa; Beltrán, Juan; Belenguer, Rafael; Pallarés, Lucio

    2008-07-01

    We conducted the current study to characterize the clinical presentation of primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) in a large cohort of Spanish patients and to determine whether epidemiologic, clinical, and analytical features modulate disease expression. Patients were from the GEMESS Study group, which was formed in 2005 and included 12 Spanish reference centers. By March 2007, the database included 1010 consecutive patients, recruited since 1994, both incident and prevalent cases. The cohort included 937 women and 73 men (ratio, 13:1), with a mean age of 53 years at diagnosis and 59 years at inclusion in the registry. Multivariate analysis showed that male patients had a lower frequency of thyroiditis, Raynaud phenomenon, and antinuclear antibodies. Young-onset patients had a low degree of sicca involvement (xerostomia and parotid enlargement) and a high frequency of immunologic markers (anti-Ro/SS-A and low C4 levels). Patients with disease duration of more than 10 years had a higher prevalence of xerophthalmia, parotid enlargement, lung involvement, and peripheral neuropathy in comparison with incident cases. The subset of patients with anti-Ro/La antibodies had the highest prevalence of most systemic, hematologic, and immunologic alterations (higher frequency of Raynaud phenomenon, altered parotid scintigraphy, positive salivary gland biopsy, peripheral neuropathy, thrombocytopenia, and rheumatoid factor). Hypocomplementemia was associated with a higher frequency of vasculitis and lymphoma, and cryoglobulins with a higher frequency of parotid enlargement, vasculitis, and leukopenia.Epidemiologic, clinical, and analytical features have a significant impact on the clinical presentation of primary SS, influencing the results of the main diagnostic tests, the prevalence and diversity of extraglandular involvement, and the frequency of the main immunologic markers. Primary SS should be considered as a systemic autoimmune disease that can express in many guises beyond sicca

  17. Immunologic assessment of patients with pulmonary metaplasia and neoplasia. [Effects of smoking and uranium mining on immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.L.; Saccomanno, G.; Smith, D.M.; Saunders, R.; Thomas, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Immune profiles have been obtained on 206 individuals including 57 controls, 50 lung cancer patients, and 99 uranium miners with well-defined sputum cytologies ranging from normal to carcinoma in situ. Little effect of smoking, uranium mining or a combination of mining plus smoking on immune function was observed if sputum cytology was normal. In heavy smokers there was a suggestion that total T cells are increased while T cell function is slightly depressed. Immunologic abnormalities were noted in the moderate atypia group where 40% had one or more abnormal immunologic parameters. Immunologic abnormalities were detected in 68 to 70 patients with marked atypia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive carcinoma. Further sequential study of the uranium miner population is necessary to define more precisely the predictive value of immunologic testing, and the role of early identification of high risk individuals in the early institution of definitive therapy, such as surgery or immunotherapy. Long-term prospective analysis of this population may also provide the answer to the question of whether alterations in immune function precede, or result from the appearance of cells committed to the development of neoplasia.

  18. Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Lahooti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efficacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs and dendritic cells (DCs are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the field of translational medicine. In this article, the action mechanism and immunological effects of hyperthermia, activation of HSPs and DCs as well as HSP- and DC-based cancer vaccine were reviewed from the perspective of translational medicine.

  19. Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hooshang Lahooti

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efifcacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs) and dendritic cells (DCs) are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the field of translational medicine. In this article, the action mechanism and immunological effects of hyperthermia, activation of HSPs and DCs as well as HSP- and DC-based cancer vaccine were reviewed from the perspective of translational medicine.

  20. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi

    2013-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune

  1. From immunology to MRI data anlysis: Problems in mathematical biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Ryan Samuel

    This thesis represents a collection of four distinct biological projects rising from immunology and metabolomics that required unique and creative mathematical approaches. One project focuses on understanding the role IL-2 plays in immune response regulation and exploring how these effects can be altered. We developed several dynamic models of the receptor signaling network which we analyze analytically and numerically. In a second project focused also on MS, we sought to create a system for grading magnetic resonance images (MRI) with good correlation with disability. The goal is for these MRI scores to provide a better standard for large-scale clinical drug trials, which limits the bias associated with differences in available MRI technology and general grader/participant variability. The third project involves the study of the CRISPR adaptive immune system in bacteria. Bacterial cells recognize and acquire snippets of exogenous genetic material, which they incorporate into their DNA. In this project we explore the optimal design for the CRISPR system given a viral distribution to maximize its probability of survival. The final project involves the study of the benefits for colocalization of coupled enzymes in metabolic pathways. The hypothesized kinetic advantage, known as `channeling', of putting coupled enzymes closer together has been used as justification for the colocalization of coupled enzymes in biological systems. We developed and analyzed a simple partial differential equation of the diffusion of the intermediate substrate between coupled enzymes to explore the phenomena of channeling. The four projects of my thesis represent very distinct biological problems that required a variety of techniques from diverse areas of mathematics ranging from dynamical modeling to statistics, Fourier series and calculus of variations. In each case, quantitative techniques were used to address biological questions from a mathematical perspective ultimately providing

  2. Immunological monitoring of the tumor immunoenvironment for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyguine, Anatoli M; Strobl, Susan L; Shurin, Michael R

    2012-02-01

    Monitoring of immunotherapeutic clinical trials has undergone a considerable change in the last decade resulting in a general agreement that immune monitoring should guide the development of cancer vaccines. The emphasis on immune cell functions and quantitation of antigen-specific T cells have been playing a major role in the attempts to establish meaningful correlations between therapy-induced alterations in immune responses and clinical endpoints. However, one significant unresolved issue in modern immunotherapy is that when a tumor-specific cellular immune response is observed following the course of immunotherapy, it does not always lead to clinically proven cancer regression. This disappointing lack of a correlation between the tumor-specific cytotoxic immune responses and the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy may be explained, among other reasons, by the notion that the analysis of any single immunological parameter is not sufficient to provide clinically feasible information about the complex interactions between different cell subsets in the peripheral blood and immune, tumor, and stromal cells in the tumor milieu. By contrast, a systemic approach is required for improving the quality of a serial monitoring to ensure that it adequately and reliably measures potential changes induced in patients by administered vaccines or immunomodulators. Comprehensive evaluation of the balance between the immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive compartments of the immune system could be critical for a better understanding of how a given immunotherapy works or does not work in a particular clinical trial. New approaches to characterize tumor-infiltrating leukocytes, their phenotypic, biochemical, and genetic characteristics within the tumor microenvironment need to be developed and validated and should complement current monitoring techniques. These immune-monitoring assays for the local tumor immunoenvironment should be developed, validated, and standardized for

  3. BIOCHEMICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL MARKERS OF OVER-TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gleeson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletes fail to perform to the best of their ability if they become infected, stale, sore or malnourished. Excessive training with insufficient recovery can lead to a debilitating syndrome in which performance and well being can be affected for months. Eliminating or minimizing these problems by providing advice and guidelines on training loads, recovery times, nutrition or pharmacological intervention and regular monitoring of athletes using an appropriate battery of markers can help prevent the development of an overtraining syndrome in athletes. The potential usefulness of objective physiological, biochemical and immunological markers of overtraining has received much attention in recent years. Practical markers would be ones that could be measured routinely in the laboratory and offered to athletes as part of their sports science and medical support. The identification of common factors among overtrained athletes in comparison with well-trained athletes not suffering from underperformance could permit appropriate intervention to prevent athletes from progressing to a more serious stage of the overtraining syndrome. To date, no single reliable objective marker of impending overtraining has been identified. Some lines of research do, however, show promise and are based on findings that overtrained athletes appear to exhibit an altered hormonal response to stress. For example, in response to a standardized bout (or repeated bouts of high intensity exercise, overtrained athletes show a lower heart rate, blood lactate and plasma cortisol response. Several immune measures that can be obtained from a resting blood sample (e.g. the expression of specific cell surface proteins such as CD45RO+ on T-lymphocytes also seem to offer some hope of identifying impending overtraining. If an athlete is suspected of suffering from overtraining syndrome, other measures will also required, if only to exclude other possible causes of underperformance including

  4. Emerging single-cell technologies in immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herderschee, Jacobus; Fenwick, Craig; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Roger, Thierry; Calandra, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    During evolution, the immune system has diversified to protect the host from the extremely wide array of possible pathogens. Until recently, immune responses were dissected by use of global approaches and bulk tools, averaging responses across samples and potentially missing particular contributions of individual cells. This is a strongly limiting factor, considering that initial immune responses are likely to be triggered by a restricted number of cells at the vanguard of host defenses. The development of novel, single-cell technologies is a major innovation offering great promise for basic and translational immunology with the potential to overcome some of the limitations of traditional research tools, such as polychromatic flow cytometry or microscopy-based methods. At the transcriptional level, much progress has been made in the fields of microfluidics and single-cell RNA sequencing. At the protein level, mass cytometry already allows the analysis of twice as many parameters as flow cytometry. In this review, we explore the basis and outcome of immune-cell diversity, how genetically identical cells become functionally different, and the consequences for the exploration of host-immune defense responses. We will highlight the advantages, trade-offs, and potential pitfalls of emerging, single-cell-based technologies and how they provide unprecedented detail of immune responses.

  5. Louis Pasteur, the father of immunology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late 19th century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur’s presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so, he focused attention on immunity, preparing the ground for others who followed. This review chronicles Pasteur’s remarkable metamorphosis from organic chemist to microbiologist to immunologist, and from basic science to medicine.

  6. Immunological Response to Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Karin; Fischerauer, Stefan; Ferlic, Peter; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Brezinsek, Hans-Peter; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Löffler, Jörg F.; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina

    2014-04-01

    The use of biodegradable magnesium implants in pediatric trauma surgery would render surgical interventions for implant removal after tissue healing unnecessary, thereby preventing stress to the children and reducing therapy costs. In this study, we report on the immunological response to biodegradable magnesium implants—as an important aspect in evaluating biocompatibility—tested in a growing rat model. The focus of this study was to investigate the response of the innate immune system to either fast or slow degrading magnesium pins, which were implanted into the femoral bones of 5-week-old rats. The main alloying element of the fast-degrading alloy (ZX50) was Zn, while it was Y in the slow-degrading implant (WZ21). Our results demonstrate that degrading magnesium implants beneficially influence the immune system, especially in the first postoperative weeks but also during tissue healing and early bone remodeling. However, rodents with WZ21 pins showed a slightly decreased phagocytic ability during bone remodeling when the degradation rate reached its maximum. This may be due to the high release rate of the rare earth-element yttrium, which is potentially toxic. From our results we conclude that magnesium implants have a beneficial effect on the innate immune system but that there are some concerns regarding the use of yttrium-alloyed magnesium implants, especially in pediatric patients.

  7. A primer on cancer immunology and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, Michael T; Papamichail, Michael

    2004-03-01

    The role of immunity in cancer has been abundantly demonstrated in murine tumor models as well as in man. Induction of clinically effective antitumor immune responses, based on this information, in patients with cancer however, remains elusive. This is not because tumors lack recognizable antigens [in fact there is evidence that there are thousands of potential novel targets in each tumor cell] but rather due to the fact that the induction of responses is not adequate nor particularly well understood. Tumors seem to be rather effective at limiting immune responses. Many of the molecularly defined antigens that have been detected on tumor cells are derived from self-proteins and as such are subject to tolerizing mechanisms. Such tumors have also developed escape mechanisms capable of evading or suppressing immune responses. Understanding the role of dendritic cells during the effector phase of the immune response and the complex interactions of stromal, immune, and tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment represent the next challenges to be understood for tumor immunology.

  8. Etiology and immunology of infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LF Caron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV of chickens is currently one of the main diseases associated with respiratory syndrome in domestic poultry, as well as with losses related to egg production. The etiological agent is a coronavirus, which presents structural differences in the field, mainly in the S1 spike protein. The immune response against this virus is complicated by the few similarities among serotypes. Environmental and management factors, as well as the high mutation rate of the virus, render it difficult to control the disease and compromise the efficacy of the available vaccines. Bird immune system capacity to respond to challenges depend on the integrity of the mucosae, as an innate compartment, and on the generation of humoral and cell-mediated adaptive responses, and may affect the health status of breeding stocks in the medium run. Vaccination of day-old chicks in the hatchery on aims at eliciting immune responses, particularly cell-mediated responses that are essential when birds are first challenged. Humoral response (IgY and IgA are also important for virus clearance in subsequent challenges. The presence of antibodies against the S1 spike protein in 3- to 4-week-old birds is important both in broilers and for immunological memory in layers and breeders.

  9. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kuriyama

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary investigation compares peripheral blood cell counts including red blood cells (RBCs, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, hematocrit, humoral parameters including serum interferon-γ and interleukin-6, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA. Psychological measures including the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI questionnaire and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS between recipients (n = 11 of carrier oil massage and aromatherapy massage, which includes sweet almond oil, lavender oil, cypress oil and sweet marjoram oil. Though both STAI and SDS showed a significant reduction (P 0.05 increase in PBLs, possibly due to an increase in CD8+ and CD16+ lymphocytes, which had significantly increased post-treatment (P < 0.01. Consequently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased significantly (P < 0.01. The paucity of such differences after carrier oil massage suggests that aromatherapy massage could be beneficial in disease states that require augmentation of CD8+ lymphocytes. While this study identifies the immunological benefits of aromatherapy massage, there is a need to validate the findings prospectively in a larger cohort of patients.

  10. Polio, terror and the immunological worldview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Robert

    2016-07-22

    This paper adopts a socio-historical perspective to explore when, how and why the eradication of poliomyelitis has become politicised to the extent that health workers and security personnel are targeted in drive-by shootings. Discussions of the polio crisis in Afghanistan and Pakistan have tended to focus on Taliban suspicions of a US-led public health intervention and the denunciation of 'modernity' by Islamic 'extremists'. In contrast, this paper considers a broader history of indigenous hostility and resistance to colonial immunisation on the subcontinent, suggesting how interconnected public health and political crises today have reactivated the past and created a continuity between events. The paper explores how the biomedical threat posed by polio has become intertwined with military and governmental discourses premised on the 'preemptive strike'. Here, the paper tracks the connections between biological immunity and a postcolonial politics that posits an immunological rationale for politico-military interventions. The paper concludes by reflecting on the consequences for global public health of this entanglement of infectious disease with terror.

  11. Louis pasteur, the father of immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kendall A

    2012-01-01

    Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late nineteenth century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria, or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur's presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so, he focused attention on immunity, preparing the ground for others who followed. This review chronicles Pasteur's remarkable metamorphosis from organic chemist to microbiologist to immunologist, and from basic science to medicine.

  12. Integration of immunological aspects in the European Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borstlap, Joeri; Kurtz, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    The immunological properties of stem cells are of increasing importance in regenerative medicine. Immunomodulatory mechanisms seem to play an important role not only with respect to the understanding of underlying mechanisms of autologous versus allogenic therapeutic approaches, but also for endogeneous tissue regeneration. The newly established European human embryonic stem cell registry (hESCreg) offers an international database for the registration, documentation and characterisation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and their use. By doing so, hESCreg aims to develop a model procedure for further standardisation efforts in the field of stem cell research and regenerative medicine, and eventually the registry may lead to a repository of therapy-related information. Currently the stem cell characterisation data acquired by the registry are divided into several categories such as cell derivation, culture conditions, genetic constitution, stem cell marker expression and degree of modification. This article describes immunological aspects of stem cell characterisation and explores the layout and relevance of a possible additional section to the hESCreg repository to include immunological characteristics of human embryonic stem cells.

  13. Effects of Watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium extract on selected immunological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ahmadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium is a medical plant containing diverse chemically-active substances with biological properties. The present study was conducted to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of watercress extract on immunological and hematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish were fed for 21 days with diet supplemented with 0.1% and 1% of watercress extract per 1 kg food and with a normal diet as control. Hematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBC and white blood cells (WBC, hematocrit (Hct, hemoglobin (Hb, RBC index like mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC as well as immunological parameters such as peroxidase, lysozyme and complement activities, total protein, albumin and globulin levels were measured after 21 days of watercress extract treatment. The results indicated that oral administration of 1 % watercress extract in fish may enhance some hematological and immunological parameters including Hb and MCHC, lysozyme and complement activities, total protein and globulin levels, compared to the controls after 21 days of experimental period. In conclusion, on the basis of these results, oral administration of watercress extract may be useful to improve fish’s immune system.

  14. In vitro immunological effects of blocking CCR5 on T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Ren, Han-Yun; Shi, Yong-Jin; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Blockade of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) by maraviroc may induce immunological changes independent of its antiviral effects and may have immunoregulation properties. This study was designed to determine the effects of blocking CCR5 on human activated T cells in vitro and investigate the potential immunological mechanisms. Human CD3+ T cells were purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and then activated by cytokines. We tested the surface expressions and relative messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of CCR2, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, and CXCR3, chemotaxis toward their cognate ligands, internalization of chemokine receptors, and production of cytokines. In conclusion, blocking CCR5 by maraviroc not only can block CCR5 and CCR2 internalization processes induced by CCL5 and CCL2, but also inhibit T cell chemotactic activities toward their cognate ligands, respectively. Moreover, blocking CCR5 with maraviroc at high doses tends to decrease the production of TNF-α and IFN-γ. In addition, there might be a form of cross talk between CCR5 and CCR2, and this may offer a novel immunological effect for blockade of CCR5.

  15. The Immunology Database and Analysis Portal (ImmPort)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The ImmPort system serves as a long-term, sustainable archive of immunology research data generated by investigators mainly funded through the NIAID/DAIT. The core...

  16. THE IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF RA PATIENTS WITH ANAEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sizikov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the investigation was to study the immunological characteristics of RA patients with anaemia. Clinical and laboratory data including the percentage of the main lymphocyte subclasses, phagocyte and DTH-effector activity, serum concentration of immunoglobulins, the percentage of cells producing IFNγ and/or IL-4 and percent of monocytes producing TNF. We revealed some significant clinical, laboratory and immunological differences between RA patients and healthy donors and between patients with and without anaemia. Our data demonstrate RA anemic patients to have more severe disorders than patients without anaemia. We also revealed some significant immunological differences between RA patients and healthy donors and between patients with and without anaemia, including percent of cells producing IFNγ and/or IL-4. Our data permit to conclude that RA patients have many different immunological disturbances, more severe in anaemic patients.

  17. The immunological response created by interstitial and non-invasive laser immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Feifan; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; West, Connor L.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is an innovative cancer modality that uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to treat late-stage, metastatic cancers. LIT can be performed through either interstitial or non-invasive laser irradiation. Although LIT is still in development, recent clinical trials have shown that it can be used to successfully treat patients with late-stage breast cancer and melanoma. The development of LIT has been focused on creating an optimal immune response created by irradiating the tumor. One important factor that could enhance the immune response is the duration of laser irradiation. Irradiating the tumor for a shorter or longer amount of time could weaken the immune response created by LIT. Another factor that could weaken this immune response is the proliferation of regulatory T cells (TRegs) in response to the laser irradiation. However, low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) can help suppress the proliferation of TRegs and help create a more optimal immune response. An additional factor that could weaken the effectiveness of LIT is the selectivity of the laser. If LIT is performed non-invasively, then deeply embedded tumors and highly pigmented skin could cause an uneven temperature distribution inside the tumor. To solve this problem, an immunologically modified carbon nanotube system was created by using an immunoadjuvant known as glycated chitosan (GC) as a surfactant for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to immunologically modify SWNTs. SWNT-GC retains the optical properties of SWNTs and the immunological functions of GC to help increase the selectivity of the laser and create a more optimal immune response. In this preliminary study, tumor-bearing rats were treated with LIT either interstitially by an 805-nm laser with GC and low-dose CY, or non-invasively by a 980-nm laser with SWNT-GC. The goal was to observe the effects of CY on the immune response induced by LIT and to also determine the effect of irradiation duration for

  18. Remembrance of immunology past: conversations with Herman Eisen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Herman N; Schlesinger, Sondra

    2015-01-01

    Herman Eisen and Sondra Schlesinger spent several days together in September 2007 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, talking about immunology, focusing on his remembrances of the field over the more than 60 years of his involvement. This article is an abridged version of those discussions (the full version is available on the Annual Reviews website). It is both an oral history and a written memory of some important but selected areas of immunology.

  19. Advances of Tumor Hyperthermia and Tumor Immunology in Translational Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Hooshang Lahooti

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia is another important method in the treatment of tumors, secondary to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy. It has been demonstrated the efficacy and versatility of hyperthermia in a lot of randomized trials across various primary cancers. Both heat shock proteins (HSPs) and dendritic cells (DCs) are greatly affected by hyperthermia and closely related to the tumor immunology. Nowadays, tumor hyperthermia and tumor immunology have been attached much attention in the ...

  20. Perspectives on psycho-neuro-immunology in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallath Nandini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Psycho-oncology and psycho-neuro-immunology are both powerful new disciplines. Although a lot of literature exists in both of these fields the evidence is often controversial. This paper gives a brief perspective on the origins of psycho-neuro-immunology and discusses how our current understanding of this subject can be translated into clinical practice in an Indian setting.

  1. 21 CFR 866.5370 - Cohn fraction V immuno-logical test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5370 Cohn fraction V immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. A Cohn fraction V immunological... (disease of the stomach and small intestine), rheumatoid arthritis, and viral hepatitis. (b)...

  2. Immunological alterations in patients with primary tumors in central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERAÇOLI MARIA TEREZINHA S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play an important role in immune surveillance against tumors. The present work aimed to study the cytotoxic activity of NK cells and T cell subsets in peripheral blood of 13 patients with primary tumors in central nervous system (CNS. As controls 29 healthy subjects with the age range equivalent to the patients were studied. The methods employed were: a determination of cytotoxic activity of NK cells towards K562 target cells, evaluated by single cell-assay; b enumeration of CD3+ lymphocytes and their CD4+ and CD8+ subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies; c the identification of tumors were done by histologic and immunochemistry studies. The results indicated that adults and children with tumor in CNS display reduced percentage of total T cells, helper/inducer subset and low helper/suppressor ratio. The cytotoxic activity of NK cells was decreased in patients with CNS tumors due mainly to a decrease in the proportion of target-binding lymphocytes. These results suggest that cytotoxic activity of NK cells may be affected by the immunoregulatory disturbances observed in patients with primary tumors in CNS.

  3. A Global Approach to Tumor Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ena Wang; Monica C Panelli; Vladia Monsurró; Francesco M Marincola

    2004-01-01

    Biological and clinical advances in the understanding of tumor immunology suggest that immune responsiveness of human tumors is a complex biological phenomenon that could be best studied by a real-time comparison of tumor/host interactions in the tumor microenvironment through a high-throughput discovery-driven approach. This conclusion is derived from our recognition that too many hypotheses or, in other words, no solid single hypothesis exist, based on experimental results, to further drive experimentation in human subjects. Functional genomic studies entertained during the last few years consolidated the belief that in humans the interactions between tumor and immune cells are too complex to be approached exclusively with a hypothesis driven method. We believe that immune cells suit cancer cells in a Yin and Yang balance by opposing and yet mutually depending on each other. Indeed, immune infiltration in tumors may play a dual role modulating in different circumstances cancer cell growth or destruction through a physiological modulation of inflammation. It is reasonable to question what induces inflammation at the tumor site. We hypothesize that inflammation is primarily driven by the phenotype of tumor cells that can modulate their microenvironment through cell-to-cell interactions or the secretion of soluble factors. Thus, in analogy the observation of immune cells within tumors parallels the presence of paramedics, police and firemen at the scene of an accident, which is reactive to and not causative of the occurrence. In this review we will explore this hypothesis by reporting and summarizing most of our recent work in the frame of available literature on the subject.

  4. A highlight of recent advances in immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG DeXian

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the 60th anniversary of SCIENCE CHINA,six research groups of overseas and domestic Chinese immunologists published a series of review articles (SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences,2010,53(2):157-158),which highlighted recent advances and their contributions to immunology.Wang YaYa in Prof.Cheng GenHong's group,who discovered the function of TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) and other signal molecules in Toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated signaling pathway and innate immunity [1],reviewed TRAF-mediated regulation of immune and inflammatory responses [2].TRAF family consists of six mammalian members (TRAF1,TRAF2,TRAF3,TRAF4,TRAF5,and TRAF6) and participates in signal transduction of a large number of receptor families such as TNF receptor family (TNFR) and TLR-interleukin-1 receptor (TLR-IL-1R)family.Upon receptor-mediated activation,TRAFs are directly or indirectly recruited to the intracellular domains of these receptors and subsequently combine with other signaling molecules to activate the inhibitor of IκB kinase (IKK) complex,TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK)-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and the inducible Iκ B kinase (IKK-i),ultimately leading to activation of transcription factors,such as NF-κB,interferon-regulatory factor (IRF),to induce immune or inflammatory responses.In the past few years,immunologists have demonstrated the central role of TRAFs in inflammation,innate immunity.

  5. Immunological changes following protein losing enteropathy after surgery total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) by cytomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocsi, József; Lenz, Dominik; Mittag, Anja; Sauer, Ursula; Wild, Lena; Hess, John; Schranz, Dietmar; Hambsch, Jörg; Schneider, Peter; Tárnok, Attila

    2008-02-01

    Complex immunophenotyping single-cell analysis are essential for systems biology and cytomics. The application of cytomics in immunology and cardiac research and diagnostics is very broad, ranging from the better understanding of the cardiovascular cell biology to the identification of heart function and immune consequences after surgery. TCPC or Fontan-type circulation is an accepted palliative surgery for patients with a functionally univentricular heart. Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), the enteric loss of proteins, is a potential late complication after TCPC surgery. PLE etiology is poorly understood, but immunological factors seem to play a role. This study was aimed to gain insight into immune phenotype alterations following post-TCPC PLE. Patients were studied during routine follow-up up to 5yrs after surgery, blood samples of TCPC patients without (n=21, age 6.8+/-2.6 years at surgery; mean+/-SD) and with manifest PLE (n=12, age 12.8+/- 4.5 years at sampling) and age matched healthy children (control, n=22, age 8.6+/-2.5 years) were collected. Routine laboratory, immune phenotype and serological parameters were determined. Following PLE the immune phenotype dramatically changed with signs of acute inflammation (increased neutrophil and monocyte count, CRP, IL-8). In contrast, lymphocyte count (NK-cells, αβTCR +CD4 +, αβTCR +CD8 + cells) decreased (p<0.001). The residual T-cells had elevated CD25 and CD69 expression. In PLE-patients unique cell populations with CD3 +αβ/γδTCR - and αβTCR +CD4 -8 - phenotype were present in increased frequencies. Our studies show dramatically altered leukocyte phenotype after PLE in TCPC patients. These alterations resemble to changes in autoimmune diseases. We conclude that autoimmune processes may play a role in etiology and pathophysiology of PLE.

  6. Obesity-associated cancer: an immunological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Melissa J; Dunne, Margaret R; Donohoe, Claire L; Reynolds, John V

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have established an association between obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and a number of cancer types. Research has focused predominantly on altered endocrine factors, growth factors and signalling pathways, with little known in man about the immune involvement in the relevant pathophysiological processes. Moreover, in an era of exciting new breakthroughs in cancer immunotherapy, there is also a need to study the safety and efficacy of immunotherapeutics in the complex setting of inflammatory-driven obesity-associated cancer. This review addresses key immune cell subsets underpinning obesity-associated inflammation and describes how such immune compartments might be targeted to prevent and treat obesity-associated cancer. We propose that the modulation, metabolism, migration and abundance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cells and tumour-specific T cells might be therapeutically altered to both restore immune balance, alleviating pathological inflammation, and to improve anti-tumour immune responses in obesity-associated cancer.

  7. Preparation of dextran immunological magnetic nanoparticles and their application to combined targeting carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李民勤; 徐慧显; 左榘; 姬昂; 何炳林; 庞雁; 黄建英; 牛瑞芳

    1996-01-01

    Superparamagnetic dextran nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation. Effects of concentration of dextran, amount of ironic salts, stirring speed, concentration of ammonium hydroxide and mole ratio of Fe3+/Fe2+ on the effective diameter of dextran magnetic nanopartides (DMNP) were studied. Dextran immunological magnetic nanoparticles (DIMNP) were formed by the reaction of the monoclonal anti-human mammary cancer antibody with DMNP oxidized by sodium periodate, and the properties of magnetic susceptibility, shape and retention of antibody activity were investigated. The in vitro cancer antigen binding ability of DIMNP was demonstrated by radioimmunoassay, and the in vivo magnetic localization and antibody targeting ability of radiolabeled DIMNP were studied.

  8. Insights into magmatic processes and hydrothermal alteration of in situ superfast spreading ocean crust at ODP/IODP site 1256 from a cluster analysis of rock magnetic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, Mark J.; Heslop, David; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Acton, Gary; Krasa, David

    2014-01-01

    We analyze magnetic properties from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)/Integrated ODP (IODP) Hole 1256D (6°44.1' N, 91°56.1' W) on the Cocos Plate in ∼15.2 Ma oceanic crust generated by superfast seafloor spreading, the only drill hole that has sampled all three oceanic crust layers in a tectonically undi

  9. Regularity of the Damage of Altered Rock’ s Mechanical Properties Under Water-Rock Interaction%水岩作用下蚀变岩力学性质损伤规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛传星; 秦哲; 冯佰研; 付厚利

    2016-01-01

    In order to research the effect of water level fluctuation on the mechanical properties of slope rock at al -tered zones , we carried out uniaxial compression test on rock samples from open-pit slope in Cangshang under dif-ferent saturation-dehydration cycles .Moreover , we established the function which describes the variation pattern of mechanical properties of altered rock under water-rock interaction .We also analyzed the influence of circulating times on the mechanical properties of altered rock through introducing the concept of damage rate .Besides , the damage mechanism of water-rock interaction on altered rocks was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) .The result indicated that the mechanical properties of altered rocks were obviously weakened by water -rock interaction , and with the increase of water-rock interaction , the phenomenon was more obvious;with the increase of circulating times, the elasticity modulus decayed rapidly while the peak intensity was decaying continuously .As the degree of alteration and fragmentation increased , the degree of damage increased regarding the water-rock interac-tion to the mechanical properties of rock , and after fifteen saturation-dehydration cycles , the damage rate of elastic-ity modulus reached 60%, while that of peak intensity was 45%.%为了研究水位升降对蚀变带边坡岩石力学性质的影响,选取仓上露天金矿坑边坡蚀变岩样,进行了不同饱水-失水循环次数的单轴压缩试验。建立了函数关系描述蚀变岩力学性质在水岩作用下的变化规律,引入损伤率的概念分析了循环次数对蚀变岩力学性质的影响,并利用电镜扫描技术从微观角度分析了水岩作用对蚀变岩的损伤机理。结果表明:水岩作用对蚀变岩的力学性质有明显的弱化现象,且水岩作用越强,弱化现象越明显;不同循环次数下,蚀变岩弹性模量随循环次数增加衰减迅速,峰值强度呈

  10. The Multiscale Systems Immunology project: software for cell-based immunological simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepler Thomas B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer simulations are of increasing importance in modeling biological phenomena. Their purpose is to predict behavior and guide future experiments. The aim of this project is to model the early immune response to vaccination by an agent based immune response simulation that incorporates realistic biophysics and intracellular dynamics, and which is sufficiently flexible to accurately model the multi-scale nature and complexity of the immune system, while maintaining the high performance critical to scientific computing. Results The Multiscale Systems Immunology (MSI simulation framework is an object-oriented, modular simulation framework written in C++ and Python. The software implements a modular design that allows for flexible configuration of components and initialization of parameters, thus allowing simulations to be run that model processes occurring over different temporal and spatial scales. Conclusion MSI addresses the need for a flexible and high-performing agent based model of the immune system.

  11. The single-channel properties of human acetylcholine α7 receptors are altered by fusing α7 to the green fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucile, Sergio; Palma, Eleonora; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2002-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine (AcCho) receptors composed of α7-subunits (α7-AcChoRs) are involved in many physiological activities. Nevertheless, very little is known about their single-channel characteristics. By using outside-out patch-clamp recordings from Xenopus oocytes expressing wild-type (wt) α7-AcChoRs, we identified two classes of channel conductance: a low conductance (γL) of 72 pS and a high one (γH) of 87 pS, with mean open-times (τop) of 0.6 ms. The same classes of conductances, but longer τop (3 ms), were seen in experiments with chimeric α7 receptors in which the wtα7 extracellular C terminus was fused to the green fluorescent protein (wtα7-GFP AcChoRs). In contrast, channels with three different conductances were gated by AcCho in oocytes expressing α7 receptors carrying a Leu-to-Thr 248 mutation (mutα7) or oocytes expressing chimeric mutα7-GFP receptors. These conductance levels were significantly smaller, and their mean open-times were larger, than those of wtα7-AcChoRs. Interestingly, in the absence of AcCho, these oocytes showed single-channel openings of the same conductances, but shorter τop, than those activated by AcCho. Accordingly, human homomeric wtα7 receptors open channels of high conductance and brief lifetime, and fusion to GFP lengthens their lifetime. In contrast, mutα7 receptors open channels of lower conductance and longer lifetime than those gated by wtα7-AcChoRs, and these parameters are not greatly altered by fusing the mutα7 to GFP. All this evidence shows that GFP-tagging can alter importantly receptor kinetics, a fact that has to be taken into account whenever tagged proteins are used to study their function. PMID:11891309

  12. Immunological responses in the mussel Mytilus trossulus transplanted at the coastline of the northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höher, N; Turja, R; Köhler, A; Lehtonen, K K; Broeg, K

    2015-12-01

    The applicability of immune responses in transplanted Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) as biomarkers of immunotoxic effects was studied at differently contaminated locations in the Gulf of Bothnia (northern Baltic Sea). Here, we present a detailed report on the immune responses measured as complementary part of transplantation study by Turja et al. (2014).Various immunological endpoints such as total and differential cell count, morphological alterations,phagocytic activity, and caspase 3/7 activity of mussel haemocytes as well as haemolytic activity of the haemolymph were used. Mussels collected at a reference site at a Finnish coastal site (Hanko, H) were transplanted at the Swedish coast near industrial and urban regions of the cities Sundsvall (S1, S2) and Gävle (G1, G2), respectively. Based on the measured immunological responses, multivariate statistical analysis (PCA biplot) showed a clear separation of the most polluted site S1, indicating immunotoxic impacts of the mixture of contaminants present at this location. Based on these observations and results from Turja et al. (2014), we suggest the implementation of immunotoxic biomarkers for the evaluation of ecosystem health. However, these should be accompanied by complementary endpoints of biological effects encompassing i.e., physiological, antioxidant and bioenergetic markers.

  13. Immunologic characteristics of HIV-infected individuals who make broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, Persephone; Moody, M Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) capable of inhibiting infection with diverse variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a key, as-yet-unachieved goal of prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine strategies. However, some HIV-infected individuals develop bnAbs after approximately 2-4 years of infection, enabling analysis of features of these antibodies and the immunological environment that enables their induction. Distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells play opposing roles in the regulation of humoral responses: T follicular helper (Tfh) cells support germinal center formation and provide help for affinity maturation and the development of memory B cells and plasma cells, while regulatory CD4(+) (Treg) cells including T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells inhibit the germinal center reaction to limit autoantibody production. BnAbs exhibit high somatic mutation frequencies, long third heavy-chain complementarity determining regions, and/or autoreactivity, suggesting that bnAb generation is likely to be highly dependent on the activity of CD4(+) Tfh cells, and may be constrained by host tolerance controls. This review discusses what is known about the immunological environment during HIV-1 infection, in particular alterations in CD4(+) Tfh, Treg, and Tfr populations and autoantibody generation, and how this is related to bnAb development, and considers the implications for HIV-1 vaccine design.

  14. Relationship between Immunological Abnormalities in Rat Models of Diabetes Mellitus and the Amplification Circuits for Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Tomoko; Asao, Hironobu; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms is required in order to treat diseases. However, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications are extremely complex. Immune reactions are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications, while diabetes influences immune reactions. Furthermore, both diabetes and immune reactions are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To address these issues, animal models are useful tools. So far, various animal models of diabetes have been developed in rats, which have advantages over mice models in terms of the larger volume of tissue samples and the variety of type 2 diabetes models. In this review, we introduce rat models of diabetes and summarize the immune reactions in diabetic rat models. Finally, we speculate on the relationship between immune reactions and diabetic episodes. For example, diabetes-prone Biobreeding rats, type 1 diabetes model rats, exhibit increased autoreactive cellular and inflammatory immune reactions, while Goto-Kakizaki rats, type 2 diabetes model rats, exhibit increased Th2 reactions and attenuation of phagocytic activity. Investigation of immunological abnormalities in various diabetic rat models is useful for elucidating complicated mechanisms in the pathophysiology of diabetes. Studying immunological alterations, such as predominance of Th1/17 or Th2 cells, humoral immunity, and innate immune reactions, may improve understanding the structure of amplification circuits for diabetes in future studies.

  15. Confirmation studies of Soviet research on immunological effects of microwaves: Russian immunology results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Yury G; Grigoriev, Oleg A; Ivanov, Alexander A; Lyaginskaya, Antonina M; Merkulov, Anton V; Shagina, Natalia B; Maltsev, Vyacheslav N; Lévêque, Philippe; Ulanova, Alla M; Osipov, Vyacheslav A; Shafirkin, Alexander V

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a replication study performed to investigate earlier Soviet studies conducted between 1974 and 1991 that showed immunological and reproductive effects of long-term low-level exposure of rats to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. The early studies were used, in part, for developing exposure standards for the USSR population and thus it was necessary to confirm the Russian findings. In the present study, the conditions of RF exposure were made as similar as possible to those in the earlier experiments: Wistar rats were exposed in the far field to 2450 MHz continuous wave RF fields with an incident power density in the cages of 5 W/m² for 7 h/day, 5 days/week for a total of 30 days, resulting in a whole-body SAR of 0.16 W/kg. Effects of the exposure on immunological parameters in the brain and liver of rats were evaluated using the complement fixation test (CFT), as in the original studies, and an additional test, the more modern ELISA test. Our results, using CFT and ELISA, partly confirmed the findings of the early studies and indicated possible effects from non-thermal RF exposure on autoimmune processes. The RF exposure resulted in minor increases in formation of antibodies in brain tissue extract and the exposure did not appear to be pathological. In addition, a study was conducted to replicate a previous Soviet study on effects from the injection of blood serum from RF-exposed rats on pregnancy and foetal and offspring development of rats, using a similar animal model and protocol. Our results showed the same general trends as the earlier study, suggesting possible adverse effects of the blood serum from exposed rats on pregnancy and foetal development of intact rats, however, application of these results in developing exposure standards is limited.

  16. Ethylmalonic encephalopathy ETHE1 R163W/R163Q mutations alter protein stability and redox properties of the iron centre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara J Henriques

    Full Text Available ETHE1 is an iron-containing protein from the metallo β-lactamase family involved in the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway. Mutations in ETHE1 causing loss of function result in sulfide toxicity and in the rare fatal disease Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy (EE. Frequently mutations resulting in depletion of ETHE1 in patient cells are due to severe structural and folding defects. However, some ETHE1 mutations yield nearly normal protein levels and in these cases disease mechanism was suspected to lie in compromised catalytic activity. To address this issue and to elicit how ETHE1 dysfunction results in EE, we have investigated two such pathological mutations, ETHE1-p.Arg163Gln and p.Arg163Trp. In addition, we report a number of benchmark properties of wild type human ETHE1, including for the first time the redox properties of the mononuclear iron centre. We show that loss of function in these variants results from a combination of decreased protein stability and activity. Although structural assessment revealed that the protein fold is not perturbed by mutations, both variants have decreased thermal stabilities and higher proteolytic susceptibilities. ETHE1 wild type and variants bind 1 ± 0.2 mol iron/protein and no zinc; however, the variants exhibited only ≈ 10% of wild-type catalytically activity. Analysis of the redox properties of ETHE1 mononuclear iron centre revealed that the variants have lowered reduction potentials with respect to that of the wild type. This illustrates how point mutation-induced loss of function may arise via very discrete subtle conformational effects on the protein fold and active site chemistry, without extensive disruption of the protein structure or protein-cofactor association.

  17. Ethylmalonic encephalopathy ETHE1 R163W/R163Q mutations alter protein stability and redox properties of the iron centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Bárbara J; Lucas, Tânia G; Rodrigues, João V; Frederiksen, Jane H; Teixeira, Miguel S; Tiranti, Valeria; Bross, Peter; Gomes, Cláudio M

    2014-01-01

    ETHE1 is an iron-containing protein from the metallo β-lactamase family involved in the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway. Mutations in ETHE1 causing loss of function result in sulfide toxicity and in the rare fatal disease Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy (EE). Frequently mutations resulting in depletion of ETHE1 in patient cells are due to severe structural and folding defects. However, some ETHE1 mutations yield nearly normal protein levels and in these cases disease mechanism was suspected to lie in compromised catalytic activity. To address this issue and to elicit how ETHE1 dysfunction results in EE, we have investigated two such pathological mutations, ETHE1-p.Arg163Gln and p.Arg163Trp. In addition, we report a number of benchmark properties of wild type human ETHE1, including for the first time the redox properties of the mononuclear iron centre. We show that loss of function in these variants results from a combination of decreased protein stability and activity. Although structural assessment revealed that the protein fold is not perturbed by mutations, both variants have decreased thermal stabilities and higher proteolytic susceptibilities. ETHE1 wild type and variants bind 1 ± 0.2 mol iron/protein and no zinc; however, the variants exhibited only ≈ 10% of wild-type catalytically activity. Analysis of the redox properties of ETHE1 mononuclear iron centre revealed that the variants have lowered reduction potentials with respect to that of the wild type. This illustrates how point mutation-induced loss of function may arise via very discrete subtle conformational effects on the protein fold and active site chemistry, without extensive disruption of the protein structure or protein-cofactor association.

  18. IMMUNOLOGICAL FEATURES IN LIVER CIRRHOSIS INDUCED BY HEPATITIS B VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Urazova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A comparative analysis of immunological data was performed in the patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis, and in a group of patients with acute and chronic viral hepatitis B (AVHB, CVHB. Activation of B cell immune compartment (increase in CD22+ lymphocytes and IL4, circulating immune complexes in blood was demonstrated in patients with liver cirrhosis, being also associated with increased numbers of CD16+ lymphocytes and T-cell deficiency. It was revealed that the differences are most expressed upon comparison of immunologic data from the patients with liver cirrhosis, and AVHB followed by clearance of the virus. When comparing these groups, the differences in immunological state between the patients with liver cirrhosis and CVHB did not depend on the phase of viral replication or integration.

  19. Implementation and research of integrated curriculum of immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jie CHEN; Xiao-yin NIU; Li-hua JIANG; Ye-bin XI; Hai-liang GE

    2015-01-01

    In order to get adapted to the teaching reform in Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine,and promote the integration of the teaching of basic and clinical medicine for medical students,the integrated curriculum of host defense and immunity integrates medical immunology with the morphological structure and histogenesisof the immune system. In this paper,we focus on the different integration medical immunology curriculum in the world and our unique integrated immunology curriculum. This paper introduces the condition of host defense and immunity both at home and abroad and its status and role in the integrated curriculum system in School of Medicine,and summarizes the contents,experience and improvement measures for the implementation of host defense and immunity.

  20. Breaking Immunological Tolerance through OX40 (CD134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Bansal-Pakala

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunological tolerance represents a mechanism by which cells of the host remain protected from the immune system. Breaking of immunological tolerance can result in a variety of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. The reasons for tolerance breaking down and autoimmune processes arising are largely unknown but of obvious interest for therapeutic intervention of these diseases. Although reversal of the tolerant state is generally unwanted, there are instances where this may be of benefit to the host. In particular, one way a cancerous cell escapes being targeted by the immune system is through tolerance mechanisms that in effect turn off the reactivity of T lymphocytes that can respond to tumor-associated peptides. Thus tolerance represents a major obstacle in developing effective immunotherapy against tumors. The molecules that are involved in regulating immunological tolerance are then of interest as they may be great targets for positively or negatively manipulating the tolerance process.

  1. The role of cytokines in immunological tolerance: potential for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, M; Sundstedt, A; Wraith, D

    2000-11-27

    Current immunosuppression protocols, although often effective, are nonspecific and therefore hazardous. Consequently, immunological tolerance that is antigen specific and does not globally depress the patient's immune system has become one of the Holy Grails of immunology. Since the discovery that cytokines have immunomodulatory effects, extensive research has investigated the potential of these molecules to induce and maintain specific immunological tolerance in the context of transplantation, allergy and autoimmunity. In this article, we review the possible mechanisms by which cytokines can modulate the immune response and the animal models that frequently confound the theory that a single cytokine, or group of cytokines, can induce tolerance in a predictable manner. Finally, we discuss the role of cytokines at a paracrine level, particularly in the context of inducing and maintaining antigen-specific, regulatory T cells with the clinical potential to suppress specific immune responses.

  2. Cellular & Molecular Immunology receives its first Impact Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Tian

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 2009 edition of the JCR, in which Cellular (c) Molecular Immunology (CMI) is listed for the first time, reveals an Impact Factor of 2.765, placing CMI 63rd out of 128 in the Immunology subject category. According to ISI's ranking this also places the journal 5th out of 114 journals published in China and 23rd out of 587 journals published in the Asia-Pacific region. This is an excellent first Impact Factor for a young journal like CMI and,together with our publishing partner Nature Publishing Group and the continued support of our readers and authors, we hope to further build on this into the future. We are delighted that CMI can be internationally recognized as important in the field of immunology.

  3. Tuning the morphology, luminescence and magnetic properties of hexagonal-phase NaGdF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals via altering the addition sequence of the precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuwen; Xia, Donglin; Zhao, Ruimin; Zhu, Hao; Zhu, Yiru; Xiong, Yuda; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Hexagonal-phase NaGdF4: Yb, Er upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs) with tunable morphology and properties were successfully prepared via a thermal decomposition method. The influences of the adding sequence of the precursors on the morphology, chemical composition, luminescence and magnetic properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), upconversion (UC) spectroscopy, and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It was found that the resulting nanocrystals, with different sizes ranging from 24 to 224 nm, are in the shape of spheres, hexagonal plates and flakes; moreover, the composition percentage of Yb3+-Er3+ and Gd3+ ions was found to vary in a regular pattern with the adding sequence. Furthermore, the intensity ratios of emission colors (f g/r, f g/p), and the magnetic mass susceptibility of hexagonal-phase NaGdF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals change along with the composition of the nanocrystals. A positive correlation between the susceptibility and f g/r of NaGdF4: Yb, Er was proposed. The decomposition processes of the precursors were investigated by a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The result indicated that the decomposition of the resolved lanthanide trifluoroacetate is greatly different from lanthanide trifluoroacetate powder. It is of tremendous help to recognize the decomposition process of the precursors and to understand the related reaction mechanism.

  4. Are immunological mechanisms involved in colon cancer and are they possible markers for biotherapy improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghella, Anna Maria; Contasta, Ida; Pellegrini, Patrizia; Del Beato, Tiziana; Adorno, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    This paper focuses on our data on colon cancer patients. Our overall results lead us to believe that the suppressive effect of specific cytokines in colon cancer patients alters the functionality of TH1 and TH2 subsets of CD4+ T-cells, with an expansion of TH2 cells and a malfunctioning of TH1 cells. This immunological disregulation appears to increase with stage progression, suggesting a direct role in the mechanisms that allow the tumour to locate and expand within the host. It is also clear that in order to identify disease markers and generate an in vivo immune response that corrects the imbalance between TH1 and TH2 cells, we need to understand how tumour mechanisms cause this imbalance to begin with.

  5. The emerging immunological role of post-translational modifications by reactive nitrogen species in cancer microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eDe Sanctis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Under many inflammatory contexts, such as tumor progression, systemic and peripheral immune response is tailored by reactive nitrogen species (RNS-dependent post-translational modifications, suggesting a biological function for these chemical alterations. RNS modify both soluble factors and receptors essential to induce and maintain a tumor-specific immune response, creating a chemical barrier that impairs effector T cell infiltration and functionality in tumor microenvironment and supports the escape phase of cancer. RNS generation during tumor growth mainly depends on nitric oxide production by both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells that constitutively activate essential metabolic pathways of L-arginine catabolism. This review provides an overview of the potential immunological and biological role of RNS-induced modifications and addresses new approaches targeting RNS either in search of novel biomarkers or to improve anti-cancer treatment.

  6. The emerging immunological role of post-translational modifications by reactive nitrogen species in cancer microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Francesco; Sandri, Sara; Ferrarini, Giovanna; Pagliarello, Irene; Sartoris, Silvia; Ugel, Stefano; Marigo, Ilaria; Molon, Barbara; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Under many inflammatory contexts, such as tumor progression, systemic and peripheral immune response is tailored by reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-dependent post-translational modifications, suggesting a biological function for these chemical alterations. RNS modify both soluble factors and receptors essential to induce and maintain a tumor-specific immune response, creating a "chemical barrier" that impairs effector T cell infiltration and functionality in tumor microenvironment and supports the escape phase of cancer. RNS generation during tumor growth mainly depends on nitric oxide production by both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells that constitutively activate essential metabolic pathways of l-arginine catabolism. This review provides an overview of the potential immunological and biological role of RNS-induced modifications and addresses new approaches targeting RNS either in search of novel biomarkers or to improve anti-cancer treatment.

  7. Nutrient tasting and signaling mechanisms in the gut V. Mechanisms of immunologic sensation of intestinal contents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Immune perception of intestinal contents reflects a functional dualism with systemic hyporesponsiveness to dietary antigens and resident microflora (oral tolerance) and active immune responses to mucosal pathogens. This facilitates optimal absorption of dietary nutrients while conserving immunologic resources for episodic pathogenic challenge. Discrimination between dangerous and harmless antigens within the enteric lumen requires continual sampling of the microenvironment by multiple potential pathways, innate and adaptive recognition mechanisms, bidirectional lymphoepithelial signaling, and rigorous control of effector responses. Errors in these processes disrupt mucosal homeostasis and are associated with food hypersensitivity and mucosal inflammation. Mechanisms of mucosal immune perception and handling of dietary proteins and other antigens have several practical and theoretical implications including vaccine design, therapy of systemic autoimmunity, and alteration of enteric flora with probiotics.

  8. The influence of recombinant production on the immunologic behavior of birch pollen isoallergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wallner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions towards the birch major pollen allergen Bet v 1 are among the most common causes of spring pollinosis in the temperate climate zone of the Northern hemisphere. Natural Bet v 1 is composed of a complex mixture of different isoforms. Detailed analysis of recombinant Bet v 1 isoforms revealed striking differences in immunologic as well as allergenic properties of the molecules, leading to a classification of Bet v 1 isoforms into high, medium, and low IgE binding proteins. Especially low IgE binding Bet v 1 isoforms have been described as ideal candidates for desensitizing allergic patients with allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT. Since diagnosis and therapy of allergic diseases are highly dependent on recombinant proteins, continuous improvement of protein production is an absolute necessity. METHODOLOGY: Therefore, two different methods for recombinant production of a low IgE binding Bet v 1 isoform were applied; one based on published protocols, the other by implementing latest innovations in protein production. Both batches of Bet v 1.0401 were extensively characterized by an array of physicochemical as well as immunological methods to compare protein primary structure, purity, quantity, folding, aggregation state, thermal stability, and antibody binding capacity. CONCLUSION: The experiments demonstrated that IgE antibody binding properties of recombinant isoallergens can be significantly influenced by the production method directly affecting possible clinical applications of the molecules.

  9. Some scientific and organizational challenges in cancer immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Ralph M

    2009-09-01

    This volume provides a small sampling of the rapidly growing science of cancer immunology. Growth in the field includes advances on the requirements for immunization or vaccination and the ways in which immunity can be suppressed or blocked, including active tumor-based mechanisms. I would like to introduce the papers in this volume and then deal with a subject that pervaded many discussions among symposium participants. The subject is the need for a much better supported and organized effort to design optimal studies of immunology in cancer patients so that cancer vaccines can become a major means to prevent and treat this disease.

  10. Immunologic mapping of glycomes: implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dapeng; Levery, Steven B; Hsu, Fong-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Cancer associated glycoconjugates are important biomarkers, as exemplified by globo-H, CA125, CA15.3 and CA27.29. However, the exact chemical structures of many such biomarkers remain unknown because of technological limitations. In this article, we propose the "immunologic mapping" of cancer...... glycomes based on specific immune recognition of glycan structures, which can be hypothesized theoretically, produced chemically, and examined biologically by immuno-assays. Immunologic mapping of glycans not only provides a unique perspective on cancer glycomes, but also may lead to the invention...

  11. Immunologic competence in adults following thymic irradiation in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, A.J.; Wara, W.M.; Wara, D.W.; Phillips, T.L.

    1977-07-01

    Removal of, or irradiation to, the thymus during the neonatal period in man has resulted in no reported adverse effects on cellular immunity, although thymectomy in neonatal experimental animals is known to produce profound immunological disturbances. Adverse effects in humans may not be recognized until several decades have passed. The immunological capabilities of 7 adults with histories of thymic irradiation as infants were evaluated; normal tests results indicated intact immune systems in all cases. The 3 women tested, however, had abnormal clinical histories, including 2 with multiple tumors and 1 with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  12. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    The report on the influence of seasonal factors on thymic size in early life describes a pattern of ultrasonographically measured thymic growth in Gambian infants including the finding of a smaller thymus in the hungry season. These factors raise a number of important questions: Is the size...... of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  13. Adenoids in children: Advances in immunology, diagnosis, and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Ilaria; Pusateri, Alessandro; Pagella, Fabio; Caimmi, Davide; Caimmi, Silvia; Licari, Amelia; Barberi, Salvatore; Castellazzi, Annamaria M; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2014-04-01

    Adenoids are strategically located for mediating local and regional immune functions as they are exposed to antigens from both the outside air and the alimentary tract. Recurrent or chronic respiratory infections can induce histomorphological and functional changes in the adenoidal immunological barrier, sometimes making surgical treatment necessary. Our aim in this review is to summarize the crucial points about not only the immunological histopathology of adenoidal tissue, especially in patients with adenoid hypertrophy, but also the most common and useful diagnostic techniques and surgical options.

  14. Immunological change in a parasite-impoverished environment: divergent signals from four island taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon S Beadell

    Full Text Available Dramatic declines of native Hawaiian avifauna due to the human-mediated emergence of avian malaria and pox prompted an examination of whether island taxa share a common altered immunological signature, potentially driven by reduced genetic diversity and reduced exposure to parasites. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing parasite prevalence, genetic diversity and three measures of immune response in two recently-introduced species (Neochmia temporalis and Zosterops lateralis and two island endemics (Acrocephalus aequinoctialis and A. rimitarae and then comparing the results to those observed in closely-related mainland counterparts. The prevalence of blood parasites was significantly lower in 3 of 4 island taxa, due in part to the absence of certain parasite lineages represented in mainland populations. Indices of genetic diversity were unchanged in the island population of N. temporalis; however, allelic richness was significantly lower in the island population of Z. lateralis while both allelic richness and heterozygosity were significantly reduced in the two island-endemic species examined. Although parasite prevalence and genetic diversity generally conformed to expectations for an island system, we did not find evidence for a pattern of uniformly altered immune responses in island taxa, even amongst endemic taxa with the longest residence times. The island population of Z. lateralis exhibited a significantly reduced inflammatory cell-mediated response while levels of natural antibodies remained unchanged for this and the other recently introduced island taxon. In contrast, the island endemic A. rimitarae exhibited a significantly increased inflammatory response as well as higher levels of natural antibodies and complement. These measures were unchanged or lower in A. aequinoctialis. We suggest that small differences in the pathogenic landscape and the stochastic history of mutation and genetic drift are likely to be important in

  15. Leukocyte inclusion within a platelet rich plasma-derived fibrin scaffold stimulates a more pro-inflammatory environment and alters fibrin properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Zalduendo, Mar; Troya, María; Padilla, Sabino; Orive, Gorka

    2015-01-01

    One of the main differences among platelet-rich plasma (PRP) products is the inclusion of leukocytes that may affect the biological efficacy of these autologous preparations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of leukocytes modified the morphological, biomechanical and biological properties of PRP under normal and inflammatory conditions. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) and leukocyte-platelet rich plasma (L-PRP) scaffolds was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and was significantly increased under an inflammatory condition when leukocytes were included in the PRP. Fibroblasts and osteoblasts treated with L-PRP, under an inflammatory situation, underwent a greater activation of NFĸB pathway, proliferated significantly less and secreted a higher concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These cellular events were assessed through Western blot and fluorimetric and ELISA methods, respectively. Therefore, the inclusion of leukocytes induced significantly higher pro-inflammatory conditions.

  16. Iceland as a Model for Chemical Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.; Schiffman, P.; Murad, E.; Southard, R.

    2001-03-01

    Subglacial volcanic activity on Iceland has led to the formation of a variety of silicate and iron oxide-rich alteration products that may ressemble chemical alteration on Mars. The spectral and chemical properties of Icelandic samples are presented.

  17. Immunological aspects of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosogne, H; Massart-Leën, A M; Burvenich, C

    2000-01-01

    The incidence of severe cases of acute E. coli mastitis in dairy cows is highest during early lactation. This phenomenon has been associated with a decreased function and decreased numbers of circulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN). The cause of this impaired function and decreased number is poorly understood. Stress, hormonal and metabolic alterations around parturition and the onset of lactation may play a role in this phenomenon. Several molecules, such as cortisol and beta-hydroxybutyrate have been found to alter the oxidative burst activity of circulating PMN around parturition. Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (bPAG) could also be involved. The theory of immunosuppression by bPAG was investigated because analogous glycoproteins produced by the placenta of other species exert local immunosuppression in order to maintain the histoincompatible feto-maternal unit. The production and subsequent release into the maternal circulation of bPAG is ensured by the binucleate cells from the trophoblast and starts already at implantation. However, peak levels are only reached 1 week before parturition. Due to the long half-life time of this molecule, high levels are found in plasma until 2 weeks after calving. The co-occurrence of the impairment of PMN oxidative burst activity in the early postpartum period and a peak in plasma bPAG concentrations might support the hypothesis of an immunosuppressive effect of PAG. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of bPAG on the proliferation of bovine bone marrow progenitor cells has been found recently in our laboratory. bPAG occurs in colostrum, but its effect on milk cells has not been clarified. It is concluded that interaction between the physiology of reproduction and lactation on the one side and immune function on the other side in dairy cattle requires further research.

  18. German Society for Immunology and Australasian Society for Immunology joint Workshop 3(rd) -4(th) December 2015 - Meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurts, Christian; Gottschalk, Catherine; Bedoui, Sammy; Heinzel, Susanne; Godfrey, Dale; Enders, Anselm

    2016-02-01

    The German Society for Immunology (DGfI) and the Australasian Society for Immunology (ASI) hosted the first DGfI-ASI joint workshop from December 3-4, 2015 in Canberra, Australia. A delegation of 15 distinguished German immunologists discussed the workshop topic "immune regulation in infections and immune mediated diseases" with the aim to establish new German-Australasian collaborations, discuss new concepts in the field of immune regulation and build a scientific network to create more utilizable resources for excellent (trans-border) immunological research. The workshop was associated with the 45(th) Annual Scientific Meeting of the ASI held from Nov 29-Dec 3, 2015, opening up even more opportunities for finding new collaboration partners. A return meeting will be linked to the annual DGfI meeting that will take place in 2017 in Erlangen.

  19. Untangling Magmatic Processes and Hydrothermal Alteration of in situ Superfast Spreading Ocean Crust at ODP/IODP Site 1256 with Fuzzy c-means Cluster Analysis of Rock Magnetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, M. J.; Heslop, D.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Acton, G.; Krasa, D.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)/Integrated ODP (IODP) Hole 1256D (6.44.1' N, 91.56.1' W) on the Cocos Plate occurs in 15.2 Ma oceanic crust generated by superfast seafloor spreading. Presently, it is the only drill hole that has sampled all three oceanic crust layers in a tectonically undisturbed setting. Here we interpret down-hole trends in several rock-magnetic parameters with fuzzy c-means cluster analysis, a multivariate statistical technique. The parameters include the magnetization ratio, the coercivity ratio, the coercive force, the low-field susceptibility, and the Curie temperature. By their combined, multivariate, analysis the effects of magmatic and hydrothermal processes can be evaluated. The optimal number of clusters - a key point in the analysis because there is no a priori information on this - was determined through a combination of approaches: by calculation of several cluster validity indices, by testing for coherent cluster distributions on non-linear-map plots, and importantly by testing for stability of the cluster solution from all possible starting points. Here, we consider a solution robust if the cluster allocation is independent of the starting configuration. The five-cluster solution appeared to be robust. Three clusters are distinguished in the extrusive segment of the Hole that express increasing hydrothermal alteration of the lavas. The sheeted dike and gabbro portions are characterized by two clusters, both with higher coercivities than in lava samples. Extensive alteration, however, can obliterate magnetic property differences between lavas, dikes, and gabbros. The imprint of thermochemical alteration on the iron-titanium oxides is only partially related to the porosity of the rocks. All clusters display rock magnetic characteristics in line with a stable NRM. This implies that the entire sampled sequence of ocean crust can contribute to marine magnetic anomalies. Determination of the absolute paleointensity with thermal techniques is

  20. Leukocyte inclusion within a platelet rich plasma-derived fibrin scaffold stimulates a more pro-inflammatory environment and alters fibrin properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Anitua

    Full Text Available One of the main differences among platelet-rich plasma (PRP products is the inclusion of leukocytes that may affect the biological efficacy of these autologous preparations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of leukocytes modified the morphological, biomechanical and biological properties of PRP under normal and inflammatory conditions. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF and leukocyte-platelet rich plasma (L-PRP scaffolds was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and was significantly increased under an inflammatory condition when leukocytes were included in the PRP. Fibroblasts and osteoblasts treated with L-PRP, under an inflammatory situation, underwent a greater activation of NFĸB pathway, proliferated significantly less and secreted a higher concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These cellular events were assessed through Western blot and fluorimetric and ELISA methods, respectively. Therefore, the inclusion of leukocytes induced significantly higher pro-inflammatory conditions.

  1. Brucella ovis PA mutants for outer membrane proteins Omp10, Omp19, SP41, and BepC are not altered in their virulence and outer membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu-Muñoz, Rebeca S; Sancho, Pilar; Vizcaíno, Nieves

    2016-04-15

    Mutants in several genes have been obtained on the genetic background of virulent rough (lacking O-polysaccharide) Brucella ovis PA. The target genes encode outer membrane proteins previously associated with the virulence of smooth (bearing O-polysaccharide chains in the lipopolysaccharide) Brucella strains. Multiple attempts to delete omp16, coding for a homologue to peptidoglycan-associated lipoproteins, were unsuccessful, which suggests that Omp16 is probably essential for in vitro survival of B. ovis PA. Single deletion of omp10 or omp19-that encode two other outer membrane lipoproteins--was achieved, but the simultaneous removal of both genes failed, suggesting an essential complementary function between both proteins. Two other deletion mutants, defective in the Tol-C-homologue BepC or in the SP41 adhesin, were also obtained. Surprisingly when compared to previous results obtained with smooth Brucella, none of the B. ovis mutants showed attenuation in the virulence, either in the mouse model or in cellular models of professional and non-professional phagocytes. Additionally, and in contrast to the observations reported with smooth Brucella strains, several properties related to the outer membrane remained almost unaltered. These results evidence new distinctive traits between naturally rough B. ovis and smooth brucellae.

  2. A review of the basis of the immunological diagnosis of ruminant brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Blasco, José María; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria of the genus Brucella cause brucellosis, the most common bacterial zoonosis worldwide. The diagnosis of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis ruminant brucellosis is based on bacteriological and immunological tests, the latter being routinely used in control and eradication and surveillance programs. Infections by smooth and rough Brucella spp., the use of smooth and rough vaccines, and the false-positive serological reactions caused by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and other cross-reacting bacteria represent the immunological contexts in which those tests are used. This complex context explains the large number of brucellosis tests that have been developed, and that vary in antigen type, antigen presentation, antibody and conditions for the reaction, the response detected and the sample required. This wealth of information and an imperfect understanding of Brucella antigens and of the peculiarities of the immunoresponse to Brucella has created confusion and led to several misconceptions on the usefulness and limitations of the brucellosis diagnostic tests. In this review, Brucella antigens are examined focusing on cellular topology, supramolecular properties, epitopic structure and lipopolysaccharide and protein cross-reactivity in the various contexts of the immune response in ruminants. Then, the significance of these features in diagnostic tests that use whole bacteria is discussed with respect to the activities of ruminant immunoglobulins, and the effect of pH on unspecific agglutinations, non-agglutinating and blocking antibodies, pseudo-prozones and complement activation. Similarly, the bacterial surface lipopolysaccharides and cognate polysaccharides are discussed with regards to topological effects, epitope exposure, ionic strength and antibody avidity in immunoprecipitation, immunosorbent and fluorescence polarization assays. Finally, the search for immunodominant protein antigens and their use in immunological tests is reviewed. Critical review

  3. Cancer immunology: the search for specificity--G. H. A. Clowes Memorial lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Old, L J

    1981-02-01

    The major focus of cancer immunology has shifted away from arguments about the validity of the immunosurveillance theory of cancer to the more basic question of tumor-specific antigens. Despite vast effort aimed at demonstrating such antigens, their existence in the generality of cancer remains unproven. Serological analysis of three tumor types, mouse leukemia, mouse sarcoma, and human malignant melanoma, has received most attention, and a rudimentary classification of the surface antigens expressed by these tumors has begun to emerge. The prime candidates for antigens that can be considered tumor specific are the few instances of Class 1 antigens that have now been serologically defined on mouse and human tumors. These antigens show an absolute restriction to individual tumors, not being demonstrable on any other normal or malignant cell type. Biochemical and genetic characterization of Class 1 antigens represents an essential next step in evaluating the significance of these antigens. The surprising features of the Thymus Leukemia (TL) antigens of the mouse provide insight into the genetic origin of another key class of tumor antigens, in this case antigens with characteristic properties of both differentiation antigens and tumor-specific antigens. In normal mice, TL antigens are restricted to cells in the thymus, and strains differ with regard to expression versus nonexpression of TL antigens. Genetic information for TL is universal in the mouse, however, as leukemias developing in mice that normally lack TL are found to express TL. What is clear from the past two decades of research in cancer immunology is that a far more detailed knowledge of surface antigens of tumor cells will be necessary before we can begin to assess the possibility of immunological control of cancer.

  4. [Clinical-immunological and microbiological parallels in chronic generalized parodontitis and peptic ulcer of the stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, L Iu; Neĭzberg, D M; Stiuf, I Iu

    2006-01-01

    Clinical, immunological and DNA diagnostic examinations of 101 patients with chronic generalized parodontitis and peptic ulcer have revealed similar features of immunological disorders of gastric and oral mucosa and the role of Helicobacter pylori.

  5. 21 CFR 866.5150 - Bence-Jones proteins immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866... bone marrow cells), leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming organs), and lymphoma (cancer of the...

  6. Long-lasting alterations in membrane properties, K+ currents and glutamatergic synaptic currents of nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons in a rat model of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor eSpigelman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure causes marked changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state that are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Although the NAcc plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced neuroadaptive changes in NAcc function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE treatment, a rat model of alcohol withdrawal and dependence, on intrinsic electrical membrane properties and glutamatergic synaptic transmission of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the NAcc core during protracted withdrawal. We show that CIE treatment followed by prolonged withdrawal increased the inward rectification of MSNs observed at hyperpolarized potentials. In addition, MSNs from CIE-treated animals displayed a lower input resistance, faster action potentials (APs and larger fast afterhyperpolarizations (fAHPs than MSNs from vehicle-treated animals, all suggestive of increases in K+-channel conductances. Significant increases in the Cs+-sensitive inwardly-rectifying K+-current accounted for the increased input resistance, while increases in the A-type K+-current accounted for the faster APs and increased fAHPs in MSNs from CIE rats. We also show that the amplitude and the conductance of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR-mediated mEPSCs were enhanced in CIE-treated animals due to an increase in a small fraction of functional postsynaptic GluA2-lacking AMPARs. These long-lasting modifications of excitability and excitatory synaptic receptor function of MSNs in the NAcc core could play a critical role in the neuroadaptive changes underlying alcohol withdrawal and dependence.

  7. Intermittent Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alters Electrical Properties of Fast-Spiking Neocortical Interneurons in an Age-Dependent Fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eHoppenrath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of human cortical excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS appears to be in part related to changed activity of inhibitory systems. Our own studies showed that intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS applied via rTMS to rat cortex primarily affects the parvalbumin-expressing (PV fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs, evident via a strongly reduced PV expression. We further found the iTBS effect on PV to be age-dependent since no reduction in PV could be induced before the perineuronal nets (PNNs of FSIs start to grow around postnatal day 30. To elucidate possible iTBS-induced changes in the electrical properties of FSIs and cortical network activity during cortical critical period, we performed ex vivo – in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from pre-labelled FSIs in the current study. FSIs of verum iTBS-treated rats displayed a higher excitability than sham-treated controls at PD29-38, evident as higher rates of induced action potential firing at low current injections (100-200 pA and a more depolarized resting membrane potential. This effect was absent in younger (PD26-28 and older animals (PD40-62. Slices of verum iTBS-treated rats further showed higher rates of spontaneous EPSCs. Based on these and previous findings we conclude that FSIs are particularly sensitive to theta-burst stimulation during early cortical development, when FSIs show an activity-driven step of maturation which is paralleled by intense growth of the PNNs and subsequent closure of the cortical critical period. Although to be proven further, rTMS may be a possible early intervention to compensate for hypo-activity related mal-development of cortical neuronal circuits.

  8. Intermittent Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alters Electrical Properties of Fast-Spiking Neocortical Interneurons in an Age-Dependent Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenrath, Kathrin; Härtig, Wolfgang; Funke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of human cortical excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be in part related to changed activity of inhibitory systems. Our own studies showed that intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied via rTMS to rat cortex primarily affects the parvalbumin-expressing (PV) fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), evident via a strongly reduced PV expression. We further found the iTBS effect on PV to be age-dependent since no reduction in PV could be induced before the perineuronal nets (PNNs) of FSIs start to grow around postnatal day (PD) 30. To elucidate possible iTBS-induced changes in the electrical properties of FSIs and cortical network activity during cortical critical period, we performed ex vivo-in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings from pre-labeled FSIs in the current study. FSIs of verum iTBS-treated rats displayed a higher excitability than sham-treated controls at PD29-38, evident as higher rates of induced action potential firing at low current injections (100-200 pA) and a more depolarized resting membrane potential. This effect was absent in younger (PD26-28) and older animals (PD40-62). Slices of verum iTBS-treated rats further showed higher rates of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Based on these and previous findings we conclude that FSIs are particularly sensitive to TBS during early cortical development, when FSIs show an activity-driven step of maturation which is paralleled by intense growth of the PNNs and subsequent closure of the cortical critical period. Although to be proven further, rTMS may be a possible early intervention to compensate for hypo-activity related mal-development of cortical neuronal circuits.

  9. Immunological response in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) can be attributed to many factors that cause damage to the liver and alter its functions. Data collected over the last 30 years strongly suggests that an immune component may be involved in the onset of this disease. This is best evidenced by the detection of circulating autoantibodies,infiltration of immune cells in the liver, and the detection of hepatic aldehyde modified proteins in patients with ALD. Experimentally, there are numerous immune responses that occur when proteins are modified with the metabolites of ethanol. These products are formed in response to the high oxidative state of the liver during ethanol metabolism, causing the release of many inflammatory processes and potential of necrosis or apoptosis of liver cells. Should cellular proteins become modified with these reactive alcohol metabolites and be recognized by the immune system, then immune responses may be initiated. Therefore, it was the purpose of this article to shed some insight into how the immune system is involved in the development and/or progression of ALD.

  10. Immunological outcomes of exercise in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Senchina

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available David S Senchina1, Marian L Kohut21Biology Department, Drake University, Des Moines, IA, USA; 2Gerontology Program, Department of Health and Human Performance, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USAAbstract: Aging is associated with a dysregulation of the immune system known as immunosenescence. Immunosenescence involves cellular and molecular alterations that impact both innate and adaptive immunity, leading to increased incidences of infectious disease morbidity and mortality as well as heightened rates of other immune disorders such as autoimmunity, cancer, and inflammatory conditions. While current data suggests physical activity may be an effective and logistically easy strategy for counteracting immunosenescence, it is currently underutilized in clinical settings. Long-term, moderate physical activity interventions in geriatric populations appear to be associated with several benefits including reduction in infectious disease risk, increased rates of vaccine efficacy, and improvements in both physical and psychosocial aspects of daily living. Exercise may also represent a viable therapy in patients for whom pharmacological treatment is unavailable, ineffective, or inappropriate. The effects of exercise impact multiple aspects of immune response including T cell phenotype and proliferation, antibody response to vaccination, and cytokine production. However, an underlying mechanism by which exercise affects numerous cell types and responses remains to be identified. Given this evidence, an increase in the use of physical activity programs by the healthcare community may result in improved health of geriatric populations.Keywords: exercise, immunosenescence

  11. Adaptive immunity in cancer immunology and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrell, Emma L; Lockley, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The vast genetic alterations characteristic of tumours produce a number of tumour antigens that enable the immune system to differentiate tumour cells from normal cells. Counter to this, tumour cells have developed mechanisms by which to evade host immunity in their constant quest for growth and survival. Tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) are one of the fundamental triggers of the immune response. They are important because they activate, via major histocompatibility complex (MHC), the T cell response, an important line of defense against tumourigenesis. However, the persistence of tumours despite host immunity implies that tumour cells develop immune avoidance. An example of this is the up-regulation of inhibitory immune checkpoint proteins, by tumours, which induces a form of self-tolerance. The majority of monoclonal antibodies in clinical practice have been developed to target tumour-specific antigens. More recently there has been research in the down-regulation of immune checkpoint proteins as a way of increasing anti-tumour immunity.

  12. 21 CFR 866.5100 - Antinuclear antibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the victim's own tissues), hepatitis (a liver disease... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antinuclear antibody immunological test system. 866.5100 Section 866.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5660 - Multiple autoantibodies immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Measurement of multiple autoantibodies aids in the diagnosis of autoimmune disorders (disease produced when... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple autoantibodies immunological test system. 866.5660 Section 866.5660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5110 - Antiparietal antibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), atrophic gastritis (inflammation of the stomach), and autoimmune connective tissue diseases (diseases... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antiparietal antibody immunological test system. 866.5110 Section 866.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5340 - Ferritin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferritin immunological test system. 866.5340 Section 866.5340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... affecting iron metabolism, such as hemochromatosis (iron overload) and iron deficiency amemia....

  16. Regulation of immunological and inflammatory functions by biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu

    2015-12-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin and is well-known as a co-factor for 5 indispensable carboxylases. Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) catalyzes the biotinylation of carboxylases and other proteins, whereas biotinidase catalyzes the release of biotin from biotinylated peptides. Previous studies have reported that nutritional biotin deficiency and genetic defects in either HLCS or biotinidase induces cutaneous inflammation and immunological disorders. Since biotin-dependent carboxylases involve various cellular metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids, metabolic abnormalities may play important roles in immunological and inflammatory disorders caused by biotin deficiency. Transcriptional factors, including NF-κB and Sp1/3, are also affected by the status of biotin, indicating that biotin regulates immunological and inflammatory functions independently of biotin-dependent carboxylases. An in-vivo analysis with a murine model revealed the therapeutic effects of biotin supplementation on metal allergies. The novel roles of biotinylated proteins and their related enzymes have recently been reported. Non-carboxylase biotinylated proteins induce chemokine production. HLCS is a nuclear protein involved in epigenetic and chromatin regulation. In this review, comprehensive knowledge on the regulation of immunological and inflammatory functions by biotin and its potential as a therapeutic agent is discussed.

  17. A Multi-Agent Immunology Model for Security Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a computer immunology model for computersecurity , whose main components are defined as idea of Multi-Agent. It introduces the n at ural immune system on the principle, discusses the idea and characteristics of Mu lti-Agent. It gives a system model, and describes the structure and function of each agent. Also, the communication method between agents is described.

  18. MISSION OF IMMUNOLOGY%免疫学的使命

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璞玥; 杜生明

    2012-01-01

    As one of the most important and exciting research areas in life sciences, immunology has been witnessing and driving advances in biological research as well as basic medicine studies. Here we revealed characteristics of immunology, analyzed pivotal roles immunology has been playing in meeting demands of social development, and discussed major breakthroughs Chinese immunologists have achieved in recent years. Further, major efforts and measures are proposed to improve immunology research in China in the future.%免疫学与人类健康密切相关。作为生命科学领域最活跃最前沿的基础学科之一,免疫学见证着生命科学和基础医学的发展和突破。本文分析了现今免疫学的内涵和特点以及在社会发展中的作用,提出了我国免疫学研究人员在今后工作中努力的方向。

  19. Cancer vaccines: the perspective of the Cancer Immunology Branch, NCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogn, J A; Finerty, J F; Heath, A K; Shen, G L; Austin, F C

    1993-08-12

    The Cancer Immunology Branch, NCI, is supporting a great deal of exciting research relevant to cancer vaccine development. The few areas highlighted here are representative of ongoing research opportunities, but further progress depends largely on a continued infusion of investigator-initiated ideas to realize the potential of current research areas and open new ones.

  20. Big Data Analytics in Immunology: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  1. Peptide modification in T cell immunology - from molecule to animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Ellen Christine de

    2004-01-01

    Chemical knowledge can be applied in the field of immunology. It provides a better understanding of how a peptide interacts with proteins and cells of the immune system. However, it is not possible to predict the outcome of peptide administration in an animal. Peptides are used in experimental trea

  2. CHARGE syndrome : a review of the immunological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Monica Ty; Scholvinck, Elisabeth H.; Lambeck, Annechien Ja; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny Ma

    2015-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is caused by a dominant variant in the CHD7 gene. Multiple organ systems can be affected because of haploinsufficiency of CHD7 during embryonic development. CHARGE syndrome shares many clinical features with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Immunological abnormalities have been describ

  3. Immunological Characterization of Dutch Sesame Seed-Allergic Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Terlouw, Rozine J.; Jansen, Ad; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sesame seed is an allergen of growing importance worldwide. However, knowledge of the clinically relevant sesame allergen and its cross-reactivity with homologous allergens is limited. The aim of this study was the immunological characterization of Dutch sesame seed-allergic patients

  4. Big data analytics in immunology: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Sun, Jing; Chitkushev, Lou; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  5. PsychoNeuroImmunology Research Society's Norman Cousins Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Rainer H. Straub, University Hospital, Regensburg, Germany, is the recipient of the 2015 Norman Cousins Award and will present the memorial lecture at the PsychoNeuroImmunology Research Society (PNIRS) meeting, June 3–6, Seattle, WA. The Norman Cousins award is the highest honor bestowed by the PNIRS and recognizes sustained and outstanding research contributions in psychoneuroimmunology.

  6. Antiradiation Vaccine: Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    . Material and Methods: The SRD molecules were isolated from Lymphatic Systems of animals that were irradiated with high doses of irradiation and had a clinical and laboratory picture of the Cerebral Acute Radia-tion Syndrome, Cardiovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome, Gastrointestinal Acute Radiation Syndrome, and Hematological Acute Radiation Syndrome. Our classification of radiation tox-ins includes 4 major groups: 1.SRD-1, Cerebrovascular neurotoxic Radiation Toxins (CvARS); 2.SRD-2, Cardiovascular Radiation Toxins(CrARS); 3.SRD-3,Gastrointestinal neurotoxic Ra-diation Toxins (GiARS); 4.SRD-4, Hematopietic Radiation Toxins (HpARS). Radiation tox-ins possess both toxic and immunological properties. But mechanisms of immune-toxicity by which radiation toxins stimulate development of the ARS are poorly understood. We have studied lethal toxicity of radiation toxins and an ability of specific antibodies to neutralize toxic activity of radiation toxins by specific antibodies. Results: The Blocking Antiradiation Antibodies induce an immunologically specific effect and inhibiting effects on radiation induced neuro-toxicity, vascular-toxicity, gastrointestinal toxcity, hematopoietic toxicity. Antiradiation Antibodies prevent the radiation induced cytolysis of selected groups of cells that are sensitive to radiation. The Blocking Antiradiation Antibodies are immunologically specific and can be produced by immunization with the different radiation toxins isolated from irradiated mam-mals. We propose that Specific Antiradiation Antibodies targeted against the radiation induced Toxins. Specific Antiradiation Antibodies neutralize toxic properties of radiation toxins. Anti-radiation Antibodies in different phases of the Acute Radiation Syndromes can compete with cytotoxic lymphocytes and prevent cytolysis mediated by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Conclusions: Immunological inhibition of cytotoxic and neurotoxic properties of Specific Radiation Toxins are significant factors for improving

  7. The Homophilic Domain - An Immunological Archetype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Heinz; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Kaveri, Srinivas V

    2016-01-01

    The homophilic potential emerges as an important biological principle to boost the potency of immunoglobulins. Since homophilic antibodies in human and mouse sera exist prior environmental exposure, they are part of the natural antibody repertoire. Nevertheless, hemophilic properties are also identified in induced antibody repertoire. The use of homophilicity of antibodies in the adaptive immunity signifies an archetypic antibody structure. The unique feature of homophilicity in the antibody repertoire also highlights an important mechanism to boost the antibody potency to protect against infection and atherosclerosis as well to treat cancer patients.

  8. Light and immune systems: activation of immunological activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2006-02-01

    Light has been used to treat diseases for hundreds of years. Convenient and powerful light sources such as lasers make photomedicine a major branch in diseases treatment and detection. Originally, light was often used for local treatment, using photomechanical, photochemical, photothermal reactions and photomodulation as the major mechanisms. More and more investigators have become interested in the systemic effects of light, particularly in its effects on immune systems. Much work has been done to activate and/or enhance the host immune system to combat cancer, either using light as a direct tool or as an adjuvant method. Light has long been used for assisting disease detection and diagnosis. Advances in light technology have made photo-diagnostics ever more precise spatially and temporally. Many techniques facilitate observation of bio-molecule interactions and other biological processes at the cellular level, hence providing opportunities to detect and monitor immune activities. This manuscript will review recent photo-immunological research in treatment of cancer. The recent development of combination therapies involving lasers will be presented. Specifically, the results of cancer treatment using laser photothermal interaction, either with or without additional immunological stimulation will be discussed. The immunological effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT), and of its combination with immunotherapy in cancer treatment will also be discussed. Much interest has been recently concentrated in the immunological responses after laser treatment. Such responses at cellular and molecular levels will be discussed. The effect of these treatment modalities on the distant metastases also showed promise of light induced antitumor immunity. The combination therapy and induced immunological responses appear to be the key for long-term control of tumors.

  9. Immunology of neuromyelitis optica during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Vahid; Keyhanian, Kiandokht; Bove, Riley M.

    2016-01-01

    Anti–aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibody plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Studies have shown increased relapse rates in patients with NMO during pregnancy and postpartum. High estrogen levels during pregnancy can increase activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression, which is responsible for immunoglobulin production. Additionally, sex hormones may influence antibody glycosylation, with effects on antibody function. Estrogen decreases apoptosis of self-reactive B cells, through upregulation of antiapoptotic molecules. Furthermore, high estrogen levels during pregnancy can boost B-cell activating factor and type 1 interferon (IFN) production, facilitating development of self-reactive peripheral B cells in association with increased disease activity. Elevated levels of estrogen during pregnancy decrease IFN-γ generation, which causes a shift toward T helper (Th) 2 immunity, thereby propagating NMO pathogenesis. Women with NMO have an elevated rate of pregnancy complications including miscarriage and preeclampsia, which are associated with increased Th17 cells and reduction of T-regulatory cells. These in turn can enhance inflammation in NMO. Increased regulatory natural killer cells (CD56−) during pregnancy can enhance Th2-mediated immunity, thereby increasing inflammation. In the placenta, trophoblasts express AQP4 antigen and are exposed to maternal blood containing anti-AQP4 antibodies. Animal models have shown that anti-AQP4 antibodies can bind to AQP4 antigen in placenta leading to complement deposition and placental necrosis. Reduction of regulatory complements has been associated with placental insufficiency, and it is unclear whether these are altered in NMO. Further studies are required to elucidate the specific mechanisms of disease worsening, as well as the increased rate of complications during pregnancy in women with NMO. PMID:27761482

  10. 21 CFR 866.6030 - AFP-L3% immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AFP-L3% immunological test system. 866.6030... Systems § 866.6030 AFP-L3% immunological test system. (a) Identification. An AFP-L3% immunological test... measure, by immunochemical techniques, AFP and AFP-L3 subfraction in human serum. The device is...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5510 - Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological... Test Systems § 866.5510 Immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, and E immunological test system is a device that consists of...

  12. [Altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  13. Prognostic value of immunologic abnormalities and HIV antigenemia in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals: proposal of immunologic staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Dickmeiss, E

    1989-01-01

    The prognostic value of various immunologic tests was investigated in 150 HIV-seropositive homosexual men, who were initially without HIV-related symptoms or AIDS and who were followed for a median of 12 months (range 3-28 months). The laboratory investigations included HIV antigen in serum, total...

  14. Immunological aspects of antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehermann, Barbara; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause a large proportion of acute and chronic liver disease worldwide. Over the past decades many immunological studies defined host immune responses that mediate spontaneous clearance of acute HBV and HCV infection. However, host immune responses are also relevant in the context of treatment-induced clearance of chronic HBV and HCV infection. First, the pretreatment level of interferon-stimulated genes as well as genetic determinants of innate immune responses, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms near the IFNL3 gene, are strong predictors of the response to interferon-alpha (IFN-α)-based therapy. Second, IFN-α, which has been a mainstay of HBV and HCV therapy over decades, and ribavirin, which has also been included in interferon-free direct antiviral therapy for HCV, modulate host immune responses. Third, both IFN-α-based and IFN-α-free treatment regimens of HBV and HCV infection alter the short-term and long-term adaptive immune response against these viruses. Finally, treatment studies have not just improved the clinical outcomes, but also provided opportunities to study virus-host interaction. This review summarizes our current knowledge on how a patient's immune response affects the treatment outcome of HBV and HCV infection and how innate and adaptive immune responses themselves are altered by the different treatment regimens.

  15. Immunological Consequences of Antihelminthic Treatment in Preschool Children Exposed to Urogenital Schistosome Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rujeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital schistosomiasis, due to Schistosoma haematobium, is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Control is by targeted treatment with praziquantel but preschool age children are excluded from control programs. Immunological studies on the effect of treatment at this young age are scarce. In light of studies in older individuals showing that praziquantel alters antischistosome immune responses and responses to bystander antigens, this study aims to investigate how these responses would be affected by treatment at this young age. Antibody responses directed against schistosome antigens, Plasmodium falciparum crude and recombinant antigens, and the allergen house dust mite were measured in children aged 3 to 5 years before and 6 weeks after treatment. The change in serological recognition of schistosome proteins was also investigated. Treatment augmented antischistosome IgM and IgE responses. The increase in IgE responses directed against adult worm antigens was accompanied by enhanced antigen recognition by sera from the children. Antibody responses directed against Plasmodium antigens were not significantly affected by praziquantel treatment nor were levels of allergen specific responses. Overall, praziquantel treatment enhanced, quantitatively and qualitatively, the antiworm responses associated with protective immunity but did not alter Plasmodium-specific responses or allergen-specific responses which mediate pathology in allergic disease.

  16. A Window on the Study of Aversive Instrumental Learning: Strains, Performance, Neuroendocrine and Immunologic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cruz Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The avoidance response is present in pathological anxiety and interferes with normal daily functions. The aim of this article is to shed light on performance markers of active avoidance (AA using two different rat strains, Sprague-Dawley (SD and Wistar. Specifically, good and poor performers were evaluated regarding anxiety traits exhibited in the elevated plus maze (EPM and corticosterone levels and motor activity in the open field test. In addition, the plasma levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Interleukin-1Beta (IL-1beta, Nerve Growth Factor Beta (NGF-beta, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-alpha and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1 were compared in the good and poor performers to better understand the role of the immunologic system in aversive learning. Behavioral criteria were employed to identify subpopulations of SD and Wistar rats based on their behavioral scores during a two-way AA test. The animals were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and motor activity in the open-field test. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured at the end of the avoidance test. Cytokine levels of IL-6, IL-1beta, NGF-beta, TNF-alpha and CINC-1 were measured in the plasma of the Wistar rats. Sixty-six percent of the Wistar rats and 35% of the SD rats exhibited a poor performance. This feature was associated with a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in the EPM. The poor and good performers exhibited lower levels of corticosterone compared with the control animals, which suggests that training alters corticosterone levels, thereby leading to hypocortisolism, independent of the performance. The CINC-1 levels were increased in the poor performers, which reinforces the role of immunologic system activation in learning deficits. Our study provides a better understanding of the complex interactions that underlie neuroimmune consequences and their implications for performance.

  17. Immunologic biomarkers in relation to exposure markers of PCBs and dioxins in Flemish adolescents (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, Rosette L; Koppen, Gudrun; Staessen, Jan A; Hond, Elly Den; Verheyen, Geert; Nawrot, Tim S; Roels, Harry A; Vlietinck, Robert; Schoeters, Greet E R

    2002-06-01

    In this study, we investigated 17- to 18-year-old boys and girls to determine whether changes in humoral or cellular immunity or respiratory complaints were related to blood serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds after lifetime exposure in Flanders (Belgium). We obtained blood samples from and administered questionnaires to 200 adolescents recruited from a rural area and two urban suburbs. Physicians recorded medical history and respiratory diseases. We measured immunologic biomarkers such as differential blood cell counts, lymphocyte phenotypes, and serum immunoglobulins. As biomarkers of exposure, we determined the serum concentrations of PCBs (PCB 138, PCB 153, and PCB 180) and dioxin-like compounds [chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) bioassay]. The percentages of eosinophils and natural killer cells in blood were negatively correlated with CALUX toxic equivalents (TEQs) in serum (p = 0.009 and p = 0.05, respectively). Increased serum CALUX TEQs resulted in an increase in serum IgA levels (p = 0.05). Furthermore, levels of specific IgEs (measured by radioallergosorbent tests) of cat dander, house dust mite, and grass pollen were also significantly and negatively associated with the CALUX TEQ, with odds ratios (ORs) equal to 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42-0.96], 0.68 (0.5-0.93), and 0.70 (0.52-0.95), respectively. In addition, reported allergies of the upper airways and past use of antiallergic drugs were negatively associated with CALUX TEQs, with ORs equal to 0.66 (0.47-0.93) and 0.58 (0.39-0.85), respectively. We found a negative association between IgGs and marker PCBs in serum (p = 0.009). This study shows that immunologic measurements and respiratory complaints in adolescents were associated with environmental exposure to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). The negative correlation between PHAHs and allergic responses in adolescents suggested that exposure may entail alterations in the

  18. Non-inflammatory destructive periodontal disease: a clinical, microbiological, immunological and genetic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Repeke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis comprises a group of multifactorial diseases in which periodontopathogens accumulate in dental plaque and trigger host chronic inflammatory and immune responses against periodontal structures, which are determinant to the disease outcome. Although unusual cases of non-inflammatory destructive periodontal disease (NIDPD are described, their pathogenesis remains unknown. A unique NIDPD case was investigated by clinical, microbiological, immunological and genetic tools. The patient, a non-smoking dental surgeon with excessive oral hygiene practice, presented a generalized bone resorption and tooth mobility, but not gingival inflammation or occlusion problems. No hematological, immunological or endocrine alterations were found. No periodontopathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum and T. denticola or viruses (HCMV, EBV-1 and HSV-1 were detected, along with levels of IL-1β and TNF-a in GCF compatible with healthy tissues. Conversely ALP, ACP and RANKL GCF levels were similar to diseased periodontal sites. Genetic investigation demonstrated that the patient carried some SNPs, as well HLA-DR4 (*0404 and HLA-B27 alleles, considered risk factors for bone loss. Then, a less vigorous and diminished frequency of toothbrushing was recommended to the patient, resulting in the arrest of alveolar bone loss, associated with the return of ALP, ACP and RANKL in GCF to normality levels. In conclusion, the unusual case presented here is compatible with the previous description of NIDPD, and the results that a possible combination of excessive force and frequency of mechanical stimulation with a potentially bone loss prone genotype could result in the alveolar bone loss seen in NIDPD.

  19. Koch Institute Symposium on Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Adam; Joshi, Nikhil S; Szeto, Gregory L; Zhu, Eric; Eisen, Herman N; Irvine, Darrell J

    2013-10-01

    The 12(th) annual summer symposium of The Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT was held in Cambridge, MA, on June 14(th), 1023. The symposium entitled "Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy" focused on recent advances in preclinical research in basic immunology and biomedical engineering, and their clinical application in cancer therapies. The day-long gathering also provided a forum for discussion and potential collaborations between engineers and clinical investigators. The major topics presented include: (i) enhancement of adoptive cell therapy by engineering to improve the ability and functionality of T-cells against tumor cells; (ii) current therapies using protein and antibody therapeutics to modulate endogenous anti-tumor immunity; and (iii) new technologies to identify molecular targets and assess therapeutic efficacy, and devices to control and target drug delivery more effectively and efficiently.

  20. Gamma irradiation reduces the immunological toxicity of doxorubicin, anticancer drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Raghavendran, H. Balaji; Yoon, Yohan; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Yoo, Young-Choon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer agent, but exhibits some immunological toxicity to patients during chemotherapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the immunological response and the inhibition activity on in vivo tumor mass of DOX. The results showed that DOX irradiated at 10 and 20 kGy reduce the inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage proliferation and induce the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) when compared with non-irradiated DOX. The cytotoxicity against human breast (MCF-7), murine colon adenocarcinoma (Colon 26) and human monocytic (THP-1) tumor cell were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated DOX ( Pproducts by gamma irradiation.

  1. Immunological and genetic aspects of asthma and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Madore

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Marie Madore, Catherine LapriseUniversité du Québec à Chicoutimi, Département des sciences fondamentales, Saguenay, CanadaAbstract: Prevalence of allergy and allergic asthma are increasing worldwide. More than half of the US population has a positive skin prick test and approximately 10% are asthmatics. Many studies have been conducted to define immunological pathways underlying allergy and asthma development and to identify the main genetic determinants. In the effort to find missing pieces of the puzzle, new genomic approaches and more standardized ones, such as the candidate gene approach, have been used collectively. This article proposes an overview of the actual knowledge about immunological and genetic aspects of allergy and asthma. Special attention has been drawn to the challenges linked to genetic research in complex traits such as asthma and to the contribution of new genomic approaches.Keywords: immune response, allergy, asthma, genetics, genomics

  2. IMMUNOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL HETEROGENEITY AMONG PATIENTS WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Smyk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bronchial asthma is a classic psychosomatic disease by immunopathological origin. In present investigation, we studied influence of body-oriented psychotherapeutic methods directed towards clinico-immunological parameters and special psychological features of the patients with bronchial asthma, i.e., decrease in alexithymia, as an important pathogenetic factor of bronchial asthma, and improvement in motor coordination and interhemispheric interactions in motor sphere. We investigated 38 patients (18 men and 20 women, while discriminating those patients who underwent a course of body-oriented psychotherapy, and a group of comparison, who did not undergo similar therapy. When observing conventional standards of randomization according to sex, age, clinical variants, and disease severity, some heterogeneity of these groups was revealed. In general, the people with active life attitude, being ready to work with a psychologist, possessed special features both in psychological and immunological spheres.

  3. Autoimmune diseases and fungal infections: immunological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Autoimmune disease represents a breakdown of natural tolerance to autoreactive antigens.Pemphigus and lupus erythematosus are common autoimmune diseases either skin-specific or with predominant skin involvement. During the past decades,much progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of autoimmune diseases and the immunological mechanism in some infectious diseases such as fungal infections. Various novel approaches have been developed in the treatment of these diseases.

  4. Immunology and Immunodiagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbao Zhang; Hao Wen; Jun Li; Renyong Lin; McManus, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the larval cystic stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. This complex multicellular pathogen produces various antigens which modulate the host immune response and promote parasite survival and development. The recent application of modern molecular and immunological approaches has revealed novel insights on the nature of the immune responses generated during the course of a hydatid infection, although many aspects of ...

  5. HPV Infection: Immunological Aspects and Their Utility in Future Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Efthimios Deligeoroglou; Aikaterini Giannouli; Nikolaos Athanasopoulos; Vasileios Karountzos; Anastasia Vatopoulou; Konstantinos Dimopoulos; George Creatsas

    2013-01-01

    High prevalence and mortality rates of cervical cancer create an imperative need to clarify the uniqueness of HPV (Human Papillomavirus) infection, which serves as the key causative factor in cervical malignancies. Understanding the immunological details and the microenvironment of the infection can be a useful tool for the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Chronic infection and progression to carcinogenesis are sustained by immortalization potential of HPV, evasion techniques, ...

  6. Visceral leishmaniasis: immunology and prospects for a vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, P M; Aebischer, T

    2011-10-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) is the most severe clinical form of a spectrum of neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Caused mainly by L. donovani and L. infantum/chagasi, HVL accounts for more than 50 000 deaths every year. Drug therapy is available but costly, and resistance against several drug classes has evolved. Here, we review our current understanding of the immunology of HVL and approaches to and the status of vaccine development against this disease.

  7. CANCEROUS IMMUNOGLOBULINS AND CA215: IMPLICATIONS IN CANCER IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are typically expressed by B cells in our normal immune system. However, certain normal human tissues, such as hyperplastic epithelial cells, cells of the immunologically privileged sites and the majority of cancer cells, have also been found to be sites of immunoglobulin production. Current research is lacking in regards to the differential immunoglobulin expression, the underling mechanisms of action and the biological implications of these cancerous immunoglobulins in cancer immunology. This article reviews the etiology of atypical immunoglobulin expression in normal non-B cells and cancer cells, with emphasis on the exploration of the possible mechanisms of action and biological function of these atypical immunoglobulins, by means of specific biological probes. In contrast to immunoglobulins of B cell origins, atypical immunoglobulins were found to carry additional post-translational modifications, including a unique carbohydrateassociated epitope recognized by RP215 monoclonal antibody. This unique RP215-specific epitope enables us to differentiate between these two types of immunoglobulins. Atypical immunoglobulins expressed by cancer cells have been a common subject of interest in cancer immunology. Furthermore, the recent accumulation of experimental evidence has indicated that these atypical immunoglobulins are essential for the growth and proliferation of cancer cells under our normal immune environment. RP215 monoclonal antibody also reacts with many other cancer cell-expressed glycoproteins, known as CA215, on the cancer cell surface. Apoptosis of cultured cancer cells can be induced and growth inhibition of implanted tumors can be observed in nude mouse animal models. Therefore, humanized RP215 monoclonal antibody, which reacts mainly with surface bound CA215, may have the potential to be developed as an anti-cancer drug for the treatment of human cancers. A better understanding of cancer cell

  8. A Systems Overview of Immunology, Disease and Related Data Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Asachenkov, A.L.; Mohler, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a brief but systematic overview of topics in "mathematical immunology" and may be considered as an introduction to a new IIASA activity on these topics. Theoretical and experimental research in this area is aimed at an understanding of the precise manner by which the immune system controls (or attempts to control) infectious diseases and diseases such as AIDS and cancer. Available mathematical methods, the difficulties arising in the respective problems, and some possibilitie...

  9. Interrupting the transmission of wild polioviruses with vaccines: immunological considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghendon, Y.; Robertson, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988 the World Health Assembly set the goal of global poliomyelitis eradication by the year 2000. Substantial progress has been made, and 143 countries reported no poliomyelitis cases associated with the wild virus in 1993. This article reviews the immunological considerations relevant to interrupting the transmission of wild polioviruses with vaccines. Although serum immunity prevents poliomyelitis in the individual, it is local immunity that is important in preventing the transmission of...

  10. Immunological Blood Parameters in Infected and Noninfected Biliary Peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bilookiy, O. V.; Rohovyy, Yu. Ye.; Bilookiy, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the study of immunological blood parameters in infected and noninfected biliary peritonitis. Materials and methods. 55 patients with infected and noninfected biliary peritonitis were examined. There were 21 men and 34 women at the age of 28-74 years. 14 patients suffered from noninfected biliary peritonitis, 41 patients suffered from infected biliary peritonitis. The control group included 12 practically healthy persons. Results. The development of noninfected biliary per...

  11. [Immunological characteristics of the 2-stage method of smallpox vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marennikova, S S; Matsevich, G R; Sokolova, A F; Shul'ga, L G; Manenkova, G M

    1977-05-01

    As a result of observations carried out on children the authors present immunological characteristics of two-stage smallpox vaccination at different intervals (1 to 60 days) between the injection of inactivated and live vaccine. There proved to be acceleration and intensification of antibody formation after two-stage immunization in comparison with the rutine vaccination. A seven-day interval between the injection of the inactivated and live preparations was recommended on the basis of the data obtained.

  12. Immunological evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with itolizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Aira, Lazaro E.; Hernández, Patricia; Prada, Dinorah; Chico, Araceli; Gómez, Jorge A.; González, Zuyén; Fuentes, Karla; Viada, Carmen; Mazorra, Zaima

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterized by joint inflammation that affects approximately 1% of the general population. Itolizumab, a monoclonal antibody specific for the human CD6 molecule mainly expressed on T lymphocytes, has been shown to inhibit proliferation of T cells and proinflammatory cytokine production in psoriasis patients. We have now assessed the immunological effect of itolizumab in combination with methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis by analyzing clinical ...

  13. Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis: Microbial and Immunologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    34 Odd ii 4n....00p IdaOdifir 0’ block flumber) Periodontal Disease Spirochetes Microbiology Fusobacteria immunology Bacteroides 20. AN3T7RAC~r C4.tft...and serological etudies with ’We 7. nucleatum isolates from patients with ANUG, chronic periodontitis , Juvenile periodontitis , and adults and children...routine periodontal procedures (34-37). Early studies on the histopathology of ANUG lesions reported that the pathological process appears to begin or the

  14. IMMUNOLOGIC CHARACTER OF TUMOR INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTES IN OVARIAN CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study immunologic character of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) on post in vitro expansion in ovarian carcinoma, and evaluate the prospects by adopting TIL treatment of ovarian carcinoma at an advanced stage. Methods: Cellular phenotype changes in TIL were analyzed by flow cytometry. By means of molecular biology and immunologic methods, ability to secrete cytokines and anti-tumor activities of in TIL was studied. Results: Difference of cellular phenotypes in TIL was probably related to the type, feature and resource of the tumor. TIL obtained from phoroplast and parenchyma was dominant in CD3+CD4+. TIL obtained from tumor tissues, around microvessels and ascitic fluid was dominant in CD3+CD8+. Concentration of rIL-2 in vitro played a significant role in immunologic character of TIL. By means of rIL-2 expansion in vitro, TIL has apparently been improved in competence of secreting some cytokines, such as IL-2, TNF-a , IFN-g , and anti-tumor activities.The activated TIL was more stimulated by further adding anti-CD3 or PHA (suitable concentration), which significantly increased its ability to secrete cytokines. Treatment with TIL+CTX or TIL+ rIL-2, could apparently improve phenotypes in peripheral blood of patients, with definitive effects. Conclusion: Immunologic activities of TIL in vitro are apparently improved by rIL2 expansion. Regression of tumor, by means of infusion TIL, is not largely attributed to direct cytotoxicity to tumor cells, but indirectly and partly augmenting cellular activities and abilities of immunomodulation in patients with ovarian carcinoma being dependent on secreting multiple cytokines.

  15. Recommended Immunological Assays to Screen for Ricin-Containing Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Simon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, a toxin from the plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most toxic biological agents known. Due to its availability, toxicity, ease of production and absence of curative treatments, ricin has been classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as category B biological weapon and it is scheduled as a List 1 compound in the Chemical Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT was conducted to evaluate detection and quantification capabilities of 17 expert laboratories. In this exercise one goal was to analyse the laboratories’ capacity to detect and differentiate ricin and the less toxic, but highly homologuous protein R. communis agglutinin (RCA120. Six analytical strategies are presented in this paper based on immunological assays (four immunoenzymatic assays and two immunochromatographic tests. Using these immunological methods “dangerous” samples containing ricin and/or RCA120 were successfully identified. Based on different antibodies used the detection and quantification of ricin and RCA120 was successful. The ricin PT highlighted the performance of different immunological approaches that are exemplarily recommended for highly sensitive and precise quantification of ricin.

  16. Long term immunologic consequences of experimental stroke and mucosal tolerance

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    Gee J Michael

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An inflammatory insult following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO is associated with a predisposition to develop a deleterious autoimmune response to the brain antigen myelin basic protein (MBP. Induction of immunologic tolerance to brain antigens prior to MCAO prevents this deleterious autoimmune response and is associated with better functional outcome early after stroke. In this study, we sought to determine the long term immunologic consequences of experimental stroke and induction of mucosal tolerance. Methods Male Lewis rats were tolerized to MBP or ovalbumin (OVA by intranasal administration prior to MCAO and administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Neurological outcome was assessed at set points after MCAO and animals sacrificed at 3 months; the immune response to MBP in brain and spleen was determined using ELISPOT assay and degree of cellular inflammatory brain infiltrate assessed by immunocytochemistry. Results Animals that developed a pro-inflammatory (TH1 response to MBP experienced worse outcome, while those that developed a regulatory response (TREG experienced better outcome. A TREG response in spleen was also associated with decreased inflammation and an increase in the number of FoxP3 positive cells in brain. In this study, tolerization to MBP prior to MCAO was associated with a tendency to develop a TH1 response to MBP by 3 months after MCAO. Conclusion These data show that induction of immunological tolerance to MBP is associated with improved outcome after stroke. This study, however, raises concern about the potential for inadvertent induction of detrimental autoimmunity through mucosal administration of antigen.

  17. Immunological Effect of Subunit Influenza Vaccine Entrapped by Liposomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI-HUA ZHANG; JIA-XU LIANG; SHU-YAN DAI; XIAO-LIN QIU; YAN-RONG YI; YUN PAN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To elevate the immunological effect of subunit influenza vaccine in infants and aged people (over 60) using liposomal adjuvant in the context of its relatively low immunity and to investigate the relation between vaccine antigens and liposomal characteristics. Methods Several formulations of liposomal subunit influenza vaccine were prepared. Their relevant characteristics were investigated to optimize the preparation method. Antisera obtained from immunizinged mice were used to evaluate the antibody titers of various samples by HI and ELISA. Results Liposomal trivalent influenza vaccine prepared by film evaporation in combinedation with freeze-drying significantly increased its immunological effect in SPF Balb/c mice. Liposomal vaccine stimulated the antibody titer of H3N2, H1N1, and B much stronger than conventional influenza vaccine. As a result, liposomal vaccine (mean size: 4.5-5.5 μm, entrapment efficiency: 30%-40%) significantly increased the immunological effect of subunit influenza vaccine. Conclusion The immune effect of liposomal vaccine depends on different antigens, and enhanced immunity is not positively correlated with the mean size of liposome or its entrapped efficiency.

  18. Immunologic Changes Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kronbichler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a histological pattern on renal biopsy caused by diverse mechanisms. In its primary form, a circulatory factor is implicated in disease onset and recurrence. The natural history of primary FSGS is unpredictable, since some patients are unresponsive towards immunosuppressive measures. Immunologic changes, leading to a proinflammatory or profibrotic milieu, have been implicated in disease progression, namely, glomerular scarring, eventually leading to end-stage renal disease. Among these, interleukin-1ß, tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1 have emerged as important factors. Translating these findings into clinical practice dampened the enthusiasm, since both TNF-α and TGF-ß1 blockade failed to achieve significant control of the disease. More recently, a role of the complement system has been demonstrated which in fact may be another attractive target in clinical practice. Rituximab, blocking CD20-bearing cells, demonstrated conflicting data regarding efficacy in FSGS. Finally, the T-cell costimulating molecule B7-1 (CD80 is implicated in development of proteinuria in general. Blockade of this target demonstrated significant benefits in a small cohort of resistant patients. Taken together, this review focuses on immunology of FSGS, attributable to either the disease or progression, and discusses novel therapeutic approaches aiming at targeting immunologic factors.

  19. Experimental autoimmune orchitis as a model of immunological male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Munekazu; Terayama, Hayato; Hirai, Shuichi; Qu, Ning; Lustig, Livia; Itoh, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Clinically, 60-75% of male infertility cases are categorized as idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In previous studies of this condition, lymphocytic infiltration and immune deposits were present in several testis biopsy specimens, indicating that inflammatory or immunological factors contribute to the occurrence of the lesions. However, there is currently little evidence regarding immunological infertility in men. Previously, we established an immunological infertility model, experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), that can be induced in mice by two subcutaneous injections of viable syngeneic testicular germ cells without the use of any adjuvant. In this EAO model, lymphocytes surround the tubuli recti and then induce spermatogenic disturbance. In addition, after the active inflammation stage of this model, the seminiferous epithelium is damaged irreversibly, resembling the histopathology of human male idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In the majority of patients with testicular autoimmunity, there is a chronic and asymptomatic development of the inflammatory reaction. Therefore, this disease is very difficult to diagnose at the ongoing stage, and it is possible that the histopathology of idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance in the clinic is reported at the post-active inflammation stage of autoimmune orchitis. In this review, the histopathology of EAO before and after inflammation is discussed, comparing it with human orchitis.

  20. Immunological analysis of aerobic bioreactor bovine theileriosis vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Habibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the pilot production of aerobic bioreactor tropical theileriosis vaccine was optimized with the aim of immunological assays for further mass production.We have shown earlier the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH assay could be used for evaluating the immunity and memory cells against specific Theileria antigen in vaccinated animals. In addition, TNF-α is the principle cytokine in modulating the cytotoxic activity of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL. Immunological analysis of the vaccine was performed by using two cell mediated immunity (CMI in vitro and in vivo DTH test (Theilerin and TNF-α assay.The results of immune responses of susceptible immunized cattle by bioreactor vaccine in comparison with conventional flask vaccine revealed a significant stimulation of immune cells by transcription of high level of TNF-α and positive reaction against Theileria antigen in Theilerin skin test (DTH.The equal immunological results achieved in both above mentioned vaccines verified the satisfactory immunity for aerobic bioreactor theileriosis vaccine for advance mass vaccination in the field on a large-scale.

  1. Effect of endosulfan on immunological competence of layer birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P. P.; Kumar, Ashok; Chauhan, R. S.; Pankaj, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of endosulfan insecticide after limited oral administration in White Leghorn layer chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given endosulfan in drinking water at 30 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose) for a period of 3-months. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from endosulfan offered birds were estimated at 15-day interval in layer birds and at monthly interval in chicks using immunological, biochemical parameters, and teratological estimates. Results: There was a significant decrease in levels of total leukocytes count, absolute lymphocyte count, absolute heterophil count, total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and serum gamma globulin in the birds fed with endosulfan as compared to control. Similarly, immune competence tests such as lymphocyte stimulation test, oxidative burst assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests indicated lower immunity in birds treated with endosulfan as compared to control. Subsequently, chicks produced from endosulfan-treated birds were also examined for immune competence, but no significant difference was observed between chicks of both the groups. Conclusion: The exposure to endosulfan in limited oral dosage was able to exhibit hemo-biochemical and other changes that could be correlated with changes in the immunological profile of layer chickens suggesting cautious usage of endosulfan insecticide in poultry sheds. PMID:27536042

  2. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioengenharia

    1996-07-01

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of gamma-rays from {sup 60} Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular weight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies, known to react with conformational epitopes in native crotoxin. Linear epitopes are also preserved, as demonstrated by peptide mapping of the aggregates. These same aggregates can function as antigens to raise antisera which cross-react and neutralize crotoxin. Compared with crotoxin, the aggregates appear to be less myotoxic, largely devoid of phospholipase activity and virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that the irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  3. Genetic heterogeneity in Gaucher disease: physicokinetic and immunologic studies of the residual enzyme in cultured fibroblasts from non-neuronopathic and neuronopathic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, G A; Goldblatt, J; Dinur, T; Kruse, J; Svennerholm, L; Gatt, S; Desnick, R J

    1985-07-01

    To elucidate the genetic heterogeneity in the three major phenotypic subtypes of Gaucher disease, the residual acid beta-glucosidase in fibroblasts from patients with all three subtypes from different ethnic and demographic groups was investigated by comparative kinetic, thermostability, and immunotitration studies. The kinetic studies delineated three distinct groups (designated A, B, and C) of residual activities with characteristic responses to the enzyme modifiers, taurocholate (or phosphatidylserine), and glucosyl sphingosine (or N-hexyl glucosyl sphingosine); Group A residual enzymes responded normally to these modifiers. All neuronopathic patients (types 2 and 3) and most non-Jewish, non-neuronopathic patients (type 1) had group A residual activities and thus could not be distinguished by their kinetic properties. Group B residual enzymes had markedly abnormal responses to these modifiers. All Ashkenazi and only two non-Jewish type 1 patients had group B residual activities. Group C residual activity had an intermediate response to all modifiers and represented a single Afrikaner type 1 patient. Pedigree studies indicated that this patient was a genetic compound for the group A (type 2) and group B (type 1) mutations. Thermostability studies showed additional heterogeneity of the residual activities within the three kinetic groups. Group A (type 2) and group B (type 1) enzymes had similarly decreased thermostabilities. In contrast, group A (type 1) residual activities were heterogeneous; three classes of thermostabilities were found among these enzymes: normal, decreased, and increased. Immunotitration of equal amounts of the normal or Gaucher disease beta-glucosidase activities with monospecific IgG indicated that the enzyme proteins from most Gaucher disease patients were antigenically altered and/or that large amounts of catalytically abnormal or inactive antigen were present. A decreased amount of antigenically and catalytically normal enzyme was present

  4. Clinical immunology review series: an approach to the use of the immunology laboratory in the diagnosis of clinical allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P; Sewell, W A C; Bunn, C; Pumphrey, R; Read, G; Jolles, S

    2008-07-01

    In the last 10 years UK immunology laboratories have seen a dramatic increase in the number and range of allergy tests performed. The reasons for this have been an increase in the incidence of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic disease set against a background of greater public awareness and more referrals for assessment. Laboratory testing forms an integral part of a comprehensive allergy service and physicians treating patients with allergic disease need to have an up-to-date knowledge of the range of tests available, their performance parameters and interpretation as well as the accreditation status of the laboratory to which tests are being sent. The aim of this review is to describe the role of the immunology laboratory in the assessment of patients with IgE-mediated allergic disease and provide an up-to-date summary of the tests currently available, their sensitivity, specificity, interpretation and areas of future development.

  5. Modelling biological behaviours with the unified modelling language: an immunological case study and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Mark; Andrews, Paul S; Timmis, Jon; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-10-01

    We present a framework to assist the diagrammatic modelling of complex biological systems using the unified modelling language (UML). The framework comprises three levels of modelling, ranging in scope from the dynamics of individual model entities to system-level emergent properties. By way of an immunological case study of the mouse disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we show how the framework can be used to produce models that capture and communicate the biological system, detailing how biological entities, interactions and behaviours lead to higher-level emergent properties observed in the real world. We demonstrate how the UML can be successfully applied within our framework, and provide a critique of UML's ability to capture concepts fundamental to immunology and biology more generally. We show how specialized, well-explained diagrams with less formal semantics can be used where no suitable UML formalism exists. We highlight UML's lack of expressive ability concerning cyclic feedbacks in cellular networks, and the compounding concurrency arising from huge numbers of stochastic, interacting agents. To compensate for this, we propose several additional relationships for expressing these concepts in UML's activity diagram. We also demonstrate the ambiguous nature of class diagrams when applied to complex biology, and question their utility in modelling such dynamic systems. Models created through our framework are non-executable, and expressly free of simulation implementation concerns. They are a valuable complement and precursor to simulation specifications and implementations, focusing purely on thoroughly exploring the biology, recording hypotheses and assumptions, and serve as a communication medium detailing exactly how a simulation relates to the real biology.

  6. Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajeswara Rao

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the changes in the properties of water when exposed to sunlight for 40 days. We hypothesize and prove that solar irradiation to water entraps electromagnetic radiation as potential energy, which becomes kinetic energy in various systems. It is postulated that photochemically-induced energy transfers, associated with individual spectral emission of visible spectrum of solar light, exert diverse influences on biological systems. Bottles of distilled water, individually wrapped in spectral-colored cellophane were exposed to sunlight and compared to an unwrapped bottle to determine chemical and physical changes as well as modifications of biological properties. Each bottle of water was named according to the color of cellophane paper with letter E (stands for exposed as a prefix with (E-violet, E-indigo, E-blue, E-green, E-yellow, E-orange, and Ered. E-control (without wrap was exposed to polychromatic sunlight. This study addresses two main issues viz., the chemical and physical changes in E-water and its effect on biological activities. Chemical and physical composition analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry; physical conductance by a Wheatstone Bridge type conductivity meter; osmolarity by a vapor pressure osmometer; and, salt solubility profile of 10% sodium bicarbonate were determined. Furthermore, testing the effect of E-waters on human lymphocyte proliferation, mosquito larvae hatching and seed germination determined the functional role of solar radiation through specific spectrum/s of visible light on various biological processes. We found that water exposed to visible spectral emissions of sunlight had an altered elemental composition, electrical conductance, osmolarity and salt-solubility, as well as differences in bio-modulatory effects. A gradual increase in leaching of Boron from Eviolet to E-red was noted. E-indigo showed maximal increase in electrical conductance and maximal salt

  7. Immunological responses induced by the combination of phototherapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of metastatic tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei R.; Naylor, Mark F.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Teague, T. Kent; Liu, Hong

    2008-02-01

    Combination therapy using laser photothermal interaction and immunological stimulation has demonstrated its ability to induce immunological responses. Glycated chitosan (GC), an immunological stimulant, and imiquimod, a new type of immune response modifier (IRM), when used in conjunction with laser phototherapy, have shown to have a great immunological stimulation function. Specifically, imiquimod can help release cytokines from immunocompetent cells, stimulate TH1 lymphocyte responses (CD8+ T-cells), and recruit additional dendritic cells. To study the effects of immunoadjuvnats in combination of laser photo-irradiation, we treated animal tumors with laser-ICG-GC combination and late-stage melanoma patients with laser-ICG-imiquimod combination. At designated times, tumors, blood, and spleens in both treated and untreated animals were colleted for analysis. The major immunological indicators, such as IL-6, IL-12, IFN-gamma, CD4, and CD8 were analyzed. The same immunological analysis was also performed for melanoma patients treated by the laser-imiquimod combination.

  8. Antitumor vaccines, immunotherapy and the immunological constant of rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ena; Monaco, Alessandro; Monsurró, Vladia; Sabatino, Marianna; Pos, Zoltan; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Wang, Jeanne; Worschech, Andrea; Stroncek, David F; Marincola, Francesco M

    2009-05-01

    Anticancer vaccines have not matched the clinical expectations projected from their ability to induce consistently systemic anticancer T-cell responses. Thus, a dichotomy is observed between the immunological and clinical endpoints of anticancer immunization. Anticancer vaccines have clearly demonstrated that highly specific T-cell responses can be induced that can recognize autologous cancer antigens in patients with cancer. This ability is an outstanding achievement of modern biotechnology, yielding one of the most specific types of potential anticancer reagents. However, systemic, vaccine-induced anticancer responses exemplify a broader immunological paradox: cytotoxic T-cells can coexist within the same organism with their target cells not only in the context of cancer, but also in the context of chronic infections, well-controlled allo-transplant reactions and autoimmunity. According to this view, anticancer immune responses are a facet of a tissue-specific autoimmune phenomenon specific for cancer tissue that may or may not result in the successful immune-destruction of target cells, depending on an assortment of genetic factors related to the background of the host or evolving phenotypes of a heterogeneous cancer environment. This feature article summarizes the current understanding of the mechanisms leading to tumor rejection in humans as well as in experimental models, in the context of the broader immunological phenomenon leading to tissue-specific destruction. Anticancer vaccines that may not induce clinically significant anticancer responses independently could function as a unique tool to enhance the specificity of the response of the host against cancer, provided that strategies are implemented to amplify the immune reaction initiated by vaccine-induced antibodies and/or T-cells.

  9. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Saleh Huddin, Afiqah Binti; Daoud, Jamal Ibrahim; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2016-01-01

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001). However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001) and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001). These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the

  10. Immunological processes related to cognitive impairment in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T

    2016-09-01

    In this review, the immune-to-brain communication pathways are briefly summarized, with emphasis on the impact of immune cells and their mediators on learning, memory and other cognitive domains. Further, the acute response of the central nervous system to peripherally generated inflammatory stimuli - termed as sickness behaviour - is described, and the central role of microglia in this immune-to-brain crosstalk in physiological and pathological conditions is highlighted. Finally, the role and consequences of immunological processes related to cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis are discussed.

  11. [Immunologic disorders in pathogenesis of chronic generalized parodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volozhin, A I; Poriadin, G V; Kazimiski, T I; Barer, G M; Askerova, S Sh; Salmasi, Zh M

    2005-01-01

    Systemic immunity was studied in patients with chronic generalized parodontitis. This group of patients had distinct changes in immunologic system: depression of T- and stimulation of B-cellular immunity without accumulation of plasma cells and initiation of effective humoral response. Increased peripheral blood number of lymphocytes expressing induction of apoptosis CD95 receptors and ligand for this receptor CD95L (Fas-L) can lead to intensification of lymphocyte apoptosis and may be the reason for T-cell deficit development. The results of the study confirm the important role of immune system disturbances in pathogenesis of chronic generalized parodontitis.

  12. A role for gamma scintigraphy in cancer immunology and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, A C; Pimm, M V

    1992-01-01

    Facilities for radiolabelling and gamma scintigraphy are largely restricted to nuclear medicine departments or specialised research institutions and are therefore not widely available to workers in cancer research. Despite this, there is growing interest in gamma scintigraphy, which can provide information relevant to the entire field of cancer immunology. This review discusses the present and future roles of gamma scintigraphy in respect of antibody-targeted, cell-mediated and cytokine therapy. The authors aim to show that gamma scintigraphy is an investigative tool of great potential.

  13. A role for gamma scintigraphy in cancer immunology and immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, A.C. (Nottingham Univ. Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Physics); Pimm, M.V. (Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Cancer Research Campaign Labs.)

    1992-12-01

    Facilities for radiolabelling and gamma scintigraphy are largely restricted to nuclear medicine departments or specialised research institutions and are therefore not widely available to workers in cancer research. Despite this, there is growing interest in gamma scintigraphy, which can provide information relevant to the entire field of cancer immunology. This review discusses the present and future roles of gamma scintigraphy in respect of antibody-targeted, call-mediated and cytokine therapy. The authors aim to show that gamma scintigraphy is an investigated tool of great potential. (orig.).

  14. Nutritional and Immunological Importance of Colostrum for the new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta Kuralkar and S.V. Kuralkar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional and immunological importance of colostrum for the survival and development of the neonate is reviewed. A neonate is born with low body energy stores and devoid of serum immunoglobulins. Colostrum provides the neonates with both energy and maternal antibodies. Because of syndeschoroidal nature of the placenta, the neonates must acquire maternal immunoglobulins from ingested colostrum for passive immune protection until the immune system of the neonate is fully developed. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 46-47

  15. A Novel Evolutionary Feedforward Neural Network with Artificial Immunology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫新保; 臧小刚; 周希朗

    2003-01-01

    A hybrid algorithm to design the multi-layer feedforward neural network was proposed. Evolutionaryprogramming is used to design the network that makes the training process tending to global optima. Artificial im-munology combined with simulated annealing algorithm is used to specify the initial weight vectors, therefore improves the probabiligy of training algorithm to converge to global optima. The applications of the neural networkin the modulation-style recognition of analog modulated rader signals demonstrate the good performance of the net-work.

  16. The Innovative Medicines Initiative moves translational immunology forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Michel; Wittelsberger, Angela; De Magistris, Maria-Teresa

    2013-02-01

    The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) was established in 2008 as a public-private partnership between the European Union and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations with the mission to promote the development of novel therapies through collaborative efforts based on the concept of pre-competitive research. Several consortia supported by IMI are dedicated to immuno-inflammatory disorders, immune-based biopharmaceuticals and vaccines. Herein, we present the key principles underlying IMI, briefly review the status of projects related to translational immunology, and present future topics of interest to immunologists.

  17. Takes your breath away--the immunology of allergic alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, C; Anderson, K; Bourke, S J; Boyd, G

    2002-04-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (synonym: hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by inhaling antigenic aerosols which induce hypersensitivity responses in susceptible individuals. It is an interstitial inflammatory disease affecting the distal, gas-exchanging parts of the lung, in contrast to allergic asthma where the inflammation is more proximal, affecting the conducting airways. The aims of this review are to describe current concepts of the immunology of this model of lung inflammation, to describe some of the constitutional and environmental characteristics which affect disease susceptibility and development, and to describe topics for prospective study.

  18. Hematology and immunology studies - The second manned Skylab mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Johnson, P. C.; Ritzman, S. E.; Mengel, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    The hematologic and immunologic functions of the Skylab 3 astronauts were monitored during the preflight, inflight, and postflight phases of the mission. Plasma protein profiles showed high consistency in all phases. A transient suppression of lymphocyte responsiveness was observed postflight. A reduction in the circulating blood volume due to drops in both the plasma volume and red cell mass was found. The loss of red cell mass is most likely a suppressed erythrypoiesis. The functional integrity of the circulating red cells did not appear to be compromised in the course of flight.

  19. [Effect of new antihistaminic preparations on the body's immunologic reactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashkovskiĭ, M D; Veksler, I G; Kaminka, M E; Iakimenko, V A

    1981-03-01

    The effect of new antihistaminic drugs, phencarol and bicarphen, on immunologic reactivity of experimental animals was studied in comparison with diphenhydramine. Phencarol and bicarphen inhibited the delayed type allergic reactions to a greater degree than diphenydramine. Unlike diphenhydramine, phencarol and bicarphen injected simultaneously with test-antigen markedly decreased the number of rosette-forming lymphocytes in the immunocompetent organs (spleen, thymus, lymph nodes). Phencarol, bicarphen and diphenhydramine produced the same inhibitory effect on the content of antibody-producing cells in the spleen of mice.

  20. Concise review: humanized models of tumor immunology in the 21st century: convergence of cancer research and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Wagner, Ferdinand; Thibaudeau, Laure; Levesque, Jean-Pierre; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2015-06-01

    Despite positive testing in animal studies, more than 80% of novel drug candidates fail to proof their efficacy when tested in humans. This is primarily due to the use of preclinical models that are not able to recapitulate the physiological or pathological processes in humans. Hence, one of the key challenges in the field of translational medicine is to "make the model organism mouse more human." To get answers to questions that would be prognostic of outcomes in human medicine, the mouse's genome can be altered in order to create a more permissive host that allows the engraftment of human cell systems. It has been shown in the past that these strategies can improve our understanding of tumor immunology. However, the translational benefits of these platforms have still to be proven. In the 21st century, several research groups and consortia around the world take up the challenge to improve our understanding of how to humanize the animal's genetic code, its cells and, based on tissue engineering principles, its extracellular microenvironment, its tissues, or entire organs with the ultimate goal to foster the translation of new therapeutic strategies from bench to bedside. This article provides an overview of the state of the art of humanized models of tumor immunology and highlights future developments in the field such as the application of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies to further enhance humanized murine model systems.

  1. The Immunology of a Healing Response in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Treated with Localized Heat or Systemic Antimonial Therapy.

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    Ines Lakhal-Naouar

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of systemic antimonial (sodium stibogluconate, Pentostam, SSG treatment versus local heat therapy (Thermomed for cutaneous leishmaniasis was studied previously and showed similar healing rates. We hypothesized that different curative immune responses might develop with systemic and local treatment modalities.We studied the peripheral blood immune cells in a cohort of 54 cutaneous Leishmania major subjects treated with SSG or TM. Multiparameter flow cytometry, lymphoproliferative assays and cytokine production were analyzed in order to investigate the differences in the immune responses of subjects before, on and after treatment.Healing cutaneous leishmaniasis lead to a significant decline in circulating T cells and NKT-like cells, accompanied by an expansion in NK cells, regardless of treatment modality. Functional changes involved decreased antigen specific CD4+ T cell proliferation (hyporesponsiveness seen with CD8+ T cell depletion. Moreover, the healing (or healed state was characterized by fewer circulating regulatory T cells, reduced IFN-γ production and an overall contraction in polyfunctional CD4+ T cells.Healing from cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a dynamic process that alters circulating lymphocyte populations and subsets of T, NK and NKT-like cells. Immunology of healing, through local or systemic treatments, culminated in similar changes in frequency, quality, and antigen specific responsiveness with immunomodulation possibly via a CD8+ T cell dependent mechanism. Understanding the evolving immunologic changes during healing of human leishmaniasis informs protective immune mechanisms.

  2. Cancer immunology--analysis of host and tumor factors for personalized medicine.

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    Ogino, Shuji; Galon, Jérôme; Fuchs, Charles S; Dranoff, Glenn

    2011-08-09

    Immune cells in the tumor microenvironment have an important role in regulating tumor progression. Therefore, stimulating immune reactions to tumors can be an attractive therapeutic and prevention strategy. Cancer cells and host cells constantly interact with each other in the tumor microenvironment; thus, cancer immunology is an interdisciplinary area where integrated analysis of both host and tumor factors is needed. Cancer represents a heterogeneous group of diseases with different genetic and epigenetic alterations; therefore, molecular classification of cancer (for example lung, prostate and breast cancers) is an important component in clinical decision making. However, most studies on antitumor immunity and clinical outcome lack analysis of tumor molecular biomarkers. In this Review, we discuss colorectal cancer as a prototypical example of cancer. Common molecular classifiers of colon cancer include KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations, microsatellite instability, LINE-1 methylation, and CpG island methylator phenotype. Since tumor molecular features and immune reactions are inter-related, a comprehensive assessment of these factors is critical. Examining the effects of tumor-host interactions on clinical outcome and prognosis represents an evolving interdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology. Pathological immunity evaluation may provide information on prognosis and help identify patients who are more likely to benefit from immunotherapy.

  3. Immunological profile of HTLV-1-infected patients associated with infectious or autoimmune dermatological disorders.

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    Jordana Grazziela Alves Coelho-dos-Reis

    Full Text Available In the present study, the frequency, the activation and the cytokine and chemokine profile of HTLV-1 carriers with or without dermatological lesions were thoroughly described and compared. The results indicated that HTLV-1-infected patients with dermatological lesions have distinct frequency and activation status when compared to asymptomatic carriers. Alterations in the CD4(+HLA-DR(+, CD8(+ T cell, macrophage-like and NKT subsets as well as in the serum chemokines CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were observed in the HTLV-1-infected group with skin lesions. Additionally, HTLV-1 carriers with dermatological skin lesions showed more frequently high proviral load as compared to asymptomatic carriers. The elevated proviral load in HTLV-1 patients with infectious skin lesions correlated significantly with TNF-α/IL-10 ratio, while the same significant correlation was found for the IL-12/IL-10 ratio and the high proviral load in HTLV-1-infected patients with autoimmune skin lesions. All in all, these results suggest a distinct and unique immunological profile in the peripheral blood of HTLV-1-infected patients with skin disorders, and the different nature of skin lesion observed in these patients may be an outcome of a distinct unbalance of the systemic inflammatory response upon HTLV-1 infection.

  4. Immunological Effect of PM2.5 on Cytokine Production in Female Wistar Rats1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING-HUA HUANG; QIN WANG; DONG-QUN XU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the immunological effect of PM2.5 on cytokine production in female Wistar rats.Methods Female Wistzr rats were given 0.3 mg,0.75 mg,2 mg,5 mg of PM2.5 per 0.5mL saline,respectively.Saline was used as the negative control.TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the branchoalveolar lavage were measured by ELISA,and mRNA expression leveIs in lung tissue were detected bv RT-PCR.Alveolar macrophages were collected for testing phogacytic function. Results Exposure to PM2.5 stimulated TNF-α production in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.05),However,no statistically significant difference was found.No time-dependent change in TNF-α and IL-6 production Was found.TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expressions were induced by PM2.5-exposure.The phagocytic rate(PR)was significantly decreased by PM2.5 treatment.Conclusion PM2.5 exposure increases inflammation response of the lung in a dose-dependent mauuer.Moreover,tissue injury induced by PM2.5 may be related to altered production of cytokines.PM2.5 may impair the phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages.

  5. The immunological effect of 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA treatment on murine T-cell leukemia

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    Tingying Cheng; Fungwin Shen; Ronghwa Lin [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China)

    1996-09-01

    8-Methoxyproralen (8-MOP) plus long-wavelength UV radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm) have been used to treat various diseases such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis and rejection of heart transplants. However, the immunological mechanism of this treatment remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the effect of 8-MOP/UVA on the modulation of the immunogenicity of a T-cell leukemia cell line (RL ``male`` 1 cells). The results demonstrated that the stimulator function of the in vitro 8-MOP/UVA-treated RL ``male`` 1 cells was enhanced in both RL ``male`` 1-specific allogeneic and syngeneic immune responses. Furthermore, the enhancement of the immunogenicity of the 8-MOP/UVA-treated RL ``male`` 1 cells was found to be strongly associated with the increase of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on these 8-MOP/UVA-treated tumor cells. Therefore, our findings suggested that the alteration of the expression of the immune-related cell surface molecules might be an important effect of 8-MOP/UVA treatment on the elevation of the immunogenicity of the 8-MOP/UVA-treated tumor cells. (Author).

  6. Effect of immunological castration management strategy on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, R T; Tavárez, M A; Harsh, B N; Mellencamp, M A; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of 1) immunological castration (Improvest, a gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) management strategy (age at slaughter and time of slaughter after second dose) and 2) sex on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions. For Objective 1, immunological castration management strategies included 24-wk-old immunologically castrated (IC) barrows 4, 6, 8, or 10 wk after the second Improvest dose (ASD); 26-wk-old IC barrows 6 wk ASD; and 28-wk-old IC barrows 8 wk ASD ( = 63). Objective 2 ( = 97) included IC barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows, and gilts slaughtered at 24, 26, and 28 wks of age. Bellies from 2 slaughter dates were manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Bacon slices were laid out on parchment paper, packaged in oxygen-permeable poly-vinyl-lined boxes, and frozen (-33°C) for 1, 4, 8, or 12 wk to simulate food service conditions. At the end of each storage period, bacon was evaluated for lipid oxidation, moisture and lipid content, and sensory characteristics. Data from both objectives were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with belly as the experimental unit. For both objectives, as storage time increased, lipid oxidation of bacon increased ( bacon from IC barrows increased as time of slaughter ASD increased ( bacon across management strategies. For the evaluation of sex effects in Objective 2, lipid oxidation was greater ( 0.05). After 12 wk of frozen storage, lipid oxidation values for IC barrows, PC barrows, and gilts were still below 0.5 mg malondialdehyde/kg of meat, the threshold at which trained panelists may deem a food to be rancid. In conclusion, bacon shelf life characteristics were not altered by the immunological castration management strategy and bacon from IC barrows was similar to bacon from gilts. Therefore, bacon from IC barrows would result in shelf life and sensory

  7. Immunologic effects of emdogain in humans: one-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Symeon; Peteinaki, Efthymia; Castanas, Elias

    2002-06-01

    Tissue regeneration after therapeutic manipulations is essential in periodontology, oral surgery, and trauma of the periodontal tissues. Local inflammation because of poor oral hygiene also plays a crucial role in the above situations. Local inflammatory reaction, accompanied by the local production of cytokines, profoundly influences bone turnover and regeneration. Several products of low immunogenicity for augmenting tissue regeneration have been recently proposed as boosters of soft and mineralized tissue regeneration. Among them, Emdogain, an amelogenin derivative of porcine origin, has recently been introduced. Clinical results indicate that this product might be a good additive, producing fast tissue regeneration with no apparent clinical side effects. In contrast, very little is known about its in vivo immunologic effects. A previous study showed that Emdogain does not modify the cellular or humoral immune response in vitro. In the present work, performed in 10 patients, only a slight, nonsignificant activation of the immune system occurred during the first year following Emdogain application. Neither cellular immunity nor humoral immune response was significantly modified. In addition, the in vitro response of the patients' lymphocytes to Emdogain was assayed 2 and 12 months postoperative. We did not find any significant specific lymphocyte transformation in the presence of Emdogain, although lymphocytes could be stimulated by nonselective mitogens. These results indicate the immunologic safety of the agent in vivo, at least after 1 year.

  8. Immunological Aspects of Candida and Aspergillus Systemic Fungal Infections

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    Christoph Mueller-Loebnitz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT have a high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs even after neutrophil regeneration. Immunological aspects might play a very important role in the IFI development in these patients. Some data are available supporting the identification of high-risk patients with IFI for example patients receiving stem cells from TLR4 haplotype S4 positive donors. Key defense mechanisms against IFI include the activation of neutrophils, the phagocytosis of germinating conidia by dendritic cells, and the fight of the cells of the innate immunity such as monocytes and natural killer cells against germlings and hyphae. Furthermore, immunosuppressive drugs interact with immune effector cells influencing the specific fungal immune defense and antimycotic drugs might interact with immune response. Based on the current knowledge on immunological mechanism in Aspergillus fumigatus, the first approaches of an immunotherapy using human T cells are in development. This might be an option for the future of aspergillosis patients having a poor prognosis with conventional treatment.

  9. Follicular lymphoma (FL): Immunological tolerance theory in FL.

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    García-Muñoz, Ricardo; Panizo, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The ultimate cause of follicular lymphoma (FL) remains unknown. Remarkably, almost nothing is known about immunological tolerance mechanisms that might contribute to FL development. Immunological tolerance mechanisms, like other stimuli, also induce persistent changes of B cell receptors that induce genetic instability and molecular aberrations promoting the development of a neoplasm. Using the same method as Burnet, we provide a new perspective taking advantage of the comparison of a normal linear B cell differentiation process and FL development within the framework of clonal selection theory. We propose that FL is a malignancy of cells that acquire both translocation t(14;18) and self-BCR, inducing them to proliferate and mature, resistant to negative selection. Additional genetic damage induced by non-apoptotic tolerance mechanisms, such as receptor editing, may transform a self-reactive B cell with t(14;18) into an FL. The result of tolerogenic mechanisms and genetic aberrations is the survival of FL B cell clones with similar markers and homogenous gene expression signatures despite the different stages of maturation at which the molecular damage occurs. To antagonize further growth advantage due to self-antigen recognition and chronic activation of tolerance mechanisms in the apoptosis-resistant background of FL B cells, inhibitors of BCR signaling may be promising therapeutic options.

  10. Inflammablog: peer-to-peer online learning in immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Zoë; Cohen, J John

    2013-03-01

    Is it possible for students in different courses, at different academic levels, and at different universities to learn immunology together using the Internet? We teach a colloquium on inflammation for undergraduates at the University of Arizona and a lecture course on human immunology for graduate students and clinical and basic science fellows at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. Students in these programs, being scattered about large campuses, have little time for student-directed discussion and peer interactions, and they never have the opportunity to meet students in the course in the other state. Instead of requiring the usual essays and term papers, we set up a blog (an online discussion group) for the two courses, and required all students to post, and comment on other posts, within and between the courses. Student writing is normally directed at a single reader, the instructor, which seems like a waste of talent; we encouraged peer exchanges. Furthermore, we were interested in observing the interactions between the Colorado students, who were older and sometimes experienced professionals, and the younger Arizonans. We used a blog because it is administratively impossible to enroll the students in two universities in a single courseware (learning management system) site. Blogging has offered insights into students' comfort with this form of social medium, and into the potential for this approach in light of the rapid adoption of blended and massively open online courses.

  11. Theoretical modeling techniques and their impact on tumor immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelke, Anna Lena; Murgueitio, Manuela S; Preissner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Currently, cancer is one of the leading causes of death in industrial nations. While conventional cancer treatment usually results in the patient suffering from severe side effects, immunotherapy is a promising alternative. Nevertheless, some questions remain unanswered with regard to using immunotherapy to treat cancer hindering it from being widely established. To help rectify this deficit in knowledge, experimental data, accumulated from a huge number of different studies, can be integrated into theoretical models of the tumor-immune system interaction. Many complex mechanisms in immunology and oncology cannot be measured in experiments, but can be analyzed by mathematical simulations. Using theoretical modeling techniques, general principles of tumor-immune system interactions can be explored and clinical treatment schedules optimized to lower both tumor burden and side effects. In this paper, we aim to explain the main mathematical and computational modeling techniques used in tumor immunology to experimental researchers and clinicians. In addition, we review relevant published work and provide an overview of its impact to the field.

  12. Clinical and immunological features of early rheumatoid arthritis

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    N A Shostak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study clinical and immunological features of rheumatoid arthritis (RA early stage. Material and Methods. 130 RA pts aged 16 to 80 years (mean age 52,5 years, 105 female and 25 male were examined. 55 pts had disease duration up to 1 year, 34 - between 1 and 3 years and 41 - more than 3 years. Standard clinical, laboratory and radiological examination was performed in all pts. In 43 pts with earlv RA T and В cell receptors were studied with monoclonal antibodies against CD3, CD72, CD4, CD8, CDI6. Results. The most frequent initial symptoms preceding characteristic RA picture were arthralgia (39,2%, fever (34,6% and body weight loss (24,6%. Mono- or oligoarticuiar onset with subsequent quick transformation into polyarthritis within one year revealed in 61,5% of pts was the usual feature of early RA. The most frequent false diagnoses in early RA were osteoarthritis (in 25,1%, reactive arthritis (in 24,9% and gout (in 4,6%. Male pts had longer morning stiffness, higher levels of C-reactive protein, more pronounced functional disability, T and В cell immunity activation than female. Conclusion. Understanding of essential clinical and immunologic features of early RA will allow to diagnose the disease in time.

  13. Immunological sex differences in socially promiscuous African ground squirrels.

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    Mary Beth Manjerovic

    Full Text Available Differences in how males and females respond to foreign antigens are common across taxa. Such sexual differences in the immune system are predicted to be greater in species with high promiscuity and sociality as these factors increase the likelihood of disease transmission. Intense sperm competition is thought to further this sexual dichotomy as increased investment in spermatogenesis likely incurs additional immunological costs. Xerus inauris, a ground squirrel found throughout southern Africa, is extremely social and promiscuous with one of the highest male reproductive investments among rodents. These life-history attributes suggest males and females should demonstrate a large dichotomy in immunity. Contrary to our prediction, we found no difference in spleen mass between the sexes. However, we did find significant biases in leukocyte types and red blood cell counts, possibly reflecting responses to parasite types. Among males, we predicted greater investments in spermatogenesis would result in reduced immunological investments. We found a negative association between testes and spleen size and a positive relationship between testes and number of lice suggesting trade-offs in reproductive investment possibly due to the costs associated with spermatogenesis and immunity. We suggest when measuring sexual differences in immunity it is important to consider the effects of reproductive pressures, parasite types, and life history costs.

  14. Molecular Programming of Immunological Memory in Natural Killer Cells.

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    Beaulieu, Aimee M; Madera, Sharline; Sun, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is a hallmark of the adaptive immune system. Although natural killer (NK) cells have traditionally been classified as a component of the innate immune system, they have recently been shown in mice and humans to exhibit certain features of immunological memory, including an ability to undergo a clonal-like expansion during virus infection, generate long-lived progeny (i.e. memory cells), and mediate recall responses against previously encountered pathogens--all characteristics previously ascribed only to adaptive immune responses by B and T cells in mammals. To date, the molecular events that govern the generation of NK cell memory are not completely understood. Using a mouse model of cytomegalovirus infection, we demonstrate that individual pro-inflammatory IL-12, IL-18, and type I-IFN signaling pathways are indispensible and play non-redundant roles in the generation of virus-specific NK cell memory. Furthermore, we discovered that antigen-specific proliferation and protection by NK cells is mediated by the transcription factor Zbtb32, which is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes a cell cycle program in activated NK cells. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling NK cell responses will provide novel strategies for tailoring vaccines to target infectious disease.

  15. Cancer immunology and canine malignant melanoma: A comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Matthew J; Morris, Joanna S; McDermott, Mark R; Lichty, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Oral canine malignant melanoma (CMM) is a spontaneously occurring aggressive tumour with relatively few medical treatment options, which provides a suitable model for the disease in humans. Historically, multiple immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at provoking both innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses have been published with varying levels of activity against CMM. Recently, a plasmid DNA vaccine expressing human tyrosinase has been licensed for the adjunct treatment of oral CMM. This article reviews the immunological similarities between CMM and the human counterpart; mechanisms by which tumours evade the immune system; reasons why melanoma is an attractive target for immunotherapy; the premise of whole cell, dendritic cell (DC), viral and DNA vaccination strategies alongside preliminary clinical results in dogs. Current "gold standard" treatments for advanced human malignant melanoma are evolving quickly with remarkable results being achieved following the introduction of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptively transferred cell therapies. The rapidly expanding field of cancer immunology and immunotherapeutics means that rational targeting of this disease in both species should enhance treatment outcomes in veterinary and human clinics.

  16. An immunological insight into premature ovarian failure (POF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojević-Dikić, Svetlana; Marisavljević, Dragomir; Mitrović, Ana; Dikić, Srdjan; Jovanović, Tomislav; Janković-Raznatović, Svetlana

    2010-09-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF), a serious life-changing condition that affects young women, remains an enigma and the researchers' challenge. The term POF generally describes a syndrome of gonadal failure before the age of 40, characterized by amenorrhea, sex steroid deficiency and elevated levels of gonadotropins. Infertility and psychological stress are common consequences of this entity the prevalence of which is 0.9-3%. The known cause of this condition includes: genetic aberrations, autoimmune ovarian damage, iatrogenic and environmental factors, although in majority of cases the underlying cause is not identified. For many women in whom the cause of ovarian failure is unknown, autoimmunity may be the pathogenic mechanism. There is currently evidence that some cases of POF are due to faulty recognition of self in the ovary by the immune system, possibly provoked by genetic or environmental factors initiating such immune response. Numerous evidence, including association with multiple autoimmune endocrine disorders, clinical reversibility, transitory estrogen deficiency, histological and immunological features and the demonstration of circulating ovarian antibodies in serum samples from women with POF, have suggested its immunological origin. We discuss the possible role of such an autoimmune process as a cause or consequence of POF including treatment strategies in POF patients.

  17. Immunology teaching by incorporating knowledge from theater and music

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    Martha Elisa Ferreira Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Immunology knowledge is important to therapeutic prevention of several diseases. The aim of this study was present a teaching methodology of Immunology and verify its efficacy as the knowledge acquisition by the participants of an event. To assess the progress of knowledge by the participants as well the use of the play and sung music, each participant fill a questionnaire, containing ten questions, before and after the presentation. The results were evaluated by paired T test at 5%. In both types there was knowledge incorporation after the play activity because the notes after the event were statistically higher. The participants remained attentive and praised the event. The knowledge showed by most of participants was considered lower and regular before the event and after the ludic activities they showed higher grades which categorized knowledge as regular and high. It was concluded that the methodology used contributed with knowledge acquisition and could contribute with the cultural and social education of the participants.

  18. Re-evaluation of the immunological Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajnik, Martin F

    2014-11-03

    Classically the immunological 'Big Bang' of adaptive immunity was believed to have resulted from the insertion of a transposon into an immunoglobulin superfamily gene member, initiating antigen receptor gene rearrangement via the RAG recombinase in an ancestor of jawed vertebrates. However, the discovery of a second, convergent adaptive immune system in jawless fish, focused on the so-called variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), was arguably the most exciting finding of the past decade in immunology and has drastically changed the view of immune origins. The recent report of a new lymphocyte lineage in lampreys, defined by the antigen receptor VLRC, suggests that there were three lymphocyte lineages in the common ancestor of jawless and jawed vertebrates that co-opted different antigen receptor supertypes. The transcriptional control of these lineages during development is predicted to be remarkably similar in both the jawless (agnathan) and jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, suggesting that an early 'division of labor' among lymphocytes was a driving force in the emergence of adaptive immunity. The recent cartilaginous fish genome project suggests that most effector cytokines and chemokines were also present in these fish, and further studies of the lamprey and hagfish genomes will determine just how explosive the Big Bang actually was.

  19. IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN BOVINE LYMPH NODES STIMULATED WITH SUBUNITS VACCINES

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    Gabriel Andres Tafur Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The vaccination process belongs to the public health intervention methodologies that help prevent infections. Vaccinations performed successfully in the history of medicine reported the significance of this procedure to increase the quality of life, prevent zoonoses and improve animal production. Vaccine emergence remained without exact rules for a long time, maintaining a close relationship with pathogens. However, subunit vaccines, with a difference from the classical idea of protective immunity with microorganisms showed it is possible to trigger T-dependent responses with peptide, revealing new rules for vaccine development. This vaccination process starts by the modulation chance of adaptive immune response through peptide sequences process by APCs for immune synapse formation interceded for pMHC-TCR as a scaffold to T cells priming. In this way the immunological signal triggered by immune synapses is amplified in lymph nodes. As a consequence, T and B cells modulated by peptide activity interact between the B cell follicles region and T cell aggregates, which constitute the paracortical region of secondary lymphoid tissue to form connate unions as a prerequisite for clonal amplification and subsequent immunological memory. Indicating the knowledge of the mechanisms of immune response generated by peptides immunization is essential for understanding modulation, amplification and immune protection as demands for good subunits vaccine.

  20. Towards a Mathematical Foundation of Immunology and Amino Acid Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Quan-Wu; Guo, Xin; Smale, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to set a mathematical foundation of immunology and amino acid chains. To measure the similarities of these chains, a kernel on strings is defined using only the sequence of the chains and a good amino acid substitution matrix (e.g. BLOSUM62). The kernel is used in learning machines to predict binding affinities of peptides to human leukocyte antigens DR (HLA-DR) molecules. On both fixed allele (Nielsen and Lund 2009) and pan-allele (Nielsen et.al. 2010) benchmark databases, our algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art performance. The kernel is also used to define a distance on an HLA-DR allele set based on which a clustering analysis precisely recovers the serotype classifications assigned by WHO (Nielsen and Lund 2009, and Marsh et.al. 2010). These results suggest that our kernel relates well the chain structure of both peptides and HLA-DR molecules to their biological functions, and that it offers a simple, powerful and promising methodology to immunology and amino acid chain studies.