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Sample records for altered coenzyme preference

  1. Altering coenzyme specificity of Pichia stipitis xylose reductase by the semi-rational approach CASTing

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    Zhang Jingqing

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NAD(PH-dependent Pichia stipitis xylose reductase (PsXR is one of the key enzymes for xylose fermentation, and has been cloned into the commonly used ethanol-producing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to eliminate the redox imbalance resulting from the preference of this enzyme toward NADPH, efforts have been made to alter the coenzyme specificity of PsXR by site-directed mutagenesis, with limited success. Given the industrial importance of PsXR, it is of interest to investigate further ways to create mutants of PsXR that prefers NADH rather than NADPH, by the alternative directed evolution approach. Results Based on a homology model of PsXR, six residues were predicted to interact with the adenine ribose of NAD(PH in PsXR and altered using a semi-rational mutagenesis approach (CASTing. Three rounds of saturation mutagenesis were carried to randomize these residues, and a microplate-based assay was applied in the screening. A best mutant 2-2C12, which carried four mutations K270S, N272P, S271G and R276F, was obtained. The mutant showed a preference toward NADH over NADPH by a factor of about 13-fold, or an improvement of about 42-fold, as measured by the ratio of the specificity constant kcat/Kmcoenzyme. Compared with the wild-type, the kcatNADH for the best mutant was only slightly lower, while the kcatNADPH decreased by a factor of about 10. Furthermore, the specific activity of 2-2C12 in the presence of NADH was 20.6 U·mg-1, which is highest among PsXR mutants reported. Conclusion A seemingly simplistic and yet very effective mutagenesis approach, CASTing, was applied successfully to alter the NAD(PH preference for Pichia stipitis xylose reductase, an important enzyme for xylose-fermenting yeast. The observed change in the NAD(PH preference for this enzyme seems to have resulted from the altered active site that is more unfavorable for NADPH than NADH in terms of both Km and kcat. There are potentials for

  2. Beneficial Effects of Coenzyme Q10 in Reduction of Testicular Tissue Alteration Following Induction of Diabetes in Adult Rats

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    Kianifard Davoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Various types of infertility are associated with uncontrolled hyperglycemia and diabetes. Development of oxidative stress is one the most important factors in the alteration of spermatogenesis in diabetic conditions. Consequently, the reduction of oxidative stress with antioxidant compounds can be effective in the reduction of tissue alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in improvement of spermatogenesis in adult diabetic rats. Material and Methods: 32 adult rats were divided into four groups of control and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (10 mg/kg body weight - b.w. was administrated to one control and one diabetic (intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of Streptozotocin groups. Blood concentrations of FSH, LH and Testosterone were measured. Histology of testicular tissue and sperm analysis were considered for evaluation of spermatogenesis. Results: Administration of Coenzyme Q10 led to increase of pituitary gonadotropins levels in diabetic rats. Testosterone levels were not changed significantly. Testicular morphology, spermatogenic indices and sperm analysis were improved in treated diabetic rats. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the use of Coenzyme Q10 has positive effects in reduction of spermatogenic alterations following induction of experimental diabetes in rats.

  3. Xylose reductase from the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii: cloning and heterologous expression of the native gene (Texr) and a double mutant (TexrK271R+N273D) with altered coenzyme specificity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sara Fernandes; Maria G Tuohy; Patrick G Murray

    2009-12-01

    Xylose reductase is involved in the first step of the fungal pentose catabolic pathway. The gene encoding xylose reductase (Texr) was isolated from the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Texr encodes a 320 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36 kDa, which exhibited high sequence identity with other xylose reductase sequences and was shown to be a member of the aldoketoreductase (AKR) superfamily with a preference for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as coenzyme. Given the potential application of xylose reductase enzymes that preferentially utilize the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) rather than NADPH in the fermentation of five carbon sugars by genetically engineered microorganisms, the coenzyme selectivity of TeXR was altered by site-directed mutagenesis. The TeXRK271R+N273D double mutant displayed an altered coenzyme preference with a 16-fold improvement in NADH utilization relative to the wild type and therefore has the potential to reduce redox imbalance of xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae strains. Expression of Texr was shown to be inducible by the same carbon sources responsible for the induction of genes encoding enzymes relevant to lignocellulose hydrolysis, suggesting a coordinated expression of intracellular and extracellular enzymes relevant to hydrolysis and metabolism of pentose sugars in T. emersonii in adaptation to its natural habitat. This indicates a potential advantage in survival and response to a nutrient-poor environment.

  4. Analysis and prediction of the physiological effects of altered coenzyme specificity in xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase during xylose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Krahulec, Stefan; Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    An advanced strategy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain development for fermentation of xylose applies tailored enzymes in the process of metabolic engineering. The coenzyme specificities of the NADPH-preferring xylose reductase (XR) and the NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) have been targeted in previous studies by protein design or evolution with the aim of improving the recycling of NADH or NADPH in their two-step pathway, converting xylose to xylulose. Yeast strains expressing va...

  5. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

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    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  6. Manipulation detection and preference alterations in a choice blindness paradigm.

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    Fumihiko Taya

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that individuals make choices based upon their preferences and have access to the reasons for their choices. Recent studies in several areas suggest that this is not always the case. In choice blindness paradigms, two-alternative forced-choice in which chosen-options are later replaced by the unselected option, individuals often fail to notice replacement of their chosen option, confabulate explanations for why they chose the unselected option, and even show increased preferences for the unselected-but-replaced options immediately after choice (seconds. Although choice blindness has been replicated across a variety of domains, there are numerous outstanding questions. Firstly, we sought to investigate how individual- or trial-factors modulated detection of the manipulations. Secondly, we examined the nature and temporal duration (minutes vs. days of the preference alterations induced by these manipulations.Participants performed a computerized choice blindness task, selecting the more attractive face between presented pairs of female faces, and providing a typewritten explanation for their choice on half of the trials. Chosen-face cue manipulations were produced on a subset of trials by presenting the unselected face during the choice explanation as if it had been selected. Following all choice trials, participants rated the attractiveness of each face individually, and rated the similarity of each face pair. After approximately two weeks, participants re-rated the attractiveness of each individual face online.Participants detected manipulations on only a small proportion of trials, with detections by fewer than half of participants. Detection rates increased with the number of prior detections, and detection rates subsequent to first detection were modulated by the choice certainty. We show clear short-term modulation of preferences in both manipulated and non-manipulated explanation trials compared to choice-only trials

  7. Host stress hormones alter vector feeding preferences, success, and productivity.

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    Gervasi, Stephanie S; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan; Burgan, Sarah C; Schrey, Aaron W; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Martin, Lynn B

    2016-08-17

    Stress hormones might represent a key link between individual-level infection outcome, population-level parasite transmission, and zoonotic disease risk. Although the effects of stress on immunity are well known, stress hormones could also affect host-vector interactions via modification of host behaviours or vector-feeding patterns and subsequent reproductive success. Here, we experimentally manipulated songbird stress hormones and examined subsequent feeding preferences, feeding success, and productivity of mosquito vectors in addition to defensive behaviours of hosts. Despite being more defensive, birds with elevated stress hormone concentrations were approximately twice as likely to be fed on by mosquitoes compared to control birds. Moreover, stress hormones altered the relationship between the timing of laying and clutch size in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our results suggest that host stress could affect the transmission dynamics of vector-borne parasites via multiple pathways. PMID:27512147

  8. Analysis and prediction of the physiological effects of altered coenzyme specificity in xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase during xylose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahulec, Stefan; Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    An advanced strategy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain development for fermentation of xylose applies tailored enzymes in the process of metabolic engineering. The coenzyme specificities of the NADPH-preferring xylose reductase (XR) and the NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) have been targeted in previous studies by protein design or evolution with the aim of improving the recycling of NADH or NADPH in their two-step pathway, converting xylose to xylulose. Yeast strains expressing variant pairs of XR and XDH that according to in vitro kinetic data were suggested to be much better matched in coenzyme usage than the corresponding pair of wild-type enzymes, exhibit widely varying capabilities for xylose fermentation. To achieve coherence between enzyme properties and the observed strain performance during fermentation, we explored the published kinetic parameters for wild-type and engineered forms of XR and XDH as possible predictors of xylitol by-product formation (Yxylitol) in yeast physiology. We found that the ratio of enzymatic reaction rates using NADP(H) and NAD(H) that was calculated by applying intracellular reactant concentrations to rate equations derived from bi-substrate kinetic analysis, succeeded in giving a statistically reliable forecast of the trend effect on Yxylitol. Prediction based solely on catalytic efficiencies with or without binding affinities for NADP(H) and NAD(H) were not dependable, and we define a minimum demand on the enzyme kinetic characterization to be performed for this purpose. An immediate explanation is provided for the typically lower Yxylitol in the current strains harboring XR engineered for utilization of NADH as compared to strains harboring XDH engineered for utilization of NADP+. The known XDH enzymes all exhibit a relatively high Km for NADP+ so that physiological boundary conditions are somewhat unfavorable for xylitol oxidation by NADP+. A criterion of physiological fitness is developed for engineered XR

  9. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus alters the host preferences of its vector Bemisia tabaci

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Yong; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Shi, Xiaobin; Chen, Gong; Su, Qi; Yang, Xin; Pan, Huipeng; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci, the whitefly vector of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), seriously reduces tomato production and quality. Here, we report the first evidence that infection by TYLCV alters the host preferences of invasive B. tabaci B (Middle East-Minor Asia 1) and Q (Mediterranean genetic group), in which TYLCV-free B. tabaci Q preferred to settle on TYLCV-infected tomato plants over healthy ones. TYLCV-free B. tabaci B, however, preferred healthy tomato plants to TYLCV-infected plants. I...

  10. Modality interactions alter the shape of acoustic mate preference functions in gray treefrogs.

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    Reichert, Michael S; Höbel, Gerlinde

    2015-09-01

    Sexual selection takes place in complex environments where females evaluating male mating signals are confronted with stimuli from multiple sources and modalities. The pattern of expression of female preferences may be influenced by interactions between modalities, changing the shape of female preference functions, and thus ultimately altering the selective landscape acting on male signal evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the responses of female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, to acoustic male advertisement calls are affected by interactions with visual stimuli. We measured preference functions for several call traits under two experimental conditions: unimodal (only acoustic signals presented), and multimodal (acoustic signals presented along with a video-animated calling male). We found that females were more responsive to multimodal stimulus presentations and, compared to unimodal playbacks, had weaker preferences for temporal call characteristics. We compared the preference functions obtained in these two treatments to the distribution of male call characteristics to make inferences on the strength and direction of selection expected to act on male calls. Modality interactions have the potential to influence the course of signal evolution and thus are an important consideration in sexual selection studies. PMID:26282702

  11. COENZYME Q 10 : A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Deependra; Jain, Vandana; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, S.

    2002-01-01

    Ubiquinone or Co Q10 is essentially a vitamin like substance and is a cofactor of an enzyme. It is an integral part of the memberanes of mitocondria where it is involved in the energy production. It is a nutrient necessary for the function of every cell of the body especially vital organs of the body like heart, liver, brain etc. Studies have shown that coenzyme Q10 alters the natural history of cardiovascular illness and has the potential of prevention of cardiovascular diseases through the ...

  12. Coenzyme q 10 : a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deependra; Jain, Vandana; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, S

    2002-10-01

    Ubiquinone or Co Q(10) is essentially a vitamin like substance and is a cofactor of an enzyme. It is an integral part of the memberanes of mitocondria where it is involved in the energy production. It is a nutrient necessary for the function of every cell of the body especially vital organs of the body like heart, liver, brain etc. Studies have shown that coenzyme Q(10) alters the natural history of cardiovascular illness and has the potential of prevention of cardiovascular diseases through the inhibition of LDL cholesterol oxidation by maintenance of optimal cellular and mitochondrial function throughout the ravages of time internal and external stress. PMID:22557086

  13. Virus Infection of Plants Alters Pollinator Preference: A Payback for Susceptible Hosts?

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    Davey, Matthew P.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Caulfield, John C.; Furzer, Oliver J.; Reed, Alison; Robinson, Sophie I.; Miller, Elizabeth; Davis, Christopher N.; Pickett, John A.; Whitney, Heather M.; Glover, Beverley J.; Carr, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by ‘buzzing’ (sonicating) the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i) as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii) as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen resistance

  14. Virus Infection of Plants Alters Pollinator Preference: A Payback for Susceptible Hosts?

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    Groen, Simon C; Jiang, Sanjie; Murphy, Alex M; Cunniffe, Nik J; Westwood, Jack H; Davey, Matthew P; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John C; Furzer, Oliver J; Reed, Alison; Robinson, Sophie I; Miller, Elizabeth; Davis, Christopher N; Pickett, John A; Whitney, Heather M; Glover, Beverley J; Carr, John P

    2016-08-01

    Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by 'buzzing' (sonicating) the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i) as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii) as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen resistance

  15. Arachidonic acid alters tomato HMG expression and fruit growth and induces 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-independent lycopene accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Concepcion, M.; Gruissem, W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of isoprenoid end-product synthesis required for normal growth and development in plants is not well understood. To investigate the extent to which specific genes for the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) are involved in end-product regulation, the authors manipulated expression of the HMG1 and HMG2 genes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit using arachidonic acid (AA). In developing young fruit AA blocked fruit growth, inhibited HMG1, and activated HMG2 expression. These results are consistent with other reports indicating that HMG1 expression is closely correlated with growth processes requiring phytosterol production. In mature-green fruit AA strongly induced the expression of HMG2, PSY1 (the gene for phytoene synthase), and lycopene accumulation before the normal onset of carotenoid synthesis and ripening. The induction of lycopene synthesis was not blocked by inhibition of HMGR activity using mevinolin, suggesting that cytoplasmic HMGR is not required for carotenoid synthesis. Their results are consistent with the function of an alternative plastid isoprenoid pathway (the Rohmer pathway) that appears to direct the production of carotenoids during tomato fruit ripening.

  16. Early postpartum pup preference is altered by gestational cocaine treatment: associations with infant cues and oxytocin expression in the MPOA

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    Cox Lippard, E.T.; Jarett, T.M.; McMurray, M.S.; Zeskind, P.S.; Garber, K.A.; Zoghby, C.R.; Glaze, K.; Tate, W.; Johns, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-fostering studies suggest cocaine-induced deficits in maternal behavior could be associated with altered behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine-exposure. Neonatal vocalizations are an important offspring cue facilitating early interactions between dam and rodent pup offspring and have been shown to be altered following prenatal cocaine-exposure. It is unclear how variations in acoustic parameters of USVs impact maternal behavior and the mechanism(s) underlying these processes. The present study examined differences in cocaine-exposed and control rodent dam maternal preference of cocaine-exposed or untreated pups in a dual choice apparatus. Relationship of preference-like behavior with pup USVs and dam oxytocin expression was explored. Gestational cocaine-exposure interfered with preference-like behavior of dams on postpartum day 1 with cocaine-exposure associated with decreased time spent on the cocaine-exposed pup side compared to the control pup side, and decreases in preference-like behavior associated in part with decreased number of USVs being emitted by cocaine-exposed pups. On postpartum day 5, decreased oxytocin expression in the medial preoptic area was associated with altered preference-like behavior in cocaine-exposed dams, including frequency and latency to touch/sniff pups. Results indicate cocaine’s effects on the mother-infant relationship is likely synergistic, in that cocaine influences mother and offspring both independently and concertedly and that variations within pup vocalizations and the oxytocin system may be potential mechanism(s) underlying this synergistic relationship during the postpartum period. PMID:25300467

  17. Systematic Analysis of Gene Expression Alterations and Clinical Outcomes for Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Family in Cancer.

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    Wei-Ching Chen

    Full Text Available Dysregulated lipid metabolism contributes to cancer progression. Our previous study indicates that long-chain fatty acyl-Co A synthetase (ACSL 3 is essential for lipid upregulation induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this report, we aimed to identify the role of ACSL family in cancer with systematic analysis and in vitro experiment. We explored the ACSL expression using Oncomine database to determine the gene alteration during carcinogenesis and identified the association between ACSL expression and the survival of cancer patient using PrognoScan database. ACSL1 may play a potential oncogenic role in colorectal and breast cancer and play a potential tumor suppressor role in lung cancer. Co-expression analysis revealed that ACSL1 was coexpressed with MYBPH, PTPRE, PFKFB3, SOCS3 in colon cancer and with LRRFIP1, TSC22D1 in lung cancer. In accordance with PrognoScan analysis, downregulation of ACSL1 in colon and breast cancer cell line inhibited proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. In contrast, increase of oncogenic property was observed in lung cancer cell line by attenuating ACSL1. High ACSL3 expression predicted a better prognosis in ovarian cancer; in contrast, high ACSL3 predicted a worse prognosis in melanoma. ACSL3 was coexpressed with SNUPN, TRIP13, and SEMA5A in melanoma. High expression of ACSL4 predicted a worse prognosis in colorectal cancer, but predicted better prognosis in breast, brain and lung cancer. ACSL4 was coexpressed with SERPIN2, HNRNPCL1, ITIH2, PROCR, LRRFIP1. High expression of ACSL5 predicted good prognosis in breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. ACSL5 was coexpressed with TMEM140, TAPBPL, BIRC3, PTPRE, and SERPINB1. Low ACSL6 predicted a worse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. ACSL6 was coexpressed with SOX6 and DARC. Altogether, different members of ACSLs are implicated in diverse types of cancer development. ACSL-coexpressed molecules may be used to further investigate the role of ACSL

  18. A de novo NADPH generation pathway for improving lysine production of Corynebacterium glutamicum by rational design of the coenzyme specificity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommareddy, Rajesh Reddy; Chen, Zhen; Rappert, Sugima; Zeng, An-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Engineering the cofactor availability is a common strategy of metabolic engineering to improve the production of many industrially important compounds. In this work, a de novo NADPH generation pathway is proposed by altering the coenzyme specificity of a native NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) to NADP, which consequently has the potential to produce additional NADPH in the glycolytic pathway. Specifically, the coenzyme specificity of GAPDH of Corynebacterium glutamicum is systematically manipulated by rational protein design and the effect of the manipulation for cellular metabolism and lysine production is evaluated. By a combinatorial modification of four key residues within the coenzyme binding sites, different GAPDH mutants with varied coenzyme specificity were constructed. While increasing the catalytic efficiency of GAPDH towards NADP enhanced lysine production in all of the tested mutants, the most significant improvement of lysine production (~60%) was achieved with the mutant showing similar preference towards both NAD and NADP. Metabolic flux analysis with (13)C isotope studies confirmed that there was no significant change of flux towards the pentose phosphate pathway and the increased lysine yield was mainly attributed to the NADPH generated by the mutated GAPDH. The present study highlights the importance of protein engineering as a key strategy in de novo pathway design and overproduction of desired products. PMID:24953302

  19. Music genre preference and tempo alter alpha and beta waves in human non-musicians

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    Hunter Gentry

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of music genre and tempo on brain activation patterns in 10 nonmusicians.Two genres (rock and jazz and three tempos (slowed, medium/normal, andquickened were examined using EEG recording and analyzed through Fast Fourier Transform(FFT analysis. When participants listened to their preferred genre, an increase in alpha waveamplitude was observed. Alpha waves were not significantly affected by tempo. Beta waveamplitude increased significantly as the tempo increased. Genre had no effect on beta waves. Thefindings of this study indicate that genre preference and artificially modified tempo do affectalpha and beta wave activation in non-musicians listening to preselected songs.

  20. Music genre preference and tempo alter alpha and beta waves in human non-musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter Gentry; Ethan Humphries; Sebastian Pena; Aldijana Mekic; Nicole Hurless; David F Nichols

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music genre and tempo on brain activation patterns in 10 nonmusicians.Two genres (rock and jazz) and three tempos (slowed, medium/normal, andquickened) were examined using EEG recording and analyzed through Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) analysis. When participants listened to their preferred genre, an increase in alpha waveamplitude was observed. Alpha waves were not significantly affected by tempo. Beta waveamplitude increased significantly as the tempo incre...

  1. Adolescent social defeat increases adult amphetamine conditioned place preference and alters D2 dopamine receptor expression

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Watt, Michael J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2011-01-01

    Components of the brain’s dopaminergic system, such as dopamine receptors, undergo final maturation in adolescence. Exposure to social stress during human adolescence contributes to substance abuse behaviors. We utilized a rat model of adolescent social stress to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this correlation. Rats exposed to repeated social defeat in adolescence (P35–P39) exhibited increased conditioned place preference (CPP) for amphetamine (1 mg/kg) in adulthood (P70). In co...

  2. Paternal alcohol exposure in mice alters brain NGF and BDNF and increases ethanol-elicited preference in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Coccurello, Roberto; Carito, Valentina; Ciafrè, Stefania; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Tirassa, Paola; Chaldakov, George N; Pascale, Esterina; Ceccanti, Marco; Codazzo, Claudia; Fiore, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during pregnancy induces cognitive and physiological deficits in the offspring. However, the role of paternal alcohol exposure (PAE) on offspring EtOH sensitivity and neurotrophins has not received much attention. The present study examined whether PAE may disrupt nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and affect EtOH preference/rewarding properties in the male offspring. CD1 sire mice were chronically addicted for EtOH or administered with sucrose. Their male offsprings when adult were assessed for EtOH preference by a conditioned place preference paradigm. NGF and BDNF, their receptors (p75(NTR) , TrkA and TrkB), dopamine active transporter (DAT), dopamine receptors D1 and D2, pro-NGF and pro-BDNF were also evaluated in brain areas. PAE affected NGF levels in frontal cortex, striatum, olfactory lobes, hippocampus and hypothalamus. BDNF alterations in frontal cortex, striatum and olfactory lobes were found. PAE induced a higher susceptibility to the EtOH rewarding effects mostly evident at the lower concentration (0.5 g/kg) that was ineffective in non-PAE offsprings. Moreover, higher ethanol concentrations (1.5 g/kg) produced an aversive response in PAE animals and a significant preference in non-PAE offspring. PAE affected also TrkA in the hippocampus and p75(NTR) in the frontal cortex. DAT was affected in the olfactory lobes in PAE animals treated with 0.5 g/kg of ethanol while no differences were found on D1/D2 receptors and for pro-NGF or pro-BDNF. In conclusion, this study shows that: PAE affects NGF and BDNF expression in the mouse brain; PAE may induce ethanol intake preference in the male offspring. PMID:25940002

  3. Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Pete J; Kirk, Tom; Ashmore, Tom; Willerton, Kristof; Evans, Rhys; Smith, Alan; Murray, Andrew J; Stubbs, Brianna; West, James; McLure, Stewart W; King, M Todd; Dodd, Michael S; Holloway, Cameron; Neubauer, Stefan; Drawer, Scott; Veech, Richard L; Griffin, Julian L; Clarke, Kieran

    2016-08-01

    Ketosis, the metabolic response to energy crisis, is a mechanism to sustain life by altering oxidative fuel selection. Often overlooked for its metabolic potential, ketosis is poorly understood outside of starvation or diabetic crisis. Thus, we studied the biochemical advantages of ketosis in humans using a ketone ester-based form of nutrition without the unwanted milieu of endogenous ketone body production by caloric or carbohydrate restriction. In five separate studies of 39 high-performance athletes, we show how this unique metabolic state improves physical endurance by altering fuel competition for oxidative respiration. Ketosis decreased muscle glycolysis and plasma lactate concentrations, while providing an alternative substrate for oxidative phosphorylation. Ketosis increased intramuscular triacylglycerol oxidation during exercise, even in the presence of normal muscle glycogen, co-ingested carbohydrate and elevated insulin. These findings may hold clues to greater human potential and a better understanding of fuel metabolism in health and disease. PMID:27475046

  4. Predator crypsis enhances behaviourally mediated indirect effects on plants by altering bumblebee foraging preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Ings, Thomas C.; Chittka, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Predators of pollinators can influence pollination services and plant fitness via both consumptive (reducing pollinator density) and non-consumptive (altering pollinator behaviour) effects. However, a better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying behaviourally mediated indirect effects of predators is necessary to properly understand their role in community dynamics. We used the tripartite relationship between bumblebees, predatory crab spiders and flowers to ask whether behaviourally mediate...

  5. Membrane reactors for continuous coenzyme regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, C.; Wichmann, R.

    1982-12-01

    The importance of continuous coenzyme regeneration is discussed with respect to chemical reaction engineering. The benefit of coenzymes covalently bound to water soluble polymers is especially stressed. The performance of membrane reactors for coenzyme regeneration is discussed in comparison with other reactor concepts. The coenzyme dependent production of L-amino acids from the corresponding alpha-keto acids is used to illustrate how precise turnover numbers as a function of enzyme/coenzyme ratio, initial substrate concentration, and conversion are obtained. Thus, it becomes possible to develop a concept for optimal operating points with respect to enzyme, coenzyme, and substrate costs per unit weight of product.

  6. FERMENTATION, MEDIA OPTIMIZATION STUDIES FOR COENZYME Q10 PRODUCTION BY Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Narendra Kumar S; Puspha Agrawal; Sujata A S; Bhavana B K

    2012-01-01

    To establish the fermentation process for CoQ10 production by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae with subsequent bioprocess media optimization studies. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a vitamin-like nutrient that plays a vital role in cellular energy production. Coenzyme Q10, apart from playing an important role in electron transfer for ATP synthesis, also acts as antioxidant. Therefore it is preferred as a potential therapeutic supplement to many critical diseases besides being used as dietary supplemen...

  7. Blocking opioid receptors alters short-term feed intake and oro-sensorial preferences in weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2012-05-01

    during the first 4 h after feeding and tended to prefer SF only after 6 h from feeding. Plasma glucose, insulin, and cholecystokinin concentrations were greater in FED than in FAS calves. Injection of naloxone decreased plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in NAL calves. Blocking opioid receptors reduced intake the first 2 h after naloxone injection in FED calves, altered oro-sensorial preferences, and reduced plasma GLP-1 concentration. In conclusion, the opioid peptide system may control short-term feed intake by modulating the oro-sensorial response triggered by feed consumption, especially when calves are fed ad libitum. PMID:22541480

  8. Coenzyme Q and Mitochondrial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinzii, Catarina M.; Hirano, Michio

    2010-01-01

    Coenzyme Q[subscript 10] (CoQ[subscript 10]) is an essential electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and an important antioxidant. Deficiency of CoQ[subscript 10] is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous syndrome, which, to date, has been found to be autosomal recessive in inheritance and generally responsive to CoQ[subscript…

  9. Altered CSMD1 Expression Alters Cocaine-Conditioned Place Preference: Mutual Support for a Complex Locus from Human and Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drgonova, Jana; Walther, Donna; Singhal, Sulabh; Johnson, Kennedy; Kessler, Brice; Troncoso, Juan; Uhl, George R

    2015-01-01

    The CUB and sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) gene harbors signals provided by clusters of nearby SNPs with 10-2 > p > 10-8 associations in genome wide association (GWAS) studies of addiction-related phenotypes. A CSMD1 intron 3 SNP displays p < 10-8 association with schizophrenia and more modest associations with individual differences in performance on tests of cognitive abilities. CSDM1 encodes a cell adhesion molecule likely to influence development, connections and plasticity of brain circuits in which it is expressed. We tested association between CSMD1 genotypes and expression of its mRNA in postmortem human brains (n = 181). Expression of CSMD1 mRNA in human postmortem cerebral cortical samples differs 15-25%, in individuals with different alleles of simple sequence length and SNP polymorphisms located in the gene's third/fifth introns, providing nominal though not Bonferroni-corrected significance. These data support mice with altered CSMD1 expression as models for common human CSMD1 allelic variation. We tested baseline and/or cocaine-evoked addiction, emotion, motor and memory-related behaviors in +/- and -/- csmd1 knockout mice on mixed and on C57-backcrossed genetic backgrounds. Initial csmd1 knockout mice on mixed genetic backgrounds displayed a variety of coat colors and sizable individual differences in responses during behavioral testing. Backcrossed mice displayed uniform black coat colors. Cocaine conditioned place preference testing revealed significant influences of genotype (p = 0.02). Homozygote knockouts displayed poorer performance on aspects of the Morris water maze task. They displayed increased locomotion in some, though not all, environments. The combined data thus support roles for common level-of-expression CSMD1 variation in a drug reward phenotype relevant to addiction and in cognitive differences that might be relevant to schizophrenia. Mouse model results can complement data from human association findings of modest magnitude that

  10. Altered CSMD1 Expression Alters Cocaine-Conditioned Place Preference: Mutual Support for a Complex Locus from Human and Mouse Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Drgonova

    Full Text Available The CUB and sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1 gene harbors signals provided by clusters of nearby SNPs with 10-2 > p > 10-8 associations in genome wide association (GWAS studies of addiction-related phenotypes. A CSMD1 intron 3 SNP displays p < 10-8 association with schizophrenia and more modest associations with individual differences in performance on tests of cognitive abilities. CSDM1 encodes a cell adhesion molecule likely to influence development, connections and plasticity of brain circuits in which it is expressed. We tested association between CSMD1 genotypes and expression of its mRNA in postmortem human brains (n = 181. Expression of CSMD1 mRNA in human postmortem cerebral cortical samples differs 15-25%, in individuals with different alleles of simple sequence length and SNP polymorphisms located in the gene's third/fifth introns, providing nominal though not Bonferroni-corrected significance. These data support mice with altered CSMD1 expression as models for common human CSMD1 allelic variation. We tested baseline and/or cocaine-evoked addiction, emotion, motor and memory-related behaviors in +/- and -/- csmd1 knockout mice on mixed and on C57-backcrossed genetic backgrounds. Initial csmd1 knockout mice on mixed genetic backgrounds displayed a variety of coat colors and sizable individual differences in responses during behavioral testing. Backcrossed mice displayed uniform black coat colors. Cocaine conditioned place preference testing revealed significant influences of genotype (p = 0.02. Homozygote knockouts displayed poorer performance on aspects of the Morris water maze task. They displayed increased locomotion in some, though not all, environments. The combined data thus support roles for common level-of-expression CSMD1 variation in a drug reward phenotype relevant to addiction and in cognitive differences that might be relevant to schizophrenia. Mouse model results can complement data from human association findings of modest

  11. Differences in saccharin preference and genetic alterations of the Tas1r3 gene among senescence-accelerated mouse strains and their parental AKR/J strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Kimie; Takahashi, Eiki

    2014-05-10

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) is used as an animal model of senescence acceleration and age-associated disorders. SAM is derived from unexpected crosses between the AKR/J and unknown mouse strains. There are nine senescence-prone (SAMP) strains and three senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. Although SAMP strains exhibit strain-specific and age-related pathological changes, the genes responsible for the pathologic changes in SAMP strains have not been comprehensively identified. In the present study, we evaluated sweet taste perception using the two-bottle test. We compared genotypes of the taste related gene, Tas1r3, using SAM strains and the parental AKR/J strain. The two-bottle test revealed that SAMR1 (R1), SAMP6 (P6), SAMP8 (P8), and SAMP10 (P10) mice were saccharin-preferring strains, whereas AKR/J did not prefer saccharin. All genotypes of the R1, P6, P8, and P10 strains at the polymorphic sites in Tas1r3, which is known to influence saccharin preference, were identical to those of C57BL6/J, a well-known saccharin-preferring strain, and were completely different from those of the parental AKR/J strain. These genetic alterations in SAM strains appear to arise from an unknown strain that is thought to have been crossed with AKR/J initially. PMID:24726396

  12. Coenzyme Q10 therapy in current clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Soni; Monica Verma; Vivek Kaushal; Ghalaut, Veena S.

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a naturally occurring, lipid soluble, essential compound and is also known as ubiquinone. CoQ10 acts as an intermediate of the electron transport chain situated in membrane of mitochondria and vital for ATP production and cellular respiration. CoQ10 also serves as an intercellular antioxidant. All the clinical use of CoQ10 are based upon these two functions. CoQ10 levels are altered in a number of oncological as well as non-oncological diseases. Furthermore, recent dat...

  13. FERMENTATION, MEDIA OPTIMIZATION STUDIES FOR COENZYME Q10 PRODUCTION BY Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kumar S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the fermentation process for CoQ10 production by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae with subsequent bioprocess media optimization studies. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is a vitamin-like nutrient that plays a vital role in cellular energy production. Coenzyme Q10, apart from playing an important role in electron transfer for ATP synthesis, also acts as antioxidant. Therefore it is preferred as a potential therapeutic supplement to many critical diseases besides being used as dietary supplement in the energy drinks, anti-aging etc. This has driven the demand for Coenzyme Q10 supply to meet the market requirements. The method adapted for Coenzyme Q10 is batch fermentation route and preferred over synthetic method due to low production cost, safe environmental issue. The optimization of media for better yield of CoQ10 during fermentation and it was found that a maximum CoQ10 5mg/600ml is obtained at 4% of limiting substrate, 150 rpm at 30oC.

  14. Nociceptin receptor activation does not alter acquisition, expression, extinction and reinstatement of conditioned cocaine preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, G C; Powell, S K; Wiedner, H J; Wahlestedt, C; Brothers, S P

    2016-02-01

    Growing evidence indicates that targeting nociceptin receptor (NOP) signaling may have therapeutic efficacy in treating alcohol and opioid addiction. However, little is known about the therapeutic value of selective NOP agonists for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Recently, we identified a highly selective, brain-penetrant NOP small molecule agonist (SR-8993), and using this compound, we previously showed that nociceptin receptor activation attenuated consolidation of fear-related memories. Here, we sought to determine whether SR-8993 also affects the rewarding properties of cocaine. Using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, we show that SR-8993 (3 or 10 mg/kg) failed to disrupt acquisition or expression of cocaine CPP (7.5 or 15 mg/kg) in C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, SR-8993 did not affect rate of extinction or reinstatement (yohimbine- and cocaine-induced) of cocaine CPP. These studies indicate that selective activation of NOP may not be sufficient in reducing behavioral responses to cocaine. PMID:26657743

  15. R(+)-Baclofen, but Not S(−)-Baclofen, Alters Alcohol Self-Administration in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrai, Irene; Maccioni, Paola; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Racemic baclofen [(±)-baclofen] has repeatedly been reported to suppress several ­alcohol-motivated behaviors, including alcohol drinking and alcohol ­self-administration, in rats and mice. Recent data suggested that baclofen may have bidirectional, stereospecific effects, with the more active enantiomer, R(+)-baclofen, suppressing alcohol intake and the less active enantiomer, S(−)-baclofen, stimulating alcohol intake in mice. The present study was designed to investigate whether this enantioselectivity of baclofen effects may also extend to the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rats. To this end, selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats were initially trained to lever respond on a fixed ratio 4 (FR4) schedule of reinforcement for alcohol (15%, v/v) in daily 30-min sessions. Once responding had stabilized, rats were tested with vehicle, (±)-baclofen (3 mg/kg), R(+)-baclofen (0.75, 1.5, and 3 mg/kg), and S(−)-baclofen (6, 12, and 24 mg/kg) under the FR4 schedule of reinforcement. Treatment with 3 mg/kg (±)-baclofen reduced the number of lever responses for alcohol and estimated amount of self-administered alcohol by approximately 60% in comparison to vehicle treatment. R(+)-baclofen was approximately twice as active as (±)-baclofen: treatment with 1.5 mg/kg R(+)-baclofen decreased both variables to an extent similar to that of the decreasing effect of 3 mg/kg (±)-baclofen. Conversely, treatment with all doses of S(−)-baclofen failed to affect alcohol self administration. These results (a) confirm that non-sedative doses of (±)-baclofen effectively suppressed the reinforcing properties of alcohol in sP rats and (b) apparently do not extend to operant alcohol self-administration in sP rats the capability of S(−)-baclofen to stimulate alcohol drinking in mice. PMID:27148096

  16. R(+-baclofen, but not S(--baclofen, alters alcohol self-administration in alcohol-preferring rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eLorrai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Racemic baclofen [(±-baclofen] has repeatedly been reported to suppress several alcohol-motivated behaviors, including alcohol drinking and alcohol self-administration, in rats and mice. Recent data suggested that baclofen may have bidirectional, stereospecific effects, with the more active enantiomer, R(+-baclofen, suppressing alcohol intake and the less active enantiomer, S(--baclofen, stimulating alcohol intake in mice. The present study was designed to investigate whether this enantioselectivity of baclofen effects may extend also to the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rats. To this end, selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP rats were initially trained to lever-respond on a Fixed Ratio (FR 4 (FR4 schedule of reinforcement for alcohol (15%, v/v in daily 30-min sessions. Once responding had stabilized, rats were tested with vehicle, (±-baclofen (3 mg/kg, R(+-baclofen (0.75, 1.5, and 3 mg/kg, and S(--baclofen (6, 12, and 24 mg/kg under the FR4 schedule of reinforcement. Treatment with 3 mg/kg (±-baclofen reduced the number of lever-responses for alcohol and estimated amount of self-administered alcohol by approximately 60% in comparison to vehicle treatment. R(+-baclofen was approximately twice as active as (±-baclofen: treatment with 1.5 mg/kg R(+-baclofen decreased both variables to an extent similar to that of the decreasing effect of 3 mg/kg (±-baclofen. Conversely, treatment with all doses of S(--baclofen failed to affect alcohol self-administration. These results (a confirm that non-sedative doses of (±-baclofen effectively suppressed the reinforcing properties of alcohol in sP rats and (b apparently do not extend to operant alcohol self-administration in sP rats the capability of S(--baclofen to stimulate alcohol drinking in mice.

  17. Relative Fluid Novelty Differentially Alters the Time Course of Limited-Access Ethanol and Water Intake in Selectively Bred High Alcohol Preferring Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsenbardt, David N.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of previous alcohol (ethanol) drinking experience on increasing the rate and amount of future ethanol consumption might be a genetically-regulated phenomenon critical to the development and maintenance of repeated excessive ethanol abuse. We have recently found evidence supporting this view, wherein inbred C57BL/6J (B6) mice develop progressive increases in the rate of binge-ethanol consumption over repeated Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) ethanol access sessions (i.e. ‘front-loading’). The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate identical parameters in High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice to determine if similar temporal alterations in limited-access ethanol drinking develop in a population selected for high ethanol preference/intake under continuous (24hr) access conditions. Methods Using specialized volumetric drinking devices, HAP mice received 14 daily 2 hour DID ethanol or water access sessions. A subset of these mice was then given one day access to the opposite assigned fluid on day 15. Home cage locomotor activity was recorded concomitantly on each day of these studies. The possibility of behavioral/metabolic tolerance was evaluated on day 16 using experimenter administered ethanol. Results The amount of ethanol consumed within the first 15 minutes of access increased markedly over days. However, in contrast to previous observations in B6 mice, ethanol front-loading was also observed on day 15 in mice that only had previous DID experience with water. Furthermore, a decrease in the amount of water consumed within the first 15 minutes of access compared to animals given repeated water access was observed on day 15 in mice with 14 previous days of ethanol access. Conclusions These data further illustrate the complexity and importance of the temporal aspects of limited-access ethanol consumption, and suggest that previous procedural/fluid experience in HAP mice selectively alters the time course of ethanol and water consumption

  18. Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudeja, Katarzyna; Srinivasan, Balaji; Xu, Lanjun; Rana, Anil; de Jong, Jannie; Nollen, Ellen A A; Jackowski, Suzanne; Sanford, Lynn; Hayflick, Susan; Sibon, Ody C M

    2011-12-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disease with unresolved pathophysiology. Previously, we observed reduced Coenzyme A levels in a Drosophila model for PKAN. Coenzyme A is required for acetyl-Coenzyme A synthesis and acyl groups from the latter are transferred to lysine residues of proteins, in a reaction regulated by acetyltransferases. The tight balance between acetyltransferases and their antagonistic counterparts histone deacetylases is a well-known determining factor for the acetylation status of proteins. However, the influence of Coenzyme A levels on protein acetylation is unknown. Here we investigate whether decreased levels of the central metabolite Coenzyme A induce alterations in protein acetylation and whether this correlates with specific phenotypes of PKAN models. We show that in various organisms proper Coenzyme A metabolism is required for maintenance of histone- and tubulin acetylation, and decreased acetylation of these proteins is associated with an impaired DNA damage response, decreased locomotor function and decreased survival. Decreased protein acetylation and the concurrent phenotypes are partly rescued by pantethine and HDAC inhibitors, suggesting possible directions for future PKAN therapy development. PMID:21998097

  19. Inhibition of urokinase plasminogen activator “uPA” activity alters ethanol consumption and conditioned place preference in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Maamari E

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Elyazia Al Maamari,* Mouza Al Ameri, Shamma Al Mansouri, Amine Bahi*Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Urokinase plasminogen activator, uPA, is a serine protease implicated in addiction to drugs of abuse. Using its specific inhibitor, B428, we and others have characterized the role of uPA in the rewarding properties of psychostimulants, including cocaine and amphetamine, but none have examined the role of uPA in ethanol use disorders. Therefore, in the current study, we extended our observations to the role of uPA in ethanol consumption and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference. The general aim of the present series of experiments was to investigate the effects of the administration of the B428 on voluntary alcohol intake and ethanol conditioned reward. A two-bottle choice, unlimited-access paradigm was used to compare ethanol intake between vehicle- and 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg B428-administered mice. For this purpose, the mice were presented with an ethanol solution (2.5%–20% and water, at each concentration for 4 days, and their consumption was measured daily. Consumption of saccharin and quinine solutions was also measured. Systemic administration of B428 dose-dependently decreased ethanol intake and preference. Additionally, B428 mice did not differ from vehicle mice in their intake of graded solutions of tastants, suggesting that the uPA inhibition did not alter taste function. Also, ethanol metabolism was not affected following B428 injection. More importantly, 1.5 g/kg ethanol-induced conditioned place preference acquisition was blocked following B428 administration. Taken together, our results are the first to implicate uPA inhibition in the regulation of ethanol consumption and preference, and suggest that uPA may be considered as a possible therapeutic drug target for alcoholism and

  20. Coenzyme Q10 effects in neurodegenerative disease

    OpenAIRE

    Henchcliffe, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Meredith Spindler1, M Flint Beal1,2, Claire Henchcliffe1,21Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential cofactor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and as a dietary supplement it has recently gained attention for its potential role in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders derives from animal model...

  1. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: I. Cysteamine and 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The reaction of NH3 and SO3(2-) with ethylene sulfide is shown to be a prebiotic synthesis of cysteamine and 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M). A similar reaction with ethylene imine would give cysteamine and taurine. Ethylene oxide would react with NH3 and N(CH3)3 to give the phospholipid components ethanolamine and choline. The prebiotic sources of ethylene sulfide, ethylene imine and ethylene oxide are discussed. Cysteamine itself is not a suitable thioester for metabolic processes because of acyl transfer to the amino group, but this can be prevented by using an amide of cysteamine. The use of cysteamine in coenzyme A may have been due to its prebiotic abundance. The facile prebiotic synthesis of both cysteamine and coenzyme M suggests that they were involved in very early metabolic pathways.

  2. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

  3. Coenzyme A and its derivatives : renaissance of a textbook classic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Sibon, Ody C. M.; Jackowski, Suzanne; Gout, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    In 1945, Fritz Lipmann discovered a heat-stable cofactor required for many enzyme-catalysed acetylation reactions. He later determined the structure for this acetylation coenzyme, or coenzyme A (CoA), an achievement for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1953. CoA is now firmly embedded in the

  4. Coenzyme Q10 prevented full blown splenomegaly and decreased melarsoprol-induced reactive encephalopathy in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Nyabuga Nyariki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the modulatory effects of coenzyme Q10 on experimental trypanosome infections in mice and evaluate the risk of occurrence and severity of melarsoprol-induced post treatment reactive encephalopathy (PTRE. Methods: Female Swiss white mice were orally administered with 200 mg/kg of coenzyme Q10 after which they were intraperitoneally inoculated with Trypanasoma brucei rhodesiense (T. b. rhodesiense. The resultant infection was allowed to develop and simulate all phases of human African trypanosomiasis and PTRE. Parasitaemia development, packed cell volume, haematological and pathological changes were determined. Results: A histological study in the brain tissue of T. b. rhodesiense infected mice demonstrated neuroinflammatory pathology which was highly amplified in the PTRE-induced groups. A prominent reduction in the severity of the neuroinflammatory response was detected when coenzyme-Q10 was administered. Furthermore, the mean tissue weight of spleen to body ratio in coenzyme Q10 supplemented group was significantly (P<0.05 different compared to un-supplemented groups, and clearly indicated that coenzyme Q10 prevented full blown splenomegaly pathogenesis by T. b. rhodesiense. A significant (P<0.05 increase in hemoglobin levels and red blood cells was observed in coenzyme Q10 mice compared to those infected and un-supplemented with coenzyme Q10. Conclusions: The capacity of coenzyme Q10 to alter the pathogenesis of T. b. rhodesiense infection in mice and following treatment with melarsoprol, may find application by rendering humans and animals less susceptible to deleterious effects of trypanosome infection such as splenomegaly and melarsoprol-induced PTRE and neurotoxicity.

  5. Electronic Structure of B12 coenzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Lizhi; Ching, W. Y.; Randaccio, Lucio

    2001-06-01

    We have carried out an ab-initio local density functional calculations of the two most important B12 coenzymes, adoensyl-cobalamin (Ado-Cbl) and methyl-cobalamin (Me-Cbl). The crystal structures were determined by accurate X-ray synchrotron radiation measurements. Both crystals have space group P2121 with four molecules, or about 800 atoms, per unit cell. Our electronic structure calculation is based on one full molecule including the side chains. Results are analyzed in terms of atom and orbital resolved partial density of states (PDOS), Mulliken effective charges and bond orders. The PDOS analysis shows that the Co complexes of both B12 coenzymes had a HOMO/LUMO gap of about 1.5 eV. The Co-C bond order in Me-Cbl is smaller than that in Ado-Cbl. This appears to be in contradiction with the measured bond dissociated energies. However, this could also indicate the importance of the effects of solvents, which were not included in the calculation. We are investigating whether the effect of the solvents could dramatically modify the electronic structures of Ado-Cbl and Me-Cbl.

  6. Coenzyme Q10 effects in neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Spindler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Meredith Spindler1, M Flint Beal1,2, Claire Henchcliffe1,21Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is an essential cofactor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and as a dietary supplement it has recently gained attention for its potential role in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders derives from animal models, studies of mitochondria from patients, identification of genetic defects in patients with neurodegenerative disease, and measurements of markers of oxidative stress. Studies of in vitro models of neuronal toxicity and animal models of neurodegenerative disorders have demonstrated potential neuroprotective effects of CoQ10. With this data in mind, several clinical trials of CoQ10 have been performed in Parkinson’s disease and atypical Parkinson’s syndromes, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer disease, Friedreich’s ataxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with equivocal findings. CoQ10 is widely available in multiple formulations and is very well tolerated with minimal adverse effects, making it an attractive potential therapy. Phase III trials of high-dose CoQ10 in large sample sizes are needed to further ascertain the effects of CoQ10 in neurodegenerative diseases.Keywords: coenzyme Q10, neurodegenerative disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, mitochondrial dysfunction

  7. Postprandial antioxidant gene expression is modified by Mediterranean diet supplemented with coenzyme Q10 in elderly men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Yubero-Serrano, Elena M.; Gonzalez-Guardia, Lorena; Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Caballero, Javier; Marin, Carmen; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco M.; Tinahones, Francisco J; Villalba, Jose M.; Tunez, Isaac; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. We have investigated whether the quality of dietary fat alters postprandial gene expression and protein levels involved in oxidative stress and whether the supplementation with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) improves this situation in an elderly population. Twenty participants were randomized to receive three isocaloric die...

  8. Fermentation of mixed glucose-xylose substrates by engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: role of the coenzyme specificity of xylose reductase, and effect of glucose on xylose utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimacek Mario

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the substantial metabolic engineering effort previously devoted to the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting both the hexose and pentose sugars present in lignocellulose hydrolysates, the productivity of reported strains for conversion of the naturally most abundant pentose, xylose, is still a major issue of process efficiency. Protein engineering for targeted alteration of the nicotinamide cofactor specificity of enzymes catalyzing the first steps in the metabolic pathway for xylose was a successful approach of reducing xylitol by-product formation and improving ethanol yield from xylose. The previously reported yeast strain BP10001, which expresses heterologous xylose reductase from Candida tenuis in mutated (NADH-preferring form, stands for a series of other yeast strains designed with similar rational. Using 20 g/L xylose as sole source of carbon, BP10001 displayed a low specific uptake rate qxylose (g xylose/g dry cell weight/h of 0.08. The study presented herein was performed with the aim of analysing (external factors that limit qxylose of BP10001 under xylose-only and mixed glucose-xylose substrate conditions. We also carried out a comprehensive investigation on the currently unclear role of coenzyme utilization, NADPH compared to NADH, for xylose reduction during co-fermentation of glucose and xylose. Results BP10001 and BP000, expressing C. tenuis xylose reductase in NADPH-preferring wild-type form, were used. Glucose and xylose (each at 10 g/L were converted sequentially, the corresponding qsubstrate values being similar for each strain (glucose: 3.0; xylose: 0.05. The distribution of fermentation products from glucose was identical for both strains whereas when using xylose, BP10001 showed enhanced ethanol yield (BP10001 0.30 g/g; BP000 0.23 g/g and decreased yields of xylitol (BP10001 0.26 g/g; BP000 0.36 g/g and glycerol (BP10001 0.023 g/g; BP000 0.072 g/g as compared

  9. Coenzyme Q10 prevented full blown splenomegaly and decreased melarsoprol-induced reactive encephalopathy in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Nyabuga Nyariki; John Kibuthu Thuita; Grace Kemunto Nyambati; Alfred Orina Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish the modulatory effects of coenzyme Q10 on experimental trypanosome infections in mice and evaluate the risk of occurrence and severity of melarsoprol-induced post treatment reactive encephalopathy (PTRE). Methods: Female Swiss white mice were orally administered with 200 mg/kg of coenzyme Q10 after which they were intraperitoneally inoculated with Trypanasoma brucei rhodesiense (T. b. rhodesiense). The resultant infection was allowed to develop and simulate all phases of human African trypanosomiasis and PTRE. Parasitaemia development, packed cell volume, haematological and pathological changes were determined. Results:A histological study in the brain tissue of T. b. rhodesiense infected mice demonstrated neuroinflammatory pathology which was highly amplified in the PTRE-induced groups. A prominent reduction in the severity of the neuroinflammatory response was detected when coenzyme-Q10 was administered. Furthermore, the mean tissue weight of spleen to body ratio in coenzyme Q10 supplemented group was significantly (P Conclusions: The capacity of coenzyme Q10 to alter the pathogenesis of T. b. rhodesiense infection in mice and following treatment with melarsoprol, may find application by rendering humans and animals less susceptible to deleterious effects of trypanosome infection such as splenomegaly and melarsoprol-induced PTRE and neurotoxicity.

  10. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  11. Coenzyme Q10 therapy in current clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Soni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is a naturally occurring, lipid soluble, essential compound and is also known as ubiquinone. CoQ10 acts as an intermediate of the electron transport chain situated in membrane of mitochondria and vital for ATP production and cellular respiration. CoQ10 also serves as an intercellular antioxidant. All the clinical use of CoQ10 are based upon these two functions. CoQ10 levels are altered in a number of oncological as well as non-oncological diseases. Furthermore, recent data indicate that CoQ10 has an impact on the expression of many genes involved in metabolism, cellular transport, transcription control, and cell signaling, making CoQ10 a potent gene regulator. CoQ10 supplementation is useful in diseases associated with CoQ10 deficiency which includes primary and secondary CoQ10 deficiencies, fibromyalgia, diabetes mellitus, mitochondrial diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, male infertility and periodontal disease. Clinical presentations of severe CoQ10 deficiency include severe infantile multisystemic disease, encephalomyopathy, isolated myopathy cerebellar ataxia and Leigh syndrome with growth retardation. Oral CoQ10 administration can correct CoQ10 deficiency since it increases CoQ10 tissue levels. CoQ10 therapy has no serious side effects in humans and new formulations have been developed that increase CoQ10 absorption and tissue distribution. Future trends involving CoQ10 in many diseases needs more clinical trials for better understanding of CoQ10 efficacy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 817-825

  12. Biochemical Characterization and Complete Conversion of Coenzyme Specificity of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium longum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Ping; Cheng, Hong-Mei; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Guo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum is a very important gram-positive non-pathogenic bacterium in the human gastrointestinal tract for keeping the digestive and immune system healthy. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) from B. longum (BlIDH), a novel member in Type II subfamily, was overexpressed, purified and biochemically characterized in detail. The active form of BlIDH was an 83-kDa homodimer. Kinetic analysis showed BlIDH was a NADP⁺-dependent IDH (NADP-IDH), with a 567- and 193-fold preference for NADP⁺ over NAD⁺ in the presence of Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), respectively. The maximal activity for BlIDH occurred at 60 °C (with Mn(2+)) and 65 °C (with Mg(2+)), and pH 7.5 (with Mn(2+)) and pH 8.0 (with Mg(2+)). Heat-inactivation profiles revealed that BlIDH retained 50% of maximal activity after incubation at 45 °C for 20 min with either Mn(2+) or Mg(2+). Furthermore, the coenzyme specificity of BlIDH can be completely reversed from NADP⁺ to NAD⁺ by a factor of 2387 by replacing six residues. This current work, the first report on the coenzyme specificity conversion of Type II NADP-IDHs, would provide better insight into the evolution of NADP⁺ use by the IDH family. PMID:26927087

  13. Biochemical Characterization and Complete Conversion of Coenzyme Specificity of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium longum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ping Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacterium longum is a very important gram-positive non-pathogenic bacterium in the human gastrointestinal tract for keeping the digestive and immune system healthy. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH from B. longum (BlIDH, a novel member in Type II subfamily, was overexpressed, purified and biochemically characterized in detail. The active form of BlIDH was an 83-kDa homodimer. Kinetic analysis showed BlIDH was a NADP+-dependent IDH (NADP-IDH, with a 567- and 193-fold preference for NADP+ over NAD+ in the presence of Mg2+ and Mn2+, respectively. The maximal activity for BlIDH occurred at 60 °C (with Mn2+ and 65 °C (with Mg2+, and pH 7.5 (with Mn2+ and pH 8.0 (with Mg2+. Heat-inactivation profiles revealed that BlIDH retained 50% of maximal activity after incubation at 45 °C for 20 min with either Mn2+ or Mg2+. Furthermore, the coenzyme specificity of BlIDH can be completely reversed from NADP+ to NAD+ by a factor of 2387 by replacing six residues. This current work, the first report on the coenzyme specificity conversion of Type II NADP-IDHs, would provide better insight into the evolution of NADP+ use by the IDH family.

  14. Coenzyme Q biosynthesis in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Manuel Jesús; Vazquez Fonseca, Luis; Desbats, Maria Andrea; Cerqua, Cristina; Zordan, Roberta; Trevisson, Eva; Salviati, Leonardo

    2016-08-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ, or ubiquinone) is a remarkable lipid that plays an essential role in mitochondria as an electron shuttle between complexes I and II of the respiratory chain, and complex III. It is also a cofactor of other dehydrogenases, a modulator of the permeability transition pore and an essential antioxidant. CoQ is synthesized in mitochondria by a set of at least 12 proteins that form a multiprotein complex. The exact composition of this complex is still unclear. Most of the genes involved in CoQ biosynthesis (COQ genes) have been studied in yeast and have mammalian orthologues. Some of them encode enzymes involved in the modification of the quinone ring of CoQ, but for others the precise function is unknown. Two genes appear to have a regulatory role: COQ8 (and its human counterparts ADCK3 and ADCK4) encodes a putative kinase, while PTC7 encodes a phosphatase required for the activation of Coq7. Mutations in human COQ genes cause primary CoQ10 deficiency, a clinically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with onset from birth to the seventh decade, and with clinical manifestation ranging from fatal multisystem disorders, to isolated encephalopathy or nephropathy. The pathogenesis of CoQ10 deficiency involves deficient ATP production and excessive ROS formation, but possibly other aspects of CoQ10 function are implicated. CoQ10 deficiency is unique among mitochondrial disorders since an effective treatment is available. Many patients respond to oral CoQ10 supplementation. Nevertheless, treatment is still problematic because of the low bioavailability of the compound, and novel pharmacological approaches are currently being investigated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:27060254

  15. Late gestation undernutrtion can predispose for visceral adiposity by altering fat distribution patterns and increasing the preference for a high-fat diet in early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette O; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Thygesen, M P;

    2013-01-01

    (LOW). From day 3 postpartum to 6 months (around puberty) of age, one twin lamb was fed a conventional (CONV) diet and the other a high-carbohydrate–high-fat (HCHF) diet, resulting in four groups of offspring: NORM-CONV; NORM-HCHF; LOW-CONV; LOW-HCHF. At 6 months of age, half of the lambs (all males......-term effects were increased adrenal size in male lambs and adult females (P < 0·05), increased neonatal appetite for fat-(P = 0·004) rather than carbohydrate-rich feeds (P < 0·001) and reduced deposition of subcutaneous fat in both sexes (P < 0·05). Furthermore, LOW-HCHF female lambs had markedly higher...... visceral:subcutaneous fat ratios compared with the other groups (P < 0·001). Postnatal overfeeding (HCHF) resulted in obesity (>30 % fat in soft tissue) and widespread ectopic lipid deposition. In conclusion, our sheep model revealed strong pre- and postnatal impacts on growth, food preferences and fat...

  16. 3-Hydroxybenzoate:coenzyme A ligase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase from cultured cells of Centaurium erythraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas, W; Beerhues, L

    1997-01-01

    3-Hydroxybenzoate:coenzyme A ligase, an enzyme involved in xanthone biosynthesis, was detected in cell-free extracts from cultured cells of Centaurium erythraea Rafn. The enzyme was separated from 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase by fractionated ammonium sulphate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The CoA ligases exhibited different substrate specificities. 3-Hydroxybenzoate:coenzyme A ligase activated 3-hydroxybenzoic acid most efficiently and lacked affinity for cinnamic acids. In contrast, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase mainly catalyzed the activation of 4-coumaric acid but did not act on benzoic acids. The two enzymes were similar with respect to their relative molecular weight, their pH and temperature optima, their specific activity and the changes in their activity during cell culture growth. PMID:9177055

  17. Preference Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Furnkranz, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The topic of preferences is a new branch of machine learning and data mining, and it has attracted considerable attention in artificial intelligence research in previous years. It involves learning from observations that reveal information about the preferences of an individual or a class of individuals. Representing and processing knowledge in terms of preferences is appealing as it allows one to specify desires in a declarative way, to combine qualitative and quantitative modes of reasoning, and to deal with inconsistencies and exceptions in a flexible manner. And, generalizing beyond traini

  18. Cardamom Bushy Dwarf Virus Infection in Large Cardamom Alters Plant Selection Preference, Life Stages, and Fecundity of Aphid Vector, Micromyzus kalimpongensis (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Das, Amrita; Vijayanandraj, S; Mandal, Bikash

    2016-02-01

    Cardamom bushy dwarf virus (CBDV) causes foorkey disease of large cardamom (Ammomum subulatum Roxburgh) in the eastern sub-Himalayan mountains. Although the aphid Micromyzus kalimpongensis Basu (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is known as a vector of CBDV, its behavior in dissemination of CBDV has not been investigated. In the present study, M. kalimpongensis was observed to colonize in higher number on CBDV-infected large cardamom plants compared with the healthy plants in the several plantations in Sikkim and Darjeeling hills. The affinity of M. kalimpongensis to the diseased large cardamom plants was further confirmed in a contained field experiment with intact plant as well as in a laboratory bioassay with the plant extract, where significantly higher number of aphids settled on the diseased plants or extracts compared with the healthy counterparts. Aphids grown on CBDV-infected large cardamom plants had shortened nymphal period and increased longevity and fecundity compared with those grown on the healthy plants. In the contained field experiment, M. kalimpongensis migrated to the CBDV-infected plants, colonized there, acquired CBDV, and once the diseased plants withered, migrated to healthy plants, which eventually became diseased. Our results suggest a general pattern of spread of CBDV by M. kalimpongensis where CBDV-infected plants attract or arrest and stimulate emergence and migration of viruliferous aphids that otherwise are sedentary in the underground plant parts of large cardamom. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the influence of a plant virus from the family Nanoviridae in altering behavior of its insect vector that favors its dissemination. PMID:26518036

  19. Nicotinamide coenzymes in the rat thymus during the postirradiation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the contents of NADP and NADPN, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase and the contents of NAD, NADP, SH-groups and ATP were first investigated in the thymus of γ-irradiated (900 R) rats. A decrease in the contents of all the nicotinamide coenzymes and SH-groups was detected during the first minutes after irradiation. In an hour, the NADPN content exceeded normal by 43.2 per cent while the other parameters under study normalized. In 4 to 24 hours a repeated reduction in the content of all the nicotinamide coenzymes was accompanied by the ATP decrease. After 72 hours the level of the nicotinamide coenzymes normalized and the ATP content remained below normal. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase was 25-30-per cent higher during the first 60 minutes after irradiation; the activity of glutathione reductase was invariable. Mechanisms of the postirradiation changes in the nicotinamide coenzymes and their association with the state of the thiolo-disulphide system, bioenergetics and carbohydrate metabolism were discussed

  20. Acyl-coenzyme A organizes laterally in membranes and is recognized specifically by acyl-coenzyme A binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen Simonsen, A; Bernchou Jensen, U; Færgeman, Nils J.; Knudsen, J; Mouritsen, O G

    Long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) is a biochemically important amphiphilic molecule that is known to partition strongly into membranes by insertion of the acyl chain. At present, microscopically resolved evidence is lacking on how acyl-CoA influences and organizes laterally in membranes. By a...

  1. Moral Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolotti, Lisa; Jefferson, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    In this brief response to Etzioni’s paper we argue that satisfying one’s preferences and seeking to live up to one’s moral standards are not incompatible ways of living one’s life, and that choosing to act morally need not involve self-sacrifice.

  2. Deregulated Coenzyme A, Loss of Metabolic Flexibility and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, Suzanne; Leonardi, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential cofactor that is emerging as a global regulator of energy metabolism. Tissue CoA levels are tightly regulated and vary in response to different conditions including nutritional state and diabetes. Recent studies reveal the ability of this cofactor to control the output of key metabolic pathways. CoA regulation is important for the maintenance of metabolic flexibility and glucose homeostasis. PMID:25110012

  3. The cobalamin (coenzyme B12) biosynthetic genes of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, J. G.; Roth, J R

    1995-01-01

    The enteric bacterium Escherichia coli synthesizes cobalamin (coenzyme B12) only when provided with the complex intermediate cobinamide. Three cobalamin biosynthetic genes have been cloned from Escherichia coli K-12, and their nucleotide sequences have been determined. The three genes form an operon (cob) under the control of several promoters and are induced by cobinamide, a precursor of cobalamin. The cob operon of E. coli comprises the cobU gene, encoding the bifunctional cobinamide kinase...

  4. Coenzyme B12 Repurposed for Photoregulation of Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Karl; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Old cofactor, new tricks: In enzymes, coenzyme B12 has a well-known function as a radical initiator through homolysis of the Co-C bond. It has recently been shown that nature has repurposed this cofactor as a photosensitive switch for the regulation of bacterial carotenoid biosynthesis. Co-C bond breakage is again the key event in this process, triggering huge conformational changes in the B12 -binding protein. PMID:27010518

  5. Autotrophic acetyl coenzyme A biosynthesis in Methanococcus maripaludis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To detect autotrophic CO2 assimilation in cell extracts of Methanococcus maripaludis, lactate dehydrogenase and NADH were added to convert pyruvate formed from autotropically synthesized acetyl coenzyme A to lactate. The lactate produced was determined spectrophotometrically. When CO2 fixation was pulled in the direction of lactate synthesis, CO2 reduction to methane was inhibited. Bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a potent inhibitor of methanogenesis, enhanced lactate synthesis, and methyl coenzyme M inhibited it in the absence of BES. Lactate synthesis was dependent on CO2 and H2, but H2 + CO2-independent synthesis was also observed. In cell extracts, the rate of lactate synthesis was about 1.2 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1. When BES was added, the rate of lactate synthesis increased to 2.1 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1. Because acetyl coenzyme A did not stimulate lactate synthesis, pyruvate synthase may have been the limiting activity in these assays. Radiolabel from 14CO2 was incorporated into lactate. The percentages of radiolabel in the C-1, C-2, and C-3 positions of lactate were 73, 33, and 11%, respectively. Both carbon monoxide and formaldehyde stimulated lactate synthesis. 14CH2O was specifically incorporated into the C-3 of lactate, and 14CO was incorporated into the C-1 and C-2 positions. Low concentrations of cyanide also inhibited autotrophic growth, CO dehydrogenase activity, and autotrophic lactate synthesis. These observations are in agreement with the acetogenic pathway of autotrophic CO2 assimilation

  6. Breeding of Coenzyme Q10 Produced Strain by Low-Energy Ion Implantation and Optimization of Coenzyme Q10 Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dejun; ZHENG Zhiming; WANG Peng; WANG Li; YUAN Hang; YU Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    In order to increase the production efficiency of coenzyme Q10, the original strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens ATCC 4452 was mutated by means of Nitrogen ions implantation. A mutant strain, ATX 12, with high contents of coenzyme Q10 was selected. Subsequently, the conditions such as carbohydrate concentration, nitrogen source concentration, inoculum's size, seed age, aeration and temperature which might affect the production of CoQ10 were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions, the maximum concentration of the intracellular CoQ10 reached 200.3 mg/L after 80 h fed-batch fermentation, about 245% increasing in CoQ10 production after ion implantation, compared to the original strain.

  7. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition of...... daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...... indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social...

  8. Development of semi-solid cosmetic formulations containing coenzyme Q10-loaded nanocapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Terroso, Thatiana; Külkamp, Irene C.; Jornada, Denise S.; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski

    2009-01-01

    Nanocapsule suspensions containing coenzyme Q10 were prepared by interfacial deposition. The nanocapsules showed characteristics compatible with dermal application: slightly acid pH, drug content close to 100%, particle size between 213 and 248 nm with low polydispersity and negative zeta potential. Three cosmetic formulations for skin application were developed, one with the free-coenzyme Q10, a second with a suspension of coenzyme Q10-loaded nanocapsules and a third containing d...

  9. Strategy-proof Preference Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Bossert, Walter; Sprumont, Yves

    2012-01-01

    An aggregation rule maps each profile of individual strict preference orderings over a set of alternatives into a social ordering over that set. We call such a rule strategyproof if misreporting one’s preference never produces a social ordering that is strictly between the original ordering and one’s own preference. After describing a few examples of manipulable rules, we study in some detail three classes of strategy-proof rules: (i) rules based on a monotonic alteration of the majority rela...

  10. In vivo activation of methyl-coenzyme M reductase by carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Dorchak, Alexandria E.; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) from methanogenic archaea catalyzes the rate-limiting and final step in methane biosynthesis. Using coenzyme B as the two-electron donor, MCR reduces methyl-coenzyme M (CH3-SCoM) to methane and the mixed disulfide, CoBS-SCoM. MCR contains an essential redox-active nickel tetrahydrocorphinoid cofactor, Coenzyme F430, at its active site. The active form of the enzyme (MCRred1) contains Ni(I)-F430. Rapid and efficient conversion of MCR to MCRred1 is important fo...

  11. In vivo activation of methyl-coenzyme M reductase by carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    StephenWileyRagsdale

    2013-01-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) from methanogenic archaea catalyzes the rate-limiting and final step in methane biosynthesis. Using coenzyme B (CoBSH) as the two-electron donor, MCR reduces methyl-coenzyme M (CH3-SCoM) to methane and the mixed disulfide, CoBS-SCoM. MCR contains an essential redox-active nickel tetrahydro¬corphinoid cofactor, Coenzyme F430, at its active site. The active form of the enzyme (MCRred1) contains Ni(I)-F430. Rapid and efficient conversion of MCR to MCRred1 i...

  12. The role of zinc in the methylation of the coenzyme M thiol group in methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüer, Markus; Haumann, Michael; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Thauer, Rudolf K; Dau, Holger

    2002-04-01

    Methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase from methanogenic archaea is a cobalamin-dependent enzyme composed of three different subunits: MtaA, MtaB and MtaC. MtaA is a zinc protein that catalyzes the methylation of coenzyme M (HS-CoM) with methylcob(III)alamin. We report zinc XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) results indicating that, in the absence of coenzyme M, zinc is probably coordinated by a single sulfur ligand and three oxygen or nitrogen ligands. In the presence of coenzyme M, one (N/O)-ligand was replaced by sulfur, most likely due to ligation of the thiol group of coenzyme M. Mutations in His237 or Cys239, which are proposed to be involved in ligating zinc, resulted in an over 90% loss in enzyme activity and in distinct changes in the zinc ligands. In the His237-->Ala and Cys239-->Ala mutants, coenzyme M also seemed to bind efficiently by ligation to zinc indicating that some aspects of the zinc ligand environment are surprisingly uncritical for coenzyme M binding. PMID:11985589

  13. 2,4-Dihydroxy and O2 Protonated Tautomers of dThd and Thd Coexist in the Gas Phase: Methylation Alters Protonation Preferences versus dUrd and Urd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, R. R.; Yang, Bo; Frieler, C. E.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M. T.

    2016-03-01

    The gas-phase structures of protonated thymidine, [dThd + H]+, and its modified form, protonated 5-methyluridine, [Thd + H]+, are examined by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy combined with electronic structure calculations. IRMPD action spectra are measured over the ranges extending from ~600 to 1900 cm-1 and ~2800 to 3800 cm-1 using the FELIX free electron laser and an optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/OPA) laser system, respectively. Comparisons between the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) linear IR spectra calculated for the stable low-energy conformers and the measured IRMPD spectra are used to determine the most favorable tautomeric conformations of [dThd + H]+ and [Thd + H]+ and to identify those populated in the experiments. Both B3LYP and MP2 levels of theory predict a minor 2,4-dihydroxy tautomer as the ground-state conformer of [dThd + H]+ and [Thd + H]+ indicating that the 2'-hydroxyl substituent of Thd does not exert a significant impact on the structural features. [dThd + H]+ and [Thd + H]+ share parallel IRMPD spectral profiles and yields in both the FELIX and OPO regions. Comparisons between the measured IRMPD and calculated IR spectra suggest that minor 2,4-dihydroxy tautomers and O2 protonated conformers of [dThd + H]+ and [Thd + H]+ are populated in the experiments. Comparison of this work to our previous IRMPD spectroscopy study of protonated 2'-deoxyuridine and uridine suggests that the 5-methyl substituent alters the preferences of O2 versus O4 protonation.

  14. Coenzyme O*U1*UO, Alpha-Tocopherol and Free Cholesterol in HDL and LDL Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kurt; Theorell, Henning; Karlsson, Jan; Diamant, Bertil; Folkers, Karl

    Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL......Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL...

  15. Symptomatische Effekte von Coenzym Q10 bei Morbus Parkinson

    OpenAIRE

    Gholipour, Ali Farshad

    2005-01-01

    Im Rahmen M. Parkinson können auch die Sinnesorgane beeinträchtigt werden. Die Defizite des visuellen Systems können sich neben Visusverschlechterung und Störung der Kontrastsensitivität auch in Form einer Farbwahrnehmungsstörung äußern. Das Ziel unserer Arbeit war die Wirkung von Coenzym Q10 auf die Farbwahrnehmungsfähigkeit bei Parkinson zu eruieren. Die Untersuchungen wurden in Form einer Doppelblindstudie mit 28 Parkinson-Patienten durchgeführt, wobei die eine Hälfte der Pa...

  16. The complete coenzyme B12 biosynthesis gene cluster of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, dos F.; Vera, J.L.; Heijden, van der R.; Valdez, G.F.; Vos, de W.M.; Sesma, F.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2008-01-01

    The coenzyme B12 production pathway in Lactobacillus reuteri has been deduced using a combination of genetic, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches. The coenzyme B12 gene cluster of Lb. reuteri CRL1098 has the unique feature of clustering together the cbi, cob and hem genes. It consists of 29 OR

  17. The complete coenzyme B12 biosynthesis gene cluster of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL1098

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Santos; J.L. Vera; R. van der Heijden; G. Valdez; W.M. de Vos; F. Sesma; J. Hugenholtz

    2008-01-01

    The coenzyme B12 production pathway in Lactobacillus reuteri has been deduced using a combination of genetic, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches. The coenzyme B12 gene cluster of Lb. reuteri CRL1098 has the unique feature of clustering together the cbi, cob and hem genes. It consists of 29 OR

  18. Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siudeja, Katarzyna; Srinivasan, Balaji; Xu, Lanjun; Rana, Anil; de Jong, Jannie; Nollen, Ellen A. A.; Jackowski, Suzanne; Sanford, Lynn; Hayflick, Susan; Sibon, Ody C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disease with unresolved pathophysiology. Previously, we observed reduced Coenzyme A levels in a Drosophila model for PKAN. Coenzyme A is required for acetyl-Coenzyme A synthesis and acyl groups from the latter are transfer

  19. Coenzyme-like ligands for affinity isolation of cholesterol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yu; Lu, Liushen; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun; Wang, Wu

    2016-05-15

    Two coenzyme-like chemical ligands were designed and synthesized for affinity isolation of cholesterol oxidase (COD). To simulate the structure of natural coenzyme of COD (flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)), on Sepharose beads, 5-aminouracil, cyanuric chloride and 1, 4-butanediamine were composed and then modified. The COD gene from Brevibacterium sp. (DQ345780) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and then the sorbents were applied to adsorption analysis with the pure enzyme. Subsequently, the captured enzyme was applied to SDS-PAGE and activity analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax) of the two affinity sorbents (RL-1 and RL-2) were ∼83.5 and 46.3mg/g wet gel; and the desorption constant Kd of the two sorbents were ∼6.02×10(-4) and 1.19×10(-4)μM. The proteins after cell lysis were applied to affinity isolation, and then after one step of affinity binding on the two sorbents, the protein recoveries of RL-1 and RL-2 were 9.2% and 9.7%; the bioactivity recoveries were 92.7% and 91.3%, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the purities of COD isolated with the two affinity sorbents were approximately 95%. PMID:26856529

  20. Excited flavin and pterin coenzyme molecules in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, M S; Telegina, T A; Vechtomova, Y L; Kolesnikov, M P; Lyudnikova, T A; Golub, O A

    2010-10-01

    Excited flavin and pterin molecules are active in intermolecular energy transfer and in photocatalysis of redox reactions resulting in conservation of free energy. Flavin-containing pigments produced in models of the prebiotic environment are capable of converting photon energy into the energy of phosphoanhydride bonds of ATP. However, during evolution photochemical reactions involving excited FMN or FAD molecules failed to become participants of bioenergy transfer systems, but they appear in enzymes responsible for repair of UV-damaged DNA (DNA photolyases) and also in receptors of blue and UV-A light regulating vital functions of organisms. The families of these photoproteins (DNA-photolyases and cryptochromes, LOV-domain- and BLUF-domain-containing proteins) are different in the structure and in mechanisms of the photoprocesses. The excited flavin molecules are involved in photochemical processes in reaction centers of these photoproteins. In DNA photolyases and cryptochromes the excitation energy on the reaction center flavin is supplied from an antenna molecule that is bound with the same polypeptide. The role of antenna is played by MTHF or by 8-HDF in some DNA photolyases, i.e. also by molecules with known coenzyme functions in biocatalysis. Differences in the structure of chromophore-binding domains suggest an independent origin of the photoprotein families. The analysis of structure and properties of coenzyme molecules reveals some specific features that were significant in evolution for their being selected as chromophores in these proteins. PMID:21166638

  1. Expressing Preferences using Preference Set Constraint Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Brik, Alex; Remmel, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an extension of Answer Set Programming called Preference Set Constraint Programming which is a convenient and general formalism to reason with preferences. PSC programming extends Set Constraint Programming introduced by Marek and Remmel (Marek and Remmel 2004) by introducing two types of preference set constraint atoms, measure preference set constraint atoms and pre-ordered preference set constraint atoms, which are extensions of set constraint atoms. We show that the ...

  2. Structure of NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli - reflections on the basis of coenzyme specificity in the family of glutamate dehydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, Michael A.; Oliveira, Tânia F.; Engel, Paul C.; Khan, Amir R. [Trinity; (FCT/UNL); (UC-Dublin)

    2013-09-05

    Glutamate dehydrogenases catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, using NAD+ and/or NADP+ as a cofactor. Subunits of homo-hexameric bacterial enzymes comprise a substrate-binding domain I followed by a nucleotide-binding domain II. The reaction occurs in a catalytic cleft between the two domains. Although conserved residues in the nucleotide-binding domains of various dehydrogenases have been linked to cofactor preferences, the structural basis for specificity in the GDH family remains poorly understood. Here, the refined crystal structure of Escherichia coli GDH in the absence of reactants is described at 2.5-Å resolution. Modelling of NADP+ in domain II reveals the potential contribution of positively charged residues from a neighbouring α-helical hairpin to phosphate recognition. In addition, a serine that follows the P7 aspartate is presumed to form a hydrogen bond with the 2'-phosphate. Mutagenesis and kinetic analysis confirms the importance of these residues in NADP+ recognition. Surprisingly, one of the positively charged residues is conserved in all sequences of NAD+-dependent enzymes, but the conformations adopted by the corresponding regions in proteins whose structure has been solved preclude their contribution to the coordination of the 2'-ribose phosphate of NADP+. These studies clarify the sequence–structure relationships in bacterial GDHs, revealing that identical residues may specify different coenzyme preferences, depending on the structural context. Primary sequence alone is therefore not a reliable guide for predicting coenzyme specificity. We also consider how it is possible for a single sequence to accommodate both coenzymes in the dual-specificity GDHs of animals.

  3. Mechanistic implications from structures of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase complexed with coenzyme and an alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plapp, Bryce V; Charlier, Henry A; Ramaswamy, S

    2016-02-01

    Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase I is a homotetramer of subunits with 347 amino acid residues, catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols using NAD(+) as coenzyme. A new X-ray structure was determined at 3.0 Å where both subunits of an asymmetric dimer bind coenzyme and trifluoroethanol. The tetramer is a pair of back-to-back dimers. Subunit A has a closed conformation and can represent a Michaelis complex with an appropriate geometry for hydride transfer between coenzyme and alcohol, with the oxygen of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol ligated at 2.1 Å to the catalytic zinc in the classical tetrahedral coordination with Cys-43, Cys-153, and His-66. Subunit B has an open conformation, and the coenzyme interacts with amino acid residues from the coenzyme binding domain, but not with residues from the catalytic domain. Coenzyme appears to bind to and dissociate from the open conformation. The catalytic zinc in subunit B has an alternative, inverted coordination with Cys-43, Cys-153, His-66 and the carboxylate of Glu-67, while the oxygen of trifluoroethanol is 3.5 Å from the zinc. Subunit B may represent an intermediate in the mechanism after coenzyme and alcohol bind and before the conformation changes to the closed form and the alcohol oxygen binds to the zinc and displaces Glu-67. PMID:26743849

  4. Dependence of Brown Adipose Tissue Function on CD36-Mediated Coenzyme Q Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M. Anderson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT possesses the inherent ability to dissipate metabolic energy as heat through uncoupled mitochondrial respiration. An essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is coenzyme Q (CoQ. While cells synthesize CoQ mostly endogenously, exogenous supplementation with CoQ has been successful as a therapy for patients with CoQ deficiency. However, which tissues depend on exogenous CoQ uptake as well as the mechanism by which CoQ is taken up by cells and the role of this process in BAT function are not well understood. Here, we report that the scavenger receptor CD36 drives the uptake of CoQ by BAT and is required for normal BAT function. BAT from mice lacking CD36 displays CoQ deficiency, impaired CoQ uptake, hypertrophy, altered lipid metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and defective nonshivering thermogenesis. Together, these data reveal an important new role for the systemic transport of CoQ to BAT and its function in thermogenesis.

  5. Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate monohydrate (coenzyme M sodium salt monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mayr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2-thioethanesulfonate anion is the smallest known coenzyme in nature (HS–CoM and plays a key role in methanogenesis by anaerobic archaea, as well as in the oxidation of alkenes by Gram-negative and Gram-positive eubacteria. The title compound, Na+·C2H5O3S2−·H2O, is the Na+ salt of HS–CoM crystallized as the monohydrate. Six O atoms form a distorted octahedral coordination geometry around the Na atom, at distances in the range 2.312 (4–2.517 (3 Å. Two O atoms of the sulfonate group, one O atom of each of three other symmetry-related sulfonate groups plus the water O atom form the coordination environment of the Na+ ion. This arrangement forms Na–O–Na layers in the crystal structure, parallel to (100.

  6. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to Coenzyme A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malanchuk O. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Generation of monoclonal antibodies specific to Coenzyme A. Methods. Hybridoma technique. KLH carrier protein conjugated with CoA was used for immunization. Screening of positive clones was performed with BSA conjugated to CoA. Results. Monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes CoA and CoA derivatives, but not its precursors ATP and cysteine has been generated. Conclusion. In this study, we describe for the first time the production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against CoA. The monoclonal antibody 1F10 was shown to recognize specifically CoA in Western blotting, ELISA and immunoprecipitation. These properties make this antiboby a particularly valuable reagent for elucidating CoA function in health and disease.

  7. Bioavailability of four oral Coenzyme Q formulations in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, M.; Mortensen, S.A.; Rassing, M.R.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Poulsen, G.; Rasmussen, S.N.

    The bioavailability of four different Coenzyme Q (CoQ) formulations was compared in ten healthy volunteers in a four-way randomised cross-over trial. The included formulations were: A hard gelatine capsule containing 100 mg of CoQ and 400 mg of Emcompress. Three soft gelatine capsules containing......: 100 mg of CoQ with 400 mg of soy bean oil (Bioquinon); 100 mg of CoQ with 20 mg of polysorbate 80, 100 mg of lecithin and 280 mg of soy bean oil; and 100 mg of CoQ with 20 mg of polysorbate 80 and 380 mg of soy bean oil, respectively. The result suggests that the soya bean oil suspension of Co...

  8. Towards the synthesis of light-stable coenzyme B12 analogs

    OpenAIRE

    S. Gallo; E. Freisinger; Sigel, R. K. O.

    2007-01-01

    The organometallic complex coenzyme B12 (adenosyl cobalamin, AdoCbl) is not only an essential coenzyme in many biochemical reactions of most if not all living organisms but has lately been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of B12 related genes. As a consequence, coenzyme B12 has been a target of intense research. However, the investigations of AdoCbl have often been hampered due to its high light-sensitivity leading to decomposition of the compound within a few seconds. Here, we ...

  9. Coenzyme Q 10: multiple benefits in one ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littarru Gian Paolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q is a lipid molecule widely diffused in nature; in humans and other mammals it is present as coenzyme Q10. (CoQ10. The first recognized role of CoQ10 was in mitochondrial bioenergetics, where it plays a central role in the production of ATP. It is also present in other subcellular organelles, both in its oxidized and in its reduced state (ubiquinol-10. The reduced form of CoQ10 is endowed with powerful antioxidant activity: it acts as a chain-breaking antioxidant and is also capable of egenerating alpha-tocopherol, the active form of vitamin E. By these mechanisms CoQ10, together with vitamin E, protects lipoproteins from oxidation a process which bears considerable interest in preventing atherosclerosis. CoQ10 has also been found to support cardiovascular function and the latest findings indicate an active role in counteracting endothelial dysfunction, which is closely implicated in cardiovascular disease. CoQ10 also improves sperm motility, an effect which might be related both to its antioxidant and to its bioenergetic properties. Oxidative stress might be involved in neurodegenerative disease, and in migraine, two fields where the positive effects of CoQ10 have been documented. CoQ10 is synthesized by our body but is also present in food and can be taken as a nutritional supplement. The main source of industrially produced CoQ10 is yeast fermentation. The process results in CoQ10 which is identical to the naturally occurring molecule. Ubiquinol, the reduced form of CoQ10, has recently become available.

  10. Coenzyme world model of the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2016-06-01

    The origin of life means the emergence of heritable and evolvable self-reproduction. However the mechanisms of primordial heredity were different from those in contemporary cells. Here I argue that primordial life had no nucleic acids; instead heritable signs were represented by isolated catalytically active self-reproducing molecules, similar to extant coenzymes, which presumably colonized surfaces of oil droplets in water. The model further assumes that coenzyme-like molecules (CLMs) changed surface properties of oil droplets (e.g., by oxidizing terminal carbons), and in this way created and sustained favorable conditions for their own self-reproduction. Such niche-dependent self-reproduction is a necessary condition for cooperation between different kinds of CLMs because they have to coexist in the same oil droplets and either succeed or perish together. Additional kinds of hereditary molecules were acquired via coalescence of oil droplets carrying different kinds of CLMs or via modification of already existing CLMs. Eventually, polymerization of CLMs became controlled by other polymers used as templates; and this kind of template-based synthesis eventually resulted in the emergence of RNA-like replicons. Apparently, oil droplets transformed into the outer membrane of cells via engulfing water, stabilization of the surface, and osmoregulation. In result, the metabolism was internalized allowing cells to accumulate free-floating resources (e.g., animoacids, ATP), which was a necessary condition for the development of protein synthesis. Thus, life originated from simple but already functional molecules, and its gradual evolution towards higher complexity was driven by cooperation and natural selection. PMID:26968100

  11. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  12. Physiology: Kinetics of Acetyl Coenzyme A: Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase from Human Cumulus Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chi-Chen; Hsieh, Yao-Yuan; CHUNG, JING-GUNG; Tsai, Horng-Der; Tsai, Chang-Hai

    2001-01-01

    Purpose:N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity is involved in the detoxification of exogenous amines. We aimed to evaluate the kinetics of acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA): arylamine NAT for human cumulus cells.

  13. Supplementation of Coenzyme Q10 among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhua Shen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with ever increasing prevalence in the United States and worldwide. There is growing body of evidence suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction secondary to oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Coenzyme Q10 is an important micronutrient acting on the electron transport chain of the mitochondria with two major functions: (1 synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP; and (2 a potent antioxidant. Deficiency in coenzyme Q10 is often seen in patients with T2DM. Whether restoration of coenzyme Q10 will help alleviate oxidative stress, preserve mitochondrial function, and thus improve glycemic control in T2DM is unclear. This article reviews the relationships among oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and T2DM and examines the evidence for potential use of coenzyme Q10 as a supplement for the treatment of T2DM.

  14. Molecular Docking Study on the Interaction of Riboflavin (Vitamin ) and Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin ) Coenzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Naheed Akhtar; Farzana Yasmin; Afshan Naz; Zafar Saied Saify; Ambreen Hafeez

    2013-01-01

    Cobalamins are the largest and structurally complex cofactors found in biological systems and have attracted considerable attention due to their participation in the metabolic reactions taking place in humans, animals, and microorganisms. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a micronutrient and is the precursor of coenzymes, FMN and FAD, required for a wide variety of cellular processes with a key role in energy-based metabolic reactions. As coenzymes of both vitamins are the part of enzyme systems, th...

  15. The STM4195 Gene Product (PanS) Transports Coenzyme A Precursors in Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Dustin C.; Downs, Diana M.

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) is a ubiquitous coenzyme involved in fundamental metabolic processes. CoA is synthesized from pantothenic acid by a pathway that is largely conserved among bacteria and eukaryotes and consists of five enzymatic steps. While higher organisms, including humans, must scavenge pantothenate from the environment, most bacteria and plants are capable of de novo pantothenate biosynthesis. In Salmonella enterica, precursors to pantothenate can be salvaged, but subsequent intermediates...

  16. The complete coenzyme B12 biosynthesis gene cluster of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, dos, T.C.; Vera, J.L.; Heijden, van der, C.A.M.; G. F. VALDEZ; De Vos; Sesma, F.; Hugenholtz, J

    2008-01-01

    The coenzyme B12 production pathway in Lactobacillus reuteri has been deduced using a combination of genetic, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches. The coenzyme B12 gene cluster of Lb. reuteri CRL1098 has the unique feature of clustering together the cbi, cob and hem genes. It consists of 29 ORFs encoding the complete enzymic machinery necessary for de novo biosynthesis. Transcriptional analysis showed it to be expressed as two tandem transcripts of approximately 22 and 4 kb, carrying co...

  17. Biological functions of thiamine derivatives: Focus on non-coenzyme roles

    OpenAIRE

    Bettendorff, Lucien; Wins, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is mainly known for its diphosphorylated derivatives (ThDP), an essential coenzyme in energy metabolism. However non-coenzyme roles have been suggested for this vitamin for many years. Such roles have remained hypothetical, but recent data from various sources have shed a new light on this hypothesis. First, the existence of other phosphorylated thiamine derivatives, most prominently thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) and adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) can reach signi...

  18. Critical Review: Biological functions of thiamine derivatives: Focus on non-coenzyme roles

    OpenAIRE

    Bettendorff, Lucien; Wins, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is mainly known for its diphosphorylated derivatives (ThDP), an essential coenzyme in energy metabolism. However non-coenzyme roles have been suggested for this vitamin for many years. Such roles have remained hypothetical, but recent data from various sources have shed a new light on this hypothesis. First, the existence of other phosphorylated thiamine derivatives, most prominently thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) and adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) can reach signi...

  19. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

  20. Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Siudeja, Katarzyna; Srinivasan, Balaji; Xu, Lanjun; Rana, Anil; de Jong, Jannie; Nollen, Ellen A. A.; Jackowski, Suzanne; Sanford, Lynn; Hayflick, Susan; Sibon, Ody C.M

    2011-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disease with unresolved pathophysiology. Previously, we observed reduced Coenzyme A levels in a Drosophila model for PKAN. Coenzyme A is required for acetyl-Coenzyme A synthesis and acyl groups from the latter are transferred to lysine residues of proteins, in a reaction regulated by acetyltransferases. The tight balance between acetyltransferases and their antagonistic counterparts histone deacetylases is a well-kn...

  1. Coenzyme Q10 analytical determination in biological matrices and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucangioli, Silvia; Martinefski, Manuela; Tripodi, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the analytical determination of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has gained importance in clinical diagnosis and in pharmaceutical quality control. CoQ10 is an important cofactor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and a potent endogenous antioxidant. CoQ10 deficiency is often associated with numerous diseases and patients with these conditions may benefit from administration of supplements of CoQ10. In this regard, it has been observed that the best benefits are obtained when CoQ10 deficiency is diagnosed and treated early. Therefore, it is of great value to develop analytical methods for the detection and quantification of CoQ10 in this type of disease. The methods above mentioned should be simple enough to be used in routine clinical laboratories as well as in quality control of pharmaceutical formulations containing CoQ10. Here, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of CoQ10 analysis. PMID:27100710

  2. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  3. Reduction of ascites mortality in broilers by coenzyme Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, A L; Guo, Y M; Yang, Y

    2004-09-01

    Effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on growth performance and ascites were studied in broilers. One hundred eighty 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates each. From d 8, the diets were supplemented with CoQ10 at levels of 0, 20, and 40 mg/kg, respectively. From d 15 to 21, all the chicks were exposed to low ambient temperature (15 to 18 degrees C) to induce ascites. Average feed intake, BW gain, and feed conversion ratio of the broilers during 0 to 3 wk, 3 to 6 wk, and 0 to 6 wk were measured. The results showed that there were no influences observed on broilers' growth performance, but the mortality due to ascites was reduced by CoQ10 supplementation (P Ascites heart index (AHI) was significantly decreased by 40 mg/kg CoQ10 supplementation (P ascites mortality in broilers, and 40 mg/kg CoQ10 seems to be more effective than 20 mg/ kg CoQ10. PMID:15384911

  4. Working with Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Kaci, Souhila

    2011-01-01

    Preferences are useful in many real-life problems, guiding human decision making from early childhood up to complex professional and organizational decisions. In artificial intelligence specifically, preferences is a relatively new topic of relevance to nonmonotonic reasoning, multiagent systems, constraint satisfaction, decision making, social choice theory and decision-theoretic planning. The first part of this book deals with preference representation, with specific chapters dedicated to representation languages, nonmonotonic logics of preferences, conditional preference networks, positive

  5. Characterization of Alkyl-Nickel Adducts Generated by Reaction of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase with Brominated Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Mishtu; Kunz, Ryan C.; Lyons, Derek M.; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) from methanogenic archaea catalyzes the final step in the biological synthesis of methane. Using coenzyme B (CoBSH) as the two-electron donor, MCR reduces methyl-coenzyme M (methyl-SCoM) to methane and the mixed disulfide, CoB-S-S-CoM. MCR contains Coenzyme F430, an essential redox-active nickel tetrahydrocorphin at its active site. The active form of MCR (MCRred1) contains Ni(I)-F430. When 3-bromopropane sulfonate (BPS) is incubated with MCRred1, an alkyl-Ni...

  6. Critical period for acoustic preference in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Lin, Eric W.; Hensch, Takao K.

    2012-01-01

    Preference behaviors are often established during early life, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Adapting a unique nesting behavior assay, we confirmed a “critical period” for developing music preference in C57BL/6 mice. Early music exposure between postnatal days 15 and 24 reversed their innate bias for silent shelter, which typically could not be altered in adulthood. Instead, exposing adult mice treated acutely with valproic acid or carrying a targeted deletion of...

  7. Decreased hepatic contents of coenzyme A molecular species in mice after subchronic mild social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yoshifumi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Hagiya, Yuki; Chohnan, Shigeru; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-03-01

    Social stress may precipitate psychiatric disorders such as depression, which is related to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. We have evaluated the effects of social stress on central and peripheral metabolism using a model of depression in mice. In the present study, we focused on coenzyme A (CoA) molecular species [i.e. non-esterified CoA (CoASH), acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA] which play important roles in numerous metabolic pathways, and we analyzed changes in expression of these molecules in the hypothalamus and liver of adult male mice (C57BL/6J) subjected to 10 days of subchronic mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) with ICR mice as aggressors. Mice (n = 12) exposed to showed hyperphagia- and polydipsia-like symptoms and increased body weight gain compared with control mice which were not affected by exposure to ICR mice (n = 12). To elucidate the underlying metabolic features in the sCSDS model, acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and CoASH tissue levels were analyzed using the acyl-CoA cycling method. The levels of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, which decreases feeding behavior, were not influenced by sCSDS. However, sCSDS reduced levels of acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and total CoA (sum of the three CoA molecular species) in the liver. Hence, hyperphagia-like symptoms in sCSDS mice evidently occurred independently of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, but might consequently lead to down-regulation of hepatic CoA via altered expression of nudix hydrolase 7. Future studies should investigate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the down-regulation of liver CoA pools in sCSDS mice. PMID:26864137

  8. Rotational preference in gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-06-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast's rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  9. Identification of mitochondrial coenzyme a transporters from maize and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallot, Rémi; Agrimi, Gennaro; Lerma-Ortiz, Claudia; Teresinski, Howard J; Frelin, Océane; Ellens, Kenneth W; Castegna, Alessandra; Russo, Annamaria; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Mullen, Robert T; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Hanson, Andrew D

    2013-06-01

    Plants make coenzyme A (CoA) in the cytoplasm but use it for reactions in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes, implying that these organelles have CoA transporters. A plant peroxisomal CoA transporter is already known, but plant mitochondrial or chloroplastic CoA transporters are not. Mitochondrial CoA transporters belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family, however, have been identified in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Leu-5p) and mammals (SLC25A42). Comparative genomic analysis indicated that angiosperms have two distinct homologs of these mitochondrial CoA transporters, whereas nonflowering plants have only one. The homologs from maize (Zea mays; GRMZM2G161299 and GRMZM2G420119) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; At1g14560 and At4g26180) all complemented the growth defect of the yeast leu5Δ mitochondrial CoA carrier mutant and substantially restored its mitochondrial CoA level, confirming that these proteins have CoA transport activity. Dual-import assays with purified pea (Pisum sativum) mitochondria and chloroplasts, and subcellular localization of green fluorescent protein fusions in transiently transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 cells, showed that the maize and Arabidopsis proteins are targeted to mitochondria. Consistent with the ubiquitous importance of CoA, the maize and Arabidopsis mitochondrial CoA transporter genes are expressed at similar levels throughout the plant. These data show that representatives of both monocotyledons and eudicotyledons have twin, mitochondrially located mitochondrial carrier family carriers for CoA. The highly conserved nature of these carriers makes possible their reliable annotation in other angiosperm genomes. PMID:23590975

  10. Examining Office Type Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Rolfö, Linda; Eklund, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Office types and their environmental features influence performance and job satisfaction. Yet employees’ opinions are seldom considered when choosing office type. This paper suggests a method that investigates employees’ office type preferences and motives behind the preferences. The method proved to be quick and simple and provided a flow of current to preferred office type. A majority preferred the quiet cell office for its privacy while the open office was considered having a noisy and dis...

  11. Heterogeneous Social Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Erlei, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has shown the usefulness of social preferences for explaining behavior in laboratory experiments. This paper demonstrates that models of social preferences are particularly powerful in explaining behavior if they are embedded in a setting of heteroge-neous actors with heterogeneous (social) preferences. For this purpose a simple model is in-troduced that combines the basic ideas of inequity aversion, social welfare preferences, recip-rocity and heterogeneity. This model is app...

  12. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Pia M. Vinken; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast’s rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast’s rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experimen...

  13. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  14. Separation of Coenzyme Q10 in Palm Oil by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng M. Han

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is known to host a variety of phytonutrients; some having antioxidant property such as the carotenes and vitamin E. These antioxidants are also present in the oil recovered from the palm-pressed fibre. Study was carried out to investigate the presence of coenzyme Q10, yet another non-glyceride compound which possesses antioxidant property in crude palm oil (CPO and palm fibre oil. Separation of coenzyme Q10 in CPO and palm fibre oil was carried out using supercritical fluid chromatography with ultra violet detection. 1H and 13C NMR were used for its characterisation. Calibration with authentic standard shows that there are 10-80 ppm coenzyme Q10 in CPO while its concentration in palm fibre oil is 1000-1500 ppm.

  15. Continuous recording of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity using fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Erland J.F.; Nystrøm, Birthe T.

    2001-01-01

    acyl-Coenzyme A, synthetase, activity assay, fluorescence recording, fatty acid probe, serum albumin, hydroxycoumarin, detergent, micelles, Pseudomonas fragi, rat liver microsomes......acyl-Coenzyme A, synthetase, activity assay, fluorescence recording, fatty acid probe, serum albumin, hydroxycoumarin, detergent, micelles, Pseudomonas fragi, rat liver microsomes...

  16. Variation of Coenzyme F420 Activity and Methane Yield in Landfill Simulation of Organic Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yun-huan; SANG Shu-xun; HUANG Hua-zhou; LIU Xiao-juan; OUYANG Jin-bao

    2007-01-01

    A simulated landfill anaerobic bioreactor was used to characterize the anaerobic biodegradation and biogas generation of organic waste which was mainly composed of residuals of vegetables and foods. We investigated the dynamics of the coenzyme F420 activity and determined correlations between biogas yields, methane yields, methane concentration and coenzyme F420 activity. The experiment was carried out under different conditions from control without any treatment, addition of Fe3+, microorganism inoculation to a combination of Fe3+ addition and inoculation at a temperature of 36±2 ℃. The experiment was lasted 120 d and coenzyme F420 activity was analyzed using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Experimental results indicated that activity of the coenzyme F420 treated by Fe3+ and microorganism inoculation increased substantially. The waste treated by inoculation had the greatest increase. When the waste was treated by Fe3+, inoculation and the combination of Fe3+ and inoculation, biogas yields increased by 46.9%, 132.6% and 153.1%, respectively; while the methane yields increased 4, 97 and 98 times. Methane concentration varied between 0 and 6% in the control reactor, from 0 to 14% for waste treated by the addition of Fe3+, from 0 to 59% for waste treated by inoculation and from 0 to 63% for waste treated by Fe3+ addition and inoculation. Correlations between coenzyme F420 activity and biogas production, methane production and methane concentration proved to be positively significant (p<0.05), except for the control. Consequently, coenzyme F420 activity could be used as an index for monitoring the ac-tivity of methanogens during anaerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

  17. Separation of Coenzyme Q10 in Palm Oil by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Ng M. Han; Choo Y. May; Ma A. Ngan; Chuah C. Hock; Mohd A. Hashim

    2006-01-01

    Palm oil is known to host a variety of phytonutrients; some having antioxidant property such as the carotenes and vitamin E. These antioxidants are also present in the oil recovered from the palm-pressed fibre. Study was carried out to investigate the presence of coenzyme Q10, yet another non-glyceride compound which possesses antioxidant property in crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fibre oil. Separation of coenzyme Q10 in CPO and palm fibre oil was carried out using supercritical fluid chromato...

  18. Probing Reversible Chemistry in Coenzyme B12-Dependent Ethanolamine Ammonia Lyase with Kinetic Isotope Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Rentergent, Julius; Scruton, Nigel S; Hay, Sam; Jones, Alex R.

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes such as ethanolamine ammonia lyase have remarkable catalytic power and some unique properties that enable detailed analysis of the reaction chemistry and associated dynamics. By selectively deuterating the substrate (ethanolamine) and/or the β-carbon of the 5′-deoxyadenosyl moiety of the intrinsic coenzyme B12, it was possible to experimentally probe both the forward and reverse hydrogen atom transfers between the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical and substrate duri...

  19. TD-DFT Insight into Photodissociation of Co-C Bond in Coenzyme B12

    OpenAIRE

    PawelMichalKozlowski; PiotrLodowski

    2014-01-01

    Coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl) is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin B12, and continues to be a topic of active research interest. The mechanism of Co-C bond cleavage in AdoCbl, and the corresponding enzymatic reactions are however, not well understood at the molecular level. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been applied to investigate the photodissociation of coenzyme B12. To reduce computational cost, while retaining the major spectroscopic featu...

  20. Preferences over Social Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet;

    2013-01-01

    We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although the...... methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence that...... subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk...

  1. Relation between wall motion and scintigraphic uptake altered by the cut-off level on technetium-99m sestamibi tomographic imaging. The preferable cut-off levels according to tomographic uptake correlated with the wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether technetium-99m sestamibi imaging can evaluate myocardial viability is still obscure. It may be partially because the preferable cut-off level for evaluation of the viability is not known. This study was aimed to investigate which cut-off level should be used for estimation of the contractile function, and verify whether technetium-99m sestamibi tomographic imaging can evaluate myocardial viability. We studied 45 patients who had myocardial infarction. They underwent technetium-99m sestamibi imaging, echocardiography, and cardiac catheterization. The myocardial image was divided into 16 segments, each of which was scored according to wall motion on echocardiography with a 4-point scale. The segmental technetium-99m uptake was also scored with a 4-point scale. We investigated the correlation between wall motion and scintigraphic uptake with the use of 7 cut off levels (from 35% to 65%, in 5% increments). The correlation ranks were compared among patient groups with a number of stenotic vessels. Irrespective of the number of stenotic vessels, the defect score was similarly enlarged according to cut-off levels. The patient groups had the maximum correlation ranks with different cut-off levels, which were 40% for 1-vessel disease (ρ=0.512, n=160, p=0.0001), 50% for 2-vessel disease (ρ=0.424, n=208, p=0.0001), and 60% for 3-vessel disease (ρ=0.540, n=272, p=0.0001). The correlation ranks for all groups were stable, whereas not high, throughout various cut-off levels. Technetium-99m sestamibi imaging can approximately estimate myocardial viability from the point of view of function, which may be corrected by the careful choice of cut off levels according to the number of the stenotic vessels (40% for 1-vessel disease, 50% for 2-vessel disease, 60% for 3-vessel disease). (author)

  2. Coenzyme Q blocks biochemical but not receptor-mediated apoptosis by increasing mitochondrial antioxidant protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alleva, R.; Tomasetti, M.; Anděra, Ladislav; Gellert, N.; Borghi, B.; Weber, C.; Murphy, M. P.; Neužil, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 503, č. 1 (2001), s. 46-50. ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/99/0350 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : coenzyme Q * apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2001

  3. How Chain Length and Charge Affect Surfactant Denaturation of Acyl Coenzyme A Binding Protein (ACBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kell Kleiner; Otzen, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, equilibria and kinetics of unfolding of acyl coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP) have been investigated in sodium alkyl sulfate surfactants of different chain length (8-16 carbon atoms) and with different proportions of the nonionic surfactant dodecyl maltos...

  4. A coenzyme-independent decarboxylase/oxygenase cascade for the efficient synthesis of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Toshiki; Miura, Misa; Kino, Kuniki

    2014-10-13

    Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavor compounds in the world as well as a promising versatile building block. The biotechnological production of vanillin from plant-derived ferulic acid has attracted much attention as a new alternative to chemical synthesis. One limitation of the known metabolic pathway to vanillin is its requirement for expensive coenzymes. Here, we developed a novel route to vanillin from ferulic acid that does not require any coenzymes. This artificial pathway consists of a coenzyme-independent decarboxylase and a coenzyme-independent oxygenase. When Escherichia coli cells harboring the decarboxylase/oxygenase cascade were incubated with ferulic acid, the cells efficiently synthesized vanillin (8.0 mM, 1.2 g L(-1) ) via 4-vinylguaiacol in one pot, without the generation of any detectable aromatic by-products. The efficient method described here might be applicable to the synthesis of other high-value chemicals from plant-derived aromatics. PMID:25164030

  5. Decreased coenzyme Q10 concentration in plasma of children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, J.H.; Lecluse, A.L.Y.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.; Laag, J. van der; Houwen, R.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an effective lipophilic antioxidant and protects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging radicals. Patients with cystic fibrosis generally have fat malabsorption; thus, we hypothesized that overall plasma CoQ10 concentration in pediatric patients with cystic fibr

  6. Extracellular 4 '-phosphopantetheine is a source for intracellular coenzyme A synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Baratashvili, Madina; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Kanon, Bart; Colombelli, Cristina; Lambrechts, Roald A.; Schaap, Onno; Nollen, Ellen A.; Podgorsek, Ajda; Kosec, Gregor; Petkovic, Hrvoje; Hayflick, Susan; Tiranti, Valeria; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Grzeschik, Nicola A.; Sibon, Ody C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic cofactor coenzyme A (CoA) gained renewed attention because of its roles in neurodegeneration, protein acetylation, autophagy and signal transduction. The long-standing dogma is that eukaryotic cells obtain CoA exclusively via the uptake of extracellular precursors, especially vitamin B

  7. Conformational Mobility of GOx Coenzyme Complex on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A critical issue in bioelectrochemical applications that use electrodes modified by Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs is to ensure high activity of the catalytic site of an immobilized enzyme protein interacting with nanomaterials. Since Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD, a coenzyme of glucose oxidase (GOx, is the active center of the catalytic site, conformation of which could determine the activity of enzyme, it is important to understand the dynamic mechanism of its conformational mobility while GOx is adsorbed on SWCNTs with multiple orientations. However, this dynamic mechanism still remains unclear at the atomic level due to the coenzyme being embedded in the apo-GOx and the limitations of appropriate experimental methods. In this study, a molecular dynamics (MD simulation was performed to investigate the conformational mobility mechanism of the coenzyme. The trajectory and the interaction energy clearly indicate that the adsorption of GOx onto SWCNTs plays an important role in the conformational mobility of the coenzyme, and its mobility is greatly affected by the distribution of water molecules due to it being hydrophobic.

  8. Nano-encapsulation of coenzyme Q10 using octenyl succinic anhydride modified starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starch (OSA-ST) was used to encapsulate Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). CoQ10 was dissolved in rice bran oil (RBO), and incorporated into an aqueous OSA-ST solution. High pressure homogenization (HPH) of the mixture was conducted at 170 MPa for 5-6 cycles. The resulting ...

  9. Inhibition of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (Ex Vivo by Morus indica (Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Reddy Palvai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals are the bioactive components that contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular and other degenerative diseases. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA reductase would be an effective means of lowering plasma cholesterol in humans. The present study explores the HMG CoA reductase inhibitory effect of extracts from leaves of Morus indica varieties, M5, V1, and S36, compared with the statin, using an ex vivo method. The assay is based on the stoichiometric formation of coenzyme A during the reduction of microsomal HMG CoA to mevalonate. Dechlorophyllised extract of three varieties was studied at 300 µg. The coenzyme A released at the end of assay in control (100.31 nmoles and statins (94.46 nm was higher than the dechlorphyllised extracts of the samples. The coenzyme A released during the reduction of HMG CoA to mevalonate in dechlorophyllised extracts of the samples was as follows: S36 < M5 < V1. The results indicated that the samples were highly effective in inhibiting the enzyme compared to statins (standard drug. The results indicate the role of Morus varieties extracts in modulating the cholesterol metabolism by inhibiting the activity of HMG CoA reductase. These results provide scope for designing in vivo animal studies to confirm their effect.

  10. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation and exercise-induced oxidative stress in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östman, Bengt; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Michaëlsson, Karl;

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The theoretically beneficial effects of coenzyme Q10 (Q10) on exercise-related oxidative stress and physical capacity have not been confirmed to our knowledge by interventional supplementation studies. Our aim was to investigate further whether Q10 supplementation at a dose recommended...... demonstrate that such effects exist after supplementation with a recommended dose....

  11. A possible prebiotic synthesis of pantetheine, a precursor to coenzyme A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, A. D.; Newton, G. L.; Miller, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    The involvement of coenzyme A in many enzyme reactions suggests that it acted in this capacity very early in the development of life on Earth. Particularly relevant in this regard is its role in the activation of amino acids and hydroxy acids in the biosynthesis of some peptide antibiotics--a mechanism of peptide synthesis that forms the basis for the proposal that a thioester world could have preceded the RNA world. The components of coenzyme A have been shown to be probable prebiotic compounds: beta-alanine, pantoyl lactone and cysteamine and possibly adenosine. We show here that the pantetheine moiety of coenzyme A (which also occurs in a number of enzymes) can be synthesized in yields of several per cent by heating pantoyl lactone, beta-alanine and cysteamine at temperatures as low as 40 degrees C. These components are extremely soluble and so would have been preferentially concentrated in evaporating bodies of water, for example on beaches and at lagoon margins. Our results show that amide bonds can be formed at temperatures as low as 40 degrees C, and provide circumstantial support for the suggestion that pantetheine and coenzyme A were important in the earliest metabolic systems.

  12. Chromosomal Engineering of Escherichia coli for Efficient Production of Coenzyme Q10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明涛; 陈韵妍; 刘建忠

    2014-01-01

    The plasmid-expression system is routinely plagued by potential plasmid instability. Chromosomal in-tegration is one powerful approach to overcome the problem. Herein we report a plasmid-free hyper-producer E. coli strain for coenzyme Q10 production. A series of integration expression vectors, pxKC3T5b and pxKT5b, were constructed for chemically inducible chromosomal evolution (multiple copy integration) and replicon-free and markerless chromosomal integration (single copy integration), respectively. A coenzyme Q10 hyper-producer Es-cherichia coli TBW20134 was constructed by applying chemically inducible chromosomal evolution, replicon-free and markerless chromosomal integration as well as deletion of menaquinone biosynthetic pathway. The engineered E. coli TBW20134 produced 10.7 mg per gram of dry cell mass (DCM) of coenzyme Q10 when supplemented with 0.075 g·L-1 of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid;this yield is unprecedented in E. coli and close to that of the commercial producer Agrobacterium tumefaciens. With this strain, the coenzyme Q10 production capacity was very stable after 30 sequential transfers and no antibiotics were required during the fermentation process. The strategy presented may be useful as a general approach for construction of stable production strains synthesizing natural products where various copy numbers for different genes are concerned.

  13. Is choice-induced preference change long lasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharot, Tali; Fleming, Stephen M; Yu, Xiaoyu; Koster, Raphael; Dolan, Raymond J

    2012-10-01

    The idea that decisions alter preferences has had a considerable influence on the field of psychology and underpins cognitive dissonance theory. Yet it is unknown whether choice-induced changes in preferences are long lasting or are transient manifestations seen in the immediate aftermath of decisions. In the research reported here, we investigated whether these changes in preferences are fleeting or stable. Participants rated vacation destinations before making hypothetical choices between destinations, immediately afterward, and 2.5 to 3 years later. We found that choices altered preferences both immediately after being made and after the delay. These changes could not be accounted for by participants' preexisting preferences, and they occurred only when participants made the choices themselves. Our findings provide evidence that making a decision can lead to enduring change in preferences. PMID:22933456

  14. Interdependent Preference Formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Levent Kockesen; Ok, Efe A.; Rajiv Sethi

    1997-01-01

    A standard assumption in the economic approach to individual decision making is that people have independent preferences, that is, they care only about their absolute (material) payoffs. We study equilibria of the classic common pool resource extraction and public good games when some of the players have negatively interdependent preferences (in the sense that they care not only about their absolute payoffs but also about their relative payoffs) while the remainder have independent preference...

  15. Logical Probability Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Emad

    2013-01-01

    We present a unified logical framework for representing and reasoning about both probability quantitative and qualitative preferences in probability answer set programming, called probability answer set optimization programs. The proposed framework is vital to allow defining probability quantitative preferences over the possible outcomes of qualitative preferences. We show the application of probability answer set optimization programs to a variant of the well-known nurse restoring problem, c...

  16. Chickens prefer beautiful humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Jansson, Liselotte; Enquist, Magnus

    2002-01-01

    We trained chickens to react to an average human female face but not to an average male face (or vice-versa). In a subsequent test, the animals showed preferences for faces consistent with human sexual preferences (obtained from university students). This suggests that human preferences arise from general properties of nervous systems, rather than from face-specific adaptations. We discuss this result in the light of current debate on the meaning of sexual signals, and suggest further tests o...

  17. Coenzyme A, more than 'just' a metabolic cofactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Sibon, Ody C. M.

    2014-01-01

    In all organisms biomolecules play a vital role to enable proper cellular metabolism. Alteration of metabolite homoeostasis disrupts the physiology of cells, leading to various diseases [DeBerardinis and Thompson (2012) Cell, 148, 1132-1144]. Recent studies advances our understanding that some metab

  18. Is Choice-Induced Preference Change Long Lasting?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharot, Tali; Stephen M. Fleming; Yu, Xiaoyu; Koster, Raphael; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that decisions alter preferences has had a considerable influence on the field of psychology and underpins cognitive dissonance theory. Yet it is unknown whether choice-induced changes in preferences are long lasting or are transient manifestations seen in the immediate aftermath of decisions. In the research reported here, we investigated whether these changes in preferences are fleeting or stable. Participants rated vacation destinations immediately after making hypothetical choice...

  19. Characterization of the enzymatic conversion of sulfoacetaldehyde and L-cysteine into coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfoacetaldehyde was shown to be converted enzymatically into coenzyme M by cell-free extracts of methanogenic bacteria. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the S-methyl methyl ester derivative of the coenzyme M isolated from the extracts was used to measure both the extent and position of the deuterium incorporated into coenzyme M from [2,2-2H2]sulfoacetaldehyde. The conversion of sulfoacetaldehyde into coenzyme M was greatly stimulated by the addition of L-cysteine (20 mM) to the extracts and/or by incubating the extracts under hydrogen, whereas incubation in the presence of sulfide (20 mM) greatly reduced coenzyme M synthesis. Incubation of a cell-free extract from Methanobacterium formicicum with [2,2-2H2]sulfoacetaldehyde and [34S]-L-cysteine (92.6 atom % 34S) led to the production of coenzyme M in which the thiol portion of the molecule contained 90 atom % 34S. [ethylene-2H4]-S-(2-Sulfoethyl)cysteine, incubated with this cell-free extract at a concentration of 22 mM, readily cleaved to coenzyme M. On the basis of these observations, it is concluded that sulfoacetaldehyde is converted into coenzyme M by reacting with cysteine to form the thiazolidine adduct [2-(sulfomethyl)thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid], which undergoes a reductive cleavage of the heterocyclic C(2)-N bond to form S-(2-sulfoethyl)cysteine, which, in turn, undergoes a β-elimination to produce coenzyme M

  20. Coenzyme Q Metabolism Is Disturbed in High Fat Diet-Induced Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Botham

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is believed to be a major contributory factor in the development of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the most common liver disorder worldwide. In this study, the effects of high fat diet-induced NAFLD on Coenzyme Q (CoQ metabolism and plasma oxidative stress markers in rats were investigated. Rats were fed a standard low fat diet (control or a high fat diet (57% metabolizable energy as fat for 18 weeks. The concentrations of total (reduced + oxidized CoQ9 were increased by > 2 fold in the plasma of animals fed the high fat diet, while those of total CoQ10 were unchanged. Reduced CoQ levels were raised, but oxidized CoQ levels were not, thus the proportion in the reduced form was increased by about 75%. A higher percentage of plasma CoQ9 as compared to CoQ10 was in the reduced form in both control and high fat fed rats. Plasma protein thiol (SH levels were decreased in the high fat-fed rats as compared to the control group, but concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and low density lipoprotein (LDL conjugated dienes were unchanged. These results indicate that high fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats is associated with altered CoQ metabolism and increased protein, but not lipid, oxidative stress.

  1. The Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Lipoic Acid Added to the Feed of Hens on Physical Characteristics of Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Terčič; Barbara Kotnik; Gregor Gorjanc; Petra Jazbec Križman; Antonija Holcman

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether inclusions of coenzyme Q10, alpha lipoic acid and their combination into diets of hens improve egg quality characteristics. Forty-eight, 33 weeks old Lohmann Brown hens were assigned randomly to four groups of 12 hens each and fed either a basal diet or basal diet supplemented with 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10, 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid and 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10 plus 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid. The diets were fed for 12 weeks. Eggs were weekly examined for...

  2. A STD-NMR Study of the Interaction of the Anabaena Ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase with the Coenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara V. Antonini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR catalyzes the electron transfer from ferredoxin to NADP+ via its flavin FAD cofactor. To get further insights in the architecture of the transient complexes produced during the hydride transfer event between the enzyme and the NADP+ coenzyme we have applied NMR spectroscopy using Saturation Transfer Difference (STD techniques to analyze the interaction between FNRox and the oxidized state of its NADP+ coenzyme. We have found that STD NMR, together with the use of selected mutations on FNR and of the non-FNR reacting coenzyme analogue NAD+, are appropriate tools to provide further information about the the interaction epitope.

  3. Observation of Organometallic and Radical Intermediates Formed during the Reaction of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase with Bromoethanesulfonate†

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xianghui; Telser, Joshua; Hoffman, Brian M.; Gerfen, Gary; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) from methanogenic archaea catalyzes the final step of methane formation, in which methyl-coenzyme M (2-methylthioethane sulfonate, methyl-SCoM) is reduced with coenzyme B (N-7-mercaptoheptanolyl-threonine phosphate, CoBSH) to form methane and the heterodisulfide CoBS-SCoM. The active dimeric form of MCR contains two Ni(I)-F430 prosthetic groups, one in each monomer. This manuscript describes studies of the reaction of the active Ni(I) state of MCR (MCRred1) w...

  4. Changing Less-Preferred Duties to More-Preferred: A Potential Strategy for Improving Supervisor Work Enjoyment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carolyn W.; Reid, Dennis H.; Passante, Susan; Canipe, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated a strategy for making highly nonpreferred work duties more preferred as a potential means of enhancing work enjoyment among supervisors in a human service setting. Repeated preference ratings and rankings were completed by 4 supervisors during baseline to identify their most disliked work tasks. These tasks were then altered by…

  5. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid;

    2015-01-01

    Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily distribu...

  6. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  7. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  8. Involvement of mitochondrial ferredoxin and para-aminobenzoic acid in yeast coenzyme Q biosynthesis. : pABA is a precursor of yeast coenzyme Q

    OpenAIRE

    Pierrel, Fabien; Hamelin, Olivier; Douki, Thierry; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Ozeir, Mohammad; Lill, Roland; Fontecave, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Yeast ubiquinone or coenzyme Q(6) (Q(6)) is a redox active lipid that plays a crucial role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. At least nine proteins (Coq1p-9p) participate in Q(6) biosynthesis from 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HB). We now show that the mitochondrial ferredoxin Yah1p and the ferredoxin reductase Arh1p are required for Q(6) biosynthesis, probably for the first hydroxylation of the pathway. Conditional Gal-YAH1 and Gal-ARH1 mutants accumulate 3-hexaprenyl-4-hydroxyphenol and...

  9. Changes in the size and composition of intracellular pools of nonesterified coenzyme A and coenzyme A thioesters in aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chohnan, S; FURUKAWA, H.; Fujio, T; Nishihara, H.; Takamura, Y

    1997-01-01

    Intracellular levels of three coenzyme A (CoA) molecular species, i.e., nonesterified CoA (CoASH), acetyl-CoA, and malonyl-CoA, in a variety of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were analyzed by the acyl-CoA cycling method developed by us. It was demonstrated that there was an intrinsic difference between aerobes and facultative anaerobes in the changes in the size and composition of CoA pools. The CoA pools in the aerobic bacteria hardly changed and were significantly smaller than...

  10. Preferred Dance Tempo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia; Huron, David; Brod, Garvin;

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments participants tuned a drum machine to their preferred dance tempo. Measurements of height, shoulder width, leg length, and weight were taken for each participant, and their sex recorded. Using a multiple regression analysis, height and leg length combined was found to be the best...... predictors of preferred dance tempo in Experiment 1. A second experiment, where males and females were matched in terms of height, resulted in no significant correlation between sex and preferred dance tempo. In the matched sample, height was found to be the single best predictor but with a relatively small...... effect size. These results are consistent with a biomechanical “resonance” model of dancing....

  11. Coenzyme B12 Controls Transcription of the Streptomyces Class Ia Ribonucleotide Reductase nrdABS Operon via a Riboswitch Mechanism†

    OpenAIRE

    Borovok, Ilya; Gorovitz, Batia; Schreiber, Rachel; Aharonowitz, Yair; Cohen, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides and are essential for de novo DNA synthesis and repair. Streptomycetes contain genes coding for two RNRs. The class Ia RNR is oxygen dependent, and the class II RNR is oxygen independent and requires coenzyme B12. Either RNR is sufficient for vegetative growth. We show here that the Streptomyces coelicolor M145 nrdABS genes encoding the class Ia RNR are regulated by coenzyme B12. The 5′-untrans...

  12. Crystal structure of the histone acetyltransferase domain of the human PCAF transcriptional regulator bound to coenzyme A.

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, A.; Rojas, J R; Trievel, R C; Wang, L.; Berger, S L; Marmorstein, R

    1999-01-01

    The human p300/CBP-associating factor, PCAF, mediates transcriptional activation through its ability to acetylate nucleosomal histone substrates as well as transcriptional activators such as p53. We have determined the 2.3 A crystal structure of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain of PCAF bound to coenzyme A. The structure reveals a central protein core associated with coenzyme A binding and a pronounced cleft that sits over the protein core and is flanked on opposite sides by the N- a...

  13. Cytochrome P450 or high pH induce structural and functional changes of Coenzyme Q10

    OpenAIRE

    Gulaboski, Rubin; Bogeski, Ivan; Mirceski, Valentin; Reinhard, Kappl; Hoth, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 is a lipid soluble compound indispensable for optimal functioning of all living organisms, and it is the only non-protein in the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. Using voltammetry, UV-VIS spectrophotometry, EPR and NMR we have shown that Cytochrome P450 and high pH's induce structural and functional changes in Coenzyme Q10. The new derivative has much greater antioxidative potential and ability to bind Ca2+ and other earth-alkaline cations.

  14. CbiZ, an amidohydrolase enzyme required for salvaging the coenzyme B12 precursor cobinamide in archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Woodson, Jesse D.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2004-01-01

    The existence of a pathway for salvaging the coenzyme B12 precursor dicyanocobinamide (Cbi) from the environment was established by genetic and biochemical means. The pathway requires the function of a previously unidentified amidohydrolase enzyme that converts adenosylcobinamide to adenosylcobyric acid, a bona fide intermediate of the de novo coenzyme B12 biosynthetic route. The cbiZ gene of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei strain Göl was cloned, was overproduced in Escherichia...

  15. Preferred axis in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The foundation of modern cosmology relies on the so-called cosmological principle which states an homogeneous and isotropic distribution of matter in the universe on large scales. However, recent observations, such as the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the motion of galaxies in the universe, the polarization of quasars and the acceleration of the cosmic expansion, indicate preferred directions in the sky. If these directions have a cosmological origin, the cosmological principle would be violated, and modern cosmology should be reconsidered. In this paper, by considering the preferred axis in the CMB parity violation, we find that it coincides with the preferred axes in CMB quadrupole and CMB octopole, and they all align with the direction of the CMB kinematic dipole. In addition, the preferred directions in the velocity flows, quasar alignment, anisotropy of the cosmic acceleration, the handedness of spiral galaxies, and the angular distribution of the fine-structu...

  16. Poverty Prefers Company

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Simpson, B

    2014-01-01

    In three web-based experiments, we show that both actual poverty and experimentally induced (imagined) poverty create a preference for greater inequality. Study 1, a cross-national comparison between Americans and Swedes, showed that respondents who were actually poor and those who were experimentally induced to imagine that they were poor tended to express a heightened preference for greater inequality, and for a higher proportion of poor citizens. Study 2 replicated the effects using differ...

  17. Endogenouse Social Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Carpenter

    2002-01-01

    A long-standing discussion in economics has developed around the issue of whether institutions (specifically markets) affect people’ social preferences. One theory posits that markets force people to interact repeatedly, and in doing do reduce anonymity, curtail opportunistic behavior, and make agents more socially minded. The opposing view contends that markets are alienating because they make interactions more (not less) anonymous and competition erodes peoples’ preferences to engage in sel...

  18. Revealed smooth nontransitive preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the behavioural consequences of consumers having nontransitive preference relations. Data sets consist of finitely many observations of price vectors and consumption bundles. A preference relation rationalizes a data set provided that for every observed ...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....

  19. Essays on Social Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Joo Young

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of six essays related to experimental investigation of social preference. We investigate the effects of a pure income effect on social preference in the first essay. In the second essay we explore the effects of gender in altruism and the corresponding anticipation behavior. The third essay discusses the effects of different type of rebate schemes on altruistic behavior. We study the effects of a real and a minimal identity on initiation and escalation of conflict i...

  20. Exogenous coenzyme Q10 modulates MMP-2 activity in MCF-7 cell line as a breast cancer cellular model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmiranpour Hossein

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 is a key molecule in cellular invasion and metastasis. Mitochondrial ROS has been established as a mediator of MMP activity. Coenzyme Q10 contributes to intracellular ROS regulation. Coenzyme Q10 beneficial effects on cancer are still in controversy but there are indications of Coenzyme Q10 complementing effect on tamoxifen receiving breast cancer patients. Methods In this study we aimed to investigate the correlation of the effects of co-incubation of coenzyme Q10 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC on intracellular H2O2 content and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 activity in MCF-7 cell line. Results and Discussion Our experiment was designed to assess the effect in a time and dose related manner. Gelatin zymography and Flowcytometric measurement of H2O2 by 2'7',-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate probe were employed. The results showed that both coenzyme Q10 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine reduce MMP-2 activity along with the pro-oxidant capacity of the MCF-7 cell in a dose proportionate manner. Conclusions Collectively, the present study highlights the significance of Coenzyme Q10 effect on the cell invasion/metastasis effecter molecules.

  1. Mechanism of Inhibition of Aliphatic Epoxide Carboxylation by the Coenzyme M Analog 2-Bromoethanesulfonate*

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Jeffrey M.; Clark, Daniel D.; Kofoed, Melissa A.; Ensign, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The bacterial metabolism of epoxypropane formed from propylene oxidation uses the atypical cofactor coenzyme M (CoM, 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate) as the nucleophile for epoxide ring opening and as a carrier of intermediates that undergo dehydrogenation, reductive cleavage, and carboxylation to form acetoacetate in a three-step metabolic pathway. 2-Ketopropyl-CoM carboxylase/oxidoreductase (2-KPCC), the terminal enzyme of this pathway, is the only known member of the disulfide oxidoreductase fam...

  2. Metabolic perturbation of an essential pathway: evaluation of a glycine precursor of Coenzyme A

    OpenAIRE

    Rothmann, Michael; Kang, MinJin; Villa, Reymundo; Ntai, Ioanna; La Clair, James J.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Chapman, Eli; Burkart, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Pantetheine, and its corresponding disulfide pantethine, play a key role in metabolism as a building block of coenzyme A (CoA), an essential cofactor utilized in ~4% of primary metabolism and central to fatty acid, polyketide, and non-ribosomal peptide synthases. Using a combination of recombinant engineering and chemical synthesis, we demonstrate that the disulfide of N-pantoylglycyl-2-aminoethanethiol (GlyPan), with one carbon deletion from pantetheine, can rescue a mutant E. coli strain MG...

  3. Coenzyme Q10 Levels Are Decreased in the Cerebellum of Multiple-System Atrophy Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schottlaender, Lucia V.; Bettencourt, Conceição; Kiely, Aoife P.; Chalasani, Annapurna; Neergheen, Viruna; Holton, Janice L.; Hargreaves, Iain; Houlden, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in brain tissue of multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients differ from those in elderly controls and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Flash frozen brain tissue of a series of 20 pathologically confirmed MSA patients [9 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) type, 6 striatonigral degeneration (SND) type, and 5 mixed type] was used for this study. Elderly controls (n = 37) as ...

  4. Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency with adult onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smelt, A H; Poorthuis, B J; Onkenhout, W; Scholte, H R; Andresen, B S; van Duinen, S G; Gregersen, N; Wintzen, A R

    1998-01-01

    Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9), tetrade...... be due to residual enzyme activity as a consequence of the two missense mutations. Treatment with L-carnitine and medium chain triglycerides in the diet did not reduce the attacks of rhabdomyolysis....

  5. Coenzyme M methylase activity of the 480-kilodalton corrinoid protein from Methanosarcina barkeri.

    OpenAIRE

    Tallant, T C; Krzycki, J A

    1996-01-01

    Activity staining of extracts of Methanosarcina barkeri electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gels revealed an additional methylcobalamin:coenzyme M (methylcobalamin:CoM) methyltransferase present in cells grown on acetate but not in those grown on trimethylamine. This methyltransferase is the 480-kDa corrinoid protein previously identified by its methylation following inhibition of methyl-CoM reductase in otherwise methanogenic cell extracts. The methylcobalamin:CoM methyltransferase activity of...

  6. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation reverses age-related impairments in spatial learning and lowers protein oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Ritu A.; Forster, Michael J.; Sumien, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) is widely available as a dietary supplement and remains under consideration as a treatment for age-associated neurodegenerative conditions. However, no studies have determined if supplementation, initiated relatively late in life, could have beneficial effects on mild functional impairments associated with normal brain aging. Accordingly, the current study assessed the effect of CoQ intake in older mice for which cognitive and psychomotor impairments were already evident. S...

  7. Characterization and Heterologous Expression of the Oxalyl Coenzyme A Decarboxylase Gene from Bifidobacterium lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Federici, Federica; Vitali, Beatrice; Gotti, Roberto; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Gobbi, Silvia; Peck, Ammon B; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    Oxalyl coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase (Oxc) is a key enzyme in the catabolism of the highly toxic compound oxalate, catalyzing the decarboxylation of oxalyl-CoA to formyl-CoA. The gene encoding a novel oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase from Bifidobacterium lactis DSM 10140 (oxc) was identified and characterized. This strain, isolated from yogurt, showed the highest oxalate-degrading activity in a preliminary screening with 12 strains belonging to Bifidobacterium, an anaerobic intestinal bacterial grou...

  8. In vivo activation of methyl-coenzyme M reductase by carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StephenWileyRagsdale

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR from methanogenic archaea catalyzes the rate-limiting and final step in methane biosynthesis. Using coenzyme B (CoBSH as the two-electron donor, MCR reduces methyl-coenzyme M (CH3-SCoM to methane and the mixed disulfide, CoBS-SCoM. MCR contains an essential redox-active nickel tetrahydro¬corphinoid cofactor, Coenzyme F430, at its active site. The active form of the enzyme (MCRred1 contains Ni(I-F430. Rapid and efficient conversion of MCR to MCRred1 is important for elucidating the enzymatic mechanism, yet this reduction is difficult because the Ni(I state is subject to oxidative inactivation. Furthermore, no in vitro methods have yet been described to convert Ni(II forms into MCRred1. Since 1991, it has been known that MCRred1 from Methanothermobacter marburgensis can be generated in vivo when cells are purged with 100% H2. Here we show that purging cells or cell extracts with CO can also activate MCR. The rate of in vivo activation by CO is about 15 times faster than by H2 (130 min-1 and 8 min-1, respectively and CO leads to two-fold higher MCRred1 than H2. Unlike H2-dependent activation, which exhibits a 10-h lag time, there is no lag for CO-dependent activation. Based on cyanide inhibition experiments, CODH is required for the CO-dependent activation. Formate, which also is a strong reductant, cannot activate MCR in M. marburgensis in vivo.

  9. Prolonged QTc Interval in Association With Medium-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Wiles, Jason R.; Leslie, Nancy; Knilans, Timothy K.; Akinbi, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most common disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We report a term male infant who presented at 3 days of age with hypoglycemia, compensated metabolic acidosis, hypocalcemia, and prolonged QTc interval. Pregnancy was complicated by maternal premature atrial contractions and premature ventricular contractions. Prolongation of the QTc interval resolved after correction of metabolic derangements. The newborn screen was...

  10. Determination of coenzyme Q10, coenzyme Q9, and melatonin contents in virgin argan oils: comparison with other edible vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Carmen; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; García-Corzo, Laura; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos

    2011-11-23

    Virgin argan oil possesses high antioxidant capacity (AC), which may be partially explained by its high content in antioxidant molecules such as polyphenols and tocopherols. However, the content in other antioxidant molecules, for example, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ(10)), coenzyme Q9 (CoQ(9)), and melatonin (Mel), which have been identified in other edible vegetable oils, have not been evaluated in virgin argan oil. Consequently, it was decided to evaluate the contents of CoQ(10), CoQ(9), and Mel in virgin argan oils and compare the results to those obtained in extra virgin olive oils and some varieties of seed oils. By the use of sensitive HPLC-EC/F methods, the results showed that virgin argan oil is a rich source of CoQ(10) and Mel, but no CoQ(9) was detected. Extra virgin olive oil showed higher levels of CoQ(10) and lower levels of Mel than virgin argan oil. Between the seed oil samples, only virgin soybean oil showed higher CoQ(10) and Mel levels than virgin argan oil. The results may be relevant for the contribution of CoQ(10) and Mel to the biological activities of virgin argan oil. PMID:22007968

  11. Reversal of statin-induced memory dysfunction by co-enzyme Q10: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeahialam BN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Basil N Okeahialam Cardiology Sub-Unit 1, Department of Medicine, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria Abstract: Statins are useful in the armamentarium of the clinician dealing with dyslipidemia, which increases cardiovascular morbi-mortality in hypertensive and diabetic patients among others. Dyslipidemia commonly exists as a comorbidity factor in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Use of statins is however associated with side effects which at times are so disabling as to interfere with activities of daily living. There are various ways of dealing with this, including use of more water-soluble varieties, intermittent dosing, or use of statin alternatives. Of late, use of co-enzyme Q10 has become acceptable for the muscle side effects. Only one report of any benefit on the rarely reported memory side effect was encountered by the author in the search of English medical literature. This is a report of a documented case of a Nigerian woman with history of statin intolerance in this case, memory dysfunction despite persisting dyslipidemia comorbidity. Her memory dysfunction side effect which interfered with activities of daily living and background muscle pain cleared when coenzyme Q10 was administered alongside low dose statin. Her lipid profile normalized and has remained normal. It is being recommended for use when statin side effects (muscle- and memory-related impair quality of life and leave patient at dyslipidemia-induced cardiovascular morbi-mortality. Keywords: statin, memory dysfunction, co-enzyme Q10, improvement

  12. Coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol protect against amitriptyline toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since amitriptyline is a very frequently prescribed antidepressant drug, it is not surprising that amitriptyline toxicity is relatively common. Amitriptyline toxic systemic effects include cardiovascular, autonomous nervous, and central nervous systems. To understand the mechanisms of amitriptyline toxicity we studied the cytotoxic effects of amitriptyline treatment on cultured primary human fibroblasts and zebrafish embryos, and the protective role of coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol, two membrane antioxidants. We found that amitriptyline treatment induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in primary human fibroblasts. Mitochondrial dysfunction in amitriptyline treatment was characterized by reduced expression levels of mitochondrial proteins and coenzyme Q10, decreased NADH:cytochrome c reductase activity, and a drop in mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, and as a consequence of these toxic effects, amitriptyline treatment induced a significant increase in apoptotic cell death activating mitochondrial permeability transition. Coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol supplementation attenuated ROS production, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death, suggesting that oxidative stress affecting cell membrane components is involved in amitriptyline cytotoxicity. Furthermore, amitriptyline-dependent toxicity and antioxidant protection were also evaluated in zebrafish embryos, a well established vertebrate model to study developmental toxicity. Amitriptyline significantly increased embryonic cell death and apoptosis rate, and both antioxidants provided a significant protection against amitriptyline embryotoxicity

  13. Preference Inconsistence-Based Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Pan; Kun She; Pengyuan Wei#,

    2016-01-01

    Preference analysis is a class of important issues in ordinal decision making. As available information is usually obtained from different evaluation criteria or experts, the derived preference decisions may be inconsistent and uncertain. Shannon entropy is a suitable measurement of uncertainty. This work proposes the concepts of preference inconsistence set and preference inconsistence degree. Then preference inconsistence entropy is introduced by combining preference inconsistence degree an...

  14. Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Modulates NFκB and Nrf2 Pathways in Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Ragip; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Sahin, Nurhan; Ali, Shakir; Cinar, Vedat; Atalay, Mustafa; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-03-01

    This study reports the effects of Q10, coenzyme Q10 or ubiquinone, a component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, on nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), inhibitors of kappa B (IκB), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and hemeoxygenase 1 (HO-1) in rats after chronic exercise training for 6 weeks. 8-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to one of four treatments planned in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of two condition (sedentary vs. exercise training), and two coenzyme Q10 levels (0 and 300 mg/kg per day for 6 weeks). The expression levels of the target proteins were determined in the heart, liver and muscle, and biochemical parameters including creatinine, urea, glucose and lipid profile were investigated in plasma. When compared with sedentary group, significant decreases in heart, liver and muscle NFκB levels by 45%, 26% and 44% were observed in Q10 supplemented rats after exercise training, respectively, while the inhibitory protein IκB increased by 179%, 111% and 127% in heart, liver and muscle tissues. Q10 supplementation caused an increase in Nrf2 (167%, 165% and 90%) and HO-1 (107%, 156% and 114%) after exercise training in heart, liver and muscle tissues (p < 0.05). No significant change was observed in any of the parameters associated with protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, except that exercise caused a decrease in plasma triglyceride, which was further decreased by Q10. In conclusion, these results suggest that Q10 modulates the expression of NFκB, IκB, Nrf2 and HO-1 in exercise training, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect of Q10 and emphasizes its role in antioxidant defense. Key pointsCoenzyme Q10 is a component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria which is linked to the generation of energy in the cell.Coenzyme Q10 may inhibit the peroxidation of lipids, thus acting as an antioxidant and protects tissue against oxidative injury.Using of coenzyme Q

  15. Qualified answers that reflect user needs and preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaasterland, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lobo, J. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces a formalism to describe the needs and preferences of database users. Because of the precise formulation of these concepts, we have found an automatic and {ital very simple} mechanism to incorporate user needs and preferences into the query answering process. In the formalism, the user provides a lattice of domain independent values that define preferences and needs and a set of domain specific {ital user constraints} qualified with lattice values. The constraints are automatically incorporated into a relational or deductive database through a series of syntactic transformations that produces an annotated deductive database. Query answering procedures for deductive databases are then used, with minor modifications, to obtain annotated answers to queries. Because preference declaration is separated from data representation and management, preferences can be easily altered without touching the database. Also, the query language allows users to ask for answers at different preference levels. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Marczak, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Many systems administrators on the Mac need a way to manage machine configuration after initial setup and deployment. Apple's Managed Preferences system (also known as MCX) is under-documented, often misunderstood, and sometimes outright unknown by sys admins. MCX is usually deployed in conjunction with an OS X server, but it can also be used in Windows environments or where no dedicated server exists at all. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences is the definitive guide to Apple's Managed Client technology. With this book, you'll get the following: * An example-driven guide to Mac OS X Managed Pr

  17. Aggregation of smooth preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Schofield

    1998-01-01

    Suppose p is a smooth preference profile (for a society, N) belonging to a domain PN. Let be a voting rule, and (p)(x) be the set of alternatives in the space, W, which is preferred to x. The equilibrium E((p)) is the set {x∈W:(p)(x) is empty}. A sufficient condition for existence of E((p)) when p is convex is that a "dual", or generalized gradient, d(p)(x), is non-empty at all x. Under certain conditions the dual "field", d(p), admits a "social gradient field" (p). is called an "aggregator" ...

  18. Aggregation of individuals' preference intensities into social preference intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Charles M. Harvey

    1998-01-01

    A result of John Harsanyi concerns the aggregation of individuals' preferences into social preferences. The result states that if the individuals in a society and the society as a whole have preference relations that compare probability distributions on a set of outcomes, and the preference relations satisfy expected-utility conditions and Pareto conditions, then a utility function for the social preference relation is a positive affine function of utility functions for the individuals' prefe...

  19. Coenzyme Q10 serum concentration and redox status in European adults: influence of age, sex, and lipoprotein concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklowitz, Petra; Onur, Simone; Fischer, Alexandra; Laudes, Matthias; Palussen, Michael; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is synthesized in almost all human tissues and presumably involved in age-related alterations and diseases. Here, we examined the impact of aging and sex on the serum CoQ10 status in 860 European adults ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. We identified an inverse U-shaped relationship between CoQ10 concentration and age. Women showed lower cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 levels than men, irrespective of age. As observed in both sexes, the decrease in CoQ10 concentration in older subjects was accompanied by a shift in the redox status in favour of the oxidized form. A strong positive correlation was found for total CoQ10 and cholesterol concentrations (Spearman’s, p≤1E-74). We found strong negative correlations between total (Spearman’s, p≤1E-07) and between cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 concentration (Spearman’s, p≤1E-14) and the proportion of the oxidized form of CoQ10. These correlations were not dependent on age and sex and were attenuated by supplementation with 150 mg/day reduced CoQ10 for 14 days. Overall, our results are useful to define risk groups with critical CoQ10 status in humans. In particular, older subjects were characterized by impaired CoQ10 status due to their lowered serum CoQ10 concentration and concomitant decrease of CoQ10 redox capacity. PMID:27257350

  20. Economy of referential preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Goucha, T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce basic notions of new economic model where preference relations on commodities set are represented by a group action on Euclidean space instead of utility function. Conditions that ensure the existence of individual demand functions and a general equilibrium in the setting of exchange economy are examined.

  1. Preferring the Contemporary Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Marc

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study that indicated that readers of college newspapers prefer a front page style that is contemporary and emphasizes a horizontal layout to either an avant-garde style that features an entirely horizontal layout or a traditional layout having a vertical page. (TJ)

  2. FUZZY PREFERENCES IN CONFLICTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubarak S. AL-MUTAIRI; Keith W. HIPEL; Mohamed S. KAMEL

    2008-01-01

    A systematic fuzzy approach is developed to model fuzziness and uncertainties in the preferences of decision makers involved in a conflict. This unique fuzzy preference formulation is used within the paradigm of the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution in which a given dispute is modeled in terms of decision makers, each decision maker's courses of actions or options, and each decision maker's preferences concerning the states or outcomes which could take place. In order to be able to determine the stability of each state for each decision maker and the possible equilibria or resolutions, a range of solution concepts describing potential human behavior under conflict are defined for use with fuzzy preferences. More specifically, strong and weak definitions of stability are provided for the solution concepts called Nash, general metarational, symmetric metarational, and sequential stability. To illustrate how these solution concepts can be conveniently used in practice, they are applied to a dispute over the contamination of an aquifer by a chemical company located in Elmira, Ontario, Canada.

  3. Brand Preference Affects the Threshold for Perceptual Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    , the Perception Awareness Scale, it is found that brand names for which there is either a positive and negative preference, subjects report seeing the name more clearly. Interestingly, and much to the contrary of studies of basic emotions, this effect is strongest for positive preference. Our results......Despite decades of scientific scrutiny, much is still unknown about the effects that brands have on perception. Brands are known to lead to changes in attention and mnemonic processing and by altering emotional preferences they imbue products with value. Less, however, is known about the exact...... mechanism through which this occurs. Here, a novel and unexpected finding is provided in which subjective brand preference alters the likelihood that a brand name will be consciously seen. By presenting brand names at brief durations, and having them respond using a graded evaluation of conscious perception...

  4. Rapid ethanol production at elevated temperatures by engineered thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus via the NADP(H)-preferring xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Sun, Lianhong; Hong, Jiong

    2015-09-01

    Conversion of xylose to ethanol by yeasts is a challenge because of the redox imbalances under oxygen-limited conditions. The thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus grows well with xylose as a carbon source at elevated temperatures, but its xylose fermentation ability is weak. In this study, a combination of the NADPH-preferring xylose reductase (XR) from Neurospora crassa and the NADP(+)-preferring xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) mutant from Scheffersomyces stipitis (Pichia stipitis) was constructed. The xylose fermentation ability and redox balance of the recombinant strains were improved significantly by over-expression of several downstream genes. The intracellular concentrations of coenzymes and the reduced coenzyme/oxidized coenzyme ratio increased significantly in these metabolic strains. The byproducts, such as glycerol and acetic acid, were significantly reduced by the disruption of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1). The resulting engineered K. marxianus YZJ088 strain produced 44.95 g/L ethanol from 118.39 g/L xylose with a productivity of 2.49 g/L/h at 42 °C. Additionally, YZJ088 realized glucose and xylose co-fermentation and produced 51.43 g/L ethanol from a mixture of 103.97 g/L xylose and 40.96 g/L glucose with a productivity of 2.14 g/L/h at 42 °C. These promising results validate the YZJ088 strain as an excellent producer of ethanol from xylose through the synthetic xylose assimilation pathway. PMID:26253204

  5. Coenzyme A-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B592.

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, R T; Chen, J S

    1990-01-01

    Acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde are substrates for alcohol dehydrogenase in the production of ethanol and 1-butanol by solvent-producing clostridia. A coenzyme A (CoA)-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which also converts acyl-CoA to aldehyde and CoA, has been purified under anaerobic conditions from Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B592. The ALDH showed a native molecular weight (Mr) of 100,000 and a subunit Mr of 55,000, suggesting that ALDH is dimeric. Purified ALDH contained no alcohol...

  6. Role of Heme Oxygenase, Leptin, Coenzyme Q10 and Trace Elements in Pre-eclamptic Women

    OpenAIRE

    Abo-ElMatty, Dina M.; Badawy, Ehsan A.; Hussein, Jihan S.; Elela, Somaya Abo; Megahed, Hoda A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study to evaluate heme oxygenase (COHb), leptin and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in pre-eclamptic women. Also Zinc, copper, Iron, total iron binding capacity, Ferritin and uric acid were assessed. 120 female subjects were included in this study. They were divided into, 60 female with normal pregnancy attending the outpatient clinic, 60 pre-eclamptic patients were recruited from obstetrics and gynaecology department El-kasr El-Aini hospital. The results showed that in pre-eclampa...

  7. Coenzyme Q10 in human blood: Native levels and determinants of oxidation during processing and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Adrian A.; Morrison, Cynthia M.; Bakke, Jesse L.; Custer, Laurie J.; Li, Xingnan; Cooney, Robert V.

    2010-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (Q10) is present in the circulation mainly in its reduced form (ubiquinol-10; UL10), but oxidizes quickly ex vivo to ubiquinone-10 (UN10). Therefore, native UL10:UN10 ratios, used as markers of redox status and disease risk, are difficult to measure. We established an RP-(U)HPLC method with coulometric detection to measure natively circulating UL10 and UN10 concentrations by adding a ubiquinol/ubiquinone mixture as an internal standard immediately after plasma preparation. This a...

  8. 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase: a new biomarker of fish exposure to water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallottini, Valentina; Scalici, Massimiliano; Gibertini, Giancarlo; Marino, Maria; Trentalance, Anna

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a new putative biomarker in Salmo trutta exposed to water pollution. Variations in the levels of hepatic 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, were compared to heat shock protein 70 and hypoxia inducible factor α, biomarkers of pollution exposure and lowered O₂, respectively. The results confirm that HMG-CoAR levels increase in polluted water irrespective of water temperature or O₂ content, indicating that HMG-CoAR could be used as a specific biomarker for water pollution. PMID:20835703

  9. MicroCommentary: A New Role for Coenzyme F420 in Aflatoxin Reduction by Soil Mycobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Hepatotoxic aflatoxins have found a worthy adversary in two new families of bacterial oxidoreductases. These enzymes use the reduced coenzyme F420 to initiate the degradation of furanocoumarin compounds, including the major mycotoxin products of Aspergillus flavus. Along with pyridoxalamine 5 -phosphate oxidases and aryl nitroreductases, these proteins form a large and versatile superfamily of flavin and deazaflavin-dependent oxidoreductases. F420-dependent members of this family appear to share a common mechanism of hydride transfer from the reduced deazaflavin to the electron-deficient ring systems of their substrates.

  10. Purification to homogeneity and characterization of acyl coenzyme A:6-aminopenicillanic acid acyltransferase of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    OpenAIRE

    E. Alvarez; Cantoral, J M; Barredo, J L; Díez, B; Martín, J F

    1987-01-01

    The acyl coenzyme A (CoA):6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) acyltransferase of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78 was purified to homogeneity, as concluded by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The enzyme is a monomer with a molecular weight of 30,000 +/- 1,000 and a pI of about 5.5. The optimal pH and temperature were 8.0 and 25 degrees C, respectively. This enzyme converts 6-APA into penicillin by using phenylacetyl CoA or phenoxyacetyl CoA as ac...

  11. Structure of the corrinoid:coenzyme M methyltransferase MtaA from Methanosarcina mazei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Astrid; Thomas, Frank; Rueppel, Alma; Hensel, Reinhard; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Bayer, Peter; Faust, Annette

    2012-11-01

    The zinc-containing corrinoid:coenzyme M methyltransferase MtaA is part of the methanol-coenzyme M-methyltransferase complex of Methanosarcina mazei. The whole complex consists of three subunits: MtaA, MtaB and MtaC. The MtaB-MtaC complex catalyses the cleavage of methanol (bound to MtaB) and the transfer of the methyl group onto the cobalt of cob(I)alamin (bound to MtaC). The MtaA-MtaC complex catalyses methyl transfer from methyl-cob(III)alamin (bound to MtaC) to coenzyme M (bound to MtaA). The crystal structure of the MtaB-MtaC complex from M. barkeri has previously been determined. Here, the crystal structures of MtaA from M. mazei in a substrate-free but Zn(2+)-bound state and in complex with Zn(2+) and coenzyme M (HS-CoM) are reported at resolutions of 1.8 and 2.1 Å, respectively. A search for homologous proteins revealed that MtaA exhibits 23% sequence identity to human uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase, which has also the highest structural similarity (r.m.s.d. of 2.03 Å for 306 aligned amino acids). The main structural feature of MtaA is a TIM-barrel-like fold, which is also found in all other zinc enzymes that catalyse thiol-group alkylation. The active site of MtaA is situated at the narrow bottom of a funnel such that the thiolate group of HS-CoM points towards the Zn(2+) ion. The Zn(2+) ion in the active site of MtaA is coordinated tetrahedrally via His240, Cys242 and Cys319. In the substrate-free form the fourth ligand is Glu263. Binding of HS-CoM leads to exchange of the O-ligand of Glu263 for the S-ligand of HS-CoM with inversion of the zinc geometry. The interface between MtaA and MtaC for transfer of the methyl group from MtaC-bound methylcobalamin is most likely to be formed by the core complex of MtaB-MtaC and the N-terminal segment (a long loop containing three α-helices and a β-hairpin) of MtaA, which is not part of the TIM-barrel core structure of MtaA. PMID:23090404

  12. Production of Coenzyme A by a Mutant of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes Resistant to Oxypantetheine

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Sakayu; Esumi, Akihiko; Komaki, Ryohei; Yamada, Hideaki

    1984-01-01

    For improved production of coenzyme A (CoA), a mutant of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes IFO127071 resistant to oxypantetheine, the corresponding oxygen analog of pantetheine, was obtained. In the mutant, activity of pantothenate kinase (EC 2.7.1.33), the first-step enzyme for the biosynthesis of CoA from pantothenic acid, l-cysteine, and ATP, was about threefold higher than that in the parent strain. As the main regulation mechanism of CoA biosynthesis in this bacterium is negative feedback inhi...

  13. Tissue concentration of doxorubicin (adriamycin in mouse pretreated with alpha-tocopherol or coenzyme Q10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinozawa,Shinya

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The tissue concentration of doxorubicin (adriamycin; ADM and its major metabolite (aglycone I was examined in mice pretreated with alpha-tocopherol (VE or coenzyme Q10 (CoQ. In VE-pretreated group, the concentrations of aglycone I of the liver (1, 3 and 5 h after the administration, kidney (1 and 3h and heart (3h were significantly higher than those in the saline group. The clinical application of VE or CoQ concomitant with anti-tumor drugs especially ADM, requires caution.

  14. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    journalists justify themselves and their work. This article introduces an analytical framework for understanding legitimacy in a journalistic context. A framework based on a review of material ranging from historical accounts to research articles, and book-length studies. The framework comprises three...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  15. Safety and public preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend in recent years towards incorporating public preference over technical calculations of the risk/safety of radiological hazards is outlined. A diagrammatic way of portraying the extent of technical analysis and consumer sovereignty on one axis and the inward or outward looking extent of the institution charged with safety standards on the other axis is used to predict the consequences of various situations. (U.K.)

  16. Coaching preferences of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, P C; Howe, B L

    1984-12-01

    The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches. PMID:6525751

  17. Perspectives on Preference Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel

    2009-07-01

    For centuries, the mathematical aggregation of preferences by groups, organizations, or society itself has received keen interdisciplinary attention. Extensive theoretical work in economics and political science throughout the second half of the 20th century has highlighted the idea that competing notions of rational social choice intrinsically contradict each other. This has led some researchers to consider coherent democratic decision making to be a mathematical impossibility. Recent empirical work in psychology qualifies that view. This nontechnical review sketches a quantitative research paradigm for the behavioral investigation of mathematical social choice rules on real ballots, experimental choices, or attitudinal survey data. The article poses a series of open questions. Some classical work sometimes makes assumptions about voter preferences that are descriptively invalid. Do such technical assumptions lead the theory astray? How can empirical work inform the formulation of meaningful theoretical primitives? Classical "impossibility results" leverage the fact that certain desirable mathematical properties logically cannot hold in all conceivable electorates. Do these properties nonetheless hold true in empirical distributions of preferences? Will future behavioral analyses continue to contradict the expectations of established theory? Under what conditions do competing consensus methods yield identical outcomes and why do they do so? PMID:26158988

  18. An Improvement of Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Rats by Ubiquinone-10 and Ubiquinol-10 and Bioavailability after Short- and Long-Term Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prangthip, Pattaneeya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Posuwan, Juthathip; Okuno, Masaaki; Okamoto, Tadashi

    2016-11-01

    This study explored effects of ubiquinol-10 and ubiquinone-10, two different forms of coenzyme Q10, in diabetic rats. Oxidative stress is characterized by the depletion of antioxidant defenses and overproduction of free radicals that might contribute to, and even accelerate, the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) complications. Coenzyme Q10 was administered orally to diabetic rats and oxidative stress markers were then assessed. Bioavailability in normal rats was additionally assessed in various tissues and subcellular fractions after short-term and long-term coenzyme Q10 supplementation. Elevated nonfasting blood glucose and blood pressure in diabetic rats were decreased by ubiquinone-10. Both ubiquinol-10 and ubiquinone-10 ameliorated oxidative stress, based on assays for reactive oxygen metabolites and malondialdehyde. Coenzyme Q10 levels increased with both treatments and liver nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) coenzyme Q reductase with ubiquinone-10. Ubiquinol-10 was better absorbed in the liver and pancreas than ubiquinone-10, though both were similarly effective. In bioavailability study, a longer period of coenzyme Q10 supplementation did not lead to its accumulation in tissues or organelles. Both forms of coenzyme Q10 reduced oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Long-term supplementation of coenzyme Q10 appeared to be safe. PMID:27064932

  19. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  20. Critical period for acoustic preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Lin, Eric W; Hensch, Takao K

    2012-10-16

    Preference behaviors are often established during early life, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Adapting a unique nesting behavior assay, we confirmed a "critical period" for developing music preference in C57BL/6 mice. Early music exposure between postnatal days 15 and 24 reversed their innate bias for silent shelter, which typically could not be altered in adulthood. Instead, exposing adult mice treated acutely with valproic acid or carrying a targeted deletion of the Nogo receptor (NgR(-/-)) unmasked a strong plasticity of preference consistent with a reopening of the critical period as seen in other systems. Imaging of cFos expression revealed a prominent neuronal activation in response to the exposed music in the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex only under conditions of open plasticity. Neither behavioral changes nor selective medial prefrontal cortex activation was observed in response to pure tone exposure, indicating a music-specific effect. Open-field center crossings were increased concomitant with shifts in music preference, suggesting a potential anxiolytic effect. Thus, music may offer both a unique window into the emotional state of mice and a potentially efficient assay for molecular "brakes" on critical period plasticity common to sensory and higher order brain areas. PMID:23045690

  1. Antiatherogenic, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic effects of coenzyme Q10 in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadvand, Hassan; Ghasemi-Dehnoo, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus, one of the leading metabolic syndromes, accounts for highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this study, we examined possible protective effect of coenzyme Q10 on lipid profile, atherogenic index, and liver enzyme markers in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. METHODS A total of 30 male rats were randomly divided into three groups; group 1 as control, group 2 diabetic untreatment, and group 3 treatments with coenzyme Q10 by 15 mg/kg i.p. daily, respective...

  2. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  3. Mitochondrial ADCK3 employs an atypical protein kinase-like fold to enable coenzyme Q biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefely, Jonathan A.; Reidenbach, Andrew G.; Ulbrich, Arne; Oruganty, Krishnadev; Floyd, Brendan J.; Jochem, Adam; Saunders, Jaclyn M.; Johnson, Isabel E.; Minogue, Catherine E.; Wrobel, Russell L.; Barber, Grant E.; Lee, David; Li, Sheng; Kannan, Natarajan; Coon, Joshua J.; Bingman, Craig A.; Pagliarini, David J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ancient UbiB protein kinase-like family is involved in isoprenoid lipid biosynthesis and is implicated in human diseases, but demonstration of UbiB kinase activity has remained elusive for unknown reasons. Here, we quantitatively define UbiB-specific sequence motifs and reveal their positions within the crystal structure of a UbiB protein, ADCK3. We find that multiple UbiB-specific features are poised to inhibit protein kinase activity, including an N-terminal domain that occupies the typical substrate binding pocket and a unique A-rich loop that limits ATP binding by establishing an unusual selectivity for ADP. A single alanine-to-glycine mutation of this loop flips this coenzyme selectivity and enables autophosphorylation, but inhibits coenzyme Q biosynthesis in vivo, demonstrating functional relevance for this unique feature. Our work provides mechanistic insight into UbiB enzyme activity and establishes a molecular foundation for further investigation of how UbiB family proteins affect diseases and diverse biological pathways. PMID:25498144

  4. In vitro evolution of coenzyme-independent variants from the glmS ribozyme structural scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Matthew W L; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2016-08-15

    Uniquely among known natural ribozymes that cleave RNA sequence-specifically, the glmS ribozyme-riboswitch employs a small molecule, glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) as a catalytic cofactor. In vitro selection was employed to search for coenzyme-independent variants of this ribozyme. In addition to shedding light on the catalytic mechanism of the ribozyme, such variants could resemble the evolutionary ancestors of the modern, GlcN6P-regulated ribozyme-riboswitch. A mutant pool was constructed such that the secondary structure elements, which define the triply-pseudoknotted global fold of the ribozyme, was preserved. A stringent selection scheme that relies on thiol-mercury affinity chromatography for separating active and inactive sequences ultimately yielded a triple mutant with a cleavage rate exceeding 3min(-1) that only requires divalent cations for activity. Mutational analysis demonstrated that a point reversion of the variant toward the wild-type sequence was sufficient to partially restore GlcN6P-dependence, suggesting that coenzyme dependence can be readily be acquired by RNAs that adopt the glmS ribozyme fold. The methods employed to perform this selection experiment are described in detail in this review. PMID:27130889

  5. Effect of pH on coenzyme binding to liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvassman, J; Pettersson, G

    1979-10-01

    1. The transient-state kinetics of ligand-displacement reactions have been analyzed. Methods based on this analysis have been used to obtain reliable estimates of on-velocity and off-velocity constants for coenzyme binding to liver alcohol dehydrogenase at different pH values between 6 and 10. 2. The rate of NADH dissociation from the enzyme shows no pronounced dependence on pH. The rate of NAD+ dissociation is controlled by a group with a pKa of 7.6, agreeing with the pKa reported to regulate the binding of certain inhibitory substrate analogues to the enzyme . NAD+ complex. 3. Critical experiments have been performed to test a recent proposal that on-velocity constants for the binding of NADH and NAD+ are controlled by proton equilibria exhibiting different pKa values. The results show that association rates for NADH and NAD+ exhibit the same pH dependence corresponding to a pKa of 9.2. Titrimetric evidence is presented indicating that the latter effect of pH derives from ionization of a group which affects the anion-binding capacity of the coenzyme-binding site. PMID:39751

  6. New insights into the chemistry of Coenzyme Q-0: A voltammetric and spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulaboski, Rubin; Bogeski, Ivan; Kokoskarova, Pavlinka; Haeri, Haleh H; Mitrev, Sasa; Stefova, Marina; Stanoeva, Jasmina Petreska; Markovski, Velo; Mirčeski, Valentin; Hoth, Markus; Kappl, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Coenzyme Q-0 (CoQ-0) is the only Coenzyme Q lacking an isoprenoid group on the quinoid ring, a feature important for its physico-chemical properties. Here, the redox behavior of CoQ-0 in buffered and non-buffered aqueous media was examined. In buffered aqueous media CoQ-0 redox chemistry can be described by a 2-electron-2-proton redox scheme, characteristic for all benzoquinones. In non-buffered media the number of electrons involved in the electrode reaction of CoQ-0 is still 2; however, the number of protons involved varies between 0 and 2. This results in two additional voltammetric signals, attributed to 2-electrons-1H(+) and 2-electrons-0H(+) redox processes, in which mono- and di-anionic compounds of CoQ-0 are formed. In addition, CoQ-0 exhibits a complex chemistry in strong alkaline environment. The reaction of CoQ-0 and OH(-) anions generates several hydroxyl derivatives as products. Their structures were identified with HPLC/MS. The prevailing radical reaction mechanism was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The hydroxyl derivatives of CoQ-0 have a strong antioxidative potential and form stable complexes with Ca(2+) ions. In summary, our results allow mechanistic insights into the redox properties of CoQ-0 and its hydroxylated derivatives and provide hints on possible applications. PMID:27268099

  7. [Cloning and tissue expression of 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase gene in Angelica sinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Sui-chao; Wang, Yin-quan; Luo, Jun; Xia, Qi; Fan, Qin; Li, Shu-nan; Wang, Zhen-heng

    2015-12-01

    4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in higher plant and may regulate the biosynthesis of ferulic acid in Angelica sinensis. In this study, the homology-based cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique were used to clone a full length cDNA encoding 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase gene (4CL), and then qRT-PCR was taken for analyzing 4CL gene expression levels in the root, stem and root tissue at different growth stages of seedlings of A. sinensis. The results showed that a full-length 4CL cDNA (1,815 bp) was obtained (GenBank accession number: KT880508) which shares an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 632 bp, encodes 544 amino acid polypeptides. We found 4CL gene was expressed in all tissues including leaf, stem and root of seedlings of A. sinensis. The expressions in the leave and stem were increased significantly with the growth of seedlings of A. sinensis (P space pattern of 4CL gene expression in seedlings of A. sinensis. These findings will be useful for establishing an experiment basis for studying the structure and function of 4CL gene and elucidating mechanism of ferulic acid biosynthesis and space-time regulation in A. sinensis. PMID:27245029

  8. Molecular characterization of methanogenic N(5)-methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin: Coenzyme M methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Vikrant; Ceh, Katharina; Tumulka, Franz; Abele, Rupert; Hoffmann, Jan; Langer, Julian; Shima, Seigo; Ermler, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    Methanogenic archaea share one ion gradient forming reaction in their energy metabolism catalyzed by the membrane-spanning multisubunit complex N(5)-methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin: coenzyme M methyltransferase (MtrABCDEFGH or simply Mtr). In this reaction the methyl group transfer from methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin to coenzyme M mediated by cobalamin is coupled with the vectorial translocation of Na(+) across the cytoplasmic membrane. No detailed structural and mechanistic data are reported about this process. In the present work we describe a procedure to provide a highly pure and homogenous Mtr complex on the basis of a selective removal of the only soluble subunit MtrH with the membrane perturbing agent dimethyl maleic anhydride and a subsequent two-step chromatographic purification. A molecular mass determination of the Mtr complex by laser induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS) and size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALS) resulted in a (MtrABCDEFG)3 heterotrimeric complex of ca. 430kDa with both techniques. Taking into account that the membrane protein complex contains various firmly bound small molecules, predominantly detergent molecules, the stoichiometry of the subunits is most likely 1:1. A schematic model for the subunit arrangement within the MtrABCDEFG protomer was deduced from the mass of Mtr subcomplexes obtained by harsh IR-laser LILBID-MS. PMID:27342374

  9. 3-Hydroxybenzoate:coenzyme A ligase from cell cultures of Centaurium erythraea: isolation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas, W; Beerhues, L

    2000-02-01

    In xanthone biosynthesis, 3-hydroxybenzoate:coenzyme A ligase (3HBL) supplies the starter substrate for the formation of an intermediate benzophenone. 3HBL from cell cultures of the medicinal plant Centaurium erythraea was purified to apparent homogeneity using a seven-step-procedure. The enzyme was an AMP-forming CoA ligase with a Km = 14.7 microM for 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 8.5 microM for coenzyme A and 229 microM for ATP. The pH and temperature optima were 7.5 and 35 degrees C, respectively. In SDS-PAGE, two polypeptides of Mr 41,500 and 40,500 were detected. Both proteins were structurally related to each other as shown by tryptic digestion. Their N-termini were blocked. The difference in their apparent molecular masses could not be attributed to glycosylation. 3HBL had a native Mr of approx. 50,000 and is thus active as a monomer. PMID:10746747

  10. Substitution of arginine for histidine-47 in the coenzyme binding site of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular modeling of alcohol dehydrogenases suggests that His-47 in the yeast enzyme (His-44 in the protein sequence, corresponding to Arg-47 in the horse liver enzyme) binds the pyrophosphate of the NAD coenzyme. His-47 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae isoenzyme I was substituted with an arginine by a directed mutation. Steady-state kinetic results at pH 7.3 and 30 degree C of the mutant and wild-type enzymes were consistent with an ordered Bi-Bi mechanism. The substitution decreased dissociation constants by 4-fold for NAD+ and 2-fold for NADH while turnover numbers were decreased by 4-fold for ethanol oxidation and 6-fold for acetaldehyde reduction. The magnitudes of these effects are smaller than those found for the same mutation in the human liver β enzyme, suggesting that other amino acid residues in the active site modulate the effects of the substitution. The pH dependencies of dissociation constants and other kinetic constants were similar in the two yeast enzymes. Thus, it appears that His-47 is not solely responsible for a pK value near 7 that controls activity and coenzyme binding rates in the wild-type enzyme. The small substrate deuterium isotope effect above pH 7 and the single exponential phase of NADH production during the transient oxidation of ethanol by the Arg-47 enzyme suggest that the mutation makes an isomerization of the enzyme-NAD+ complex limiting for turnover with ethanol

  11. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  12. Implicit learning of semantic preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Paciorek, Albertyna

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this PhD dissertation examines the phenomenon of semantic implicit learning, using semantic preferences of novel verbs as a test case. Implicit learning refers to the phenomenon of learning without intending to learn or awareness that one is learning at all. Semantic preference (or selectional preference ? as preferred in computational linguistics) is the tendency of a word to co-occur with words sharing similar semantic features. For example, ?drink? is typically fo...

  13. JUDGMENT AGGREGATION AND PREFERENCE AGGREGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Ochremiak

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we present an introduction to the theory of judgment aggregation and discuss its relation to the theory of preference aggregation. We compare the formal model of judgment aggregation, based on logic, with the formal model of preference aggregation. Finally, we present a theorem in judgmentaggregation which is an exact analogue of Arrow's theorem for strict preferences.

  14. Shifting Preferences in Pornography Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1986-01-01

    Concludes that subjects with considerable prior exposure to common, nonviolent pornography preferred to watch uncommon pornography. Male nonstudents preferred it almost exclusively, as did male students to a lesser extent. Females also exhibited this consumption preference, though it was far less pronounced, especially in female students. (JD)

  15. Conversion/Preference Games

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roux, Stéphane; Lescanne, Pierre; Vestergaard, René

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the concept of Conversion/Preference Games, or CP games for short. CP games generalize the standard notion of strategic games. First we exemplify the use of CP games. Second we formally introduce and define the CP-games formalism. Then we sketch two `real-life' applications, namely a connection between CP games and gene regulation networks, and the use of CP games to formalize implied information in Chinese Wall security. We end with a study of a particular fixed-point constructi...

  16. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment and...... lack of a local immigrant population by migrating to large municipalities. Lack of local fellow countrymen, however, increases the exit rate to medium-sized as well as large municipalities. This finding is likely to be a result of the dispersal policy. Finally, refugees react strongly to assignment to...

  17. Preference Falsification in Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Kinsella

    2009-01-01

    Today’s macroeconomics courses are built around Solow and Romerstyle growth theories, and micro-founded equilibrium macro models of the ‘real business cycle’ variety. Hewing to a course description with such an intellectual structure is a derogation of my personal and professional views. This short, confessional note explores the activity of teaching what one does not believe, and argues this is preference falsification writ large. The act of teaching equilibrium business cycle theories...

  18. Language of Preference Formulae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedbal, Radim

    Vol. 2. Prague: Institute of Computer Science AS CR, 2012 - (Bieliková, M.; Friedrich, G.; Gottlob, G.; Katzenbeisser, S.; Špánek, R.; Turán, G.), s. 75-86 ISBN 978-80-87136-13-3. [SOFSEM 2012. Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science /38./. Špindlerův Mlýn (CZ), 21.01.2012-27.01.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : conflicting preferences * relational data model * database query Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. Pyridine Nucleotide Complexes with Bacillus anthracis Coenzyme A-Disulfide Reductase: A Structural Analysis of Dual NAD(P)H Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallen,J.; Paige, C.; Mallett, T.; Karplus, P.; Claiborne, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have recently reported that CoASH is the major low-molecular weight thiol in Bacillus anthracis, and we have now characterized the kinetic and redox properties of the B. anthracis coenzyme A-disulfide reductase (CoADR, BACoADR) and determined the crystal structure at 2.30 Angstroms resolution. While the Staphylococcus aureus and Borrelia burgdorferi CoADRs exhibit strong preferences for NADPH and NADH, respectively, B. anthracis CoADR can use either pyridine nucleotide equally well. Sequence elements within the respective NAD(P)H-binding motifs correctly reflect the preferences for S. aureus and Bo. burgdorferi CoADRs, but leave questions as to how BACoADR can interact with both pyridine nucleotides. The structures of the NADH and NADPH complexes at ca. 2.3 Angstroms resolution reveal that a loop consisting of residues Glu180-Thr187 becomes ordered and changes conformation on NAD(P)H binding. NADH and NADPH interact with nearly identical conformations of this loop; the latter interaction, however, involves a novel binding mode in which the 2'-phosphate of NADPH points out toward solvent. In addition, the NAD(P)H-reduced BACoADR structures provide the first view of the reduced form (Cys42-SH/CoASH) of the Cys42-SSCoA redox center. The Cys42-SH side chain adopts a new conformation in which the conserved Tyr367'-OH and Tyr425'-OH interact with the nascent thiol(ate) on the flavin si-face. Kinetic data with Y367F, Y425F, and Y367, 425F BACoADR mutants indicate that Tyr425' is the primary proton donor in catalysis, with Tyr367' functioning as a cryptic alternate donor in the absence of Tyr425'.

  20. Why Languages Prefer Prohibitives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johan van der Auwera

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with prohibitive markers, i.e., negative markers that are more or less dedicated to the expression of a prohibition. It documents the variety in the formal make-up of these markers and it confims the earlier claims that they are frequent everywhere, with at least one exception, viz., Western Europe. Four origins are discussed:prohibitive markers may derive from predicative constructions, they may appear as a side product of Jespersen's cycle,they may derive from a univerbation of imperative and negative markers, and they may be borrowed. As explanation is offered as to why languages prefer to have prohibitive markers. It is argued that attempts to explain this preference in terms of morphosyntax are misguided. Instead a frequency-based semantic explanation is offered. The most frequent use of negatives are declarative, thereby inviting a static ‘it is not the case that' paraphrase. It is important, however, to mark clearly that prohibitives are instances of a dynamic ‘let it be the case that' appeal. The paper ends on a discussion of languages that do not employ prohibitive markers.

  1. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  2. [Corrective effect of trimethylglycine on the nicotinamide coenzyme and adenine nucleotide content of the tissues in experimental atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapadniuk, V I; Chekman, I S; Panteleĭmonova, T N; Tumanov, V A

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on adult rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis induced by cholesterol (0.25 g/kg for 90 days) showed that chronic administration of trimethylglycine (1.5 g/kg for 30 days) prevented a decrease of the liver and myocardium content of nicotinamide coenzymes and adenine nucleotides. PMID:3758334

  3. Coenzyme Q10 does not prevent oral dyskinesias induced by long-term haloperidol treatment of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    OA, Andreassen; Weber, Christine; HA, Jorgensen

    1999-01-01

    dyskinesias in rats, a putative analogue to human TD, could be prevented by the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Rats received 16 weeks of treatment with haloperidol decanoate (HAL) IM alone or together with orally administered CoQ10, and the behavior was recorded during and after treatment. HAL...

  4. Rosuvastatin lowers coenzyme Q10 levels, but not mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthesis, in children with familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Avis; I.P. Hargreaves; J.P.N. Ruiter; J.M. Land; R.J. Wanders; F.A. Wijburg

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether statin therapy affects coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) status in children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Samples were obtained at baseline (treatment naïve) and after dose titration with rosuvastatin, aiming for a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 110 mg

  5. The Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Lipoic Acid Added to the Feed of Hens on Physical Characteristics of Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Terčič

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether inclusions of coenzyme Q10, alpha lipoic acid and their combination into diets of hens improve egg quality characteristics. Forty-eight, 33 weeks old Lohmann Brown hens were assigned randomly to four groups of 12 hens each and fed either a basal diet or basal diet supplemented with 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10, 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid and 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10 plus 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid. The diets were fed for 12 weeks. Eggs were weekly examined for interior or exterior quality characteristics. There were no effects of dietary treatments on egg shape index. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation resulted in a reduction in egg shell colour (darker shells and yolk colour (paler yolks and higher incidence of blood and meat spots, which reduce the internal quality of the egg. Alpha lipoic acid had no effect on egg weight, egg shell colour, egg shell density, egg shell weight, egg shell thickness, yolk colour, incidence of blood and meat spots but increased shell strength, albumen height and Haugh units values were noted. Egg shell strength for hens supplemented with alpha lipoic acid was greater than for control hens. The results of the experiment indicated that alpha lipoic acid supplementation to the diet of layers may be of practical value due to the increased egg shell strength and better albumen characteristics without any adverse effect on other egg quality traits.

  6. The Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Lipoic Acid Added to the Feed of Hens on Physical Characteristics of Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Terčič

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether inclusions of coenzyme Q10, alpha lipoic acid and their combination into diets of hens improve egg quality characteristics. Forty-eight, 33 weeks old Lohmann Brown hens were assigned randomly to four groups of 12 hens each and fed either a basal diet or basal diet supplemented with 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10, 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid and 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10 plus 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid. The diets were fed for 12 weeks. Eggs were weekly examined for interior or exterior quality characteristics. There were no effects of dietary treatments on egg shape index. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation resulted in a reduction in egg shell colour (darker shells and yolk colour (paler yolks and higher incidence of blood and meat spots, which reduce the internal quality of the egg. Alpha lipoic acid had no effect on egg weight, egg shell colour, egg shell density, egg shell weight, egg shell thickness, yolk colour, incidence of blood and meat spots but increased shell strength, albumen height and Haugh units values were noted. Egg shell strength for hens supplemented with alpha lipoic acid was greater than for control hens. The results of the experiment indicated that alpha lipoic acid supplementation to the diet of layers may be of practical value due to the increased egg shell strength and better albumen characteristics without any adverse effect on other egg quality traits.

  7. Mechanisms of the 3- hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase inhibitor- induced myotoxicity in human skeletal muscle cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Ndountse Tchapda, Léopold

    2005-01-01

    Die Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoenzymA-(HMG-CoA)-Reduktaseinhibitoren Simvastatin, Lovastatin, Atorvastatin, Pravastatin, Fluvastatin und Pitavastatin wurden im Hinblick auf ihre Wirkungen auf humane Skelettmuskelzellen untersucht. Wir waren in der Lage zu zeigen, dass Statine oxidativen Stress (Dichlorofluoresceindiacetat, Glutathion-Depletierung, Thiobarbitursäure-reaktive Substanzen), Apoptose (mitochondriales Membranpotential DeltaPsim, Caspase-3, Kernmorphologie) und Nekrose (Laktatdehydroge...

  8. Evaluation Of Coenzyme Q10 Role In Reducing Kidney Damage In Rats Induced By Acetaminophen And GAMMA Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of coenzyme Q10 role in reducing kidney damage in rats induced by acetaminophen (APAP) and gamma radiation exposure was undertaken in the present study. Seven groups of adult male Wister albino rats were used in the present study. Renal function indicators (creatinine, blood urea and uric acid) levels were measured in the blood serum of rats. MDA, NO and LDH levels in kidney tissue were estimated. The antioxidants GSH and SOD were also examined. Histopathological changes and mast cells presence were investigated in kidney tissue. APAP and/or gamma radiation exposure revealed significant increases in MDA, NO and LDH levels. Also, significant decrease in GSH and SOD levels as compared with the control group was detected. Histological changes included tubular necrosis, hydropic degeneration, presence of interstitial inflammatory cells and atrophied glomeruli were observed in kidney tissue. Mast cells expressions in kidney tissue were detected after one day of APAP treatment for 2 weeks. Exposure of rats to gamma radiation revealed unpronounced effect on kidney tissue. Administration of coenzyme Q10 post-treatment of rats with APAP and/or gamma radiation exposure for one week apparently attenuated the levels of renal function indicators; MDA, NO and LDH.Also, a significant amelioration in GSH and SOD was observed. An improvement was detected in kidney tissue and mast cells expression of rats after treatment with coenzyme Q10. In conclusion, coenzyme Q10 apparently protects rats from the dangerous effect of APAP and gamma radiation exposure.

  9. Nonhuman Primates Prefer Slow Tempos but Dislike Music Overall

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21]…

  10. Preferences and choices for care and health insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B. van den; Dommelen, P. van; Stam, P.; Laske-Aldershof, T.; Buchmueller, T.; Schut, F.T.

    2008-01-01

    Legislation that came into effect in 2006 has dramatically altered the health insurance system in the Netherlands, placing greater emphasis on consumer choice and competition among insurers. The potential for such competition depends largely on consumer preferences for price and quality of service b

  11. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid;

    travel costs of the used links, if independence of the link travel times is assumed. The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the exponential form of utility rates and to compare it both to a more general form and to conventional forms as regards conformity to collected data on travellers...... drivers commuting to work in the morning in central Stockholm. The survey contains observations of choices between car and public transport travel alternatives, which differ in terms of departure time, monetary cost, and the distribution of travel time. We develop a discrete choice model to describe......-affine specifications to two benchmarks: The generalised exponential-exponential specification and the conventional α-β-γ specification. As could be expected, exponential preferences are difficult to estimate: The estimated parameters of H and W have large standard errors, and some types of models exhibit severe...

  12. Automated Preferences Elicitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine

    Prague : Institute of Information Theory and Automation, 2011, s. 20-25. ISBN 978-80-903834-6-3. [The 2nd International Workshop od Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers. Held in Conjunction with the 25th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS 2011). Sierra Nevada (ES), 16.12.2011-16.12.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : elicitation * decision making * Bayesian decision making * fully probabilistic design Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/karny-automated preferences elicitation.pdf

  13. Early-onset motor impairment and increased accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein in the motor cortex of normal aging mice are ameliorated by coenzyme Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhide; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Shirasawa, Takuji; Takahashi, Mayumi

    2016-08-01

    Brain mitochondrial function declines with age; however, the accompanying behavioral and histological alterations that are characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD) are poorly understood. We found that the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and coenzyme Q (CoQ) content were reduced in aged (15-month-old) male mice compared to those in young (6-month-old) male mice. Concomitantly, motor functions, including the rate of movement and exploratory and voluntary motor activities, were significantly reduced in the aged mice compared to the young mice. In the motor cortex of the aged mouse brain, the accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) phosphorylated at serine129 (Ser129) significantly increased, and the level of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGluT1) decreased compared with that in the young mouse brain. The administration of exogenous water-soluble CoQ10 to aged mice via drinking water restored the mitochondrial OCR, motor function, and phosphorylated α-syn and VGluT1 levels in the motor cortex. These results suggest that early-onset motor impairment and the increased accumulation of Ser129-phosphorylated α-syn in the motor cortex are ameliorated by the exogenous administration of CoQ10. PMID:27143639

  14. Metabolic perturbation of an essential pathway: evaluation of a glycine precursor of coenzyme A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmann, Michael; Kang, MinJin; Villa, Reymundo; Ntai, Ioanna; La Clair, James J; Kelleher, Neil L; Chapman, Eli; Burkart, Michael D

    2013-04-24

    Pantetheine and its corresponding disulfide pantethine play a key role in metabolism as building blocks of coenzyme A (CoA), an essential cofactor utilized in ~4% of primary metabolism and central to fatty acid, polyketide, and nonribosomal peptide synthases. Using a combination of recombinant engineering and chemical synthesis, we show that the disulfide of N-pantoylglycyl-2-aminoethanethiol (GlyPan), with one fewer carbon than pantetheine, can rescue a mutant E. coli strain MG1655ΔpanC lacking a functional pantothenate synthetase. Using mass spectrometry, we show that the GlyPan variant is accepted by the downstream CoA biosynthetic machinery, ultimately being incorporated into essential acyl carrier proteins. These findings point to further flexibility in CoA-dependent pathways and offer the opportunity to incorporate orthogonal analogues. PMID:23550886

  15. Coenzyme A Binding to the Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase (3)-IIIb Increases Conformational Sampling of Antibiotic Binding Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaohu [ORNL; Norris, Adrianne [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Baudry, Jerome Y [ORNL; Serpersu, Engin H [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy experiments and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to describe the dynamic properties of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (3)-IIIb (AAC) in its apo and coenzyme A (CoASH) bound forms. The {sup 15}N-{sup 1}H HSQC spectra indicate a partial structural change and coupling of the CoASH binding site with another region in the protein upon the CoASH titration into the apo enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate a significant structural and dynamic variation of the long loop in the antibiotic binding domain in the form of a relatively slow (250 ns), concerted opening motion in the CoASH enzyme complex and that binding of the CoASH increases the structural flexibility of the loop, leading to an interchange between several similar equally populated conformations.

  16. The radical mechanism of biological methane synthesis by methyl-coenzyme M reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Sliwa, Dariusz; Ginovska, Bojana; Smith, Dayle; Wolf, Matthew W; Lehnert, Nicolai; Raugei, Simone; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2016-05-20

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation, is responsible for the biological production of more than 1 billion tons of methane per year. The mechanism of methane synthesis is thought to involve either methyl-nickel(III) or methyl radical/Ni(II)-thiolate intermediates. We employed transient kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational approaches to study the reaction between the active Ni(I) enzyme and substrates. Consistent with the methyl radical-based mechanism, there was no evidence for a methyl-Ni(III) species; furthermore, magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the Ni(II)-thiolate intermediate. Temperature-dependent transient kinetics also closely matched density functional theory predictions of the methyl radical mechanism. Identifying the key intermediate in methanogenesis provides fundamental insights to develop better catalysts for producing and activating an important fuel and potent greenhouse gas. PMID:27199421

  17. Effects of aeration on formation and localization of the acetyl coenzyme A synthetases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H. P.; Jahnke, L.

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that two different forms of the enzyme acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) are present, depending on the conditions under which the cells are grown. The paper evaluates the usefulness of a method designed to assay both synthetases simultaneously in yeast homogenates. The data presented confirm the possibility of simultaneous detection and estimation of the amount of both ACSs of S. cerevisiae in crude homogenates of this strain, making possible the study of physiological factors involved in the formation of these isoenzymes. One important factor for specifying which of the two enzymes is found in these yeast cells is the presence or absence of oxygen in their environment. Aeration not only affects the ratio of the two ACSs but also appears to affect the cellular distribution of these enzymes. Most of the data presented suggest the possibility that the nonaerobic ACS may serve as a precursor to the aerobic form.

  18. Isolation of 57Co-cobalamin coenzymes at high specific activity from Streptomyces griseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of radio-labelled cobalamins in Streptomyces griseus grown in medium containing 57Co-cobalt chloride has been estimated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography and bioautography. 57Co-Methylcobalamin (Me[57Co]Cb1) was the major form in the mycelium together with smaller amounts of 57Co-adenosylcobalamin (Ado[57Co]Cb1) and 57Co-hydroxocobalamin (OH[57Co]Cb1). The OH[57Co]Cb1 was detected in three forms having, respectively, anionic, cationic and neutral properties. A simple technique has been developed to isolate and purify Me[57CO]Cb1 and Ado[57Co]Cb1 from the mycelium using column chromatography on ion-exchange celluloses. Small quantities of each cobalamin coenzyme have been obtained at 90-96% purity and specific activities of 190-230 μCi/μg. (Auth.)

  19. Prolonged QTc interval in association with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Jason R; Leslie, Nancy; Knilans, Timothy K; Akinbi, Henry

    2014-06-01

    Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most common disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We report a term male infant who presented at 3 days of age with hypoglycemia, compensated metabolic acidosis, hypocalcemia, and prolonged QTc interval. Pregnancy was complicated by maternal premature atrial contractions and premature ventricular contractions. Prolongation of the QTc interval resolved after correction of metabolic derangements. The newborn screen was suggestive for MCAD deficiency, a diagnosis that was confirmed on genetic analysis that showed homozygosity for the disease-associated missense A985G mutation in the ACADM gene. This is the first report of acquired prolonged QTc in a neonate with MCAD deficiency, and it suggests that MCAD deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnoses of acute neonatal illnesses associated with electrocardiographic abnormality. We review the clinical presentation and diagnosis of MCAD deficiency in neonates. PMID:24799540

  20. TD-DFT Insight into Photodissociation of Co-C Bond in Coenzyme B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Pawel; Liu, Hui; Kornobis, Karina; Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl) is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin B12, and continues to be a topic of active research interest. The mechanism of Co-C bond cleavage in AdoCbl, and the corresponding enzymatic reactions are however, not well understood at the molecular level. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been applied to investigate the photodissociation of coenzyme B12. To reduce computational cost, while retaining the major spectroscopic features of AdoCbl, a truncated model based on ribosylcobalamin (RibCbl) was used to simulate Co-C photodissociation. Equilibrium geometries of RibCbl were obtained by optimization at the DFT/BP86/TZVP level of theory, and low-lying excited states were calculated by TD-DFT using the same functional and basis set. The calculated singlet states, and absorption spectra were simulated in both the gas phase, and water, using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). Both spectra were in reasonable agreement with experimental data, and potential energy curves based on vertical excitations were plotted to explore the nature of Co-C bond dissociation. It was found that a repulsive 3(σCo-C → σ*Co-C) triplet state became dissociative at large Co-C bond distance, similar to a previous observation for methylcobalamin (MeCbl). Furthermore, potential energy surfaces (PESs) obtained as a function of both Co-CRib and Co-NIm distances, identify the S1 state as a key intermediate generated during photoexcitation of RibCbl, attributed to a mixture of a MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) and a σ bonding-ligand charge transfer (SBLCT) states.

  1. Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Modulates NFκB and Nrf2 Pathways in Exercise Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragip Pala, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Shakir Ali, Vedat Cinar, Mustafa Atalay, Kazim Sahin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effects of Q10, coenzyme Q10 or ubiquinone, a component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, on nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB, inhibitors of kappa B (IκB, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 and hemeoxygenase 1 (HO-1 in rats after chronic exercise training for 6 weeks. 8-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to one of four treatments planned in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of two condition (sedentary vs. exercise training, and two coenzyme Q10 levels (0 and 300 mg/kg per day for 6 weeks. The expression levels of the target proteins were determined in the heart, liver and muscle, and biochemical parameters including creatinine, urea, glucose and lipid profile were investigated in plasma. When compared with sedentary group, significant decreases in heart, liver and muscle NFκB levels by 45%, 26% and 44% were observed in Q10 supplemented rats after exercise training, respectively, while the inhibitory protein IκB increased by 179%, 111% and 127% in heart, liver and muscle tissues. Q10 supplementation caused an increase in Nrf2 (167%, 165% and 90% and HO-1 (107%, 156% and 114% after exercise training in heart, liver and muscle tissues (p < 0.05. No significant change was observed in any of the parameters associated with protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, except that exercise caused a decrease in plasma triglyceride, which was further decreased by Q10. In conclusion, these results suggest that Q10 modulates the expression of NFκB, IκB, Nrf2 and HO-1 in exercise training, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect of Q10 and emphasizes its role in antioxidant defense.

  2. Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on Acute Pulmonary Damage Following the Experimental Thoracic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Koyuncu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Pulmonary contusion negatively affects prognosis in the case of damages following a trauma. Objective of this experimental study performed in Turkey was to evaluate effects of coenzyme Q10 on primary and secondary damages of pulmonary contusion following experimental thoracic blunt trauma using biochemical and histopathological parameters. Material and Method: A total of 56 Wistar Albino female rats with a mean weight of 205±45 g were included in this study. Rats were randomly divided into seven groups with each group having eight rats. A trauma device which consisted of a fixed platform, and an aluminium tube was prepared. Rats were administered 2.45 J of chest impact energy in order to generate pulmonary contusion. Control and Study groups were named according to the sacrificed time. No process (trauma and/or medication was performed in the sham group, while only trauma was induced in the controls. On the other hand, after induced trauma, intraperitoneal Q10 (0. - 24. - 48. hours was administered to study group. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the after trauma 24, 48 and 72 hours, and their blood and lung tissue samples were analyzed. Results: No significant difference was found between sham and Study-72 groups in terms of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. On the histopathological examination, no significant difference was found between study and control groups. While no significant difference was found between the sham and study groups, significant difference was observed between sham and control groups. Discussion: Coenzyme Q10, an antioxidant agent, can be used as an antioxidant agent in order to reduce the secondary damage in blunt thoracic trauma.

  3. TD-DFT Insight into Photodissociation of Co-C Bond in Coenzyme B12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PawelMichalKozlowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin B12, and continues to be a topic of active research interest. The mechanism of Co-C bond cleavage in AdoCbl, and the corresponding enzymatic reactions are however, not well understood at the molecular level. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT has been applied to investigate the photodissociation of coenzyme B12. To reduce computational cost, while retaining the major spectroscopic features of AdoCbl, a truncated model based on ribosylcobalamin (RibCbl was used to simulate Co-C photodissociation. Equilibrium geometries of RibCbl were obtained by optimization at the DFT/BP86/TZVP level of theory, and low-lying excited states were calculated by TD-DFT using the same functional and basis set. The calculated singlet states, and absorption spectra were simulated in both the gas phase, and water, using the polarizable continuum model (PCM. Both spectra were in reasonable agreement with experimental data, and potential energy curves based on vertical excitations were plotted to explore the nature of Co-C bond dissociation. It was found that a repulsive 3(σCo-C → σ*Co-C triplet state became dissociative at large Co-C bond distance, similar to a previous observation for methylcobalamin (MeCbl. Furthermore, potential energy surfaces (PESs obtained as a function of both Co-CRib and Co-NIm distances, identify the S1 state as a key intermediate generated during photoexcitation of RibCbl, attributed to a mixture of a MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer and a σ bonding-ligand charge transfer (SBLCT states.

  4. Testing Substitutability of Weak Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Haris; Brill, Markus; Harrenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In many-to-many matching models, substitutable preferences constitute the largest domain for which a pairwise stable matching is guaranteed to exist. In this note, we extend the recently proposed algorithm of Hatfield et al. [3] to test substitutability of weak preferences. Interestingly, the algorithm is faster than the algorithm of Hatfield et al. by a linear factor on the domain of strict preferences.

  5. Preference Externalities in Media Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Simon P. Anderson; Waldfogel, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Media industries typically exhibit two fundamental features, high fixed costs and heterogeneity of consumer preferences. Daily newspaper markets, for example, tend to support a single product. In other examples, such as radio broadcasting, markets often support multiple differentiated offerings. Both contexts can deliver preference externalities, when the options and well-being for consumers depend on the number and mix of consumers according to their content preferences. This chapter present...

  6. Social Preferences and Portfolio Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Riedl, A.M.; Smeets, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether social preferences influence portfolio choices of retail investors. We use administrative investor trading records which we link to decisions of the same investors in experiments with real money at stake. We show that social preferences rather than return expectations or risk perceptions are the main driver of investments in socially responsible (SRI) mutual funds. Social preferences are only associated with investments in SRI funds without tax benefits, but are un...

  7. Social Preferences and Strategic Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrales, Antonio; Miniaci, Raffaele; Piovesan, Marco; Ponti, Giovanni

    chosen contract. We find that (heterogeneous) social preferences are significant determinants of choices in all phases of the experiment. Since the available contracts display a trade-off between fairness and strategic uncertainty, we observe that the latter is a much stronger determinant of choices, for...... both principals and agents. Finally, we also see that social preferences explain, to a large extent, matching between principals and agents, since agents display a marked propensity to work for principals with similar social preferences...

  8. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Braccini, Stephanie N.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a vid...

  9. Option values and flexibility preference

    OpenAIRE

    Strazzera, Elisabetta

    1998-01-01

    Preference for flexibility is a behavioral attitude displayed by people that prefer reversible to irreversible actions, and that are willing to pay a premium in order to maintain the possibility of changing their decision. This paper provides a functional characterization of preference for flexibility, based on the notion of option value. The proposed theory is shown to be useful to explain the success of marketing policies that guarantee reimbursement in consumption goods and financial marke...

  10. Algorithmics of matching under preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Manlove, David

    2013-01-01

    Matching problems with preferences are all around us - they arise when agents seek to be allocated to one another on the basis of ranked preferences over potential outcomes. Efficient algorithms are needed for producing matchings that optimise the satisfaction of the agents according to their preference lists.In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the study of algorithmic aspects of matching problems with preferences, partly reflecting the growing number of applications of these problems worldwide. This book describes the most important results in this area, providing a timely upda

  11. Valuation of aesthetic preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshire, D.S. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie); Ives, B.C.; Schulze, W.D.

    1976-12-01

    Quantitative estimates of the social costs and benefits that different uses of the environment offer are explored in a bidding game experiment that was used to estimate esthetic damages from the proposed Kaiparowits power plant near Lake Powell. A questionnaire was designed to focus on environmental quality in terms of the respondent's experience with area recreational opportunities and the impact power plant construction would have on those opportunities. The interviews separated respondents into four groups: residents, visitors at motels and passersby, visitors at developed area campgrounds, and visitors at more remote campgrounds. Bidding was conducted to determine how much respondents were willing to pay in order to avoid pollution. Three problems complicated interpretation of the responses: (1) incentives for individual bias in order to demonstrate preferences, although an absence of observed bias may only reflect the feeling of respondents that the question is hypothetical and nothing will actually happen; (2) the potential difference between equivalent and compensation variation, which is further complicated by residents making strong initial stands and caring less as the esthetic impact progresses; and (3) interpersonal comparisons in the aggregation of individual bids to check the sensitivity of individual income distribution with the aggregate welfare.Recommendations for future studies urge that different samples of respondents be confronted with different kinds of incentives in order to reveal possible bias. 10 references. (DCK)

  12. Crayfish feeding preferences for fresh water macrophytes: The influence of plant structure and chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, G.; Lodge, D.M.; Hay, M.E.; Miller, M; Hill, A.; Horvath, T.; Bolser, R.; Lindquist, N.; Wahl, Martin

    2002-01-01

    The omnivorous crayfish Procambarus clarkii fed selectively on several species of macrophytes, preferring delicate fresh plants that had filamentous or finely-branched architectures. When the macrophytes were dried, powdered, and reconstituted into an alginate gel (thus eliminating among-species differences in physical characteristics). crayfish preferences were altered; previously tough plants that were high in nitrogen and protein were preferred over previously delicate plants that were low...

  13. Conditioned preference for sweet stimuli in OLETF rat: effects of food deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    De Jonghe, Bart C.; Hajnal, Andras; Covasa, Mihai

    2007-01-01

    The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, an outbred strain of Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka rat (LETO) that lacks CCK-1 receptor expression, is hyperphagic and develops obesity and type-2 diabetes. The present study sought to assess how OLETF rats alter intake, preference, and conditioned preference of palatable solutions after acute food deprivation. Our results show that after 24 hr chow restriction LETO rats increase both sucrose intake and two-bottle sucrose preference relative to...

  14. Effect of Majority Consensus on Preferences for Recorded Orchestral and Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Charles E.; Duke, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines group influences regarding music preferences to determine the effect that conformity has on the decision-making process. The study tested participants selections of popular and orchestral excerpts which had altered pitch and/or tempo. Concludes that preferences of music majors regarding orchestral music are not significantly affected by…

  15. Gender Preferences in Learning Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rae; Gray, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Reports on preference patterns among gender and age groups for school-science topics and learning experiences among respondents chosen to be nationally representative of Scottish primary and secondary pupils. Finds that girls have a stronger preference for biological topics than boys. Concludes that much of what goes on in science classrooms is…

  16. Squirrel Foraging Preferences: Gone Nuts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Randi A.

    2007-01-01

    This field exercise examines the feeding preferences of Gray Squirrels ("Sciurus carolinensis"). Students present squirrels with a variety of food types in a cafeteria-style arrangement in order to test hypotheses about foraging preferences. This exercise, which is appropriate for introductory biology, ecology, and animal behavior classes, is…

  17. Job satisfaction and preference drift.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Maassen van den Brink; W.J.N. Groot

    1999-01-01

    Most empirical studies do not find that higher wages lead to more job satisfaction. In this paper we argue that the insignificant effect of wages on job satisfaction is due to preference drift. We adapt the standard ordered response model to allow for preference shifts. The empirical results support

  18. Interest-based preference reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.M.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of practical reasoning, such as decision making and negotiation, it is necessary to model preferences over possible outcomes. Such preferences usually depend on multiple criteria. We argue that the criteria by which outcomes are evaluated should be the satisfaction of a person’s under

  19. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  20. The genes encoding the biotin carboxyl carrier protein and biotin carboxylase subunits of Bacillus subtilis acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, the first enzyme of fatty acid synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Marini(GANIL); Li, S J; Gardiol, D; Cronan, J E; De Mendoza, D

    1995-01-01

    The genes encoding two subunits of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and biotin carboxylase have been cloned from Bacillus subtilis. DNA sequencing and RNA blot hybridization studies indicated that the B. subtilis accB homolog which encodes biotin carboxyl carrier protein, is part of an operon that includes accC, the gene encoding the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase.

  1. Coenzyme F430, quantification and isotope analysis from the Eel River Basin California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, L. R.; Fulton, J. M.; Dawson, K.; Orphan, V. J.; Freeman, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    Large amounts of methane are oxidized by communities of methanotrophic archaea and sulphate-reducing bacteria, preventing this greenhouse gas from reaching the atmosphere (Orphan et al., 2001; Scheller et al., 2010). Methyl-coenzyme M reductase, an enzyme traditionally associated with methanogenesis, has recently been linked to the anaerobic oxidation of methane suggesting methane oxidation follows a pathway similar to reverse methanogenesis. Coenzyme F430, a tetrapyrrole-nickel complex within the active site of methyl-coenzyme M, is used in methanogenesis and is hypothesized to play a key role in archaeal methanotrophy (Scheller et al., 2010). We recently developed a method to extract and isolate F430 from natural sediments so it can be purified for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Sediments are extracted using an ultrasonic homogenizer, first in water (pH 7), then twice in dilute formic acid (pH 3). The combined extract is neutralized and the F430-containing fraction is isolated using Sephadex and Amberlite column chromatography. Further purification is performed using two dimensional high performance liquid chromatography, first with a reverse phase C-18 column followed by separation on a ThermoFisher Hypercarb column. F430 is then quantified using photo diode array detection with fractions collected for isotope analysis using a nano-scale elemental analyzer isotope ratio mass spectrometer (nano-EA-IRMS; Polissar et al., 2009). Compound identity and purity are confirmed using molar C:N ratios, UV absorbance and MSn detection of the parent ion (m/z 905). Here, we report F430 concentrations and isotopic data determined from active seep sediment cores from the Eel River Basin (California), a site where the anoxic oxidation of methane occurs. A spike in the concentration of F430 is observed at the 3-6 cm depth horizon corresponding with peak abundance in ANME-2/Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus aggregate counts. Carbon isotope values of F430 are significantly

  2. Individual lifetime pollen and nectar foraging preferences in bumble bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbery, Jessica; Nieh, James C.

    2012-10-01

    Foraging specialization plays an important role in the ability of social insects to efficiently allocate labor. However, relatively little is known about the degree to which individual bumble bees specialize on collecting nectar or pollen, when such preferences manifest, and if individuals can alter their foraging preferences in response to changes in the colony workforce. Using Bombus impatiens, we monitored all foraging visits made by every bee in multiple colonies and showed that individual foragers exhibit consistent lifetime foraging preferences. Based upon the distribution of foraging preferences, we defined three forager types (pollen specialists, nectar specialists, and generalists). In unmanipulated colonies, 16-36 % of individuals specialized (≥90 % of visits) on nectar or pollen only. On its first day of foraging, an individual's foraging choices (nectar only, pollen only, or nectar and pollen) significantly predicted its lifetime foraging preferences. Foragers that only collected pollen on their first day of foraging made 1.61- to 1.67-fold more lifetime pollen foraging visits (as a proportion of total trips) than foragers that only collected nectar on their first foraging day. Foragers were significantly larger than bees that stayed only in the nest. We also determined the effect of removing pollen specialists at early (brood present) or later (brood absent) stages in colony life. These results suggest that generalists can alter their foraging preferences in response to the loss of a small subset of foragers. Thus, bumble bees exhibit individual lifetime foraging preferences that are established early in life, but generalists may be able to adapt to colony needs.

  3. Integrated Electroosmotic Perfusion of Tissue with Online Microfluidic Analysis to Track the Metabolism of Cystamine, Pantethine and Coenzyme A

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Juanfang; Sandberg, Mats; Weber, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an approach that integrates electroosmotic perfusion of tissue with a substrate-containing solution and online microfluidic analysis of products, in this case thiols. Using this approach we have tracked the metabolism of cystamine, pantethine and CoA in the extracellular space of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). Currently, little is known about coenzyme A (CoA) biodegradation and even less is known about the regulation and kinetic characteristics for this sequ...

  4. Effect of particle size on solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability: evaluation using coenzyme Q10 as naked nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jiao Sun,1 Fan Wang,1,2 Yue Sui,1 Zhennan She,1 Wenjun Zhai,1 Chunling Wang,1 Yihui Deng11College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China; 2Beijing Zhijianjinrui Applied Pharmaceutical Science Inc, Beijing, ChinaAbstract: In this paper work, four naked nanocrystals (size range 80–700 nm were prepared without any surfactant or polymer using the solvent/nonsolvent method. The effects of particle size on their solubility, dissolution, and oral bioavailability were investigated. Solubility and dissolution testing were performed in three types of dissolution medium, and the studies demonstrated that the equilibrium solubilities of coenzyme Q10 nanocrystals and bulk drugs were not affected by the dissolution media but the kinetic solubilities were. Kinetic solubility curves and changes in particle size distribution were determined and well explained by the proposed solubilization model for the nanocrystals and bulk drugs. The particle size effect on dissolution was clearly influenced by the diffusion coefficients of the various dissolution media, and the dissolution velocity of coenzyme Q10 increased as particle size decreased. The bioavailability of coenzyme Q10 after oral administration in beagle dogs was improved by reducing the particle size. For 700 nm nanocrystals, the AUC0–48 was 4.4-fold greater than that for the coarse suspensions, but a further decrease in particle size from 700 nm to 120 nm did not contribute to improvement in bioavailability until the particle size was reduced to 80 nm, when bioavailability was increased by 7.3-fold.Keywords: particle size, solubility, dissolution, nanocrystal, bioavailability, coenzyme Q10

  5. Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase leads to induction of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in rat liver

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Hans; Hoogerbrugge van der Linden, N.; Hülsmann, William

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The relation between carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity was investigated. Rats were treated with aminocarnitine or 1-carnitine overnight. In rats, in which CPT activity was inhibited by aminocarnitine, plasma and hepatic triacylglycerol contents were increased 5- to 6-fold. The plasma cholesterol concentration was unchanged, while the hepatic cholesterol content was lowered (−16%). Hepat...

  6. Malonyl coenzyme A and the regulation of functional carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity and fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    RASMUSSEN, BLAKE B.; Holmbäck, Ulf C.; Volpi, Elena; Morio-Liondore, Beatrice; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Robert R. Wolfe

    2002-01-01

    Physiological hyperglycemia with hyperinsulinemia reduces fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. The mechanism responsible for this decrease in fat oxidation in human muscle is not known and may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that the transfer of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) into the mitochondria via carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) is inhibited by increased malonyl coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) (a known potent inhibitor of CPT-1) in human muscle during h...

  7. Simultaneous Analysis of Major Coenzymes of Cellular Redox Reactions and Energy Using ex Vivo (1)H NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagana Gowda, G A; Abell, Lauren; Lee, Chi Fung; Tian, Rong; Raftery, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Coenzymes of cellular redox reactions and cellular energy mediate biochemical reactions fundamental to the functioning of all living cells. Despite their immense interest, no simple method exists to gain insights into their cellular concentrations in a single step. We show that a simple (1)H NMR experiment can simultaneously measure oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) and NADH), oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+) and NADPH), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and its precursors, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), using mouse heart, kidney, brain, liver, and skeletal muscle tissue extracts as examples. Combining 1D/2D NMR experiments, chemical shift libraries, and authentic compound data, reliable peak identities for these coenzymes have been established. To assess this methodology, cardiac NADH and NAD(+) ratios/pool sizes were measured using mouse models with a cardiac-specific knockout of the mitochondrial Complex I Ndufs4 gene (cKO) and cardiac-specific overexpression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (cNAMPT) as examples. Sensitivity of NAD(+) and NADH to cKO or cNAMPT was observed, as anticipated. Time-dependent investigations showed that the levels of NADH and NADPH diminish by up to ∼50% within 24 h; concomitantly, NAD(+) and NADP(+) increase proportionately; however, degassing the sample and flushing the sample tubes with helium gas halted such changes. The analysis protocol along with the annotated characteristic fingerprints for each coenzyme is provided for easy identification and absolute quantification using a single internal reference for routine use. The ability to visualize the ubiquitous coenzymes fundamental to cellular functions, simultaneously and reliably, offers a new avenue to interrogate the mechanistic details of cellular function in health and disease. PMID:27043450

  8. L-Carnitine, but not coenzyme Q10, enhances the anti-osteoporotic effect of atorvastatin in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Murad, Hussam A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Statins’ therapy in osteoporosis can aggravate muscle damage. This study was designed to assess which agent, L-carnitine or coenzyme Q10, could enhance the anti-osteoporotic effect of atorvastatin while antagonizing myopathy in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Forty-eight female Sprague Dawley rats were used; forty rats were ovariectomized while eight were sham-operated. Eight weeks post-ovariectomy, rats were divided into ovariectomized-untreated group and four ovariectomized-treated...

  9. Evolution of Coenzyme B(12) Synthesis among Enteric Bacteria: Evidence for Loss and Reacquisition of a Multigene Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, J. G.; Roth, J R

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the distribution of cobalamin (coenzyme B(12)) synthetic ability and cobalamin-dependent metabolism among enteric bacteria. Most species of enteric bacteria tested synthesize cobalamin under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and ferment glycerol in a cobalamin-dependent fashion. The group of species including Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium cannot ferment glycerol. E. coli strains cannot synthesize cobalamin de novo, and Salmonella spp. synthesize cobalamin on...

  10. Multiple Roles of ATP:Cob(I)alamin Adenosyltransferases in the Conversion of B12 to Coenzyme B12

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, Paola E.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2010-01-01

    Our mechanistic understanding of the conversion of vitamin B12 into coenzyme B12 (a.k.a. adenosylcobalamin, AdoCbl) has been substantially advanced in recent years. Insights into the multiple roles played by ATP:Cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (ACA) enzymes have emerged through the crystallographic, spectroscopic, biochemical, and mutational analyses of wild-type and variant proteins. ACA enzymes circumvent the thermodynamic barrier posed by the very low redox potential associated with the r...

  11. Planning with Partial Preference Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Tuan; Gerevini, Alfonso; Serina, Ivan; Srivastava, Biplav; Kambhampati, Subbarao

    2011-01-01

    Current work in planning with preferences assume that the user's preference models are completely specified and aim to search for a single solution plan. In many real-world planning scenarios, however, the user probably cannot provide any information about her desired plans, or in some cases can only express partial preferences. In such situations, the planner has to present not only one but a set of plans to the user, with the hope that some of them are similar to the plan she prefers. We first propose the usage of different measures to capture quality of plan sets that are suitable for such scenarios: domain-independent distance measures defined based on plan elements (actions, states, causal links) if no knowledge of the user's preferences is given, and the Integrated Convex Preference measure in case the user's partial preference is provided. We then investigate various heuristic approaches to find set of plans according to these measures, and present empirical results demonstrating the promise of our app...

  12. Employer recruitment preferences and discrimination: a stated preference experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Quaid, Ronald; Bergmann, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach of applying stated preference methods in the field of labour economics. Differences in behaviour and labour market disadvantage are connected to the presence, and ages of children, the so-called „family gap‟. There are major difficulties in collecting accurate information about the recruiting practices of employers and identifying their preferences towards different characteristics of new recruits. Employer answers to direct questions may not illicit relia...

  13. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic models of congestion so far rely on exogenous scheduling preferences of travelers, based for example on disutility of deviation from a preferred departure or arrival time for a trip. This paper provides a more fundamental view in which travelers derive utility just from consumption and....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  14. Stated preference methods using R

    CERN Document Server

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Stated Preference Methods Using R explains how to use stated preference (SP) methods, which are a family of survey methods, to measure people's preferences based on decision making in hypothetical choice situations. Along with giving introductory explanations of the methods, the book collates information on existing R functions and packages as well as those prepared by the authors. It focuses on core SP methods, including contingent valuation (CV), discrete choice experiments (DCEs), and best-worst scaling (BWS). Several example data sets illustrate empirical applications of each method with R

  15. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic models of congestion so far rely on exogenous scheduling preferences of travelers, based for example on disutility of deviation from a preferred departure or arrival time for a trip. This paper provides a more fundamental view in which travelers derive utility just from consumption and...... leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  16. Reduced Cardiovascular Mortality 10 Years after Supplementation with Selenium and Coenzyme Q10 for Four Years: Follow-Up Results of a Prospective Randomized DoubleBlind Placebo-Controlled Trial in Elderly Citizens

    OpenAIRE

    Urban Alehagen; Jan Aaseth; Peter Johansson

    2015-01-01

    Background Selenium and coenzyme Q10 are important antioxidants in the body. As the intake of selenium is low in Europe, and the endogenous production of coenzyme Q10 decreases as age increases, an intervention trial using selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years was performed. As previously reported, the intervention was accompanied by reduced cardiovascular mortality. The objective of the present study was to analyze cardiovascular mortality for up to 10 years after intervention, to evaluat...

  17. 'Green' Preferences as Regulatory Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    We examine the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If “green” preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for o...

  18. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements in...... the utility that patients would obtain from a potential improvement in their ostomy pouch. This provides information as to how treatment options in terms of stoma management can be structured so as to maximize the benefits for patients....

  19. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use. PMID:19956353

  20. FARMERS' PREFERENCES FOR CROP CONTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lajili, Kaouthar; Barry, Peter J.; Sonka, Steven T.; Mahoney, Joseph T.

    1997-01-01

    An empirical approach combining elements of principal-agent theory and transaction cost economics is used to determine farmers'Â’ preferences for contract terms in crop production. The approach is tested by asking grain farmers to rank contract choices and specify price premiums in simulated case situations. The statistical results indicate that farmers'Â’ preferences for rates of cost sharing, price premiums, and financing arrangements are significantly influenced by asset specialization and...

  1. Coenzyme Q10 in human blood: native levels and determinants of oxidation during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Morrison, Cynthia M; Bakke, Jesse L; Custer, Laurie J; Li, Xingnan; Cooney, Robert V

    2010-06-15

    Coenzyme Q10 (Q10) is present in the circulation mainly in its reduced form (ubiquinol-10; UL10), but oxidizes quickly ex vivo to ubiquinone-10 (UN10). Therefore, native UL10:UN10 ratios, used as markers of redox status and disease risk, are difficult to measure. We established an RP-(U)HPLC method with coulometric detection to measure natively circulating UL10 and UN10 concentrations by adding a ubiquinol/ubiquinone mixture as an internal standard immediately after plasma preparation. This allowed adjustment for unavoidable artificial UL10 oxidation as well as for total losses (or gains) of analytes during sample storage, processing, and analysis because the internal standards exactly paralleled the chemical behavior of Q10. This technique applied to blood (n = 13) revealed Q10 levels of 680-3300 nM with a mean UL10:UN10 ratio of 95:5, which was inversely associated with total Q10 (r=-0.69; p=0.004). The oxidation of UL10 to UN10 was equimolar, increased by O(2), and decreased by lower temperatures or various degassing methods. Although UL10 was stable in blood or when pure in organic solvents at 22 degrees C, its oxidation was catalyzed dose dependently by alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene, particularly when present in combination. Key structural features for the catalytic pro-oxidant properties of phenolic antioxidants included two substituents vicinal to the phenolic hydroxyl group. PMID:20226852

  2. Recovery of MERRF fibroblasts and cybrids pathophysiology by coenzyme Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Mata, Mario; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Cotán, David; Cordero, Mario D; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; Izquierdo, Lourdes Gómez; De Miguel, Manuel; Lorite, Juan Bautista; Infante, Eloy Rivas; Ybot, Patricia; Jackson, Sandra; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations are an important cause of human disease for which there is no effective treatment. Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) is a mitochondrial disease usually caused by point mutations in transfer RNA genes encoded by mitochondrial DNA. The most common mutation associated with MERRF syndrome, m.8344A > G in the gene MT-TK, which encodes transfer RNA(Lysine), affects the translation of all mitochondrial DNA encoded proteins. This impairs the assembly of the electron transport chain complexes leading to decreased mitochondrial respiratory function. Here we report on how this mutation affects mitochondrial function in primary fibroblast cultures established from patients harboring the A8344G mutation. Coenzyme Q10 levels, as well as mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, and mitochondrial protein expression levels were significantly decreased in MERRF fibroblasts. Mitotracker staining and imaging analysis of individual mitochondria indicated the presence of small, rounded, depolarized mitochondria in MERRF fibroblasts. Mitochondrial dysfunction was associated with increased oxidative stress and increased degradation of impaired mitochondria by mitophagy. Transmitochondrial cybrids harboring the A8344G mutation also showed CoQ10 deficiency, mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased mitophagy activity. All these abnormalities in patient-derived fibroblasts and cybrids were partially restored by CoQ10 supplementation, indicating that these cell culture models may be suitable for screening and validation of novel drug candidates for MERRF disease. PMID:22354625

  3. Regulation of the synthesis and degradation of cytoplasmic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase was purified to homogeneity from rat liver cytoplasm. The active enzyme is a dimer composed of identical subunits of M/sub r/ = 53,000. Antisera raised to enzyme purified from rats fed a diet containing cholestyramine and mevinolin precipitated HMG-CoA synthase. The antibody precipitated a polypeptide of M/sub r/ = 53,000 after NaDodSO4 gel electrophoresis from rat hepatocytes that had been previously incubated with [35S] methionine. The rates of synthesis and degradation of HMG-CoA synthase were determined by immunoprecipitation of the enzyme from hepatocytes which were labeled with [35S] methionine during pulse and pulse-chase experiments. In hepatocytes isolated from the livers of rats fed either a diet containing cholesterol, a control diet, or a diet containing cholestyramine plus/minus mevinolin, the relative rates of synthase synthesis were 0.12%, 0.20%, 0.30%, and 0.43% respectively, of the rates of total cellular protein synthesis

  4. Development and evaluation of coenzyme Q10 loaded solid lipid nanoparticle hydrogel for enhanced dermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkm, Emrah; Gokce, Evren H; Ozer, Ozgen

    2013-12-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (Q10) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were prepared by the high speed homogenization method and incorporated into Carbopol 974P hydrogels. Compritol 888 ATO (C888) was employed as the lipid base; Poloxamer 188 (P188) and Tween 80 (Tw80) were used as surfactant and co-surfactant. Optimum particle size with narrow distribution was obtained as 152.2 nm for blank and 142.4 nm for Q10 loaded SLNs. The overall charge of loaded SLNs was -13.7 ± 1.3 mV. Q10 entrapment efficiency was 89 % and the production yield was 94 %. Transmission electron microscopy analysis provided evidence of colloidal size, spherical shape while differential scanning calorimetry analysis confirmed recrystallization of the lipid after the preparation of SLNs. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) analysis has shown that antioxidant potential of Q10 can be protected in SLNs. Rheological characteristics demonstrated that the SLN incorporating gels were shear thinning and the mechanical strength of the gels was suitable for topical application. Diffusion studies from rat abdominal skin revealed that the delivery of Q10 was doubled in SLN incorporating gels, approximately 40 μg cm-2, in comparison with gels prepared with only Q10 (not incorporated in SLNs). As a result, it can be stated that Q10-SLN loaded gels can be successful delivery systems for carrying Q10 efficiently into the skin without losing its antioxidant properties. PMID:24451076

  5. Structural requirements for novel coenzyme-substrate derivatives to inhibit intracellular ornithine decarboxylase and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Gehring, Heinz

    2009-02-01

    Creating transition-state mimics has proven to be a powerful strategy in developing inhibitors to treat malignant diseases in several cases. In the present study, structurally diverse coenzyme-substrate derivatives mimicking this type for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent human ornithine decarboxylase (hODC), a potential anticancer target, were designed, synthesized, and tested to elucidate the structural requirements for optimal inhibition of intracellular ODC as well as of tumor cell proliferation. Of 23 conjugates, phosphopyridoxyl- and pyridoxyl-L-tryptophan methyl ester (pPTME, PTME) proved significantly more potent in suppression proliferation (IC(50) up to 25 microM) of glioma cells (LN229) than alpha-DL-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a medically used irreversible inhibitor of ODC. In agreement with molecular modeling predictions, the inhibitory action of pPTME and PTME toward intracellular ODC of LN229 cells exceeded that of the previous designed lead compound POB. The inhibitory active compounds feature hydrophobic side chain fragments and a kind of polyamine motif (-NH-(CH(X))(4)-NH-). In addition, they induce, as polyamine analogs often do, the activity of the polyamine catabolic enzymes polyamine oxidase and spermine/spermidine N(1)-acetyltransferase up to 250 and 780%, respectively. The dual-action mode of these compounds in LN229 cells affects the intracellular polyamine metabolism and might underlie the more favorable cell proliferation inhibition in comparison with DFMO. PMID:18922879

  6. Cofilin/Twinstar phosphorylation levels increase in response to impaired coenzyme a metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Siudeja

    Full Text Available Coenzyme A (CoA is a pantothenic acid-derived metabolite essential for many fundamental cellular processes including energy, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pantothenate kinase (PANK, which catalyses the first step in the conversion of pantothenic acid to CoA, has been associated with a rare neurodegenerative disorder PKAN. However, the consequences of impaired PANK activity are poorly understood. Here we use Drosophila and human neuronal cell cultures to show how PANK deficiency leads to abnormalities in F-actin organization. Cells with reduced PANK activity are characterized by abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin, a conserved actin filament severing protein. The increased levels of phospho-cofilin coincide with morphological changes of PANK-deficient Drosophila S2 cells and human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells. The latter exhibit also markedly reduced ability to form neurites in culture--a process that is strongly dependent on actin remodeling. Our results reveal a novel and conserved link between a metabolic biosynthesis pathway, and regulation of cellular actin dynamics.

  7. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Svend A; Rosenfeldt, Franklin; Kumar, Adarsh; Dolliner, Peter; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Pella, Daniel; Alehagen, Urban; Steurer, Günter; Littarru, Gian P

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This randomized controlled multicenter trial evaluated coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as adjunctive treatment in chronic heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: CoQ10 is an essential cofactor for energy production and is also a powerful antioxidant. A low level of myocardial CoQ10 is related to the...... severity of HF. Previous randomized controlled trials of CoQ10 in HF were underpowered to address major clinical endpoints. METHODS: Patients with moderate to severe HF were randomly assigned in a 2-year prospective trial to either CoQ10 100 mg 3 times daily or placebo, in addition to standard therapy. The.......32 to 0.80; p = 0.003) by intention-to-treat analysis. The following secondary endpoints were significantly lower in the CoQ10 group compared with the placebo group: cardiovascular mortality (9% vs. 16%, p = 0.026), all-cause mortality (10% vs. 18%, p = 0.018), and incidence of hospital stays for HF (p...

  8. Coenzyme Q biosynthesis and its role in the respiratory chain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Fabra, María; Navas, Plácido; Brea-Calvo, Gloria

    2016-08-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a unique electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is synthesized on-site by a nuclear encoded multiprotein complex. CoQ receives electrons from different redox pathways, mainly NADH and FADH2 from tricarboxylic acid pathway, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that support key aspects of the metabolism. Here we explore some lines of evidence supporting the idea of the interaction of CoQ with the respiratory chain complexes, contributing to their superassembly, including respirasome, and its role in reactive oxygen species production in the mitochondrial inner membrane. We also review the current knowledge about the involvement of mitochondrial genome defects and electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase mutations in the induction of secondary CoQ deficiency. This mechanism would imply specific interactions coupling CoQ itself or the CoQ-biosynthetic apparatus with the respiratory chain components. These interactions would regulate mitochondrial CoQ steady-state levels and function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:26970214

  9. The Influence of Environment on the Reactivity, Dynamics and Spectroscopy of B12 Coenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sension, Roseanne; Ahmasi Harris, D.; Carroll, Elizabeth; Stickrath, Andrew

    2006-03-01

    Adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) dependent enzymes catalyze a variety of chemically difficult reactions that proceed by mechanisms involving organic radicals. In these enzymes radicals are initially generated by homolysis of the cobalt-carbon bond to produce an adenosyl radical and a cob(II)alamin radical. This radical pair may also be generated by optical excitation of the AdoCbl cofactor with visible light. In the work presented here, time-resolved spectroscopic measurements spanning the time range from 10 fs to 10 ns are used to investigate the energetics and dynamics of AdoCbl and other cobalamins as a function of environment. These studies probe the influence of environment on the energy of the low-lying charge transfer states of the cobalamin and on the barriers for dissociation and for recombination of the geminate radical pair. When the AdoCbl coenzyme is bound to the enzyme glutamate mutase, the protein environment is found to stabilize the charge transfer state of AdoCbl relative to observations in water and ethylene glycol. However, the intrinsic rate constant for recombination is only slightly smaller than the rate constant measured in free solution, suggesting the protein does not greatly perturb the ground state stability of the cobalt-carbon bond.

  10. Micronutrient special issue: Coenzyme Q10 requirements for DNA damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential component for electron transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and serves as cofactor in several biological processes. The reduced form of CoQ10 (ubiquinol, Q10H2) is an effective antioxidant in biological membranes. During the last years, particular interest has been grown on molecular effects of CoQ10 supplementation on mechanisms related to DNA damage prevention. This review describes recent advances in our understanding about the impact of CoQ10 on genomic stability in cells, animals and humans. With regard to several in vitro and in vivo studies, CoQ10 provides protective effects on several markers of oxidative DNA damage and genomic stability. In comparison to the number of studies reporting preventive effects of CoQ10 on oxidative stress biomarkers, CoQ10 intervention studies in humans with a direct focus on markers of DNA damage are limited. Thus, more well-designed studies in healthy and disease populations with long-term follow up results are needed to substantiate the reported beneficial effects of CoQ10 on prevention of DNA damage.

  11. Simultaneous analysis of ellagic acid and coenzyme Q(10) by derivative spectroscopy and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, D Venkat; Bhardwaj, V; Kumar, M N V Ravi

    2006-09-15

    Antioxidants are gaining tremendous interest as chemopreventive as well as chemotherapeutic agents. Ellagic acid (EA) is a plant derived compound with very poor solubility in water and very low octanol/water partition coefficient and coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) is a highly lipophilic compound, which is synthesized in the body and can be derived from food supplements as well. The new insights in the combination therapy are promising a better future in many challenging diseases. Synergism is among the key advantages of combination therapy apart from decreased intensity of unwanted effects of a compound, increased patient compliance and reduction in cost of therapy. EA and CoQ(10) supplementation in combination will be beneficial in strengthening the weakened antioxidant defense system in many diseases related to oxidative stress. Here we report first derivative UV spectroscopic and HPLC methods for the simultaneous analysis of these two agents in pharmaceutical preparations. Results obtained indicate that the derivative spectroscopy is as efficient as HPLC method in quantitative analysis. Retention of ellagic acid can be increased using PEG bonded column which is poorly retained on C(18) column. PEG column can be used for rapid simultaneous analysis of EA and CoQ(10), which are having diverse physicochemical properties. PMID:18970780

  12. Preparation, characterization and in silico modeling of biodegradable nanoparticles containing cyclosporine A and coenzyme Q10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combination therapy will soon become a reality, particularly for those patients requiring poly-therapy to treat co-existing disease states. This becomes all the more important with the increasing cost, time and complexity of the drug discovery process prompting one to look at new delivery systems to increase the efficacy, safety and patient compliance of existing drugs. Along this line, we attempted to design nano-scale systems for simultaneous encapsulation of cyclosporine A (CsA) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and model their encapsulation and release kinetics. The in vitro characterization of the co-encapsulated nanoparticles revealed that the surfactant nature, concentration, external phase volume, droplet size reduction method and drug loading concentration can all influence the overall performance of the nanoparticles. The semi-quantitative solubility study indicates the strong influence of CoQ10 on CsA entrapment which was thought to be due to an increase in the lipophilicity of the overall system. The in vitro dissolution profile indicates the influence of CoQ10 on CsA release (64%) to that of individual particles of CsA, where the release is faster and higher (86%) on 18th day. The attempts to model the encapsulation and release kinetics were successful, offering a possibility to use such models leading to high throughput screening of drugs and their nature, alone or in combination for a particular polymer, if chi-parameters are understood.

  13. Micronutrient special issue: Coenzyme Q{sub 10} requirements for DNA damage prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelzer, Constance, E-mail: schmelzer@fbn-dummerstorf.de [Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Nutritional Physiology, Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf (Germany); Doering, Frank [University of Kiel, Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Molecular Prevention, Heinrich-Hecht-Platz 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Coenzyme Q{sub 10} (CoQ{sub 10}) is an essential component for electron transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and serves as cofactor in several biological processes. The reduced form of CoQ{sub 10} (ubiquinol, Q{sub 10}H{sub 2}) is an effective antioxidant in biological membranes. During the last years, particular interest has been grown on molecular effects of CoQ{sub 10} supplementation on mechanisms related to DNA damage prevention. This review describes recent advances in our understanding about the impact of CoQ{sub 10} on genomic stability in cells, animals and humans. With regard to several in vitro and in vivo studies, CoQ{sub 10} provides protective effects on several markers of oxidative DNA damage and genomic stability. In comparison to the number of studies reporting preventive effects of CoQ{sub 10} on oxidative stress biomarkers, CoQ{sub 10} intervention studies in humans with a direct focus on markers of DNA damage are limited. Thus, more well-designed studies in healthy and disease populations with long-term follow up results are needed to substantiate the reported beneficial effects of CoQ{sub 10} on prevention of DNA damage.

  14. Coenzyme Q10 Levels Are Decreased in the Cerebellum of Multiple-System Atrophy Patients.

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    Lucia V Schottlaender

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 in brain tissue of multiple system atrophy (MSA patients differ from those in elderly controls and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases.Flash frozen brain tissue of a series of 20 pathologically confirmed MSA patients [9 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA type, 6 striatonigral degeneration (SND type, and 5 mixed type] was used for this study. Elderly controls (n = 37 as well as idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n = 7, dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 20, corticobasal degeneration (n = 15 and cerebellar ataxia (n = 18 patients were used as comparison groups. CoQ10 was measured in cerebellar and frontal cortex tissue by high performance liquid chromatography.We detected a statistically significant decrease (by 3-5% in the level of CoQ10 in the cerebellum of MSA cases (P = 0.001, specifically in OPCA (P = 0.001 and mixed cases (P = 0.005, when compared to controls as well as to other neurodegenerative diseases [dementia with Lewy bodies (P<0.001, idiopathic Parkinson's disease (P<0.001, corticobasal degeneration (P<0.001, and cerebellar ataxia (P = 0.001].Our results suggest that a perturbation in the CoQ10 biosynthetic pathway is associated with the pathogenesis of MSA but the mechanism behind this finding remains to be elucidated.

  15. Stability of ubiquinol-10 (reduced form of coenzyme Q10 ) in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kazuhiko; Kasai, Kazuaki; Hosoe, Kazunori; Funahashi, Iwao

    2016-04-01

    The ratio of ubiquinol-10 in total coenzyme Q10 (TQ10 ) in human plasma has been proposed as a useful biomarker of oxidative stress. Since ubiquinol-10 is easily oxidized in air, it is necessary to perform suitable processing at medical institutions prior to analysis. To establish stable storage conditions for blood to determine the ubiquinol-10/TQ10 ratios properly, the effects of temperature conditions on the stability of ubiquinol-10 were studied. Blood samples were collected from nine male Japanese volunteers. Changes in ubiquinol-10/TQ10 ratios in blood samples were evaluated under three temperature conditions (room temperature, refrigerated and ice-cooled). Plasma levels of ubiquinol-10 and ubiquinone-10 were determined by an HPLC system with electrochemical detection and the ubiquinol-10/TQ10 ratios were calculated. We found that the ubiquinol-10/TQ10 ratio was stable up to 8 or 4 h when blood samples were stored in refrigerator or ice-cold container, respectively, and its decreases during these periods were cold container, and processed for plasma separation within 4 h. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26248527

  16. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  17. Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sébastien C.; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Simcock, Kerry L.; Derveau, Sophie; Mitchell, Jessica; Softley, Samantha; Stout, Jane C.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2015-05-01

    The impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators is highly controversial. Sublethal concentrations alter the behaviour of social bees and reduce survival of entire colonies. However, critics argue that the reported negative effects only arise from neonicotinoid concentrations that are greater than those found in the nectar and pollen of pesticide-treated plants. Furthermore, it has been suggested that bees could choose to forage on other available flowers and hence avoid or dilute exposure. Here, using a two-choice feeding assay, we show that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, do not avoid nectar-relevant concentrations of three of the most commonly used neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMD), thiamethoxam (TMX), and clothianidin (CLO), in food. Moreover, bees of both species prefer to eat more of sucrose solutions laced with IMD or TMX than sucrose alone. Stimulation with IMD, TMX and CLO neither elicited spiking responses from gustatory neurons in the bees' mouthparts, nor inhibited the responses of sucrose-sensitive neurons. Our data indicate that bees cannot taste neonicotinoids and are not repelled by them. Instead, bees preferred solutions containing IMD or TMX, even though the consumption of these pesticides caused them to eat less food overall. This work shows that bees cannot control their exposure to neonicotinoids in food and implies that treating flowering crops with IMD and TMX presents a sizeable hazard to foraging bees.

  18. Why do women not prefer much older men? a hypothesis based on alterations in male reproductive physiology related to increased age Por que mulheres não preferem homens muito mais velhos que elas? uma hipótese baseada em alterações da fisiologia reprodutiva masculina relacionadas ao aumento da idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Helena Pinheiro Spinelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Psychology studies suggest that women prefer slightly older or similarly aged partners, although to date few hypotheses have been put forth to explain this pattern of choice. Several recent studies have shown changes in male reproductive parameters as a result of increased age. In the current review of medical literature, we found evidence that much older men are more likely to be infertile, women with much older partners are more likely to experience problems during pregnancy, and children of much older men are more likely to have genetic abnormalities. Based on these findings, we suggest that reproducing with much older men does not represent the best reproductive option for women, which would explain the female preference for only slightly older or similarly-aged mates.Estudos de Psicologia Evolucionista sugerem que as mulheres preferem parceiros um pouco mais velhos ou de idade semelhante, embora apresentem, até agora, poucas hipóteses para explicar esse padrão de preferência. Recentemente, vários estudos têm demonstrado alterações nos parâmetros reprodutivos masculinos como resultado do aumento da idade. Em revisão da literatura médica atual, encontramos evidências de que homens muito mais velhos são mais susceptíveis de serem inférteis, mulheres com parceiros muito mais velhos são mais propensas a sofrer com problemas durante a gravidez e filhos de homens muito mais velhos são mais propensos a ter anomalias genéticas. Com base nestes resultados, sugerimos que reproduzir com homens muito mais velhos não representa a melhor opção reprodutiva para as mulheres, o que explicaria a preferência feminina por parceiros apenas um pouco mais velhos ou de mesma faixa etária.

  19. Recent advances in fuzzy preference modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preference structures are well-known mathematical concepts having numerous applications in a variety of disciplines, such as economics, sociology and psychology. The generalization of preference structures to the fuzzy case has received considerable attention over the past years. Fuzzy preference structures allow a decision maker to express degrees of preference instead of the rigid classical yes-or-no preference assignment. This paper reports on the recent insights gained into the existence, construction and characterization of these fuzzy preference structures

  20. Patient Admission Preferences and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Clayton; Melnikow, Joy; Dinh, Tu; Holmes, James F.; Gaona, Samuel D.; Bottyan, Thomas; Paterniti, Debora; Nishijima, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding patient perceptions and preferences of hospital care is important to improve patients’ hospitalization experiences and satisfaction. The objective of this study was to investigate patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care, specifically differences between intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital floor admissions. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of emergency department (ED) patients who were presented with a hypothetical scenario of a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We surveyed their preferences and perceptions of hospital care related to this scenario. A closed-ended questionnaire provided quantitative data on patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care and an open-ended questionnaire evaluated factors that may not have been captured with the closed-ended questionnaire. Results Out of 302 study patients, the ability for family and friends to visit (83%), nurse availability (80%), and physician availability (79%) were the factors most commonly rated “very important,” while the cost of hospitalization (62%) and length of hospitalization (59%) were the factors least commonly rated “very important.” When asked to choose between the ICU and the floor if they were the patient in the scenario, 33 patients (10.9%) choose the ICU, 133 chose the floor (44.0%), and 136 (45.0%) had no preference. Conclusion Based on a hypothetical scenario of mild TBI, the majority of patients preferred admission to the floor or had no preference compared to admission to the ICU. Humanistic factors such as the availability of doctors and nurses and the ability to interact with family appear to have a greater priority than systematic factors of hospitalization, such as length and cost of hospitalization or length of time in the ED waiting for an in-patient bed. PMID:26587095

  1. The allometry of prey preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Kalinkat

    Full Text Available The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems.

  2. Student selection and preference types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskey, N J

    1982-02-01

    The use of paper and pencil tests for the selection of candidates and to identify individual differences should be approached cautiously because the interpretations of the tests can be very subjective. Although personal preferences do tend to become more stable as we grow older, they may vary from one day to the next. No one is an absolute extrovert or introvert; we all have tendencies toward one or the other depending on the particular situation and the mitigating circumstances. The preference type indicator is not recommended for use in selecting candidates for entrance into a nurse anesthesia program; but, rather, to make members of the department aware of the similarities and differences among people. It is helpful in making individuals aware of the other person's preferences. It is also useful in making them aware of the need to examine their own areas of weakness and to improve them before attempting to change someone else. PMID:7072461

  3. Gender Differences in Investment Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Bayyurt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explore how women and men differ in their individual investment preferences. Although there are some studies for the investors in developed countries, the subject has been overlooked in emerging and underdeveloped countries. Therefore, this study is the first empirical study exploring the investment behaviors of women and men by focusing on an emerging country, Turkey. For the purpose to find out how investment preferences of men and women differ towards six investment tools, namely, gold, foreign currency, funds, common stocks, real estates, and time deposits, a discriminant analysis and a logistic regression were exercised. The results revealed that while men investors prefer common stocks and real estate to invest women investors are more risk averse and invest fund, time deposit and gold. There is no significant difference between men and women in foreign currency investment.

  4. Electron addition to alkyl cobalamins, coenzyme B12 and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of dilute solutions of methyl and ethyl cobalamins and coenzyme B12 in dilute solutions (D2O+CD3OD) to 60Co #betta#-rays at 77 K gave a single broad feature in the free-spin region assigned to electron-capture species with the excess electron largely confined to a π* corrin orbital. On warming above 77 K the methyl derivative gave a novel species with spectral features characteristic of an unpaired electron in the Co(dsub(x2-y2)) orbital. The other two substrates gave spectra due to Cosup(II)Bsub(12r) both on warming and after photolyses with visible light. The acetyl derivative gave an electron-capture species whose e.s.r. spectrum was characteristic of an electron in the Co(dsub(z2)) orbital, which on warming above 77 K changed to the normal Cosup(II)Bsub(12r) spectrum. The cyano derivative (vitamin B12) gave electron addition into the Co(dsub(z2)) orbital, as evidenced by the large hyperfine coupling to 13C from 13CN ligands. On annealing, cyanide ions were lost irreversibly, Bsub(12r) being detected by e.s.r. spectroscopy. In contrast, the dicyano derivative on electron addition at 77 K gave a species containing only one 13CN ligand. Hence in this case one CN- ligand was lost at 77 K, with no return of the dimethylbenzimidazole ligand. These results are discussed in terms of a new mechanism for electron-addition to alkyl cobalamins. (author)

  5. An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Silvia; Larson, Tony R; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Alejandro, Santiago; Graham, Ian A; Serrano, Ramón; Rodriguez, Pedro L

    2006-03-01

    Once the plant coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthetic pathway has been elucidated by comparative genomics, it is feasible to analyze the physiological relevance of CoA biosynthesis in plant life. To this end, we have identified and characterized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) T-DNA knockout mutants of two CoA biosynthetic genes, HAL3A and HAL3B. The HAL3A gene encodes a 4'-phosphopantothenoyl-cysteine decarboxilase that generates 4'-phosphopantetheine. A second gene, HAL3B, whose gene product is 86% identical to that of HAL3A, is present in the Arabidopsis genome. HAL3A appears to have a predominant role over HAL3B according to their respective mRNA expression levels. The hal3a-1, hal3a-2, and hal3b mutants were viable and showed a similar growth rate as that in wild-type plants; in contrast, a hal3a-1 hal3b double mutant was embryo lethal. Unexpectedly, seedlings that were null for HAL3A and heterozygous for HAL3B (aaBb genotype) displayed a sucrose (Suc)-dependent phenotype for seedling establishment, which is in common with mutants defective in beta-oxidation. This phenotype was genetically complemented in aaBB siblings of the progeny and chemically complemented by pantethine. In contrast, seedling establishment of Aabb plants was not Suc dependent, proving a predominant role of HAL3A over HAL3B at this stage. Total fatty acid and acyl-CoA measurements of 5-d-old aaBb seedlings in medium lacking Suc revealed stalled storage lipid catabolism and impaired CoA biosynthesis; in particular, acetyl-CoA levels were reduced by approximately 80%. Taken together, these results provide in vivo evidence for the function of HAL3A and HAL3B, and they point out the critical role of CoA biosynthesis during early postgerminative growth. PMID:16415216

  6. Border between natural product and drug: Comparison of the related benzoquinones idebenone and coenzyme Q10

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    Nuri Gueven

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 is a ubiquitous component of cellular membranes and belongs to the class of benzoquinones that mainly differ with regards to the length and composition of their hydrophobic tail. The characteristic quinone group can accept electrons from various biological sources and is converted by a one electron transfer to the unstable semiquinone or by a two electron transfer to the more stable hydroquinone. This feature makes CoQ10 the bona fide cellular electron transfer molecule within the mitochondrial respiratory chain and also makes it a potent cellular antioxidant. These activities serve as justification for its popular use as food supplement. Another quinone with similarities to the naturally occurring CoQ10 is idebenone, which shares its quinone moiety with CoQ10, but at the same time differs from CoQ10 by the presence of a much shorter, less lipophilic tail. However, despite its similarity to CoQ10, idebenone cannot be isolated from any natural sources but instead was synthesized and selected as a pharmacologically active compound in the 1980s by Takeda Pharmaceuticals purely based on its pharmacological properties. Several recent clinical trials demonstrated some therapeutic efficacy of idebenone in different indications and as a consequence, many practitioners question if the freely available CoQ10 could not be used instead. Here, we describe the molecular and pharmacological features of both molecules that arise from their structural differences to answer the question if idebenone is merely a CoQ10 analogue as frequently perpetuated in the literature or a pharmaceutical drug with entirely different features.

  7. Oxidative Stress Correlates with Headache Symptoms in Fibromyalgia: Coenzyme Q10 Effect on Clinical Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Mario D.; Cano-García, Francisco Javier; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; De Miguel, Manuel; Sánchez-Alcázar, José Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome with unknown etiology and a wide spectrum of symptoms such as allodynia, debilitating fatigue, joint stiffness and migraine. Recent studies have shown some evidences demonstrating that oxidative stress is associated to clinical symptoms in FM of fibromyalgia. We examined oxidative stress and bioenergetic status in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and its association to headache symptoms in FM patients. The effects of oral coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on biochemical markers and clinical improvement were also evaluated. Methods We studied 20 FM patients and 15 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), visual analogues scales (VAS), and the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring CoQ10, catalase and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in BMCs. Bioenergetic status was assessed by measuring ATP levels in BMCs. Results We found decreased CoQ10, catalase and ATP levels in BMCs from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively) We also found increased level of LPO in BMCs from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.001). Significant negative correlations between CoQ10 or catalase levels in BMCs and headache parameters were observed (r = −0.59, P<0.05; r = −0.68, P<0.05, respectively). Furthermore, LPO levels showed a significant positive correlation with HIT-6 (r = 0.33, P<0.05). Oral CoQ10 supplementation restored biochemical parameters and induced a significant improvement in clinical and headache symptoms (P<0.001). Discussion The results of this study suggest a role for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the headache symptoms associated with FM. CoQ10 supplementation should be examined in a larger placebo controlled trial as a possible treatment in FM. PMID:22532869

  8. Treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome with co-enzyme Q10 and amitriptyline, a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Amy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS, which is defined by recurrent stereotypical episodes of nausea and vomiting, is a relatively-common disabling condition that is associated with migraine headache and mitochondrial dysfunction. Co-enzyme Q10 (Co-Q is a nutritional supplement that has demonstrated efficacy in pediatric and adult migraine. It is increasingly used in CVS despite the complete lack of studies to demonstrate its value in treatment Methods Using an Internet-based survey filled out by subjects with CVS or their parents, the efficacy, tolerability and subject satisfaction in CVS prophylaxis were queried. Subjects taking Co-Q (22 subjects were compared against those taking amitriptyline (162 subjects, which is the general standard-of-care. Results Subjects/parents reported similar levels of efficacy for a variety of episode parameters (frequency, duration, number of emesis, nausea severity. There was a 50% reduction in at least one of those four parameters in 72% of subjects treated with amitriptyline and 68% of subjects treated Co-Q. However, while no side effects were reported on Co-Q, 50% of subjects on amitriptyline reported side effects (P = 5 × 10-7, resulting in 21% discontinuing treatment (P = 0.007. Subjects/parents considered the benefits to outweigh the risks of treatment in 47% of cases on amitriptyline and 77% of cases on Co-Q (P = 0.008. Conclusion Our data suggest that the natural food supplement Co-Q is potentially efficacious and tolerable in the treatment of CVS, and should be considered as an option in CVS prophylaxis. Our data would likely be helpful in the design of a double-blind clinical trial.

  9. The bioinformatics of nucleotide sequence coding for proteins requiring metal coenzymes and proteins embedded with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremberger, G.; Dehipawala, Sunil; Cheung, E.; Holden, T.; Sullivan, R.; Nguyen, A.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2015-09-01

    All metallo-proteins need post-translation metal incorporation. In fact, the isotope ratio of Fe, Cu, and Zn in physiology and oncology have emerged as an important tool. The nickel containing F430 is the prosthetic group of the enzyme methyl coenzyme M reductase which catalyzes the release of methane in the final step of methano-genesis, a prime energy metabolism candidate for life exploration space mission in the solar system. The 3.5 Gyr early life sulfite reductase as a life switch energy metabolism had Fe-Mo clusters. The nitrogenase for nitrogen fixation 3 billion years ago had Mo. The early life arsenite oxidase needed for anoxygenic photosynthesis energy metabolism 2.8 billion years ago had Mo and Fe. The selection pressure in metal incorporation inside a protein would be quantifiable in terms of the related nucleotide sequence complexity with fractal dimension and entropy values. Simulation model showed that the studied metal-required energy metabolism sequences had at least ten times more selection pressure relatively in comparison to the horizontal transferred sequences in Mealybug, guided by the outcome histogram of the correlation R-sq values. The metal energy metabolism sequence group was compared to the circadian clock KaiC sequence group using magnesium atomic level bond shifting mechanism in the protein, and the simulation model would suggest a much higher selection pressure for the energy life switch sequence group. The possibility of using Kepler 444 as an example of ancient life in Galaxy with the associated exoplanets has been proposed and is further discussed in this report. Examples of arsenic metal bonding shift probed by Synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy data and Zn controlled FOXP2 regulated pathways in human and chimp brain studied tissue samples are studied in relationship to the sequence bioinformatics. The analysis results suggest that relatively large metal bonding shift amount is associated with low probability correlation R

  10. Characterisation and Skin Distribution of Lecithin-Based Coenzyme Q10-Loaded Lipid Nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zemin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the inner lipid ratio on the physicochemical properties and skin targeting of surfactant-free lecithin-based coenzyme Q10-loaded lipid nanocapsules (CoQ10-LNCs. The smaller particle size of CoQ10-LNCs was achieved by high pressure and a lower ratio of CoQ10/GTCC (Caprylic/capric triglyceride; however, the zeta potential of CoQ10-LNCs was above /− 60 mV/ with no distinct difference among them at different ratios of CoQ10/GTCC. Both the crystallisation point and the index decreased with the decreasing ratio of CoQ10/GTCC and smaller particle size; interestingly, the supercooled state of CoQ10-LNCs was observed at particle size below about 200 nm, as verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC in one heating–cooling cycle. The lecithin monolayer sphere structure of CoQ10-LNCs was investigated by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM. The skin penetration results revealed that the distribution of Nile red-loaded CoQ10-LNCs depended on the ratio of inner CoQ10/GTCC; moreover, epidermal targeting and superficial dermal targeting were achieved by the CoQ10-LNCs application. The highest fluorescence response was observed at a ratio of inner CoQ10/GTCC of 1:1. These observations suggest that lecithin-based LNCs could be used as a promising topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic compounds.

  11. Paraquat induces oxidative stress and neuronal cell death; neuroprotection by water-soluble Coenzyme Q10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress is correlated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and stroke. The causes of sporadic forms of age-related neurodegenerative diseases are still unknown. Recently, a correlation between paraquat exposure and neurodegenerative diseases has been observed. Paraquat, a nonselective herbicide, was once widely used in North America and is still routinely used in Taiwan. We have used differentiated Human Neuroblastoma (SHSY-5Y) cells as an in vitro model to study the mechanism of cell death induced by paraquat. We observed that paraquat-induced oxidative stress in differentiated SHSY-5Y cells as indicated by an increase in the production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, apoptosis was evident as indicated by cellular and nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, pretreatment of SHSY-5Y cells with water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) before paraquat exposure inhibited ROS generation. Pretreatment with CoQ10 also significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells and DNA fragmentation. We also analyzed the effect of paraquat and CoQ10 on isolated mitochondria. Our results indicated that treatment with paraquat induced the generation of ROS from isolated mitochondria and depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Pretreatment with CoQ10 was able to inhibit ROS generation from isolated mitochondria as well as the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. Our results indicate that water-soluble CoQ10 can prevent oxidative stress and neuronal damage induced by paraquat and therefore, can be used for the prevention and therapy of neurodegenerative diseases caused by environmental toxins

  12. The value of customer preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  13. Value disciplines: measuring customer preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Dannhauser

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Competitiveness Report: 1999, South Africa ranks poorly in terms of delivering customer services (Garelli, 1999. In order to assist South African organisations to identify their customers' value preferences, three scales collectively called the Customer Preference Questionnaire (CPQ were developed. Opsomming Luidens die World Competitiveness Report: 1999 vaar Suid-Afrika swak ten opsigte van klientediens-lewering (Garelli, 1999. Om Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies te help met die identifisering van hulle kliente se waardevoorkeure, is drie skale wat gesamentlik die Klientevoorkeurvraelys (CPQ genoem word, ontwikkel.

  14. 5 CFR 337.304 - Veterans' preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterans' preference. 337.304 Section 337... Alternative Rating and Selection Procedures § 337.304 Veterans' preference. In this subpart: (a) Veterans' preference must be applied as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 3319(b) and (c)(2); (b) Veterans' preference points...

  15. Derived strengths of preference relations on coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Wakker, Peter

    1988-01-01

    textabstractway is indicated to derive, from a preference relation on a Cartesian product, strength of preference relations on the coordinate sets. These strengths of preference relations are then used to reformulate several well-known properties of preference relations, and make their meaning more transparent. A new result for dynamic contexts is given.

  16. 4 CFR 2.6 - Veterans' preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterans' preference. 2.6 Section 2.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.6 Veterans' preference. (a) GAO will provide preference, for any individual who would be a preference eligible in the executive branch, in...

  17. Neural correlates of cognitive dissonance and choice-induced preference change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuma, Keise; Matsumoto, Madoka; Murayama, Kou; Samejima, Kazuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2010-12-21

    According to many modern economic theories, actions simply reflect an individual's preferences, whereas a psychological phenomenon called "cognitive dissonance" claims that actions can also create preference. Cognitive dissonance theory states that after making a difficult choice between two equally preferred items, the act of rejecting a favorite item induces an uncomfortable feeling (cognitive dissonance), which in turn motivates individuals to change their preferences to match their prior decision (i.e., reducing preference for rejected items). Recently, however, Chen and Risen [Chen K, Risen J (2010) J Pers Soc Psychol 99:573-594] pointed out a serious methodological problem, which casts a doubt on the very existence of this choice-induced preference change as studied over the past 50 y. Here, using a proper control condition and two measures of preferences (self-report and brain activity), we found that the mere act of making a choice can change self-report preference as well as its neural representation (i.e., striatum activity), thus providing strong evidence for choice-induced preference change. Furthermore, our data indicate that the anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex tracked the degree of cognitive dissonance on a trial-by-trial basis. Our findings provide important insights into the neural basis of how actions can alter an individual's preferences. PMID:21135218

  18. Menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis: overexpression, purification, and properties of o-succinylbenzoyl-coenzyme A synthetase from Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, O; Bhattacharyya, D K; Meganathan, R

    1996-01-01

    The coenzyme A (CoA)- and ATP-dependent conversion of o-succinylbenzoic acid [OSB; 4-(2'-carboxyphenyl)-4-oxobutyric acid], to o-succinylbenzoyl-CoA is carried out by the enzyme o-succinylbenzoyl-CoA synthetase. o-Succinylbenzoyl-CoA is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of menaquinone (vitamin K2) in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The enzyme has been overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme was found to have a native molecular mass of 185 kDa as dete...

  19. Cloning, sequencing, and overexpression of the genes encoding coenzyme B12-dependent glycerol dehydratase of Citrobacter freundii.

    OpenAIRE

    Seyfried, M.; Daniel, R.; Gottschalk, G

    1996-01-01

    The genes encoding coenzyme B12-dependent glycerol dehydratase of Citrobacter freundii were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The B12-free enzyme was purified to homogeneity. It consists of three types of subunits whose N-terminal sequences are in accordance with those deduced from the open reading frames dhaB, dhaC, and dhaE, coding for subunits of 60,433 (alpha), 21,487 (beta), and 16,121 (gamma) Da, respectively. The enzyme complex has the composition alpha2beta2gamma2. Amino a...

  20. Ethnicity and Children's TV Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Harvey A.; Liss, Marsha B.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of California intermediate-grade children revealed that Anglo and Hispanic children showed a strong preference for action/adventure shows, while Black children chose situation comedies at more than twice the rate of the other ethnic groups. Other differences were observed between ethnic groups and between sexes within ethnic groups. (GT)

  1. CEU Preferences and Dynamic Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Simon; Eichberger, Jürgen; Kelsey, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic consistency of CEU preferences. A decision maker is faced with an information structure represented by a fixed filtration. If beliefs are represented by a convex capacity, we show that a necessary and sufficient condition for dynamic consistency is that beliefs be additive over the final stage in the filtration.

  2. Substrate preferences in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Reenen, van K.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the substrate preference of laying hens with respect to dustbathing and foraging behaviour, in order to determine which resources should be provided in laying hen housing systems for the expression of these behaviours. The consumer demand approach was used to study the strength of pr

  3. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  4. Social preferences in private decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Linde; J. Sonnemans

    2012-01-01

    Social preference models were originally constructed to explain two things: why people spend money to affect the earnings of others and why the income of others influences reported happiness. We test these models in a novel experimental situation where participants face a risky decision that affects

  5. Personality Preferences of Outdoor Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashel, Christine; Montgomery, Diane; Lane, Suzie

    A study investigated the personality type preferences of people who voluntarily chose to participate in a structured, field-based, outdoor education program. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was administered to 87 participants prior to beginning a 10-day Wilderness Education Association outdoor leadership trip. Participants were 18-46 years…

  6. Educational Homogamy: Preferences or Opportunities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Svarer, Michael

    Individuals match on length and type of education. We investigate whether thesystematic relationship between educations of partners is explained by opportuni-ties (e.g. low search frictions) or preferences (e.g. complementarities in householdproduction or portfolio optimization). We find that half...

  7. Fungal food preferences in Collembola

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusek, Josef; Nováková, Alena

    České Budějovice : Institute of Soil Biology BC AS CR, 2009. s. 71. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /10./. 21.04.2009-24.04.2009, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Collembola * food preference * microfungi Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Product Category Familiarity and Preference Construction.

    OpenAIRE

    COUPEY, ELOISE; Irwin, Julie R; Payne, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Marketers often base decisions about marketing strategies on the results of research designed to elicit information about consumers' preferences. A large body of research indicates, however, that preferences often are labile. That is, preferences can be reversed depending on factors such as how the preference is elicited. In three studies, we examine the effect of familiarity in two preference elicitation tasks, choice and matching judgments. We provide evidence of an interaction between fami...

  9. Growth and Parental Preference for Education

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Angus C.; Furukawa, Yuichi; Zhu, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the implications of parental preference for education in an innovation-driven growth model that features an interaction between endogenous technological progress and human capital accumulation. Parents invest in children's education partly due to the preference for their children to be educated. We consider a preference parameter that measures the degree of this parental preference for education. We find that a higher degree of parental preference for education increases h...

  10. Preferences in Constraint Satisfaction and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Francesca; University of Padova; Venable, Kristen Brent; Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    We review constraint-based approaches to handle preferences. We start by defining the main notions of constraint programming, then give various concepts of soft constraints and show how they can be used to model quantitative preferences. We then consider how soft constraints can be adapted to handle other forms of preferences, such as bipolar, qualitative, and temporal preferences. Finally, we describe how AI techniques such as abstraction, explanation generation, machine learning, and prefer...

  11. Contracting preference relations for database applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mindolin, Denis; Chomicki, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The binary relation framework has been shown to be applicable to many real-life preference handling scenarios. Here we study preference contraction: the problem of discarding selected preferences. We argue that the property of minimality and the preservation of strict partial orders are crucial for contractions. Contractions can be further constrained by specifying which preferences should be protected. We consider two classes of preference relations: finite and finitely representable. We pre...

  12. Assessing Animals’ Preferences: Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpter, Catherine E.; Foster, Mary T.; Temple, William

    2002-01-01

    Three methods of assessing animals’ preferences are outlined: free-access, two-choice (e.g., T maze), and concurrent-schedules. While all give indications of relative preference between the choices, freeaccess and discrete-trial procedures tend to give exclusive preference and so do not indicate the degree of preference. Concurrent schedules give at least ordinal measures of the degree of preference. Data from cows, hens, and brushtail possums are used to illustrate the use of concurrent sche...

  13. Methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri -- substitution of the corrinoid harbouring subunit MtaC by free cob(I)alamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, K; Thauer, R K

    1999-05-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M formation from coenzyme M and methanol in Methanosarcina barkeri is catalysed by an enzyme system composed of three polypeptides MtaA, MtaB and MtaC, the latter of which harbours a corrinoid prosthetic group. We report here that MtaC can be substituted by free cob(I)alamin which is methylated with methanol in an MtaB-catalysed reaction and demethylated with coenzyme M in an MtaA-catalysed reaction. Methyl transfer from methanol to coenzyme M was found to proceed at a relatively high specific activity at micromolar concentrations of cob(I)alamin. This finding was surprising because the methylation of cob(I)alamin catalysed by MtaB alone and the demethylation of methylcob(III)alamin catalysed by MtaA alone exhibit apparent Km for cob(I)alamin and methylcob(III)alamin of above 1 mm. A possible explanation is that MtaA positively affects the MtaB catalytic efficiency and vice versa by decreasing the apparent Km for their corrinoid substrates. Activation of MtaA by MtaB was methanol-dependent. In the assay for methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase activity cob(I)alamin could be substituted by cob(I)inamide which is devoid of the nucleotide loop. Substitution was, however, only possible when the assays were supplemented with imidazole: approximately 1 mm imidazole being required for half-maximal activity. Methylation of cob(I)inamide with methanol was found to be dependent on imidazole but not on the demethylation of methylcob(III)inamide with coenzyme M. The demethylation reaction was even inhibited by imidazole. The structure and catalytic mechanism of the MtaABC complex are compared with the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase. PMID:10215883

  14. Thermodynamics of ligand binding to acyl-coenzyme A binding protein studied by titration calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Sigurskjold, B W; Kragelund, B B;

    1996-01-01

    Ligand binding to recombinant bovine acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) was examined using isothermal microcalorimetry. Microcalorimetric measurements confirm that the binding affinity of acyl-CoA esters for ACBP is strongly dependent on the length of the acyl chain with a clear preference for acyl-...

  15. Patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency have impaired oxidation of fat during exercise but no effect of L-carnitine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K L; Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Andersen, S P; Olesen, J H; Lund, A M; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    It is not clear to what extent skeletal muscle is affected in patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). l-Carnitine is commonly used as a supplement in patients with MCADD, although its beneficial effect has not been verified.......It is not clear to what extent skeletal muscle is affected in patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). l-Carnitine is commonly used as a supplement in patients with MCADD, although its beneficial effect has not been verified....

  16. Yeast Coq9 controls deamination of coenzyme Q intermediates that derive from para-aminobenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cuiwen H; Black, Dylan S; Nguyen, Theresa P T; Wang, Charles; Srinivasan, Chandra; Clarke, Catherine F

    2015-09-01

    Coq9 is a polypeptide subunit in a mitochondrial multi-subunit complex, termed the CoQ-synthome, required for biosynthesis of coenzyme Q (ubiquinone or Q). Deletion of COQ9 results in dissociation of the CoQ-synthome, but over-expression of Coq8 putative kinase stabilizes the CoQ-synthome in the coq9 null mutant and leads to the accumulation of two nitrogen-containing Q intermediates, imino-demethoxy-Q6 (IDMQ6) and 3-hexaprenyl-4-aminophenol (4-AP) when para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) is provided as a ring precursor. To investigate whether Coq9 is responsible for deamination steps in Q biosynthesis, we utilized the yeast coq5-5 point mutant. The yeast coq5-5 point mutant is defective in the C-methyltransferase step of Q biosynthesis but retains normal steady-state levels of the Coq5 polypeptide. Here, we show that when high amounts of 13C6-pABA are provided, the coq5-5 mutant accumulates both 13C6-imino-demethyl-demethoxy-Q6 (13C6-IDDMQ6) and 13C6-demethyl-demethoxy-Q6 (13C6-DDMQ6). Deletion of COQ9 in the yeast coq5-5 mutant along with Coq8 over-expression and 13C6- pABA labeling leads to the absence of 13C6-DDMQ6, and the nitrogen-containing intermediates 13C6-4-AP and 13C6-IDDMQ6 persist. We describe a coq9 temperature-sensitive mutant and show that at the non-permissive temperature, steady-state polypeptide levels of Coq9-ts19 increased, while Coq4, Coq5, Coq6, and Coq7 decreased. The coq9-ts19 mutant had decreased Q6 content and increased levels of nitrogen-containing intermediates. These findings identify Coq9 as a multi-functional protein that is required for the function of Coq6 and Coq7 hydroxylases, for removal of the nitrogen substituent from pABA-derived Q intermediates, and is an essential component of the CoQ synthome. PMID:26008578

  17. Beneficial effect of ubiquinol, the reduced form of coenzyme Q10, on cyclosporine nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ishikawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine (CyA nephrotoxicity is partly due to some oxidative stress. Ubiquinol, the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10, has recently gained attention for its anti-oxidative potential. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of rCoQ10 on a CyA nephrotoxic rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (five animals each. Group 1 received a medium only. Group 2 received 30 mg/kg/day of CyA only. Group 3 received both the same dose of CyA and 600 mg/kg/day of rCoQ10. CyA and rCoQ10 were both given orally for four weeks. Systolic blood pressure (BP, daily urinary albumin secretion (u-Alb, serum creatinine (s-Cr level, and super-oxide anion (SO level in the renal tissue were measured and compared among those three groups. Immunohistochemistry using an antibody for the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta was also examined. RESULTS: BPs, u-Albs, s-Crs, and SO levels of groups 1, 2, and 3 were 114 ± 3, 132 ± 4, and 129 ± 5 mmHg, 2.6 ± 0.5, 42.1 ± 7.2, and 22.8 ± 3.4 micro-g/day, 1.1 ± 0.2, 1.7 ± 0.2, and 1.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl, and 224 ± 84, 1251 ± 138, and 512 ± 109 RLU/g kidney respectively. U-Albs, s-Crs, and SO levels were significantly ameliorated by rCoQ10. Micro-vacuolar changes and TGF-beta positive deposits in the proximal renal tubular cells of CyA group rats disappeared in those of CyA and rCoQ10 group rats. CONCLUSION: RCoQ10, an antioxidants, may have potential for preventing CyA nephrotoxicity.

  18. Low-quality females prefer low-quality males when choosing a mate

    OpenAIRE

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    Mate choice studies routinely assume female preferences for indicators of high quality in males but rarely consider developmental causes of within-population variation in mating preferences. By contrast, recent mate choice models assume that costs and benefits of searching or competing for high-quality males depend on females' phenotypic quality. A prediction following from these models is that manipulation of female quality should alter her choosiness or even the direction of her mating pref...

  19. Cross-Fostering of Male Mice Subtly Affects Female Olfactory Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Li, Lai-Fu; Du, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2016-01-01

    The maternal environment has been shown to influence female olfactory preferences through early chemosensory experience. However, little is known about the influence of the maternal environment on chemosignals. In this study, we used two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 (C57) and BALB/c (BALB), and explored whether adoption could alter male chemosignals and thus influence female olfactory preferences. In Experiment 1, C57 pups were placed with BALB dams. Adult BALB females then served as the sub...

  20. Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis: Evidence for a Substrate Access Channel in the FAD-Dependent Monooxygenase Coq6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Alexandre; Leroux, Vincent; Smadja, Myriam; Gonzalez, Lucie; Lombard, Murielle; Pierrel, Fabien; Mellot-Draznieks, Caroline; Fontecave, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Coq6 is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q, a polyisoprenylated benzoquinone lipid essential to the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this putative flavin-dependent monooxygenase is proposed to hydroxylate the benzene ring of coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) precursor at position C5. We show here through biochemical studies that Coq6 is a flavoprotein using FAD as a cofactor. Homology models of the Coq6-FAD complex are constructed and studied through molecular dynamics and substrate docking calculations of 3-hexaprenyl-4-hydroxyphenol (4-HP6), a bulky hydrophobic model substrate. We identify a putative access channel for Coq6 in a wild type model and propose in silico mutations positioned at its entrance capable of partially (G248R and L382E single mutations) or completely (a G248R-L382E double-mutation) blocking access to the channel for the substrate. Further in vivo assays support the computational predictions, thus explaining the decreased activities or inactivation of the mutated enzymes. This work provides the first detailed structural information of an important and highly conserved enzyme of ubiquinone biosynthesis. PMID:26808124

  1. Involvement of tristetraprolin in transcriptional activation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase by insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► siRNAs to tristetraprolin blocks transcription of HMGR in vivo in rat liver. ► siRNAs to tristetraprolin inhibits insulin activation of HMGR transcription. ► Insulin acts to rapidly increase tristetraprolin in liver nuclear extracts. -- Abstract: Several AU-rich RNA binding element (ARE) proteins were investigated for their possible effects on transcription of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) in normal rats. Using in vivo electroporation, four different siRNAs to each ARE protein were introduced together with HMGR promoter (−325 to +20) luciferase construct and compared to saline controls. All four siRNAs to tristetraprolin (TTP) completely eliminated transcription from the HMGR promoter construct. Since insulin acts to rapidly increase hepatic HMGR transcription, the effect of TTP siRNA on induction by insulin was tested. The 3-fold stimulation by insulin was eliminated by this treatment. In comparison, siRNA to AU RNA binding protein/enoyl coenzyme A hydratase (AUH) had no effect. These findings indicate a role for TTP in the insulin-mediated activation of hepatic HMGR transcription.

  2. X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of B12 coenzymes in free and enzyme bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular structure of the coenzyme B12 binding subunit S (GlmS) of glutamate mutase from Clostridium cochlearium has been determined with x-ray crystallographic methods. GlmS was crystallized with cyanocobalamin in three different crystal forms. High-resolution synchrotron diffraction data have been collected for two crystal forms (P212121, 1.7A; I422, 1.6A). The structure was solved with molecular replacement. In the GlmS crystal structure, cyanocobalamin is observed in its base-off constitution. The protein derived residue Histidin16 displaces the B12 dimethylbenzimidazole base and coordinates to the coenzyme's cobalt center. In a second part, the structure of the radical species cob(II)alamin was determined by single crystal neutron diffraction. Cob(II)alamin was synthesized from D2O and D6-acetone. Large crystals were grown by repeated seeding. Solvent deuterium positions for 2 out of 3 acetone molecules and 7 out of 15 water molecules were located from neutron diffraction data. For comparison with neutron results, a high-resolution synchrotron x-ray data set of cob(II)alamin was collected. Refinement of x-ray data gave the currently most accurate crystallographic structure of a cobalamin molecule. Solvent hydrogen positions have been compared for both structures. The hydrogen bond geometry of a solvent water cluster is analyzed from neutron diffraction results. (author)

  3. Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis: Evidence for a Substrate Access Channel in the FAD-Dependent Monooxygenase Coq6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coq6 is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q, a polyisoprenylated benzoquinone lipid essential to the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this putative flavin-dependent monooxygenase is proposed to hydroxylate the benzene ring of coenzyme Q (ubiquinone precursor at position C5. We show here through biochemical studies that Coq6 is a flavoprotein using FAD as a cofactor. Homology models of the Coq6-FAD complex are constructed and studied through molecular dynamics and substrate docking calculations of 3-hexaprenyl-4-hydroxyphenol (4-HP6, a bulky hydrophobic model substrate. We identify a putative access channel for Coq6 in a wild type model and propose in silico mutations positioned at its entrance capable of partially (G248R and L382E single mutations or completely (a G248R-L382E double-mutation blocking access to the channel for the substrate. Further in vivo assays support the computational predictions, thus explaining the decreased activities or inactivation of the mutated enzymes. This work provides the first detailed structural information of an important and highly conserved enzyme of ubiquinone biosynthesis.

  4. Analysis of coenzyme Q10 in bee pollen using online cleanup by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Lanzhen; Zhou, Jinhui; Yue, Bing; Li, Yi; Wu, Liming; Liu, Fengmao

    2012-07-15

    A method for the determination of coenzyme Q10 in bee pollen has been developed applying an online cleanup of accelerated solvent extraction and using environmentally acceptable organic solvents. The extracted samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The optimised method employed 10 mL extraction cells, 1g sample size, absolute ethanol as extraction solvent, 80°C of extraction temperature, one extraction cycle, 5 min of static time, Cleanert Alumina-N as sorbent and 60% flush volume. The method was validated by means of an evaluation of the matrix effects, linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), trueness, precision and stability. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.25-200mg/L and the LOD and LOQ were 0.16 and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively. The recoveries were above 90%. The inter- and intra-day precision was below 6.3%. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of bee pollen samples. For 20 bee pollen products, the coenzyme Q10 content varied from not detectable to 192.8 mg/kg. PMID:25683435

  5. Dietary whole cottonseed depresses lipogenesis but has no effect on stearoyl coenzyme desaturase activity in bovine subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, A M; Sturdivant, C A; Lunt, D K; Smith, S B

    1997-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term feeding of whole cottonseed (WCS) on lipogenesis and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity in growing steers. Brangus steers were fed either a control, cornbased diet (n = 11) or 30% WCS (n = 12). The 30% WCS contributed an estimated 6.6% additional lipid to the diet. Steers fed the added WCS had greater live weights (P = 0.04) and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (P = 0.005). Subcutaneous fat thickness was not different (P = 0.20) between treatment groups, although WCS elicited an increase in the proportion of large diameter subcutaneous adipocytes. The rate of [U-14C]acetate incorporation into fatty acids in subcutaneous adipose tissue was reduced by dietary WCS (171.4 vs 122.1 nmol x 100 mg adipose tissue-1 x 2 hr-1, P = 0.03), indicating that the increased dietary fat depressed de novo lipogenesis. Hepatic desaturase activity was much lower than that of subcutaneous adipose tissue, a feature common to cattle. We anticipated that added WCS also would depress stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver due to its cyclopropene fatty acid content. Instead, desaturase activity was numerically (although not significantly) greater in liver (P = 0.37) and adipose tissue (P = 0.23). PMID:9417995

  6. Structural analysis, plastid localization, and expression of the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase from tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrosh, B S; Roesler, K R; Shintani, D; van de Loo, F J; Ohlrogge, J B

    1995-06-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase, EC 6.4.1.2) catalyzes the synthesis of malonyl-coenzyme A, which is utilized in the plastid for de novo fatty acid synthesis and outside the plastid for a variety of reactions, including the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids and flavonoids. Recent evidence for both multifunctional and multisubunit ACCase isozymes in dicot plants has been obtained. We describe here the isolation of a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv bright yellow 2 [NT1]) cDNA clone (E3) that encodes a 58.4-kD protein that shares 80% sequence similarity and 65% identity with the Anabaena biotin carboxylase subunit of ACCase. Similar to other biotin carboxylase subunits of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the E3-encoded protein contains a putative ATP-binding motif but lacks a biotin-binding site (methionine-lysine-methionine or methionine-lysine-leucine). The deduced protein sequence contains a putative transit peptide whose function was confirmed by its ability to direct in vitro chloroplast uptake. The subcellular localization of this biotin carboxylase has also been confirmed to be plastidial by western blot analysis of pea (Pisum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and castor (Ricinus communis L.) plastid preparations. Northern blot analysis indicates that the plastid biotin carboxylase transcripts are expressed at severalfold higher levels in castor seeds than in leaves. PMID:7610168

  7. Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri: evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, methyl coenzyme M, and methylreductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathway of acetate catabolism in Methanosarcina barkeri strain MS was studied by using a recently developed assay for methanogenesis from acetate by soluble enzymes in cell extracts. Extracts incubated with [2-14C]acetate, hydrogen, and ATP formed 14CH4 and [14C]methyl coenzyme M as products. The apparent Km for acetate conversion to methane was 5 mM. In the presence of excess acetate, both the rate and duration of methane production was dependent on ATP. Acetyl phosphate replaced the cell extract methanogenic requirement for both acetate and ATP (the Km for ATP was 2 mM). Low concentrations of bromoethanesulfonic acid and cyanide, inhibitors of methylreductase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, respectively, greatly reduced the rate of methanogenesis. Precipitation of CO dehydrogenase in cell extracts by antibodies raised to 95% purified enzyme inhibited both CO dehydrogenase and acetate-to-methane conversion activity. The data are consistent with a model of acetate catabolism in which methylreductase, methyl coenzyme M, CO dehydrogenase, and acetate-activating enzymes are components. These results are discussed in relation to acetate uptake and rate-limiting transformation mechanisms in methane formation

  8. Involvement of tristetraprolin in transcriptional activation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase by insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, Gene C., E-mail: gness@hsc.usf.edu [Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States); Edelman, Jeffrey L.; Brooks, Patricia A. [Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer siRNAs to tristetraprolin blocks transcription of HMGR in vivo in rat liver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer siRNAs to tristetraprolin inhibits insulin activation of HMGR transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin acts to rapidly increase tristetraprolin in liver nuclear extracts. -- Abstract: Several AU-rich RNA binding element (ARE) proteins were investigated for their possible effects on transcription of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) in normal rats. Using in vivo electroporation, four different siRNAs to each ARE protein were introduced together with HMGR promoter (-325 to +20) luciferase construct and compared to saline controls. All four siRNAs to tristetraprolin (TTP) completely eliminated transcription from the HMGR promoter construct. Since insulin acts to rapidly increase hepatic HMGR transcription, the effect of TTP siRNA on induction by insulin was tested. The 3-fold stimulation by insulin was eliminated by this treatment. In comparison, siRNA to AU RNA binding protein/enoyl coenzyme A hydratase (AUH) had no effect. These findings indicate a role for TTP in the insulin-mediated activation of hepatic HMGR transcription.

  9. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis. ....... Given advances in evolutionary psychology and neuroscience, I propose one way to model those evolutionary pressures that will hopefully prove useful in expanding normative economics.......If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  10. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms

  11. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    OpenAIRE

    Dellaert, Benedict; Stremersch, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of processor, memory size, monitor, etc. However, how such firms configure the mass customization process determines the utility a consumer may obtain or the complexity a consumer may face in the mas...

  12. Review: Thermal preference in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Michael E.; Wang, George; Garrity, Paul A.; Huey, Raymond B.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental temperature strongly affects physiology of ectotherms. Small ectotherms, like Drosophila, cannot endogenously regulate body temperature so must rely on behavior to maintain body temperature within a physiologically permissive range. Here we review what is known about Drosophila thermal preference. Work on thermal behavior in this group is particularly exciting because it provides the opportunity to connect genes to neuromolecular mechanisms to behavior to fitness in the wild.

  13. Passive listening to preferred motor tempo modulates corticospinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Kelly; Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2014-01-01

    modulated by rhythms occurring at a preferred rate, and that individual differences can alter the nature of this coupling. PMID:24795607

  14. Preference for hope over knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetka Hedžet Tóth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article entitled Preference of Hope over Knowledge provides an analysis of the views of the American philosopher Richard Rorty, with special reference to concepts such as hope, utopia and the potential of ethics in the most recent times which, after the year of 1989, have been marked by the collapse of socialism of bolshevik origin. Thus knowledge is now preferred to hope, yet Rorty firmly insists that knowledge must keep its potential for hope, because it is the only way that humanism can maintain its existence. Even though we are faced with the end of the metaphysics of final certainty and its absolute principles, it is still possible to consider ethics and how it can be substantiated. Moral progress is possible, but not on the basis of something from the beyond, but rather as a matter of increasing sensitivity, increasing responsiveness to the needs of a larger and larger variety of people and things. It was with these views that Rorty established his ethics without principles, but in a very principled way as the anthropology of ethics that emphatically refuses to continue being the concealed voice of theos. The articles also highlights Rorty's comprehension of pragmatism conceived of as the philosophy of solidarity, since it expressly prefers solidarity to objectivity, solidarity being that other side of justice which remains one of the most basic concepts of every ethics.

  15. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136

  16. Spatial preference heterogeneity in forest recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Garcia, Serge; Olsen, Søren Bøye;

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the preferences for recreational use of forests in Lorraine (Northeastern France), applying stated preference data. Our approach allows us to estimate individual-specific preferences for recreational use of different forest types. These estimates are used in a second stage...... of the analysis where we test whether preferences depend on access to recreation sites. We find that there is significant preference heterogeneity with respect to most forest attributes. The spatial analysis shows that preferences for forests with parking and picnic facilities are correlated with...

  17. A single nucleotide polymorphism within the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta gene is associated with proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Shiro; Kobayashi, Masa-aki; Araki, Shin-ichi;

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that genetic susceptibility plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. A large-scale genotyping analysis of gene-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes identified the gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A ca...

  18. Structural Changes in Chinese Food Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Hovhannisyan, Vardges; Gould, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    The article tests for structural food preference change in urban China using province-level panel data from 2002 to 2010. We employ the Generalized Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System to represent consumer preferences and estimate demand for seven food groups in a dynamic setting. This relaxes many of the restrictions on the demand models used in the literature on structural preference change. Our findings suggest that Chinese food preferences are continuing to evolve.

  19. Reasoning With Conditional Ceteris Paribus Preference Statem

    OpenAIRE

    Boutilier, Craig; Brafman, Ronen I.; Hoos, Holger H; Poole, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In many domains it is desirable to assess the preferences of users in a qualitative rather than quantitative way. Such representations of qualitative preference orderings form an importnat component of automated decision tools. We propose a graphical representation of preferences that reflects conditional dependence and independence of preference statements under a ceteris paribus (all else being equal) interpretation. Such a representation is ofetn compact and arguably natural. We describe s...

  20. Which Factors Affect Adolescent Food Preferences?

    OpenAIRE

    Seray Kabaran; Mercanlıgil, Seyit M.

    2013-01-01

    Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main There are various factors that affect food preferences. Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main factors affecting food preferences. Additionally, general nutritional habits, family, friends, commercials, and availability of the food are also important for food preferences. Also, past experiences with foods are related to preferring or rejecting ...

  1. Food preferences in captive meerkats (Suricata suricatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Salomonsson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    By using a three-choice preference test I tested food preferences in eight meerkats (Sutricata suricatta) for nine different food items. The meerkats were presented with all possible combinations of 9 food items, in total 84 combinations. The meerkats displayed the following rank order of food preference: cricket > zophoba lava > egg white > banana = tomato > orange > apple > cucumber > carrot. A correlation test between the food preference and nutritional content showed ...

  2. Coenzyme Q10 and its effects in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Cristina dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available According to clinical and pre-clinical studies, oxidative stress and its consequences may be the cause or, at least, a contributing factor, to a large number of neurodegenerative diseases. These diseases include common and debilitating disorders, characterized by progressive and irreversible loss of neurons in specific regions of the brain. The most common neurodegenerative diseases are Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 has been extensively studied since its discovery in 1957. It is a component of the electron transportation chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, generating energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. The property of CoQ10 to act as an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant, suggests that it also plays an important role in the modulation of redox cellular status under physiological and pathological conditions, also performing a role in the ageing process. In several animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, CoQ10 has shown beneficial effects in reducing disease progression. However, further studies are needed to assess the outcome and effectiveness of CoQ10 before exposing patients to unnecessary health risks at significant costs.De acordo com estudos clínicos e pré-clínicos, o estresse oxidativo e suas conseqüências podem ser a causa, ou, no mínimo, o fator que contribui para grande número de doenças degenerativas. Estas doenças incluem problemas comuns e debilitantes, caracterizados por perda progressiva e irreversível de neurônios em regiões específicas do cérebro. As doenças degenerativas mais comuns são doença de Parkinson, de Hutington, de Alzheimer e esclerose amiotrófica lateral. A Coenzima Q10 (CoQ10 tem sido intensamente estudada desde sua descoberta, em 1957. É um componente da cadeia de transporte eletrônico e participa da respiração aeróbica celular, gerando energia na forma de trifosfato de

  3. Business Education Students' Preferred Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt-Gohdes, Wanda L.

    2001-01-01

    Results of the Canfield Learning Styles Inventory, completed by 212 secondary business students, showed that most preferred direct experience--hands-on learning. Least preferred was reading, including textbook assignments. Nearly half (98) clustered around applied and independent learning preferences. (SK)

  4. Preference Handling in Relational Query Languages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedbal, Radim

    Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2011, s. 1-7. ISBN 978-1-61284-831-0. [AICT 2011. International Conference on Application of Information and Communication Technologies/5./. Baku (AZ), 12.10.2011-14.10.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : conflicting preferences * comparative preference statements * various kinds of preferences Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  5. Preschoolers Use Speakers' Preferences to Learn Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Megan M.; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Fortuna, Alexandra; Troseth, Georgene

    2009-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated preschoolers' ability to use others' preferences to learn names for things. Two studies demonstrated that preschool children make smart use of others' preferences. In the first study, preschool children only used information about others' preferences when they were clearly linked to referential intentions. The…

  6. Tempo Preferences of Different Age Music Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Albert; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measures the effect of four levels of tempo on the self-reported preferences of six different age-groups for traditional jazz music listening examples. Stated that listener age exerted a strong influence on overall preference scores. Reported an analysis of variance showing that there is a significant preference for increasingly faster tempo at…

  7. Aspects Related to Researching Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela-Cristina Voicu

    2007-01-01

    Catching the essence of consumer’ preferences, a dimension of consumers’ behavior through marketing research represents an important aspect in the activity of any organization and, in the same time, an objective very difficult to reach. This paper is meant to bring some light on the importance of knowing the consumer’ preferences and on the ways that consumer’ preferences are determined.

  8. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic l

  9. 25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU... preference. (a) Any contract made by the Bureau with a State, school district or Indian corporation shall provide that the contractor shall, to the greatest extent feasible, give preference in and...

  10. Intuitionistic preference modeling and interactive decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the priority methods of intuitionistic preference relations, the consistency and consensus improving procedures for intuitionistic preference relations, the approaches to group decision making based on intuitionistic preference relations, the approaches and models for interactive decision making with intuitionistic fuzzy information, and the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments.

  11. Employer Preferences for Resumes and Cover Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Ickes, Linda; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of employers' preferences for resume style, resume delivery method, and cover letters. Employers still widely prefer the standard chronological resume, with only 3% desiring a scannable resume. The vast majority of employers prefer electronic delivery, either by email (46%) or at the company's Web site…

  12. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  13. Preferred states of the apparatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Venugopalan

    2012-02-01

    A simple one-dimensional model for the system–apparatus interaction is analysed. The system is a spin-1/2 particle, and its position and momentum degrees constitute the apparatus. An analysis involving only unitary Schrödinger dynamics illustrates the nature of the correlations established in the system–apparatus entangled state. It is shown that even in the absence of any environment-induced decoherence, or any other measurement model, certain initial states of the apparatus – like localized Gaussian wavepackets – are preferred over others, in terms of measurementlike one-to-one correlations in the pure system–apparatus entangled state.

  14. Wealth Effects on Job Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Haywood, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Preferences over jobs depend on wages and non-wage aspects. Variation in wealth may change the importance of income as a motivation for working. Higher wealth levels may make good non-wage characteristics relatively more important. This hypothesis is tested empirically using a reduced form search model in which differential job leaving rates identify willingness to pay for non-wage aspects of jobs. Marginal willingness to pay for non-wage aspects (measured by “job satisfaction for work in its...

  15. Opportunity Cost Neglect Attenuates the Effect of Choices on Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Adam Eric; Spiller, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    The idea that choices alter preferences has been widely studied in psychology, yet prior research has focused primarily on choices for which all alternatives were salient at the time of choice. Opportunity costs capture the value of the best forgone alternative and should be considered as part of any decision process, yet people often neglect them. How does the salience of opportunity costs at the time of choice influence subsequent evaluations of chosen and forgone options? In three experiments, we found that there was a larger postchoice spread between evaluations of focal options and opportunity costs when opportunity costs were explicit at the time of choice than when they remained implicit. PMID:26573905

  16. Reflective visualization and verbalization of unconscious preference

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    Unconscious preference is the preference which can be observed as an action resulted from one's decision making, but whose origin and background one can not describe with verbal explanation. It is an important problem to develop a method to help one become conscious of the one's unconscious preference, and convey it to the others in the form of verbal explanation. This paper develops a method which combines the concepts of reflection, visualization, and verbalization, applied to group discussion, with a tool which implements an algorithm to process information on the subjects' stated preference. The method is applied to the experiments where the unconscious preference on the art works is investigated.

  17. Computational study of the three-dimensional structure of N-acetyltransferase 2-acetyl coenzyme a complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Akifumi; Kobayashi, Kana; Takahashi, Ohgi

    2010-01-01

    N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is one of the most important polymorphic drug-metabolizing enzymes and plays a significant role in individual differences of drug efficacies and/or side effects. Coenzyme A (CoA) is a cofactor in the experimentally determined crystal structure of NAT2, although the acetyl source of acetylation reactions catalyzed by NAT is not CoA, but rather acetyl CoA. In this study, the three-dimensional structure of NAT2, including acetyl CoA, was calculated using molecular dynamics simulation. By substituting acetyl CoA for CoA the amino acid residue Gly286, which is known to transform into a glutamate residue by NAT2*7A and NAT2*7B, comes close to the cofactor binding site. In addition, the binding pocket around the sulfur atom of acetyl CoA expanded in the NAT2-acetyl CoA complex. PMID:20930369

  18. Stabilizing effects of coenzyme Q10 on potassium ion release, membrane potential and fluidity of rabbit red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinozawa,Shinya

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10 on potassium ion release, membrane potential and fluidity of rabbit red blood cells were studied. Co Q10 inhibited the increased potassium ion release induced by cetylamine or lysolecithin from the cells. Co Q10 slightly decreased the membrane potential monitored by changes in fluorescence intensity of cyanine dye, 3,3'-dipropyl-2,2'-thiodicarbocyanine iodide [diS-C3-(5], and also slightly decreased the membrane fluidity measured by using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH. These effects of Co Q10 on the membrane are considered to be due to its membrane stabilizing activity by interaction with lipid bilayers of the membrane.

  19. Transient structure formation in unfolded acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein observed by site-directed spin labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Kragelund, Birthe B; Poulsen, Flemming M

    2002-01-01

    Paramagnetic relaxation has been used to monitor the formation of structure in the folding peptide chain of guanidinium chloride-denatured acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein. The spin label (1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-pyrroline-3-methyl)methanesulfonate (MTSL) was covalently bound to a single...... affected in the native folded structure. It is suggested that the experiment is recording the formation of many discrete and transient structures in the polypeptide chain in the preface of protein folding. Analysis of secondary chemical shifts shows a high propensity for alpha-helix formation in the C...... state, and that these may be of importance to the initiation of protein folding....

  20. Determination of an ensemble of structures representing the denatured state of the bovine acyl-coenzyme a binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Kristjansdottir, Sigridur; Teilum, Kaare; Fieber, Wolfgang; Dobson, Christopher M; Poulsen, Flemming Martin; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2004-01-01

    The denatured state of a protein contains important information about the determinants of the folding process. By combining site-directed spin-labeling NMR experiments and restrained computer simulations, we have determined ensembles of conformations that represent the denatured state of the bovine...... of the protein by using a Monte Carlo sampling scheme. This procedure permits us to sample ensembles of conformations that are compatible with the experimental data and thus to obtain information regarding the distribution of structures in the denatured state. Our results show that the denatured...... acyl-coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP) at three different concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride. As the experimentally determined distance information corresponds to weighted averages over a broad ensemble of structures, we applied the experimental restraints to a system of noninteracting replicas...

  1. Conserved residues and their role in the structure, function, and stability of acyl-coenzyme A binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, B B; Poulsen, K; Andersen, K V; Baldursson, T; Krøll, J B; Neergård, T B; Jepsen, J; Roepstorff, Peter; Kristiansen, Karsten; Poulsen, F M; Knudsen, J; Stenvang, Jan

    1999-01-01

    measured by the extent of binding of the ligand dodecanoyl-CoA using isothermal titration calorimetry, and effects on protein stability were measured with chemical denaturation followed by intrinsic tryptophan and tyrosine fluorescence. The sequence sites that have been conserved for direct functional......In the family of acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins, a subset of 26 sequence sites are identical in all eukaryotes and conserved throughout evolution of the eukaryotic kingdoms. In the context of the bovine protein, the importance of these 26 sequence positions for structure, function, stability, and...... folding has been analyzed using single-site mutations. A total of 28 mutant proteins were analyzed which covered 17 conserved sequence positions and three nonconserved positions. As a first step, the influence of the mutations on the protein folding reaction has been probed, revealing a folding nucleus of...

  2. 25 CFR 170.914 - What is the difference between tribal preference and Indian preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the difference between tribal preference and Indian preference? 170.914 Section 170.914 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Indian Preference § 170.914 What is the difference between tribal preference and Indian...

  3. On the priority vector associated with a fuzzy preference relation and a multiplicative preference relation.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedrizzi, Michele; Brunelli, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    We propose two straightforward methods for deriving the priority vector associated with a fuzzy preference relation. Then, using transformations between multiplicative preference relations and fuzzy preference relations, we study the relationships between the priority vectors associated with these two types of preference relations.

  4. Differential substrate specificity and kinetic behavior of Escherichia coli YfdW and Oxalobacter formigenes formyl coenzyme A transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Cory G; Berthold, Catrine L; Gruez, Arnaud; Jónsson, Stefán; Lindqvist, Ylva; Cambillau, Christian; Richards, Nigel G J

    2008-04-01

    The yfdXWUVE operon appears to encode proteins that enhance the ability of Escherichia coli MG1655 to survive under acidic conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic behavior remain to be elucidated, findings from structural genomic studies have shown that the structure of YfdW, the protein encoded by the yfdW gene, is homologous to that of the enzyme that mediates oxalate catabolism in the obligate anaerobe Oxalobacter formigenes, O. formigenes formyl coenzyme A transferase (FRC). We now report the first detailed examination of the steady-state kinetic behavior and substrate specificity of recombinant, wild-type YfdW. Our studies confirm that YfdW is a formyl coenzyme A (formyl-CoA) transferase, and YfdW appears to be more stringent than the corresponding enzyme (FRC) in Oxalobacter in employing formyl-CoA and oxalate as substrates. We also report the effects of replacing Trp-48 in the FRC active site with the glutamine residue that occupies an equivalent position in the E. coli protein. The results of these experiments show that Trp-48 precludes oxalate binding to a site that mediates substrate inhibition for YfdW. In addition, the replacement of Trp-48 by Gln-48 yields an FRC variant for which oxalate-dependent substrate inhibition is modified to resemble that seen for YfdW. Our findings illustrate the utility of structural homology in assigning enzyme function and raise the question of whether oxalate catabolism takes place in E. coli upon the up-regulation of the yfdXWUVE operon under acidic conditions. PMID:18245280

  5. On Planning with Preferences in HTN

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrabi, Shirin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of generating preferred plans by combining the procedural control knowledge specified by Hierarchical Task Networks (HTNs) with rich qualitative user preferences. The outcome of our work is a language for specifyin user preferences, tailored to HTN planning, together with a provably optimal preference-based planner, HTNPLAN, that is implemented as an extension of SHOP2. To compute preferred plans, we propose an approach based on forward-chaining heuristic search. Our heuristic uses an admissible evaluation function measuring the satisfaction of preferences over partial plans. Our empirical evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of our HTNPLAN heuristics. We prove our approach sound and optimal with respect to the plans it generates by appealing to a situation calculus semantics of our preference language and of HTN planning. While our implementation builds on SHOP2, the language and techniques proposed here are relevant to a broad range of HTN planners.

  6. Testing Preference Axioms in Discrete Choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue

    Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... addressed in these studies which preference models are actually being tested, and the connection between the statistical tests performed and the relevant underlying models of respondent behavior has not been explored further. This paper tries to fill that gap. We specifically analyze the meaning and role of...... the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...

  7. Neurochemical deviations in rat early radiogenic syndrome and the influence of vitamins and coenzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, the proportion of their free and bound forms, as well as the activity of GABA, aspartate, and alanine aminotransferases were analyzed in cerebellum, brain cortex, and brain stem of rats during the first 48 hours after irradiation. The analyzed alterations refer to an inhibition of the GABA shunt in brain and to a change of neuromediators between free and bound forms for the free ones. In all parts alterations of the same kind were found, only peculiar deviations in the GABA system were seen in the cerebellum one hour after irradiation, which were characterized by decrease of GABA T activity and increase of GABA level. Application of a complex of vitamins and coferments (ATP, thiamine pyrophosphate, lipoate, calcium pantothenate, nicotinamide, flavine adenindinucleotide, and pyridoxalphosphate), affecting as stimulator of bioenergetics in brain, normalized the level of neutromediatory amino acids. (author)

  8. 短期高脂饮食改变大鼠对蔗糖的喜好和甜味觉的敏感性%Alterations of sucrose preference and sweet taste sensitivity after short-term high-fat diet feeding in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧玲; 闫君宝; 吕波; 孙波; 李金容; 闫剑群

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨高脂饮食对大鼠甜味觉敏感性的影响。方法刚断乳雄性 SD 大鼠,适应1周后,高脂饮食喂养2周,按体质量增加程度将实验动物分为3组,即肥胖易感组(obesity prone,OP)、肥胖抵抗(obesity resistant,OR)组和对照组(control,C)。OP及 OR组继续喂养高脂饲料,对照组转由正常饲料喂养(C-C),连续8周。采用条件性厌味(CTA)及双瓶选择实验,检测大鼠对甜味的喜好及其阈值变化,并测定大鼠热量总摄入量和食物转化效率。结果①高脂喂养的OP大鼠体质量增加明显高于OR及对照组大鼠,而对照组大鼠体质量增加又高于高脂喂养的OR大鼠。②高脂喂养的大鼠(OP与OR)的蔗糖阈值明显低于正常对照组大鼠,但OP与OR大鼠之间的蔗糖阈值无差异。③高脂喂养大鼠(OP与 OR)的蔗糖喜好明显高于正常对照组大鼠,而 OP与 OR大鼠之间的蔗糖喜好无差异。④高脂喂养的 OP大鼠总热量摄入明显高于 OR 大鼠,但高脂饲料喂养与正常饲料喂养的大鼠总热量摄入无差异。⑤高脂喂养的 OP 大鼠食物效率明显高于 OR大鼠及正常对照大鼠,而高脂喂养的 OR大鼠食物效率与正常对照大鼠无差异。结论高脂饮食可通过增高大鼠甜味敏感性,从而影响摄食行为并引起肥胖。%Objective To investigate the effect of high-fat diet on the sweet taste sensitivity in rats. Methods We subjected weaning male SD rats to the new feeding environment for 1 week and then fed them with high-fat diet for 2 weeks.According to the degree of weight gain,the rats were divided into obesity-prone (OP) group,obesity-resistant (OR)group and control (C)group.OP and OR rats continued to intake high-fat diet for 8 weeks,but those in control group were fed with normal diet (C-C)for 8 weeks.By applying the conditioned taste aversion (CTA)and the double-bottle experiment,we detected sucrose detection threshold and sucrose preference, and determined the

  9. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.

  10. Self-love or other-love? Explicit other-preference but implicit self-preference

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Jochen E.; Göritz, Anja S; Wilhelm Hofmann; Constantine Sedikides

    2012-01-01

    Do humans prefer the self even over their favorite other person? This question has pervaded philosophy and social-behavioral sciences. Psychology's distinction between explicit and implicit preferences calls for a two-tiered solution. Our evolutionarily-based Dissociative Self-Preference Model offers two hypotheses. Other-preferences prevail at an explicit level, because they convey caring for others, which strengthens interpersonal bonds--a major evolutionary advantage. Self-preferences, how...

  11. Preference Integration and Optimization of Multistage Weighted Voting System Based on Ordinal Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-ke Chen; Yan Zou; Zhe Chen

    2014-01-01

    Multistage voting is a common voting form through which the winners are selected. By virtue of weighted multistage voting rules, in this paper, we establish a weighted voting model by analyzing the correlation between individual preference and group preference. The weights of voters in each voting stage are adjusted through preference deviation degrees between individual preferences and group preference, and the ranking among candidates in each stage is determined according to weighted Borda ...

  12. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Summers, Anne [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Miller, S [University of California, San Francisco; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  13. Generation Y preferences towards wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Mocanu, Ana;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in wine preferences between Generation Y and older cohorts in the USA. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 260 US consumers participated in a web-based survey that took place in April 2010. The best-worst scaling method was applied...... measuring the level of importance given by participants to a list of most common attributes used in choice of wine. Independent sample t-tests were applied to compare the best-worst scores between Generation Y and older cohorts. Findings – Differences were found in the level of importance that Generation Y...... gives to wine attributes in comparison to older cohorts. Generation Y was found to attach more importance to attributes such as “Someone recommended it”, “Attractive front label” and “Promotional display in-store”, whereas older cohorts gave more importance to attributes such as “I read about it...

  14. The analysis of the zero-order and the second derivative spectra of retinol acetate, tocopherol acetate and coenzyme Q 10 and estimation of their analytical usefulness for their simultaneous determination in synthetic mixtures and pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Joanna; Mularczyk, Beata

    2004-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a simple and rapid method of retinol acetate, tocopherol acetate and coenzyme Q 10 determination in pharmaceuticals without involving any preparation operations like separation or masking. The values of second derivative amplitude at 212 nm for tocopherol, 351 nm for retinol and 222 nm for coenzyme were used for construction of calibration graphs. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 0.5-20, 0.5-7.5 and 0.5-30 μg ml -1 for retinol acetate, tocopherol acetate and coenzyme, respectively. The elaborated procedures were successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of studied compounds in their binary synthetic mixtures and in commercial preparations with high reliability and repeatability. Spectral properties of retinol acetate allows to determine its contents in ternary mixture which includes Vitamin E and coenzyme Q 10.

  15. Changes in taste preference and steps taken after sleep curtailment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon L; Ludy, Mary-Jon; Tucker, Robin M

    2016-09-01

    A substantial proportion of the population does not achieve the recommended amount of sleep. Previous work demonstrates that sleep alterations perturb energy balance by disrupting appetite hormones, increasing energy intake, and decreasing physical activity. This study explored the influence of sleep duration on taste perception as well as effects on dietary intake and physical activity. Participants (n=24 habitual short sleepers and n=27 habitual long sleepers, 82.4% female, 88.2% white, 25.2±7.7years) completed two randomized taste visits; one following short sleep duration (≤7h) and one following long sleep duration (>7h). Taste perception measures included sweet and salt detection thresholds (ascending 3-alternative, forced-choice method), as well as sweet preference (Monell 2-series, forced-choice, paired-comparison, tracking method). Steps and sleep were tracked via FitBit, an activity monitoring device. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls and analyzed using Nutritionist Pro. Habitual long-sleepers had a higher sweet taste preference (p=0.042) and took fewer steps (p=0.036) following sleep curtailment compared to the night where they slept >7h but did not experience changes in dietary intake or detection thresholds. Habitual short-sleepers did not experience changes in taste perception, activity, or dietary intake following sleep alteration. Habitual long-sleepers may be at greater risk of gaining weight when typical sleep patterns are disrupted. PMID:27184237

  16. Are International Students’ Preferred Pedagogy Influenced by Their Educational Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Winch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of international students is studying at British universities. This study investigates multicultural students’ preferences on teaching and learning which was conducted at a university in the South of England during 2009/2010 academic year. In the literature review, the framework used in this study is explained. The study sample was 34 students who were studying Japanese as a non-credit module. Quantitative and qualitative data was collected using questionnaires. The results showed that some students’ preferred pedagogy appeared to be altered and influenced by British educational culture regardless of students’ previous educational culture. In addition, the sample participants’ preferred pedagogy are identified into given categories based on the framework of the study. Those who are in the teaching profession are encouraged to take into consideration of the educational cultures and teaching and learning practices from non-Anglophone countries.Keywords: culture, globalisation, higher education, Japanese language teaching, multicultural, power distance index (PDI, uncertainty avoidance index (UAI 

  17. The orientational preferences of backbones of proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying; WANG Jun; XUE Bin; WANG Wei

    2006-01-01

    The orientation between the backboneresidues of proteins is defined based on the local configurations and the corresponding preferences are analyzed by statistics. It is found that all the residue pairs have some specific preferences of orientations. The statistical analysis is mainly concentrated in the orientational distributions for two kinds of groupings of residues based on the hydrophobicity and secondary structural features. The statistics for such two types of groupings shows different orientational preferences. It is found that for the former grouping the orientational preference is rather weak,while for the later a kind of strong orientational preferences. This suggests that the formation of local structures and of secondary structures are highly related to the orientational preferences.

  18. PduA Is a Shell Protein of Polyhedral Organelles Involved in Coenzyme B12-Dependent Degradation of 1,2-Propanediol in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium LT2†

    OpenAIRE

    Havemann, Gregory D.; Sampson, Edith M.; Bobik, Thomas A.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella enterica forms polyhedral organelles involved in coenzyme B12-dependent 1,2-propanediol degradation. These organelles are thought to consist of a proteinaceous shell that encases coenzyme B12-dependent diol dehydratase and perhaps other enzymes involved in 1,2-propanediol degradation. The function of these organelles is unknown, and no detailed studies of their structure have been reported. Genes needed for organelle formation and for 1,2-propanediol degradation are located at the ...

  19. Gamers' personality and their gaming preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Zammitto, Veronica Lorena

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work researches the hypothesis that people with certain personality traits would prefer certain video game genres. The motivation is to contribute to demographic game design by identifying gamers’ personality profiles in order to better satisfy their needs and enjoyment. A Gaming Preferences Questionnaire was developed and validated to identify gamers’ preferences. The NEO-FFI questionnaire based on the Five Factor model was selected for measuring gamers’ personality traits. Data ...

  20. CONSUMER PREFERENCE FOR PST-SUPPLEMENT PORK

    OpenAIRE

    Halbrendt, Catherine K.; Pesek, John D., Jr.; Parsons, April; Lindner, Robert K.

    1994-01-01

    Conjoint measurement was used to determine consumer preference for fresh pork produced with genetically engineered porcine somatotropin (pST). A preference model was constructed based on three pork attributes, degree of fat reduction, price, and production technology, which allowed for interactions between attributes to be estimated. Interview surveys were used to collect data in several shopping centres in three Australian cities. Respondents generally preferred leaner pST-supplemented pork,...

  1. On Firms' Preferences for Product Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Tyagi

    2005-01-01

    We examine firms' preferences for product differentiation when a firm has a demand-side and/or a cost-side advantage over its competitor. We show that if the magnitude of these advantages is small, then both firms prefer more differentiated products. However, if the magnitude of demand-side (cost-side) advantage is larger, then only the advantaged (disadvantaged) firm prefers more differentiated products.

  2. The 'revealed preferences' theory: Assumptions and conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being kind of intuitive psychology the 'Revealed-Preferences'- theory based approaches towards determining the acceptable risks are a useful method for the generation of hypotheses. In view of the fact that reliability engineering develops faster than methods for the determination of reliability aims the Revealed-Preferences approach is a necessary preliminary help. Some of the assumptions on which the 'Revealed-Preferences' theory is based will be identified and analysed and afterwards compared with experimentally obtained results. (orig./DG)

  3. German social preferences towards Turkey's EU accession

    OpenAIRE

    Gerenli, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    This thesis attempts to explain the social preferences in Germany towards Turkey's EU membership, the factors that shape these preferences and their relative impact on Turkish accession. The major political parties and the public are identified as two significant domestic groups whose preferences influence the national position on Turkey. Particularly, the impact of SPD, CDU/CSU, the Greens and FDP is substantial in this respect. The public impact is more limited and indirect. The attitude of...

  4. Modeling Preference Change through Brand Satiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuhiko Terui; Shohei Hasegawa

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we develop structural models of preference change due to consumer state dependence through satiation by purchase experience. A dynamic factor model with switching structure is proposed to explain consumer preference changes. Two types of dynamic factor models are separately applied to baseline and satiation parameters in a direct utility model that accommodates multiple discreteness data. The first dynamic factor model has a switching structure for consumer preference, and deco...

  5. The discovered preference hypothesis - an empirical test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott [31], offers...... decays as respondents evaluate more and more choice sets. This finding supports the Discovered Preference Hypothesis interpretation and explanation of starting point bias....

  6. Artificial selection for food colour preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Gemma L.; Endler, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Colour is an important factor in food detection and acquisition by animals using visually based foraging. Colour can be used to identify the suitability of a food source or improve the efficiency of food detection, and can even be linked to mate choice. Food colour preferences are known to exist, but whether these preferences are heritable and how these preferences evolve is unknown. Using the freshwater fish Poecilia reticulata, we artificially selected for chase behaviour towards two differ...

  7. Reference-Dependent Preferences : Models and Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Tenberge, Maximilian

    2010-01-01

    In economic situations people form expectations prior to their decisions. These expectations represent a reference point and exert a strong influence on decision making and preferences. This paper surveys the theory of reference-dependent preferences. I will summarize the theoretical framework and present experimental evidence in support of preferences being reference-dependent. Additionally, I will address the still open and fundamental questions of how expectations are formed. That is: How ...

  8. Other-regarding preferences and leadership styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Martin G.; Pogrebna, Ganna; Sutter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    We use a laboratory experiment to examine whether and to what extent other-regarding preferences of team leaders influence their leadership style in choice under risk. We find that leaders who prefer efficiency or report high levels of selfishness are more likely to exercise an autocratic leadership style by ignoring preferences of the other team members. Yet, inequity aversion has no significant impact on leadership styles. Elected leaders have a higher propensity than exogenously assigned l...

  9. Public preferences for government spending in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Ramji Sabrina; Quiñonez Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study considers three questions: 1. What are the Canadian public’s prioritization preferences for new government spending on a range of public health-related goods outside the scope of the country’s national system of health insurance? 2. How homogenous or heterogeneous is the Canadian public in terms of these preferences? 3. What factors are predictive of the Canadian public’s preferences for new government spending? Data were collected in 2008 from a national random sample of ...

  10. Consumers' Preference of Rice Brands in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sounghun; Son, Eun-Young; Park, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    This paper conducts several analyses to discuss about consumers' preference of rice brands and suggest a way to reduce the number that currently stands at about 1,700 in the Korean market. With data collected from 358 survey respondents, a conjoint analysis was conducted to identify consumers' preferences of Korean rice in regard to such aspects as producing area, brand, category, and price. We particularly focused on analyzing the consumers' preference of rice brands, with some scenarios to ...

  11. Patient education preferences in ophthalmic care

    OpenAIRE

    Rosdahl JA; Swamy L; Stinnett S; Muir KW

    2014-01-01

    Jullia A Rosdahl, Lakshmi Swamy, Sandra Stinnett, Kelly W MuirDepartment of Ophthalmology, Duke Eye Center, Duke University, Durham, NC, USABackground: The learning preferences of ophthalmology patients were examined.Methods: Results from a voluntary survey of ophthalmology patients were analyzed for education preferences and for correlation with race, age, and ophthalmic topic.Results: To learn about eye disease, patients preferred one-on-one sessions with providers as well as printed materi...

  12. Physiological importance of the heterodisulfide of coenzyme M and 7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate in the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane in Methanobacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heterodisulfide of the two coenzymes 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M, HS-CoM) and N-(7-mercaptoheptanoyl)threonine O3-phosphate (HS-HTP) increased the rate of CO2 reduction to methane by cell extracts 42-fold. The stimulation resulted from activation of the initial step of methanogenesis, the production of formylmethanofuran from methanofuran and CO2. These results establish a role for this heterodisulfide (CoM-S-S-HTP) in the reduction of CO2 to formylmethanofuran. Evidence indicates that CoM-S-S-HTP is the labile intermediate that accounts for the coupling of the reduction of 2-(methylthio)ethanesulfonic acid by the methylreductase to formylmethanofuran biosynthesis, the RPG effect. The heterodisulfide was found to be labile in cell extracts due to enzyme-catalyzed reduction and possibly thiol-disulfide exchange

  13. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF CURCUMIN OR CO-ENZYME Q1-0 AND THEIR MIXTURE ON OBESE RATS FED A HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current study, hyperlipidemia was induced in the rats by feeding diet enriched with cholesterol for two weeks. After 2 weeks of induction of hypercholesterolemia in rats and in comparison to normal rats, the results showed that incorporation of extra cholesterol in diet led to significant increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, leptin and MDA levels. On the other hand, total serum triiodothyronine (T3), liver glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were decreased significantly in cholesterol fed rats. The concentration of TBARS in the liver was elevated.All previous parameters were corrected after the hypercholesterolemic rats were treated with curcumin or co-enzyme Q1-0 or a mixture of them dependent on the time of treatment. These findings are consistent with the concept that curcumin and co-enzyme Q10 are antioxidant agents. The underlying mechanisms of these effects were discussed

  14. Low-quality females prefer low-quality males when choosing a mate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Riebel, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Mate choice studies routinely assume female preferences for indicators of high quality in males but rarely consider developmental causes of within-population variation in mating preferences. By contrast, recent mate choice models assume that costs and benefits of searching or competing for high-quality males depend on females' phenotypic quality. A prediction following from these models is that manipulation of female quality should alter her choosiness or even the direction of her mating preferences. We here provide (to our knowledge) the first example where an experimental manipulation of female quality induced a mating preference for low-quality males. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) reared in small or large experimental broods became high- or low-quality adults, respectively. Only high-quality females preferred high-quality males' mate-advertising songs, while all low-quality females preferred low-quality males' song. Subsequent breeding trials confirmed this pattern: latency until egg laying was shortest in quality-matched pairs, indicating that quality-matched birds were accepted faster as partners. Females produced larger eggs when mated with high-quality males, regardless of their own quality, indicating consensus regarding male quality despite the expression of different choices. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering the development of mating preferences to understand their within-population variation and environmentally induced change. PMID:19812084

  15. The Effects of Brief and Extended Stimulus Availability on Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhilber, Jody; Johnson, Cammarie

    2007-01-01

    The effects of stimulus availability on preference were evaluated using two conditions of a modified preference assessment. Different preference hierarchies were found in 15-s access conditions than in 15-min access conditions. Subsequent comparisons of a short-availability high-preference stimulus and a long-availability high-preference stimulus verified differential preferences for stimuli based on duration of availability.

  16. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  17. A touch of history and a peep into the future of the lipid-quinone known as coenzyme Q and ubiquinone

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasarma, T

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone), a fully substituted benzoquinone with polyprenyl side chain, participates in many cellular redox activities. Paradoxically it was discovered only in 1957, albeit being ubiquitous. It required a person, F. L. Crane, a place, Enzyme Institute, Madison, USA, and a time when D. E. Green was directing vigorous research on mitochondria. Located at the transition of 2-electron flavoproteins and 1-electron cytochrome carriers, it facilitates electron transfer through the eleg...

  18. Transcriptional and Functional Analysis of Oxalyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) Decarboxylase and Formyl-CoA Transferase Genes from Lactobacillus acidophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Bruno-Bárcena, Jose M.; Hassan, Hosni M.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2006-01-01

    Oxalic acid is found in dietary sources (such as coffee, tea, and chocolate) or is produced by the intestinal microflora from metabolic precursors, like ascorbic acid. In the human intestine, oxalate may combine with calcium, sodium, magnesium, or potassium to form less soluble salts, which can cause pathological disorders such as hyperoxaluria, urolithiasis, and renal failure in humans. In this study, an operon containing genes homologous to a formyl coenzyme A transferase gene (frc) and an ...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for coenzyme Q10 dispersive micro solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, Mario; Bonelli, Pablo; Lucangioli, Silvia; Cukierman, Ana; Tripodi, Valeria

    2016-07-22

    Molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MIPNPs) with the ability to recognize coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) were synthesised in order to be employed as sorbent in a dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (DMSPE) for the determination of CoQ10 in a liver extract. CoQ10 is a redox-active, lipophilic substance integrated in the mitochondrial respiratory chain which acts as an electron carrier, shuttling electrons from complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) to complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase), for the production of cellular energy. The MIPNPs were synthesised by precipitation polymerization using coenzyme Q0 as the dummy template, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, an acetonitrile: water mixture as the porogen, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and potassium persulfate as initiator. The nanoparticles were characterized by microscopy, capillary electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and infrared spectroscopy. The MIPNPs demonstrated the presence of selective cavities complementary to the quinone nucleus of CoQ10, leading to a specific recognition of CoQ10 compared with related compounds. In the liver extract the relative CoQ10 peak area (CoQ10 area/total peak area) increased from 4.6% to 25.4% after the DMSPE procedure. The recovery percentage of CoQ10 from the liver matrix was between 70.5% and 83.7% quantified against CoQ10 standard processed under the same conditions. The DMSPE procedure allows the elution of almost all the CoQ10 retained (99.4%) in a small volume (200μL), allowing the sample to be concentrated 2.5 times (LOD: 1.1μgg(-1) and LOQ: 3.7μgg(-1) of tissue). The resulted clean up of the sample, the improvement in peak shape and baseline and the reduction of interferences, evidence that the MIPNPs could potentially be applied as sorbent in a DMSPE with satisfactory results and with a minimum amount of sorbent (1mg). PMID:27317007

  20. Clinical evaluation of topical application of perio-Q gel (Coenzyme Q 10 in chronic periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Hans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coenzyme Q 10 is a well studied antioxidant in medical literature, but studies regarding its efficacy in periodontal diseases are few. Hence, the aim of this study was to test the efficacy of coenzyme Q 10 in the form of gel (Perio-Q in patients with chronic gingivitis and periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 patients were enrolled. A split mouth design was used for topical (extrasulcular application, intra-pocket application alone, intra-pocket application combined with scaling and root planing (SRP and SRP only in each quadrant, respectively. Clinical parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level were assessed at baseline, 3rd week, and 6th week. The results were subjected to statistical analysis, which were expressed as mean±SD and proportions as percentages. Intra group comparisons were made by paired t-test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA for inter-group comparisons. Categorical data was analyzed by Fisher′s exact test. Results: The results showed on intra-group analysis significant reduction (P<0.01 of clinical parameters (plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, gingival bleeding index (GBI, periodontal probing pocket depth (PPD, and clinical attachment level (CAL in all four treatment groups, whereas on inter-group analysis, intra-pocket gel application in combination with SRP showed significant reduction (P<0.05 for PI, GI, GBI, and CAL in comparison to intra-pocket gel alone. Interpretation and Conclusion: In the present study, in chronic periodontitis patients, sub-gingival mechanical debridement only and with Perio-Q gel showed almost similar clinical results without any statistically significant differences. Hence, it confirmed the primary role of basic mechanical approaches in periodontal therapy and did not provide enough clinical support for the superiority of adjunctive use of Perio-Q gel. However, it

  1. A comparative evaluation of coenzyme Q10-loaded liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles as dermal antioxidant carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce EH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evren H Gokce,1 Emrah Korkmaz,1 Sakine Tuncay-Tanriverdi,1 Eleonora Dellera,2 Giuseppina Sandri,2 M Cristina Bonferoni,2 Ozgen Ozer11Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ege, Izmir, Turkey; 2Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, ItalyBackground: The effective delivery of coenzyme Q10 (Q10 to the skin has several benefits in therapy for different skin pathologies. However, the delivery of Q10 to deeper layers of skin is challenging due to low aqueous solubility of Q10. Liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN have many advantages to accomplish the requirements in topical drug delivery. This study aims to evaluate the influence of these nanosystems on the effective delivery of Q10 into the skin.Methods: Q10-loaded liposomes (LIPO-Q10 and SLNs (SLN-Q10 were prepared by thin film hydration and high shear homogenization methods, respectively. Particle size (PS, polydispersity index (PI, zeta potential (ZP, and drug entrapment efficiency were determined. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis and morphological transmission electron microscopy (TEM examination were conducted. Biocompatibility/cytotoxicity studies of Q10-loaded nanosystems were performed by means of cell culture (human fibroblasts under oxidative conditions. The protective effect of formulations against production of reactive oxygen species were comparatively evaluated by cytofluorometry studies.Results: PS of uniform SLN-Q10 and LIPO-Q10 were determined as 152.4 ± 7.9 nm and 301.1 ± 8.2 nm, respectively. ZPs were −13.67 ± 1.32 mV and −36.6 ± 0.85 mV in the same order. The drug entrapment efficiency was 15% higher in SLN systems. TEM studies confirmed the colloidal size. SLN-Q10 and LIPO-Q10 showed biocompatibility towards fibroblasts up to 50 µM of Q10, which was determined as suitable for cell proliferation. The mean fluorescence intensity % depending on ROS production determined in cytofluorometric studies

  2. The glossyhead1 Allele of ACC1 Reveals a Principal Role for Multidomain Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in the Biosynthesis of Cuticular Waxes by Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S.; Xu, C.; Zhao, H.; Parsons, E. P.; Kosma, D. K.; Xu, X.; Chao, D.; Lohrey, G.; Bangarusamy, D. K.; Wang, G.; Bressan, R. A.; Jenks, M. A.

    2011-11-01

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C{sub 20:0} or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling.

  3. High degree of efficacy in the treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome with combined co-enzyme Q10, L-carnitine and amitriptyline, a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boles Richard G

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS, defined by recurrent stereotypical episodes of nausea and vomiting, is a relatively-common disabling and historically difficult-to-treat condition associated with migraine headache and mitochondrial dysfunction. Limited data suggests that the anti-migraine therapies amitriptyline and cyproheptadine, and the mitochondrial-targeted cofactors co-enzyme Q10 and L-carnitine, have efficacy in episode prophylaxis. Methods A retrospective chart review of 42 patients seen by one clinician that met established CVS diagnostic criteria revealed 30 cases with available outcome data. Participants were treated on a loose protocol consisting of fasting avoidance, co-enzyme Q10 and L-carnitine, with the addition of amitriptyline (or cyproheptadine in those Results Vomiting episodes resolved in 23 cases, and improved by > 75% and > 50% in three and one additional case respectively. Among the three treatment failures, two could not tolerate amitriptyline (as was also the case in the child with only > 50% efficacy and one had multiple congenital gastrointestinal anomalies. Excluding the latter case, substantial efficacy (> 75% response was 26/29 at the start of treatment, and 26/26 in those able to tolerate the regiment, including high dosages of amitriptyline. Conclusion Our data suggest that a protocol consisting of mitochondrial-targeted cofactors (co-enzyme Q10 and L-carnitine plus amitriptyline (or possibly cyproheptadine in preschoolers coupled with blood level monitoring is highly effective in the prevention of vomiting episodes.

  4. The glossyhead1 allele of acc1 reveals a principal role for multidomain acetyl-coenzyme a carboxylase in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes by Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Shiyou

    2011-09-23

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C 20:0 or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Regulation of carbon and electron flow in Propionispira arboris: Relationship of catabolic enzyme levels to carbon substrates fermented during propionate formation via the methylmalony coenzyme a pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study of the glucose fermentation pathway and the modulation of catabolic oxidoreductase activities by energy sources (i.e., glucose versus lactate of fumarate) in Propionispira arboris was performed. 14C radiotracer data show the CO2 produced from pyruvate oxidation comes exclusively from the C-3 and C-4 positions of glucose. Significant specific activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase were detected, which substantiates the utilization of the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas path for glucose metabolism. The methylmalonyl coenzyme A pathway for pyruvate reduction to propionate was established by detection of significant activities of methylmalonyl coenzyme A transcarboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, and fumarate reductase in cell-free extracts and by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscpic demonstation of randomization of label from [2-13C]pyruvate into positions 2 and 3 of propionate. The specific activity of pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, malate dehydrogenase, fumarate reductase, and transcarboxylase varied significantly in cells grown on different energy sources. D-Lactate dehydrogenase (non-NADH linked) was present in cells of P. arboris grown on lactate but not in cells grown on glucose or fumarate. These results indicate that growth substrates regulate synthesis of enzymes specific for the methylmalonyl coenzyme A path initial substrate transformation

  6. Application prospect of coenzyme Q10 in the plateau in medicine%辅酶 Q10在高原医学中的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董华平; 罗勇军; 陈祖林

    2014-01-01

    辅酶Q10是线粒体电子传递链中的一种重要辅酶,也是存在于线粒体中的一种重要脂溶性抗氧化剂。辅酶Q10在医学上的应用十分广泛,主要体现在心血管疾病、高血压、神经系统疾病方面。近些年来研究发现辅酶Q10在高原医学方面也有很大的应用前景,现对其进行综合阐述。%Coenzyme Q10 is not only an important coenzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain ,but also one of the important fat-soluble antioxidants existing in the mitochondria .It has been widely used in medicine , especially in cardiovascular diseases ,hypertension ,nervous system diseases ,and etc .Studies have found that coen-zyme Q10 may also have a great application prospect in high altitude medicine ,and this review will give some proof about that .

  7. Understanding drug preferences, different perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Peter G M; Arnardottir, Arna H; Straus, Sabine M J; de Graeff, Pieter A; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Quik, Elise H; Krabbe, Paul F M; Denig, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Aims To compare the values regulators attach to different drug effects of oral antidiabetic drugs with those of doctors and patients. Methods We administered a ‘discrete choice’ survey to regulators, doctors and patients with type 2 diabetes in The Netherlands. Eighteen choice sets comparing two hypothetical oral antidiabetic drugs were constructed with varying drug effects on glycated haemoglobin, cardiovascular risk, bodyweight, duration of gastrointestinal complaints, frequency of hypoglycaemia and risk of bladder cancer. Responders were asked each time which drug they preferred. Results Fifty-two regulators, 175 doctors and 226 patients returned the survey. Multinomial conditional logit analyses showed that cardiovascular risk reduction was valued by regulators positively (odds ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.11–3.53), whereas drug choices were negatively affected by persistent gastrointestinal problems (odds ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.14–0.41) and cardiovascular risk increase (odds ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.27–0.87). Doctors and patients valued these effects in a similar manner to regulators. The values that doctors attached to large changes in glycated haemoglobin and that both doctors and patients attached to hypoglycaemia and weight gain also reached statistical significance. No group's drug choice was affected by a small absolute change in risk of bladder cancer when presented in the context of other drug effects. When comparing the groups, the value attached by regulators to less frequent hypoglycaemic episodes was significantly smaller than by patients (P = 0.044). Conclusions Regulators may value major benefits and risks of drugs for an individual diabetes patient mostly in the same way as doctors and patients, but differences may exist regarding the value of minor or short-term drug effects. PMID:25469876

  8. Cognitive preferences and creativity: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Pinchas; Penick, John E.; Lunetta, Vincent N.

    Cognitive preference, a cognitive style acquired through life and learning experiences and representing a distinct orientation to the processing of information, is related to creativity in this study. Significant correlations were observed between cognitive preference and verbal creativity but not with figural creativity as measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking.

  9. Students' Preferred Learning Styles in Graphic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify changes in dominant preferred learning styles of students based on instructional presentation of course content. This study evaluates dominant preferred learning styles of two groups of university students. The first group of students was enrolled in a course that introduces graphical representation in…

  10. A Method to Assess Work Task Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobigo, Virginie; Morin, Diane; Lachapelle, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Persons with intellectual disability may encounter difficulties in making choices and expressing preferences because of restricted communication skills or a tendency to acquiesce. In addition, many studies provide evidence that these persons have less opportunity to make choices and express their preferences. The aim of this study was to conduct a…

  11. Patient preference for genders of health professionals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, J.J.; Bensing, J.M.; Andela, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Preferences for physicians' gender is an obvious and well documented example of considerations of patients' attitudes. But research carried out in this field is rather limited to the domain of family medicine. This article describes preferences for 13 different health professions: surgeons, neurolog

  12. Patient preference for genders of health professionals.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerssens, J. J.; BENSING, J; Andela, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Preferences for physicians' gender is an obvious and well documented example of considerations of patients' attitudes. But research carried out in this field is rather limited to the domain of family medicine. This article describes preferences for 13 different health professions: surgeons, neurologists, anaesthetists, internists, general practitioners, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, hospital and district nurses, home helps, gynaecologists and midwives. Our investigation also c...

  13. Preferences for redistribution after the economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of the recent Economic Crisis on individual preferences for redistribution in 23 European countries. After implementing a decomposition of the variation in these preferences, it is showed that the crisis was highly significant in increasing support for redistribution. It is found that more unemployment and, in particular, youth unemployment has considerably raised the citizens’ demand for redistribution.

  14. 'Green' preferences as regulatory policy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine here the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: Can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If 'green' preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for other policies? Even with 'green' preferences, production and consumption of polluting goods continue to impose social costs not borne in the market. Moreover, if green preferences are regarded as a policy instrument, the 'no policy' baseline would require a problematic specification of counterfactual 'non-green' preferences. Viewing green preferences as a regulatory policy instrument is conceptually sensible if the benchmark for optimal emissions is based on value judgments apart from the preferences consumers happen to have. If so, optimal environmental protection would be defined by reference to ethical theory, or, even less favorably, by prescriptions from policy advocates who give their own preferences great weight while giving those of the public at large (and the costs they bear) very little consideration. (author)

  15. 75 FR 29324 - Preferred Supplier Program (PSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Department of the Navy Preferred Supplier Program (PSP) AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice... drafting a policy that will establish a Preferred Supplier Program (PSP). Under the PSP, contractors that..., DON will initiate the pilot phase of the PSP. DATES: DON invites interested parties from both...

  16. 75 FR 28788 - Preferred Supplier Program (PSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Department of the Navy Preferred Supplier Program (PSP) AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice... drafting a policy that will establish a Preferred Supplier Program (PSP). Under the PSP, contractors that..., DON will initiate the pilot phase of the PSP. DATES: DON invites interested parties from both...

  17. Sweet and sour taste preferences of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    In the industrialized countries children have many foods to choose from, both healthy and unhealthy products, these choices mainly depend on children's taste preferences. The present thesis focused on preferences for sweet and sour taste of young children (4- to 12-years of age) living in the US and

  18. The Local Geometry of Multiattribute Tradeoff Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    McGeachie, Michael; Doyle, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Existing representations for multiattribute ceteris paribus preference statements have provided useful treatments and clear semantics for qualitative comparisons, but have not provided similarly clear representations or semantics for comparisons involving quantitative tradeoffs. We use directional derivatives and other concepts from elementary differential geometry to interpret conditional multiattribute ceteris paribus preference comparisons that state bounds on quantitative tradeoff ratios....

  19. 20 CFR 617.24 - Preferred training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preferred training. 617.24 Section 617.24 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Reemployment Services § 617.24 Preferred training....

  20. Gender, Psychological Type and Conflict Style Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Paula S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveys experienced managers regarding gender, psychological type, and conflict style preference. Finds that males are "thinkers," and females are "feelers." Cautions that while results indicated psychological type may be a better indicator of conflict style preference than is gender, neither factor accounted for a substantial amount of variance.…

  1. Patients' preferences for patient-centered communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Sofie Rosenlund; Christensen, Søren Troels; Andreasen T., Jesper

    2013-01-01

    To investigate patients' preferences for patient-centered communication (PCC) in the encounter with healthcare professionals in an outpatient department in rural Sierra Leone.......To investigate patients' preferences for patient-centered communication (PCC) in the encounter with healthcare professionals in an outpatient department in rural Sierra Leone....

  2. 48 CFR 470.203 - Cargo preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo preference. 470.203 Section 470.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.203 Cargo preference. An agency having responsibility under this subpart...

  3. 36 CFR 17.7 - Preference rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference rights. 17.7 Section 17.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONVEYANCE OF FREEHOLD AND LEASEHOLD INTERESTS ON LANDS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 17.7 Preference...

  4. Experiential Determinants of Children's Food Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    This discussion focuses on elements of children's immediate experience that influence their food preferences. Some evidence suggests that there may be sensitive periods early in life that are critical for the formation of food preferences and aversions. Additionally, the familiarity and the sweetness of foods appear to be important determinants of…

  5. Sound preferences in urban open public spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Yang, Wei

    2003-10-01

    This paper studies people's perception of sound, based on an intensive questionnaire survey in fourteen urban open public spaces of five European countries. The questionnaire includes identification of recognized sounds, classification of sound preference, and indication of wanted and unwanted sounds. The results indicate three facets to people's sound preferences. First, people generally prefer natural and culture-related sounds rather than artificial sounds. Vehicle sounds and construction sounds are regarded as the most unpopular, whereas sounds from human activities are normally rated as neutral. Second, cultural background and long-term environmental experience play an important role in people's judgment of sound preference. People from a similar environment may show a similar tendency on their sound preferences, which can be defined as macro-preference. Third, personal differences, such as age and gender, further influence people's sound preference, which can be defined as micro-preference. For example, with increasing age, a higher percentage of people are favorable to, or tolerate, sounds relating to nature, culture or human activities. Male and female exhibit only slight differences. [Work supported by the European Commission.

  6. The Limit of Public Policy : Endogenous Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bar-Gill, O.; Fershtman, C.

    2000-01-01

    In designing public policy it is not enough to consider the possible reaction of individuals to the chosen policy.Public policy may also affect the formation of preferences and norms in a society.The endogenous evolution of preferences, in addition to introducing a conceptual difficulty in evaluatin

  7. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports. PMID:18982941

  8. A Music Preference Test System for Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Peng Zhang; Guang-Zhan Fang; Yang Xia; Tie-Jun Liu; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    In music preference experiments,housing conditions and the control of parameters for animals can affect experimental results.However,the needs of animals are indeed insufficiently considered in many reports of animal experiments.In order to evaluate which music rats prefer,we developed a new music preference test system.Dwelling time and visiting frequency can be recorded automatically when rats moving among different compartments of the system.We can also observe the behaviors of rats captured by a video camera.By this system,the music preference can be found,and then the related music can be used in following various studies.In this paper,we described the design of this music preference test system of rat,and some primary results were reported.

  9. On Graphical Modeling of Preference and Importance

    CERN Document Server

    Brafman, R I; Shimony, S E; 10.1613/jair.1895

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, CP-nets have emerged as a useful tool for supporting preference elicitation, reasoning, and representation. CP-nets capture and support reasoning with qualitative conditional preference statements, statements that are relatively natural for users to express. In this paper, we extend the CP-nets formalism to handle another class of very natural qualitative statements one often uses in expressing preferences in daily life - statements of relative importance of attributes. The resulting formalism, TCP-nets, maintains the spirit of CP-nets, in that it remains focused on using only simple and natural preference statements, uses the ceteris paribus semantics, and utilizes a graphical representation of this information to reason about its consistency and to perform, possibly constrained, optimization using it. The extra expressiveness it provides allows us to better model tradeoffs users would like to make, more faithfully representing their preferences.

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONSUMER PREFERENCES RESEARCH PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA-CRISTINA VOICU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must possess. Some information is hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer, as in the case of information about consumer preferences. Although it seems a concept difficult to grasp, it was shown that consumer preferences can be effectively measured and their research may provide a deeper understanding of the choices that consumers make when deciding to select an offer against another and when deciding to continue in time the relationship with one supplier. The following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the use of information regarding consumer preferences, the fundamentals behind consumer preferences research and the milestones in the consumer preferences research process.

  11. Preferences for Visitation in the PACU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Lori; Albert, Nancy M

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify PACU visitor update/visitation preferences. In a cross-sectional, descriptive design using a convenience sample, visitors of patients having elective or emergency surgery completed a survey of five update/visitation options and visitor characteristics. Visitation responses were ranked and compared based on visitor characteristics. Of 249 visitors, 64% were female; 94% visited adult patients. Of visitation options, a one-time, 5- to 10-minute visit within two hours of patient transfer to the PACU was most frequently preferred (27.3%), but no option was significantly preferred over the others. After categorizing visitors into two groups based on blood line ties, close family preferred a one-time visit and distant relatives/friends preferred a verbal report 30 minutes after PACU arrival (P = .015). PMID:20875884

  12. How Sexually Dimorphic Are Human Mate Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy-Beam, Daniel; Buss, David M; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies on sex-differentiated mate preferences have focused on univariate analyses. However, because mate selection is inherently multidimensional, a multivariate analysis more appropriately measures sex differences in mate preferences. We used the Mahalanobis distance (D) and logistic regression to investigate sex differences in mate preferences with data secured from participants residing in 37 cultures (n = 10,153). Sex differences are large in multivariate terms, yielding an overall D = 2.41, corresponding to overlap between the sexes of just 22.8%. Moreover, knowledge of mate preferences alone affords correct classification of sex with 92.2% accuracy. Finally, pattern-wise sex differences are negatively correlated with gender equality across cultures but are nonetheless cross-culturally robust. Discussion focuses on implications in evaluating the importance and magnitude of sex differences in mate preferences. PMID:26068718

  13. HOST PLANT PREFERENCES OF BEMISIA TABACI GENNADIUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGYing; HUANGJian; MARui-yan; HANJu-cai

    2003-01-01

    The preferences of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius for five host plants:poinsettia, tomato, cabbage,sweet potato and flowering Chinese cabbage, was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer and a desiccator in the labo-ratory. The results show that B. tabaci adults were attracted by the odors of the five plants. The order of prefer-ence was poinsettia > flowering Chinese cabbage > sweet potato > cabbage > tomato. Preference was extremely sig-nificant between poinsettia and the other four plants, and between flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and toma-to. There was no significant difference in preference for flowering Chinese cabbage and sweet potato, sweet pota-to, cabbage and tomato or between cabbage and tomato.

  14. The clinical heterogeneity of coenzyme Q10 deficiency results from genotypic differences in the Coq9 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Sánchez, Marta; Díaz-Casado, Elena; Barca, Emanuele; Tejada, Miguel Ángel; Montilla-García, Ángeles; Cobos, Enrique Javier; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Dario; Quinzii, Catarina M; López, Luis Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is due to mutations in genes involved in CoQ biosynthesis. The disease has been associated with five major phenotypes, but a genotype-phenotype correlation is unclear. Here, we compare two mouse models with a genetic modification in Coq9 gene (Coq9(Q95X) and Coq9(R239X)), and their responses to 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-diHB). Coq9(R239X) mice manifest severe widespread CoQ deficiency associated with fatal encephalomyopathy and respond to 2,4-diHB increasing CoQ levels. In contrast, Coq9(Q95X) mice exhibit mild CoQ deficiency manifesting with reduction in CI+III activity and mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, and late-onset mild mitochondrial myopathy, which does not respond to 2,4-diHB. We show that these differences are due to the levels of COQ biosynthetic proteins, suggesting that the presence of a truncated version of COQ9 protein in Coq9(R239X) mice destabilizes the CoQ multiprotein complex. Our study points out the importance of the multiprotein complex for CoQ biosynthesis in mammals, which may provide new insights to understand the genotype-phenotype heterogeneity associated with human CoQ deficiency and may have a potential impact on the treatment of this mitochondrial disorder. PMID:25802402

  15. Knockdown of the coenzyme Q synthesis gene Smed-dlp1 affects planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiobara, Yumiko; Harada, Chiaki; Shiota, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Saeko; Tabata, Kenta; Sekie, Kiyoteru; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-12-01

    The freshwater planarian is a model organism used to study tissue regeneration that occupies an important position among multicellular organisms. Planarian genomic databases have led to the identification of genes that are required for regeneration, with implications for their roles in its underlying mechanism. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a fundamental lipophilic molecule that is synthesized and expressed in every cell of every organism. Furthermore, CoQ levels affect development, life span, disease and aging in nematodes and mice. Because CoQ can be ingested in food, it has been used in preventive nutrition. In this study, we investigated the role of CoQ in planarian regeneration. Planarians synthesize both CoQ9 and rhodoquinone 9 (RQ9). Knockdown of Smed-dlp1, a trans-prenyltransferase gene that encodes an enzyme that synthesizes the CoQ side chain, led to a decrease in CoQ9 and RQ9 levels. However, ATP levels did not consistently decrease in these animals. Knockdown animals exhibited tissue regression and curling. The number of mitotic cells decreased in Smed-dlp1 (RNAi) animals. These results suggested a failure in physiological cell turnover and stem cell function. Accordingly, regenerating planarians died from lysis or exhibited delayed regeneration. Interestingly, the observed phenotypes were partially rescued by ingesting food supplemented with α-tocopherol. Taken together, our results suggest that oxidative stress induced by reduced CoQ9 levels affects planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis. PMID:26516985

  16. Overexpressing 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR in the lactococcal mevalonate pathway for heterologous plant sesquiterpene production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelene Ai-Lian Song

    Full Text Available Isoprenoids are a large and diverse group of metabolites with interesting properties such as flavour, fragrance and therapeutic properties. They are produced via two pathways, the mevalonate pathway or the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP pathway. While plants are the richest source of isoprenoids, they are not the most efficient producers. Escherichia coli and yeasts have been extensively studied as heterologous hosts for plant isoprenoids production. In the current study, we describe the usage of the food grade Lactococcus lactis as a potential heterologous host for the production of sesquiterpenes from a local herbaceous Malaysian plant, Persicaria minor (synonym Polygonum minus. A sesquiterpene synthase gene from P. minor was successfully cloned and expressed in L. lactis. The expressed protein was identified to be a β-sesquiphellandrene synthase as it was demonstrated to be functional in producing β-sesquiphellandrene at 85.4% of the total sesquiterpenes produced based on in vitro enzymatic assays. The recombinant L. lactis strain developed in this study was also capable of producing β-sesquiphellandrene in vivo without exogenous substrates supplementation. In addition, overexpression of the strain's endogenous 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase (HMGR, an established rate-limiting enzyme in the eukaryotic mevalonate pathway, increased the production level of β-sesquiphellandrene by 1.25-1.60 fold. The highest amount achieved was 33 nM at 2 h post-induction.

  17. Malonyl coenzyme A and the regulation of functional carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity and fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Blake B.; Holmbäck, Ulf C.; Volpi, Elena; Morio-Liondore, Beatrice; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2002-01-01

    Physiological hyperglycemia with hyperinsulinemia reduces fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. The mechanism responsible for this decrease in fat oxidation in human muscle is not known and may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that the transfer of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) into the mitochondria via carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) is inhibited by increased malonyl coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) (a known potent inhibitor of CPT-1) in human muscle during hyperglycemia with hyperinsulinemia. We studied six healthy subjects after an overnight fast and during an induced 5-hour period of hyperglycemia with hyperinsulinemia. Muscle fatty acid oxidation was calculated using stable isotope methodology combined with blood sampling from the femoral artery and vein of one leg. Muscle functional CPT-1 activity was assessed by concurrently infusing an LCFA tracer and a CPT-independent medium-chain fatty acid tracer. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis after the periods of fasting and hyperglycemia with hyperinsulinemia. Hyperglycemia with hyperinsulinemia decreased LCFA oxidation, but had no effect on LCFA uptake or medium-chain fatty acid oxidation across the leg. Malonyl-CoA concentration significantly increased from 0.13 ± 0.01 to 0.35 ± 0.07 nmol/g during hyperglycemia with hyperinsulinemia. We conclude that hyperglycemia with hyperinsulinemia increases malonyl-CoA, inhibits functional CPT-1 activity, and shunts LCFA away from oxidation and toward storage in human muscle. PMID:12464674

  18. Engineering of a novel carbonyl reductase with coenzyme regeneration in E. coli for efficient biosynthesis of enantiopure chiral alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ping; Gao, Jia-Xin; Zheng, Gao-Wei; Wu, Hong; Zong, Min-Hua; Lou, Wen-Yong

    2016-07-20

    The novel anti-Prelog stereospecific carbonyl reductase from Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 was successfully expressed in E. coli combined with glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) to construct an efficient whole-cell biocatalyst with coenzyme NADH regeneration. The enzymatic activity of GAcCR (AcCR with a GST tag) reached 304.9U/g-dcw, even 9 folds higher than that of wild strain, and the activity of GDH for NADH regeneration recorded 46.0U/mg-protein in the recombinant E. coli. As a whole-cell biocatalyst, the recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS (pETDuet-gaccr-gdh) possessed a broad substrate spectrum for kinds of carbonyl compounds with encouraging yield and stereoselectivity. Besides, the asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-chloroacetoacetate (COBE) to optically pure ethyl 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate (CHBE) catalyzed by the whole-cell biocatalyst was systematically investigated. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the optical purity of CHBE was over 99% e.e. for (S)-enantiomer, and the initial rate and product yield reached 8.04μmol/min and 99.4%, respectively. Moreover, the space-time yield was almost 20 folds higher than that catalyzed by the wild strain. Therefore, a new, high efficiency biocatalyst for asymmetric reductions was constructed successfully, and the enantioselective reduction of prochiral compounds using the biocatalyst was a promising approach for obtaining enantiopure chiral alcohols. PMID:27211999

  19. Reversal of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in T and B lymphocytes by Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollapudi, Sastry; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10, (CoQ10) an electron transporter and an antioxidant, protects a variety of cell types against oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, protective effect of CoQ10 on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes has not been studied in detail. In this study, we investigated the effect of CoQ10 on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes. An exposure of peripheral blood lymphocytes to oxidative stressors, rotenone or hydrogen peroxide, lead to apoptosis. Pre-treatment of lymphocytes with CoQ10 resulted in a significantly reduced level of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, which was associated with decreased reactive oxygen species production, an inhibition of mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and inhibition of activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Furthermore, CoQ10 inhibited oxidative stress induced apoptosis in both CD4+ T, and CD8+ T, and CD19+ B cells. Our findings suggest that CoQ10 may provide new therapeutic strategies for preventing oxidative stress-induced cell death and dysfunction in lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets.

  20. Structure-guided expansion of the substrate range of methylmalonyl coenzyme A synthetase (MatB) of Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Heidi A; Rank, Katherine C; Rayment, Ivan; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2012-09-01

    Malonyl coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) and methylmalonyl-CoA are two of the most commonly used extender units for polyketide biosynthesis and are utilized to synthesize a vast array of pharmaceutically relevant products with antibacterial, antiparasitic, anticholesterol, anticancer, antifungal, and immunosuppressive properties. Heterologous hosts used for polyketide production such as Escherichia coli often do not produce significant amounts of methylmalonyl-CoA, however, requiring the introduction of other pathways for the generation of this important building block. Recently, the bacterial malonyl-CoA synthetase class of enzymes has been utilized to generate malonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA directly from malonate and methylmalonate. We demonstrate that in the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, MatB (RpMatB) acts as a methylmalonyl-CoA synthetase and is required for growth on methylmalonate. We report the apo (1.7-Å resolution) and ATP-bound (2.0-Å resolution) structure and kinetic analysis of RpMatB, which shows similar activities for both malonate and methylmalonate, making it an ideal enzyme for heterologous polyketide biosynthesis. Additionally, rational, structure-based mutagenesis of the active site of RpMatB led to substantially higher activity with ethylmalonate and butylmalonate, demonstrating that this enzyme is a prime target for expanded substrate specificity. PMID:22773649

  1. Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Prevents Iron Overload While Improving Glycaemic Control and Antioxidant Protection in Insulin-Resistant Psammomys obesus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazourgui, Mohamed Amine; El-Aoufi, Salima; Labsi, Moussa; Maouche, Boubekeur

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the anti-diabetic preventive activity of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in a murine model of diet-induced insulin resistance (IR), Psammomys obesus (Po). IR was induced by feeding a standard laboratory diet (SD). CoQ10 oil suspension was orally administered at 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day along with SD for 9 months. Anthropometric parameters, namely, total body weight gain (BWG) and the relative weight of white adipose tissue (WAT) were determined. Blood glucose, insulin, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), total antioxidant status (TAS), iron, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite (NO2 (-)) were evaluated. NO2 (-) level was also assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) culture supernatants. Our results show that CoQ10 supplementation significantly improved blood glucose, insulin, QUICKI, TAS, iron and MDA, but influenced neither NO2 (-) levels nor the anthropometric parameters. These findings support the hypothesis that CoQ10 would exert an anti-diabetic activity by improving both glycaemic control and antioxidant protection. The most marked effect of CoQ10 observed in this study concerns the regulation of iron levels, which may carry significant preventive importance. PMID:26779622

  2. Methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri. Purification, properties and encoding genes of the corrinoid protein MT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, K; Harms, U; Thauer, R K

    1997-02-01

    In Methanosarcina barkeri, methanogenesis from methanol is initiated by the formation of methylcoenzyme M from methanol and coenzyme M. This methyl transfer reaction is catalyzed by two enzymes, designated MT1 and MT2. Transferase MT1 is a corrinoid protein. The purification, catalytic properties and encoding genes of MT2 (MtaA) have been described previously [Harms, U. and Thauer, R.K. (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 235, 653-659]. We report here on the corresponding analysis of MT1. The corrinoid protein MT1 was purified to apparent homogeneity and showed a specific activity of 750 mumol min-1 mg-1. The enzyme catalyzed the methylation of its bound corrinoid in the cob(I)amide oxidation state by methanol. In addition to this automethylation, the purified enzyme was found to catalyze the methylation of free cob(I)alamin to methylcob(III)alamin. It was composed of two different subunits designated MtaB and MtaC, with apparent molecular masses of 49 kDa and 24 kDa, respectively. The subunit MtaC was shown to harbour the corrinoid prosthetic group. The genes mtaB and mtaC were cloned and sequenced. They were found to be juxtapositioned and to form a transcription unit mtaCB. The corrinoid-harbouring subunit MtaC exhibits 35% sequence similarity to the cobalamin-binding domain of methionine synthase from Escherichia coli. PMID:9057830

  3. Large-Scale Domain Motions and Pyridoxal-5'-Phosphate Assisted Radical Catalysis in Coenzyme B12-Dependent Aminomutases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra Nath Maity

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lysine 5,6-aminomutase (5,6-LAM and ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (4,5-OAM are two of the rare enzymes that use assistance of two vitamins as cofactors. These enzymes employ radical generating capability of coenzyme B12 (5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, dAdoCbl and ability of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, vitamin B6 to stabilize high-energy intermediates for performing challenging 1,2-amino rearrangements between adjacent carbons. A large-scale domain movement is required for interconversion between the catalytically inactive open form and the catalytically active closed form. In spite of all the similarities, these enzymes differ in substrate specificities. 4,5-OAM is highly specific for D-ornithine as a substrate while 5,6-LAM can accept D-lysine and L-β-lysine. This review focuses on recent computational, spectroscopic and structural studies of these enzymes and their implications on the related enzymes. Additionally, we also discuss the potential biosynthetic application of 5,6-LAM.

  4. Inhibition of neutral lipase from castor bean lipid bodies by coenzyme A (CoA) and Oleoyl-CoA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutral lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) in lipid body membranes isolated from the endosperm of 4 day old castor (Ricinus communis L.) seedlings catalyzes the hydrolysis of [14C]trioleoylglycerol, releasing [14C]oleic acid for up to 4 hours. However, the addition of Mg-ATP and coenzyme A (CoA), which are present in the cytoplasm of plant cells, caused a progressive inhibition of the neutral lipase such that after 15 minutes, release of [14C]oleic acid was almost undetectable. A fatty acyl CoA synthetase was found in the lipid body membrane which converts [14C]oleic acid produced from the lipase reaction to [14C]oleoyl-CoA under these conditions. The concentration of free oleoyl-CoA in the reaction mixture when the lipase was inhibited by 50% was calculated to be about 21 micromolar. It was found that a mixture of exogenously added oleoyl-CoA and CoA was most effective in causing lipase inhibition. Little inhibition of lipase was detected in the presence of CoA alone. It is possible that this effect is important in vivo in coordinating lipase activity with fatty acid oxidation

  5. Thermodynamic and Structure Guided Design of Statin Based Inhibitors of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarver, Ronald W.; Bills, Elizabeth; Bolton, Gary; Bratton, Larry D.; Caspers, Nicole L.; Dunbar, James B.; Harris, Melissa S.; Hutchings, Richard H.; Kennedy, Robert M.; Larsen, Scott D.; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A.; Bainbridge, Graeme (Pfizer)

    2008-10-02

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) inhibitors, are effective at lowering mortality levels associated with cardiovascular disease; however, 2--7% of patients may experience statin-induced myalgia that limits compliance with a treatment regimen. High resolution crystal structures, thermodynamic binding parameters, and biochemical data were used to design statin inhibitors with improved HMGR affinity and therapeutic index relative to statin-induced myalgia. These studies facilitated the identification of imidazole 1 as a potent (IC{sub 50} = 7.9 nM) inhibitor with excellent hepatoselectivity (>1000-fold) and good in vivo efficacy. The binding of 1 to HMGR was found to be enthalpically driven with a {Delta}H of -17.7 kcal/M. Additionally, a second novel series of bicyclic pyrrole-based inhibitors was identified that induced order in a protein flap of HMGR. Similar ordering was detected in a substrate complex, but has not been reported in previous statin inhibitor complexes with HMGR.

  6. Preference learning for cognitive modeling: a case study on entertainment preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Maragoudakis, Manolis; Hallam, John

    2009-01-01

    investigated is to learn to predict the expressed entertainment preferences of children when playing physical games built on their personalized playing features (entertainment modeling). Two of the approaches are derived from the literature--the large-margin algorithm (LMA) and preference learning with...... playing features. The underlying preference model that best reflects children preferences is obtained through neuroevolution: 82.22% of cross-validation accuracy in predicting reported entertainment in the main set of game survey experimentation. The model is able to correctly match expressed preferences...

  7. Mate preference in wild and domesticated (game-farm) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos): I. Initial preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.M.; Shoffner, R.N.; Phillips, R.E.; Lee, F.B.

    1978-01-01

    Wild and game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) raised in pure strain and mixed groups were tested for initial mate preference in a choice test. Female mallards showed no significant preference but males of either strain raised with females of their own strain significantly preferred female models of their own strain during the test. Males raised with females of the other strain merely showed attenuation of their preference for female models of their own strain and did not show preference for female models of the other strain. Game-farm mallards approached models significantly sooner than wild mallards and there was a significant sex X mate interaction.

  8. On the meaningfulness of testing preference axioms in stated preference discrete choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tjur, Carl Tue; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2012-01-01

    A stream of studies on evaluation of health care services and public goods have developed tests of the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity and methods for detecting other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, and random error, in stated preference...... discrete choice experiments. This methodological paper tries to identify the role of the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of such experiments and discusses whether or howsuch axioms and phenomena can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests....

  9. Iterative algorithms for improving consistency of intuitionistic preference relations

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Z.; Xia, M

    2014-01-01

    Consistency of preference relations is an important research topic in decision making with preference information. The existing research about consistency mainly focuses on multiplicative preference relations, fuzzy preference relations and linguistic preference relations. Intuitionistic preference relations, each of their elements is composed of a membership degree, a non-membership degree and a hesitation degree, can better reflect the very imprecision of preferences of decision makers. The...

  10. Sweet Dopamine: Sucrose Preferences Relate Differentially to Striatal D2 Receptor Binding and Age in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Y; Eisenstein, Sarah A; Bischoff, Allison N; Klein, Samuel; Moerlein, Stephen M; Perlmutter, Joel S; Black, Kevin J; Hershey, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    Alterations in dopaminergic circuitry play a critical role in food reward and may contribute to susceptibility to obesity. Ingestion of sweets releases dopamine in striatum, and both sweet preferences and striatal D2 receptors (D2R) decline with age and may be altered in obesity. Understanding the relationships between these variables and the impact of obesity on these relationships may reveal insight into the neurobiological basis of sweet preferences. We evaluated sucrose preferences, perception of sweetness intensity, and striatal D2R binding potential (D2R BPND) using positron emission tomography with a D2R-selective radioligand insensitive to endogenous dopamine, (N-[(11)C] methyl)benperidol, in 20 subjects without obesity (BMI 22.5 ± 2.4 kg/m(2); age 28.3 ± 5.4 years) and 24 subjects with obesity (BMI 40.3 ± 5.0 kg/m(2); age 31.2 ± 6.3 years). The groups had similar sucrose preferences, sweetness intensity perception, striatal D2R BPND, and age-related D2R BPND declines. However, both striatal D2R BPND and age correlated with sucrose preferences in subjects without obesity, explaining 52% of their variance in sucrose preference. In contrast, these associations were absent in the obese group. In conclusion, the age-related decline in D2R was not linked to the age-related decline in sweetness preferences, suggesting that other, as-yet-unknown mechanisms play a role and that these mechanisms are disrupted in obesity. PMID:27307220

  11. Game theory, conditional preferences, and social influence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynn C Stirling

    Full Text Available Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.

  12. Game Theory, Conditional Preferences, and Social Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Wynn C.; Felin, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences. PMID:23451078

  13. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  14. Public preferences for government spending in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Sabrina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study considers three questions: 1. What are the Canadian public’s prioritization preferences for new government spending on a range of public health-related goods outside the scope of the country’s national system of health insurance? 2. How homogenous or heterogeneous is the Canadian public in terms of these preferences? 3. What factors are predictive of the Canadian public’s preferences for new government spending? Data were collected in 2008 from a national random sample of Canadian adults through a telephone interview survey (n =1,005. Respondents were asked to rank five spending priorities in terms of their preference for new government spending. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. As a first priority, Canadian adults prefer spending on child care (26.2%, followed by pharmacare (23.1%, dental care (20.8%, home care (17.2%, and vision care (12.7%. Sociodemographic characteristics predict spending preferences, based on the social position and needs of respondents. Policy leaders need to give fair consideration to public preferences in priority setting approaches in order to ensure that public health-related goods are distributed in a manner that best suits population needs.

  15. Preference Learning and Ranking by Pairwise Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes; Hüllermeier, Eyke

    This chapter provides an overview of recent work on preference learning and ranking via pairwise classification. The learning by pairwise comparison (LPC) paradigm is the natural machine learning counterpart to the relational approach to preference modeling and decision making. From a machine learning point of view, LPC is especially appealing as it decomposes a possibly complex prediction problem into a certain number of learning problems of the simplest type, namely binary classification. We explain how to approach different preference learning problems, such as label and instance ranking, within the framework of LPC. We primarily focus on methodological aspects, but also address theoretical questions as well as algorithmic and complexity issues.

  16. Effect of dietary 7-ketocholesterol, pure, or oxidized cholesterol on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity, energy balance, egg cholesterol concentration, and 14C-acetate incorporation into yolk lipids of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, R E; Allred, J B; Biggert, M D; Naber, E C

    1986-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of 7-ketocholesterol (7-k) in the presence or absence of pure cholesterol (PCH) or oxidized cholesterol (OCH) in diets of laying hens on reproductive performance and several parameters of cholesterol metabolism. In the first experiment, cholesterol synthesis and transport was examined by the in ovo incorporation of 14C-acetate into yolk triglycerides and cholesterol. Energy balances were also conducted. In the second experiment, hepatic 3 hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity was measured in vitro to evaluate potential cholesterol synthesis. In both experiments, reproductive performance and egg yolk cholesterol concentration were measured. Dietary PCH or OCH (.5%) significantly reduced relative acetate incorporation into yolk cholesterol, while 7-k (.025%) had no effect on carbon flow from acetate into egg cholesterol. While 7-k alone did not alter total yolk cholesterol concentration, it moderated the effect of PCH or OCH on increasing yolk cholesterol concentration. No consistent effects of dietary sterols on reproductive performance or energy balance were observed. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was dramatically suppressed by feeding PCH or OCH and moderately suppressed by 7-k. In combination with PCH or OCH, 7-k did not further depress enzyme activity. The observations that 7-k alone depressed hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity, without changing relative acetate incorporation into yolk cholesterol while limiting cholesterol deposition in egg yolk from PCH or OCH, is interpreted to mean that 7-k may stimulate sterol transport and excretion while limiting cholesterol synthesis. PMID:3748946

  17. Eye-hand preference dissociation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and dyslexia Dissociação da preferência ocular e manual em pacientes com transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo e dislexia

    OpenAIRE

    Marilena Occhini Siviero; Eliana Oliveira Rysovas; Yara Juliano; José Alberto Del Porto; Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci

    2002-01-01

    Dyslexia may be a development disturbance in which there are alterations in visual-spatial and visual-motor processing, while obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disease in which there are alterations in memory, executive function, and visual-spatial processing. Our hypothesis is that these disturbances may be, at least partially, the result of a crossed eye and hand preference. In the present study 16 controls, 20 OCD (DSM-IV criteria) and 13 dyslexic adults (Brazilian Dysle...

  18. Interaction of Metabolic Stress with Chronic Mild Stress in Altering Brain Cytokines and Sucrose Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Remus, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Luke T.; Camp, Robert M.; Novak, Colleen M.; Johnson, John D.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic stressors increase an organism’s risk of depression. Chronic mild stress is a popular animal model of depression and several serendipitous findings have suggested that food deprivation prior to sucrose testing in this model is necessary to observe anhedonic behaviors. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by exposing animals to chronic mild stress and used an overnight two bottle sucrose test (food ad libitum) on day 5 and 10, then food and water de...

  19. The Effects of Brief and Extended Stimulus Availability on Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhilber, Jody; Johnson, Cammarie

    2007-01-01

    The effects of stimulus availability on preference were evaluated using two conditions of a modified preference assessment. Different preference hierarchies were found in 15-s access conditions than in 15-min access conditions. Subsequent comparisons of a short-availability high-preference stimulus and a long-availability high-preference stimulus…

  20. 5 CFR 211.103 - Administration of preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration of preference. 211.103... PREFERENCE § 211.103 Administration of preference. Agencies are responsible for making all preference determinations except for preference based on a common law marriage. Such a claim should be referred to...

  1. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR TABLE OLIVES IN TIRANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Merkaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Table olive production sector is undergoing rapid changes, as the government is undertaking an ambitious program supporting the expansion of olive grove plantations. Despite the increase in domestic production, import of table olive is still high, due to constraints in quantity and quality of domestically supplied olives. In the context of import substitution strategy, embraced by producers and policy-makers, it is important to analyze the consumer preferences for table olives. The objective of this paper is to segment the table olive market according to preferences for table olives attributes applying Conjoint Choice Experiment (CCE and Latent Class Analysis to collect and analyze the data. The research results show a strong consumer preference for domestic table olives whereas preferences for other attributes vary between consumer groups.

  2. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  3. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emerged bees and forgers in a colony setting. We then determined the mechanism behind this preference. We show that this preference maximizes Varroa fitness, although due to the fact that each mite must find a second host (a pupa) to reproduce, the fitness benefit to the mites is not immediate but delayed. Our results suggest that the Varroa mite is a highly adapted parasite for honey bees. PMID:27302644

  4. Personality, media preferences, and cultural participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Eijck, Koen van

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, friendliness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness) on media preferences (TV programs) and cultural participation (book reading and attending museums and concerts) was examined. The analyses were carried out

  5. Preference reversal in quantum decision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2015-01-01

    We consider the psychological effect of preference reversal and show that it finds a natural explanation in the frame of quantum decision theory. When people choose between lotteries with non-negative payoffs, they prefer a more certain lottery because of uncertainty aversion. But when people evaluate lottery prices, e.g. for selling to others the right to play them, they do this more rationally, being less subject to behavioral biases. This difference can be explained by the presence of the attraction factors entering the expression of quantum probabilities. Only the existence of attraction factors can explain why, considering two lotteries with close utility factors, a decision maker prefers one of them when choosing, but evaluates higher the other one when pricing. We derive a general quantitative criterion for the preference reversal to occur that relates the utilities of the two lotteries to the attraction factors under choosing versus pricing and test successfully its application on experiments by Tvers...

  6. Preference assessments in the zoo: Keeper and staff predictions of enrichment preferences across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Dorey, Nicole R

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is widely used in the management of zoo animals, and is an essential strategy for increasing the behavioral welfare of these populations. It may be difficult, however, to identify potentially effective enrichment strategies that are also cost-effective and readily available. An animal's preference for a potential enrichment item may be a reliable predictor of whether that individual will reliably interact with that item, and subsequently enable staff to evaluate the effects of that enrichment strategy. The aim of the present study was to assess the utility of preference assessments for identifying potential enrichment items across six different species--each representing a different taxonomic group. In addition, we evaluated the agreement between zoo personnel's predictions of animals' enrichment preferences and stimuli selected via a preference assessment. Five out of six species (nine out of 11 individuals) exhibited clear, systematic preferences for specific stimuli. Similarities in enrichment preferences were observed among all individuals of primates, whereas individuals within ungulate and avian species displayed individual differences in enrichment preferences. Overall, zoo personnel, regardless of experience level, were significantly more accurate at predicting least-preferred stimuli than most-preferred stimuli across species, and tended to make the same predictions for all individuals within a species. Preference assessments may therefore be a useful, efficient husbandry strategy for identifying viable enrichment items at both the individual and species levels. PMID:26179195

  7. Problem and Preferred Management Practices Identification Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchen, Douglas G.

    2003-03-10

    The goals for this workshop were: to introduce key players in the Appalachian basin oil industry to DOE's new Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) program; to explain the various elements of our two-year project in detail; to transfer technology through a series of short, invited talks; to identify technical problems and best management practices; and to recruit members for our Preferred Management Practices (PMP) Council.

  8. Towards a Theory of Relative Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bastani, Spencer

    2007-01-01

    Should economists depart from the neoclassical assumption of independent preferences and admit that people do not only care about absolute consumption, but also about relative consumption? Three different motives for relative preferences are explored, an instrumental perspective most often grounded in signalling incentives, a view where people care about identity and self-image and finally a theory based on the information content in consumption. The central concern is positional goods, typic...

  9. Ethnic stereotypes and preferences on poverty assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Ágnes; Janky, Béla

    2014-01-01

    The authors introduce a simple model of public preferences on poverty assistance. Their focus is on the roles played by the socioeconomic status of a potential welfare recipient and the stereotypes about his/her ethnic group in shaping taxpayers' preferences on appropriate assistance. The model assumes that status not only informs one about the recipient's material needs but also sends noisy signals about his/her 'deservingness'. Ethnic stereotypes about work ethic, in turn, help to process t...

  10. Eliciting taxpayer preferences increases tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Lamberton, Cait; Norton, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments show that eliciting taxpayer preferences on government spending—providing taxpayer agency--increases tax compliance. We first create an income and taxation environment in a laboratory setting to test for compliance with a lab tax. Allowing a treatment group to express nonbinding preferences over tax spending priorities, leads to a 16% increase in tax compliance. A followup online study tests this treatment with a simulation of paying US federal taxes. Allowing taxpayers to sig...

  11. Son Preference and Second Birth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    Preference for bearing sons is a common social custom and cultural tradition in China. In 1979, China installed the stringent one-child policy which firmly controls second and higher order birth, although with a few exceptions which allow couples to have two children. Thus to explore son preference value and its connection with second order birth is of great interest. With birth history data of 2412 women between 18 to 52 years old from 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted ...

  12. Preference clustering in customer satisfaction measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyze whether or not segments with different customer preferences and customer satisfaction can be identified. This analysis is based on customer satisfaction data from the Danish banking industry from the years 2004 and 2005. The analysis showed that the preference...... structures in the segments are not the same for large and small banks indicating that these banks operate under slightly different market conditions....

  13. Preference reversal in quantum decision theory

    OpenAIRE

    Vyacheslav I. Yukalov; Didier SORNETTE

    2015-01-01

    We consider the psychological effect of preference reversal and show that it finds a natural explanation in the frame of quantum decision theory. When people choose between lotteries with non-negative payoffs, they prefer a more certain lottery because of uncertainty aversion. But when people evaluate lottery prices, e.g. for selling to others the right to play them, they do this more rationally, being less subject to behavioral biases. This difference can be explained by the presence of the ...

  14. User Preferences in Image Map Using

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráková, A.; Vozenilek, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of map making, the attention is given to the resulting image map (to be accurate, readable, and suit the primary purpose) and its user aspects. Current cartography understands the user issues as all matters relating to user perception, map use and also user preferences. Most commercial cartographic production is strongly connected to economic circumstances. Companies are discovering user's interests and market demands. However, is it sufficient to focus just on the user's preferences? Recent research on user aspects at Palacký University Olomouc addresses a much wider scope of user aspects. The user's preferences are very often distorting - the users think that the particular image map is kind, beautiful, and useful and they wants to buy it (or use it - it depends on the form of the map production). But when the same user gets the task to use practically this particular map (such as finding the shortest way), so the user concludes that initially preferred map is useless, and uses a map, that was worse evaluated according to his preferences. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate not only the correctness of image maps and their aesthetics but also to assess the user perception and other user issues. For the accomplishment of such testing, eye-tracking technology is a useful tool. The research analysed how users read image maps, or if they prefer image maps over traditional maps. The eye tracking experiment on the comparison of the conventional and image map reading was conducted. The map readers were asked to solve few simple tasks with either conventional or image map. The readers' choice of the map to solve the task was one of investigated aspect of user preferences. Results demonstrate that the user preferences and user needs are often quite different issues. The research outcomes show that it is crucial to implement map user testing into the cartographic production process.

  15. Self-Reflection and Articulated Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Hauser; Dong, Songting; DING, MIN

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurement of consumer preferences reduces development costs and leads to successful products. Some product-development teams use quantitative methods such as conjoint analysis or structured methods such as Casemap. Other product-development teams rely on unstructured methods such as direct conversations with consumers, focus groups, or qualitative interviews. All methods assume that measured consumer preferences endure and are relevant for consumers' marketplace decisions. This art...

  16. Viewpoint: Option prices, preferences, and state variables

    OpenAIRE

    René Garcia; Richard Luger; Éric Renault

    2005-01-01

    This paper surveys recent developments in the theory of option pricing. The emphasis is on the interplay between option prices and investors' impatience and their aversion to risk. The traditional view, steeped in the risk-neutral approach to derivative pricing, has been that these preferences play no role in the determination of option prices. However, the usual lognormality assumption required to obtain preference-free option pricing formulas is at odds with the empirical properties of fina...

  17. Option Prices, Preferences, and State Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Garcia; Richard Luger; Eric Renault

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys recent developments in the theory of option pricing. The emphasis is on the interplay between option prices and investors' impatience and their aversion to risk. The traditional view, steeped in the risk-neutral approach to derivative pricing, has been that these preferences play no role in the determination of option prices. However, the usual lognormality assumption required to obtain preference-free option pricing formulas is at odds with the empirical properties of fina...

  18. E-Commerce Customers’ Preference Implicit Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Zdziebko Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of users’ preferences are of high value for every e-commerce website. It can be used to improve customers’ loyalty by presenting personalized products’ recommendations. A user’s interest in a particular product can be estimated by observing his or her behaviors. Implicit methods are less accurate than the explicit ones, but implicit observation is done without interruption of having to give ratings for viewed items. This article presents results of e-commerce customers’ preference i...

  19. Determinants of Consumer Preferences for Regional Food

    OpenAIRE

    Henseleit, Meike; Kubitzki, Sabine; Teuber, Ramona

    2007-01-01

    In recent years an increasing consumer preference for regional food can be observed, both in Germany and in other European countries. Regression models investigating this region-of-origin effect are rare and in most cases the region or sample size under consideration is quite small. Different from that, the present study is based on a representative data set for Germany. Our objective is to identify and quantify the determining factors of consumers preferences for regional food. Therefore, a ...

  20. Accounting learning preferences: the role of visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Mouhcine Tallaki; Enrico Bracci; Monia Castellini

    2015-01-01

    The accounting education environment is changing rapidly due to the increasing attention paid by public and private University and Institutions to the efficacy of course delivery and design. The learning preferences and attitudes of students represent an important starting point to develop an efficient and effective educational programme. Learning theories suggest that learning styles and preferences influence the effectiveness with which individuals learn. The success of educational programm...