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Sample records for altered coenzyme preference

  1. Residues that influence coenzyme preference in the aldehyde dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Segura, Lilian; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor; Julián-Sánchez, Adriana; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A

    2015-06-01

    To find out the residues that influence the coenzyme preference of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), we reviewed, analyzed and correlated data from their known crystal structures and amino-acid sequences with their published kinetic parameters for NAD(P)(+). We found that the conformation of the Rossmann-fold loops participating in binding the adenosine ribose is very conserved among ALDHs, so that coenzyme specificity is mainly determined by the nature of the residue at position 195 (human ALDH2 numbering). Enzymes with glutamate or proline at 195 prefer NAD(+) because the side-chains of these residues electrostatically and/or sterically repel the 2'-phosphate group of NADP(+). But contrary to the conformational rigidity of proline, the conformational flexibility of glutamate may allow NADP(+)-binding in some enzymes by moving the carboxyl group away from the 2'-phosphate group, which is possible if a small neutral residue is located at position 224, and favored if the residue at position 53 interacts with Glu195 in a NADP(+)-compatible conformation. Of the residues found at position 195, only glutamate interacts with the NAD(+)-adenosine ribose; glutamine and histidine cannot since their side-chain points are opposite to the ribose, probably because the absence of the electrostatic attraction by the conserved nearby Lys192, or its electrostatic repulsion, respectively. The shorter side-chains of other residues-aspartate, serine, threonine, alanine, valine, leucine, or isoleucine-are distant from the ribose but leave room for binding the 2'-phosphate group. Generally, enzymes having a residue different from Glu bind NAD(+) with less affinity, but they can also bind NADP(+) even sometimes with higher affinity than NAD(+), as do enzymes containing Thr/Ser/Gln195. Coenzyme preference is a variable feature within many ALDH families, consistent with being mainly dependent on a single residue that apparently has no other structural or functional roles, and therefore can

  2. Alteration of coenzyme specificity of malate dehydrogenase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y D; Song, P; Cao, Z Y; Wang, P; Zhu, G P

    2014-07-29

    We describe here for the first time the alteration of coenzyme specificity of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) (ScMDH). In the present study, we replaced four amino acid residues in the Rossmann fold (βB-αC) region of NADH-dependent ScMDH by site-directed mutagenesis with those of NADPH-dependent MDH (Glu42Gly, Ile43Ser, Pro45Arg, and Ala46Ser). The coenzyme specificity of the mutant enzyme (ScMDH-T4) was examined. Coenzyme specificity of ScMDH-T4 was shifted 2231.3-fold toward NADPH using kcat/Km(coenzyme) as the measurement of coenzyme specificity. Accordingly, the effect of the replacements on coenzyme specificity is discussed. Our work provides further insight into the coenzyme specificity of ScMDH.

  3. Xylose reductase from the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii: cloning and heterologous expression of the native gene (Texr) and a double mutant (TexrK271R+N273D) with altered coenzyme specificity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sara Fernandes; Maria G Tuohy; Patrick G Murray

    2009-12-01

    Xylose reductase is involved in the first step of the fungal pentose catabolic pathway. The gene encoding xylose reductase (Texr) was isolated from the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Texr encodes a 320 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36 kDa, which exhibited high sequence identity with other xylose reductase sequences and was shown to be a member of the aldoketoreductase (AKR) superfamily with a preference for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as coenzyme. Given the potential application of xylose reductase enzymes that preferentially utilize the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) rather than NADPH in the fermentation of five carbon sugars by genetically engineered microorganisms, the coenzyme selectivity of TeXR was altered by site-directed mutagenesis. The TeXRK271R+N273D double mutant displayed an altered coenzyme preference with a 16-fold improvement in NADH utilization relative to the wild type and therefore has the potential to reduce redox imbalance of xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae strains. Expression of Texr was shown to be inducible by the same carbon sources responsible for the induction of genes encoding enzymes relevant to lignocellulose hydrolysis, suggesting a coordinated expression of intracellular and extracellular enzymes relevant to hydrolysis and metabolism of pentose sugars in T. emersonii in adaptation to its natural habitat. This indicates a potential advantage in survival and response to a nutrient-poor environment.

  4. Hypersexuality or altered sexual preference following brain injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, B.L.; Cummings, J L; McIntyre, H.; Ebers, G; Grode, M

    1986-01-01

    Eight patients are described in whom either hypersexuality (four cases) or change in sexual preference (four cases) occurred following brain injury. In this series disinhibition of sexual activity and hypersexuality followed medial basal-frontal or diencephalic injury. This contrasted with the patients demonstrating altered sexual preference whose injuries involved limbic system structures. In some patients altered sexual behaviour may be the presenting or dominant feature of brain injury.

  5. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Liu, Jean C J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  6. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  7. Alteration of the coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venco, Paola; Dusi, Sabrina; Valletta, Lorella; Tiranti, Valeria

    2014-08-01

    NBIA (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation) comprises a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases having as a common denominator, iron overload in specific brain areas, mainly basal ganglia and globus pallidus. In the past decade a bunch of disease genes have been identified, but NBIA pathomechanisms are still not completely clear. PKAN (pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration), an autosomal recessive disorder with progressive impairment of movement, vision and cognition, is the most common form of NBIA. It is caused by mutations in the PANK2 (pantothenate kinase 2) gene, coding for a mitochondrial enzyme that phosphorylates vitamin B5 in the first reaction of the CoA (coenzyme A) biosynthetic pathway. A distinct form of NBIA, denominated CoPAN (CoA synthase protein-associated neurodegeneration), is caused by mutations in the CoASY (CoA synthase) gene coding for a bifunctional mitochondrial enzyme, which catalyses the final steps of CoA biosynthesis. These two inborn errors of CoA metabolism further support the concept that dysfunctions in CoA synthesis may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of NBIA.

  8. Manipulation detection and preference alterations in a choice blindness paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Taya

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that individuals make choices based upon their preferences and have access to the reasons for their choices. Recent studies in several areas suggest that this is not always the case. In choice blindness paradigms, two-alternative forced-choice in which chosen-options are later replaced by the unselected option, individuals often fail to notice replacement of their chosen option, confabulate explanations for why they chose the unselected option, and even show increased preferences for the unselected-but-replaced options immediately after choice (seconds. Although choice blindness has been replicated across a variety of domains, there are numerous outstanding questions. Firstly, we sought to investigate how individual- or trial-factors modulated detection of the manipulations. Secondly, we examined the nature and temporal duration (minutes vs. days of the preference alterations induced by these manipulations.Participants performed a computerized choice blindness task, selecting the more attractive face between presented pairs of female faces, and providing a typewritten explanation for their choice on half of the trials. Chosen-face cue manipulations were produced on a subset of trials by presenting the unselected face during the choice explanation as if it had been selected. Following all choice trials, participants rated the attractiveness of each face individually, and rated the similarity of each face pair. After approximately two weeks, participants re-rated the attractiveness of each individual face online.Participants detected manipulations on only a small proportion of trials, with detections by fewer than half of participants. Detection rates increased with the number of prior detections, and detection rates subsequent to first detection were modulated by the choice certainty. We show clear short-term modulation of preferences in both manipulated and non-manipulated explanation trials compared to choice-only trials

  9. The effect of alterations in total coenzyme A on metabolic pathways in the liver and heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, C.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The first set of experiments involved in vitro experiments using primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. A range of conditions were developed which resulted in cell cultures with variations in total CoA over a range of 1.3 to 2.9 nmol/mg protein with identical hormonal activation which simulated metabolic stress. Elevations of total CoA levels above that of controls due to preincubation with cyanamide plus pantothenate were correlated with diminished rates of total ketone body production, 3-hydroxybutyrate production and ratios of 3 hydroxybutyrate/acetoactetate with palmitate as substrate. In contrast, cells with elevated total CoA levels had higher rates of ({sup 14}C) CO{sub 2} production from radioactive palmitate which implied greater flux of acetyl CoA units into the TCA cycle and less to the pathway of ketogenesis. The second set of experiments were designed to alter total CoA levels in vivo by maintaining rats on a chronic ethanol diet with or without pantothenate-supplementation. The effect of alterations of CoA on mitochondrial metabolism was evaluated by measuring substrate oxidation rates in liver and heat mitochondria as well as ketone body production with palmitoyl-1-carnitine as substrate.

  10. Analysis and prediction of the physiological effects of altered coenzyme specificity in xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase during xylose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahulec, Stefan; Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2012-04-30

    An advanced strategy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain development for fermentation of xylose applies tailored enzymes in the process of metabolic engineering. The coenzyme specificities of the NADPH-preferring xylose reductase (XR) and the NAD⁺-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) have been targeted in previous studies by protein design or evolution with the aim of improving the recycling of NADH or NADPH in their two-step pathway, converting xylose to xylulose. Yeast strains expressing variant pairs of XR and XDH that according to in vitro kinetic data were suggested to be much better matched in coenzyme usage than the corresponding pair of wild-type enzymes, exhibit widely varying capabilities for xylose fermentation. To achieve coherence between enzyme properties and the observed strain performance during fermentation, we explored the published kinetic parameters for wild-type and engineered forms of XR and XDH as possible predictors of xylitol by-product formation (Y(xylitol)) in yeast physiology. We found that the ratio of enzymatic reaction rates using NADP(H) and NAD(H) that was calculated by applying intracellular reactant concentrations to rate equations derived from bi-substrate kinetic analysis, succeeded in giving a statistically reliable forecast of the trend effect on Y(xylitol). Prediction based solely on catalytic efficiencies with or without binding affinities for NADP(H) and NAD(H) were not dependable, and we define a minimum demand on the enzyme kinetic characterization to be performed for this purpose. An immediate explanation is provided for the typically lower Y(xylitol) in the current strains harboring XR engineered for utilization of NADH as compared to strains harboring XDH engineered for utilization of NADP⁺. The known XDH enzymes all exhibit a relatively high K(m) for NADP⁺ so that physiological boundary conditions are somewhat unfavorable for xylitol oxidation by NADP⁺. A criterion of physiological fitness is developed for

  11. Modeling human Coenzyme A synthase mutation in yeast reveals altered mitochondrial function, lipid content and iron metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ceccatelli Berti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in nuclear genes associated with defective coenzyme A biosynthesis have been identified as responsible for some forms of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, namely PKAN and CoPAN. PKAN are defined by mutations in PANK2, encoding the pantothenate kinase 2 enzyme, that account for about 50% of cases of NBIA, whereas mutations in CoA synthase COASY have been recently reported as the second inborn error of CoA synthesis leading to CoPAN. As reported previously, yeast cells expressing the pathogenic mutation exhibited a temperature-sensitive growth defect in the absence of pantothenate and a reduced CoA content. Additional characterization revealed decreased oxygen consumption, reduced activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes, higher iron content, increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and reduced amount of lipid droplets, thus partially recapitulating the phenotypes found in patients and establishing yeast as a potential model to clarify the pathogenesis underlying PKAN and CoPAN diseases.

  12. Audience effect alters male mating preferences in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédérique; Belzile, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The social environment of animals strongly influences the mating preferences of both the choosing and the observing individuals. Notably, there is recent evidence that polygamous males decrease their selectivity when being observed by competitors in order to direct their rivals' attention away from their true interest and, consequently, reduce sperm competition risk. Yet, other mechanisms, whose importance remains unexplored, could induce similar effects. In monogamous species with mutual choice, particularly, if males adjust their selectivity according to the risk of being rejected by their preferred mate, they should as well become less selective when potential rivals are present. Here, we investigated whether the presence of bystanders modifies male mating preferences when the risk of sperm competition is low, by carrying out mate-choice experiments with male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) whose preferences for two females were measured twice: with and without an audience. We found that the presence of potential rivals had no effect on the males' choosiness. However, with an audience, they spent more time with the female that was considered as the less attractive one in the control condition. These findings support the hypothesis that monogamous males alter their mate choice decisions in the presence of a male audience to reduce the risk of remaining unpaired. Thus, our results indicate that several explanations can account for the changes in male preferences due to the presence of competitors and highlight the importance of assessing the relative role of each mechanism potentially involved, to be able to make conclusions about the effect of an audience on signal evolution.

  13. Olfactory tubercle stimulation alters odor preference behavior and recruits forebrain reward and motivational centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brynn J FitzGerald

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rodents show robust behavioral responses to odors, including strong preferences or aversions for certain odors. The neural mechanisms underlying the effects of odors on these behaviors in animals are not well understood. Here, we provide an initial proof-of-concept study into the role of the olfactory tubercle (OT, a structure with known anatomical connectivity with both brain reward and olfactory structures, in regulating odor-motivated behaviors. We implanted c57bl/6 male mice with an ipsilateral bipolar electrode into the OT to administer electric current and thereby yield gross activation of the OT. We confirmed that electrical stimulation of the OT was rewarding, with mice frequently self-administering stimulation on a fixed ratio schedule. In a separate experiment, mice were presented with either fox urine or peanut odors in a three-chamber preference test. In absence of OT stimulation, significant preference for the peanut odor chamber was observed which was abolished in the presence of OT stimulation. Perhaps providing a foundation for this modulation in behavior, we found that OT stimulation significantly increased the number of c-Fos positive neurons in not only the OT, but also in forebrain structures essential to motivated behaviors, including the nucleus accumbens and lateral septum. The present results support the notion that the OT is integral to the display of motivated behavior and possesses the capacity to modulate odor hedonics either by directly altering odor processing or perhaps by indirect actions on brain reward and motivation structures.

  14. Exploring the population implications of male preference when the sex probabilities at birth can be altered

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    Frank T Denton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper explores the population effects of male preference stopping rules and of alternative combinations of fertility rates and male-biased birth sex ratios. Methods: The 'laboratory' is a closed, stable population with five age groups and a dynamic process represented by a compact Leslie matrix. The new element is sex-selective abortion. We consider nine stopping rules, one with no male preference, two with male preference but no abortion, and six with male preference and the availability of abortion to achieve a desired number of male births. We calculate the probability distribution over the number of births and number of male births for each rule and work out the effects at the population level if the rule is adopted by all women bearing children. We then assess the impact of alternative combinations of fertility rates and male-biased sex ratios on the population. Results: In the absence of sex-selective abortion, stopping rules generally have no effect on the male/female birth proportions in the population, although they can alter the fertility rate, age distribution, and rate of growth. When sex-selective abortion is introduced the effect on male/female proportions may be considerable, and other effects may also be quite different. The contribution of this paper is the quantification of effects that might have been predictable in general but which require model-based calculations to see how large they can be. As the paper shows, they can in fact be very large: a population in which sex-selective abortion is widely practised can look quite different from what it would otherwise be.

  15. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels and herbivore damage alter host plant preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrell, J. [Lund Univ., Dept. of Animal Ecology, Lund (Sweden); Anderson, Peter, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Crop Sciences, Alnarp (SE)); Oleszek, W.; Stochmal, Anna [Inst. of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Dept. of Biochemistry, Pulawy (Poland); Agrell, Cecilia [Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between the moth Spodoptera littoralis and two of its host plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) were examined, using plants grown under ambient (350 ppm) and elevated (700 ppm) CO{sub 2} conditions. To determine strength and effects of herbivore-induced responses assays were performed with both undamaged (control) and herbivore damaged plants. CO{sub 2} and damage effects on larval host plant preferences were determined through dual-choice bioassays. In addition, larvae were reared from hatching to pupation on experimental foliage to examine effects on larval growth and development. When undamaged plants were used S. littoralis larvae in consumed more cotton than alfalfa, and CO{sub 2} enrichment caused a reduction in the preference for cotton. With damaged plants larvae consumed equal amounts of the two plant species (ambient CO{sub 2} conditions), but CO{sub 2} enrichment strongly shifted preferences towards cotton, which was then consumed three times more than alfalfa. Complementary assays showed that elevated CO{sub 2} levels had no effect on the herbivore-induced responses of cotton, whereas those of alfalfa were significantly increased. Larval growth was highest for larvae fed undamaged cotton irrespectively of CO{sub 2} level, and lowest for larvae on damaged alfalfa from the high CO{sub 2} treatment. Development time increased on damaged cotton irrespectively of CO{sub 2} treatment, and on damaged alfalfa in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment. (au) These results demonstrate that elevated CO2 levels can cause insect herbivores to alter host plant preferences, and that effects on herbivore-induced responses may be a key mechanism behind these processes. Furthermore, since the insects were shown to avoid foliage that reduced their physiological performance, our data suggest that behavioural host plant shifts result in partial escape from negative consequences of feeding on high CO2 foliage. Thus, CO2 enrichment can alter

  16. Virus Infection of Plants Alters Pollinator Preference: A Payback for Susceptible Hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Simon C; Jiang, Sanjie; Murphy, Alex M; Cunniffe, Nik J; Westwood, Jack H; Davey, Matthew P; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John C; Furzer, Oliver J; Reed, Alison; Robinson, Sophie I; Miller, Elizabeth; Davis, Christopher N; Pickett, John A; Whitney, Heather M; Glover, Beverley J; Carr, John P

    2016-08-01

    Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by 'buzzing' (sonicating) the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i) as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii) as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen resistance

  17. Incubation temperature alters thermal preference and response to heat stress of broiler chickens along the rearing phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morita, V.S.; Almeida, V.R.; Matos Junior, J.B.; Vicentini, T.I.; Brand, van den H.; Boleli, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate whether embryonic temperature manipulation may alter thermal preference throughout the rearing phase of broiler chickens and how this manipulation may affect response to thermal challenge, metabolism, growth rate and feed intake rate. Eggs were exposed to a

  18. Arachidonic acid alters tomato HMG expression and fruit growth and induces 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-independent lycopene accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Concepcion, M.; Gruissem, W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of isoprenoid end-product synthesis required for normal growth and development in plants is not well understood. To investigate the extent to which specific genes for the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) are involved in end-product regulation, the authors manipulated expression of the HMG1 and HMG2 genes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit using arachidonic acid (AA). In developing young fruit AA blocked fruit growth, inhibited HMG1, and activated HMG2 expression. These results are consistent with other reports indicating that HMG1 expression is closely correlated with growth processes requiring phytosterol production. In mature-green fruit AA strongly induced the expression of HMG2, PSY1 (the gene for phytoene synthase), and lycopene accumulation before the normal onset of carotenoid synthesis and ripening. The induction of lycopene synthesis was not blocked by inhibition of HMGR activity using mevinolin, suggesting that cytoplasmic HMGR is not required for carotenoid synthesis. Their results are consistent with the function of an alternative plastid isoprenoid pathway (the Rohmer pathway) that appears to direct the production of carotenoids during tomato fruit ripening.

  19. Early postpartum pup preference is altered by gestational cocaine treatment: associations with infant cues and oxytocin expression in the MPOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippard, E T Cox; Jarrett, T M; McMurray, M S; Zeskind, P S; Garber, K A; Zoghby, C R; Glaze, K; Tate, W; Johns, J M

    2015-02-01

    Cross-fostering studies suggest cocaine-induced deficits in maternal behavior could be associated with altered behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine-exposure. Neonatal vocalizations are an important offspring cue facilitating early interactions between dam and rodent pup offspring and have been shown to be altered following prenatal cocaine-exposure. It is unclear how variations in acoustic parameters of USVs impact maternal behavior and the mechanism(s) underlying these processes. The present study examined differences in cocaine-exposed and control rodent dam maternal preference of cocaine-exposed or untreated pups in a dual choice apparatus. Relationship of preference-like behavior with pup USVs and dam oxytocin expression was explored. Gestational cocaine-exposure interfered with preference-like behavior of dams on postpartum day 1 with cocaine-exposure associated with decreased time spent on the cocaine-exposed pup side compared to the control pup side, and decreases in preference-like behavior associated in part with decreased number of USVs being emitted by cocaine-exposed pups. On postpartum day 5, decreased oxytocin expression in the medial preoptic area was associated with altered preference-like behavior in cocaine-exposed dams, including frequency and latency to touch/sniff pups. Results indicate cocaine's effects on the mother-infant relationship is likely synergistic, in that cocaine influences mother and offspring both independently and concertedly and that variations within pup vocalizations and the oxytocin system may be potential mechanism(s) underlying this synergistic relationship during the postpartum period.

  20. Enhancing the Activity of the DLPFC with tDCS Alters Risk Preference without Changing Interpersonal Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haoli; Wang, Siqi; Guo, Wenmin; Chen, Shu; Luo, Jun; Ye, Hang; Huang, Daqiang

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal trust plays an essential role in economic interactions and social development. Extensive behavioral experiments have examined the nature of trust, particularly the question of whether trusting decisions are connected to risk preferences or risk attitudes. Various laboratory observations have been reported regarding the difference between trust and risk, and neural imaging studies have demonstrated that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) is more activated when individuals decide to trust other human beings compared with individuals decide to invest in a non-social risk condition. Moreover, the rDLPFC has been found to exhibit an intimate relationship with risk preference in previous neuroscience studies. However, the causal relationship between the rDLPFC and trust has rarely been revealed. Whether modulating the excitability of the rDLPFC, which shares roles in both trust and risk decisions, alters the trust or risk preference of participants remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to provide evidence of a direct link between the neural and behavioral results through the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the rDLPFC. We found that activating the rDLPFC altered the risk preferences of our participants, whereas no such significant effect over interpersonal trust was observed. Our findings indicate that enhancing the excitability of the rDLPFC using tDCS leads to more conservative decision-makings in a risk game, and this effect is specific to non-social risk rather than social-related trust.

  1. Menstrual cycle phase alters women's sexual preferences for composers of more complex music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2014-06-07

    Over 140 years ago Charles Darwin first argued that birdsong and human music, having no clear survival benefit, were obvious candidates for sexual selection. Whereas the first contention is now universally accepted, his theory that music is a product of sexual selection through mate choice has largely been neglected. Here, I provide the first, to my knowledge, empirical support for the sexual selection hypothesis of music evolution by showing that women have sexual preferences during peak conception times for men that are able to create more complex music. Two-alternative forced-choice experiments revealed that woman only preferred composers of more complex music as short-term sexual partners when conception risk was highest. No preferences were displayed when women chose which composer they would prefer as a long-term partner in a committed relationship, and control experiments failed to reveal an effect of conception risk on women's preferences for visual artists. These results suggest that women may acquire genetic benefits for offspring by selecting musicians able to create more complex music as sexual partners, and provide compelling support for Darwin's assertion 'that musical notes and rhythm were first acquired by the male or female progenitors of mankind for the sake of charming the opposite sex'.

  2. Incubation temperature alters thermal preference and response to heat stress of broiler chickens along the rearing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, V S; Almeida, V R; Matos Junior, J B; Vicentini, T I; van den Brand, H; Boleli, I C

    2016-08-01

    The current study aimed to investigate whether embryonic temperature manipulation may alter thermal preference throughout the rearing phase of broiler chickens and how this manipulation may affect response to thermal challenge, metabolism, growth rate and feed intake rate. Eggs were exposed to a constant incubation temperature [machine temperatures: 36°C (Low), 37.5°C (Control), and 39°C (High); eggshell temperature of 37.4 ± 0.08°C, 37.8 ± 0.15°C, and 38.8 ± 0.33°C, respectively] from d 13 till hatching. Low treatment chickens showed lower plasma T3 and GH levels at d 1 of age and lower T3 level at d 42 of age compared to the Control treatment. Preferred ambient, rectal temperature, T4 level, growth rate, food intake rate, and response to thermal challenge were not altered in these chickens. On the other hand, High-treatment chickens exhibited high preferred ambient temperature and rectal temperature during the first 2 wk post-hatch, lower plasma T3 level at d 21 and 42 and a delayed increase in respiratory movement in response to thermal challenge compared to the Control treatment. However, chickens subjected to the Control and High treatments did not differ in T4 and GH level and performance. We conclude that exposure to high temperature during late embryonic development has long-lasting effects on the thermoregulatory system of broiler chickens by affecting the heat tolerance of these chickens. Moreover, the preferred ambient temperature of the chickens from heat-treated eggs correspond to those recommended for the strain under study, whereas for the cold-treated and control-chickens it was 1°C below, indicating that incubation temperature might have consequences on the ambient temperature chickens require during the rearing phase.

  3. A de novo NADPH generation pathway for improving lysine production of Corynebacterium glutamicum by rational design of the coenzyme specificity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommareddy, Rajesh Reddy; Chen, Zhen; Rappert, Sugima; Zeng, An-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Engineering the cofactor availability is a common strategy of metabolic engineering to improve the production of many industrially important compounds. In this work, a de novo NADPH generation pathway is proposed by altering the coenzyme specificity of a native NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) to NADP, which consequently has the potential to produce additional NADPH in the glycolytic pathway. Specifically, the coenzyme specificity of GAPDH of Corynebacterium glutamicum is systematically manipulated by rational protein design and the effect of the manipulation for cellular metabolism and lysine production is evaluated. By a combinatorial modification of four key residues within the coenzyme binding sites, different GAPDH mutants with varied coenzyme specificity were constructed. While increasing the catalytic efficiency of GAPDH towards NADP enhanced lysine production in all of the tested mutants, the most significant improvement of lysine production (~60%) was achieved with the mutant showing similar preference towards both NAD and NADP. Metabolic flux analysis with (13)C isotope studies confirmed that there was no significant change of flux towards the pentose phosphate pathway and the increased lysine yield was mainly attributed to the NADPH generated by the mutated GAPDH. The present study highlights the importance of protein engineering as a key strategy in de novo pathway design and overproduction of desired products.

  4. Systematic Analysis of Gene Expression Alterations and Clinical Outcomes for Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Family in Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ching Chen

    Full Text Available Dysregulated lipid metabolism contributes to cancer progression. Our previous study indicates that long-chain fatty acyl-Co A synthetase (ACSL 3 is essential for lipid upregulation induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this report, we aimed to identify the role of ACSL family in cancer with systematic analysis and in vitro experiment. We explored the ACSL expression using Oncomine database to determine the gene alteration during carcinogenesis and identified the association between ACSL expression and the survival of cancer patient using PrognoScan database. ACSL1 may play a potential oncogenic role in colorectal and breast cancer and play a potential tumor suppressor role in lung cancer. Co-expression analysis revealed that ACSL1 was coexpressed with MYBPH, PTPRE, PFKFB3, SOCS3 in colon cancer and with LRRFIP1, TSC22D1 in lung cancer. In accordance with PrognoScan analysis, downregulation of ACSL1 in colon and breast cancer cell line inhibited proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. In contrast, increase of oncogenic property was observed in lung cancer cell line by attenuating ACSL1. High ACSL3 expression predicted a better prognosis in ovarian cancer; in contrast, high ACSL3 predicted a worse prognosis in melanoma. ACSL3 was coexpressed with SNUPN, TRIP13, and SEMA5A in melanoma. High expression of ACSL4 predicted a worse prognosis in colorectal cancer, but predicted better prognosis in breast, brain and lung cancer. ACSL4 was coexpressed with SERPIN2, HNRNPCL1, ITIH2, PROCR, LRRFIP1. High expression of ACSL5 predicted good prognosis in breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. ACSL5 was coexpressed with TMEM140, TAPBPL, BIRC3, PTPRE, and SERPINB1. Low ACSL6 predicted a worse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. ACSL6 was coexpressed with SOX6 and DARC. Altogether, different members of ACSLs are implicated in diverse types of cancer development. ACSL-coexpressed molecules may be used to further investigate the role of ACSL

  5. Denys-Drash syndrome associated WT1 glutamine 369 mutants have altered sequence-preferences and altered responses to epigenetic modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Yu; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-09-04

    Mutations in human zinc-finger transcription factor WT1 result in abnormal development of the kidneys and genitalia and an array of pediatric problems including nephropathy, blastoma, gonadal dysgenesis and genital discordance. Several overlapping phenotypes are associated with WT1 mutations, including Wilms tumors, Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), Frasier syndrome (FS) and WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary malformations, and mental retardation). These conditions vary in severity from individual to individual; they can be fatal in early childhood, or relatively benign into adulthood. DDS mutations cluster predominantly in zinc fingers (ZF) 2 and 3 at the C-terminus of WT1, which together with ZF4 determine the sequence-specificity of DNA binding. We examined three DDS associated mutations in ZF2 of human WT1 where the normal glutamine at position 369 is replaced by arginine (Q369R), lysine (Q369K) or histidine (Q369H). These mutations alter the sequence-specificity of ZF2, we find, changing its affinity for certain bases and certain epigenetic forms of cytosine. X-ray crystallography of the DNA binding domains of normal WT1, Q369R and Q369H in complex with preferred sequences revealed the molecular interactions responsible for these affinity changes. DDS is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, implying a gain of function by mutant WT1 proteins. This gain, we speculate, might derive from the ability of the mutant proteins to sequester WT1 into unproductive oligomers, or to erroneously bind to variant target sequences.

  6. Coenzyme Q and Mitochondrial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinzii, Catarina M.; Hirano, Michio

    2010-01-01

    Coenzyme Q[subscript 10] (CoQ[subscript 10]) is an essential electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and an important antioxidant. Deficiency of CoQ[subscript 10] is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous syndrome, which, to date, has been found to be autosomal recessive in inheritance and generally responsive to CoQ[subscript…

  7. Arg279 is the key regulator of coenzyme selectivity in the flavin-dependent ornithine monooxygenase SidA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Reeder; Franceschini, Stefano; Fedkenheuer, Michael; Rodriguez, Pedro J; Ellerbrock, Jacob; Romero, Elvira; Echandi, Maria Paulina; Martin Del Campo, Julia S; Sobrado, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    Siderophore A (SidA) is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the NAD(P)H- and oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of ornithine in the biosynthesis of siderophores in Aspergillus fumigatus and is essential for virulence. SidA can utilize both NADPH or NADH for activity; however, the enzyme is selective for NADPH. Structural analysis shows that R279 interacts with the 2'-phosphate of NADPH. To probe the role of electrostatic interactions in coenzyme selectivity, R279 was mutated to both an alanine and a glutamate. The mutant proteins were active but highly uncoupled, oxidizing NADPH and producing hydrogen peroxide instead of hydroxylated ornithine. For wtSidA, the catalytic efficiency was 6-fold higher with NADPH as compared to NADH. For the R279A mutant the catalytic efficiency was the same with both coenyzmes, while for the R279E mutant the catalytic efficiency was 5-fold higher with NADH. The effects are mainly due to an increase in the KD values, as no major changes on the kcat or flavin reduction values were observed. Thus, the absence of a positive charge leads to no coenzyme selectivity while introduction of a negative charge leads to preference for NADH. Flavin fluorescence studies suggest altered interaction between the flavin and NADP⁺ in the mutant enzymes. The effects are caused by different binding modes of the coenzyme upon removal of the positive charge at position 279, as no major conformational changes were observed in the structure for R279A. The results indicate that the positive charge at position 279 is critical for tight binding of NADPH and efficient hydroxylation.

  8. Effects of Oral, Vaginal, and Transdermal Hormonal Contraception on Serum Levels of Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin E, and Total Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhudas R. Palan

    2010-01-01

    coenzyme Q10 levels compared with normal subjects. Serum TAOC levels were significantly lower (P<.05 among the contraceptive user groups. Alterations in coenzyme Q10 and α-tocopherol induced by hormonal contraception and the potential effect(s of exogenous ovarian hormones should be taken into consideration in future antioxidant research.

  9. FERMENTATION, MEDIA OPTIMIZATION STUDIES FOR COENZYME Q10 PRODUCTION BY Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kumar S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the fermentation process for CoQ10 production by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae with subsequent bioprocess media optimization studies. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is a vitamin-like nutrient that plays a vital role in cellular energy production. Coenzyme Q10, apart from playing an important role in electron transfer for ATP synthesis, also acts as antioxidant. Therefore it is preferred as a potential therapeutic supplement to many critical diseases besides being used as dietary supplement in the energy drinks, anti-aging etc. This has driven the demand for Coenzyme Q10 supply to meet the market requirements. The method adapted for Coenzyme Q10 is batch fermentation route and preferred over synthetic method due to low production cost, safe environmental issue. The optimization of media for better yield of CoQ10 during fermentation and it was found that a maximum CoQ10 5mg/600ml is obtained at 4% of limiting substrate, 150 rpm at 30oC.

  10. R(+-baclofen, but not S(--baclofen, alters alcohol self-administration in alcohol-preferring rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eLorrai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Racemic baclofen [(±-baclofen] has repeatedly been reported to suppress several alcohol-motivated behaviors, including alcohol drinking and alcohol self-administration, in rats and mice. Recent data suggested that baclofen may have bidirectional, stereospecific effects, with the more active enantiomer, R(+-baclofen, suppressing alcohol intake and the less active enantiomer, S(--baclofen, stimulating alcohol intake in mice. The present study was designed to investigate whether this enantioselectivity of baclofen effects may extend also to the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rats. To this end, selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP rats were initially trained to lever-respond on a Fixed Ratio (FR 4 (FR4 schedule of reinforcement for alcohol (15%, v/v in daily 30-min sessions. Once responding had stabilized, rats were tested with vehicle, (±-baclofen (3 mg/kg, R(+-baclofen (0.75, 1.5, and 3 mg/kg, and S(--baclofen (6, 12, and 24 mg/kg under the FR4 schedule of reinforcement. Treatment with 3 mg/kg (±-baclofen reduced the number of lever-responses for alcohol and estimated amount of self-administered alcohol by approximately 60% in comparison to vehicle treatment. R(+-baclofen was approximately twice as active as (±-baclofen: treatment with 1.5 mg/kg R(+-baclofen decreased both variables to an extent similar to that of the decreasing effect of 3 mg/kg (±-baclofen. Conversely, treatment with all doses of S(--baclofen failed to affect alcohol self-administration. These results (a confirm that non-sedative doses of (±-baclofen effectively suppressed the reinforcing properties of alcohol in sP rats and (b apparently do not extend to operant alcohol self-administration in sP rats the capability of S(--baclofen to stimulate alcohol drinking in mice.

  11. Coenzyme Engineering of a Hyperthermophilic 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase from NADP+ to NAD+ with Its Application to Biobatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Zhu, Zhiguang; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Yi-Heng Percival

    2016-11-01

    Engineering the coenzyme specificity of redox enzymes plays an important role in metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and biocatalysis, but it has rarely been applied to bioelectrochemistry. Here we develop a rational design strategy to change the coenzyme specificity of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) from a hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima from its natural coenzyme NADP+ to NAD+. Through amino acid-sequence alignment of NADP+- and NAD+-preferred 6PGDH enzymes and computer-aided substrate-coenzyme docking, the key amino acid residues responsible for binding the phosphate group of NADP+ were identified. Four mutants were obtained via site-directed mutagenesis. The best mutant N32E/R33I/T34I exhibited a ~6.4 × 104-fold reversal of the coenzyme selectivity from NADP+ to NAD+. The maximum power density and current density of the biobattery catalyzed by the mutant were 0.135 mW cm-2 and 0.255 mA cm-2, ~25% higher than those obtained from the wide-type 6PGDH-based biobattery at the room temperature. By using this 6PGDH mutant, the optimal temperature of running the biobattery was as high as 65 °C, leading to a high power density of 1.75 mW cm-2. This study demonstrates coenzyme engineering of a hyperthermophilic 6PGDH and its application to high-temperature biobatteries.

  12. Glutamatergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala is selectively altered in Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats: Alcohol and CRF effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Melissa A; Varodayan, Florence P; Oleata, Christopher S; Luu, George; Kirson, Dean; Heilig, Markus; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Roberto, Marisa

    2016-03-01

    The CRF system of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is important for the processing of anxiety, stress, and effects of acute and chronic ethanol. We previously reported that ethanol decreases evoked glutamate transmission in the CeA of Sprague Dawley rats and that ethanol dependence alters glutamate release in the CeA. Here, we examined the effects of ethanol, CRF and a CRF1 receptor antagonist on spontaneous and evoked glutamatergic transmission in CeA neurons from Wistar and Marchigian Sardinian Preferring (msP) rats, a rodent line genetically selected for excessive alcohol drinking and characterized by heightened activity of the CRF1 system. Basal spontaneous and evoked glutamate transmission in CeA neurons from msP rats was increased compared to Wistar rats. Ethanol had divergent effects, either increasing or decreasing spontaneous glutamate release in the CeA of Wistar rats. This bidirectional effect was retained in msP rats, but the magnitude of the ethanol-induced increase in glutamate release was significantly smaller. The inhibitory effect of ethanol on evoked glutamatergic transmission was similar in both strains. CRF also either increased or decreased spontaneous glutamate release in CeA neurons of Wistar rats, however, in msP rats CRF only increased glutamate release. The inhibitory effect of CRF on evoked glutamatergic transmission was also lost in neurons from msP rats. A CRF1 antagonist produced only minor effects on spontaneous glutamate transmission, which were consistent across strains, and no effects on evoked glutamate transmission. These results demonstrate that the genetically altered CRF system of msP rats results in alterations in spontaneous and stimulated glutamate signaling in the CeA that may contribute to both the anxiety and drinking behavioral phenotypes.

  13. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis preference and behavioral response to animated images of conspecifics altered in their color, aspect ratio, and swimming depth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Polverino

    Full Text Available Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world's hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature. Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species.

  14. Acyl-coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, B B; Knudsen, J; Poulsen, F M

    1999-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins are known from a large group of eukaryote species and to bind a long chain length acyl-CoA ester with very high affinity. Detailed biochemical mapping of ligand binding properties has been obtained as well as in-depth structural studies on the bovine apo-protein...... and of the complex with palmitoyl-CoA using NMR spectroscopy. In the four alpha-helix bundle structure, a set of 21 highly conserved residues present in more that 90% of all known sequences of acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins constitutes three separate mini-cores. These residues are predominantly located...... at the helix-helix interfaces. From studies of a large set of mutant proteins the role of the conserved residues has been related to structure, function, folding and stability....

  15. Acyl-coenzyme A binding protein, ACBP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; Knudsen, J.; Poulsen, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins are known from a large group of eukaryote species and to bind a long chain length acyl-CoA ester with very high affinity. Detailed biochemical mapping of ligand binding properties has been obtained as well as in-depth structural studies on the bovine apo-protein...... and of the complex with palmitoyl-CoA using NMR spectroscopy. In the four a-helix bundle structure, a set of 21 highly conserved residues present in more that 90% of all known sequences of acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins constitutes three separate mini-cores. These residues are predominantly located at the helix......-helix interfaces. From studies of a large set of mutant proteins the role of the conserved residues has been related to structure, function, folding and stability....

  16. Organometallic chemistry of b(12) coenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräutler, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    When coenzyme B(12) was identified as organometallic derivative of vitamin B(12), metal-carbon bonds were revealed to be relevant in life processes. Vitamin B(12), the "antipernicious anaemia factor" required for human health, was isolated earlier as a crystallizable cyano-Co(III)-complex. B(12) cofactors and other cobalt corrinoids play important roles not only in humans, but in the metabolism of archaea and other microorganisms, in particular. Indeed, the microorganisms are the only natural sources of the B(12) derivatives. For other B(12)-requiring organisms the corrinoids are thus "vitamins". However, vitamin B(12) also needs to be converted into organometallic B(12)-forms, which are the typical coenzymes in metabolically important enzymes. One of these, methionine synthase, catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group and its corrinoid cofactor is methylcobalamin. Another one, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase uses a reversible radical process, and coenzyme B(12) (adenosylcobalamin) as its cofactor, to transform methylmalonyl-CoA into succinyl-CoA. In such enzymes, the bound B(12) derivatives engage (or are formed) in exceptional organometallic enzymatic reactions, which depend upon the organometallic reactivity of the B(12) cofactors. Clearly, organometallic B(12) derivatives hold an important position in life and have thus attracted particular interest from the medical sciences, biology, and chemistry. This chapter outlines the unique structures of B(12) derivatives and recapitulates their redox properties and their organometallic chemistry, relevant in the context of the metabolic transformation of B(12) derivatives into the relevant coenzyme forms and for their use in B(12)-dependent enzymes.

  17. Preference alters consumptive effects of predators: top-down effects of a native crab on a system of native and introduced prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily W Grason

    Full Text Available Top-down effects of predators in systems depend on the rate at which predators consume prey, and on predator preferences among available prey. In invaded communities, these parameters might be difficult to predict because ecological relationships are typically evolutionarily novel. We examined feeding rates and preferences of a crab native to the Pacific Northwest, Cancer productus, among four prey items: two invasive species of oyster drill (the marine whelks Urosalpinx cinerea and Ocenebra inornata and two species of oyster (Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea lurida that are also consumed by U. cinerea and O. inornata. This system is also characterized by intraguild predation because crabs are predators of drills and compete with them for prey (oysters. When only the oysters were offered, crabs did not express a preference and consumed approximately 9 juvenile oysters crab(-1 day(-1. We then tested whether crabs preferred adult drills of either U. cinerea or O. inornata, or juvenile oysters (C. gigas. While crabs consumed drills and oysters at approximately the same rate when only one type of prey was offered, they expressed a strong preference for juvenile oysters over drills when they were allowed to choose among the three prey items. This preference for oysters might negate the positive indirect effects that crabs have on oysters by crabs consuming drills (trophic cascade because crabs have a large negative direct effect on oysters when crabs, oysters, and drills co-occur.

  18. Temperature dependence of methyl-coenzyme M reductase activity and of the formation of the methyl-coenzyme M reductase red2 state induced by coenzyme B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenrich, Meike; Duin, Evert C; Mahlert, Felix; Thauer, Rudolf K

    2005-06-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyses the formation of methane from methyl-coenzyme M (CH(3)-S-CoM) and coenzyme B (HS-CoB) in methanogenic archaea. The enzyme has an alpha(2)beta(2)gamma(2) subunit structure forming two structurally interlinked active sites each with a molecule F(430) as a prosthetic group. The nickel porphinoid must be in the Ni(I) oxidation state for the enzyme to be active. The active enzyme exhibits an axial Ni(I)-based electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal and a UV-vis spectrum with an absorption maximum at 385 nm. This state is called the MCR-red1 state. In the presence of coenzyme M (HS-CoM) and coenzyme B the MCR-red1 state is in part converted reversibly into the MCR-red2 state, which shows a rhombic Ni(I)-based EPR signal and a UV-vis spectrum with an absorption maximum at 420 nm. We report here for MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis that the MCR-red2 state is also induced by several coenzyme B analogues and that the degree of induction by coenzyme B is temperature-dependent. When the temperature was lowered below 20 degrees C the percentage of MCR in the red2 state decreased and that in the red1 state increased. These changes with temperature were fully reversible. It was found that at most 50% of the enzyme was converted to the MCR-red2 state under all experimental conditions. These findings indicate that in the presence of both coenzyme M and coenzyme B only one of the two active sites of MCR can be in the red2 state (half-of-the-sites reactivity). On the basis of this interpretation a two-stroke engine mechanism for MCR is proposed.

  19. Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1993-01-01

    Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

  20. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C.Y.; Urano, Yasuomi

    2009-01-01

    The enzymes acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs) are membrane-bound proteins that utilize long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and cholesterol as substrates to form cholesteryl esters. In mammals, two isoenzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2, encoded by two different genes, exist. ACATs play important roles in cellular cholesterol homeostasis in various tissues. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on ACAT-related research in two areas: 1) ACAT genes and proteins and 2) ACAT enzymes as...

  1. Structural changes of the ligand and of the receptor alters the receptor preference for neutrophil activating peptides starting with a 3 formylmethionyl group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsman, Huamei; Winther, Malene; Gabl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    preference for FPR2 was retained. Shorter peptides, PSMα21–10 and PSMα21–5, activate neutrophils, but the receptor preference for these peptides was switched to FPR1. The fMIFL-PSM5–16 peptide, in which the N-terminus of PSMα21–16 was replaced by the sequence fMIFL, was a dual agonist for FPR1/FPR2, whereas...... fMIFL-PSM5–10 preferred FPR1 to FPR2. Further, an Ile residue was identified as a key determinant for interaction with FPR2. A chimeric receptor in which the cytoplasmic tail of FPR1 was replaced by the corresponding part of FPR2 lost the ability to recognize FPR1 agonists, but gained function...

  2. Application and progress of coenzyme Q10 in statin myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo LI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Statins have been widely used, however, the reports of muscle toxicity caused by statins are increasing. Coenzyme Q10 is a quinone substance which is in the cell membrane, and it is important material of intercellular signaling, mitochondrial respiratory chain and muscle activity energy. The myopathic symptoms can be significantly improved by taking coenzyme Q10.

  3. Coenzyme Q10 effects in neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Spindler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Meredith Spindler1, M Flint Beal1,2, Claire Henchcliffe1,21Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is an essential cofactor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and as a dietary supplement it has recently gained attention for its potential role in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders derives from animal models, studies of mitochondria from patients, identification of genetic defects in patients with neurodegenerative disease, and measurements of markers of oxidative stress. Studies of in vitro models of neuronal toxicity and animal models of neurodegenerative disorders have demonstrated potential neuroprotective effects of CoQ10. With this data in mind, several clinical trials of CoQ10 have been performed in Parkinson’s disease and atypical Parkinson’s syndromes, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer disease, Friedreich’s ataxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with equivocal findings. CoQ10 is widely available in multiple formulations and is very well tolerated with minimal adverse effects, making it an attractive potential therapy. Phase III trials of high-dose CoQ10 in large sample sizes are needed to further ascertain the effects of CoQ10 in neurodegenerative diseases.Keywords: coenzyme Q10, neurodegenerative disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, mitochondrial dysfunction

  4. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  5. Coenzyme q and the respiratory chain: coenzyme q pool and mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, José Antonio; Lenaz, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    Two alternative models of organization of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) have been alternatively favored or questioned by the accumulation evidences of different sources, the solid model or the random collision model. Both agree in the number of respiratory complexes (I-IV) that participate in the mETC, but while the random collision model proposes that Complexes I-IV do not interact physically and that electrons are transferred between them by coenzyme Q and cytochrome c, the solid model proposes that all complexes super-assemble in the so-called respirasome. Recently, the plasticity model has been developed to incorporate the solid and the random collision model as extreme situations of a dynamic organization, allowing super-assembly free movement of the respiratory complexes. In this review, we evaluate the supporting evidences of each model and the implications of the super-assembly in the physiological role of coenzyme Q.

  6. Molecular diagnosis of coenzyme Q10 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yubero, Delia; Montero, Raquel; Armstrong, Judith; Espinós, Carmen; Palau, Francesc; Santos-Ocaña, Carlos; Salviati, Leonardo; Navas, Placido; Artuch, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) deficiency syndromes comprise a growing number of neurological and extraneurological disorders. Primary-genetic but also secondary CoQ deficiencies have been reported. The biochemical determination of CoQ is a good tool for the rapid identification of CoQ deficiencies but does not allow the selection of candidate genes for molecular diagnosis. Moreover, the metabolic pathway for CoQ synthesis is an intricate and not well-understood process, where a large number of genes are implicated. Thus, only next-generation sequencing techniques (either genetic panels of whole-exome and -genome sequencing) are at present appropriate for a rapid and realistic molecular diagnosis of these syndromes. The potential treatability of CoQ deficiency strongly supports the necessity of a rapid molecular characterization of patients, since primary CoQ deficiencies may respond well to CoQ treatment.

  7. Coenzyme metabolism in rat liver transketolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbach, Z.V.; Kubyshin, V.L.; Maglysh, S.S.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.

    1987-01-10

    On the basis of the results of kinetic investigations, two binding sites for hydroxythiamine diphosphate were determined in apotransketolase, with sharply differing values of K/sub i/: (7-22) x 10/sup -9/ and (13.0-19.7) x 10/sup -8/ M. A study was made of the turnover rate of thiamine diphosphate in holotransketolase in rat liver tissue by a radioisotope method, using (/sup 14/C) thiamine as the labeled precursor. The half-substitution time and rate constant of degradation of the coenzyme in transketolase are close in absolute values to the analogous indices for the protein portion of the enzyme and constitute 153 h and 0.108 day/sup -1/, respectively. Rat liver transketolase exists in vivo in the form of a substituted ..cap alpha..-carbanion. Replacement of thiamine diphosphate by hydroxythiamine diphosphate in the holoenzyme has no effect on the formation of the intermediate ..cap alpha..-carbanion form of the enzyme.

  8. Better than Nature: Nicotinamide Biomimetics That Outperform Natural Coenzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaus, T.; Paul, C.E.; Levy, C.W.; de Vries, S.; Mutti, F.G.; Hollmann, F.; Scrutton, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    The search for affordable, green biocatalytic processes is a challenge for chemicals manufacture. Redox biotransformations are potentially attractive, but they rely on unstable and expensive nicotinamide coenzymes that have prevented their widespread exploitation. Stoichiometric use of natural coenz

  9. Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency and Migraine Response to Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of coenzyme Q10 (CoQIO deficiency and effectiveness of CoQIO supplements in treatment of migraine were assessed in a study at the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, OH.

  10. Auditor Preference

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We analyze theoretically and empirically the effect of preference policies, which favor some auditors over others for reasons unrelated to the audit. For example, an auditee may prefer minority-owned auditors, all else equal. We construct an analytical model of the competitive bidding process for audit services. We show that preference policies can sometimes improve the audit procurement process by encouraging price concessions from non-preferenced auditors. We test model predictions in a set...

  11. Fermentation of mixed glucose-xylose substrates by engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: role of the coenzyme specificity of xylose reductase, and effect of glucose on xylose utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimacek Mario

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the substantial metabolic engineering effort previously devoted to the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting both the hexose and pentose sugars present in lignocellulose hydrolysates, the productivity of reported strains for conversion of the naturally most abundant pentose, xylose, is still a major issue of process efficiency. Protein engineering for targeted alteration of the nicotinamide cofactor specificity of enzymes catalyzing the first steps in the metabolic pathway for xylose was a successful approach of reducing xylitol by-product formation and improving ethanol yield from xylose. The previously reported yeast strain BP10001, which expresses heterologous xylose reductase from Candida tenuis in mutated (NADH-preferring form, stands for a series of other yeast strains designed with similar rational. Using 20 g/L xylose as sole source of carbon, BP10001 displayed a low specific uptake rate qxylose (g xylose/g dry cell weight/h of 0.08. The study presented herein was performed with the aim of analysing (external factors that limit qxylose of BP10001 under xylose-only and mixed glucose-xylose substrate conditions. We also carried out a comprehensive investigation on the currently unclear role of coenzyme utilization, NADPH compared to NADH, for xylose reduction during co-fermentation of glucose and xylose. Results BP10001 and BP000, expressing C. tenuis xylose reductase in NADPH-preferring wild-type form, were used. Glucose and xylose (each at 10 g/L were converted sequentially, the corresponding qsubstrate values being similar for each strain (glucose: 3.0; xylose: 0.05. The distribution of fermentation products from glucose was identical for both strains whereas when using xylose, BP10001 showed enhanced ethanol yield (BP10001 0.30 g/g; BP000 0.23 g/g and decreased yields of xylitol (BP10001 0.26 g/g; BP000 0.36 g/g and glycerol (BP10001 0.023 g/g; BP000 0.072 g/g as compared

  12. Coenzyme Q10 prevented full blown splenomegaly and decreased melarsoprol-induced reactive encephalopathy in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Nyabuga Nyariki; John Kibuthu Thuita; Grace Kemunto Nyambati; Alfred Orina Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish the modulatory effects of coenzyme Q10 on experimental trypanosome infections in mice and evaluate the risk of occurrence and severity of melarsoprol-induced post treatment reactive encephalopathy (PTRE). Methods: Female Swiss white mice were orally administered with 200 mg/kg of coenzyme Q10 after which they were intraperitoneally inoculated with Trypanasoma brucei rhodesiense (T. b. rhodesiense). The resultant infection was allowed to develop and simulate all phases of human African trypanosomiasis and PTRE. Parasitaemia development, packed cell volume, haematological and pathological changes were determined. Results:A histological study in the brain tissue of T. b. rhodesiense infected mice demonstrated neuroinflammatory pathology which was highly amplified in the PTRE-induced groups. A prominent reduction in the severity of the neuroinflammatory response was detected when coenzyme-Q10 was administered. Furthermore, the mean tissue weight of spleen to body ratio in coenzyme Q10 supplemented group was significantly (P Conclusions: The capacity of coenzyme Q10 to alter the pathogenesis of T. b. rhodesiense infection in mice and following treatment with melarsoprol, may find application by rendering humans and animals less susceptible to deleterious effects of trypanosome infection such as splenomegaly and melarsoprol-induced PTRE and neurotoxicity.

  13. Family 13 carbohydrate-binding module of alginate lyase from Agarivorans sp. L11 enhances its catalytic efficiency and thermostability, and alters its substrate preference and product distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangyong; Yang, Xuemei; Bao, Mengmeng; Wu, Ying; Yu, Wengong; Han, Feng

    2015-05-01

    The carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) in polysaccharide hydrolases plays a key role in the hydrolysis of cellulose, xylan and chitin. However, the function of CBM in alginate lyases has not been elucidated. A new alginate lyase gene, alyL2, was cloned from the marine bacterium Agarivorans sp. L11 by using degenerate and site-finding PCR. The alginate lyase, AlyL2, contained an N-terminal CBM13 and a C-terminal catalytic family 7 polysaccharide lyase (PL7) module. To better understand the function of CBM13 in alginate lyase AlyL2, the full-length enzyme (AlyL2-FL) and its catalytic module (AlyL2-CM) were expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. The specific activity and catalytic efficiency of AlyL2-FL were approximately twice those of AlyL2-CM. The half-lives of AlyL2-FL were 4.7-6.6 times those of AlyL2-CM at 30-50°C. In addition, the presence of CBM13 in AlyL2 changed its substrate preference and increased the percentage of disaccharides from 50.5% to 64.6% in the total products. This first report of the function of CBM13 in alginate lyase provides new insights into the degradation of alginate by marine microorganisms.

  14. Coenzyme Q10 and spinocerebellar ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Raymond Y; Figueroa, Karla P; Pulst, Stefan M; Lin, Chi-Ying; Perlman, Susan; Wilmot, George; Gomez, Christopher; Schmahmann, Jeremy; Paulson, Henry; Shakkottai, Vikram G; Ying, Sarah; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Bushara, Khalaf; Geschwind, Michael; Xia, Guangbin; Subramony, S H; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Kuo, Sheng-Han

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between drug exposure and disease severity in SCA types 1, 2, 3 and 6. The Clinical Research Consortium for Spinocerebellar Ataxias (CRC-SCA) enrolled 319 participants with SCA1, 2, 3, and 6 from 12 medical centers in the United States and repeatedly measured clinical severity by the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale part IV (UHDRS-IV), and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire during July 2009 to May 2012. We employed generalized estimating equations in regression models to study the longitudinal effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), statin, and vitamin E on clinical severity of ataxia after adjusting for age, sex, and pathological CAG repeat number. Cross-sectionally, exposure to CoQ10 was associated with lower SARA and higher UHDRS-IV scores in SCA1 and 3. No association was found between statins, vitamin E, and clinical outcome. Longitudinally, CoQ10, statins, and vitamin E did not change the rates of clinical deterioration indexed by SARA and UHDRS-IV scores within 2 years. CoQ10 is associated with better clinical outcome in SCA1 and 3. These drug exposures did not appear to influence clinical progression within 2 years. Further studies are warranted to confirm the association.

  15. Coenzyme Q10 and Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Siciliano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, or ubiquinone is a small electron carrier of the mitochondrial respiratory chain with antioxidant properties. CoQ10 supplementation has been widely used for mitochondrial disorders. The rationale for using CoQ10 is very powerful when this compound is primary decreased because of defective synthesis. Primary CoQ10 deficiency is a treatable condition, so heightened “clinical awareness” about this diagnosis is essential. CoQ10 and its analogue, idebenone, have also been widely used in the treatment of other neurodegenerative disorders. These compounds could potentially play a therapeutic role in Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich’s ataxia, and other conditions which have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. This article reviews the physiological roles of CoQ10, as well as the rationale and the role in clinical practice of CoQ10 supplementation in different neurological diseases, from primary CoQ10 deficiency to neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Biochemical Assessment of Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Aguilera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 deficiency syndrome includes clinically heterogeneous mitochondrial diseases that show a variety of severe and debilitating symptoms. A multiprotein complex encoded by nuclear genes carries out CoQ10 biosynthesis. Mutations in any of these genes are responsible for the primary CoQ10 deficiency, but there are also different conditions that induce secondary CoQ10 deficiency including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA depletion and mutations in genes involved in the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. The diagnosis of CoQ10 deficiencies is determined by the decrease of its content in skeletal muscle and/or dermal skin fibroblasts. Dietary CoQ10 supplementation is the only available treatment for these deficiencies that require a rapid and distinct diagnosis. Here we review methods for determining CoQ10 content by HPLC separation and identification using alternative approaches including electrochemical detection and mass spectrometry. Also, we review procedures to determine the CoQ10 biosynthesis rate using labeled precursors.

  17. Intestinal absorption of coenzyme Q(10) administered in a meal or as capsules to healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Christine; Bysted, Anette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1997-01-01

    A randomized cross-over study by supplementation with single doses of coenzyme Q(10) (30 mg/person), administered either as a meal consisting of cooked pork heart or as 30 mg coenzyme Q(10) capsules was performed to investigate the bioavailability of dietary coenzyme Q(10) in humans. The increase...... in serum coenzyme Q(10) concentration was used as an index of the absorption, and reached a maximum six hours after the ingestion of either meal or capsules. Following intake of coenzyme Q(10) capsules, the serum coenzyme Q(10) concentrations increased significantly (p...

  18. Preference Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Furnkranz, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The topic of preferences is a new branch of machine learning and data mining, and it has attracted considerable attention in artificial intelligence research in previous years. It involves learning from observations that reveal information about the preferences of an individual or a class of individuals. Representing and processing knowledge in terms of preferences is appealing as it allows one to specify desires in a declarative way, to combine qualitative and quantitative modes of reasoning, and to deal with inconsistencies and exceptions in a flexible manner. And, generalizing beyond traini

  19. Biochemical Characterization and Complete Conversion of Coenzyme Specificity of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium longum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Ping; Cheng, Hong-Mei; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Guo-Ping

    2016-02-26

    Bifidobacterium longum is a very important gram-positive non-pathogenic bacterium in the human gastrointestinal tract for keeping the digestive and immune system healthy. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) from B. longum (BlIDH), a novel member in Type II subfamily, was overexpressed, purified and biochemically characterized in detail. The active form of BlIDH was an 83-kDa homodimer. Kinetic analysis showed BlIDH was a NADP⁺-dependent IDH (NADP-IDH), with a 567- and 193-fold preference for NADP⁺ over NAD⁺ in the presence of Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), respectively. The maximal activity for BlIDH occurred at 60 °C (with Mn(2+)) and 65 °C (with Mg(2+)), and pH 7.5 (with Mn(2+)) and pH 8.0 (with Mg(2+)). Heat-inactivation profiles revealed that BlIDH retained 50% of maximal activity after incubation at 45 °C for 20 min with either Mn(2+) or Mg(2+). Furthermore, the coenzyme specificity of BlIDH can be completely reversed from NADP⁺ to NAD⁺ by a factor of 2387 by replacing six residues. This current work, the first report on the coenzyme specificity conversion of Type II NADP-IDHs, would provide better insight into the evolution of NADP⁺ use by the IDH family.

  20. Biochemical Characterization and Complete Conversion of Coenzyme Specificity of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium longum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ping Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacterium longum is a very important gram-positive non-pathogenic bacterium in the human gastrointestinal tract for keeping the digestive and immune system healthy. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH from B. longum (BlIDH, a novel member in Type II subfamily, was overexpressed, purified and biochemically characterized in detail. The active form of BlIDH was an 83-kDa homodimer. Kinetic analysis showed BlIDH was a NADP+-dependent IDH (NADP-IDH, with a 567- and 193-fold preference for NADP+ over NAD+ in the presence of Mg2+ and Mn2+, respectively. The maximal activity for BlIDH occurred at 60 °C (with Mn2+ and 65 °C (with Mg2+, and pH 7.5 (with Mn2+ and pH 8.0 (with Mg2+. Heat-inactivation profiles revealed that BlIDH retained 50% of maximal activity after incubation at 45 °C for 20 min with either Mn2+ or Mg2+. Furthermore, the coenzyme specificity of BlIDH can be completely reversed from NADP+ to NAD+ by a factor of 2387 by replacing six residues. This current work, the first report on the coenzyme specificity conversion of Type II NADP-IDHs, would provide better insight into the evolution of NADP+ use by the IDH family.

  1. Coenzyme Q10 therapy in current clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Soni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is a naturally occurring, lipid soluble, essential compound and is also known as ubiquinone. CoQ10 acts as an intermediate of the electron transport chain situated in membrane of mitochondria and vital for ATP production and cellular respiration. CoQ10 also serves as an intercellular antioxidant. All the clinical use of CoQ10 are based upon these two functions. CoQ10 levels are altered in a number of oncological as well as non-oncological diseases. Furthermore, recent data indicate that CoQ10 has an impact on the expression of many genes involved in metabolism, cellular transport, transcription control, and cell signaling, making CoQ10 a potent gene regulator. CoQ10 supplementation is useful in diseases associated with CoQ10 deficiency which includes primary and secondary CoQ10 deficiencies, fibromyalgia, diabetes mellitus, mitochondrial diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, male infertility and periodontal disease. Clinical presentations of severe CoQ10 deficiency include severe infantile multisystemic disease, encephalomyopathy, isolated myopathy cerebellar ataxia and Leigh syndrome with growth retardation. Oral CoQ10 administration can correct CoQ10 deficiency since it increases CoQ10 tissue levels. CoQ10 therapy has no serious side effects in humans and new formulations have been developed that increase CoQ10 absorption and tissue distribution. Future trends involving CoQ10 in many diseases needs more clinical trials for better understanding of CoQ10 efficacy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 817-825

  2. Regulation of autophagy by cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariño, Guillermo; Pietrocola, Federico; Eisenberg, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) is a major integrator of the nutritional status at the crossroads of fat, sugar, and protein catabolism. Here we show that nutrient starvation causes rapid depletion of AcCoA. AcCoA depletion entailed the commensurate reduction in the overall acetylation of cytoplasmic p...

  3. Coenzyme A : to make it or uptake it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibon, Ody C. M.; Strauss, Erick

    2016-01-01

    The consensus has been that intracellular coenzyme A (CoA) is obtained exclusively by de novo biosynthesis via a universal, conserved five-step pathway in the cell cytosol. However, old and new evidence suggest that cells (and some microorganisms) have several strategies to obtain CoA, with 4'-phosp

  4. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social......The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... of daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...

  5. Coenzyme Q10 Administration Increases Brain Mitochondrial Concentrations and Exerts Neuroprotective Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Russell T.; Yang, Lichuan; Browne, Susan; Baik, Myong; Flint Beal, M.

    1998-07-01

    Coenzyme Q10 is an essential cofactor of the electron transport chain as well as a potent free radical scavenger in lipid and mitochondrial membranes. Feeding with coenzyme Q10 increased cerebral cortex concentrations in 12- and 24-month-old rats. In 12-month-old rats administration of coenzyme Q10 resulted in significant increases in cerebral cortex mitochondrial concentrations of coenzyme Q10. Oral administration of coenzyme Q10 markedly attenuated striatal lesions produced by systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid and significantly increased life span in a transgenic mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These results show that oral administration of coenzyme Q10 increases both brain and brain mitochondrial concentrations. They provide further evidence that coenzyme Q10 can exert neuroprotective effects that might be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference and the alterations of p-ERK, p-CREB and c-fos levels in hypothalamus and hippocampus: the effects of physical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevani, P; Fatahi, Z; Moradi, M; Haghparast, A

    2014-12-08

    The hypothalamus and hippocampus are important areas involved in stress responses and reward processing. In addition, ERK/CREB pathway plays a critical role in the control of cellular responses to stress and reward. In the current study, effects of acute and subchronic stress on the alteration of p-ERK, p-CREB and c-fos levels in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of saline- or morphine-treated animals during morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure were investigated. Male Wistar rats were divided into two saline- and morphine-treated supergroups. Each supergroup includes of control, acute stress and subchronic stress groups. In all of groups, the CPP procedure was done, afterward the alternation of p-ERK/ERK ratio, p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos level in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were estimated by Western blot analysis. The results indicated that in saline- or morphine-treated animals, p-ERK/ERK ratio, p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos level increased after application of acute and subchronic stress (except for p-ERK/ERK ratio in morphine-control group). Our findings revealed that in saline- or morphine-treated animals, acute and subcronic stress increased the p-ERK/ERK ratio, p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos level in the hypothalamus and hippocampus and this enhancement in morphine-treated animals, was more considerable than that in saline-treated animals.

  7. Acyl-coenzyme A organizes laterally in membranes and is recognized specifically by acyl-coenzyme A binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen Simonsen, A; Bernchou Jensen, U; Færgeman, Nils J.;

    2003-01-01

    Long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) is a biochemically important amphiphilic molecule that is known to partition strongly into membranes by insertion of the acyl chain. At present, microscopically resolved evidence is lacking on how acyl-CoA influences and organizes laterally in membranes...

  8. Metabolic syndrome: adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and malonyl coenzyme A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Neil B; Saha, Asish K

    2006-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be defined as a state of metabolic dysregulation characterized by insulin resistance, central obesity, and a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, premature atherosclerosis, and other diseases. An increasing body of evidence has linked the metabolic syndrome to abnormalities in lipid metabolism that ultimately lead to cellular dysfunction. We review here the hypothesis that, in many instances, the cause of these lipid abnormalities could be a dysregulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/malonyl coenzyme A (CoA) fuel-sensing and signaling mechanism. Such dysregulation could be reflected by isolated increases in malonyl CoA or by concurrent changes in malonyl CoA and AMPK, both of which would alter intracellular fatty acid partitioning. The possibility is also raised that pharmacological agents and other factors that activate AMPK and/or decrease malonyl CoA could be therapeutic targets.

  9. Coenzyme B12 can be produced by engineered Escherichia coli under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yeounjoo; Ashok, Somasundar; Ainala, Satish Kumar; Sankaranarayanan, Mugesh; Chun, Ah Yeong; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Park, Sunghoon

    2014-12-01

    Coenzyme B12 (Vitamin B12 ) is one of the most complex biomolecules and an essential cofactor required for the catalytic activity of many enzymes. Pseudomonas denitrificans synthesizes coenzyme B12 in an oxygen-dependent manner using a pathway encoded by more than 25 genes that are located in six different operons. Escherichia coli, a robust and suitable host for metabolic engineering was used to produce coenzyme B12 . These genes were cloned into three compatible plasmids and expressed heterologously in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Real-time PCR, SDS-PAGE analysis and bioassay showed that the recombinant E. coli expressed the coenzyme B12 synthetic genes and successfully produced coenzyme B12 . However, according to the quantitative determination by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, the amount of coenzyme B12 produced by the recombinant E. coli (0.21 ± 0.02 μg/g cdw) was approximately 13-fold lower than that by P. denitrificans (2.75 ± 0.22 μg/g cdw). Optimization of the culture conditions to improve the production of coenzyme B12 by the recombinant E. coli was successful, and the highest titer (0.65 ± 0.03 μg/g cdw) of coenzyme B12 was obtained. Interestingly, although the synthesis of coenzyme B12 in P. denitrificans is strictly oxygen-dependent, the recombinant E. coli could produce coenzyme B12 under anaerobic conditions.

  10. Linkage between coenzyme a metabolism and inflammation: roles of pantetheinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitto, Takeaki; Onodera, Kenji

    2013-09-20

    Pantetheinase is an enzyme hydrolyzing pantetheine, an intermediate of the coenzyme A degradation pathway. Pantetheinase has long been considered as the enzyme that recycles pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) generated during coenzyme A breakdown. Genetic analyses showed that mammals have multiple genes known as vanin family genes. Recent studies using mice lacking the vanin-1 gene (pantetheinase gene) suggest that pantetheinase is actively involved in the progression of inflammatory reactions by generating cysteamine. Additional studies using human leukocytes demonstrate that human neutrophils have abundant pantetheinase proteins on the surface and inside the cells. The second pantetheinase protein, GPI-80/VNN2, is suggested to work as a modulator of the function of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18), an adhesion molecule important to neutrophil functions. This review delineates the characteristics of the pantetheinase/vanin gene family and how they affect inflammation.

  11. Coenzyme A and its derivatives: renaissance of a textbook classic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoulou, Frederica L; Sibon, Ody C M; Jackowski, Suzanne; Gout, Ivan

    2014-08-01

    In 1945, Fritz Lipmann discovered a heat-stable cofactor required for many enzyme-catalysed acetylation reactions. He later determined the structure for this acetylation coenzyme, or coenzyme A (CoA), an achievement for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1953. CoA is now firmly embedded in the literature, and in students' minds, as an acyl carrier in metabolic reactions. However, recent research has revealed diverse and important roles for CoA above and beyond intermediary metabolism. As well as participating in direct post-translational regulation of metabolic pathways by protein acetylation, CoA modulates the epigenome via acetylation of histones. The organization of CoA biosynthetic enzymes into multiprotein complexes with different partners also points to close linkages between the CoA pool and multiple signalling pathways. Dysregulation of CoA biosynthesis or CoA thioester homoeostasis is associated with various human pathologies and, although the biochemistry of CoA biosynthesis is highly conserved, there are significant sequence and structural differences between microbial and human biosynthetic enzymes. Therefore the CoA biosynthetic pathway is an attractive target for drug discovery. The purpose of the Coenzyme A and Its Derivatives in Cellular Metabolism and Disease Biochemical Society Focused Meeting was to bring together researchers from around the world to discuss the most recent advances on the influence of CoA, its biosynthetic enzymes and its thioesters in cellular metabolism and diseases and to discuss challenges and opportunities for the future.

  12. Breeding of Coenzyme Q10 Produced Strain by Low-Energy Ion Implantation and Optimization of Coenzyme Q10 Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dejun; ZHENG Zhiming; WANG Peng; WANG Li; YUAN Hang; YU Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    In order to increase the production efficiency of coenzyme Q10, the original strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens ATCC 4452 was mutated by means of Nitrogen ions implantation. A mutant strain, ATX 12, with high contents of coenzyme Q10 was selected. Subsequently, the conditions such as carbohydrate concentration, nitrogen source concentration, inoculum's size, seed age, aeration and temperature which might affect the production of CoQ10 were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions, the maximum concentration of the intracellular CoQ10 reached 200.3 mg/L after 80 h fed-batch fermentation, about 245% increasing in CoQ10 production after ion implantation, compared to the original strain.

  13. Expressing Preferences using Preference Set Constraint Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Brik, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an extension of Answer Set Programming called Preference Set Constraint Programming which is a convenient and general formalism to reason with preferences. PSC programming extends Set Constraint Programming introduced by Marek and Remmel (Marek and Remmel 2004) by introducing two types of preference set constraint atoms, measure preference set constraint atoms and pre-ordered preference set constraint atoms, which are extensions of set constraint atoms. We show that the question of whether a PSC program has a preferred stable model is CoNP-complete. We give examples of the uses of the preference set constraint atoms and show that Answer Set Optimization (Brewka, Niemel\\"a, and Truszczynski 2003) and General Preference (Son and Pontelli 2006) can be expressed using preference set constraint atoms.

  14. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  15. Coenzyme O*U1*UO, Alpha-Tocopherol and Free Cholesterol in HDL and LDL Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kurt; Theorell, Henning; Karlsson, Jan;

    1991-01-01

    Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL......Farmakologi, Alpha-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q*U1*U0, free cholesterol, LDL, Antioxidants, Lipoproteins, HDL...

  16. The importance of plasma membrane coenzyme Q in aging and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Plácido; Villalba, José Manuel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2007-06-01

    The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells is the limit to interact with the environment. This position implies receiving stress signals that affects its components such as phospholipids. Inserted inside these components is coenzyme Q that is a redox compound acting as antioxidant. Coenzyme Q is reduced by diverse dehydrogenase enzymes mainly NADH-cytochrome b(5) reductase and NAD(P)H:quinone reductase 1. Reduced coenzyme Q can prevent lipid peroxidation chain reaction by itself or by reducing other antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate. The group formed by antioxidants and the enzymes able to reduce coenzyme Q constitutes a plasma membrane redox system that is regulated by conditions that induce oxidative stress. Growth factor removal, ethidium bromide-induced rho degrees cells, and vitamin E deficiency are some of the conditions where both coenzyme Q and its reductases are increased in the plasma membrane. This antioxidant system in the plasma membrane has been observed to participate in the healthy aging induced by calorie restriction. Furthermore, coenzyme Q regulates the release of ceramide from sphingomyelin, which is concentrated in the plasma membrane. This results from the non-competitive inhibition of the neutral sphingomyelinase by coenzyme Q particularly by its reduced form. Coenzyme Q in the plasma membrane is then the center of a complex antioxidant system preventing the accumulation of oxidative damage and regulating the externally initiated ceramide signaling pathway.

  17. NMR spectra and potentiometry studies of aluminum(III) binding with coenzyme NAD+ in acidic aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodi; Bi, Shuping; Yang, Xiaoliang; Yang, Li; Hu, Jun; Liu, Jian; Yang, Zhengbiao

    2003-06-01

    Complexation and conformational studies of coenzyme NAD+ with aluminum were conducted in acidic aqueous solutions (pH 2-5) by means of potentiometry as well as multinuclear (1H, 13C, 31P, 27Al) and two-dimensional (1H, 1H-NOESY) NMR spectroscopy. These led to the following results: (1) Al could coordinate with NAD+ through the following binding sites: N7' of adenine and pyrophosphate free oxygen (O(A)1, O(N)1,O(A)2) to form various mononuclear 1:1 (AlLH23+, AlLH2+) and 2:1 (AlL2-) species, and dinuclear 2:2 (Al2L22+) species. (2) The conformations of NAD+ and Al-NAD+ depended on the solvents and different species in the complexes. The results suggest the occurrence of an Al-linked complexation, which causes structural changes at the primary recognition sites and secondary conformational alterations for coenzymes. This finding will help us to understand role of Al in biological enzyme reaction systems.

  18. Coenzyme Q-10 in Human Health: Supporting Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sibu P; Whayne, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ10) is a widely used alternative medication or dietary supplement and one of its roles is as an antioxidant. It naturally functions as a coenzyme and component of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Decreased levels have been demonstrated in diseased myocardium and in Parkinson disease. Farnesyl pyrophosphate is a critical intermediate for CoQ10 synthesis and blockage of this step may be important in statin myopathy. Deficiency of CoQ10 also has been associated with encephalomyopathy, severe infantile multisystemic disease, cerebellar ataxia, nephrotic syndrome, and isolated myopathy. Although supplementation with CoQ10 has been reported to be beneficial in treating hypertension, congestive heart failure, statin myopathy, and problems associated with chemotherapy for cancer treatement, this use of CoQ10 as a supplement has not been confirmed in randomized controlled clinical trials. Nevertheless, it appears to be a safe supplementary medication where usage in selected clinical situations may not be inappropriate. This review is an attempt to actualize the available information on CoQ10 and define its potential benefit and appropriate usage.

  19. Coenzyme Q10 Effects on Creatine Kinase Activity and Mood in Geriatric Bipolar Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forester, Brent P.; Zuo, Chun S.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Harper, David G.; Du, Fei; Kim, Susan; Cohen, Bruce M.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the prevalence, associated comorbidities, and functional consequences of bipolar depression (BPD), underlying disease mechanisms remain unclear. Published studies of individuals with bipolar disorder implicate abnormalities in cellular energy metabolism. This study tests the hypotheses that the forward rate constant (kfor) of creatine kinase (CK) is altered in older adults with BPD and that CoEnzyme Q10 (CoQ10), known to have properties that enhance mitochondrial function, increases kfor in elderly individuals with BPD treated with CoQ10 compared with untreated age- and sex-matched controls. Methods Ten older adults (ages 55 and above) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition [DSM IV]) bipolar disorder, current episode depressed and 8 older controls underwent two 4 Tesla 31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31PMRS) scans 8 weeks apart using a magnetization transfer (MT) acquisition scheme to calculate kfor. The BPD group was treated with open-label CoEnzyme Q10 400 mg/d titrated up by 400 mg/d every 2 weeks to a maximum of 1200 mg/d. The Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was used to measure depression symptom severity. Baseline kfor and changes in kfor were compared between individuals with BPD and controls, not receiving CoQ. Clinical ratings were compared across time and associated with kfor changes using repeated measures linear regression. Results The kfor of CK was non-significantly lower for BPD than healthy controls at baseline (BPD mean (standard deviation [SD]) = 0.19 (0.02), control mean (SD) = 0.20 (0.02), Wilcoxon rank sum exact P = .40). The kfor for both CoQ10-treated BPD and controls increased after 8 weeks (mean increase (SD) = 0.03 (0.04), Wilcoxon signed rank exact P = .01), with no significant difference in 8-week changes between groups (BPD mean change (SD) = 0.03 (0.03), control mean change (SD) = 0.03 (0.05), Wilcoxon rank sum exact P = .91). In an exploratory

  20. Structure of NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli - reflections on the basis of coenzyme specificity in the family of glutamate dehydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, Michael A.; Oliveira, Tânia F.; Engel, Paul C.; Khan, Amir R. [Trinity; (FCT/UNL); (UC-Dublin)

    2013-09-05

    Glutamate dehydrogenases catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, using NAD+ and/or NADP+ as a cofactor. Subunits of homo-hexameric bacterial enzymes comprise a substrate-binding domain I followed by a nucleotide-binding domain II. The reaction occurs in a catalytic cleft between the two domains. Although conserved residues in the nucleotide-binding domains of various dehydrogenases have been linked to cofactor preferences, the structural basis for specificity in the GDH family remains poorly understood. Here, the refined crystal structure of Escherichia coli GDH in the absence of reactants is described at 2.5-Å resolution. Modelling of NADP+ in domain II reveals the potential contribution of positively charged residues from a neighbouring α-helical hairpin to phosphate recognition. In addition, a serine that follows the P7 aspartate is presumed to form a hydrogen bond with the 2'-phosphate. Mutagenesis and kinetic analysis confirms the importance of these residues in NADP+ recognition. Surprisingly, one of the positively charged residues is conserved in all sequences of NAD+-dependent enzymes, but the conformations adopted by the corresponding regions in proteins whose structure has been solved preclude their contribution to the coordination of the 2'-ribose phosphate of NADP+. These studies clarify the sequence–structure relationships in bacterial GDHs, revealing that identical residues may specify different coenzyme preferences, depending on the structural context. Primary sequence alone is therefore not a reliable guide for predicting coenzyme specificity. We also consider how it is possible for a single sequence to accommodate both coenzymes in the dual-specificity GDHs of animals.

  1. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

  2. Potency of pre–post treatment of coenzyme Q10 and melatonin supplement in ameliorating the impaired fatty acid profile in rodent model of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf El-Ansary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism and membrane fatty acid composition play a part in a wide range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Altered fatty acid homeostasis as a result of insufficient dietary supplementation, genetic defects, the function of enzymes involved in their metabolism, or mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the development of autism. Objective: This study evaluates the association of altered brain lipid composition and neurotoxicity related to autism spectrum disorders in propionic acid (PA–treated rats. Design: Forty-eight young male western albino rats were used in this study. They were grouped into six equal groups with eight rats in each. The first group received only phosphate buffered saline (control group. The second group received a neurotoxic dose of buffered PA (250 mg/kg body weight/day for 3 consecutive days. The third and fourth groups were intoxicated with PA as described above followed by treatment with either coenzyme Q (4.5 mg/kg body weight or melatonin (10 mg/kg body weight for 1 week (therapeutically treated groups. The fifth and sixth groups were administered both compounds for 1 week prior to PA (protected groups. Methyl esters of fatty acid were extracted with hexane, and the fatty acid composition of the extract was analyzed on a gas chromatography. Results: The obtained data proved that fatty acids are altered in brain tissue of PA-treated rats. All saturated fatty acids were increased while all unsaturated fatty acids were significantly decreased in the PA-treated group and relatively ameliorated in the pre–post melatonin and coenzyme Q groups. Conclusions: Melatonin and coenzyme Q were effective in restoring normal level of most of the impaired fatty acids in PA-intoxicated rats which could help suggest both as supplements to ameliorate the autistic features induced in rat pups.

  3. Dependence of Brown Adipose Tissue Function on CD36-Mediated Coenzyme Q Uptake

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    Courtney M. Anderson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT possesses the inherent ability to dissipate metabolic energy as heat through uncoupled mitochondrial respiration. An essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is coenzyme Q (CoQ. While cells synthesize CoQ mostly endogenously, exogenous supplementation with CoQ has been successful as a therapy for patients with CoQ deficiency. However, which tissues depend on exogenous CoQ uptake as well as the mechanism by which CoQ is taken up by cells and the role of this process in BAT function are not well understood. Here, we report that the scavenger receptor CD36 drives the uptake of CoQ by BAT and is required for normal BAT function. BAT from mice lacking CD36 displays CoQ deficiency, impaired CoQ uptake, hypertrophy, altered lipid metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and defective nonshivering thermogenesis. Together, these data reveal an important new role for the systemic transport of CoQ to BAT and its function in thermogenesis.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acyl-coenzyme As are inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis in zebrafish and mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Karanth

    2013-11-01

    Lipid disorders pose therapeutic challenges. Previously we discovered that mutation of the hepatocyte β-hydroxybutyrate transporter Slc16a6a in zebrafish causes hepatic steatosis during fasting, marked by increased hepatic triacylglycerol, but not cholesterol. This selective diversion of trapped ketogenic carbon atoms is surprising because acetate and acetoacetate can exit mitochondria and can be incorporated into both fatty acids and cholesterol in normal hepatocytes. To elucidate the mechanism of this selective diversion of carbon atoms to fatty acids, we fed wild-type and slc16a6a mutant animals high-protein ketogenic diets. We find that slc16a6a mutants have decreased activity of the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr, despite increased Hmgcr protein abundance and relative incorporation of mevalonate into cholesterol. These observations suggest the presence of an endogenous Hmgcr inhibitor. We took a candidate approach to identify such inhibitors. First, we found that mutant livers accumulate multiple polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and PUFA-CoAs, and we showed that human HMGCR is inhibited by PUFA-CoAs in vitro. Second, we injected mice with an ethyl ester of the PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and observed an acute decrease in hepatic Hmgcr activity, without alteration in Hmgcr protein abundance. These results elucidate a mechanism for PUFA-mediated cholesterol lowering through direct inhibition of Hmgcr.

  5. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of the isolated FAD domain of rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase altered in the region of the FAD shielding residue Phe1395.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Adrian J; Marshall, Ker R; Munro, Andrew W; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2004-06-01

    In rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase, Phe1395 is positioned over the FAD isoalloxazine ring. This is replaced by Trp676 in human cytochrome P450 reductase, a tryptophan in related diflavin reductases (e.g. methionine synthase reductase and novel reductase 1), and tyrosine in plant ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase. Trp676 in human cytochrome P450 reductase is conformationally mobile, and plays a key role in enzyme reduction. Mutagenesis of Trp676 to alanine results in a functional NADH-dependent reductase. Herein, we describe studies of rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase FAD domains, in which the aromatic shielding residue Phe1395 is replaced by tryptophan, alanine and serine. In steady-state assays the F1395A and F1395S domains have a greater preference for NADH compared with F1395W and wild-type. Stopped-flow studies indicate flavin reduction by NADH is significantly faster with F1395S and F1395A domains, suggesting that this contributes to altered preference in coenzyme specificity. Unlike cytochrome P450 reductase, the switch in coenzyme specificity is not attributed to differential binding of NADPH and NADH, but probably results from improved geometry for hydride transfer in the F1395S- and F1395A-NADH complexes. Potentiometry indicates that the substitutions do not significantly perturb thermodynamic properties of the FAD, although considerable changes in electronic absorption properties are observed in oxidized F1395A and F1395S, consistent with changes in hydrophobicity of the flavin environment. In wild-type and F1395W FAD domains, prolonged incubation with NADPH results in development of the neutral blue semiquinone FAD species. This reaction is suppressed in the mutant FAD domains lacking the shielding aromatic residue.

  6. A randomized trial of coenzyme Q10 in mitochondrial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Elisa I; Martin, Joan; Maher, Amy; Thornhill, Rebecca E; Moran, Gerald R; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2010-11-01

    Case reports and open-label studies suggest that coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) treatment may have beneficial effects in mitochondrial disease patients; however, controlled trials are warranted to clinically prove its effectiveness. Thirty patients with mitochondrial cytopathy received 1200 mg/day CoQ(10) for 60 days in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial. Blood lactate, urinary markers of oxidative stress, body composition, activities of daily living, quality of life, forearm handgrip strength and oxygen desaturation, cycle exercise cardiorespiratory variables, and brain metabolites were measured. CoQ(10) treatment attenuated the rise in lactate after cycle ergometry, increased (∽1.93 ml) VO(2)/kg lean mass after 5 minutes of cycling (P exercise aerobic capacity and post-exercise lactate but did not affect other clinically relevant variables such as strength or resting lactate.

  7. Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate monohydrate (coenzyme M sodium salt monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mayr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2-thioethanesulfonate anion is the smallest known coenzyme in nature (HS–CoM and plays a key role in methanogenesis by anaerobic archaea, as well as in the oxidation of alkenes by Gram-negative and Gram-positive eubacteria. The title compound, Na+·C2H5O3S2−·H2O, is the Na+ salt of HS–CoM crystallized as the monohydrate. Six O atoms form a distorted octahedral coordination geometry around the Na atom, at distances in the range 2.312 (4–2.517 (3 Å. Two O atoms of the sulfonate group, one O atom of each of three other symmetry-related sulfonate groups plus the water O atom form the coordination environment of the Na+ ion. This arrangement forms Na–O–Na layers in the crystal structure, parallel to (100.

  8. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to Coenzyme A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malanchuk O. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Generation of monoclonal antibodies specific to Coenzyme A. Methods. Hybridoma technique. KLH carrier protein conjugated with CoA was used for immunization. Screening of positive clones was performed with BSA conjugated to CoA. Results. Monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes CoA and CoA derivatives, but not its precursors ATP and cysteine has been generated. Conclusion. In this study, we describe for the first time the production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against CoA. The monoclonal antibody 1F10 was shown to recognize specifically CoA in Western blotting, ELISA and immunoprecipitation. These properties make this antiboby a particularly valuable reagent for elucidating CoA function in health and disease.

  9. Coenzyme world model of the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2016-06-01

    The origin of life means the emergence of heritable and evolvable self-reproduction. However the mechanisms of primordial heredity were different from those in contemporary cells. Here I argue that primordial life had no nucleic acids; instead heritable signs were represented by isolated catalytically active self-reproducing molecules, similar to extant coenzymes, which presumably colonized surfaces of oil droplets in water. The model further assumes that coenzyme-like molecules (CLMs) changed surface properties of oil droplets (e.g., by oxidizing terminal carbons), and in this way created and sustained favorable conditions for their own self-reproduction. Such niche-dependent self-reproduction is a necessary condition for cooperation between different kinds of CLMs because they have to coexist in the same oil droplets and either succeed or perish together. Additional kinds of hereditary molecules were acquired via coalescence of oil droplets carrying different kinds of CLMs or via modification of already existing CLMs. Eventually, polymerization of CLMs became controlled by other polymers used as templates; and this kind of template-based synthesis eventually resulted in the emergence of RNA-like replicons. Apparently, oil droplets transformed into the outer membrane of cells via engulfing water, stabilization of the surface, and osmoregulation. In result, the metabolism was internalized allowing cells to accumulate free-floating resources (e.g., animoacids, ATP), which was a necessary condition for the development of protein synthesis. Thus, life originated from simple but already functional molecules, and its gradual evolution towards higher complexity was driven by cooperation and natural selection.

  10. Coordination and binding geometry of methyl-coenzyme M in the red1m state of methyl-coenzyme M reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderberger, Dariush; Ebner, Sieglinde; Mayr, Stefan; Jaun, Bernhard; Reiher, Markus; Goenrich, Meike; Thauer, Rudolf K; Harmer, Jeffrey

    2008-11-01

    Methane formation in methanogenic Archaea is catalyzed by methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) and takes place via the reduction of methyl-coenzyme M (CH3-S-CoM) with coenzyme B (HS-CoB) to methane and the heterodisulfide CoM-S-S-CoB. MCR harbors the nickel porphyrinoid coenzyme F430 as a prosthetic group, which has to be in the Ni(I) oxidation state for the enzyme to be active. To date no intermediates in the catalytic cycle of MCRred1 (red for reduced Ni) have been identified. Here, we report a detailed characterization of MCRred1m ("m" for methyl-coenzyme M), which is the complex of MCRred1a ("a" for absence of substrate) with CH3-S-CoM. Using continuous-wave and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with selective isotope labeling (13C and 2H) of CH3-S-CoM, it is shown that CH3-S-CoM binds in the active site of MCR such that its thioether sulfur is weakly coordinated to the Ni(I) of F430. The complex is stable until the addition of the second substrate, HS-CoB. Results from EPR spectroscopy, along with quantum mechanical calculations, are used to characterize the electronic and geometric structure of this complex, which can be regarded as the first intermediate in the catalytic mechanism.

  11. A gestational diet high in fat-soluble vitamins alters expression of genes in brain pathways and reduces sucrose preference, but not food intake, in Wistar male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Pausova, Zdenka; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-04-01

    High intakes of multivitamins (HV) during pregnancy by Wistar rats increase food intake, body weight, and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in male offspring. In this study, high-fat soluble vitamins were fed in combination during gestation to test the hypothesis that they partially account for the effects of the HV diet. Pregnant Wistar rats (14-16/group) were fed a recommended multivitamin diet (1-fold all vitamins) or high-fat soluble vitamin diet (HFS; 10-fold vitamins A, D, E, and K) during pregnancy. Offspring body weight, food intake, and preference as well as expression of selected genes in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were evaluated at birth, weaning, and 14 weeks postweaning. Body weight and food intake were not affected but sucrose preference decreased by 4% in those born to dams fed the HFS gestational diet. Gene expressions of the hypothalamic anorexogenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) and orexogenic neuropeptide Y (Npy) (∼30% p = 0.008, ∼40% p = 0.007) were increased in weaning and adult rats, respectively. Hippocampal dopaminergic genes (35%-50% p food intake but may affect the development of higher hedonic regulatory pathways associated with food preference.

  12. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J; Quiles, José L

    2015-09-29

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  13. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián González-Alonso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  14. Supplementation of Coenzyme Q10 among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhua Shen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with ever increasing prevalence in the United States and worldwide. There is growing body of evidence suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction secondary to oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Coenzyme Q10 is an important micronutrient acting on the electron transport chain of the mitochondria with two major functions: (1 synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP; and (2 a potent antioxidant. Deficiency in coenzyme Q10 is often seen in patients with T2DM. Whether restoration of coenzyme Q10 will help alleviate oxidative stress, preserve mitochondrial function, and thus improve glycemic control in T2DM is unclear. This article reviews the relationships among oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and T2DM and examines the evidence for potential use of coenzyme Q10 as a supplement for the treatment of T2DM.

  15. A coenzyme-independent decarboxylase/oxygenase cascade for the efficient synthesis of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Toshiki; Miura, Misa; Kino, Kuniki

    2014-10-13

    Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavor compounds in the world as well as a promising versatile building block. The biotechnological production of vanillin from plant-derived ferulic acid has attracted much attention as a new alternative to chemical synthesis. One limitation of the known metabolic pathway to vanillin is its requirement for expensive coenzymes. Here, we developed a novel route to vanillin from ferulic acid that does not require any coenzymes. This artificial pathway consists of a coenzyme-independent decarboxylase and a coenzyme-independent oxygenase. When Escherichia coli cells harboring the decarboxylase/oxygenase cascade were incubated with ferulic acid, the cells efficiently synthesized vanillin (8.0 mM, 1.2 g L(-1) ) via 4-vinylguaiacol in one pot, without the generation of any detectable aromatic by-products. The efficient method described here might be applicable to the synthesis of other high-value chemicals from plant-derived aromatics.

  16. Therapeutic effect of coenzyme Q10 against experimentally-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of coenzyme Q10 was investigated in rats with hepatocellular carcinoma induced by trichloroacetic acid (0.5g/kg/day, p.o., for five days). Coenzyme Q10 treatment (0.4mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for four weeks following trichloroacetic acid administration. Coenzyme Q10 significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased the elevations of tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide in liver tissue of rats with hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, the histopathological dysplastic changes induced by trichloroacetic acid in liver tissue were ameliorated by coenzyme Q10. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that coenzyme Q10 significantly decreased the expression of hepPar-1, alpha-fetoprotein, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-κB in liver tissue of rats with hepatocellular carcinoma. It was concluded that coenzyme Q10 may represent a potential therapeutic option for liver carcinogenesis.

  17. An ultraviolet resonance Raman study of dehydrogenase enzymes and their interactions with coenzymes and substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J C; Wharton, C W; Hester, R E

    1989-02-21

    Ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectra, with 260-nm excitation, are reported for oxidized and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD+ and NADH, respectively). Corresponding spectra are reported for these coenzymes when bound to the enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and liver and yeast alcohol dehydrogenases (LADH and YADH). The observed differences between the coenzyme spectra are interpreted in terms of conformation, hydrogen bonding, and general environment polarity differences between bound and free coenzymes and between coenzymes bound to different enzymes. The possibility of adenine protonation is discussed. UVRR spectra with 220-nm excitation also are reported for holo- and apo-GAPDH (GAPDH-NAD+ and GAPDH alone, respectively). In contrast with the 260-nm spectra, these show only bands due to vibrations of aromatic amino acid residues of the protein. The binding of coenzyme to GAPDH has no significant effect on the aromatic amino acid bands observed. This result is discussed in the light of the known structural change of GAPDH on binding coenzyme. Finally, UVRR spectra with 240-nm excitation are reported for GAPDH and an enzyme-substrate intermediate of GAPDH. Perturbations are reported for tyrosine and tryptophan bands on forming the acyl enzyme.

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of coenzyme Q10 in rats with acetaminophen toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Jresat, Iyad

    2012-03-01

    The potential protective effect of coenzyme Q10 against acute liver injury induced by a single dose of acetaminophen (700 mg/kg, p.o.) was investigated in rats. Coenzyme Q10 treatment was given as two i.p. injections, 10 mg/kg each, at 1 and 12 h following acetaminophen administration. Coenzyme Q10 significantly reduced the levels of serum aminotransferases, suppressed lipid peroxidation, prevented the decreases of reduced glutathione and catalase activity, decreased the elevations of tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide as well as attenuating the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in liver tissue resulting from acetaminophen administration. Histopathological liver tissue damage mediated by acetaminophen was ameliorated by coenzyme Q10. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that coenzyme Q10 significantly decreased the acetaminophen-induced overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3 and p53 in liver tissue. It was concluded that coenzyme Q10 protects rat liver against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, most probably through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects.

  19. Coenzyme Q10 and Oxidative Stress: Inflammation Status in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients after Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiao-Tien; Cheng, Shao-Bin; Huang, Yi-Chia; Huang, Yin-Tzu; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and surgical resection is the main treatment for HCC. To date, no published study has examined the status of coenzyme Q10 in patients with HCC after surgery. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between the level of coenzyme Q10, oxidative stress, and inflammation in patients with HCC after surgery; (2) Methods: 71 primary HCC patients were recruited. Levels of coenzyme Q10, vitamin E, oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzymes activity (superoxidase dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), and inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein; tumor necrosis factor-α; and interleukin-6) were measured; (3) Results: Patients with HCC had a significantly lower levels of coenzyme Q10 (p = 0.01) and oxidative stress (p < 0.01), and significantly higher levels of antioxidant enzymes activities and inflammation after surgery (p < 0.05). The level of coenzyme Q10 was significantly positively correlated with antioxidant capacity (vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase activity) and negatively correlated with inflammation markers after surgery; (4) Conclusion: Hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with oxidative stress, and coenzyme Q10 may be considered an antioxidant therapy for patients with HCC, particularly those with higher inflammation after surgery. PMID:28054958

  20. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  1. Preferences over Social Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet;

    2013-01-01

    the methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence......We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although...... that subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk...

  2. Coenzyme Q10 protects hair cells against aminoglycoside.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Sugahara

    Full Text Available It is well known that the production of free radicals is associated with sensory cell death induced by an aminoglycoside. Many researchers have reported that antioxidant reagents protect sensory cells in the inner ear, and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is an antioxidant that is consumed as a health food in many countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of CoQ10 in mammalian vestibular hair cell death induced by aminoglycoside. Cultured utricles of CBA/CaN mice were divided into three groups (control group, neomycin group, and neomycin + CoQ10 group. In the neomycin group, utricles were cultured with neomycin (1 mM to induce hair cell death. In the neomycin + CoQ10 group, utricles were cultured with neomycin and water-soluble CoQ10 (30-0.3 µM. Twenty-four hours after exposure to neomycin, the cultured tissues were fixed, and vestibular hair cells were labeled using an anti-calmodulin antibody. Significantly more hair cells survived in the neomycin + CoQ10 group than in the neomycin group. These data indicate that CoQ10 protects sensory hair cells against neomycin-induced death in the mammalian vestibular epithelium; therefore, CoQ10 may be useful as a protective drug in the inner ear.

  3. Coenzyme Q10 analytical determination in biological matrices and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucangioli, Silvia; Martinefski, Manuela; Tripodi, Valeria

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the analytical determination of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has gained importance in clinical diagnosis and in pharmaceutical quality control. CoQ10 is an important cofactor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and a potent endogenous antioxidant. CoQ10 deficiency is often associated with numerous diseases and patients with these conditions may benefit from administration of supplements of CoQ10. In this regard, it has been observed that the best benefits are obtained when CoQ10 deficiency is diagnosed and treated early. Therefore, it is of great value to develop analytical methods for the detection and quantification of CoQ10 in this type of disease. The methods above mentioned should be simple enough to be used in routine clinical laboratories as well as in quality control of pharmaceutical formulations containing CoQ10. Here, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of CoQ10 analysis.

  4. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  5. Epoxy Coenzyme A Thioester pathways for degradation of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; Gescher, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (biogenic and anthropogenic) are abundant in the biosphere. Some of them are well-known environmental pollutants. Although the aromatic nucleus is relatively recalcitrant, microorganisms have developed various catabolic routes that enable complete biodegradation of aromatic compounds. The adopted degradation pathways depend on the availability of oxygen. Under oxic conditions, microorganisms utilize oxygen as a cosubstrate to activate and cleave the aromatic ring. In contrast, under anoxic conditions, the aromatic compounds are transformed to coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters followed by energy-consuming reduction of the ring. Eventually, the dearomatized ring is opened via a hydrolytic mechanism. Recently, novel catabolic pathways for the aerobic degradation of aromatic compounds were elucidated that differ significantly from the established catabolic routes. The new pathways were investigated in detail for the aerobic bacterial degradation of benzoate and phenylacetate. In both cases, the pathway is initiated by transforming the substrate to a CoA thioester and all the intermediates are bound by CoA. The subsequent reactions involve epoxidation of the aromatic ring followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage. Here we discuss the novel pathways, with a particular focus on their unique features and occurrence as well as ecological significance.

  6. Decreased hepatic contents of coenzyme A molecular species in mice after subchronic mild social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yoshifumi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Hagiya, Yuki; Chohnan, Shigeru; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Social stress may precipitate psychiatric disorders such as depression, which is related to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. We have evaluated the effects of social stress on central and peripheral metabolism using a model of depression in mice. In the present study, we focused on coenzyme A (CoA) molecular species [i.e. non-esterified CoA (CoASH), acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA] which play important roles in numerous metabolic pathways, and we analyzed changes in expression of these molecules in the hypothalamus and liver of adult male mice (C57BL/6J) subjected to 10 days of subchronic mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) with ICR mice as aggressors. Mice (n = 12) exposed to showed hyperphagia- and polydipsia-like symptoms and increased body weight gain compared with control mice which were not affected by exposure to ICR mice (n = 12). To elucidate the underlying metabolic features in the sCSDS model, acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and CoASH tissue levels were analyzed using the acyl-CoA cycling method. The levels of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, which decreases feeding behavior, were not influenced by sCSDS. However, sCSDS reduced levels of acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and total CoA (sum of the three CoA molecular species) in the liver. Hence, hyperphagia-like symptoms in sCSDS mice evidently occurred independently of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, but might consequently lead to down-regulation of hepatic CoA via altered expression of nudix hydrolase 7. Future studies should investigate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the down-regulation of liver CoA pools in sCSDS mice.

  7. Promotion of growth by Coenzyme Q10 is linked to gene expression in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexandra; Niklowitz, Petra; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2014-10-03

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ, ubiquinone) is an essential component of the respiratory chain, a cofactor of pyrimidine biosynthesis and acts as an antioxidant in extra mitochondrial membranes. More recently CoQ has been identified as a modulator of apoptosis, inflammation and gene expression. CoQ deficient Caenorhabditis elegans clk-1 mutants show several phenotypes including a delayed postembryonic growth. Using wild type and two clk-1 mutants, here we established an experimental set-up to study the consequences of endogenous CoQ deficiency or exogenous CoQ supply on gene expression and growth. We found that a deficiency of endogenous CoQ synthesis down-regulates a cluster of genes that are important for growth (i.e., RNA polymerase II, eukaryotic initiation factor) and up-regulates oxidation reactions (i.e., cytochrome P450, superoxide dismutase) and protein interactions (i.e., F-Box proteins). Exogenous CoQ supply partially restores the expression of these genes as well as the growth retardation of CoQ deficient clk-1 mutants. On the other hand exogenous CoQ supply does not alter the expression of a further sub-set of genes. These genes are involved in metabolism (i.e., succinate dehydrogenase complex), cell signalling or synthesis of lectins. Thus, our work provides a comprehensive overview of genes which can be modulated in their expression by endogenous or exogenous CoQ. As growth retardation in CoQ deficiency is linked to the gene expression profile we suggest that CoQ promotes growth via gene expression.

  8. Restoring de novo coenzyme Q biosynthesis in Caenorhabditis elegans coq-3 mutants yields profound rescue compared to exogenous coenzyme Q supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando; Saiki, Ryoichi; Chin, Randall; Srinivasan, Chandra; Clarke, Catherine F

    2012-09-10

    Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone or Q) is an essential lipid component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. In Caenorhabditis elegans Q biosynthesis involves at least nine steps, including the hydroxylation of the hydroquinone ring by CLK-1 and two O-methylation steps mediated by COQ-3. We characterize two C. elegans coq-3 deletion mutants, and show that while each has defects in Q synthesis, their phenotypes are distinct. First generation homozygous coq-3(ok506) mutants are fertile when fed the standard lab diet of Q-replete OP50 Escherichia coli, but their second generation homozygous progeny does not reproduce. In contrast, the coq-3(qm188) deletion mutant remains sterile when fed Q-replete OP50. Quantitative PCR analyses suggest that the longer qm188 deletion may alter expression of the flanking nuo-3 and gdi-1 genes, located 5' and 3', respectively of coq-3 within an operon. We surmise that variable expression of nuo-3, a subunit of complex I, or of gdi-1, a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor, may act in combination with defects in Q biosynthesis to produce a more severe phenotype. The phenotypes of both coq-3 mutants are more drastic as compared to the C. elegans clk-1 mutants. When fed OP50, clk-1 mutants reproduce for many generations, but show reduced fertility, slow behaviors, and enhanced life span. The coq-3 and clk-1 mutants all show arrested development and are sterile when fed the Q-deficient E. coli strain GD1 (harboring a mutation in the ubiG gene). However, unlike clk-1 mutant worms, neither coq-3 mutant strain responded to dietary supplementation with purified exogenous Q(10). Here we show that the Q(9) content can be determined in lipid extracts from just 200 individual worms, enabling the determination of Q content in the coq-3 mutants unable to reproduce. An extra-chromosomal array expressing wild-type C. elegans coq-3 rescued fertility of both coq-3 mutants and partially restored steady-state levels of COQ-3 polypeptide and Q(9

  9. The Antioxidant Status and Concentrations of Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin E in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hua Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E and the antioxidant status in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS. Subjects with MS (n=72 were included according to the criteria for MS. The non-MS group (n=105 was comprised of healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The plasma coenzyme Q10, vitamin E concentrations, lipid profiles, and antioxidant enzymes levels (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase were measured. The subjects with MS had significantly higher concentrations of plasma coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E than those in the non-MS group, but these differences were not significant after being normalized for triglyceride level. The levels of antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group. The subjects with the higher antioxidant enzymes activities had significant reductions in the risk of MS (P<0.01 after being adjusted for coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E. In conclusion, the subjects with MS might be under higher oxidative stress resulting in low levels of antioxidant enzyme activities. A higher level of antioxidant enzymes activities was significantly associated with a reduction in the risk of MS independent of the levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E.

  10. [Production of coenzyme Q10 by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Guanping; Miao, Liangtian; Sun, Tao; Li, Qingyan; Xiao, Dongguang; Zhang, Xueli

    2015-02-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipophilic antioxidant that improves human immunity, delays senility and enhances the vitality of the human body and has wide applications in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Microbial fermentation is a sustainable way to produce CoQ10, and attracts increased interest. In this work, the native CoQ8 synthetic pathway of Escherichia coli was replaced by the CoQ10 synthetic pathway through integrating decaprenyl diphosphate synthase gene (dps) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides into chromosome of E. coli ATCC 8739, followed by deletion of the native octaprenyl diphosphate synthase gene (ispB). The resulting strain GD-14 produced 0.68 mg/L CoQ10 with a yield of 0.54 mg/g DCW. Modulation of dxs and idi genes of the MEP pathway and ubiCA genes in combination led to 2.46-fold increase of CoQ10 production (from 0.54 to 1.87 mg/g DCW). Recruiting glucose facilitator protein of Zymomonas mobilis to replace the native phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems (PTS) further led to a 16% increase of CoQ10 yield. Finally, fed-batch fermentation of the best strain GD-51 was performed, which produced 433 mg/L CoQ10 with a yield of 11.7 mg/g DCW. To the best of our knowledge, this was the highest CoQ10 titer and yield obtained for engineered E. coli.

  11. Equilibrium concentrations for pyruvate dehydrogenase and the citric acid cycle at specified concentrations of certain coenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberty, Robert A

    2004-04-01

    It is of interest to calculate equilibrium compositions of systems of biochemical reactions at specified concentrations of coenzymes because these reactants tend to be in steady states. Thermodynamic calculations under these conditions require the definition of a further transformed Gibbs energy G" by use of a Legendre transform. These calculations are applied to the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction plus the citric acid cycle, but steady-state concentrations of CoA, acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA cannot be specified because they are involved in the conservation of carbon atoms. These calculations require the use of linear algebra to obtain further transformed Gibbs energies of formation of reactants and computer programs to calculate equilibrium compositions. At specified temperature, pH, ionic strength and specified concentrations of several coenzymes, the equilibrium composition depends on the specified concentrations of the coenzymes and the initial amounts of reactants.

  12. Preference, priorities and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, D.; Liu, F.; Grüne-Yanoff, T.; Hansson, S.O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider preference over objects. We show how this preference can be derived from priorities, properties of these objects, a concept which is initially from optimality theory. We do this both in the case when an agent has complete information and in the case when an agent only has b

  13. Continuous recording of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity using fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Erland J.F.; Nystrøm, Birthe T.

    2001-01-01

    acyl-Coenzyme A, synthetase, activity assay, fluorescence recording, fatty acid probe, serum albumin, hydroxycoumarin, detergent, micelles, Pseudomonas fragi, rat liver microsomes......acyl-Coenzyme A, synthetase, activity assay, fluorescence recording, fatty acid probe, serum albumin, hydroxycoumarin, detergent, micelles, Pseudomonas fragi, rat liver microsomes...

  14. Variation of Coenzyme F420 Activity and Methane Yield in Landfill Simulation of Organic Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yun-huan; SANG Shu-xun; HUANG Hua-zhou; LIU Xiao-juan; OUYANG Jin-bao

    2007-01-01

    A simulated landfill anaerobic bioreactor was used to characterize the anaerobic biodegradation and biogas generation of organic waste which was mainly composed of residuals of vegetables and foods. We investigated the dynamics of the coenzyme F420 activity and determined correlations between biogas yields, methane yields, methane concentration and coenzyme F420 activity. The experiment was carried out under different conditions from control without any treatment, addition of Fe3+, microorganism inoculation to a combination of Fe3+ addition and inoculation at a temperature of 36±2 ℃. The experiment was lasted 120 d and coenzyme F420 activity was analyzed using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Experimental results indicated that activity of the coenzyme F420 treated by Fe3+ and microorganism inoculation increased substantially. The waste treated by inoculation had the greatest increase. When the waste was treated by Fe3+, inoculation and the combination of Fe3+ and inoculation, biogas yields increased by 46.9%, 132.6% and 153.1%, respectively; while the methane yields increased 4, 97 and 98 times. Methane concentration varied between 0 and 6% in the control reactor, from 0 to 14% for waste treated by the addition of Fe3+, from 0 to 59% for waste treated by inoculation and from 0 to 63% for waste treated by Fe3+ addition and inoculation. Correlations between coenzyme F420 activity and biogas production, methane production and methane concentration proved to be positively significant (p<0.05), except for the control. Consequently, coenzyme F420 activity could be used as an index for monitoring the ac-tivity of methanogens during anaerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

  15. Synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex from acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbanat, D R; Ferry, J G

    1990-01-01

    The carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) complex from Methanosarcina thermophila catalyzed the synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) from CH3I, CO, and coenzyme A (CoA) at a rate of 65 nmol/min/mg at 55 degrees C. The reaction ended after 5 min with the synthesis of 52 nmol of acetyl-CoA per nmol of CODH complex. The optimum temperature for acetyl-CoA synthesis in the assay was between 55 and 60 degrees C; the rate of synthesis at 55 degrees C was not significantly different between pHs...

  16. Preferred axis in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The foundation of modern cosmology relies on the so-called cosmological principle which states an homogeneous and isotropic distribution of matter in the universe on large scales. However, recent observations, such as the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the motion of galaxies in the universe, the polarization of quasars and the acceleration of the cosmic expansion, indicate preferred directions in the sky. If these directions have a cosmological origin, the cosmological principle would be violated, and modern cosmology should be reconsidered. In this paper, by considering the preferred axis in the CMB parity violation, we find that it coincides with the preferred axes in CMB quadrupole and CMB octopole, and they all align with the direction of the CMB kinematic dipole. In addition, the preferred directions in the velocity flows, quasar alignment, anisotropy of the cosmic acceleration, the handedness of spiral galaxies, and the angular distribution of the fine-structu...

  17. Association between genetic variants in the Coenzyme Q10 metabolism and Coenzyme Q10 status in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menke Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is essential for mitochondrial energy production and serves as an antioxidants in extra mitochondrial membranes. The genetics of primary CoQ10 deficiency has been described in several studies, whereas the influence of common genetic variants on CoQ10 status is largely unknown. Here we tested for non-synonymous single-nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNP in genes involved in the biosynthesis (CoQ3G272S , CoQ6M406V, CoQ7M103T, reduction (NQO1P187S, NQO2L47F and metabolism (apoE3/4 of CoQ10 and their association with CoQ10 status. For this purpose, CoQ10 serum levels of 54 healthy male volunteers were determined before (T0 and after a 14 days supplementation (T14 with 150 mg/d of the reduced form of CoQ10. Findings At T0, the CoQ10 level of heterozygous NQO1P187S carriers were significantly lower than homozygous S/S carriers (0.93 ± 0.25 μM versus 1.34 ± 0.42 μM, p = 0.044. For this polymorphism a structure homology-based method (PolyPhen revealed a possibly damaging effect on NQO1 protein activity. Furthermore, CoQ10 plasma levels were significantly increased in apoE4/E4 genotype after supplementation in comparison to apoE2/E3 genotype (5.93 ± 0.151 μM versus 4.38 ± 0.792 μM, p = 0.034. Likewise heterozygous CoQ3G272S carriers had higher CoQ10 plasma levels at T14 compared to G/G carriers but this difference did not reach significance (5.30 ± 0.96 μM versus 4.42 ± 1.67 μM, p = 0.082. Conclusions In conclusion, our pilot study provides evidence that NQO1P187S and apoE polymorphisms influence CoQ10 status in humans.

  18. Roles of Long-chain Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetase in Absorption and Transport of Fatty Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Gao; Xue-feng Yang; Nian Fu; Yang Hu; Yan Ouyang; Kai Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long-chain acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACSL) is a member of the synthetase family encoded by a multigene family; it plays an important role in the absorption and transport of fatty acid. Here we review the roles of ACSL in the regulating absorption and transport of fatty acid, as well as the connection between ACSL and some metabolic diseases.

  19. Conformational Mobility of GOx Coenzyme Complex on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A critical issue in bioelectrochemical applications that use electrodes modified by Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs is to ensure high activity of the catalytic site of an immobilized enzyme protein interacting with nanomaterials. Since Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD, a coenzyme of glucose oxidase (GOx, is the active center of the catalytic site, conformation of which could determine the activity of enzyme, it is important to understand the dynamic mechanism of its conformational mobility while GOx is adsorbed on SWCNTs with multiple orientations. However, this dynamic mechanism still remains unclear at the atomic level due to the coenzyme being embedded in the apo-GOx and the limitations of appropriate experimental methods. In this study, a molecular dynamics (MD simulation was performed to investigate the conformational mobility mechanism of the coenzyme. The trajectory and the interaction energy clearly indicate that the adsorption of GOx onto SWCNTs plays an important role in the conformational mobility of the coenzyme, and its mobility is greatly affected by the distribution of water molecules due to it being hydrophobic.

  20. Effects of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) on myopathy in statin users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaars, C.F.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Statins are associated with muscle complaints, including myositis. The mechanism through which statin use causes muscle toxicity is unknown. One of the theories is that statin therapy reduces coenzyme Q10 levels in muscle mitochondria, which leads to muscle injury and myopathy. Th

  1. Chromosomal Engineering of Escherichia coli for Efficient Production of Coenzyme Q10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明涛; 陈韵妍; 刘建忠

    2014-01-01

    The plasmid-expression system is routinely plagued by potential plasmid instability. Chromosomal in-tegration is one powerful approach to overcome the problem. Herein we report a plasmid-free hyper-producer E. coli strain for coenzyme Q10 production. A series of integration expression vectors, pxKC3T5b and pxKT5b, were constructed for chemically inducible chromosomal evolution (multiple copy integration) and replicon-free and markerless chromosomal integration (single copy integration), respectively. A coenzyme Q10 hyper-producer Es-cherichia coli TBW20134 was constructed by applying chemically inducible chromosomal evolution, replicon-free and markerless chromosomal integration as well as deletion of menaquinone biosynthetic pathway. The engineered E. coli TBW20134 produced 10.7 mg per gram of dry cell mass (DCM) of coenzyme Q10 when supplemented with 0.075 g·L-1 of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid;this yield is unprecedented in E. coli and close to that of the commercial producer Agrobacterium tumefaciens. With this strain, the coenzyme Q10 production capacity was very stable after 30 sequential transfers and no antibiotics were required during the fermentation process. The strategy presented may be useful as a general approach for construction of stable production strains synthesizing natural products where various copy numbers for different genes are concerned.

  2. Inhibition of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (Ex Vivo by Morus indica (Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Reddy Palvai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals are the bioactive components that contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular and other degenerative diseases. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA reductase would be an effective means of lowering plasma cholesterol in humans. The present study explores the HMG CoA reductase inhibitory effect of extracts from leaves of Morus indica varieties, M5, V1, and S36, compared with the statin, using an ex vivo method. The assay is based on the stoichiometric formation of coenzyme A during the reduction of microsomal HMG CoA to mevalonate. Dechlorophyllised extract of three varieties was studied at 300 µg. The coenzyme A released at the end of assay in control (100.31 nmoles and statins (94.46 nm was higher than the dechlorphyllised extracts of the samples. The coenzyme A released during the reduction of HMG CoA to mevalonate in dechlorophyllised extracts of the samples was as follows: S36 < M5 < V1. The results indicated that the samples were highly effective in inhibiting the enzyme compared to statins (standard drug. The results indicate the role of Morus varieties extracts in modulating the cholesterol metabolism by inhibiting the activity of HMG CoA reductase. These results provide scope for designing in vivo animal studies to confirm their effect.

  3. Synthesis of coenzyme A thioesters using methyl acyl phosphates in an aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Mohan; Bearne, Stephen L

    2014-12-28

    Regioselective S-acylation of coenzyme A (CoA) is achieved under aqueous conditions using various aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids activated as their methyl acyl phosphate monoesters. Unlike many hydrophobic activating groups, the anionic methyl acyl phosphate mixed anhydride is more compatible with aqueous solvents, making it useful for conducting acylation reactions in an aqueous medium.

  4. Extracellular 4 '-phosphopantetheine is a source for intracellular coenzyme A synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Baratashvili, Madina; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Kanon, Bart; Colombelli, Cristina; Lambrechts, Roald A.; Schaap, Onno; Nollen, Ellen A.; Podgorsek, Ajda; Kosec, Gregor; Petkovic, Hrvoje; Hayflick, Susan; Tiranti, Valeria; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Grzeschik, Nicola A.; Sibon, Ody C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic cofactor coenzyme A (CoA) gained renewed attention because of its roles in neurodegeneration, protein acetylation, autophagy and signal transduction. The long-standing dogma is that eukaryotic cells obtain CoA exclusively via the uptake of extracellular precursors, especially vitamin B

  5. Decreased coenzyme Q10 concentration in plasma of children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, J.H.; Lecluse, A.L.Y.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.; Laag, J. van der; Houwen, R.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an effective lipophilic antioxidant and protects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging radicals. Patients with cystic fibrosis generally have fat malabsorption; thus, we hypothesized that overall plasma CoQ10 concentration in pediatric patients with cystic fibr

  6. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation and exercise-induced oxidative stress in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östman, Bengt; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The theoretically beneficial effects of coenzyme Q10 (Q10) on exercise-related oxidative stress and physical capacity have not been confirmed to our knowledge by interventional supplementation studies. Our aim was to investigate further whether Q10 supplementation at a dose recommended...... that such effects exist after supplementation with a recommended dose....

  7. Cofilin/Twinstar Phosphorylation Levels Increase in Response to Impaired Coenzyme A Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siudeja, Katarzyna; Grzeschik, Nicola A.; Rana, Anil; de Jong, Jannie; Sibon, Ody C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) is a pantothenic acid-derived metabolite essential for many fundamental cellular processes including energy, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pantothenate kinase (PANK), which catalyses the first step in the conversion of pantothenic acid to CoA, has been associated with a rare neur

  8. Adult peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase deficiency with cerebellar and brainstem atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ferdinandusse; S. Barker; K. Lachlan; M. Duran; H.R. Waterham; R.J.A. Wanders; S. Hammans

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase deficiency ( formerly also called pseudoneonatal adrenoleucodystrophy) is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation with a severe presentation. Most patients present at birth or in early infancy, and the mean age of death was 5 years in a recently published c

  9. Effect of DHA and CoenzymeQ10 Against Aβ- and Zinc-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Sadli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beta-amyloid (Aβ protein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD and it has been reported that mitochondria is involved in the biochemical pathway by which Aβ can lead to neuronal dysfunction. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is an essential cofactor involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and has been suggested as a potential therapeutic agent in AD. Zinc toxicity also affects cellular energy production by decreasing oxygen consumption rate (OCR and ATP turnover in human neuronal cells, which can be restored by the neuroprotective effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Method: In the present study, using Seahorse XF-24 Metabolic Flux Analysis we investigated the effect of DHA and CoQ10 alone and in combination against Aβ- and zinc-mediated changes in the mitochondrial function of M17 neuroblastoma cell line. Results: Here, we observed that DHA is specifically neuroprotective against zinc-triggered mitochondrial dysfunction, but does not directly affect Aβ neurotoxicity. CoQ10 has shown to be protective against both Aβ- and zinc-induced alterations in mitochondrial function. Conclusion: Our results indicate that DHA and CoQ10 may be useful for the prevention, treatment and management of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  10. Sincere Voting with Cardinal Preferences: Approval Voting

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester, Miguel Angel; Rey-Biel, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    We discuss sincere voting when voters have cardinal preferences over alter- natives. We interpret sincerity as opposed to strategic voting, and thus define sincerity as the optimal behaviour when conditions to vote strategically vanish. When voting mechanisms allow for only one message type we show that this op- timal behaviour coincides with an intuitive and common definition of sincerity. For voting mechanisms allowing for multiple message types, such as approval vot- ing (AV), there exists...

  11. Coenzyme Autocatalytic Network on the Surface of Oil Microspheres as a Model for the Origin of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Sharov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Coenzymes are often considered as remnants of primordial metabolism, but not as hereditary molecules. I suggest that coenzyme-like molecules (CLMs performed hereditary functions before the emergence of nucleic acids. Autocatalytic CLMs modified (encoded surface properties of hydrocarbon microspheres, to which they were anchored, and these changes enhanced autocatalysis and propagation of CLMs. Heredity started from a single kind of self-reproducing CLM, and then evolved into more complex coenzyme autocatalytic networks containing multiple kinds of CLMs. Polymerization of CLMs on the surface of microspheres and development of template-based synthesis is a potential evolutionary path towards the emergence of nucleic acids.

  12. Coenzyme Autocatalytic Network on the Surface of Oil Microspheres as a Model for the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Alexei A.

    2009-01-01

    Coenzymes are often considered as remnants of primordial metabolism, but not as hereditary molecules. I suggest that coenzyme-like molecules (CLMs) performed hereditary functions before the emergence of nucleic acids. Autocatalytic CLMs modified (encoded) surface properties of hydrocarbon microspheres, to which they were anchored, and these changes enhanced autocatalysis and propagation of CLMs. Heredity started from a single kind of self-reproducing CLM, and then evolved into more complex coenzyme autocatalytic networks containing multiple kinds of CLMs. Polymerization of CLMs on the surface of microspheres and development of template-based synthesis is a potential evolutionary path towards the emergence of nucleic acids. PMID:19468342

  13. A STD-NMR Study of the Interaction of the Anabaena Ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase with the Coenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara V. Antonini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR catalyzes the electron transfer from ferredoxin to NADP+ via its flavin FAD cofactor. To get further insights in the architecture of the transient complexes produced during the hydride transfer event between the enzyme and the NADP+ coenzyme we have applied NMR spectroscopy using Saturation Transfer Difference (STD techniques to analyze the interaction between FNRox and the oxidized state of its NADP+ coenzyme. We have found that STD NMR, together with the use of selected mutations on FNR and of the non-FNR reacting coenzyme analogue NAD+, are appropriate tools to provide further information about the the interaction epitope.

  14. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  15. Revealed smooth nontransitive preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich

    2013-01-01

    consumption bundle, all strictly preferred bundles are more expensive than the observed bundle. Our main result is that data sets can be rationalized by a smooth nontransitive preference relation if and only if prices can normalized such that the law of demand is satisfied. Market data sets consist of finitely...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....

  16. Arm chair perspective preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, A.J.; Pinna, Baingio; Pepperell, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Do generic observers in their free-style viewing of postcard-size pictures have a preference for specific modes of perspective rendering? This most likely depends upon the phrasing of the question. Here we consider the feeling of ‘presence’: does the observer experience a sense of being ‘immersed in

  17. Preferred Dance Tempo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia; Huron, David; Brod, Garvin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments participants tuned a drum machine to their preferred dance tempo. Measurements of height, shoulder width, leg length, and weight were taken for each participant, and their sex recorded. Using a multiple regression analysis, height and leg length combined was found to be the bes...

  18. FUZZY PREFERENCES IN CONFLICTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubarak S. AL-MUTAIRI; Keith W. HIPEL; Mohamed S. KAMEL

    2008-01-01

    A systematic fuzzy approach is developed to model fuzziness and uncertainties in the preferences of decision makers involved in a conflict. This unique fuzzy preference formulation is used within the paradigm of the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution in which a given dispute is modeled in terms of decision makers, each decision maker's courses of actions or options, and each decision maker's preferences concerning the states or outcomes which could take place. In order to be able to determine the stability of each state for each decision maker and the possible equilibria or resolutions, a range of solution concepts describing potential human behavior under conflict are defined for use with fuzzy preferences. More specifically, strong and weak definitions of stability are provided for the solution concepts called Nash, general metarational, symmetric metarational, and sequential stability. To illustrate how these solution concepts can be conveniently used in practice, they are applied to a dispute over the contamination of an aquifer by a chemical company located in Elmira, Ontario, Canada.

  19. Experimental evidence for protein oxidative damage and altered antioxidant defense in patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Terry G J; Touw, Catharina M L; Ribas, Graziela S; Biancini, Giovana B; Vanzin, Camila S; Negretto, Giovanna; Mescka, Caroline P; Reijngoud, Dirk Jan; Smit, G Peter A; Wajner, Moacir; Vargas, Carmen R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether macromolecule oxidative damage and altered enzymatic antioxidative defenses occur in patients with medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of in vivo parameters of lipid and prote

  20. Coenzyme Autocatalytic Network on the Surface of Oil Microspheres as a Model for the Origin of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2009-01-01

    Coenzymes are often considered as remnants of primordial metabolism, but not as hereditary molecules. I suggest that coenzyme-like molecules (CLMs) performed hereditary functions before the emergence of nucleic acids. Autocatalytic CLMs modified (encoded) surface properties of hydrocarbon microspheres, to which they were anchored, and these changes enhanced autocatalysis and propagation of CLMs. Heredity started from a single kind of self-reproducing CLM, and then evolved into more complex co...

  1. Exogenous coenzyme Q10 modulates MMP-2 activity in MCF-7 cell line as a breast cancer cellular model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmiranpour Hossein

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 is a key molecule in cellular invasion and metastasis. Mitochondrial ROS has been established as a mediator of MMP activity. Coenzyme Q10 contributes to intracellular ROS regulation. Coenzyme Q10 beneficial effects on cancer are still in controversy but there are indications of Coenzyme Q10 complementing effect on tamoxifen receiving breast cancer patients. Methods In this study we aimed to investigate the correlation of the effects of co-incubation of coenzyme Q10 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC on intracellular H2O2 content and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 activity in MCF-7 cell line. Results and Discussion Our experiment was designed to assess the effect in a time and dose related manner. Gelatin zymography and Flowcytometric measurement of H2O2 by 2'7',-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate probe were employed. The results showed that both coenzyme Q10 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine reduce MMP-2 activity along with the pro-oxidant capacity of the MCF-7 cell in a dose proportionate manner. Conclusions Collectively, the present study highlights the significance of Coenzyme Q10 effect on the cell invasion/metastasis effecter molecules.

  2. Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency with adult onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smelt, A H; Poorthuis, B J; Onkenhout, W;

    1998-01-01

    Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9), tetrade......Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9......), tetradecadienoic acid, 14:2(n-6), and hexadecadienoic acid, 16:2(n-6). Palmitoyl-CoA and behenoyl-CoA dehydrogenase in fibroblasts were deficient. Muscle VLCAD activity was very low. DNA analysis revealed compound heterozygosity for two missense mutations in the VLCAD gene. The relatively mild clinical course may...

  3. Probing reversible chemistry in coenzyme B12 -dependent ethanolamine ammonia lyase with kinetic isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex R; Rentergent, Julius; Scrutton, Nigel S; Hay, Sam

    2015-06-08

    Coenzyme B12 -dependent enzymes such as ethanolamine ammonia lyase have remarkable catalytic power and some unique properties that enable detailed analysis of the reaction chemistry and associated dynamics. By selectively deuterating the substrate (ethanolamine) and/or the β-carbon of the 5'-deoxyadenosyl moiety of the intrinsic coenzyme B12 , it was possible to experimentally probe both the forward and reverse hydrogen atom transfers between the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical and substrate during single-turnover stopped-flow measurements. These data are interpreted within the context of a kinetic model where the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical intermediate may be quasi-stable and rearrangement of the substrate radical is essentially irreversible. Global fitting of these data allows estimation of the intrinsic rate constants associated with CoC homolysis and initial H-abstraction steps. In contrast to previous stopped-flow studies, the apparent kinetic isotope effects are found to be relatively small.

  4. Sterol regulation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase: a mechanism for coordinate control of cellular lipid.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, J.M.; Bennett, M K; Sanchez, H B; Rosenfeld, J M; Osborne, T E

    1996-01-01

    Transcription from the housekeeping promoter for the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) gene, which encodes the rate-controlling enzyme of fatty acid biosynthesis, is shown to be regulated by cellular sterol levels through novel binding sites for the sterol-sensitive sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 transcription factor. The position of the SREBP sites relative to those for the ubiquitous auxiliary transcription factor Sp1 is reminiscent of that previously described for th...

  5. Association between coenzyme Q10 and glucose transporter (GLUT1) deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Yubero, Delia; O’Callaghan, Mar; Montero, Raquel; Ormazabal, Aida; Armstrong, Judith; Espinos, Carmina; Rodríguez, Maria A; Jou, Cristina; Castejon, Esperanza; Aracil, Maria A; Cascajo, Maria V; Gavilan, Angela; Briones, Paz; Jimenez-Mallebrera, Cecilia; Pineda, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that glucose transporter (GLUT1) deficiency in a mouse model causes a diminished cerebral lipid synthesis. This deficient lipid biosynthesis could contribute to secondary CoQ deficiency. We report here, for the first time an association between GLUT1 and coenzyme Q10 deficiency in a pediatric patient. Case presentation We report a 15 year-old girl with truncal ataxia, nystagmus, dysarthria and myoclonic epilepsy as the main clinical features. Blood lactate ...

  6. Determination of coenzyme Q10, coenzyme Q9, and melatonin contents in virgin argan oils: comparison with other edible vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Carmen; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; García-Corzo, Laura; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos

    2011-11-23

    Virgin argan oil possesses high antioxidant capacity (AC), which may be partially explained by its high content in antioxidant molecules such as polyphenols and tocopherols. However, the content in other antioxidant molecules, for example, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ(10)), coenzyme Q9 (CoQ(9)), and melatonin (Mel), which have been identified in other edible vegetable oils, have not been evaluated in virgin argan oil. Consequently, it was decided to evaluate the contents of CoQ(10), CoQ(9), and Mel in virgin argan oils and compare the results to those obtained in extra virgin olive oils and some varieties of seed oils. By the use of sensitive HPLC-EC/F methods, the results showed that virgin argan oil is a rich source of CoQ(10) and Mel, but no CoQ(9) was detected. Extra virgin olive oil showed higher levels of CoQ(10) and lower levels of Mel than virgin argan oil. Between the seed oil samples, only virgin soybean oil showed higher CoQ(10) and Mel levels than virgin argan oil. The results may be relevant for the contribution of CoQ(10) and Mel to the biological activities of virgin argan oil.

  7. Reversal of statin-induced memory dysfunction by co-enzyme Q10: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeahialam BN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Basil N Okeahialam Cardiology Sub-Unit 1, Department of Medicine, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria Abstract: Statins are useful in the armamentarium of the clinician dealing with dyslipidemia, which increases cardiovascular morbi-mortality in hypertensive and diabetic patients among others. Dyslipidemia commonly exists as a comorbidity factor in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Use of statins is however associated with side effects which at times are so disabling as to interfere with activities of daily living. There are various ways of dealing with this, including use of more water-soluble varieties, intermittent dosing, or use of statin alternatives. Of late, use of co-enzyme Q10 has become acceptable for the muscle side effects. Only one report of any benefit on the rarely reported memory side effect was encountered by the author in the search of English medical literature. This is a report of a documented case of a Nigerian woman with history of statin intolerance in this case, memory dysfunction despite persisting dyslipidemia comorbidity. Her memory dysfunction side effect which interfered with activities of daily living and background muscle pain cleared when coenzyme Q10 was administered alongside low dose statin. Her lipid profile normalized and has remained normal. It is being recommended for use when statin side effects (muscle- and memory-related impair quality of life and leave patient at dyslipidemia-induced cardiovascular morbi-mortality. Keywords: statin, memory dysfunction, co-enzyme Q10, improvement

  8. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    journalists justify themselves and their work. This article introduces an analytical framework for understanding legitimacy in a journalistic context. A framework based on a review of material ranging from historical accounts to research articles, and book-length studies. The framework comprises three...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  9. Perspectives on Preference Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel

    2009-07-01

    For centuries, the mathematical aggregation of preferences by groups, organizations, or society itself has received keen interdisciplinary attention. Extensive theoretical work in economics and political science throughout the second half of the 20th century has highlighted the idea that competing notions of rational social choice intrinsically contradict each other. This has led some researchers to consider coherent democratic decision making to be a mathematical impossibility. Recent empirical work in psychology qualifies that view. This nontechnical review sketches a quantitative research paradigm for the behavioral investigation of mathematical social choice rules on real ballots, experimental choices, or attitudinal survey data. The article poses a series of open questions. Some classical work sometimes makes assumptions about voter preferences that are descriptively invalid. Do such technical assumptions lead the theory astray? How can empirical work inform the formulation of meaningful theoretical primitives? Classical "impossibility results" leverage the fact that certain desirable mathematical properties logically cannot hold in all conceivable electorates. Do these properties nonetheless hold true in empirical distributions of preferences? Will future behavioral analyses continue to contradict the expectations of established theory? Under what conditions do competing consensus methods yield identical outcomes and why do they do so?

  10. Coaching preferences of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, P C; Howe, B L

    1984-12-01

    The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches.

  11. Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Modulates NFκB and Nrf2 Pathways in Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Ragip; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Sahin, Nurhan; Ali, Shakir; Cinar, Vedat; Atalay, Mustafa; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-03-01

    This study reports the effects of Q10, coenzyme Q10 or ubiquinone, a component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, on nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), inhibitors of kappa B (IκB), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and hemeoxygenase 1 (HO-1) in rats after chronic exercise training for 6 weeks. 8-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to one of four treatments planned in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of two condition (sedentary vs. exercise training), and two coenzyme Q10 levels (0 and 300 mg/kg per day for 6 weeks). The expression levels of the target proteins were determined in the heart, liver and muscle, and biochemical parameters including creatinine, urea, glucose and lipid profile were investigated in plasma. When compared with sedentary group, significant decreases in heart, liver and muscle NFκB levels by 45%, 26% and 44% were observed in Q10 supplemented rats after exercise training, respectively, while the inhibitory protein IκB increased by 179%, 111% and 127% in heart, liver and muscle tissues. Q10 supplementation caused an increase in Nrf2 (167%, 165% and 90%) and HO-1 (107%, 156% and 114%) after exercise training in heart, liver and muscle tissues (p < 0.05). No significant change was observed in any of the parameters associated with protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, except that exercise caused a decrease in plasma triglyceride, which was further decreased by Q10. In conclusion, these results suggest that Q10 modulates the expression of NFκB, IκB, Nrf2 and HO-1 in exercise training, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect of Q10 and emphasizes its role in antioxidant defense. Key pointsCoenzyme Q10 is a component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria which is linked to the generation of energy in the cell.Coenzyme Q10 may inhibit the peroxidation of lipids, thus acting as an antioxidant and protects tissue against oxidative injury.Using of coenzyme Q

  12. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  13. Thermodynamics of various F420 coenzyme models as sources of electrons, hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and protons in acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Shen, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Xiao-Qing

    2015-06-14

    32 F420 coenzyme models with alkylation of the three different N atoms (N1, N3 and N10) in the core structure (XFH(-)) were designed and synthesized and the thermodynamic driving forces (defined in terms of the molar enthalpy changes or the standard redox potentials in this work) of the 32 XFH(-) releasing hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and electrons, the thermodynamic driving forces of the 32 XFH˙ releasing protons and hydrogen atoms and the thermodynamic driving forces of XF(-)˙ releasing electrons in acetonitrile were determined using titration calorimetry and electrochemical methods. The effects of the methyl group at N1, N3 and N10 and a negative charge on N1 and N10 atoms on the six thermodynamic driving forces of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates were examined; the results show that seating arrangements of the methyl group and the negative charge have remarkably different effects on the thermodynamic properties of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates. The effects of the substituents at C7 and C8 on the six thermodynamic driving forces of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates were also examined; the results show that the substituents at C7 and C8 have good Hammett linear free energy relationships with the six thermodynamic parameters. Meanwhile, a reasonable determination of possible reactions between members of the F420 family and NADH family in vivo was given according to a thermodynamic analysis platform constructed using the elementary step thermodynamic parameter of F420 coenzyme model 2FH(-) and NADH model MNAH releasing hydride ions in acetonitrile. The information disclosed in this work can not only fill a gap in the chemical thermodynamics of F420 coenzyme models as a class of very important organic sources of electrons, hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and protons, but also strongly promote the fast development of the chemistry and applications of F420 coenzyme.

  14. Rapid ethanol production at elevated temperatures by engineered thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus via the NADP(H)-preferring xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Sun, Lianhong; Hong, Jiong

    2015-09-01

    Conversion of xylose to ethanol by yeasts is a challenge because of the redox imbalances under oxygen-limited conditions. The thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus grows well with xylose as a carbon source at elevated temperatures, but its xylose fermentation ability is weak. In this study, a combination of the NADPH-preferring xylose reductase (XR) from Neurospora crassa and the NADP(+)-preferring xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) mutant from Scheffersomyces stipitis (Pichia stipitis) was constructed. The xylose fermentation ability and redox balance of the recombinant strains were improved significantly by over-expression of several downstream genes. The intracellular concentrations of coenzymes and the reduced coenzyme/oxidized coenzyme ratio increased significantly in these metabolic strains. The byproducts, such as glycerol and acetic acid, were significantly reduced by the disruption of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1). The resulting engineered K. marxianus YZJ088 strain produced 44.95 g/L ethanol from 118.39 g/L xylose with a productivity of 2.49 g/L/h at 42 °C. Additionally, YZJ088 realized glucose and xylose co-fermentation and produced 51.43 g/L ethanol from a mixture of 103.97 g/L xylose and 40.96 g/L glucose with a productivity of 2.14 g/L/h at 42 °C. These promising results validate the YZJ088 strain as an excellent producer of ethanol from xylose through the synthetic xylose assimilation pathway.

  15. NADP(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase from oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica CLIB122: biochemical characterization and coenzyme sites evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Wang, Peng; Ge, Yadong; Wang, Wen; Abbas, Abdulla; Zhu, Guoping

    2013-09-01

    NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from Yarrowia lipolytica CLIB122 (YlIDP) was overexpressed and purified. The molecular mass of YlIDP was estimated to be about 81.3 kDa, suggesting its homodimeric structure in solution. YlIDP was divalent cation dependent and Mg(2+) was found to be the most favorable cofactor. The purified recombinant YlIDP displayed maximal activity at 55 °C and its optimal pH for catalysis was found to be around 8.5. Heat inactivation studies revealed that the recombinant YlIDP was stable below 45 °C, but its activity dropped quickly above this temperature. YlIDP was absolutely dependent on NADP(+) and no NAD-dependent activity could be detected. The K m values displayed for NADP(+) and isocitrate were 59 and 31 μM (Mg(2+)), 120 μM and 58 μM (Mn(2+)), respectively. Mutant enzymes were constructed to tentatively alter the coenzyme specificity of YlIDP. The K m values for NADP(+) of R322D mutant was 2,410 μM, being about 41-fold higher than that of wild type enzyme. NAD(+)-dependent activity was detected for R322D mutant and the K m and k cat values for NAD(+) were 47,000 μM and 0.38 s(-1), respectively. Although the R322D mutant showed low activity with NAD(+), it revealed the feasibility of engineering an eukaryotic IDP to a NAD(+)-dependent one.

  16. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...... and lack of a local immigrant population by migrating to large municipalities. Lack of local fellow countrymen, however, increases the exit rate to medium-sized as well as large municipalities. This finding is likely to be a result of the dispersal policy. Finally, refugees react strongly to assignment...

  17. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    drivers commuting to work in the morning in central Stockholm. The survey contains observations of choices between car and public transport travel alternatives, which differ in terms of departure time, monetary cost, and the distribution of travel time. We develop a discrete choice model to describe......-affine specifications to two benchmarks: The generalised exponential-exponential specification and the conventional α-β-γ specification. As could be expected, exponential preferences are difficult to estimate: The estimated parameters of H and W have large standard errors, and some types of models exhibit severe...

  18. Why Languages Prefer Prohibitives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johan van der Auwera

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with prohibitive markers, i.e., negative markers that are more or less dedicated to the expression of a prohibition. It documents the variety in the formal make-up of these markers and it confims the earlier claims that they are frequent everywhere, with at least one exception, viz., Western Europe. Four origins are discussed:prohibitive markers may derive from predicative constructions, they may appear as a side product of Jespersen's cycle,they may derive from a univerbation of imperative and negative markers, and they may be borrowed. As explanation is offered as to why languages prefer to have prohibitive markers. It is argued that attempts to explain this preference in terms of morphosyntax are misguided. Instead a frequency-based semantic explanation is offered. The most frequent use of negatives are declarative, thereby inviting a static ‘it is not the case that' paraphrase. It is important, however, to mark clearly that prohibitives are instances of a dynamic ‘let it be the case that' appeal. The paper ends on a discussion of languages that do not employ prohibitive markers.

  19. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  20. Effect of concomitant administration of coenzyme Q10 with sitagliptin on experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Rajesh; Balaraman, Ramachandran; Sen, Ashim Kumar; Shukla, Disha; Seth, Avinash

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of coenzyme Q10 and its combination with sitagliptin in experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy. The diabetic rats were treated with coenzyme Q10 or sitagliptin and their concomitant administration. Various parameters of renal function like serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and markers of oxidative stress such as renal malondialdehyde content (MDA), glutathione (GSH) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activities were measured. TNF-α, TGF-β, MPO activity and nitrite content were estimated in renal tissue with histopathological observation. Diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in renal function, which was reflected with an increase in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid levels. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide caused renal tubular damage with a higher MDA level, depletion of SOD and CAT activity and GSH level. In addition, TNF-α, TGF- β, MPO activity and nitrite content were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with coenzyme Q10 or sitagliptin and their co-administration ameliorated STZ-nicotinamide-induced renal damage which was reflected by decreased oxidative stress, TNF-α, TGF-β, MPO activity, nitrite content along with histopathological changes. To conclude, concomitant administration of coenzyme Q10 and sitagliptin showed a better renoprotective effect than coenzyme Q10 or sitagliptin when given alone.

  1. The use of coenzyme Q0 as a template in the development of a molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective recognition of coenzyme Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, Mario; Flor, Sabrina; Martinefski, Manuela; Lucangioli, Silvia; Tripodi, Valeria

    2014-01-07

    In this work, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for use as a solid phase extraction sorbent was developed for the determination of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in liver extract. CoQ10 is an essential cofactor in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and a powerful antioxidant agent found in low concentrations in biological samples. This fact and its high hydrophobicity make the analysis of CoQ10 technically challenging. Accordingly, a MIP was synthesised using coenzyme Q0 as the template, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, acetonitrile as the porogen, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and benzoyl peroxide as the initiator. Various parameters affecting the polymer preparation and extraction efficiency were evaluated. Morphological characterisation of the MIP and its proper comparison with C18 as a sorbent in solid phase extraction were performed. The optimal conditions for the molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) consisted of 400 μL of sample mixed with 30 mg of MIP and 600 μL of water to reach the optimum solution loading. The loading was followed by a washing step consisting of 1 mL of a 1-propanol solution (1-propanol:water, 30:70,v/v) and elution with 1 mL of 1-propanol. After clean-up, the CoQ10 in the samples was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. The extraction recoveries were higher than 73.7% with good precision (3.6-8.3%). The limits of detection and quantification were 2.4 and 7.5 μg g(-1), respectively, and a linear range between 7.5 and 150 μg g(-1) of tissue was achieved. The new MISPE procedure provided a successful clean-up for the determination of CoQ10 in a complex matrix.

  2. Biochemical Alterations in Semen of Varicocele Patients: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mancini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a mechanism underlying different kinds of infertility in human males. However, different results can be observed in relation to the method used for its evaluation. Varicocele patients show a number of biochemical abnormalities, including an altered distribution of coenzyme Q between seminal plasma and sperm cells and also an apparent defect in the utilization of antioxidants. Moreover, an influence of systemic hormones on seminal antioxidant system was observed too. Finally, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidativestress indexes and the possible usefulness of some medical therapies, like coenzyme Q supplementation, are discussed. In conclusion, published data show a role of oxidative stress in varicocele-related male infertility, but at present we do not know the precise molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena.

  3. Catalysis by methyl-coenzyme M reductase: a theoretical study for heterodisulfide product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Siegbahn, Per E M

    2003-07-01

    Hybrid density functional theory has been used to investigate the catalytic mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), an essential enzyme in methanogenesis. In a previous study of methane formation, a scheme was suggested involving oxidation of Ni(I) in the starting square-planar coordination to the high-spin Ni(II) form in the CoM-S-Ni(II)F(430) octahedral intermediate. The methyl radical, concomitantly released by methyl-coenzyme M (CoM), is rapidly quenched by hydrogen atom transfer from the coenzyme B (CoB) thiol group, yielding methane as the first product of the reaction. The present investigation primarily concerns the second and final step of the reaction: oxidation of CoB and CoM to the CoB-S-S-CoM heterodisulfide product and reduction of nickel back to the Ni(I) square-planar form. The activation energy for the second step is found to be around 10 kcal/mol, implying that the first step of methane formation with an activation energy of 20 kcal/mol should be rate-limiting. An oxygen of the Gln147 residue, occupying the rear axial position in the oxidized Ni(II) state, is shown to stabilize the intermediate by 6 kcal/mol, thereby slightly decreasing the barrier for the preceding rate-limiting transition state. The mechanism suggested is discussed in the context of available experimental data. An analysis of the flexibility of the F(430) cofactor during the reaction cycle is also given.

  4. [Reduced synthesis of coenzyme Q10 may cause statin related myopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Pareek, Manan; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2011-11-14

    Statin treatment can cause muscular side effects. It has been suggested that the mechanism is reduced synthesis of coenzyme Q10 (coQ10) and a subsequent dysfunction of the respiratory chain. A literature review resulted in insufficient evidence supporting this theory. It is uncertain whether intramuscular levels of coQ10 and mitochondrial function are affected by statin therapy and whether the symptoms of myopathy can be alleviated with coQ10 supplementation. Nevertheless, due to a favourable safety profile, coQ10 can be tested in patients whose muscular symptoms cannot be managed otherwise.

  5. MicroCommentary: A New Role for Coenzyme F420 in Aflatoxin Reduction by Soil Mycobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Hepatotoxic aflatoxins have found a worthy adversary in two new families of bacterial oxidoreductases. These enzymes use the reduced coenzyme F420 to initiate the degradation of furanocoumarin compounds, including the major mycotoxin products of Aspergillus flavus. Along with pyridoxalamine 5 -phosphate oxidases and aryl nitroreductases, these proteins form a large and versatile superfamily of flavin and deazaflavin-dependent oxidoreductases. F420-dependent members of this family appear to share a common mechanism of hydride transfer from the reduced deazaflavin to the electron-deficient ring systems of their substrates.

  6. Nonhuman Primates Prefer Slow Tempos but Dislike Music Overall

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21]…

  7. Brand Preference Affects the Threshold for Perceptual Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of scientific scrutiny, much is still unknown about the effects that brands have on perception. Brands are known to lead to changes in attention and mnemonic processing and by altering emotional preferences they imbue products with value. Less, however, is known about the exact me...... are discussed in light of other studies in consumer psychology and consciousness science...

  8. Preferences and choices for care and health insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B. van den; Dommelen, P. van; Stam, P.; Laske-Aldershof, T.; Buchmueller, T.; Schut, F.T.

    2008-01-01

    Legislation that came into effect in 2006 has dramatically altered the health insurance system in the Netherlands, placing greater emphasis on consumer choice and competition among insurers. The potential for such competition depends largely on consumer preferences for price and quality of service b

  9. Regulatory properties of changes in the contents of coenzyme A, carnitine and their acyl derivatives in flight muscle metabolism of Locusta migratoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, R.A.A.; Luytjes, W.; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of coenzyme A, carnitine and their acyl derivatives in flight muscles of the locust were determined during a two hours flight. The concentration of acetyl-CoA fell sharply immediately after the onset of flight, whereas coenzyme A level remained relatively constant. Acetylcarnitin

  10. Effect of coenzyme Q10 alone and its combination with metformin on streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh A Maheshwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of coenzyme Q10 and its combination with metformin on streptozotocin (STZ-nicotinamide-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN. Materials and Methods: Type 2 diabetes in rats was induced with STZ-nicotinamide. The diabetic rats were treated with coenzyme Q10 (10 mg/kg, p.o. alone or coenzyme Q10 + metformin. Various parameters of renal function tests such as serum creatinine, urea, uric acid, and markers of oxidative stress such as renal malondialdehyde (MDA level, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities were measured. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, and nitrite content were estimated in renal tissues. All treated animal were subjected to histopathological changes of kidney. Result: Diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in renal function, which was reflected with an increase in serum urea, serum creatinine, uric acid. In addition, STZ-nicotinamide caused renal tubular damage with a higher MDA level, depletion of SOD and CAT activity and glutathione (GSH level. Moreover, TNF-α, MPO activity, TGF-β, and nitrite content were significantly increased in diabetic rats, while treatment with coenzyme Q10 or metformin or their combination ameliorate STZ-nicotinamide induced renal damage due to improvement in renal function, oxidative stress, suppression of TNF-α, MPO activity, TGF-β and nitrite content along with histopathological changes. Conclusions: This finding suggests that the treatment with coenzyme Q10 or metformin showed significant renoprotective effect against STZ-nicotinamide-induced DN. However, concomitant administration of both showed a better renoprotective effect than coenzyme Q10 or metformin alone treatment.

  11. One statin, two statins, three statins, more: similarities and differences of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoski, Beatrice B

    2011-01-01

    Statin drugs (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) are one of the most widely prescribed drugs today. They are considered first-line therapy to lower blood serum cholesterol levels in conjunction with therapeutic lifestyle changes for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. In the following discussion, a brief explanation of the background of statins will explain why they are deemed so important today. The similarities and differences between the different statins will be addressed, including a look at dosage, side effects, and cautions for the seven 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors currently available.

  12. Preference formation and institutional change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Praça

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay critically analyses how historical institutionalists and rational choice scholars study institutional stability and change. Special attention is paid to the thorny issued of how political actors’ preferences are formed, with historical institutionalists considering preferences as endogenously formed, and rational choice analysts postulating that preferences are fixed and exogenous. An argument is made in favour of the perspective that considers preferences as being formed within the functioning of the political system over time, endogenously. The essay also proposes the incorporation of ideas and non-decisions as tools to elucidate processes of change.

  13. Pyridine Nucleotide Complexes with Bacillus anthracis Coenzyme A-Disulfide Reductase: A Structural Analysis of Dual NAD(P)H Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallen,J.; Paige, C.; Mallett, T.; Karplus, P.; Claiborne, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have recently reported that CoASH is the major low-molecular weight thiol in Bacillus anthracis, and we have now characterized the kinetic and redox properties of the B. anthracis coenzyme A-disulfide reductase (CoADR, BACoADR) and determined the crystal structure at 2.30 Angstroms resolution. While the Staphylococcus aureus and Borrelia burgdorferi CoADRs exhibit strong preferences for NADPH and NADH, respectively, B. anthracis CoADR can use either pyridine nucleotide equally well. Sequence elements within the respective NAD(P)H-binding motifs correctly reflect the preferences for S. aureus and Bo. burgdorferi CoADRs, but leave questions as to how BACoADR can interact with both pyridine nucleotides. The structures of the NADH and NADPH complexes at ca. 2.3 Angstroms resolution reveal that a loop consisting of residues Glu180-Thr187 becomes ordered and changes conformation on NAD(P)H binding. NADH and NADPH interact with nearly identical conformations of this loop; the latter interaction, however, involves a novel binding mode in which the 2'-phosphate of NADPH points out toward solvent. In addition, the NAD(P)H-reduced BACoADR structures provide the first view of the reduced form (Cys42-SH/CoASH) of the Cys42-SSCoA redox center. The Cys42-SH side chain adopts a new conformation in which the conserved Tyr367'-OH and Tyr425'-OH interact with the nascent thiol(ate) on the flavin si-face. Kinetic data with Y367F, Y425F, and Y367, 425F BACoADR mutants indicate that Tyr425' is the primary proton donor in catalysis, with Tyr367' functioning as a cryptic alternate donor in the absence of Tyr425'.

  14. New insights into the chemistry of Coenzyme Q-0: A voltammetric and spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulaboski, Rubin; Bogeski, Ivan; Kokoskarova, Pavlinka; Haeri, Haleh H; Mitrev, Sasa; Stefova, Marina; Stanoeva, Jasmina Petreska; Markovski, Velo; Mirčeski, Valentin; Hoth, Markus; Kappl, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Coenzyme Q-0 (CoQ-0) is the only Coenzyme Q lacking an isoprenoid group on the quinoid ring, a feature important for its physico-chemical properties. Here, the redox behavior of CoQ-0 in buffered and non-buffered aqueous media was examined. In buffered aqueous media CoQ-0 redox chemistry can be described by a 2-electron-2-proton redox scheme, characteristic for all benzoquinones. In non-buffered media the number of electrons involved in the electrode reaction of CoQ-0 is still 2; however, the number of protons involved varies between 0 and 2. This results in two additional voltammetric signals, attributed to 2-electrons-1H(+) and 2-electrons-0H(+) redox processes, in which mono- and di-anionic compounds of CoQ-0 are formed. In addition, CoQ-0 exhibits a complex chemistry in strong alkaline environment. The reaction of CoQ-0 and OH(-) anions generates several hydroxyl derivatives as products. Their structures were identified with HPLC/MS. The prevailing radical reaction mechanism was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The hydroxyl derivatives of CoQ-0 have a strong antioxidative potential and form stable complexes with Ca(2+) ions. In summary, our results allow mechanistic insights into the redox properties of CoQ-0 and its hydroxylated derivatives and provide hints on possible applications.

  15. Metabolic consequences of mitochondrial coenzyme A deficiency in patients with PANK2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Valerio; Strittmatter, Laura; Zorzi, Giovanna; Zibordi, Federica; Dusi, Sabrina; Garavaglia, Barbara; Venco, Paola; Caccia, Claudio; Souza, Amanda L; Deik, Amy; Clish, Clary B; Rimoldi, Marco; Ciusani, Emilio; Bertini, Enrico; Nardocci, Nardo; Mootha, Vamsi K; Tiranti, Valeria

    2012-03-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare, inborn error of metabolism characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and by the presence of dystonia, dysarthria, and retinal degeneration. Mutations in pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2), the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial coenzyme A biosynthesis, represent the most common genetic cause of this disorder. How mutations in this core metabolic enzyme give rise to such a broad clinical spectrum of pathology remains a mystery. To systematically explore its pathogenesis, we performed global metabolic profiling on plasma from a cohort of 14 genetically defined patients and 18 controls. Notably, lactate is elevated in PKAN patients, suggesting dysfunctional mitochondrial metabolism. As predicted, but never previously reported, pantothenate levels are higher in patients with premature stop mutations in PANK2. Global metabolic profiling and follow-up studies in patient-derived fibroblasts also reveal defects in bile acid conjugation and lipid metabolism, pathways that require coenzyme A. These findings raise a novel therapeutic hypothesis, namely, that dietary fats and bile acid supplements may hold potential as disease-modifying interventions. Our study illustrates the value of metabolic profiling as a tool for systematically exploring the biochemical basis of inherited metabolic diseases.

  16. Homocysteine Editing, Thioester Chemistry, Coenzyme A, and the Origin of Coded Peptide Synthesis †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Hieronim

    2017-02-09

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) have evolved "quality control" mechanisms which prevent tRNA aminoacylation with non-protein amino acids, such as homocysteine, homoserine, and ornithine, and thus their access to the Genetic Code. Of the ten AARSs that possess editing function, five edit homocysteine: Class I MetRS, ValRS, IleRS, LeuRS, and Class II LysRS. Studies of their editing function reveal that catalytic modules of these AARSs have a thiol-binding site that confers the ability to catalyze the aminoacylation of coenzyme A, pantetheine, and other thiols. Other AARSs also catalyze aminoacyl-thioester synthesis. Amino acid selectivity of AARSs in the aminoacyl thioesters formation reaction is relaxed, characteristic of primitive amino acid activation systems that may have originated in the Thioester World. With homocysteine and cysteine as thiol substrates, AARSs support peptide bond synthesis. Evolutionary origin of these activities is revealed by genomic comparisons, which show that AARSs are structurally related to proteins involved in coenzyme A/sulfur metabolism and non-coded peptide bond synthesis. These findings suggest that the extant AARSs descended from ancestral forms that were involved in non-coded Thioester-dependent peptide synthesis, functionally similar to the present-day non-ribosomal peptide synthetases.

  17. Homocysteine Editing, Thioester Chemistry, Coenzyme A, and the Origin of Coded Peptide Synthesis †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieronim Jakubowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs have evolved “quality control” mechanisms which prevent tRNA aminoacylation with non-protein amino acids, such as homocysteine, homoserine, and ornithine, and thus their access to the Genetic Code. Of the ten AARSs that possess editing function, five edit homocysteine: Class I MetRS, ValRS, IleRS, LeuRS, and Class II LysRS. Studies of their editing function reveal that catalytic modules of these AARSs have a thiol-binding site that confers the ability to catalyze the aminoacylation of coenzyme A, pantetheine, and other thiols. Other AARSs also catalyze aminoacyl-thioester synthesis. Amino acid selectivity of AARSs in the aminoacyl thioesters formation reaction is relaxed, characteristic of primitive amino acid activation systems that may have originated in the Thioester World. With homocysteine and cysteine as thiol substrates, AARSs support peptide bond synthesis. Evolutionary origin of these activities is revealed by genomic comparisons, which show that AARSs are structurally related to proteins involved in coenzyme A/sulfur metabolism and non-coded peptide bond synthesis. These findings suggest that the extant AARSs descended from ancestral forms that were involved in non-coded Thioester-dependent peptide synthesis, functionally similar to the present-day non-ribosomal peptide synthetases.

  18. Research on Screening of Coenzyme Q10 Production Strain and Coenzyme Q10 Quantification%辅酶Q10产生菌的筛选及产物的定量检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锐; 孙晓宇; 韩丽萍; 沈俭; 门欣; 路鹏鹏; 沈卫荣

    2012-01-01

    In order to Screen out coenzyme Q10 production strain from the saved yeast strains,the paper cultured yeast strain with wort medium and extracted coenzyme Q10 with the alkaline alcohol saponification processes,and then spectrophotometer and HPLC were used to analyze the quantificate of coenzyme Q10 in this thesis.Results showed that two strain could express coenzyme Q10:C.tropicalis(cast).Berkhout B021(7.420 mg/L),Schizosaccheromyces pombe Lindner B147(7.488 mg/L),respectively.%为了从实验室保存的酵母菌株中筛选产生辅酶Q10的菌株,采用麦芽汁培养酵母菌,皂化法萃取菌体中的辅酶Q10,可见光比色法和高压液相色谱法测定酵母菌中的辅酶Q10的含量。结果表明:筛选出2株较高产量的辅酶Q10产生菌,热带假丝酵母(C.tropicalis(cast).Berkhout)B021产量为7.420 mg/L、粟酒酵母(Schizosaccheromyces pombe Lindner)B147产量为7.488 mg/L。

  19. Voter-Weighted Environmental Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jason; Huber, Joel; Viscusi, W. Kip

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the political economy of preferences with respect to the environment using a new stated preference survey that presents the first benefit values for national water quality levels. The mean valuation greatly exceeds the median value, as the distribution of valuations is highly skewed. The study couples the survey valuations…

  20. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...

  1. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic models of congestion so far rely on exogenous scheduling preferences of travelers, based for example on disutility of deviation from a preferred departure or arrival time for a trip. This paper provides a more fundamental view in which travelers derive utility just from consumption and le...

  2. Do children prefer mentalistic descriptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rebecca A; Lillard, Angeline S

    2014-01-01

    Against a long tradition of childhood realism (Piaget, 1929), A. S. Lillard and J. H. Flavell (1990) found that 3-year-olds prefer to characterize people by their mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions) than by their visible behaviors. In this exploratory study, we extend this finding to a new cohort of 3-year-olds, examine how these preferences change from 3-4 years, and explore relationships with theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. The results showed a developmental change and a possible cohort difference: at 3 years, children in the sample preferred behavioral descriptions, although by 4 years of age, they preferred mentalistic ones. Interestingly, mentalistic preferences were unrelated to theory of mind or parental mind-mindedness, concurrently or over time. Perspective-taking skills at 3 years, however, predicted an increase in mentalistic responses from 3 years to 4 years. Possible explanations for each finding are discussed.

  3. The Impact of Coenzyme Q[subscript10] Supplement on the Indicators of Muscle Damage in Young Male Skiing Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nevzat

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to know the impact of coenzyme Q[subscript 10] (CoQ[subscript 10]) supplement on the muscle damage and total oxidant (TOS) enzyme levels of young skiing athletes during exercise. 15 male athletes were used for two weeks in the study. The athletes were divided into three groups: the control group and two subject…

  4. Rosuvastatin lowers coenzyme Q10 levels, but not mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthesis, in children with familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Avis; I.P. Hargreaves; J.P.N. Ruiter; J.M. Land; R.J. Wanders; F.A. Wijburg

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether statin therapy affects coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) status in children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Samples were obtained at baseline (treatment naïve) and after dose titration with rosuvastatin, aiming for a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 110 mg

  5. Lithium carbonate and coenzyme Q10 reduce cell death in a cell model of Machado-Joseph disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Lopes-Ramos

    Full Text Available Machado-Joseph disease (MJD or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of the polyglutamine domain of the ataxin-3 (ATX3 protein. MJD/SCA3 is the most frequent autosomal dominant ataxia in many countries. The mechanism underlying MJD/SCA3 is thought to be mainly related to protein misfolding and aggregation leading to neuronal dysfunction followed by cell death. Currently, there are no effective treatments for patients with MJD/SCA3. Here, we report on the potential use of lithium carbonate and coenzyme Q10 to reduce cell death caused by the expanded ATX3 in cell culture. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay and by flow cytometry after staining with annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide. Treatment with lithium carbonate and coenzyme Q10 led to a significant increase in viability of cells expressing expanded ATX3 (Q84. In addition, we found that the increase in cell viability resulted from a significant reduction in the proportion of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, there was a significant change in the expanded ATX3 monomer/aggregate ratio after lithium carbonate and coenzyme Q10 treatment, with an increase in the monomer fraction and decrease in aggregates. The safety and tolerance of both drugs are well established; thus, our results indicate that lithium carbonate and coenzyme Q10 are good candidates for further in vivo therapeutic trials.

  6. Regulation of 4CL, encoding 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase, expression in kenaf under diverse stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    We cloned the full length 4CL ortholog encoding 4-coumarate: coenzymeA ligase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabiuns) using degenerate primers and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) systems. The 4CL is a key regulatory enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway that regulates the activation of cinnamic ac...

  7. Engineering acetyl coenzyme A supply: functional expression of a bacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozak, B.U.; Van Rossum, M.H.; Luttik, M.A.; Akeroyd, M.; Benjamin, K.R.; Wu, L.; De Vries, S.; Daran, J.M.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been intr

  8. The Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Lipoic Acid Added to the Feed of Hens on Physical Characteristics of Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Terčič

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether inclusions of coenzyme Q10, alpha lipoic acid and their combination into diets of hens improve egg quality characteristics. Forty-eight, 33 weeks old Lohmann Brown hens were assigned randomly to four groups of 12 hens each and fed either a basal diet or basal diet supplemented with 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10, 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid and 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10 plus 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid. The diets were fed for 12 weeks. Eggs were weekly examined for interior or exterior quality characteristics. There were no effects of dietary treatments on egg shape index. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation resulted in a reduction in egg shell colour (darker shells and yolk colour (paler yolks and higher incidence of blood and meat spots, which reduce the internal quality of the egg. Alpha lipoic acid had no effect on egg weight, egg shell colour, egg shell density, egg shell weight, egg shell thickness, yolk colour, incidence of blood and meat spots but increased shell strength, albumen height and Haugh units values were noted. Egg shell strength for hens supplemented with alpha lipoic acid was greater than for control hens. The results of the experiment indicated that alpha lipoic acid supplementation to the diet of layers may be of practical value due to the increased egg shell strength and better albumen characteristics without any adverse effect on other egg quality traits.

  9. Amelioratory effect of coenzyme Q10 on potential human carcinogen Microcystin-LR induced toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Yaqoob; Bhide, Mangla; Koiri, Raj Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Microcystins are a group of cyclic heptapeptide toxins produced by cyanobacteria. More than 100 microcystin analogues have been detected, among which microcystin-LR is the most abundant and toxic variant. Present study was designed to reveal whether potential human carcinogen microcystin-LR could imbalance the glycolytic-oxidative-nitrosative status of heart, kidney and spleen of mice and also to explore the amelioratory effect of coenzyme Q10 on microcystin-LR induced toxicity. Microcystin-LR was administered at a dose of 10 μg/kg bw/day, ip for 14 days in male mice. In microcystin-LR treated mice as compared to control, significant increase in the level of lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, lactate dehydrogenase, nitric oxide with a concomitant decrease in the level of glutathione was observed, suggesting microcystin-LR induced toxicity via induction of oxidative-nitrosative-glycolytic pathway. Although several studies have evaluated numerous antioxidants but still there is no effective chemoprotectant against microcystin-LR induced toxicity. When microcystin-LR treated mice were co-administered coenzyme Q10 (10 mg/kg bw/day, im) for 14 days, it was observed that coenzyme Q10 ameliorates microcystin-LR induced toxicity via modulation of glycolytic-oxidative-nitrosative stress pathway. Thus, the results suggest that coenzyme Q10 has a potential to be developed as preventive agent against microcystin-LR induced toxicity.

  10. Engineering Acetyl Coenzyme A Supply: Functional Expression of a Bacterial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in the Cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozak, B.U.; Van Rossum, H.M.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Akeroyd, M.; Benjamin, K.R.; Wu, L.; De Vries, S.; Daran, J.M.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been intr

  11. Carcass Traits and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens Fed Dietary L-Carnitine, Coenzyme Q10 and Ractopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Asadi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine and ractopamine supplementation, alone and in combinations, on carcass traits and immune response of broiler chickens. Five hundred and twelve one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were randomly allocated into eight treatments with four replicates each. A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement was applied, with two levels of coenzyme Q10 (0 and 40 mg/kg, two levels of L-carnitine (0 and 200 mg/kg and two levels of ractopamine (0 and 10 mg/kg. The birds were reared until day 42 of age under standard conditions. Blood samples were collected at the end of grower and finisher periods from the wing vein. Four birds per group were sacrificed at day 42 of age. Except for carcass yield, other carcass traits were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by different levels of coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine, or ractopamine. Immune response parameters were significantly (p<0.05 different between the treatments. The lowest antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and relative spleen weight were observed in control group. The results of this study suggest that addition of coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine to broiler diets has benefit effect on immune response of broiler chickens.

  12. Music-induced context preference following cocaine conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polston, J E; Glick, S D

    2011-08-01

    Traditional models of drug-seeking behavior have shown that exposure to associated environmental cues can trigger relapse. These learned associations take place during repeated drug administration, resulting in conditioned reinforcement. Although considerable investigation has occurred regarding simple conditioned stimuli, less is known about complex environmental cues, particularly those that may be salient in human addiction. Recent studies indicate that music can serve as a contextual conditioned stimulus in rats and influence drug-seeking behavior during abstinence. The purpose of the present study was to further assess the effectiveness of music as a conditioned stimulus in rats, to determine rats' preferences for two contrasting pieces of music, and to determine rats' preferences for music versus silence. To this end, we created an apparatus that gave instrumental control of musical choice (Miles Davis vs. Beethoven) to the rats themselves. After determining baseline musical preference, animals were conditioned with cocaine (10 mg/kg) to the music they initially preferred least, with alternating conditioning sessions pairing saline with the music preferred most. The animals were subsequently tested in a drug-free state to determine what effect this conditioning had on musical preference. The results indicate that music serves as an effective contextual conditioned stimulus, significantly increasing both musical preference and locomotor activity after repeated cocaine conditioning. Furthermore, we found that rats initially favor silence over music, but that this preference can be altered as a result of cocaine-paired conditioning. These findings demonstrate that, after repeated association with reward (cocaine), music can engender a conditioned context preference in rats; these findings are consistent with other evidence showing that musical contextual cues can reinstate drug-seeking behavior in rats.

  13. Planning with Partial Preference Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Tuan; Gerevini, Alfonso; Serina, Ivan; Srivastava, Biplav; Kambhampati, Subbarao

    2011-01-01

    Current work in planning with preferences assume that the user's preference models are completely specified and aim to search for a single solution plan. In many real-world planning scenarios, however, the user probably cannot provide any information about her desired plans, or in some cases can only express partial preferences. In such situations, the planner has to present not only one but a set of plans to the user, with the hope that some of them are similar to the plan she prefers. We first propose the usage of different measures to capture quality of plan sets that are suitable for such scenarios: domain-independent distance measures defined based on plan elements (actions, states, causal links) if no knowledge of the user's preferences is given, and the Integrated Convex Preference measure in case the user's partial preference is provided. We then investigate various heuristic approaches to find set of plans according to these measures, and present empirical results demonstrating the promise of our app...

  14. Stated preference methods using R

    CERN Document Server

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Stated Preference Methods Using R explains how to use stated preference (SP) methods, which are a family of survey methods, to measure people's preferences based on decision making in hypothetical choice situations. Along with giving introductory explanations of the methods, the book collates information on existing R functions and packages as well as those prepared by the authors. It focuses on core SP methods, including contingent valuation (CV), discrete choice experiments (DCEs), and best-worst scaling (BWS). Several example data sets illustrate empirical applications of each method with R

  15. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...... pouches when cost is included as an attribute. A total of 254 patients responded to the survey and preferences were estimated using a random parameter logit econometric specification. Results: Respondents had significantly positive WTP for all potential attribute improvements presented in the survey...

  16. Preferences for Simultaneous Polydrug Use:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jeanette; Østergaard, Stine Vernstrøm; Fletcher, Adam

    2016-01-01

    use (PSPU) vary among club/bar-goers in two European countries, Denmark and England, typically cited as exemplars of the normalization of illegal drug use. The study considers the utility of the normalization thesis for understanding preferences for polydrug use in the European nighttime economy....... Lifetime cocaine use was 38% in England and 17% in Denmark. In England, young adults with drug experience preferred to mix alcohol with cocaine (65%). In Denmark, young adults with drug experience preferred to mix alcohol with cannabis (78%). In multinominal regression, Danish young adults’ educational...

  17. Therapeutic implication of coenzyme Q10 during statin therapy: pros and cons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir-Jamal Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is a vitamin-like substance, and a natural intermediate of electron transport chain (ETC of mitochondria which can accepts and donates electrons from complex I and complex II. CoQ10 shares a biosynthetic pathway with cholesterol and dolichol thus it can be a potential target of the widely available lipid-lowering drugs. The lipid lowering drugs such as statins, are widely administered to individuals who have high cholesterol levels. This article reviews the a clinical benefits of CoQ10 b association between administration of statin and CoQ10 deficiency and c involvement of CoQ10 in statin-associated myopathy.

  18. The radical mechanism of biological methane synthesis by methyl-coenzyme M reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongnate, T.; Sliwa, D.; Ginovska, B.; Smith, D.; Wolf, M. W.; Lehnert, N.; Raugei, S.; Ragsdale, S. W.

    2016-05-19

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), the rate-limiting enzyme in methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation, is responsible for the production of over one billion tons of methane per year. The mechanism of methane synthesis is unknown, with the two leading proposals involving either a methyl-nickel(III) (Mechanism I) or methyl radical/Ni(II)-thiolate (Mechanism II) intermediate(s). When the reaction between the active Ni(I) enzyme with substrates was studied by transient kinetic, spectroscopic and computational methods, formation of an EPR-silent Ni(II)-thiolate intermediate was positively identified by magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. There was no evidence for an EPR-active methyl-Ni(III) species. Temperature-dependent transient kinetic studies revealed that the activation energy for the initial catalytic step closely matched the value computed by density functional theory for Mechanism II. Thus, our results demonstrate that biological methane synthesis occurs by generation of a methyl radical.

  19. Application of NAD-dependent polyol dehydrogenases for enzymatic mannitol/sorbitol production with coenzyme regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, S; Arnaut, F; Soetaert, W; Vandamme, E J

    2003-01-01

    D-Mannitol and D-sorbitol were produced enzymatically from D-fructose using NAD-dependent polyol dehydrogenases. For the production of D-mannitol the Leuconostoc mesenteroides mannitol dehydrogenase could be used. Gluconobacter oxydans cell extract contained however both mannitol and sorbitol dehydrogenase. When this cell extract was used, the reduction of D-fructose resulted in a mixture of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol. To determine the optimal bioconversion conditions the polyol dehydrogenases were characterized towards pH- and temperature-optimum and -stability. As a compromise between enzyme activity and stability, the bioconversion reactions were performed at pH 6.5 and 25 degrees C. Since the polyol dehydrogenases are NADH-dependent, an efficient coenzyme regeneration was needed. Regeneration of NADH was accomplished by formate dehydrogenase-mediated oxidation of formate into CO2.

  20. [Coenzyme Q10--its importance, properties and use in nutrition and cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojerová, J

    2000-05-01

    Coenzyme Q10, or ubiquinone, is a nutrient--a vitamin-like substance which plays a crucial role in the generation of cellular energy an in free radical scavenging in the human body. After the age of 35 to 40, the organism begins to lose its ability to synthesize Co Q10 from food and its deficiency develops. Ageing, poor eating habits, stress and infection--they all affect our ability to provide adequate amounts of Co Q10. Therefore Co Q10 supplementation may be very helpful for the organism. The present summarizing study reports the history of the discovery and research, properties, biochemical effects, dosage of Co Q10 deficiency in the human body. A possible use of Co Q10 as a dietary supplement and an ingredient for topical cosmetic products is described.

  1. Factors affecting the palmitoyl-coenzyme A desaturase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C. M.

    1975-01-01

    The activity and stability of the palmitoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was influenced by several factors. Cells, grown nonaerobically and then incubated with glucose, either in air or under N2, showed a marked increase in desaturase activity. Cycloheximide, added during such incubations, prevented the increase in activity, suggesting de novo synthesis. The stability of the desaturase from cells grown nonaerobically was affected by subsequent treatment of the cells; enzyme from freshly harvested cells, or from cells that were then shaken under nitrogen, readily lost activity upon washing or during density gradient analysis, whereas aerated cells, in the presence or absence of glucose, yielded stable enzyme preparations. The loss of activity in nonaerobic preparations could be reversed by adding soluble supernatant from these homogenates and could be prevented by growing the cells in the presence of palmitoleic acid and ergosterol, but not with several other lipids tested.

  2. beta-hydroxyisobutyryl coenzyme A deacylase deficiency: a defect in valine metabolism associated with physical malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.K.; Hunt, S.M.; Scholem, R.; Fowler, K.; Grimes, A.; Mercer, J.F.; Truscott, R.M.; Cotton, R.G.; Rogers, J.G.; Danks, D.M.

    1982-10-01

    An infant, born to parents who were first cousins had multiple physical malformations. An associated biochemical abnormality was suggested by the urinary excretion of cysteine and cysteamine conjugates of methacrylic acid. The coenzyme A (CoA) ester of this compound is an intermediate in the pathway of valine oxidation. Subsequent investigation revealed a deficiency of beta-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA deacylase, an enzyme unique to valine metabolism. The enzyme defect results in accumulation of methacrylyl-CoA, a highly reactive compound, which readily undergoes addition reactions with free sulfhydryl groups. Tissue damage due to reactions between methacrylyl-CoA and important sulfhydryl-containing enzymes and cofactors may account for the teratogenic effects seen in this patient.

  3. Localization of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase as Metabolic Marker for Diverse Methanogenic Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wrede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methyl-Coenzyme M reductase (MCR as key enzyme for methanogenesis as well as for anaerobic oxidation of methane represents an important metabolic marker for both processes in microbial biofilms. Here, the potential of MCR-specific polyclonal antibodies as metabolic marker in various methanogenic Archaea is shown. For standard growth conditions in laboratory culture, the cytoplasmic localization of the enzyme in Methanothermobacter marburgensis, Methanothermobacter wolfei, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanosarcina mazei, and in anaerobically methane-oxidizing biofilms is demonstrated. Under growth limiting conditions on nickel-depleted media, at low linear growth of cultures, a fraction of 50–70% of the enzyme was localized close to the cytoplasmic membrane, which implies “facultative” membrane association of the enzyme. This feature may be also useful for assessment of growth-limiting conditions in microbial biofilms.

  4. The reaction mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: how an enzyme enforces strict binding order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2015-04-10

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is a nickel tetrahydrocorphinoid (coenzyme F430) containing enzyme involved in the biological synthesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR catalyzes the conversion of methyl-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (methyl-SCoM) and N-7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (CoB7SH) to CH4 and the mixed disulfide CoBS-SCoM. In this study, the reaction of MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis, with its native substrates was investigated using static binding, chemical quench, and stopped-flow techniques. Rate constants were measured for each step in this strictly ordered ternary complex catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, in the absence of the other substrate, MCR can bind either substrate; however, only one binary complex (MCR·methyl-SCoM) is productive whereas the other (MCR·CoB7SH) is inhibitory. Moreover, the kinetic data demonstrate that binding of methyl-SCoM to the inhibitory MCR·CoB7SH complex is highly disfavored (Kd = 56 mM). However, binding of CoB7SH to the productive MCR·methyl-SCoM complex to form the active ternary complex (CoB7SH·MCR(Ni(I))·CH3SCoM) is highly favored (Kd = 79 μM). Only then can the chemical reaction occur (kobs = 20 s(-1) at 25 °C), leading to rapid formation and dissociation of CH4 leaving the binary product complex (MCR(Ni(II))·CoB7S(-)·SCoM), which undergoes electron transfer to regenerate Ni(I) and the final product CoBS-SCoM. This first rapid kinetics study of MCR with its natural substrates describes how an enzyme can enforce a strictly ordered ternary complex mechanism and serves as a template for identification of the reaction intermediates.

  5. Methyl-coenzyme M reductase A as an indicator to estimate methane production from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinaga Casañas, M A; Rangkasenee, N; Krattenmacher, N; Thaller, G; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B

    2015-06-01

    The evaluation of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies requires the quantitative assessment of individual methane production. Because methane measurement in respiration chambers is highly accurate, but also comprises various disadvantages such as limited capacity and high costs, the establishment of an indicator for estimating methane production of individual ruminants would provide an alternative to direct methane measurement. Methyl-coenzyme M reductase is involved in methanogenesis and the subunit α of methyl-coenzyme M reductase is encoded by the mcrA gene of rumen archaea. We therefore examined the relationship between methane emissions of Holstein dairy cows measured in respiration chambers with 2 different diets (high- and medium-concentrate diet) and the mcrA DNA and mcrA cDNA abundance determined from corresponding rumen fluid samples. Whole-body methane production per kilogram of dry matter intake and mcrA DNA normalized to the abundance of the rrs gene coding for 16S rRNA correlated significantly when using qmcrA primers. Use of qmcrA primers also revealed linear correlation between mcrA DNA copy number and methane yield. Regression analyses based on normalized mcrA cDNA abundances revealed no significant linear correlation with methane production per kilogram of dry matter intake. Furthermore, the correlations between normalized mcrA DNA abundance and the rumen fluid concentration of acetic and isobutyric acid were positive, whereas the correlations with propionic and lactic acid were negative. These data suggest that the mcrA DNA approach based on qmcrA primers could potentially be a molecular proxy for methane yield after further refinement.

  6. TD-DFT Insight into Photodissociation of Co-C Bond in Coenzyme B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Pawel; Liu, Hui; Kornobis, Karina; Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Coenzyme B12 (AdoCbl) is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin B12, and continues to be a topic of active research interest. The mechanism of Co-C bond cleavage in AdoCbl, and the corresponding enzymatic reactions are however, not well understood at the molecular level. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been applied to investigate the photodissociation of coenzyme B12. To reduce computational cost, while retaining the major spectroscopic features of AdoCbl, a truncated model based on ribosylcobalamin (RibCbl) was used to simulate Co-C photodissociation. Equilibrium geometries of RibCbl were obtained by optimization at the DFT/BP86/TZVP level of theory, and low-lying excited states were calculated by TD-DFT using the same functional and basis set. The calculated singlet states, and absorption spectra were simulated in both the gas phase, and water, using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). Both spectra were in reasonable agreement with experimental data, and potential energy curves based on vertical excitations were plotted to explore the nature of Co-C bond dissociation. It was found that a repulsive 3(σCo-C → σ*Co-C) triplet state became dissociative at large Co-C bond distance, similar to a previous observation for methylcobalamin (MeCbl). Furthermore, potential energy surfaces (PESs) obtained as a function of both Co-CRib and Co-NIm distances, identify the S1 state as a key intermediate generated during photoexcitation of RibCbl, attributed to a mixture of a MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) and a σ bonding-ligand charge transfer (SBLCT) states.

  7. Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on Acute Pulmonary Damage Following the Experimental Thoracic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Koyuncu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Pulmonary contusion negatively affects prognosis in the case of damages following a trauma. Objective of this experimental study performed in Turkey was to evaluate effects of coenzyme Q10 on primary and secondary damages of pulmonary contusion following experimental thoracic blunt trauma using biochemical and histopathological parameters. Material and Method: A total of 56 Wistar Albino female rats with a mean weight of 205±45 g were included in this study. Rats were randomly divided into seven groups with each group having eight rats. A trauma device which consisted of a fixed platform, and an aluminium tube was prepared. Rats were administered 2.45 J of chest impact energy in order to generate pulmonary contusion. Control and Study groups were named according to the sacrificed time. No process (trauma and/or medication was performed in the sham group, while only trauma was induced in the controls. On the other hand, after induced trauma, intraperitoneal Q10 (0. - 24. - 48. hours was administered to study group. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the after trauma 24, 48 and 72 hours, and their blood and lung tissue samples were analyzed. Results: No significant difference was found between sham and Study-72 groups in terms of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. On the histopathological examination, no significant difference was found between study and control groups. While no significant difference was found between the sham and study groups, significant difference was observed between sham and control groups. Discussion: Coenzyme Q10, an antioxidant agent, can be used as an antioxidant agent in order to reduce the secondary damage in blunt thoracic trauma.

  8. Linkage of subunit interactions, structural changes, and energetics of coenzyme binding in tryptophan synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, H; Hinz, H J

    1984-10-09

    The energetics of binding of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) to both the apo beta 2 subunit and the apo alpha 2 beta 2 complex of tryptophan synthase from Escherichia coli has been investigated as a function of pH and temperature by direct microcalorimetric methods. At 25 degrees C, pH 7.5, the binding process proceeds in the time range of minutes and shows a biphasic heat output which permits resolution of the overall reaction into different reaction steps. Binding studies on the coenzyme analogues pyridoxal (PAL), pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP), and pyridoxine (POL) to the protein as well as a comparison of these results with data from studies on PLP binding to epsilon-aminocaproic acid have led to a deconvolution of the complex heat vs. time curves into fast endothermic contributions from electrostatic interaction and Schiff base formation and slow exothermic contributions from the interactions between PLP and the binding domain. The pH-independent, large negative change in heat capacity of about -9.1 kJ/(mol of beta 2 X K) when binding PLP to beta 2 is indicative of major structural changes resulting from complex formation. The much smaller value of delta Cp = -1.7 kJ/(mol of beta 2 X K) for binding of PLP to alpha 2 beta 2 clearly demonstrates the energetic linkage of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. Calorimetric titrations of the apo beta 2 subunit with PLP at 35 degrees C have shown that also at this temperature positive cooperativity between the two binding sites occurs. On the basis of these measurements a complete set of site-specific thermodynamic parameters has been established.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Modulates NFκB and Nrf2 Pathways in Exercise Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragip Pala, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Shakir Ali, Vedat Cinar, Mustafa Atalay, Kazim Sahin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effects of Q10, coenzyme Q10 or ubiquinone, a component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, on nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB, inhibitors of kappa B (IκB, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 and hemeoxygenase 1 (HO-1 in rats after chronic exercise training for 6 weeks. 8-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to one of four treatments planned in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of two condition (sedentary vs. exercise training, and two coenzyme Q10 levels (0 and 300 mg/kg per day for 6 weeks. The expression levels of the target proteins were determined in the heart, liver and muscle, and biochemical parameters including creatinine, urea, glucose and lipid profile were investigated in plasma. When compared with sedentary group, significant decreases in heart, liver and muscle NFκB levels by 45%, 26% and 44% were observed in Q10 supplemented rats after exercise training, respectively, while the inhibitory protein IκB increased by 179%, 111% and 127% in heart, liver and muscle tissues. Q10 supplementation caused an increase in Nrf2 (167%, 165% and 90% and HO-1 (107%, 156% and 114% after exercise training in heart, liver and muscle tissues (p < 0.05. No significant change was observed in any of the parameters associated with protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, except that exercise caused a decrease in plasma triglyceride, which was further decreased by Q10. In conclusion, these results suggest that Q10 modulates the expression of NFκB, IκB, Nrf2 and HO-1 in exercise training, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect of Q10 and emphasizes its role in antioxidant defense.

  10. Substrate-induced radical formation in 4-hydroxybutyryl coenzyme A dehydratase from Clostridium aminobutyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Friedrich, Peter; Pierik, Antonio J; Martins, Berta M; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    4-Hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydratase (4HBD) from Clostridium aminobutyricum catalyzes the reversible dehydration of 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA and the irreversible isomerization of vinylacetyl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA. 4HBD is an oxygen-sensitive homotetrameric enzyme with one [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster and one flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in each subunit. Upon the addition of crotonyl-CoA or the analogues butyryl-CoA, acetyl-CoA, and CoA, UV-visible light and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy revealed an internal one-electron transfer to FAD and the [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster prior to hydration. We describe an active recombinant 4HBD and variants produced in Escherichia coli. The variants of the cluster ligands (H292C [histidine at position 292 is replaced by cysteine], H292E, C99A, C103A, and C299A) had no measurable dehydratase activity and were composed of monomers, dimers, and tetramers. Variants of other potential catalytic residues were composed only of tetramers and exhibited either no measurable (E257Q, E455Q, and Y296W) hydratase activity or FADH·, aided by protonation from E257 via T190. In contrast to FADH·, the tyrosyl radical could not be detected by EPR spectroscopy. FADH· appears to initiate the radical dehydration via an allylic ketyl radical that was proposed 19 years ago. The mode of radical generation in 4HBD is without precedent in anaerobic radical chemistry. It differs largely from that in enzymes, which use coenzyme B12, S-adenosylmethionine, ATP-driven electron transfer, or flavin-based electron bifurcation for this purpose.

  11. Cultural legacies and political preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David; Mueller, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The study of secession generally stresses the causal influence of cultural identities, political preferences, or ecological factors. Whereas these different views are often considered to be mutually exclusive, this paper proposes a two-stage model in which they are complementary. We posit...... that cultural identities matter for explaining secessionism, but not because of primordial attachments. Rather, religious and linguistic groups matter because their members are imbued with cultural legacies that lead to distinct political preferences – in this case preferences over welfare statism. Further......, ecological constraints such as geography and topography affect social interaction with like-minded individuals. On the basis of both these political preferences and ecological constraints, individuals then make rational choices about the desirability of secession. Instrumental considerations are therefore...

  12. Preferences With Grades of Indecisiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Minardi; Andrei Savochkin

    2013-01-01

    Departing from the traditional approach to modeling an agent who finds it difficult to make clear-cut comparisons between alternatives, we introduce the notion of graded preferences: Given two alternatives, the agent reports a number between 0 and 1, which reflects her inclination to prefer the first option over the second or, put differently, how confident she is about the superiority of the first one. In the classical framework of uncertainty, we derive a representation of a graded preferen...

  13. Preferred extensions as stable models

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Given an argumentation framework AF, we introduce a mapping function that constructs a disjunctive logic program P, such that the preferred extensions of AF correspond to the stable models of P, after intersecting each stable model with the relevant atoms. The given mapping function is of polynomial size w.r.t. AF. In particular, we identify that there is a direct relationship between the minimal models of a propositional formula and the preferred extensions of an argumentation framework by w...

  14. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  15. Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sébastien C.; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Simcock, Kerry L.; Derveau, Sophie; Mitchell, Jessica; Softley, Samantha; Stout, Jane C.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2015-05-01

    The impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators is highly controversial. Sublethal concentrations alter the behaviour of social bees and reduce survival of entire colonies. However, critics argue that the reported negative effects only arise from neonicotinoid concentrations that are greater than those found in the nectar and pollen of pesticide-treated plants. Furthermore, it has been suggested that bees could choose to forage on other available flowers and hence avoid or dilute exposure. Here, using a two-choice feeding assay, we show that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, do not avoid nectar-relevant concentrations of three of the most commonly used neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMD), thiamethoxam (TMX), and clothianidin (CLO), in food. Moreover, bees of both species prefer to eat more of sucrose solutions laced with IMD or TMX than sucrose alone. Stimulation with IMD, TMX and CLO neither elicited spiking responses from gustatory neurons in the bees' mouthparts, nor inhibited the responses of sucrose-sensitive neurons. Our data indicate that bees cannot taste neonicotinoids and are not repelled by them. Instead, bees preferred solutions containing IMD or TMX, even though the consumption of these pesticides caused them to eat less food overall. This work shows that bees cannot control their exposure to neonicotinoids in food and implies that treating flowering crops with IMD and TMX presents a sizeable hazard to foraging bees.

  16. Influence of branding on preference-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philiastides, Marios G; Ratcliff, Roger

    2013-07-01

    Branding has become one of the most important determinants of consumer choices. Intriguingly, the psychological mechanisms of how branding influences decision making remain elusive. In the research reported here, we used a preference-based decision-making task and computational modeling to identify which internal components of processing are affected by branding. We found that a process of noisy temporal integration of subjective value information can model preference-based choices reliably and that branding biases are explained by changes in the rate of the integration process itself. This result suggests that branding information and subjective preference are integrated into a single source of evidence in the decision-making process, thereby altering choice behavior.

  17. Patient Admission Preferences and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Clayton; Melnikow, Joy; Dinh, Tu; Holmes, James F.; Gaona, Samuel D.; Bottyan, Thomas; Paterniti, Debora; Nishijima, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding patient perceptions and preferences of hospital care is important to improve patients’ hospitalization experiences and satisfaction. The objective of this study was to investigate patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care, specifically differences between intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital floor admissions. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of emergency department (ED) patients who were presented with a hypothetical scenario of a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We surveyed their preferences and perceptions of hospital care related to this scenario. A closed-ended questionnaire provided quantitative data on patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care and an open-ended questionnaire evaluated factors that may not have been captured with the closed-ended questionnaire. Results Out of 302 study patients, the ability for family and friends to visit (83%), nurse availability (80%), and physician availability (79%) were the factors most commonly rated “very important,” while the cost of hospitalization (62%) and length of hospitalization (59%) were the factors least commonly rated “very important.” When asked to choose between the ICU and the floor if they were the patient in the scenario, 33 patients (10.9%) choose the ICU, 133 chose the floor (44.0%), and 136 (45.0%) had no preference. Conclusion Based on a hypothetical scenario of mild TBI, the majority of patients preferred admission to the floor or had no preference compared to admission to the ICU. Humanistic factors such as the availability of doctors and nurses and the ability to interact with family appear to have a greater priority than systematic factors of hospitalization, such as length and cost of hospitalization or length of time in the ED waiting for an in-patient bed. PMID:26587095

  18. I choose, therefore I like: preference for faces induced by arbitrary choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo Nakamura

    Full Text Available Behavioral choice alters one's preference rather than simply reflecting it. This effect to fit preferences with past choice, is known as "choice-induced preference change." After making a choice between two equally attractive options, one tends to rate the chosen option better than they initially did and/or the unchosen option worse. The present study examined how behavioral choice changes subsequent preference, using facial images for the choice options as well as blind choice techniques. Participants rated their facial preference for each face, and chose between two equally preferred faces and subsequently rated their facial preference. Results from four experiments demonstrated that randomly chosen faces were more preferred only after participants were required to choose "a preferred face," (in Experiment 1 but not "an unpreferred face," (in Experiment 2 or "a rounder face" (in Experiment 3. Further, preference change was still observed after participants were informed that choices were actually random (in Experiment 4. Our findings provide new and important implications characterizing the conditions under which random choice changes preference, and show that people are tempted to make a biased evaluation even after they know that they did not make the choice for themselves.

  19. Does Preference for Abstract Patterns Relate to Information Processing and Perceived Duration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Palumbo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive prestimulation, in the form of click trains, is known to alter a wide range of cognitive and perceptual judgments. To date, no research has explored whether click trains also influence subjective preferences. This is plausible because preference is related to perceptual fluency and clicks may increase fluency, or, because preference is related to arousal and clicks may increase arousal. In Experiment 1, participants heard a click train, white noise, or silence through headphones and then saw an abstract symmetrical pattern on the screen for 0.5, 1, or 1.5 s. They rated the pattern on a 7-point scale. Click trains had no effect on preference ratings, although patterns that lasted longer were preferred. In Experiment 2, we again presented a click train, silence, or white noise but included both symmetrical and random patterns. Participants made both a duration and a preference judgment on every trial. Auditory click trains increased perceived duration, and symmetrical patterns were perceived as lasting longer than random patterns. Again there was no effect of auditory click trains on preference, and again patterns that were presented for longer were preferred. We conclude that click trains alter perceptual and cognitive processes, but not preferences. This helps clarify the nature of the click train effect and shows which predictions implicit in the existing literature are supported.

  20. Comparative evaluation of co-enzyme Q10 and Melaleuca alternifolia as antioxidant gels in treatment of chronic periodontitis: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Chetan Purushottam Raut; Kunal S Sethi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conventional nonsurgical periodontal therapy has been proven to be an effective treatment for patients with chronic periodontitis. Coenzyme Q10 and tea tree oil (TTO) are known to have potential therapeutic benefits in chronic periodontitis. Aims: The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of Coenzyme Q10 (Perio Q® ) and tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Patient...

  1. Why do women not prefer much older men? a hypothesis based on alterations in male reproductive physiology related to increased age Por que mulheres não preferem homens muito mais velhos que elas? uma hipótese baseada em alterações da fisiologia reprodutiva masculina relacionadas ao aumento da idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Helena Pinheiro Spinelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Psychology studies suggest that women prefer slightly older or similarly aged partners, although to date few hypotheses have been put forth to explain this pattern of choice. Several recent studies have shown changes in male reproductive parameters as a result of increased age. In the current review of medical literature, we found evidence that much older men are more likely to be infertile, women with much older partners are more likely to experience problems during pregnancy, and children of much older men are more likely to have genetic abnormalities. Based on these findings, we suggest that reproducing with much older men does not represent the best reproductive option for women, which would explain the female preference for only slightly older or similarly-aged mates.Estudos de Psicologia Evolucionista sugerem que as mulheres preferem parceiros um pouco mais velhos ou de idade semelhante, embora apresentem, até agora, poucas hipóteses para explicar esse padrão de preferência. Recentemente, vários estudos têm demonstrado alterações nos parâmetros reprodutivos masculinos como resultado do aumento da idade. Em revisão da literatura médica atual, encontramos evidências de que homens muito mais velhos são mais susceptíveis de serem inférteis, mulheres com parceiros muito mais velhos são mais propensas a sofrer com problemas durante a gravidez e filhos de homens muito mais velhos são mais propensos a ter anomalias genéticas. Com base nestes resultados, sugerimos que reproduzir com homens muito mais velhos não representa a melhor opção reprodutiva para as mulheres, o que explicaria a preferência feminina por parceiros apenas um pouco mais velhos ou de mesma faixa etária.

  2. The allometry of prey preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Kalinkat

    Full Text Available The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems.

  3. Preference pulses induced by reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Eight rats responded on concurrent Variable-Ratio 20 Extinction schedules for food reinforcement. The assignment of variable-ratio reinforcement to a left or right lever varied randomly following each reinforcer, and was cued by illumination of a stimulus light above that lever. Postreinforcement preference levels decreased substantially and reliably over time when the lever that just delivered reinforcement was now in extinction; however, if that lever was once again associated with variable ratio, this decrease in same-lever preference tended to be small, and for some subjects, not in evidence. The changes in preference level to the extinction lever were well described by a modified version of Killeen, Hanson, and Osborne's (1978) induction model. Consistent with this model's attribution of preference change to induction, we attribute preference change in this report to a brief period of reinforcer-induced arousal that energizes responding to the lever that delivered the last reinforcer. After a few seconds, this induced responding diminishes, and the operant responding that remains comes under the control of the stimulus light cuing the lever providing variable-ratio reinforcement.

  4. The Protective Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Coenzyme Q10 Combination on Ovarian Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Tuncer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to evaluate whether alpha-lipoic acid and/or coenzyme Q10 can protect the prepubertal ovarian tissue from ischemia-reperfusion injury in an experimental rat model of ovarian torsion. Materials and Methods. Forty-two female preadolescent Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 6 equal groups randomly. The sham group had laparotomy without torsion; the other groups had torsion/detorsion procedure. After undergoing torsion, group 2 received saline, group 3 received olive oil, group 4 received alpha-lipoic acid, group 5 received coenzyme Q10, and group 6 received both alpha-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 orally. The oxidant-antioxidant statuses of these groups were compared using biochemical measurement of oxidized/reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde, pathological evaluation of damage and apoptosis within the ovarian tissue, and immunohistochemical assessment of nitric oxide synthase. Results. The left ovaries of the alpha-lipoic acid + coenzyme Q10 group had significantly lower apoptosis scores and significantly higher nitric oxide synthase content than the left ovaries of the control groups. The alpha-lipoic acid + coenzyme Q10 group had significantly higher glutathione peroxidase levels and serum malondialdehyde concentrations than the sham group. Conclusions. The combination of alpha-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 has beneficial effects on oxidative stress induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury related to ovarian torsion.

  5. Preferred extensions as stable models

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, Juan Carlos; Cortés, Ulises

    2008-01-01

    Given an argumentation framework AF, we introduce a mapping function that constructs a disjunctive logic program P, such that the preferred extensions of AF correspond to the stable models of P, after intersecting each stable model with the relevant atoms. The given mapping function is of polynomial size w.r.t. AF. In particular, we identify that there is a direct relationship between the minimal models of a propositional formula and the preferred extensions of an argumentation framework by working on representing the defeated arguments. Then we show how to infer the preferred extensions of an argumentation framework by using UNSAT algorithms and disjunctive stable model solvers. The relevance of this result is that we define a direct relationship between one of the most satisfactory argumentation semantics and one of the most successful approach of non-monotonic reasoning i.e., logic programming with the stable model semantics.

  6. Reader preference for report typefaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M B; Daglish, H N; Adams, J A

    1979-06-01

    A postal survey of typeface preference is described. The survey was designed to help in the choice of typeface to be used for the internal technical Reports produced by the Post Office Research Department. Type setting for these Reports is carried out using an IBM Selectric Composer for which seven typefaces suitable for reports are available. One hundred and twenty-five people who regularly receive copies of these Reports and 57 Trainee Technicians (Apprentices) were asked to arrange these seven typefaces in order of preference and record this ranking on a response sheet. About 85% of both groups returned response sheets for statistical analysis. The results showed a significant preference for three of the typefaces: Press Roman, Theme and Univers. Of these, Press Roman is used for the text of Research Department Reports and Univers is used on diagrams and tables.

  7. Gender Differences in Investment Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Bayyurt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explore how women and men differ in their individual investment preferences. Although there are some studies for the investors in developed countries, the subject has been overlooked in emerging and underdeveloped countries. Therefore, this study is the first empirical study exploring the investment behaviors of women and men by focusing on an emerging country, Turkey. For the purpose to find out how investment preferences of men and women differ towards six investment tools, namely, gold, foreign currency, funds, common stocks, real estates, and time deposits, a discriminant analysis and a logistic regression were exercised. The results revealed that while men investors prefer common stocks and real estate to invest women investors are more risk averse and invest fund, time deposit and gold. There is no significant difference between men and women in foreign currency investment.

  8. Gender Differences in Investment Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Bayyurt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explore how women and men differ in their individual investment preferences. Although there are some studies for the investors in developed countries, the subject has been overlooked in emerging and underdeveloped countries. Therefore, this study is the first empirical study exploring the investment behaviors of women and men by focusing on an emerging country, Turkey. For the purpose to find out how investment preferences of men and women differ towards six investment tools, namely, gold, foreign currency, funds, common stocks, real estates, and time deposits, a discriminant analysis and a logistic regression were exercised. The results revealed that while men investors prefer common stocks and real estate to invest women investors are more risk averse and invest fund, time deposit and gold. There is no significant difference between men and women in foreign currency investment.

  9. Coenzyme F430, quantification and isotope analysis from the Eel River Basin California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, L. R.; Fulton, J. M.; Dawson, K.; Orphan, V. J.; Freeman, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    Large amounts of methane are oxidized by communities of methanotrophic archaea and sulphate-reducing bacteria, preventing this greenhouse gas from reaching the atmosphere (Orphan et al., 2001; Scheller et al., 2010). Methyl-coenzyme M reductase, an enzyme traditionally associated with methanogenesis, has recently been linked to the anaerobic oxidation of methane suggesting methane oxidation follows a pathway similar to reverse methanogenesis. Coenzyme F430, a tetrapyrrole-nickel complex within the active site of methyl-coenzyme M, is used in methanogenesis and is hypothesized to play a key role in archaeal methanotrophy (Scheller et al., 2010). We recently developed a method to extract and isolate F430 from natural sediments so it can be purified for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Sediments are extracted using an ultrasonic homogenizer, first in water (pH 7), then twice in dilute formic acid (pH 3). The combined extract is neutralized and the F430-containing fraction is isolated using Sephadex and Amberlite column chromatography. Further purification is performed using two dimensional high performance liquid chromatography, first with a reverse phase C-18 column followed by separation on a ThermoFisher Hypercarb column. F430 is then quantified using photo diode array detection with fractions collected for isotope analysis using a nano-scale elemental analyzer isotope ratio mass spectrometer (nano-EA-IRMS; Polissar et al., 2009). Compound identity and purity are confirmed using molar C:N ratios, UV absorbance and MSn detection of the parent ion (m/z 905). Here, we report F430 concentrations and isotopic data determined from active seep sediment cores from the Eel River Basin (California), a site where the anoxic oxidation of methane occurs. A spike in the concentration of F430 is observed at the 3-6 cm depth horizon corresponding with peak abundance in ANME-2/Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus aggregate counts. Carbon isotope values of F430 are significantly

  10. Matching Learner Preference to Preferred Amounts of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; And Others

    Some research indicates that individuals learn more when given control over their instruction, while other data suggests that individuals learn less effectively when given control over their instruction. This document describes a study which investigated the effects of matching university-level learners with the amount of instruction they prefer.…

  11. Effect of particle size on solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability: evaluation using coenzyme Q10 as naked nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jiao Sun,1 Fan Wang,1,2 Yue Sui,1 Zhennan She,1 Wenjun Zhai,1 Chunling Wang,1 Yihui Deng11College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China; 2Beijing Zhijianjinrui Applied Pharmaceutical Science Inc, Beijing, ChinaAbstract: In this paper work, four naked nanocrystals (size range 80–700 nm were prepared without any surfactant or polymer using the solvent/nonsolvent method. The effects of particle size on their solubility, dissolution, and oral bioavailability were investigated. Solubility and dissolution testing were performed in three types of dissolution medium, and the studies demonstrated that the equilibrium solubilities of coenzyme Q10 nanocrystals and bulk drugs were not affected by the dissolution media but the kinetic solubilities were. Kinetic solubility curves and changes in particle size distribution were determined and well explained by the proposed solubilization model for the nanocrystals and bulk drugs. The particle size effect on dissolution was clearly influenced by the diffusion coefficients of the various dissolution media, and the dissolution velocity of coenzyme Q10 increased as particle size decreased. The bioavailability of coenzyme Q10 after oral administration in beagle dogs was improved by reducing the particle size. For 700 nm nanocrystals, the AUC0–48 was 4.4-fold greater than that for the coarse suspensions, but a further decrease in particle size from 700 nm to 120 nm did not contribute to improvement in bioavailability until the particle size was reduced to 80 nm, when bioavailability was increased by 7.3-fold.Keywords: particle size, solubility, dissolution, nanocrystal, bioavailability, coenzyme Q10

  12. Probing the molecular determinants of coenzyme selectivity in the P450 BM3 FAD/NADPH domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Adrian J; Girvan, Hazel M; Scrutton, Nigel S; Munro, Andrew W

    2009-08-01

    Bacillus megaterium P450 BM3 (BM3) is an NAD(P)H-binding diflavin reductase exhibiting substantial coenzyme specificity for NADPH over NADH. The side chains of serine 965, arginine 966 and lysine 972 in its FAD-binding domain bind the NADPH 2'-phosphate. Optical, kinetic and thermodynamic properties of S965A, R966A and K972A FAD domains were analyzed singly and combined with the FAD-shielding W1046A mutation. Steady-state and stopped-flow kinetic studies demonstrated substantially decreased NADPH affinity versus wild-type (WT) FAD domain (146-fold for the S965A K(d)). Considerable catalytic efficiency increases (the ratio of specificity constants, k(cat)/K(m), for the coenzymes) with NADH were observed for each point mutant over WT (570-fold in K972A), along with increased rates of NADH-dependent FAD reduction (k(lim) elevated 5.2-fold in R966A). In combination with W1046A, considerable (37 to 56-fold) improvements over WT were seen in the k(lim) parameters with NADH for all double mutants. Each 2'-phosphate binding point mutant produced large increases in FAD potential (111 mV in R966A), despite large distances between these residues and the FAD isoalloxazine ring (18-21 A), suggesting long range conformational influences on FAD environment. The W1046A/K972A mutant abolished NADPH selectivity (8340-fold coenzyme selectivity switch towards NADH), with ramifications for BM3's biotechnological exploitation using the cheaper NADH coenzyme.

  13. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition.

  14. The value of customer preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  15. [Study on preferred retinal locus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bing-Fa; Hu, Jian-Min; Xu, Duan-Lian

    2012-03-01

    Preferred retinal locus (PRL) is always found in the age-related macular degeneration and other macular damages in patients with low vision, and it is a very important anatomic position in patients with central vision impairment to achieve the rehabilitation. In recent years, the training of preferred retinal locus (PRL) has become a research hotspot of low vision rehabilitation, it can clearly improve functional vision and quality of life. The authors reviewed relevant literatures, and summarized the definition, position, characteristics, training and clinical implications of the PRL.

  16. A nickel hydride complex in the active site of methyl-coenzyme m reductase: implications for the catalytic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Jeffrey; Finazzo, Cinzia; Piskorski, Rafal; Ebner, Sieglinde; Duin, Evert C; Goenrich, Meike; Thauer, Rudolf K; Reiher, Markus; Schweiger, Arthur; Hinderberger, Dariush; Jaun, Bernhard

    2008-08-20

    Methanogenic archaea utilize a specific pathway in their metabolism, converting C1 substrates (i.e., CO2) or acetate to methane and thereby providing energy for the cell. Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the key step in the process, namely methyl-coenzyme M (CH3-S-CoM) plus coenzyme B (HS-CoB) to methane and CoM-S-S-CoB. The active site of MCR contains the nickel porphinoid F430. We report here on the coordinated ligands of the two paramagnetic MCR red2 states, induced when HS-CoM (a reversible competitive inhibitor) and the second substrate HS-CoB or its analogue CH3-S-CoB are added to the enzyme in the active MCR red1 state (Ni(I)F430). Continuous wave and pulse EPR spectroscopy are used to show that the MCR red2a state exhibits a very large proton hyperfine interaction with principal values A((1)H) = [-43,-42,-5] MHz and thus represents formally a Ni(III)F430 hydride complex formed by oxidative addition to Ni(I). In view of the known ability of nickel hydrides to activate methane, and the growing body of evidence for the involvement of MCR in "reverse" methanogenesis (anaerobic oxidation of methane), we believe that the nickel hydride complex reported here could play a key role in helping to understand both the mechanism of "reverse" and "forward" methanogenesis.

  17. Drug Preferences of Multiple Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Examined drug preferences of a group of active multiple drug abusers referred for treatment. Nearly half the respondents preferred drugs other than type they most frequently used. Preferences were related to method of administration. Results suggest preference is one among several determinants of drug use. (Author/BEF)

  18. On the mechanism of biological methane formation: structural evidence for conformational changes in methyl-coenzyme M reductase upon substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarse, W; Mahlert, F; Duin, E C; Goubeaud, M; Shima, S; Thauer, R K; Lamzin, V; Ermler, U

    2001-05-25

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the final reaction of the energy conserving pathway of methanogenic archaea in which methylcoenzyme M and coenzyme B are converted to methane and the heterodisulfide CoM-S-S-CoB. It operates under strictly anaerobic conditions and contains the nickel porphinoid F430 which is present in the nickel (I) oxidation state in the active enzyme. The known crystal structures of the inactive nickel (II) enzyme in complex with coenzyme M and coenzyme B (MCR-ox1-silent) and in complex with the heterodisulfide CoM-S-S-CoB (MCR-silent) were now refined at 1.16 A and 1.8 A resolution, respectively. The atomic resolution structure of MCR-ox1-silent describes the exact geometry of the cofactor F430, of the active site residues and of the modified amino acid residues. Moreover, the observation of 18 Mg2+ and 9 Na+ ions at the protein surface of the 300 kDa enzyme specifies typical constituents of binding sites for either ion. The MCR-silent and MCR-ox1-silent structures differed in the occupancy of bound water molecules near the active site indicating that a water chain is involved in the replenishment of the active site with water molecules. The structure of the novel enzyme state MCR-red1-silent at 1.8 A resolution revealed an active site only partially occupied by coenzyme M and coenzyme B. Increased flexibility and distinct alternate conformations were observed near the active site and the substrate channel. The electron density of the MCR-red1-silent state aerobically co-crystallized with coenzyme M displayed a fully occupied coenzyme M-binding site with no alternate conformations. Therefore, the structure was very similar to the MCR-ox1-silent state. As a consequence, the binding of coenzyme M induced specific conformational changes that postulate a molecular mechanism by which the enzyme ensures that methylcoenzyme M enters the substrate channel prior to coenzyme B as required by the active-site geometry. The three different

  19. Preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, H J

    1979-09-01

    This study investigated preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy among a sample of 40 SES class III and IV adult females and 67 college freshmen who had never been actual therapy patients. A scaled survey assessed general preference, preference given an imagined long-standing depressive disorder, preference given an imagined specific phobia, and preference for the therapist-patient relationship. Three audio tapes were designed, each describing one of the modalities. High inter-rater reliability and agreement were determined by three independent judges. Results showed that young females had a general preference for gestalt therapy. Young and old females, but not young males, significantly preferred behavioural therapy for a specific phobia. Under forced-choice conditions the group as a whole significantly preferred gestalt therapy. No differences were found for the relationship or preference given a depressive disorder. Preference was hypothesized as a cognitive structure with potential use in therapist-client matching.

  20. Training Implications of Work Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison, C. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    An important factor in job choice, both at the start of and during one's career, is one's psychological makeup, which must be taken into account in training and development programs. The authors relate the Jungian introvert-extrovert, judgment-perception theories to work and management, presenting data from a management work preferences sampling.…

  1. Compatibility Effects and Preference Reversals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-21

    SEPTEMBER 1983 ysis," Journal of Risk and Insurance , March Mowen, John C and Gentry, James W., "Inves- 1980, 47, 111-32. tigation of the Preference...Corn- C., "An Experimental Study of Insurance plexity and Choice Inconsistency Among Decisions," Journal of Risk and Insurance , Gambles," Organizational

  2. Social preferences in private decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, J.; Sonnemans, J.

    2012-01-01

    Social preference models were originally constructed to explain two things: why people spend money to affect the earnings of others and why the income of others influences reported happiness. We test these models in a novel experimental situation where participants face a risky decision that affects

  3. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  4. Generation Y preferences towards wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Mocanu, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in wine preferences between Generation Y and older cohorts in the USA. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 260 US consumers participated in a web-based survey that took place in April 2010. The best-worst scaling method was applied...

  5. Social preferences and environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adda, D' Giovanna; Levely, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exogenous health shocks in utero and in infancy on the development of social preferences later in childhood. We use data from binarychoice dictator games run with school children in rural Sierra Leone to measure aversion to inequality, altruism and spite toward

  6. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  7. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which is ...

  8. Bad Arguments Defending Racial Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Professor Cohen describes the arduous path to the passage of Proposition 2 in Michigan in 2006. In considering the reasons for its victory, he shows how claims (sometimes well-intended) "for" preferences rest on truly bad arguments. (Contains 8 footnotes.)

  9. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  10. Product Category Familiarity and Preference Construction.

    OpenAIRE

    Coupey, Eloise; Irwin, Julie R; Payne, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Marketers often base decisions about marketing strategies on the results of research designed to elicit information about consumers' preferences. A large body of research indicates, however, that preferences often are labile. That is, preferences can be reversed depending on factors such as how the preference is elicited. In three studies, we examine the effect of familiarity in two preference elicitation tasks, choice and matching judgments. We provide evidence of an interaction between fami...

  11. Coenzyme Q10 and soyphosphatidylcholine in EK extender on preservation of Rhode Island Red poultry semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of EK extender alone or incorporation with CoenzymeQ10 (CoQ10 and/or soyphosphatidylcholine (SPC in poultry semen and their effects on seminal traits during temporal storage at 4⁰C for different time intervals (12 h, 24 h, and 36 h. Heterospermic pooled semen samples diluted (1:4 with EK, EK + SPC, EK+ CoQ10 and EK + SPC + CoQ10 extenders separately, preserved and different spermiogram were assessed. Various seminal traits within the same extender differ significantly (p<0.05 among different groups and with different time intervals of storage. CoQ10 and SPC in the EK extender exhibited favorable synergistic effect on sperm quality and were able to protect the male gametes against cold-stress up to 36h at 4⁰C. In this study, we concluded that incorporation of SPC and CoQ10 together in EK extender possess novel potentiality to maintain seminal quality during liquid storage of poultry semen at 4⁰C and for their safe transportation and further use for Artificial Reproductive technologies (ARTs.

  12. Effect of Coenzyme-Q10 on Doxorubicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza A. K. El-Sheikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is one of the limiting factors for using doxorubicin (Dox as an anticancer chemotherapeutic. Here, we investigated possible protective effect of coenzyme-Q10 (CoQ10 on Dox-induced nephrotoxicity and the mechanisms involved. Two doses (10 and 100 mg/kg of CoQ10 were administered orally to rats for 8 days, in the presence or absence of nephrotoxicity induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Dox (15 mg/kg at day 4 of the experiment. Our results showed that the low dose of CoQ10 succeeded in reversing Dox-induced nephrotoxicity to control levels (e.g., levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, concentrations of renal reduced glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde, catalase activity and caspase 3 expression, and renal histopathology. Alternatively, the high dose of CoQ10 showed no superior nephroprotection over the low dose, as there were no significant improvements in renal histopathology, catalase activity, or caspase 3 expression compared to the Dox-treated group. Interestingly, the high dose of CoQ10 alone significantly decreased renal GSH level as well as catalase activity and caused a mild induction of caspase 3 expression compared to control, probably due to a prooxidant effect at this dose of CoQ10. We conclude that CoQ10 protects from Dox-induced nephrotoxicity with a precaution to dosage adjustment.

  13. Acute Hypoglycemia Induces Painful Neuropathy and the Treatment of Coenzyme Q10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ping Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathic pain is reduced with tight glycemic control. However, strict control increases the risk of hypoglycemic episodes, which are themselves linked to painful neuropathy. This study explored the effects of hypoglycemia-related painful neuropathy. Pretreatment with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 was performed to explore the preventive effect of CoQ10 on hypoglycemia-related acute neuropathic pain. Two strains of mice were used and 1 unit/kg of insulin was given to induce hypoglycemia. Mechanical sensitivity of hindpaw withdrawal thresholds was measured using von Frey filaments. Blood glucose levels were clamped at normal levels by joint insulin and glucose injection to test whether insulin itself induced hypersensitivity. Results suggest that the increased mechanical sensitivity after insulin injection is related to decreased blood glucose levels. When blood glucose levels remained at a normal level by the linked administration of insulin and glucose, mice demonstrated no significant change in mechanical sensitivity. Pretreatment with CoQ10 prevented neuropathic pain and the expression of the stress factor c-Fos. These results support the concept that pain in the diabetic scenario can be the result of hypoglycemia and not insulin itself. Additionally, pretreatment with CoQ10 may be a potent preventive method for the development of neuropathic pain.

  14. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Svend A; Rosenfeldt, Franklin; Kumar, Adarsh;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This randomized controlled multicenter trial evaluated coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as adjunctive treatment in chronic heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: CoQ10 is an essential cofactor for energy production and is also a powerful antioxidant. A low level of myocardial CoQ10 is related...... to the severity of HF. Previous randomized controlled trials of CoQ10 in HF were underpowered to address major clinical endpoints. METHODS: Patients with moderate to severe HF were randomly assigned in a 2-year prospective trial to either CoQ10 100 mg 3 times daily or placebo, in addition to standard therapy...... by a time to first event analysis. RESULTS: A total of 420 patients were enrolled. There were no significant changes in short-term endpoints. The primary long-term endpoint was reached by 15% of the patients in the CoQ10 group versus 26% in the placebo group (hazard ratio: 0.50; 95% confidence interval: 0...

  15. ANO10 mutations cause ataxia and coenzyme Q₁₀ deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balreira, Andrea; Boczonadi, Veronika; Barca, Emanuele; Pyle, Angela; Bansagi, Boglarka; Appleton, Marie; Graham, Claire; Hargreaves, Iain P; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Lochmüller, Hanns; Griffin, Helen; Taylor, Robert W; Naini, Ali; Chinnery, Patrick F; Hirano, Michio; Quinzii, Catarina M; Horvath, Rita

    2014-11-01

    Inherited ataxias are heterogeneous disorders affecting both children and adults, with over 40 different causative genes, making molecular genetic diagnosis challenging. Although recent advances in next-generation sequencing have significantly improved mutation detection, few treatments exist for patients with inherited ataxia. In two patients with adult-onset cerebellar ataxia and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency in muscle, whole exome sequencing revealed mutations in ANO10, which encodes anoctamin 10, a member of a family of putative calcium-activated chloride channels, and the causative gene for autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-10 (SCAR10). Both patients presented with slowly progressive ataxia and dysarthria leading to severe disability in the sixth decade. Epilepsy and learning difficulties were also present in one patient, while retinal degeneration and cataract were present in the other. The detection of mutations in ANO10 in our patients indicate that ANO10 defects cause secondary low CoQ10 and SCAR10 patients may benefit from CoQ10 supplementation.

  16. Application of coenzyme Q10 for accelerating soft tissue wound healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kataoka, Kota; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Morita, Manabu

    2014-12-10

    Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10), may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old) (n = 27) received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group) or control ointment (control group) to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6-7/group). At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p tooth extraction, there were no significant differences in collagen density, number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bone fill between the groups. Our results suggest that topical application of rCoQ10 promotes wound healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats.

  17. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Acetyl-coenzyme A: a metabolic master regulator of autophagy and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Sabrina; Pendl, Tobias; Zimmermann, Andreas; Eisenberg, Tobias; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Mariño, Guillermo; Pietrocola, Federico; Harger, Alexandra; Magnes, Christoph; Sinner, Frank; Pieber, Thomas R; Dengjel, Jörn; Sigrist, Stephan J; Kroemer, Guido; Madeo, Frank

    2014-07-01

    As the major lysosomal degradation pathway, autophagy represents the guardian of cellular homeostasis, removing damaged and potentially harmful material and replenishing energy reserves in conditions of starvation. Given its vast physiological importance, autophagy is crucially involved in the process of aging and associated pathologies. Although the regulation of autophagy strongly depends on nutrient availability, specific metabolites that modulate autophagic responses are poorly described. Recently, we revealed nucleo-cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) as a phylogenetically conserved inhibitor of starvation-induced and age-associated autophagy. AcCoA is the sole acetyl-group donor for protein acetylation, explaining why pharmacological or genetic manipulations that modify the concentrations of nucleo-cytosolic AcCoA directly affect the levels of protein acetylation. The acetylation of histones and cytosolic proteins inversely correlates with the rate of autophagy in yeast and mammalian cells, respectively, despite the fact that the routes of de novo AcCoA synthesis differ across phyla. Thus, we propose nucleo-cytosolic AcCoA to act as a conserved metabolic rheostat, linking the cellular metabolic state to the regulation of autophagy via effects on protein acetylation.

  19. Application of Coenzyme Q10 for Accelerating Soft Tissue Wound Healing after Tooth Extraction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Yoneda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10, may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old (n = 27 received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group or control ointment (control group to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6–7/group. At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Gene expression of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB were also lower in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05. At 8 days after tooth extraction, there were no significant differences in collagen density, number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bone fill between the groups. Our results suggest that topical application of rCoQ10 promotes wound healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats.

  20. Extracellular 4'-phosphopantetheine is a source for intracellular coenzyme A synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Baratashvili, Madina; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Kanon, Bart; Colombelli, Cristina; Lambrechts, Roald A; Schaap, Onno; Nollen, Ellen A; Podgoršek, Ajda; Kosec, Gregor; Petković, Hrvoje; Hayflick, Susan; Tiranti, Valeria; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Grzeschik, Nicola A; Sibon, Ody C M

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic cofactor coenzyme A (CoA) gained renewed attention because of its roles in neurodegeneration, protein acetylation, autophagy and signal transduction. The long-standing dogma is that eukaryotic cells obtain CoA exclusively via the uptake of extracellular precursors, especially vitamin B5, which is intracellularly converted through five conserved enzymatic reactions into CoA. This study demonstrates an alternative mechanism that allows cells and organisms to adjust intracellular CoA levels by using exogenous CoA. Here CoA was hydrolyzed extracellularly by ectonucleotide pyrophosphatases to 4'-phosphopantetheine, a biologically stable molecule able to translocate through membranes via passive diffusion. Inside the cell, 4'-phosphopantetheine was enzymatically converted back to CoA by the bifunctional enzyme CoA synthase. Phenotypes induced by intracellular CoA deprivation were reversed when exogenous CoA was provided. Our findings answer long-standing questions in fundamental cell biology and have major implications for the understanding of CoA-related diseases and therapies.

  1. Rapid determination of coenzyme Q10 in food supplements using 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Ruge, Ingrid; Kuballa, Thomas; Lerch, Christiane; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2013-01-01

    A methodology utilizing 1H NMR spectroscopy has been developed to measure the concentration of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in dietary supplements. For sample preparation, a very simple dilution with deuterated chloroform and addition of internal standard is sufficient. CoQ10 produces a distinct peak of the CH groups in the isoprene side chain of the molecule in the δ 5.15 - 5.05 ppm range, where it can be distinguished from other matrix compounds. The method was shown to be of adequate sensitivity with a limit of detection (LOD) of 7.8 mg/L, to control the CoQ10 content in the majority of the products. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation was around 5 %; linearity was observed from 14 to 2000 mg/L (R = 0.99). The developed methodology was applied for the analysis of 21 food supplements (capsules, tablets, and liquid products). On the basis of the labeled amounts, only two products contained substantially lower concentrations of CoQ10 (57 % and 51 %). All other concentrations varied between 83 % and 190 % with respect to labeling. The developed NMR method may be used by quality assurance laboratories for routine control of CoQ10 products.

  2. Cofilin/Twinstar phosphorylation levels increase in response to impaired coenzyme a metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Siudeja

    Full Text Available Coenzyme A (CoA is a pantothenic acid-derived metabolite essential for many fundamental cellular processes including energy, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pantothenate kinase (PANK, which catalyses the first step in the conversion of pantothenic acid to CoA, has been associated with a rare neurodegenerative disorder PKAN. However, the consequences of impaired PANK activity are poorly understood. Here we use Drosophila and human neuronal cell cultures to show how PANK deficiency leads to abnormalities in F-actin organization. Cells with reduced PANK activity are characterized by abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin, a conserved actin filament severing protein. The increased levels of phospho-cofilin coincide with morphological changes of PANK-deficient Drosophila S2 cells and human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells. The latter exhibit also markedly reduced ability to form neurites in culture--a process that is strongly dependent on actin remodeling. Our results reveal a novel and conserved link between a metabolic biosynthesis pathway, and regulation of cellular actin dynamics.

  3. Coenzyme Q and Its Role in the Dietary Therapy against Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q (CoQ is a naturally occurring molecule located in the hydrophobic domain of the phospholipid bilayer of all biological membranes. Shortly after being discovered, it was recognized as an essential electron transport chain component in mitochondria where it is particularly abundant. Since then, more additional roles in cell physiology have been reported, including antioxidant, signaling, death prevention, and others. It is known that all cells are able to synthesize functionally sufficient amounts of CoQ under normal physiological conditions. However, CoQ is a molecule found in different dietary sources, which can be taken up and incorporated into biological membranes. It is known that mitochondria have a close relationship with the aging process. Additionally, delaying the aging process through diet has aroused the interest of scientists for many years. These observations have stimulated investigation of the anti-aging potential of CoQ and its possible use in dietary therapies to alleviate the effects of aging. In this context, the present review focus on the current knowledge and evidence the roles of CoQ cells, its relationship with aging, and possible implications of dietary CoQ in relation to aging, lifespan or age-related diseases.

  4. PLP and PMP radicals: a new paradigm in coenzyme B6 chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, G; Liu, H W

    2001-08-01

    Enzymes frequently rely on a broad repertoire of cofactors to perform chemically challenging transformations. The B6 coenzymes, composed of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP), are used by many transaminases, racemases, decarboxylases, and enzymes catalyzing alpha,beta and beta,gamma-eliminations. Despite the variety of reactions catalyzed by B6-dependent enzymes, the mechanism of almost all such enzymes is based on their ability to stabilize high-energy anionic intermediates in their reaction pathways by the pyridinium moiety of PLP/PMP. However, there are two notable exceptions to this model, which are discussed in this article. The first enzyme, lysine 2,3-aminomutase, is a PLP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of L-lysine to L-beta-lysine using a one-electron-based mechanism utilizing a [4Fe-4S] cluster and S-adenosylmethionine. The second enzyme, CDP-6-deoxy-L-threo-D-glycero-4-hexulose-3-dehydrase, is a PMP-dependent enzyme involved in the formation of 3,6-dideoxysugars in bacteria. This enzyme also contains an iron-sulfur cluster and uses a one-electron based mechanism to catalyze removal of a C-3 hydroxy group from a 4-hexulose. In both cases, the participation of free radicals in the reaction pathway has been established, placing these two B6-dependent enzymes in an exclusive class by themselves.

  5. 3-Methylglutaconyl-Coenzyme-A Hydratase Deficiency and the Development of Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, Craig D.; Milko, Mariya; Edwards, Christopher; Steinhoff, Jeff P.

    2014-01-01

    A 25-year-old Canadian male with a history of 3-methylglutaconyl-coenzyme-A hydratase deficiency, also known as 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type I, a very rare inborn error of metabolism, presented with respiratory distress, nausea, vomiting and signs of multisystem organ failure due to a suspected underlying infectious process. An electrocardiogram revealed bilateral atrial enlargement and an elevated brain natriuretic peptide on the initial laboratory studies, which prompted a more thorough cardiac workup. The transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a dilated cardiomyopathy with severe systolic dysfunction. The deficient enzyme present in this patient is involved in the pathway of leucine catabolism and is particularly important in various tissues for energy production and sterol synthesis. The dilated cardiomyopathy in this patient possibly had a variety of potential mechanisms including: a mitochondrial myopathy due to the deficiency of this enzyme leading to a defect in energy production inside cardiac myocytes; or a direct toxicity from 3-methylglutaconic acid (3-MGA) and its toxic metabolites; or a cardiac dysfunction due to a variety of other potential mechanisms. In conclusion, this patient’s clinical presentation suggested that 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency could cause a severe dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure.

  6. Coenzyme Q biosynthesis and its role in the respiratory chain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Fabra, María; Navas, Plácido; Brea-Calvo, Gloria

    2016-08-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a unique electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is synthesized on-site by a nuclear encoded multiprotein complex. CoQ receives electrons from different redox pathways, mainly NADH and FADH2 from tricarboxylic acid pathway, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that support key aspects of the metabolism. Here we explore some lines of evidence supporting the idea of the interaction of CoQ with the respiratory chain complexes, contributing to their superassembly, including respirasome, and its role in reactive oxygen species production in the mitochondrial inner membrane. We also review the current knowledge about the involvement of mitochondrial genome defects and electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase mutations in the induction of secondary CoQ deficiency. This mechanism would imply specific interactions coupling CoQ itself or the CoQ-biosynthetic apparatus with the respiratory chain components. These interactions would regulate mitochondrial CoQ steady-state levels and function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  7. Water-Soluble Coenzyme Q10 Reduces Rotenone-Induced Mitochondrial Fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zimmerman, Mary; Milledge, Gaolin Z; Hou, Xiao-Lin; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Zhen-Hai; Li, P Andy

    2017-02-11

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. It is usually accompanied by an imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics and changes in mitochondrial morphology that are associated with impaired function. The objectives of this study were to identify the effects of rotenone, a drug known to mimic the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, on mitochondrial dynamics. Additionally, this study explored the protective effects of water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity in murine neuronal HT22 cells. Our results demonstrate that rotenone elevates protein expression of mitochondrial fission markers, Drp1 and Fis1, and causes an increase in mitochondrial fragmentation as evidenced through mitochondrial staining and morphological analysis. Water-soluble CoQ10 prevented mitochondrial dynamic imbalance by reducing Drp1 and Fis1 protein expression to pre-rotenone levels, as well as reducing rotenone treatment-associated mitochondrial fragmentation. Hence, water-soluble CoQ10 may have therapeutic potential in treating patients with Parkinson's disease.

  8. Preparation, characterization and in silico modeling of biodegradable nanoparticles containing cyclosporine A and coenzyme Q10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankola, D. D.; Durbin, E. W.; Buxton, G. A.; Schäfer, J.; Bakowsky, U.; Kumar, M. N. V. Ravi

    2010-02-01

    Combination therapy will soon become a reality, particularly for those patients requiring poly-therapy to treat co-existing disease states. This becomes all the more important with the increasing cost, time and complexity of the drug discovery process prompting one to look at new delivery systems to increase the efficacy, safety and patient compliance of existing drugs. Along this line, we attempted to design nano-scale systems for simultaneous encapsulation of cyclosporine A (CsA) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and model their encapsulation and release kinetics. The in vitro characterization of the co-encapsulated nanoparticles revealed that the surfactant nature, concentration, external phase volume, droplet size reduction method and drug loading concentration can all influence the overall performance of the nanoparticles. The semi-quantitative solubility study indicates the strong influence of CoQ10 on CsA entrapment which was thought to be due to an increase in the lipophilicity of the overall system. The in vitro dissolution profile indicates the influence of CoQ10 on CsA release (64%) to that of individual particles of CsA, where the release is faster and higher (86%) on 18th day. The attempts to model the encapsulation and release kinetics were successful, offering a possibility to use such models leading to high throughput screening of drugs and their nature, alone or in combination for a particular polymer, if chi-parameters are understood.

  9. Coenzyme Q10 Levels Are Decreased in the Cerebellum of Multiple-System Atrophy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia V Schottlaender

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 in brain tissue of multiple system atrophy (MSA patients differ from those in elderly controls and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases.Flash frozen brain tissue of a series of 20 pathologically confirmed MSA patients [9 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA type, 6 striatonigral degeneration (SND type, and 5 mixed type] was used for this study. Elderly controls (n = 37 as well as idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n = 7, dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 20, corticobasal degeneration (n = 15 and cerebellar ataxia (n = 18 patients were used as comparison groups. CoQ10 was measured in cerebellar and frontal cortex tissue by high performance liquid chromatography.We detected a statistically significant decrease (by 3-5% in the level of CoQ10 in the cerebellum of MSA cases (P = 0.001, specifically in OPCA (P = 0.001 and mixed cases (P = 0.005, when compared to controls as well as to other neurodegenerative diseases [dementia with Lewy bodies (P<0.001, idiopathic Parkinson's disease (P<0.001, corticobasal degeneration (P<0.001, and cerebellar ataxia (P = 0.001].Our results suggest that a perturbation in the CoQ10 biosynthetic pathway is associated with the pathogenesis of MSA but the mechanism behind this finding remains to be elucidated.

  10. Micronutrient special issue: Coenzyme Q{sub 10} requirements for DNA damage prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelzer, Constance, E-mail: schmelzer@fbn-dummerstorf.de [Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Nutritional Physiology, Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf (Germany); Doering, Frank [University of Kiel, Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Molecular Prevention, Heinrich-Hecht-Platz 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Coenzyme Q{sub 10} (CoQ{sub 10}) is an essential component for electron transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and serves as cofactor in several biological processes. The reduced form of CoQ{sub 10} (ubiquinol, Q{sub 10}H{sub 2}) is an effective antioxidant in biological membranes. During the last years, particular interest has been grown on molecular effects of CoQ{sub 10} supplementation on mechanisms related to DNA damage prevention. This review describes recent advances in our understanding about the impact of CoQ{sub 10} on genomic stability in cells, animals and humans. With regard to several in vitro and in vivo studies, CoQ{sub 10} provides protective effects on several markers of oxidative DNA damage and genomic stability. In comparison to the number of studies reporting preventive effects of CoQ{sub 10} on oxidative stress biomarkers, CoQ{sub 10} intervention studies in humans with a direct focus on markers of DNA damage are limited. Thus, more well-designed studies in healthy and disease populations with long-term follow up results are needed to substantiate the reported beneficial effects of CoQ{sub 10} on prevention of DNA damage.

  11. Cognitive Fatigue Destabilizes Economic Decision Making Preferences and Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    Full Text Available It is common for individuals to engage in taxing cognitive activity for prolonged periods of time, resulting in cognitive fatigue that has the potential to produce significant effects in behaviour and decision making. We sought to examine whether cognitive fatigue modulates economic decision making.We employed a between-subject manipulation design, inducing fatigue through 60 to 90 minutes of taxing cognitive engagement against a control group that watched relaxing videos for a matched period of time. Both before and after the manipulation, participants engaged in two economic decision making tasks (one for gains and one for losses. The analyses focused on two areas of economic decision making--preferences and choice strategies. Uncertainty preferences (risk and ambiguity were quantified as premium values, defined as the degree and direction in which participants alter the valuation of the gamble in comparison to the certain option. The strategies that each participant engaged in were quantified through a choice strategy metric, which contrasts the degree to which choice behaviour relies upon available satisficing or maximizing information. We separately examined these metrics for alterations within both the gains and losses domains, through the two choice tasks.The fatigue manipulation resulted in significantly greater levels of reported subjective fatigue, with correspondingly higher levels of reported effort during the cognitively taxing activity. Cognitive fatigue did not alter uncertainty preferences (risk or ambiguity or informational strategies, in either the gains or losses domains. Rather, cognitive fatigue resulted in greater test-retest variability across most of our economic measures. These results indicate that cognitive fatigue destabilizes economic decision making, resulting in inconsistent preferences and informational strategies that may significantly reduce decision quality.

  12. Visual aesthetics and human preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E; Schloss, Karen B; Sammartino, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Human aesthetic preference in the visual domain is reviewed from definitional, methodological, empirical, and theoretical perspectives. Aesthetic science is distinguished from the perception of art and from philosophical treatments of aesthetics. The strengths and weaknesses of important behavioral techniques are presented and discussed, including two-alternative forced-choice, rank order, subjective rating, production/adjustment, indirect, and other tasks. Major findings are reviewed about preferences for colors (single colors, color combinations, and color harmony), spatial structure (low-level spatial properties, shape properties, and spatial composition within a frame), and individual differences in both color and spatial structure. Major theoretical accounts of aesthetic response are outlined and evaluated, including explanations in terms of mere exposure effects, arousal dynamics, categorical prototypes, ecological factors, perceptual and conceptual fluency, and the interaction of multiple components. The results of the review support the conclusion that aesthetic response can be studied rigorously and meaningfully within the framework of scientific psychology.

  13. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms

  14. Dental Continuing Education Preference Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    the 63A9Ds and 34.9% for the 63A00s, selected Comprehensive Dentistry as their specialty preference. For the 63A9Ds, orthodontics , periodontics , and...Clinical Interest, Periodontal Disease in Children, Preventive Health and Nutrition, Dental Implants, and Major Aspects of Psychological Care. Also...as being of "low need" for the non-specialty general dentists were TMJ Arthroscopy, Genetic Anomalies of Clinical Interest, Periodontal Disease in

  15. Where Would Refinancing Preferences Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yajun; Liu, Bo

    We study the relation between the non-tradable shares reform and the refinancing preferences. From the viewpoints of change in market and policy environments led by the reform, we find that right issues dominate before the reform, however, public offerings (including private placement) dominate after reform, which could be attributed to more money encirclement induced by the shift of the public offering mechanism from in discount to in premium after reform and no requirements for large shareholders' participation commitments in public offerings.

  16. Analysis of beer consumption preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Horňák, Josef

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the preferences of beer consumption. The thesis focuses on finding and subsequent evaluation of the factors that can significantly influence consumer behavior in the field of beer consumption and it is based on marketing research conducted on the basis of a questionnaire survey. Theoretical part of the thesis, composed on basis of academic literature describes the history of beer, its brewing procedures and a description of various types of beer. This part is followed ...

  17. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Velandia Morales; Rosa Rodríguez-Bailón

    2011-01-01

    According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996) there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms). The results showed that se...

  18. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Varella Valentova

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541, we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role, men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  19. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  20. Preference for hope over knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetka Hedžet Tóth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article entitled Preference of Hope over Knowledge provides an analysis of the views of the American philosopher Richard Rorty, with special reference to concepts such as hope, utopia and the potential of ethics in the most recent times which, after the year of 1989, have been marked by the collapse of socialism of bolshevik origin. Thus knowledge is now preferred to hope, yet Rorty firmly insists that knowledge must keep its potential for hope, because it is the only way that humanism can maintain its existence. Even though we are faced with the end of the metaphysics of final certainty and its absolute principles, it is still possible to consider ethics and how it can be substantiated. Moral progress is possible, but not on the basis of something from the beyond, but rather as a matter of increasing sensitivity, increasing responsiveness to the needs of a larger and larger variety of people and things. It was with these views that Rorty established his ethics without principles, but in a very principled way as the anthropology of ethics that emphatically refuses to continue being the concealed voice of theos. The articles also highlights Rorty's comprehension of pragmatism conceived of as the philosophy of solidarity, since it expressly prefers solidarity to objectivity, solidarity being that other side of justice which remains one of the most basic concepts of every ethics.

  1. Analysis of feeding preference experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C H; Renaud, P E

    1989-03-01

    Published studies of consumer feeding preferences using foods that experience autogenic change in mass, numbers, area, etc., on the time scale of a feeding trial fail to employ appropriate statistical analyses to incorporate controls for those food changes occurring in the absence of the consumer. The studies that run controls typically use them to calculate a constant "correction factor", which is subtracted prior to formal data analysis. This procedure constitutes a non-rigorous suppression of variance that overstates the statistical significance of observed differences. The appropriate statistical analysis for preference tests with two foods is usually a simple t-test performed on the between-food differences in loss of mass (or numbers, area, etc.) comparing the results of experimentals with consumers to controls without consumers. Application of this recommended test procedure to an actual data set illustrates how low replication in controls, which is typical of most studies of feeding preference, inhibits detection of an apparently large influence of previous mechanical damage (simulated grazing) in reducing the attractiveness of a brown alga to a sea urchin.

  2. Spatial preference heterogeneity in forest recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Garcia, Serge; Olsen, Søren Bøye;

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the preferences for recreational use of forests in Lorraine (Northeastern France), applying stated preference data. Our approach allows us to estimate individual-specific preferences for recreational use of different forest types. These estimates are used in a second stage...... of the analysis where we test whether preferences depend on access to recreation sites. We find that there is significant preference heterogeneity with respect to most forest attributes. The spatial analysis shows that preferences for forests with parking and picnic facilities are correlated with having access...

  3. Endocannabinoid influence on partner preference in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memos, Nicoletta K; Vela, Rebekah; Tabone, Courtney; Guarraci, Fay A

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the role of the endocannabinoid system on sexual motivation in the female rat. In Experiment 1, gonadally intact female rats were first tested for partner preference after a vehicle injection. Approximately 2 weeks later, all rats were tested again after an injection of the endocannabinoid antagonist, SR141716 (SR; also known as Rimonabant; 1.0mg/kg). During the first 10 min of each partner preference test, subjects could spend time near either a male or female stimulus animal that was placed behind a wire mesh (No-Contact). During the second 10 min of each partner preference test, subjects had unrestricted access to both stimulus animals (Contact). When the female subjects were treated with SR, they made fewer visits to either stimulus animal during the no-contact phase of the partner preference test compared to when they were treated with vehicle. In Experiment 2, ovariectomized (OVX) subjects primed with estrogen were administered SR or vehicle and tested for partner preference (Experiment 2A). Approximately 2 weeks later, the subjects from the control group were tested again after an injection of SR (Experiment 2B). In contrast to Experiment 1, treatment with SR reduced the number of visits specifically to the male stimulus during the contact phase of the test in Experiment 2. Experiment 3 tested the effects of SR on general locomotion and found no effect of SR on line crossings in an open field. Finally, in Experiment 4, OVX estrogen- and progesterone-primed subjects were administered the endocannabinoid agonist anandamide (AEA: 1.0mg/kg) or vehicle and tested for partner preference. AEA-treated subjects made more visits to the male stimulus than vehicle-treated subjects during the contact phase of the test. The results of the present study suggest that the endocannabinoid system may contribute to sexual motivation in female rats by specifically altering approach behavior.

  4. Passive listening to preferred motor tempo modulates corticospinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Kelly; Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2014-01-01

    modulated by rhythms occurring at a preferred rate, and that individual differences can alter the nature of this coupling.

  5. [Altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  6. LC/MS/MS analysis of α-tocopherol and coenzyme Q10 content in lyophilized royal jelly, beebread and drone homogenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniewicka, Marta; Karpinska, Agnieszka; Kijewska, Marta; Turkowicz, Monika Joanna; Karpinska, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    This study shows the results of application liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for assay of the content of α-tocopherol and coenzyme Q10 in bee products of animal origin, i.e. royal jelly, beebread and drone homogenate. The biological matrix was removed using extraction with n-hexane. It was found that drone homogenate is a rich source of coenzyme Q10 . It contains only 8 ± 1 µg/g of α-tocopherol and 20 ± 2 µg/g of coenzyme Q10 . The contents of assayed compounds in royal jelly were 16 ± 3 and 8 ± 0.2 µg/g of α-tocopherol and coenzyme Q10 , respectively. Beebread appeared to be the richest of α-tocopherol. Its level was 80 ± 30 µg/g, while the level of coenzyme Q10 was only 11.5 ± 0.3 µg/g. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Utopian preference mapping and the utopian preference method for group multiobjective optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuda; HONG Zhenjie; ZHOU Xuanwei

    2003-01-01

    The individual utopian preference and the group utopian preference on a set of alternatives, and the concept of the utopian preference mapping from the individual utopian preferences, to the group utopian preference, based on the utopian points of the corresponding multiobjective optimization models proposed by decision makers are introduced. Through studying the various fundamental properties of the utopian preference mapping, a method for solving group multiobjective optimization problems with multiple multiobjective optimization models is constructed.

  8. Impact of proximity-adjusted preferences on rank-order stability in geographical multicriteria decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligmann-Zielinska, Arika; Jankowski, Piotr

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach to deriving preferences assigned to evaluation criteria in geographical multicriteria decision analysis. In this approach, the preferences, expressed by numeric weights, are adjusted by distance measures derived from the explicit consideration of a locational structure. The structure is given by locations of decision options and high importance reference objects. The approach is demonstrated on the example of a house selection case study in San Diego, California. The results show that proximity-adjusted preferences for the evaluation criteria can alter significantly the rank order of decision options. Consequently, the explicit modeling of spatial preference variability may be needed in order to better account for decision-maker's preferences.

  9. Combination therapy with metformin and coenzyme Q10 in murine experimental autoimmune arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhun, JooYeon; Lee, SeungHoon; Kim, Se-Young; Na, Hyun Sik; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Jeong, Jeong-Hee; Park, Sung Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    Metformin (Met) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) are reported to have therapeutic functions in several inflammatory diseases. These drugs have shown anti-inflammatory effects and have been utilized in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, there is no evidence of the additive effect of Met and CoQ10 in RA. Although Met and CoQ10 may be involved in the improvement of mitochondrial dysfunction, limited information is available regarding whether this effect can improve mitochondrial dysfunction in RA in particular. In this study, we sought to determine whether Met and CoQ10 attenuate the severity of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and show an additive effect in a mouse model. The combination of Met and CoQ10 improved CIA, reducing joint inflammation, Th17 differentiation and IgG production. In contrast, the combination of Met and CoQ10 induced Treg differentiation. Osteoclastogenesis was reduced by the combination of Met and CoQ10. The protein expression of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mice splenocytes exposed to lipopolysaccharide decreased after drug combination therapy. We also found that the expression of JC-1 and COX IV were enhanced by treatment with the combination of Met and CoQ10. Moreover, the combination of Met and CoQ10 promoted mitochondrial O2 consumption. These findings suggest that the combination of Met and CoQ10 reduced CIA severity, improving mitochondrial dysfunction compared to Met or CoQ10 alone. These results present a novel, significant preventive targets in RA and may enhance our understanding of its pathogenesis.

  10. Immunolocalization of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelef, N; Buton, X; Beatini, N; Wang, H; Meiner, V; Chang, T Y; Farese, R V; Maxfield, F R; Tabas, I

    1998-05-01

    Macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions accumulate large amounts of cholesteryl-fatty acyl esters ("foam cell" formation) through the intracellular esterification of cholesterol by acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT). In this study, we sought to determine the subcellular localization of ACAT in macrophages. Using mouse peritoneal macrophages and immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that a major portion of ACAT was in a dense reticular cytoplasmic network and in the nuclear membrane that colocalized with the luminal endoplasmic reticulum marker protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) and that was in a similar distribution as the membrane-bound endoplasmic reticulum marker ribophorin. Remarkably, another portion of the macrophage ACAT pattern did not overlap with PDI or ribophorin, but was found in as yet unidentified cytoplasmic structures that were juxtaposed to the nucleus. Compartments containing labeled beta-very low density lipoprotein, an atherogenic lipoprotein, did not overlap with the ACAT label, but rather were embedded in the dense reticular network of ACAT. Furthermore, cell-surface biotinylation experiments revealed that freshly harvested, non-attached macrophages, but not those attached to tissue culture dishes, contained approximately 10-15% of ACAT on the cell surface. In summary, ACAT was found in several sites in macrophages: a cytoplasmic reticular/nuclear membrane site that overlaps with PDI and ribophorin and has the characteristics of the endoplasmic reticulum, a perinuclear cytoplasmic site that does not overlap with PDI or ribophorin and may be another cytoplasmic structure or possibly a unique subcompartment of the endoplasmic reticulum, and a cell-surface site in non-attached macrophages. Understanding possible physiological differences of ACAT in these locations may reveal an important component of ACAT regulation and macrophage foam cell formation.

  11. Effects of Coenzyme Q10 on Markers of Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Junya; Bo, Yacong; Lu, Yan; Liu, Chunli; Zhang, Lishi

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objective Chronic inflammation contributes to the onset and development of metabolic diseases. Clinical evidence has suggested that coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has some effects on inflammatory markers. However, these results are equivocal. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of CoQ10 on serum levels of inflammatory markers in people with metabolic diseases. Methods Electronic databases were searched up to February 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The outcome parameters were related to inflammatory factors, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and C reactive protein (CRP). RevMan software was used for meta-analysis. Meta-regression analysis, Egger line regression test and Begg rank correlation test were performed by STATA software. Results Nine trials involving 428 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that compared with control group, CoQ10 supplementation has significantly improved the serum level of CoQ10 by 1.17μg/ml [MD = 1.17, 95% CI (0.47 to 1.87) μg/ml, I2 = 94%]. Meanwhile, it has significantly decreased TNF-α by 0.45 pg/ml [MD = -0.45, 95% CI (-0.67 to -0.24) pg/ml, I2 = 0%]. No significant difference was observed between CoQ10 and placebo with regard to CRP [MD = -0.21, 95% CI (-0.60 to 0.17) mg/L, I2 = 21%] and IL-6 [MD = -0.89, 95% CI (-1.95 to 0.16) pg/ml, I2 = 84%]. Conclusions CoQ10 supplementation may partly improve the process of inflammatory state. The effects of CoQ10 on inflammation should be further investigated by conducting larger sample size and well-defined trials of long enough duration. PMID:28125601

  12. Treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome with co-enzyme Q10 and amitriptyline, a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Amy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS, which is defined by recurrent stereotypical episodes of nausea and vomiting, is a relatively-common disabling condition that is associated with migraine headache and mitochondrial dysfunction. Co-enzyme Q10 (Co-Q is a nutritional supplement that has demonstrated efficacy in pediatric and adult migraine. It is increasingly used in CVS despite the complete lack of studies to demonstrate its value in treatment Methods Using an Internet-based survey filled out by subjects with CVS or their parents, the efficacy, tolerability and subject satisfaction in CVS prophylaxis were queried. Subjects taking Co-Q (22 subjects were compared against those taking amitriptyline (162 subjects, which is the general standard-of-care. Results Subjects/parents reported similar levels of efficacy for a variety of episode parameters (frequency, duration, number of emesis, nausea severity. There was a 50% reduction in at least one of those four parameters in 72% of subjects treated with amitriptyline and 68% of subjects treated Co-Q. However, while no side effects were reported on Co-Q, 50% of subjects on amitriptyline reported side effects (P = 5 × 10-7, resulting in 21% discontinuing treatment (P = 0.007. Subjects/parents considered the benefits to outweigh the risks of treatment in 47% of cases on amitriptyline and 77% of cases on Co-Q (P = 0.008. Conclusion Our data suggest that the natural food supplement Co-Q is potentially efficacious and tolerable in the treatment of CVS, and should be considered as an option in CVS prophylaxis. Our data would likely be helpful in the design of a double-blind clinical trial.

  13. Oxidative stress correlates with headache symptoms in fibromyalgia: coenzyme Q₁₀ effect on clinical improvement.

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    Mario D Cordero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic pain syndrome with unknown etiology and a wide spectrum of symptoms such as allodynia, debilitating fatigue, joint stiffness and migraine. Recent studies have shown some evidences demonstrating that oxidative stress is associated to clinical symptoms in FM of fibromyalgia. We examined oxidative stress and bioenergetic status in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs and its association to headache symptoms in FM patients. The effects of oral coenzyme Q(10 (CoQ(10 supplementation on biochemical markers and clinical improvement were also evaluated. METHODS: We studied 20 FM patients and 15 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, visual analogues scales (VAS, and the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring CoQ(10, catalase and lipid peroxidation (LPO levels in BMCs. Bioenergetic status was assessed by measuring ATP levels in BMCs. RESULTS: We found decreased CoQ(10, catalase and ATP levels in BMCs from FM patients as compared to normal control (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively We also found increased level of LPO in BMCs from FM patients as compared to normal control (P < 0.001. Significant negative correlations between CoQ(10 or catalase levels in BMCs and headache parameters were observed (r  = -0.59, P < 0.05; r  =  -0.68, P < 0.05, respectively. Furthermore, LPO levels showed a significant positive correlation with HIT-6 (r = 0.33, P<0.05. Oral CoQ(10 supplementation restored biochemical parameters and induced a significant improvement in clinical and headache symptoms (P < 0.001. DISCUSSION: The results of this study suggest a role for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the headache symptoms associated with FM. CoQ10 supplementation should be examined in a larger placebo controlled trial as a possible treatment in FM.

  14. Coenzyme Q10 and Heart Failure: A State-of-the-Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhinav; Fonarow, Gregg C; Butler, Javed; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Felker, G Michael

    2016-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) with either preserved or reduced ejection fraction is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Evidence-based therapies are often limited by tolerability, hypotension, electrolyte disturbances, and renal dysfunction. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) may represent a safe therapeutic option for patients with HF. CoQ10 is a highly lipophilic molecule with a chemical structure similar to vitamin K. Although being a common component of cellular membranes, CoQ10's most prominent role is to facilitate the production of adenosine triphosphate in the mitochondria by participating in redox reactions within the electron transport chain. Numerous trials during the past 30 years examining CoQ10 in patients with HF have been limited by small numbers and lack of contemporary HF therapies. The recent publication of the Q-SYMBIO randomized controlled trial demonstrated a reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events with CoQ10 supplementation in a contemporary HF population. Although having limitations, this study has renewed interest in evaluating CoQ10 supplementation in patients with HF. Current literature suggests that CoQ10 is relatively safe with few drug interactions and side effects. Furthermore, it is already widely available as an over-the-counter supplement. These findings warrant future adequately powered randomized controlled trials of CoQ10 supplementation in patients with HF. This state-of-the-art review summarizes the literature about the mechanisms, clinical data, and safety profile of CoQ10 supplementation in patients with HF.

  15. The bioinformatics of nucleotide sequence coding for proteins requiring metal coenzymes and proteins embedded with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremberger, G.; Dehipawala, Sunil; Cheung, E.; Holden, T.; Sullivan, R.; Nguyen, A.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2015-09-01

    All metallo-proteins need post-translation metal incorporation. In fact, the isotope ratio of Fe, Cu, and Zn in physiology and oncology have emerged as an important tool. The nickel containing F430 is the prosthetic group of the enzyme methyl coenzyme M reductase which catalyzes the release of methane in the final step of methano-genesis, a prime energy metabolism candidate for life exploration space mission in the solar system. The 3.5 Gyr early life sulfite reductase as a life switch energy metabolism had Fe-Mo clusters. The nitrogenase for nitrogen fixation 3 billion years ago had Mo. The early life arsenite oxidase needed for anoxygenic photosynthesis energy metabolism 2.8 billion years ago had Mo and Fe. The selection pressure in metal incorporation inside a protein would be quantifiable in terms of the related nucleotide sequence complexity with fractal dimension and entropy values. Simulation model showed that the studied metal-required energy metabolism sequences had at least ten times more selection pressure relatively in comparison to the horizontal transferred sequences in Mealybug, guided by the outcome histogram of the correlation R-sq values. The metal energy metabolism sequence group was compared to the circadian clock KaiC sequence group using magnesium atomic level bond shifting mechanism in the protein, and the simulation model would suggest a much higher selection pressure for the energy life switch sequence group. The possibility of using Kepler 444 as an example of ancient life in Galaxy with the associated exoplanets has been proposed and is further discussed in this report. Examples of arsenic metal bonding shift probed by Synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy data and Zn controlled FOXP2 regulated pathways in human and chimp brain studied tissue samples are studied in relationship to the sequence bioinformatics. The analysis results suggest that relatively large metal bonding shift amount is associated with low probability correlation R

  16. Characterisation and Skin Distribution of Lecithin-Based Coenzyme Q10-Loaded Lipid Nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zemin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the inner lipid ratio on the physicochemical properties and skin targeting of surfactant-free lecithin-based coenzyme Q10-loaded lipid nanocapsules (CoQ10-LNCs. The smaller particle size of CoQ10-LNCs was achieved by high pressure and a lower ratio of CoQ10/GTCC (Caprylic/capric triglyceride; however, the zeta potential of CoQ10-LNCs was above /− 60 mV/ with no distinct difference among them at different ratios of CoQ10/GTCC. Both the crystallisation point and the index decreased with the decreasing ratio of CoQ10/GTCC and smaller particle size; interestingly, the supercooled state of CoQ10-LNCs was observed at particle size below about 200 nm, as verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC in one heating–cooling cycle. The lecithin monolayer sphere structure of CoQ10-LNCs was investigated by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM. The skin penetration results revealed that the distribution of Nile red-loaded CoQ10-LNCs depended on the ratio of inner CoQ10/GTCC; moreover, epidermal targeting and superficial dermal targeting were achieved by the CoQ10-LNCs application. The highest fluorescence response was observed at a ratio of inner CoQ10/GTCC of 1:1. These observations suggest that lecithin-based LNCs could be used as a promising topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic compounds.

  17. Oxidative Stress Correlates with Headache Symptoms in Fibromyalgia: Coenzyme Q10 Effect on Clinical Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Mario D.; Cano-García, Francisco Javier; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; De Miguel, Manuel; Sánchez-Alcázar, José Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome with unknown etiology and a wide spectrum of symptoms such as allodynia, debilitating fatigue, joint stiffness and migraine. Recent studies have shown some evidences demonstrating that oxidative stress is associated to clinical symptoms in FM of fibromyalgia. We examined oxidative stress and bioenergetic status in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and its association to headache symptoms in FM patients. The effects of oral coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on biochemical markers and clinical improvement were also evaluated. Methods We studied 20 FM patients and 15 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), visual analogues scales (VAS), and the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring CoQ10, catalase and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in BMCs. Bioenergetic status was assessed by measuring ATP levels in BMCs. Results We found decreased CoQ10, catalase and ATP levels in BMCs from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively) We also found increased level of LPO in BMCs from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.001). Significant negative correlations between CoQ10 or catalase levels in BMCs and headache parameters were observed (r = −0.59, P<0.05; r = −0.68, P<0.05, respectively). Furthermore, LPO levels showed a significant positive correlation with HIT-6 (r = 0.33, P<0.05). Oral CoQ10 supplementation restored biochemical parameters and induced a significant improvement in clinical and headache symptoms (P<0.001). Discussion The results of this study suggest a role for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the headache symptoms associated with FM. CoQ10 supplementation should be examined in a larger placebo controlled trial as a possible treatment in FM. PMID:22532869

  18. Genetic bases and clinical manifestations of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ 10) deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbats, Maria Andrea; Lunardi, Giada; Doimo, Mara; Trevisson, Eva; Salviati, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q(10) is a remarkable lipid involved in many cellular processes such as energy production through the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC), beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and pyrimidine biosynthesis, but it is also one of the main cellular antioxidants. Its biosynthesis is still incompletely characterized and requires at least 15 genes. Mutations in eight of them (PDSS1, PDSS2, COQ2, COQ4, COQ6, ADCK3, ADCK4, and COQ9) cause primary CoQ(10) deficiency, a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable age of onset (from birth to the seventh decade) and associated clinical phenotypes, ranging from a fatal multisystem disease to isolated steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) or isolated central nervous system disease. The pathogenesis is complex and related to the different functions of CoQ(10). It involves defective ATP production and oxidative stress, but also an impairment of pyrimidine biosynthesis and increased apoptosis. CoQ(10) deficiency can also be observed in patients with defects unrelated to CoQ(10) biosynthesis, such as RC defects, multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, and ataxia and oculomotor apraxia.Patients with both primary and secondary deficiencies benefit from high-dose oral supplementation with CoQ(10). In primary forms treatment can stop the progression of both SRNS and encephalopathy, hence the critical importance of a prompt diagnosis. Treatment may be beneficial also for secondary forms, although with less striking results.In this review we will focus on CoQ(10) biosynthesis in humans, on the genetic defects and the specific clinical phenotypes associated with CoQ(10) deficiency, and on the diagnostic strategies for these conditions.

  19. Coenzyme Q10 suppresses Th17 cells and osteoclast differentiation and ameliorates experimental autoimmune arthritis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhun, JooYeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Byun, Jae-Kyeong; Jeong, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jennifer; Jung, Young-Ok; Shin, Dongyun; Park, Sung Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2015-08-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant synthesized in human body. This enzyme promotes immune system function and can be used as a dietary supplement. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease leading to chronic joint inflammation. RA results in severe destruction of cartilage and disability. This study aimed to investigate the effect of CoQ10 on inflammation and Th17 cell proliferation on an experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA) mice model. CoQ10 or cotton seed oil as control was orally administrated once a day for seven weeks to mice with zymosan-induced arthritis (ZIA). Histological analysis of the joints was conducted using immunohistochemistry. Germinal center (GC) B cells, Th17 cells and Treg cells of the spleen tissue were examined by confocal microscopy staining. mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR and protein levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Flow cytometric analysis (FACS) was used to evaluate Th17 cells and Treg cells. CoQ10 mitigated the severity of ZIA and decreased serum immunoglobulin concentrations. CoQ10 also reduced RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, inflammatory mediators and oxidant factors. Th17/Treg axis was reciprocally controlled by CoQ10 treatment. Moreover, CoQ10 treatment on normal mouse and human cells cultured in Th17 conditions decreased the number of Th17 cells and enhanced the number of Treg cells. CoQ10 alleviates arthritis in mice with ZIA declining inflammation, Th17 cells and osteoclast differentiation. These findings suggest that CoQ10 can be a potential therapeutic substance for RA.

  20. Preference for and learning of amino acids in larval Drosophila

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    Nana Kudow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis − and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila. We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae. Our data suggest that this preference profile changes across larval instars, and that starvation during the third instar also alters this profile. Only aspartic acid turns out to be robustly attractive across all our experiments. The essentiality of amino acids does not appear to be a determinant of preference. Interestingly, although amino acids thus differ in their innate attractiveness, we find that all amino acids are equally rewarding. Similar discrepancies between innate attractiveness and reinforcing effect have previously been reported for other tastants, including sugars, bitter substances and salt. The present analyses will facilitate the ongoing search for the receptors, sensory neurons, and internal, homeostatic amino acid sensors in Drosophila.

  1. Preference for and learning of amino acids in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudow, Nana; Miura, Daisuke; Schleyer, Michael; Toshima, Naoko; Gerber, Bertram; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2017-03-15

    Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis - and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae. Our data suggest that this preference profile changes across larval instars, and that starvation during the third instar also alters this profile. Only aspartic acid turns out to be robustly attractive across all our experiments. The essentiality of amino acids does not appear to be a determinant of preference. Interestingly, although amino acids thus differ in their innate attractiveness, we find that all amino acids are equally rewarding. Similar discrepancies between innate attractiveness and reinforcing effect have previously been reported for other tastants, including sugars, bitter substances and salt. The present analyses will facilitate the ongoing search for the receptors, sensory neurons, and internal, homeostatic amino acid sensors in Drosophila.

  2. Hare's preference utilitarianism: an overview and critique

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    Mauro Cardoso Simões

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available My purpose in this paper is to summarize some aspects of utilitarianism and to provide a general overview of Hare's preference utilitarianism, followed by a critique of Hare's preference theory.

  3. An Empirical Investigation of Flowchart Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, David; Clark, Leisa

    1989-01-01

    Studies whether students' stated preferences for flowcharts or pseudocodes match their actual behaviors. Provides a review of the literature on flowchart utility. Reports that students preferred flowcharts to pseudocodes. Lists an example of both a flowchart and pseudocode. (MVL)

  4. Methyl-coenzyme M reductase from methanogenic archaea: isotope effects on the formation and anaerobic oxidation of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Silvan; Goenrich, Meike; Thauer, Rudolf K; Jaun, Bernhard

    2013-10-09

    The nickel enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes two important transformations in the global carbon cycle: methane formation and its reverse, the anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR uses the methyl thioether methyl-coenzyme M (CH3-S-CH2CH2-SO3(-), Me-S-CoM) and the thiol coenzyme B (CoB-SH) as substrates and converts them reversibly to methane and the corresponding heterodisulfide (CoB-S-S-CoM). The catalytic mechanism is still unknown. Here, we present isotope effects for this reaction in both directions, catalyzed by the enzyme isolated from Methanothermobacter marburgensis . For methane formation, a carbon isotope effect ((12)CH3-S-CoM/(13)CH3-S-CoM) of 1.04 ± 0.01 was measured, showing that breaking of the C-S bond in the substrate Me-S-CoM is the rate-limiting step. A secondary isotope effect of 1.19 ± 0.01 per D in the methyl group of CD3-S-CoM indicates a geometric change of the methyl group from tetrahedral to trigonal planar upon going to the transition state of the rate-limiting step. This finding is consistent with an almost free methyl radical in the highest transition state. Methane activation proceeds with a primary isotope effect of 2.44 ± 0.22 for the C-H vs C-D bond breakage and a secondary isotope effect corresponding to 1.17 ± 0.05 per D. These values are consistent with isotope effects reported for oxidative cleavage/reductive coupling occurring at transition metal centers during C-H activation but are also in the range expected for the radical substitution mechanism proposed by Siegbahn et al. The isotope effects presented here constitute boundary conditions for any suggested or calculated mechanism.

  5. Recovery of the Frank-Starling mechanism by coenzyme Q10 in patients with load-induced contractility depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, T

    1993-01-01

    Load-induced contractility depression, in which supernormal left ventricular ejection fraction and contractility at rest decrease by added afterload, is most often found in children with mitral valve prolapse who have symptoms. Patients have high ventricular end-diastolic pressure at rest, which is further increased by afterload challenge. The Frank-Starling mechanism may be maximally mobilized with high preload even at rest to compensate for the intrinsically depressed inotropic state. Therefore, preload reserve may be easily exhausted due to afterload addition. We aimed to determine left ventricular end-diastolic fiber length, stroke work, and contractility before and during handgrip by echocardiograms to obtain evidence for the Frank-Starling mechanism in patients and controls, including patients treated with coenzyme Q10. The subjects were divided into four groups, each consisting of 30 children aged 6-16 years: group 1, normals; group 2, patients; group 3, the same patients as in group 2 after coenzyme Q10 therapy; and group 4, patients with asymptomatic mitral valve prolapse. Baseline values and percentage increases in systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and left ventricular wall stress showed no differences among the groups. Only in group 2 were the percentage increase in ejection fraction, fiber shortening velocity, contractility, and end-diastolic dimension strongly negative, despite supernormal baseline levels. In other groups, these were significantly positive, without intergroup differences. We conclude that in the heart with load-induced contractility depression, the Frank-Starling mechanism deviates from normal. The normal Frank-Starling mechanism was recovered due to coenzyme Q10, which may improve disturbed bioenergetic function at the molecular level.

  6. Increased oxidative stress and coenzyme Q10 deficiency in juvenile fibromyalgia: amelioration of hypercholesterolemia and fatigue by ubiquinol-10 supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamae, Takako; Seki, Manabu; Naga, Tomoko; Uchino, Shinya; Asazuma, Haruki; Yoshida, Takuma; Iizuka, Yuki; Kikuchi, Masako; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Natsumeda, Yutaka; Yokota, Shumpei; Yamamoto, Yorihiro

    2013-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by generalized pain and chronic fatigue of unknown etiology. To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in this disorder, we measured plasma levels of ubiquinone-10, ubiquinol-10, free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol esters (CE), and free fatty acids (FFA) in patients with juvenile FM (n=10) and in healthy control subjects (n=67). Levels of FC and CE were significantly increased in juvenile FM as compared with controls, suggesting the presence of hypercholesterolemia in this disease. However, plasma level of ubiquinol-10 was significantly decreased and the ratio of ubiquinone-10 to total coenzyme Q10 (%CoQ10) was significantly increased in juvenile FM relative to healthy controls, suggesting that FM is associated with coenzyme Q10 deficiency and increased oxidative stress. Moreover, plasma level of FFA was significantly higher and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in total FFA was significantly lower in FM than in controls, suggesting increased tissue oxidative damage in juvenile FM. Interestingly, the content of monoenoic acids, such as oleic and palmitoleic acids, was significantly increased in FM relative to controls, probably to compensate for the loss of PUFA. Next, we examined the effect of ubiquinol-10 supplementation (100 mg/day for 12 weeks) in FM patients. This resulted in an increase in coenzyme Q10 levels and a decrease in %CoQ10. No changes were observed in FFA levels or their composition. However, plasma levels of FC and CE significantly decreased and the ratio of FC to CE also significantly decreased, suggesting that ubiquinol-10 supplementation improved cholesterol metabolism. Ubiquinol-10 supplementation also improved chronic fatigue scores as measured by the Chalder Fatigue Scale.

  7. Infants' preference for native audiovisual speech dissociated from congruency preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Shaw

    Full Text Available Although infant speech perception in often studied in isolated modalities, infants' experience with speech is largely multimodal (i.e., speech sounds they hear are accompanied by articulating faces. Across two experiments, we tested infants' sensitivity to the relationship between the auditory and visual components of audiovisual speech in their native (English and non-native (Spanish language. In Experiment 1, infants' looking times were measured during a preferential looking task in which they saw two simultaneous visual speech streams articulating a story, one in English and the other in Spanish, while they heard either the English or the Spanish version of the story. In Experiment 2, looking times from another group of infants were measured as they watched single displays of congruent and incongruent combinations of English and Spanish audio and visual speech streams. Findings demonstrated an age-related increase in looking towards the native relative to non-native visual speech stream when accompanied by the corresponding (native auditory speech. This increase in native language preference did not appear to be driven by a difference in preference for native vs. non-native audiovisual congruence as we observed no difference in looking times at the audiovisual streams in Experiment 2.

  8. Structural Changes in Chinese Food Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Hovhannisyan, Vardges; Gould, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    The article tests for structural food preference change in urban China using province-level panel data from 2002 to 2010. We employ the Generalized Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System to represent consumer preferences and estimate demand for seven food groups in a dynamic setting. This relaxes many of the restrictions on the demand models used in the literature on structural preference change. Our findings suggest that Chinese food preferences are continuing to evolve.

  9. A Case of Dilated Cardiomyopathy Associated with 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG CoA Lyase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. C. Leung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA lyase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by impairment of ketogenesis and leucine catabolism resulting in an organic acidopathy. In 1994, a case of dilated cardiomyopathy and fatal arrhythmia was reported in a 7-month-old infant. We report a case of dilated cardiomyopathy in association with HMG CoA lyase deficiency in a 23-year-old man with the acute presentation of heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in an adult.

  10. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic l

  11. Description and Comparison of Group Behavior Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    they prefer to behave. The claisification theory started with the work of Carl Gustav Jung (7:18). Jung believed an individual’s behavior was...preference for introversion . These preferences are displayed in the scale percentages and in the group mean scores (see Appendix C). The Navy shows

  12. 76 FR 53631 - BioPreferred Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... biobased preferred procurement program (one part of the BioPreferred Program) is available on the Internet... reference Amend: to: And adding in its place: Sec. 2904.2, definition of ``Biobased part 2902 part 3201. content''. Sec. 2904.2, definition of part 2902 part 3201. ``BioPreferred Product''. Sec....

  13. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  14. Intuitionistic preference modeling and interactive decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the priority methods of intuitionistic preference relations, the consistency and consensus improving procedures for intuitionistic preference relations, the approaches to group decision making based on intuitionistic preference relations, the approaches and models for interactive decision making with intuitionistic fuzzy information, and the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments.

  15. Educational Homogamy: Preferences or Opportunities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Svarer, Michael

    Individuals match on length and type of education. We investigate whether thesystematic relationship between educations of partners is explained by opportuni-ties (e.g. low search frictions) or preferences (e.g. complementarities in householdproduction or portfolio optimization). We find that half...... of the systematic sortingon education is due to low search frictions in marriage markets of the educationalinstitutions. The other half is attributed to complementarities in household pro-duction, since income properties of the joint income process show no influence on partner selection....

  16. Preferred states of the apparatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Venugopalan

    2012-02-01

    A simple one-dimensional model for the system–apparatus interaction is analysed. The system is a spin-1/2 particle, and its position and momentum degrees constitute the apparatus. An analysis involving only unitary Schrödinger dynamics illustrates the nature of the correlations established in the system–apparatus entangled state. It is shown that even in the absence of any environment-induced decoherence, or any other measurement model, certain initial states of the apparatus – like localized Gaussian wavepackets – are preferred over others, in terms of measurementlike one-to-one correlations in the pure system–apparatus entangled state.

  17. Reflective visualization and verbalization of unconscious preference

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    Unconscious preference is the preference which can be observed as an action resulted from one's decision making, but whose origin and background one can not describe with verbal explanation. It is an important problem to develop a method to help one become conscious of the one's unconscious preference, and convey it to the others in the form of verbal explanation. This paper develops a method which combines the concepts of reflection, visualization, and verbalization, applied to group discussion, with a tool which implements an algorithm to process information on the subjects' stated preference. The method is applied to the experiments where the unconscious preference on the art works is investigated.

  18. Patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency have impaired oxidation of fat during exercise but no effect of L-carnitine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K L; Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C

    2013-01-01

    It is not clear to what extent skeletal muscle is affected in patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). l-Carnitine is commonly used as a supplement in patients with MCADD, although its beneficial effect has not been verified.......It is not clear to what extent skeletal muscle is affected in patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). l-Carnitine is commonly used as a supplement in patients with MCADD, although its beneficial effect has not been verified....

  19. Langevin equation for systems with a preferred spatial direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Roman; Cohen, E. G. D.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we generalize the theory of Brownian motion and the Onsager-Machlup theory of fluctuations for spatially symmetric systems to equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady-state systems with a preferred spatial direction, due to an external force. To do this, we extend the Langevin equation to include a bias, which is introduced by an external force and alters the Gaussian structure of the system's fluctuations. In addition, by solving this extended equation, we provide a physical interpretation for the statistical properties of the fluctuations in these systems. Connections of the extended Langevin equation with the theory of active Brownian motion are discussed as well.

  20. Acetyl Coenzyme A Acetyltransferase of Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) Strain CC 1192.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Copeland, L

    1997-09-01

    To investigate why Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) strain CC 1192 cells accumulate poly-R-3-hydroxybutyrate in the free-living state but not as bacteroids in nodules on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants, we have examined the kinetic properties of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) acetyltransferase (also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and 3-ketothiolase [EC 2.3.1.9]) from both types of cells. The enzyme had a native molecular mass of 180 (plusmn) 4 kDa, and the subunit molecular mass was 44 (plusmn) 1 kDa. The seven amino acids from the N terminus were Lys-Ala-Ser-Ile-Val-Ile-Ala. Thiolysis and condensation activity of the enzyme from free-living CC 1192 cells were optimal at pHs 7.8 and 8.1, respectively. The relationship between substrate concentrations and initial velocity for the thiolysis reaction were hyperbolic and gave K(infm) values for acetoacetyl-CoA and CoA of 42 and 56 (mu)M, respectively. The maximum velocity in the condensation direction was approximately 10% of that of the thiolysis reaction. With highly purified preparations of the enzyme, a value of approximately 1 mM was determined for the apparent K(infm) for acetyl-CoA. However, with partially purified enzyme preparations or when N-ethylmaleimide was included in reaction mixtures the apparent K(infm) for acetyl-CoA was close to 0.3 mM. In the condensation direction, CoA was a potent linear competitive inhibitor with an inhibition constant of 11 (mu)M. The much higher affinity of the enzyme for the product CoA than the substrate acetyl-CoA could have significance in view of metabolic differences between bacteroid and free-living cells of CC 1192. We propose that in free-living CC 1192 cells, the acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio reaches a value that allows condensation activity of acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, but that in CC 1192 bacteroids, the ratio is poised so that the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA is not favored.

  1. Regulation of coenzyme Q biosynthesis in yeast: a new complex in the block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; García-Testón, Elena; Padilla, Sergio; Martín-Montalvo, Alejandro; Pomares-Viciana, Teresa; Vazquez-Fonseca, Luis; Gandolfo-Domínguez, Pablo; Santos-Ocaña, Carlos

    2014-02-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an isoprenylated benzoquinone found in mitochondria, which functions mainly as an electron carrier from complex I or II to complex III in the inner membrane. CoQ is also an antioxidant that specifically prevents the oxidation of lipoproteins and the plasma membrane. Most of the information about the synthesis of CoQ comes from studies performed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. CoQ biosynthesis is a highly regulated process of sequential modifications of the benzene ring. There are three pieces of evidence supporting the involvement of a multienzymatic complex in yeast CoQ6 biosynthesis: (a) the accumulation of a unique early precursor in all null mutants of the COQ genes series, 4-hydroxy-3-hexaprenyl benzoate (HHB), (b) the lack of expression of several Coq proteins in COQ null mutants, and (c) the restoration of CoQ biosynthesis complex after COQ8 overexpression. The model we propose based on the formation of a multiprotein complex should facilitate a better understanding of CoQ biosynthesis. According to this model, the complex assembly requires the synthesis of a precursor such as HHB by Coq2p that must be recognized by the regulatory protein Coq4p to act as the core component of the complex. The phosphorylation of Coq3p and Coq5p by the kinase Coq8p facilitates the formation of an initial precomplex of 700 kDa that contains all Coq proteins with the exception of Coq7p. The precomplex is required for the synthesis of 5-demethoxy-Q6 , the substrate of Coq7p. When cells require de novo CoQ6 synthesis, Coq7p is dephosphorylated by Ptc7p, a mitochondrial phosphatase that activates the synthesis of CoQ6. This event allows for the full assembly of a complex of 1,300 kDa that is responsible for the final product of the pathway, CoQ6 .

  2. Actinobacterial acyl coenzyme A synthetases involved in steroid side-chain catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabon, Israël; Swain, Kendra; Crowe, Adam M; Eltis, Lindsay D; Mohn, William W

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial steroid catabolism is an important component of the global carbon cycle and has applications in drug synthesis. Pathways for this catabolism involve multiple acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetases, which activate alkanoate substituents for β-oxidation. The functions of these synthetases are poorly understood. We enzymatically characterized four distinct acyl-CoA synthetases from the cholate catabolic pathway of Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and the cholesterol catabolic pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Phylogenetic analysis of 70 acyl-CoA synthetases predicted to be involved in steroid metabolism revealed that the characterized synthetases each represent an orthologous class with a distinct function in steroid side-chain degradation. The synthetases were specific for the length of alkanoate substituent. FadD19 from M. tuberculosis H37Rv (FadD19Mtb) transformed 3-oxo-4-cholesten-26-oate (kcat/Km = 0.33 × 10(5) ± 0.03 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) and represents orthologs that activate the C8 side chain of cholesterol. Both CasGRHA1 and FadD17Mtb are steroid-24-oyl-CoA synthetases. CasG and its orthologs activate the C5 side chain of cholate, while FadD17 and its orthologs appear to activate the C5 side chain of one or more cholesterol metabolites. CasIRHA1 is a steroid-22-oyl-CoA synthetase, representing orthologs that activate metabolites with a C3 side chain, which accumulate during cholate catabolism. CasI had similar apparent specificities for substrates with intact or extensively degraded steroid nuclei, exemplified by 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-22-oate and 1β(2'-propanoate)-3aα-H-4α(3″-propanoate)-7aβ-methylhexahydro-5-indanone (kcat/Km = 2.4 × 10(5) ± 0.1 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 3.2 × 10(5) ± 0.3 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), respectively). Acyl-CoA synthetase classes involved in cholate catabolism were found in both Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Overall, this study provides insight into the physiological roles of acyl-CoA synthetases in steroid

  3. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.

  4. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.

  5. Coenzyme Q10 does not prevent oral dyskinesias induced by long-term haloperidol treatment of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    OA, Andreassen; Weber, Christine; HA, Jorgensen

    1999-01-01

    dyskinesias in rats, a putative analogue to human TD, could be prevented by the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Rats received 16 weeks of treatment with haloperidol decanoate (HAL) IM alone or together with orally administered CoQ10, and the behavior was recorded during and after treatment. HAL...... significantly increased the level of oral dyskinesias, and the increase persisted for 12 weeks after drug withdrawal. Cotreatment with CoQ10 did not attenuate the development of HAL-induced oral dyskinesia. Despite adequate absorption of orally administered CoQ10, shown by the increased serum levels of CoQ10......, no increase of either CoQ10 or coenzyme Q9 was detected in the brain. These results suggest that cotreatment with CoQ10 does not inhibit the development of HAL-induced oral dyskinesias in rats, and that further studies seem to be needed in order to clarify the pharmakokinetics of CoQ10 in rats...

  6. Molecular characterization of the heteromeric coenzyme A-synthesizing protein complex (CoA-SPC) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olzhausen, Judith; Moritz, Tom; Neetz, Tim; Schüller, Hans-Joachim

    2013-09-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) as an essential cofactor for acyl and acetyl transfer reactions is synthesized in five enzymatic steps from pantothenate, cysteine, and ATP. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, products of five essential genes CAB1-CAB5 (coenzyme A biosynthesis) are required to catalyze CoA biosynthesis. In addition, nonessential genes SIS2 and VHS3 similar to CAB3 are also involved. Using epitope-tagged variants of Cab3 and Cab5, we show that both proteins cofractionate upon chromatographic separation, forming a complex of about 330 kDa. We thus systematically investigated interactions among Cab proteins. Our results show that Cab2, Cab3, Cab4, and Cab5 indeed bind to each other, with Cab3 as the sole protein, which can interact with itself and other Cab proteins. Cab3 also binds to Sis2 and Vhs3 that were previously characterized as subunits of phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase. Pantothenate kinase encoded by CAB1 as the rate-limiting enzyme of CoA biosynthesis did not interact with other Cab proteins. Mapping studies revealed that the nonconserved N-terminus of Cab3 is required for dimerization and for binding of Cab2 and Cab5. Our interaction studies confirm early reports on the existence of a CoA-synthesizing protein complex (CoA-SPC) in yeast and provide precise data on protein domains involved in complex formation.

  7. Involvement of tristetraprolin in transcriptional activation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase by insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, Gene C., E-mail: gness@hsc.usf.edu [Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States); Edelman, Jeffrey L.; Brooks, Patricia A. [Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer siRNAs to tristetraprolin blocks transcription of HMGR in vivo in rat liver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer siRNAs to tristetraprolin inhibits insulin activation of HMGR transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin acts to rapidly increase tristetraprolin in liver nuclear extracts. -- Abstract: Several AU-rich RNA binding element (ARE) proteins were investigated for their possible effects on transcription of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) in normal rats. Using in vivo electroporation, four different siRNAs to each ARE protein were introduced together with HMGR promoter (-325 to +20) luciferase construct and compared to saline controls. All four siRNAs to tristetraprolin (TTP) completely eliminated transcription from the HMGR promoter construct. Since insulin acts to rapidly increase hepatic HMGR transcription, the effect of TTP siRNA on induction by insulin was tested. The 3-fold stimulation by insulin was eliminated by this treatment. In comparison, siRNA to AU RNA binding protein/enoyl coenzyme A hydratase (AUH) had no effect. These findings indicate a role for TTP in the insulin-mediated activation of hepatic HMGR transcription.

  8. Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis: Evidence for a Substrate Access Channel in the FAD-Dependent Monooxygenase Coq6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coq6 is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q, a polyisoprenylated benzoquinone lipid essential to the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this putative flavin-dependent monooxygenase is proposed to hydroxylate the benzene ring of coenzyme Q (ubiquinone precursor at position C5. We show here through biochemical studies that Coq6 is a flavoprotein using FAD as a cofactor. Homology models of the Coq6-FAD complex are constructed and studied through molecular dynamics and substrate docking calculations of 3-hexaprenyl-4-hydroxyphenol (4-HP6, a bulky hydrophobic model substrate. We identify a putative access channel for Coq6 in a wild type model and propose in silico mutations positioned at its entrance capable of partially (G248R and L382E single mutations or completely (a G248R-L382E double-mutation blocking access to the channel for the substrate. Further in vivo assays support the computational predictions, thus explaining the decreased activities or inactivation of the mutated enzymes. This work provides the first detailed structural information of an important and highly conserved enzyme of ubiquinone biosynthesis.

  9. Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis: Evidence for a Substrate Access Channel in the FAD-Dependent Monooxygenase Coq6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Alexandre; Leroux, Vincent; Smadja, Myriam; Gonzalez, Lucie; Lombard, Murielle; Pierrel, Fabien; Mellot-Draznieks, Caroline; Fontecave, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Coq6 is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q, a polyisoprenylated benzoquinone lipid essential to the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this putative flavin-dependent monooxygenase is proposed to hydroxylate the benzene ring of coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) precursor at position C5. We show here through biochemical studies that Coq6 is a flavoprotein using FAD as a cofactor. Homology models of the Coq6-FAD complex are constructed and studied through molecular dynamics and substrate docking calculations of 3-hexaprenyl-4-hydroxyphenol (4-HP6), a bulky hydrophobic model substrate. We identify a putative access channel for Coq6 in a wild type model and propose in silico mutations positioned at its entrance capable of partially (G248R and L382E single mutations) or completely (a G248R-L382E double-mutation) blocking access to the channel for the substrate. Further in vivo assays support the computational predictions, thus explaining the decreased activities or inactivation of the mutated enzymes. This work provides the first detailed structural information of an important and highly conserved enzyme of ubiquinone biosynthesis.

  10. Sleep deprivation alters valuation signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo eLibedinsky

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Even a single night of total sleep-deprivation (SD can have dramatic effects on economic decision making. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that SD influences economic decisions by altering the valuation process. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI we identified value signals related to the anticipation and the experience of monetary and social rewards (attractive female faces. We then derived decision value signals that were predictive of each participant’s willingness to exchange money for brief views of attractive faces in an independent market task. Strikingly, SD altered decision value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC in proportion to the corresponding change in economic preferences. These changes in preference were independent of the effects of SD on attention and vigilance. Our results provide novel evidence that signals in VMPFC track the current state of the individual, and thus reflect not static but constructed preferences.

  11. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Summers, Anne [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Miller, S [University of California, San Francisco; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  12. Heterogeneity in Preferences and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette

    versus housework, 2) preferences for leisure compared to consumption, and 3) marginal utility of wealth, is correlated with the retirement decision. Based on US consumption and time use data for 2001 and 2003 from the Consumptions and Activities Mail Survey (CAMS), we study the patterns of individual...... choices of expenditure, household production and leisure for people in and around retirement. The unobserved individual heterogeneity factor is isolated by comparing cross-sectional evidence and panel data estimates of the effects of retirement on consumption and time allocation. Based on cross......-section data, we can identify a difference in consumption due to retirement status, but when the panel nature of the data is exploited, the effect of retirement on consumption is small and insignificant. Moreover, the analyses point at a large positive effect of retirement on household production. Our results...

  13. Heterogeneity in Preferences and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette

    This paper discusses the determinants of the retirement decision and the implications of retirement on economic well-being. The main contribution of the paper is to formulate the role of individual heterogeneity explicitly. We argue that individual heterogeneity in 1) productivity of market work...... versus housework, 2) preferences for leisure compared to consumption, and 3) marginal utility of wealth, is correlated with the retirement decision. Based on US consumption and time use data for 2001 and 2003 from the Consumptions and Activities Mail Survey (CAMS), we study the patterns of individual......-section data, we can identify a difference in consumption due to retirement status, but when the panel nature of the data is exploited, the effect of retirement on consumption is small and insignificant. Moreover, the analyses point at a large positive effect of retirement on household production. Our results...

  14. Social Preferences and Strategic Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrales, Antonio; Miniaci, Raffaele; Piovesan, Marco;

    This paper reports experimental evidence on a stylized labor market. The experiment is designed as a sequence of three phases. In the first two phases, P1 and P2; agents face simple games, which we use to estimate subjects' social and reciprocity concerns, together with their beliefs. In the last...... phase, P3; four principals, who face four teams of two agents, compete by offering agents a contract from a fixed menu. Then, each agent selects one of the available contracts (i.e. he "chooses to work" for a principal). Production is determined by the outcome of a simple effort game induced...... by the chosen contract. We find that (heterogeneous) social preferences are significant determinants of choices in all phases of the experiment. Since the available contracts display a trade-off between fairness and strategic uncertainty, we observe that the latter is a much stronger determinant of choices...

  15. Slot Machine Preferences of Pathological and Recreational Gamblers Are Verbally Constructed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Bihler, Holly L.; Nastally, Becky L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study attempted to alter preferences for concurrently available slot machines of equal payout through the development of equivalence classes and subsequent transfers of functions. Participants rated stimuli consisting of words thought to be associated with having a gambling problem (e.g., "desperation" and "debt"), words associated…

  16. The orientational preferences of backbones of proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying; WANG Jun; XUE Bin; WANG Wei

    2006-01-01

    The orientation between the backboneresidues of proteins is defined based on the local configurations and the corresponding preferences are analyzed by statistics. It is found that all the residue pairs have some specific preferences of orientations. The statistical analysis is mainly concentrated in the orientational distributions for two kinds of groupings of residues based on the hydrophobicity and secondary structural features. The statistics for such two types of groupings shows different orientational preferences. It is found that for the former grouping the orientational preference is rather weak,while for the later a kind of strong orientational preferences. This suggests that the formation of local structures and of secondary structures are highly related to the orientational preferences.

  17. Strategies for Global Optimization of Temporal Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Khatib, Lina; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh

    2004-01-01

    A temporal reasoning problem can often be naturally characterized as a collection of constraints with associated local preferences for times that make up the admissible values for those constraints. Globally preferred solutions to such problems emerge as a result of well-defined operations that compose and order temporal assignments. The overall objective of this work is a characterization of different notions of global preference, and to identify tractable sub-classes of temporal reasoning problems incorporating these notions. This paper extends previous results by refining the class of useful notions of global temporal preference that are associated with problems that admit of tractable solution techniques. This paper also answers the hitherto open question of whether problems that seek solutions that are globally preferred from a Utilitarian criterion for global preference can be found tractably.

  18. Engineering cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A supply in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Pathway stoichiometry, free-energy conservation and redox-cofactor balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rossum, H.M.; Kozak, B.U.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial cell factory and an attractive experimental model for evaluating novel metabolic engineering strategies. Many current and potential products of this yeast require acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) as a precursor and pathways towards these products are

  19. Carnitine-dependent transport of acetyl coenzyme A in Candida albicans is essential for growth on nonfermentable carbon sources and contributes to biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbis, Karin; van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; Visser, Wouter F.; Mol, Els C.; van den Burg, Janny; MacCallum, Donna M.; Odds, Frank C.; Paramonova, Ekaterina; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Distel, Ben

    2008-01-01

    In eukaryotes, acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) produced during peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation needs to be transported to mitochondria for further metabolism. Two parallel pathways for acetyl-CoA transport have been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; one is dependent on peroxisomal citrate

  20. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) induce hepatic expression of the phospholipid translocase mdr2 in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooiveld, GJEJ; Vos, TA; Scheffer, GL; Van Goor, H; Bloks, Vincent; Loot, AE; Meijer, DKF; Jansen, PLM; Kuipers, F; Muller, M

    1999-01-01

    Background & Aims: Biliary cholesterol secretion is coupled to that of phospholipids in a process controlled by mdr2 P-glycoprotein activity and bile salt secretion. Statins, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, have been shown to affect hepatobiliary lipid secre

  1. Genetic Basis for Correction of Very‐Long‐Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency by Bezafibrate in Patient Fibroblasts: Toward a Genotype‐Based Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobin‐Limballe, S.; Djouadi, F.; Aubey, F.

    2007-01-01

    Very‐long‐chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an inborn mitochondrial fatty‐acid β‐oxidation (FAO) defect associated with a broad mutational spectrum, with phenotypes ranging from fatal cardiopathy in infancy to adolescent‐onset myopathy, and for which there is no establishe...

  2. Food preferences and underlying mechanisms after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behary, Preeshila; Miras, Alexander D

    2015-11-01

    Bariatric surgery leads to significant long-term weight loss, particularly Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The mechanisms underlying weight loss have not been fully uncovered. The aim of this review is to explore the changes in food preferences, as a novel mechanism contributing to weight loss, and also focus on the underlying processes modulating eating behaviour after bariatric surgery. Patients after gastric bypass are less hungry and prefer healthier food options. They develop an increased acuity to sweet taste, which is perceived as more intense. The appeal of sweet fatty food decreases, with functional MRI studies showing a corresponding reduction in activation of the brain reward centres to high-energy food cues. Patients experiencing post-ingestive symptoms with sweet and fatty food develop conditioned aversive behaviours towards the triggers. Gut hormones are elevated in RYGB and have the potential to influence the taste system and food hedonics. Current evidence supports a beneficial switch in food preferences after RYGB. Changes within the sensory and reward domain of taste and the development of post-ingestive symptoms appear to be implicated. Gut hormones may be the mediators of these alterations and therefore exploiting this property might prove beneficial for designing future obesity treatment.

  3. Are International Students’ Preferred Pedagogy Influenced by Their Educational Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Winch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of international students is studying at British universities. This study investigates multicultural students’ preferences on teaching and learning which was conducted at a university in the South of England during 2009/2010 academic year. In the literature review, the framework used in this study is explained. The study sample was 34 students who were studying Japanese as a non-credit module. Quantitative and qualitative data was collected using questionnaires. The results showed that some students’ preferred pedagogy appeared to be altered and influenced by British educational culture regardless of students’ previous educational culture. In addition, the sample participants’ preferred pedagogy are identified into given categories based on the framework of the study. Those who are in the teaching profession are encouraged to take into consideration of the educational cultures and teaching and learning practices from non-Anglophone countries. Keywords: culture, globalisation, higher education, Japanese language teaching, multicultural, power distance index (PDI, uncertainty avoidance index (UAI

  4. Extraversion and risk preference in portfolio theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestewig, R E

    1977-11-01

    One hundred seventy-eight male and female undergraduates completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory and indicated their risk preference assessed under the assumptions of Coombs' portfolio theory. Extraverts preferred higher risk significantly more than did introverts, and also showed significantly greater risk preference change as expected value increased. It was suggested that a theoretically defensible selection of both personality variables and a risk assessment model may lead to greater personality-risk predictability.

  5. A preference for progressivity in interaction

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates two types of preference organization in interaction: in response to a question that selects a next speaker in multi-party interaction, the preference for answers over non-answer responses as a category of a response; and the preference for selected next speakers to respond. It is asserted that the turn allocation rule specified by Sacks, Schegloff & Jefferson (1974) which states that a response is relevant by the selected next speaker at the transition relevance plac...

  6. Students' preferences in undergraduate mathematics assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Existing research into students' preferences for assessment methods has been developed from a restricted sample: in particular, the voice of students in the ‘hard-pure sciences’ has rarely been heard. We conducted a mixed method study to explore mathematics students' preferences of assessment methods. In contrast to the message from the general assessment literature, we found that mathematics students differentially prefer traditional assessment methods such as closed book examination; they p...

  7. Modeling Preference Change through Brand Satiation

    OpenAIRE

    Terui, Nobuhiko; HASEGAWA, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we develop structural models of preference change due to consumer state dependence through satiation by purchase experience. A dynamic factor model with switching structure is proposed to explain consumer preference changes. Two types of dynamic factor models are separately applied to baseline and satiation parameters in a direct utility model that accommodates multiple discreteness data. The first dynamic factor model has a switching structure for consumer preference, and deco...

  8. Facility Location with Double-peaked Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Li, Minming; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of locating a single facility on a real line based on the reports of self-interested agents, when agents have double-peaked preferences, with the peaks being on opposite sides of their locations. We observe that double-peaked preferences capture real-life scenarios and thus...... complement the well-studied notion of single-peaked preferences. We mainly focus on the case where peaks are equidistant from the agents’ locations and discuss how our results extend to more general settings. We show that most of the results for single-peaked preferences do not directly apply to this setting...

  9. Sensitive non-radioactive determination of aminotransferase stereospecificity for C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomrit, Juntratip [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Agricultural Biotechnology: (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE), Bangkok (Thailand); Summpunn, Pijug [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Meevootisom, Vithaya [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Agricultural Biotechnology: (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE), Bangkok (Thailand); Wiyakrutta, Suthep, E-mail: scsvy@mahidol.ac.th [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Agricultural Biotechnology: (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE), Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Stereochemical mechanism of PLP enzymes is important but difficult to determine. {yields} This new method is significantly less complicated than the previous ones. {yields} This assay is as sensitive as the radioactive based method. {yields} LC-MS/MS positively identify the analyte coenzyme. {yields} The method can be used with enzyme whose apo form is unstable. -- Abstract: A sensitive non-radioactive method for determination of the stereospecificity of the C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzymes (pyridoxal phosphate, PLP; and pyridoxamine phosphate, PMP) of aminotransferases has been developed. Aminotransferase of unknown stereospecificity in its PLP form was incubated in {sup 2}H{sub 2}O with a substrate amino acid resulted in PMP labeled with deuterium at C-4' in the pro-S or pro-R configuration according to the stereospecificity of the aminotransferase tested. The [4'-{sup 2}H]PMP was isolated from the enzyme protein and divided into two portions. The first portion was incubated in aqueous buffer with apo-aspartate aminotransferase (a reference si-face specific enzyme), and the other was incubated with apo-branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (a reference re-face specific enzyme) in the presence of a substrate 2-oxo acid. The {sup 2}H at C-4' is retained with the PLP if the aminotransferase in question transfers C-4' hydrogen on the opposite face of the coenzyme compared with the reference aminotransferase, but the {sup 2}H is removed if the test and reference aminotransferases catalyze hydrogen transfer on the same face. PLP formed in the final reactions was analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the presence or absence of {sup 2}H. The method was highly sensitive that for the aminotransferase with ca. 50 kDa subunit molecular weight, only 2 mg of the enzyme was sufficient for the whole test. With this method, the use of radioactive substances could be avoided without compromising the sensitivity of the assay.

  10. Coenzyme Q10 and its effects in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Cristina dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available According to clinical and pre-clinical studies, oxidative stress and its consequences may be the cause or, at least, a contributing factor, to a large number of neurodegenerative diseases. These diseases include common and debilitating disorders, characterized by progressive and irreversible loss of neurons in specific regions of the brain. The most common neurodegenerative diseases are Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 has been extensively studied since its discovery in 1957. It is a component of the electron transportation chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, generating energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. The property of CoQ10 to act as an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant, suggests that it also plays an important role in the modulation of redox cellular status under physiological and pathological conditions, also performing a role in the ageing process. In several animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, CoQ10 has shown beneficial effects in reducing disease progression. However, further studies are needed to assess the outcome and effectiveness of CoQ10 before exposing patients to unnecessary health risks at significant costs.De acordo com estudos clínicos e pré-clínicos, o estresse oxidativo e suas conseqüências podem ser a causa, ou, no mínimo, o fator que contribui para grande número de doenças degenerativas. Estas doenças incluem problemas comuns e debilitantes, caracterizados por perda progressiva e irreversível de neurônios em regiões específicas do cérebro. As doenças degenerativas mais comuns são doença de Parkinson, de Hutington, de Alzheimer e esclerose amiotrófica lateral. A Coenzima Q10 (CoQ10 tem sido intensamente estudada desde sua descoberta, em 1957. É um componente da cadeia de transporte eletrônico e participa da respiração aeróbica celular, gerando energia na forma de trifosfato de

  11. Depleted energy charge and increased pulmonary endothelial permeability induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition are mitigated by coenzyme Q1 in the isolated perfused rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, Robert D; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Audi, Said H; Zhang, Xiao; Lindemer, Brian J; Townsley, Mary I; Merker, Marilyn P

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with various forms of lung injury and disease that also involve alterations in pulmonary endothelial permeability, but the relationship, if any, between the two is not well understood. This question was addressed by perfusing isolated intact rat lung with a buffered physiological saline solution in the absence or presence of the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone (20 μM). Compared to control, rotenone depressed whole lung tissue ATP from 5.66 ± 0.46 (SEM) to 2.34 ± 0.15 µmol · g(-1) dry lung, with concomitant increases in the ADP:ATP and AMP:ATP ratios. Rotenone also increased lung perfusate lactate (from 12.36 ± 1.64 to 38.62 ± 3.14 µmol · 15 min(-1) perfusion · g(-1) dry lung) and the lactate:pyruvate ratio, but had no detectable impact on lung tissue GSH:GSSG redox status. The amphipathic quinone coenzyme Q1 (CoQ1; 50 μM) mitigated the impact of rotenone on the adenine nucleotide balance, wherein mitigation was blocked by NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 or mitochondrial complex III inhibitors. In separate studies, rotenone increased the pulmonary vascular endothelial filtration coefficient (Kf) from 0.043 ± 0.010 to 0.156 ± 0.037 ml · min(-1) · cm H2O(-1) · g(-1) dry lung, and CoQ1 protected against the effect of rotenone on Kf. A second complex I inhibitor, piericidin A, qualitatively reproduced the impact of rotenone on Kf and the lactate:pyruvate ratio. Taken together, the observations imply that pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity depends on mitochondrial bioenergetics as reflected in lung tissue ATP levels and that compensatory activation of whole lung glycolysis cannot protect against pulmonary endothelial hyperpermeability in response to mitochondrial blockade. The study further suggests that low-molecular-weight amphipathic quinones may have therapeutic utility in protecting lung barrier function in mitochondrial insufficiency.

  12. Kenyan purple tea anthocyanins and coenzyme-Q10 ameliorate post treatment reactive encephalopathy associated with cerebral human African trypanosomiasis in murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Khalid; Wachira, Francis N; Nyariki, James N; Isaac, Alfred O

    2014-04-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a tropical disease caused by two subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei, the East African variant T. b. rhodesiense and the West African variant T. b. gambiense. Melarsoprol, an organic arsenical, is the only drug used to treat late stage T. b. rhodesiense infection. Unfortunately, this drug induces an extremely severe post treatment reactive encephalopathy (PTRE) in up to 10% of treated patients, half of whom die from this complication. A highly reproducible mouse model was adapted to assess the use of Kenyan purple tea anthocyanins and/or coenzyme-Q10 in blocking the occurrence of PTRE. Female Swiss white mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with approximately 10(4) trypanosome isolate T. b. rhodesiense KETRI 2537 and treated sub-curatively 21days post infection with 5mg/kg diminazene aceturate (DA) daily for 3days to induce severe late CNS infection that closely mirrors PTRE in human subjects. Thereafter mice were monitored for relapse of parasitemia after which they were treated with melarsoprol at a dosage of 3.6mg/kg body weight for 4days and sacrificed 24h post the last dosage to obtain brain samples. Brain sections from mice with PTRE that did not receive any antioxidant treatment showed a more marked presence of inflammatory cells, microglial activation and disruption of the brain parenchyma when compared to PTRE mice supplemented with either coenzyme-Q10, purple tea anthocyanins or a combination of the two. The mice group that was treated with coenzyme-Q10 or purple tea anthocyanins had higher levels of GSH and aconitase-1 in the brain compared to untreated groups, implying a boost in brain antioxidant capacity. Overall, coenzyme-Q10 treatment produced more beneficial effects compared to anthocyanin treatment. These findings demonstrate that therapeutic intervention with coenzyme-Q10 and/or purple tea anthocyanins can be used in an experimental mouse model to ameliorate PTRE associated with cerebral HAT.

  13. Interdependence of coenzyme-induced conformational work and binding potential in yeast alcohol and porcine heart lactate dehydrogenases: a hydrogen-deuterium exchange study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Weck, Z.; Pande, J.; Kaegi, J.H.R.

    1987-07-28

    Binding of NAD coenzymes to yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and porcine heart lactate dehydrogenase (PHLDH) was studied by hydrogen-deuterium exchange with the infrared technique. Conformational changes in the enzymes specific to the coenzymes and their fragments were observed, and the pH dependence of the exchange reaction shows that it conforms to the EX-2 scheme. In both YADH and PHLDH the magnitude of the conformational change as measured by exchange retardation is considerably larger for the NAD/sup +/ than for NADH. Studies with coenzyme fragments like ADP-ribose, ADP, and AMP also highlight the lack of rigorous correlation between structural features such as charge and size and their influence on exchange behavior. Ternary complexes such as YADH-NAD/sup +/-pyrazole, PHLDH-NAD/sup +/-oxalate, and PHLDH-NADH-oxamate, which mimic the transition state, have a significantly more pronounced effect on exchange rates than the corresponding binary complexes. The outstanding feature of this study is the demonstration that in the binary enzyme-coenzyme complexes the more loosely bound NAD/sup +/ is more effective in retarding exchange than the more firmly bound NADH. These differences are attributed to the unequal structural constraints exerted by the two coenzymes upon the enzymes, which translate to unequal expenditure of transconformational work in the formation of the two complexes. The opposing variation in the free energy of binding and the transconformational work expended can be viewed as an unequal partitioning of the net free energy gain resulting from the protein-ligand interaction into a binding term and that required for conformational change.

  14. Interdependence of coenzyme-induced conformational work and binding potential in yeast alcohol and porcine heart lactate dehydrogenases: a hydrogen-deuterium exchange study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weck, Z; Pande, J; Kägi, J H

    1987-07-28

    Binding of NAD coenzymes to yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and porcine heart lactate dehydrogenase (PHLDH) was studied by hydrogen-deuterium exchange with the infrared technique. Conformational changes in the enzymes specific to the coenzymes and their fragments were observed, and the pH dependence of the exchange reaction shows that it conforms to the EX-2 scheme. In both YADH and PHLDH the magnitude of the conformational change of measured by exchange retardation is considerably larger for NAD+ than for NADH. Studies with coenzyme fragments like ADP-ribose, ADP, and AMP also highlight the lack of rigorous correlation between structural features such as charge and size and their influence on exchange behavior. Ternary complexes such as YADH-NAD+-pyrazole, PHLDH-NAD+-oxalate, and PHLDH-NADH-oxamate, which mimic the transition state, have a significantly more pronounced effect on exchange rates than the corresponding binary complexes. The outstanding feature of this study is the demonstration that in the binary enzyme-coenzyme complexes the more loosely bound NAD+ is more effective in retarding exchange than the more firmly bound NADH. These differences are attributed to the unequal structural constraints exerted by the two coenzymes upon the enzymes, which translate to unequal expenditure of transconformational work in the formation of the two complexes. The opposing variation in the free energy of binding and the transconformational work expended can be viewed as an unequal partitioning of the net free energy gain resulting from the protein-ligand interaction into a binding term and that required for conformational change.

  15. The effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on cardiometabolic markers in overweight type 2 diabetic patients with stable myocardial infarction: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhashemi, Seyyed Mehdi; Najafi, Vajiheh; Raygan, Fariba; Asemi, Zatollah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited data are present that have assessed the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) intake on cardiometabolic markers in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). This study was done to determine the effects of CoQ10 administration on cardiometabolic markers in overweight diabetic patients with stable myocardial infarction. METHODS This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was done among 60 diabetic patients with CHD aged 45-75 years old. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either 100 mg/day CoQ10 supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 8 weeks. RESULTS Compared with the placebo, CoQ10 intake led to a significant reduction in serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) (-1.7 ± 1.6 vs. 0.8 ± 1.7 ng/l, P < 0.001) and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels (-0.2 ± 0.3 vs. 0.1 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.001). Supplementation with CoQ10 did not affect serum lipoprotein(a), advanced glycation end-products and thiol concentrations compared with the placebo. CONCLUSION Overall, this study indicated that CoQ10 intake after 8 weeks among diabetic patients with the stable CHD had beneficial effects on serum IL-6 and PCO levels, but did not alter other cardiometabolic markers. PMID:28149310

  16. Social Factors and Preference Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Frith, Chris D

    2012-01-01

    Humans are intensely social animals. Much of our behavior is enacted in the presence, and during interactions, with others. We should not be surprised at the extent to which others influence our decisions and values. As Adam Smith suggested (1759), obtaining money (i.e. resources) may not be the ......Humans are intensely social animals. Much of our behavior is enacted in the presence, and during interactions, with others. We should not be surprised at the extent to which others influence our decisions and values. As Adam Smith suggested (1759), obtaining money (i.e. resources) may...... not be the prime force that drives human behavior. Rather, our principle motivation is to be noticed by our fellows (i.e. to have a reputation) and acquiring wealth is just one way to enhance our reputation. In this chapter we review evidence for social motivations, considering implicit social processes that alter...

  17. In vitro effects of zinc, D-aspartic acid, and coenzyme-Q10 on sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacone, Filippo; Condorelli, Rosita A; Mongioì, Laura M; Bullara, Valentina; La Vignera, Sandro; Calogero, Aldo E

    2016-07-15

    Reactive oxygen species favor reproductive processes at low concentrations, but damage spermatozoa and decrease their fertilizing capacity at high concentrations. During infection and/or inflammation of the accessory sex glands reactive oxygen species overproduction may occur which, in turn, may negatively impact on sperm motility, sperm DNA fragmentation, and lipid peroxidation. A number of nutraceutical formulations containing antioxidant molecules have been developed to counteract the deleterious effects of the oxidative stress. A recent formulation containing zinc, D-aspartic acid, and coenzyme-Q10 is present in the pharmaceutical market. Based on these premises, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of this combination on spermatozoa in vitro. The study was conducted on 24 men (32.2 ± 5.5 years): 12 normozoospermic men and 12 asthenozoospermic patients. Spermatozoa from each sample were divided into two control aliquots (aliquot A and B) and an aliquot incubated with zinc, D-aspartic acid, and coenzyme-Q10 (aliquot C). After 3 h of incubation, the following parameters were evaluated: progressive motility, number of spermatozoa with progressive motility recovered after swim-up, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation. Incubation with zinc, D-aspartic acid, and coenzyme-Q10 maintained sperm motility in normozoospermic men (37.7 ± 1.2 % vs. 35.8 ± 2.3 % at time zero) and improved it significantly in asthenozoospermic patients (26.5 ± 1.9 % vs. 18.8 ± 2.0 % at time zero) (p < 0.01). This resulted in a significantly higher (p < 0.01) number of spermatozoa with progressive motility recovered after swim-up in both normozospermic men (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.3 ± 1.0 millions) and asthenozooseprmic patients (3.2 ± 0.8 vs. 1.6 ± 0.5 millions). Finally, a statistically significant lower sperm lipid peroxidation was found after incubation with zinc, D-aspartic acid, and coenzyme-Q10 (p < 0

  18. Topical treatment with coenzyme Q10-containing formulas improves skin's Q10 level and provides antioxidative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Anja; Achterberg, Volker; Smuda, Christoph; Mielke, Heiko; Sperling, Gabi; Dunckelmann, Katja; Vogelsang, Alexandra; Krüger, Andrea; Schwengler, Helge; Behtash, Mojgan; Kristof, Sonja; Diekmann, Heike; Eisenberg, Tanya; Berroth, Andreas; Hildebrand, Janosch; Siegner, Ralf; Winnefeld, Marc; Teuber, Frank; Fey, Sven; Möbius, Janne; Retzer, Dana; Burkhardt, Thorsten; Lüttke, Juliane; Blatt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10, Q10) represents an endogenously synthesized lipid-soluble antioxidant which is crucial for cellular energy production but is diminished with age and under the influence of external stress factors in human skin. Here, it is shown that topical Q10 treatment is beneficial with regard to effective Q10 replenishment, augmentation of cellular energy metabolism, and antioxidant effects. Application of Q10-containing formulas significantly increased the levels of this quinone on the skin surface. In the deeper layers of the epidermis the ubiquinone level was significantly augmented indicating effective supplementation. Concurrent elevation of ubiquinol levels suggested metabolic transformation of ubiquinone resulting from increased energy metabolism. Incubation of cultured human keratinocytes with Q10 concentrations equivalent to treated skin showed a significant augmentation of energy metabolism. Moreover, the results demonstrated that stressed skin benefits from the topical Q10 treatment by reduction of free radicals and an increase in antioxidant capacity.

  19. Stabilizing effects of coenzyme Q10 on potassium ion release, membrane potential and fluidity of rabbit red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinozawa,Shinya

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10 on potassium ion release, membrane potential and fluidity of rabbit red blood cells were studied. Co Q10 inhibited the increased potassium ion release induced by cetylamine or lysolecithin from the cells. Co Q10 slightly decreased the membrane potential monitored by changes in fluorescence intensity of cyanine dye, 3,3'-dipropyl-2,2'-thiodicarbocyanine iodide [diS-C3-(5], and also slightly decreased the membrane fluidity measured by using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH. These effects of Co Q10 on the membrane are considered to be due to its membrane stabilizing activity by interaction with lipid bilayers of the membrane.

  20. Simple and fast HPLC method for simultaneous determination of retinol, tocopherols, coenzyme Q(10) and carotenoids in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleize, Béatrice; Steib, Marlène; André, Marc; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2012-10-15

    The effects of fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A and E) and lipid microconstituents (such as carotenoids) on human health are now well established. However, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods able to detect these molecules in simultaneous runs are often difficult to set up. We report here a 35-min reversed-phase HPLC method using a single C30 column kept at 35°C with a gradient system of methanol, methyl-tert-butyl ether and water at a flow-rate of 1 mL/min. This method resolves 11 carotenoids, retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol from complex matrixes such as food samples, human plasma and human adipose tissue within 35 min. The method is also able to separate coenzyme Q(10). The intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation are suitable for routine clinical and scientific applications for the determination of lipid micronutrients from various sample types.

  1. Preferences of Agents in Defeasible Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.; Governatori, G.; Rotolo, A.; Torre, L.W.N. van der

    2005-01-01

    Defeasible Logic is extended to programming languages for cognitive agents with preferences and actions for planning. We define rule-based agent theories that contain preferences and actions, together with inference procedures. We discuss patterns of agent types in this setting. Finally, we illustra

  2. Values and marginal preferences in international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; van Hoorn, Andre

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Maseland and van Hoorn argued that values surveys tend to conflate values and marginal preferences. This assertion has been challenged by Brewer and Venaik, who claim that the wording of most survey items does not suggest that these elicit marginal preferences. Thi

  3. Learning space preferences of higher education students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Ronald; Voordt, van der Theo; Dewulf, Geert

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to address higher education students’ learning space preferences. The study is based on a survey that involved 697 business management students of a Dutch University of Applied Sciences. The research focuses on preferred learning spaces for individual study activities, which require

  4. Patients' preferences for patient-centered communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Sofie Rosenlund; Christensen, Søren Troels; Andreasen T., Jesper

    2013-01-01

    To investigate patients' preferences for patient-centered communication (PCC) in the encounter with healthcare professionals in an outpatient department in rural Sierra Leone.......To investigate patients' preferences for patient-centered communication (PCC) in the encounter with healthcare professionals in an outpatient department in rural Sierra Leone....

  5. Advocacy and political convergence under preference uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Reuben; C. Traxler; F. van Winden

    2015-01-01

    We study the formation of advocacy groups and how they can impact policy outcomes by revealing information about voters׳ preferences to uninformed political candidates. We conduct a laboratory experiment based on a two-candidate spatial electoral competition setting where the policy preferences of v

  6. Dating Preferences in Sex Stereotypic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine A.

    Although research suggest a general preference by men for attractive partners, attractiveness may be more important for some men than for others. This study was conducted to investigate the role of men's sex stereotypic attitudes on their dating preferences. It was hypothesized that the level of sex stereotyping would correlate with the level…

  7. Preferences, Consumption Smoothing and Risk Premia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettau, M.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1997-01-01

    Risk premia in the consumption capital asset pricing model depend on preferences and dividend. We develop a decomposition which allows a separate treatment of both components. We show that preferences alone determine the risk-return tradeoff measured by the Sharpe-ratio. In general, the risk-return

  8. HEMISPHERE PREFERENCE, ANXIETY, AND COVARIATION BIAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter; MERCKELBACH, H; NIJMAN, H

    1995-01-01

    In Study I, normal subjects (N = 70) completed the Preference Test (PT), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Subjects with a preference for a right hemisphere thinking style (as indexed by PT) were found to have higher state anxiety and anxiety sensitivi

  9. Undergraduate Psychology Courses Preferred by Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Reisinger, Debra L.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    Information about the undergraduate psychology courses preferred by graduate programs is useful for a number of purposes, including (a) advising psychology majors who are interested in graduate school, (b) undergraduate curriculum planning, and (c) examining whether graduate programs' preferences reflect national guidelines for the undergraduate…

  10. Learning Style Preferences of Gifted Minority Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Norma J.; Yong, Fung Lan

    1993-01-01

    This study compared learning style preferences among gifted African-American (n=54), Mexican-American (n=61), and American-born Chinese (n=40) middle grade students attending Chicago, Illinois, public schools. Significant ethnic, gender, and grade differences were found. All three groups preferred studying in the afternoon and bright light and did…

  11. Sound preferences in urban open public spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Yang, Wei

    2003-10-01

    This paper studies people's perception of sound, based on an intensive questionnaire survey in fourteen urban open public spaces of five European countries. The questionnaire includes identification of recognized sounds, classification of sound preference, and indication of wanted and unwanted sounds. The results indicate three facets to people's sound preferences. First, people generally prefer natural and culture-related sounds rather than artificial sounds. Vehicle sounds and construction sounds are regarded as the most unpopular, whereas sounds from human activities are normally rated as neutral. Second, cultural background and long-term environmental experience play an important role in people's judgment of sound preference. People from a similar environment may show a similar tendency on their sound preferences, which can be defined as macro-preference. Third, personal differences, such as age and gender, further influence people's sound preference, which can be defined as micro-preference. For example, with increasing age, a higher percentage of people are favorable to, or tolerate, sounds relating to nature, culture or human activities. Male and female exhibit only slight differences. [Work supported by the European Commission.

  12. Preferences, Paths, Power, Goals and Norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oren, N.; Van Riemsdijk, M.B.; Vasconcelos, W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the question of preference alignment in normative systems. We represent detached obligations and goals as preferences over outcomes, and describe when deterministic behaviour will occur within a MAS under specific system instantiations. We then investigate what obligation

  13. Personal Epistemology and Preference for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Used a 3 x 3 mixed factorial design to study relation between a person's dominant way of knowing (rationalism, metaphorism, empiricism) and the preference for three counseling approaches (rationalist, constructivist, behavioral) with college students (N=92). Found participants significantly preferred counseling approach hypothesized to represent…

  14. Students' Preferences in Undergraduate Mathematics Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

    2015-01-01

    Existing research into students' preferences for assessment methods has been developed from a restricted sample: in particular, the voice of students in the 'hard-pure sciences' has rarely been heard. We conducted a mixed method study to explore mathematics students' preferences of assessment methods. In contrast to the message from the general…

  15. Teachers' Preferences to Teach Underserved Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Kwok, Andrew; Reininger, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    To increase the supply of teachers into underserved schools, teacher educators and policymakers commonly use two approaches: (a) recruit individuals who already report strong preferences to work in underserved schools or (b) design pre-service preparation to increase preferences. Using survey and administrative data on more than 1,000 teachers in…

  16. Stimulus collative properties and consumers’ flavor preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Duerlund, Mette; Bøegh-Petersen, Jannie

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated consumers’ hedonic response to flavor stimuli in light of Berlyne’s (1967) collative-motivational model of aesthetic preferences. According to this paradigm, sensory preferences are a function of a stimulus’ arousal potential, which is determined by its collative pro...

  17. 75 FR 29324 - Preferred Supplier Program (PSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Department of the Navy Preferred Supplier Program (PSP) AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice... drafting a policy that will establish a Preferred Supplier Program (PSP). Under the PSP, contractors that..., DON will initiate the pilot phase of the PSP. DATES: DON invites interested parties from both...

  18. A Method to Assess Work Task Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobigo, Virginie; Morin, Diane; Lachapelle, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Persons with intellectual disability may encounter difficulties in making choices and expressing preferences because of restricted communication skills or a tendency to acquiesce. In addition, many studies provide evidence that these persons have less opportunity to make choices and express their preferences. The aim of this study was to conduct a…

  19. Detecting novel metaphor using selectional preference information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, Hessel; Bjerva, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Recent work on metaphor processing often employs selectional preference information. We present a comparison of different approaches to the modelling of selectional preferences, based on various ways of generalizing over corpus frequencies. We evaluate on the VU Amsterdam Metaphor corpus, a broad co

  20. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  1. Preference clustering in customer satisfaction measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyze whether or not segments with different customer preferences and customer satisfaction can be identified. This analysis is based on customer satisfaction data from the Danish banking industry from the years 2004 and 2005. The analysis showed that the preference...

  2. Preference mapping of apple varieties in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; Carbó, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; Höller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    A consumer test carried out in 7 different European countries compared 3 standard apple varieties to 8 new ones. A total of 4290 consumers took part in the test. Data from this test was used to develop a preference map for apple. The preference map was constructed with 3 main dimensions (1 – sweetne

  3. 36 CFR 17.7 - Preference rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference rights. 17.7... CONVEYANCE OF FREEHOLD AND LEASEHOLD INTERESTS ON LANDS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 17.7 Preference rights... right to acquire the interest for an amount equal to the highest bid if within 30 days they notify...

  4. Counseling Style Preference of Chinese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Herbert A.; Lau, Ester Ying-wah

    1988-01-01

    Conducted study to determine preferences of Cantonese-speaking Chinese college students (N=50) from Hong Kong attending a large midwestern university for either a directive or nondirective counseling approach to emotional adjustment problems. Results showed that subjects strongly preferred a directive counseling approach and attributed low…

  5. Preference Erosion and Multilateral Trade Liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); B. Hoekman; M. Manchin

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBecause of concern that OECD tariff reductions will translate into worsening export performance for the least developed countries, trade preferences have proven a stumbling block to developing country support for multilateral liberalization. We examine the actual scope for preference ero

  6. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  7. Do Reading Habits Influence Aesthetic Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Allaith, Zainab

    2013-01-01

    We tested the idea that the directionality of a person's primary writing system has influences outside the domain of reading and writing, specifically influences on aesthetic preferences. The results of several previous studies suggest that people whose primary writing system goes from left to right prefer pictures of moving and static objects…

  8. 20 CFR 617.24 - Preferred training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preferred training. 617.24 Section 617.24 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Reemployment Services § 617.24 Preferred training....

  9. HOST PLANT PREFERENCES OF BEMISIA TABACI GENNADIUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGYing; HUANGJian; MARui-yan; HANJu-cai

    2003-01-01

    The preferences of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius for five host plants:poinsettia, tomato, cabbage,sweet potato and flowering Chinese cabbage, was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer and a desiccator in the labo-ratory. The results show that B. tabaci adults were attracted by the odors of the five plants. The order of prefer-ence was poinsettia > flowering Chinese cabbage > sweet potato > cabbage > tomato. Preference was extremely sig-nificant between poinsettia and the other four plants, and between flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and toma-to. There was no significant difference in preference for flowering Chinese cabbage and sweet potato, sweet pota-to, cabbage and tomato or between cabbage and tomato.

  10. Characteristics of the consumer preferences research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela-Cristina Voicu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must possess. Some information is hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer, as in the case of information about consumer preferences. Although it seems a concept difficult to grasp, it was shown that consumer preferences can be effectively measured and their research may provide a deeper understanding of the choices that consumers make when deciding to select an offer against another and when deciding to continue in time the relationship with one supplier. The following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the use of information regarding consumer preferences, the fundamentals behind consumer preferences research and the milestones in the consumer preferences research process.

  11. Preference elicitation and inverse reinforcement learning

    CERN Document Server

    Rothkopf, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    We state the problem of inverse reinforcement learning in terms of preference elicitation, resulting in a principled (Bayesian) statistical formulation. This generalises previous work on Bayesian inverse reinforcement learning and allows us to obtain a posterior distribution on the agent's preferences, policy and optionally, the obtained reward sequence, from observations. We examine the relation of the resulting approach to other statistical methods for inverse reinforcement learning via analysis and experimental results. We show that preferences can be determined accurately, even if the observed agent's policy is sub-optimal with respect to its own preferences. In that case, significantly improved policies with respect to the agent's preferences are obtained, compared to both other methods and to the performance of the demonstrated policy.

  12. A Music Preference Test System for Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Peng Zhang; Guang-Zhan Fang; Yang Xia; Tie-Jun Liu; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    In music preference experiments,housing conditions and the control of parameters for animals can affect experimental results.However,the needs of animals are indeed insufficiently considered in many reports of animal experiments.In order to evaluate which music rats prefer,we developed a new music preference test system.Dwelling time and visiting frequency can be recorded automatically when rats moving among different compartments of the system.We can also observe the behaviors of rats captured by a video camera.By this system,the music preference can be found,and then the related music can be used in following various studies.In this paper,we described the design of this music preference test system of rat,and some primary results were reported.

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONSUMER PREFERENCES RESEARCH PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA-CRISTINA VOICU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must possess. Some information is hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer, as in the case of information about consumer preferences. Although it seems a concept difficult to grasp, it was shown that consumer preferences can be effectively measured and their research may provide a deeper understanding of the choices that consumers make when deciding to select an offer against another and when deciding to continue in time the relationship with one supplier. The following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the use of information regarding consumer preferences, the fundamentals behind consumer preferences research and the milestones in the consumer preferences research process.

  14. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports.

  15. The discovered preference hypothesis - an empirical test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    an nterpretation and explanation of biases which entails that the stated preference methods need not to be completely written off. In this paper we conduct a test for the validity and relevance of the DPH interpretation of biases. In a choice experiment concerning preferences for protection of Danish nature areas...... from new motorway development, we find that respondent preferences are susceptible to starting point bias. In particular, our results show that the bias is gender-specific as only female respondents are significantly biased. Importantly, we find that the impact of the starting point bias decays......Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott [31], offers...

  16. Goal preference shapes confrontations of sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Robyn K; Melchiori, Kala J

    2014-05-01

    Although most women assume they would confront sexism, assertive responses are rare. We test whether women's preference for respect or liking during interpersonal interactions explains this surprising tendency. Women report preferring respect relative to liking after being asked sexist, compared with inappropriate, questions during a virtual job interview (Study 1, n = 149). Women's responses to sexism increase in assertiveness along with their preference for being respected, and a respect-preference mediates the relation between the type of questions and response assertiveness (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2 (n = 105), women's responses to sexist questions are more assertive when the sense of belonging is enhanced with a belonging manipulation. Moreover, preference for respect mediates the effect of the type of questions on response assertiveness, but only when belonging needs are met. Thus the likelihood of confrontation depends on the goal to be respected outweighing the goal to be liked.

  17. On the meaningfulness of testing preference axioms in stated preference discrete choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tjur, Carl Tue; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2012-01-01

    A stream of studies on evaluation of health care services and public goods have developed tests of the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity and methods for detecting other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, and random error, in stated preference...

  18. Comparing Preference Assessments: Selection- versus Duration-Based Preference Assessment Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.; Kelley, Michael E.; Kisamore, April

    2009-01-01

    In the current investigation, the results of a selection- and a duration-based preference assessment procedure were compared. A Multiple Stimulus With Replacement (MSW) preference assessment [Windsor, J., Piche, L. M., & Locke, P. A. (1994). "Preference testing: A comparison of two presentation methods." "Research in Developmental Disabilities,…

  19. Thermodynamics of ligand binding to acyl-coenzyme A binding protein studied by titration calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Sigurskjold, B W; Kragelund, B B

    1996-01-01

    Ligand binding to recombinant bovine acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) was examined using isothermal microcalorimetry. Microcalorimetric measurements confirm that the binding affinity of acyl-CoA esters for ACBP is strongly dependent on the length of the acyl chain with a clear preference for acyl......-CoA esters containing more than eight carbon atoms and that the 3'-phosphate of the ribose accounts for almost half of the binding energy. Binding of acyl-CoA esters, with increasing chain length, to ACBP was clearly enthalpically driven with a slightly unfavorable entropic contribution. Accessible surface...... areas derived from the measured enthalpies were compared to those calculated from sets of three-dimensional solution structures and showed reasonable correlation, confirming the enthalphically driven binding. Binding of dodecanoyl-CoA to ACBP was studied at various temperatures and was characterized...

  20. Alteration of eating behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease: possibly overlooked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Hideto; Kondo, Tomoyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) occasionally show food cravings and/or compulsive eating that result in significant, undesired weight gain. Dopamine replacement therapy may be the cause of this type of eating disorder. We evaluated 60 consecutive patients to see if they had any alteration of eating patterns after starting levodopa. Among them, five (8.3%) patients exhibited characteristic alterations of food preference following the start of dopamine replacement therapy. One patient showed an undesirable weight gain. Of the five patients exhibiting food preference alterations, all showed increased preference to consume sweet snacks, although this alteration was not always associated with hyperphagia (eating too much). This type of dietary alteration was not related to a specific antiparkinsonian drug, and could be observed in patients undergoing dopamine agonist monotherapy. Alteration of eating behavior may not be uncommon in PD patients, and is possibly overlooked. Since dopamine is closely involved in acquisition of food preferences, dietary changes with/without compulsive eating may be a manifestation of an alteration of appetitive behaviors due to excessive dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  1. Investors’ Risk Preference Characteristics and Conditional Skewness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perspective on behavioral finance, we take a new look at the characteristics of investors’ risk preference, building the D-GARCH-M model, DR-GARCH-M model, and GARCHC-M model to investigate their changes with states of gain and loss and values of return together with other time-varying characteristics of investors’ risk preference. Based on a full description of risk preference characteristic, we develop a GARCHCS-M model to study its effect on the return skewness. The top ten market value stock composite indexes from Global Stock Exchange in 2012 are adopted to make the empirical analysis. The results show that investors are risk aversion when they gain and risk seeking when they lose, which effectively explains the inconsistent risk-return relationship. Moreover, the degree of risk aversion rises with the increasing gain and that of risk seeking improves with the increasing losses. Meanwhile, we find that investors’ inherent risk preference in most countries displays risk seeking, and their current risk preference is influenced by last period’s risk preference and disturbances. At last, investors’ risk preferences affect the conditional skewness; specifically, their risk aversion makes return skewness reduce, while risk seeking makes the skewness increase.

  2. Oxidative stress alters physiological and morphological neuronal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Sonia M; Joe, Mary; Alshuaib, Waleed B

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the effects of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress on the delayed-rectifier current (IK(DR)), neuronal physiological and morphological properties. Measurements were obtained from hippocampal CA1 neurons in control solution and from the same neurons after exposure to oxidative stress (short- and long-term H(2)O(2) external applications at 0.1, 1, and 10 mM). With short-term (6 min) H(2)O(2) (1 mM) treatment, IK(DR) measured in the H(2)O(2)-containing solution (778 +/- 23 pA, n=20), was smaller than that measured in the control Ca(2+)-free Hepes solution (1,112 +/- 38 pA, n=20). Coenzyme Q(10) (0.1 mM) pretreatment prevented the H(2)O(2)-induced inhibition of IK(DR). With long-term (40, 80 min) H(2)O(2) (0.1, 10 mM) treatment, the neuron lost its distinctive shape (rounded up) and the neurite almost disappeared. These results suggest that oxidative stress, which inhibits IK(DR), can alter neural activity. The morphological changes caused by H(2)O(2) support the idea that oxidative stress causes intracellular damage and compromises neural function.

  3. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  4. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  5. U-processes and preference learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Ren, Chuanbao; Li, Luoqing

    2014-12-01

    Preference learning has caused great attention in machining learning. In this letter we propose a learning framework for pairwise loss based on empirical risk minimization of U-processes via Rademacher complexity. We first establish a uniform version of Bernstein inequality of U-processes of degree 2 via the entropy methods. Then we estimate the bound of the excess risk by using the Bernstein inequality and peeling skills. Finally, we apply the excess risk bound to the pairwise preference and derive the convergence rates of pairwise preference learning algorithms with squared loss and indicator loss by using the empirical risk minimization with respect to U-processes.

  6. Reproductive ambition predicts partnered, but not unpartnered, women's preferences for masculine men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Christopher D

    2012-08-01

    Changing circumstances alter the costs and benefits of choosing different mates and are thought to be reflected in women's mate preferences. Indeed, several lines of reasoning, and some prior studies, suggest that individual differences in women's preferences for cues of men's underlying health will be more apparent among partnered women than among unpartnered women. The current study shows that preferences for male faces with masculine shape cues, characteristics that are thought to signal men's underlying health, are positively correlated with partnered, but not unpartnered, women's reported reproductive ambition (i.e., their desire to become pregnant). These findings (1) present new evidence for systematic variation in women's mating strategies, (2) suggest that partnership status may be important for potentially adaptive variation in women's mate preferences, and (3) suggest that reproductive ambition may influence women's mate preferences. Alternative explanations for these findings, focusing on the possible effects of a range of variables that may be correlated with reproductive ambition in partnered women and influence their masculinity preferences, are also discussed.

  7. Oviposition preferences for ethanol depend on spatial arrangement and differ dramatically among closely related Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumethasorn, Matt; Turner, Thomas L

    2016-11-15

    Recent work on the model fly Drosophila melanogaster has reported inconsistencies in their preference for laying eggs on intermediate concentrations of ethanol. In this study, we resolve this discrepancy by showing that this species strongly prefers ovipositing on ethanol when it is close to a non-ethanol substrate, but strongly avoids ethanol when options are farther apart. We also show fluidity of these behaviors among other Drosophila species: D. melanogaster is more responsive to ethanol than close relatives in that it prefers ethanol more than other species in the close-proximity case, but avoids ethanol more than other species in the distant case. In the close-proximity scenario, the more ethanol-tolerant species generally prefer ethanol more, with the exception of the island endemic D. santomea This species has the lowest tolerance in the clade, but behaves like D. melanogaster We speculate that this could be an adaptation to protect eggs from parasites or predators such as parasitoid wasps, as larvae migrate to non-toxic substrates after hatching. These natural differences among species are an excellent opportunity to study how genes and brains evolve to alter ethanol preferences, and provide an interesting model for genetic variation in preferences in other organisms, including humans.

  8. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emerged bees and forgers in a colony setting. We then determined the mechanism behind this preference. We show that this preference maximizes Varroa fitness, although due to the fact that each mite must find a second host (a pupa) to reproduce, the fitness benefit to the mites is not immediate but delayed. Our results suggest that the Varroa mite is a highly adapted parasite for honey bees. PMID:27302644

  9. Personality, media preferences, and cultural participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Eijck, Koen van

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, friendliness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness) on media preferences (TV programs) and cultural participation (book reading and attending museums and concerts) was examined. The analyses were carried out

  10. Preference reversal in quantum decision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2015-01-01

    We consider the psychological effect of preference reversal and show that it finds a natural explanation in the frame of quantum decision theory. When people choose between lotteries with non-negative payoffs, they prefer a more certain lottery because of uncertainty aversion. But when people evaluate lottery prices, e.g. for selling to others the right to play them, they do this more rationally, being less subject to behavioral biases. This difference can be explained by the presence of the attraction factors entering the expression of quantum probabilities. Only the existence of attraction factors can explain why, considering two lotteries with close utility factors, a decision maker prefers one of them when choosing, but evaluates higher the other one when pricing. We derive a general quantitative criterion for the preference reversal to occur that relates the utilities of the two lotteries to the attraction factors under choosing versus pricing and test successfully its application on experiments by Tvers...

  11. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  12. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions......: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  13. Superluminal Phenomena and the Quantum Preferred Frame

    CERN Document Server

    Rembielinski, J

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by a number of recent experiments, we discuss in this paper a speculative but physically admissible form and solutions of effective Maxwell-like equations describing propagation of electromagnetic field in a medium which ``feels'' a quantum preferred frame.

  14. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face.

  15. Ethnic group preferences for multicultural counseling competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Elizabeth D; Atkinson, Donald R; Wampold, Bruce E

    2004-02-01

    Asian American (n = 155), European American (n = 200), and Hispanic (n = 152) undergraduate students were surveyed using a paired-comparison format to determine preferences for the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 11 knowledges, and 11 skills identified by D. W. Sue, P. Arredondo, and R. J. McDavis (1992) as characteristics of the competent multicultural counselor. The Bradley-Terry-Luce model, which uses a weighted least square regression to place the competencies on a continuum from least preferred to most preferred and to test for significant intergroup differences, was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that preferences for 5 of the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 5 of the 11 knowledges, and 7 of the 11 skills competencies varied as a function of race/ethnicity.

  16. DEVELOPING A TOOL FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERABLE PURCHASING

    Science.gov (United States)

    LCA-based guidance was developed by EPA under the Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision Making (FRED) effort to demonstrate how to conduct a relative comparison between product types to determine environmental preferability. It identifies data collection needs and iss...

  17. Evolution properties of online user preference diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Ji, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Han, Jingti

    2017-02-01

    Detecting the evolution properties of online user preference diversity is of significance for deeply understanding online collective behaviors. In this paper, we empirically explore the evolution patterns of online user rating preference, where the preference diversity is measured by the variation coefficient of the user rating sequence. The statistical results for four real systems show that, for movies and reviews, the user rating preference would become diverse and then get centralized finally. By introducing the empirical variation coefficient, we present a Markov model, which could regenerate the evolution properties of two online systems regarding to the stable variation coefficients. In addition, we investigate the evolution of the correlation between the user ratings and the object qualities, and find that the correlation would keep increasing as the user degree increases. This work could be helpful for understanding the anchoring bias and memory effects of the online user collective behaviors.

  18. Ratee Preferences Concerning Performance Management and Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Alain; Werner, Jon M.; Halle, Nicole

    1997-01-01

    Employees surveyed (265 responses from 344) expressed the following performance appraisal preferences: appraisal by immediate supervisors; prior knowledge of expectations; ongoing informal feedback; semiannual formal appraisals; and developmental evaluation focused on the results of work. (SK)

  19. Specialty Preferences of Physicians and Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Harrison G.

    1975-01-01

    Family and internal medicine were rated high by the groups studied. Neurological and colon-rectal surgery were rated low. Males gave higher ratings to surgical specialities, whereas females express stronger preferences for obstetrics and gynecology. (Author/KE)

  20. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR TABLE OLIVES IN TIRANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Merkaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Table olive production sector is undergoing rapid changes, as the government is undertaking an ambitious program supporting the expansion of olive grove plantations. Despite the increase in domestic production, import of table olive is still high, due to constraints in quantity and quality of domestically supplied olives. In the context of import substitution strategy, embraced by producers and policy-makers, it is important to analyze the consumer preferences for table olives. The objective of this paper is to segment the table olive market according to preferences for table olives attributes applying Conjoint Choice Experiment (CCE and Latent Class Analysis to collect and analyze the data. The research results show a strong consumer preference for domestic table olives whereas preferences for other attributes vary between consumer groups.

  1. Preference assessments in the zoo: Keeper and staff predictions of enrichment preferences across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Dorey, Nicole R

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is widely used in the management of zoo animals, and is an essential strategy for increasing the behavioral welfare of these populations. It may be difficult, however, to identify potentially effective enrichment strategies that are also cost-effective and readily available. An animal's preference for a potential enrichment item may be a reliable predictor of whether that individual will reliably interact with that item, and subsequently enable staff to evaluate the effects of that enrichment strategy. The aim of the present study was to assess the utility of preference assessments for identifying potential enrichment items across six different species--each representing a different taxonomic group. In addition, we evaluated the agreement between zoo personnel's predictions of animals' enrichment preferences and stimuli selected via a preference assessment. Five out of six species (nine out of 11 individuals) exhibited clear, systematic preferences for specific stimuli. Similarities in enrichment preferences were observed among all individuals of primates, whereas individuals within ungulate and avian species displayed individual differences in enrichment preferences. Overall, zoo personnel, regardless of experience level, were significantly more accurate at predicting least-preferred stimuli than most-preferred stimuli across species, and tended to make the same predictions for all individuals within a species. Preference assessments may therefore be a useful, efficient husbandry strategy for identifying viable enrichment items at both the individual and species levels.

  2. User Preferences in Image Map Using

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráková, A.; Vozenilek, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of map making, the attention is given to the resulting image map (to be accurate, readable, and suit the primary purpose) and its user aspects. Current cartography understands the user issues as all matters relating to user perception, map use and also user preferences. Most commercial cartographic production is strongly connected to economic circumstances. Companies are discovering user's interests and market demands. However, is it sufficient to focus just on the user's preferences? Recent research on user aspects at Palacký University Olomouc addresses a much wider scope of user aspects. The user's preferences are very often distorting - the users think that the particular image map is kind, beautiful, and useful and they wants to buy it (or use it - it depends on the form of the map production). But when the same user gets the task to use practically this particular map (such as finding the shortest way), so the user concludes that initially preferred map is useless, and uses a map, that was worse evaluated according to his preferences. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate not only the correctness of image maps and their aesthetics but also to assess the user perception and other user issues. For the accomplishment of such testing, eye-tracking technology is a useful tool. The research analysed how users read image maps, or if they prefer image maps over traditional maps. The eye tracking experiment on the comparison of the conventional and image map reading was conducted. The map readers were asked to solve few simple tasks with either conventional or image map. The readers' choice of the map to solve the task was one of investigated aspect of user preferences. Results demonstrate that the user preferences and user needs are often quite different issues. The research outcomes show that it is crucial to implement map user testing into the cartographic production process.

  3. Personnel preferences in personnel planning and scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, van der, M.Q.

    2013-01-01

    The personnel of an organization often has seemingly conflicting goals. On the one hand, the common goal is to achieve operational efficiency and to be available for work when needed in the organization. On the other hand, individual employees like to have a good work-life balance, by having personal working hour preferences taken into account. We develop and apply Operations Research methods and tools and show that operational efficiency can be achieved while taking personnel preferences int...

  4. Osteoporosis Screening Preferences of Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S.; Greenspan, Susan L

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine older adults' osteoporosis screening test preferences, willingness to travel for screening, and willingness to pay for screening. A survey was mailed to 1830 women and men ≥ 60 years old in Pennsylvania, assessing screening test preference (among dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS), and risk assessment tools), willingness to travel 20 miles for a better screening test, and willingness to pay $100 for a better screening test, as well a...

  5. Problem and Preferred Management Practices Identification Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchen, Douglas G.

    2003-03-10

    The goals for this workshop were: to introduce key players in the Appalachian basin oil industry to DOE's new Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) program; to explain the various elements of our two-year project in detail; to transfer technology through a series of short, invited talks; to identify technical problems and best management practices; and to recruit members for our Preferred Management Practices (PMP) Council.

  6. Ageing and gender preferences in rural Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    KREAGER, PHILIP; Schröder-Butterfill, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The Asian literature on gender is well known for the strong preference for sons characteristic of patrilineal family systems in major mainland cultures. Elsewhere, however, the situation can be very different, of which the most striking is the powerful preference for daughters, and the eminent role that women play in family economy and society, in Southeast Asia’s largest matrilineal population, the Minangkabau of Sumatra. Javanese and Sundanese family systems are also often remarked for wome...

  7. Colonoscopy Screening Information Preferences Among Urban Hispanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Jennie; Jandorf, Lina; DuHamel, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Existing disparities are evident in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We sought to assess preferred sources of colonoscopy screening information among Hispanics in East Harlem, NY. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among average-risk for CRC, non-symptomatic Hispanics in community-based sites and health clinics. SPSS 16 analysis explored the relationships between sociodemographic and health care variables and preferred sources of colonoscopy information for 395 participants. The top fou...

  8. What Determines Individual Trade Policy Preferences?

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth F. Scheve; Matthew J. Slaughter

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence on the determinants of individual trade policy preferences using an individual-level data set identifying both stated trade policy preferences and potential trade exposure through several channels for the United States in 1992. There are two main empirical results. First, we find that factor type dominates industry of employment in explaining support for trade barriers. This result is consistent with a Heckscher-Ohlin model of the United States in which the co...

  9. Farmer preference for CAPS: Workshop and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, B.F.

    2012-01-01

    Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a a multi-criteria, multi-level decision-making method which breaks down complex decisions into a series of simple questions reflecting an optimal goal, objectives, and various options. This provides a structured technique for organizing and analyzing differing preferences for Conservation Agriculture Production Systems (CAPS). This presentation explains AHP and conducts a survey to collect gender-specific preference data for selected conservation agricultu...

  10. Nutritional state influences shoaling preference for familiars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommen, Joachim G; Luz, Corinna; Bakker, Theo C M

    2007-01-01

    Preferences for grouping with familiar individuals are shown in many animal species, including the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Shoaling with familiars is advantageous because of more precise anti-predator behaviours or more stable dominance hierarchies. Additionally, associations with familiar individuals facilitate the evolution of altruistic behaviour. Thus, in situations of increased competition one might expect an increased preference for familiar fish. We gave single juvenile sticklebacks of different nutritional state the choice between shoals composed either of familiar or unfamiliar individuals. Satiated fish preferred to shoal with familiar individuals. A comparative analysis of 8 stickleback studies with 15 different tests using familiars showed that all tests gave similar results, i.e. sticklebacks of all age classes preferred to shoal with familiars in a non-sexual context. In contrast, hungry test fish did not prefer to shoal with familiar fish, but even showed a preference for the unfamiliar group. Because sticklebacks use early-life familiarity to recognize kin, the results suggest the avoidance of competition with relatives. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing an impact of nutritional state on social interactions with familiar individuals.

  11. The Origin and Biosynthesis of the Benzenoid Moiety of Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q) in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Anna; Widhalm, Joshua R; Fatihi, Abdelhak; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Elowsky, Christian; Mackenzie, Sally A; Cahoon, Edgar B; Chapple, Clint; Dudareva, Natalia; Basset, Gilles J

    2014-05-01

    It is not known how plants make the benzenoid ring of ubiquinone, a vital respiratory cofactor. Here, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana uses for that purpose two separate biosynthetic branches stemming from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Gene network modeling and characterization of T-DNA mutants indicated that acyl-activating enzyme encoded by At4g19010 contributes to the biosynthesis of ubiquinone specifically from phenylalanine. CoA ligase assays verified that At4g19010 prefers para-coumarate, ferulate, and caffeate as substrates. Feeding experiments demonstrated that the at4g19010 knockout cannot use para-coumarate for ubiquinone biosynthesis and that the supply of 4-hydroxybenzoate, the side-chain shortened version of para-coumarate, can bypass this blockage. Furthermore, a trans-cinnamate 4-hydroxylase mutant, which is impaired in the conversion of trans-cinnamate into para-coumarate, displayed similar defects in ubiquinone biosynthesis to that of the at4g19010 knockout. Green fluorescent protein fusion experiments demonstrated that At4g19010 occurs in peroxisomes, resulting in an elaborate biosynthetic architecture where phenylpropanoid intermediates have to be transported from the cytosol to peroxisomes and then to mitochondria where ubiquinone is assembled. Collectively, these results demonstrate that At4g19010 activates the propyl side chain of para-coumarate for its subsequent β-oxidative shortening. Evidence is shown that the peroxisomal ABCD transporter (PXA1) plays a critical role in this branch.

  12. PrP Conformational Transitions Alter Species Preference of a PrP-specific antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, W.Q.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Xiao, X.; Chen, S.; McGeer, P.L.; Yuan, J.; Payne, M.C.; Kang, H.E.; McGeehan, J.M.; Sy, M.S.; Greenspan, N.S.; Kaplan, D.; Wang, G.X.; Parchi, P.; Hoover, E.A.; Kneale, G.; Telling, G.; Surewicz, W.; Kong, Q.; Guo, J.

    2010-01-01

    The epitope of the 3F4 antibody most commonly used in human prion disease diagnosis is believed to consist of residues Met-Lys-His-Met (MKHM) corresponding to human PrP-(109–112). This assumption is based mainly on the observation that 3F4 reacts with human and hamster PrP but not with PrP from mous

  13. Coenzyme depletion by members of the aerolysin family of pore-forming toxins leads to diminished ATP levels and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennessey, Christine M; Ivie, Susan E; McClain, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that a variety of bacterial pore-forming toxins induce cell death through a process of programmed necrosis characterized by the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. However, events leading to the necrosis and depletion of ATP are not thoroughly understood. We demonstrate that ATP-depletion induced by two pore-forming toxins, the Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin and the Aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin toxin, is associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. To gain further insight into the toxin-induced metabolic changes contributing to necrosis and depletion of ATP, we analyzed the biochemical profiles of 251 distinct compounds by GC/MS or LC/MS/MS following exposure of a human kidney cell line to the epsilon-toxin. As expected, numerous biochemicals were seen to increase or decrease in response to epsilon-toxin. However, the pattern of these changes was consistent with the toxin-induced disruption of major energy-producing pathways in the cell including disruptions to the beta-oxidation of lipids. In particular, treatment with epsilon-toxin led to decreased levels of key coenzymes required for energy production including carnitine, NAD (and NADH), and coenzyme A. Independent biochemical assays confirmed that epsilon-toxin and aerolysin induced the rapid decrease of these coenzymes or their synthetic precursors. Incubation of cells with NADH or carnitine-enriched medium helped protect cells from toxin-induced ATP depletion and cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate that members of the aerolysin family of pore-forming toxins lead to decreased levels of essential coenzymes required for energy production. The resulting loss of energy substrates is expected to contribute to dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, and ultimately cell death.

  14. SLC1 and SLC4 encode partially redundant acyl-coenzyme A 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferases of budding yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benghezal, Mohammed; Roubaty, Carole; Veepuri, Vijayanath

    2007-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid is the intermediate, from which all glycerophospholipids are synthesized. In yeast, it is generated from lysophosphatidic acid, which is acylated by Slc1p, an sn-2-specific, acyl-coenzyme A-dependent 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. Deletion of SLC1 is not lethal an......-phosphate O-acyltransferases but also be involved in fatty acid exchange at the sn-2-position of mature glycerophospholipids....

  15. A comparative evaluation of coenzyme Q10-loaded liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles as dermal antioxidant carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce EH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evren H Gokce,1 Emrah Korkmaz,1 Sakine Tuncay-Tanriverdi,1 Eleonora Dellera,2 Giuseppina Sandri,2 M Cristina Bonferoni,2 Ozgen Ozer11Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ege, Izmir, Turkey; 2Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, ItalyBackground: The effective delivery of coenzyme Q10 (Q10 to the skin has several benefits in therapy for different skin pathologies. However, the delivery of Q10 to deeper layers of skin is challenging due to low aqueous solubility of Q10. Liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN have many advantages to accomplish the requirements in topical drug delivery. This study aims to evaluate the influence of these nanosystems on the effective delivery of Q10 into the skin.Methods: Q10-loaded liposomes (LIPO-Q10 and SLNs (SLN-Q10 were prepared by thin film hydration and high shear homogenization methods, respectively. Particle size (PS, polydispersity index (PI, zeta potential (ZP, and drug entrapment efficiency were determined. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis and morphological transmission electron microscopy (TEM examination were conducted. Biocompatibility/cytotoxicity studies of Q10-loaded nanosystems were performed by means of cell culture (human fibroblasts under oxidative conditions. The protective effect of formulations against production of reactive oxygen species were comparatively evaluated by cytofluorometry studies.Results: PS of uniform SLN-Q10 and LIPO-Q10 were determined as 152.4 ± 7.9 nm and 301.1 ± 8.2 nm, respectively. ZPs were −13.67 ± 1.32 mV and −36.6 ± 0.85 mV in the same order. The drug entrapment efficiency was 15% higher in SLN systems. TEM studies confirmed the colloidal size. SLN-Q10 and LIPO-Q10 showed biocompatibility towards fibroblasts up to 50 µM of Q10, which was determined as suitable for cell proliferation. The mean fluorescence intensity % depending on ROS production determined in cytofluorometric studies

  16. Densitometric HPTLC method for qualitative, quantitative analysis and stability study of Coenzyme Q10 in pharmaceutical formulations utilizing normal and reversed-phase silica gel plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad; Alam, Prawez; Alqasoumi, Saleh Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Two simple, precise and stability-indicating densitometric HPTLC method were developed and validated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Coenzyme Q10 in pharmaceutical formulations using normal-phase (Method I) and reversed phase (Method II) silica gel TLC plates. Both methods were developed and validated with 10×20 cm glass-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of either silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) using hexane-ethyl acetate (8.5:1.5 v/v) as developing system (Method I) or RP-18 silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) using methanol-acetone (4:6 v/v) as mobile phase (Method II). Both analyses were scanned with a densitometer at 282 nm. Linearity was found in the ranges 50-800 ng/spot (r(2)=0.9989) and 50-800 ng/spot (r(2)=0.9987) for Method I and Method II respectively. Stability of Coenzyme Q10 was explored by the two methods using acid, base, hydrogen peroxide, temperature and different solvents. Due to the efficiency of the method in separating Coenzyme Q10 from other ingredients including its degradation products, it can be applied for quality control, standardization of different pharmaceutical formulations and stability study.

  17. The glossyhead1 allele of acc1 reveals a principal role for multidomain acetyl-coenzyme a carboxylase in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes by Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Shiyou

    2011-09-23

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C 20:0 or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Combining Stated Preference and Revealed Preference Methods for the Valuation of Non-market Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Haipeng; Xie Xuxuan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the combining stated pref- erence and revealed preference methods which is the state-of- the-art method for the valuation of non-market goods. Revealed preference methods and stated preference (SP) methods have both been applied by economists in valuing non-market goods; how- ever both methods have inherent weaknesses. In order to exploit the strengths of the various approaches while minimizing their weaknesses, combining the two methods has become an important methodological option. Up to now, a growing number of literatures of studying combing the two types of data have evolved, and re- searchers developed three types of models to estimate combining revealed preference and stated preference data in academic fields: discrete choice model, continuous choice model and mixed choice model. Combining stated and revealed preference methods have been developed fast especially in the transport study field in which ideas could also be leant for environmental economic studies.

  19. Patient preferences and healthcare outcomes: an ecological perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Street Jr, R.L.; Elwyn, G.; Epstein, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the nature of patients' preferences for healthcare and whether clinician accommodation of patient preferences influences health outcomes. First, we provide a conceptualization of patient preferences along with their key attributes. Second, we review research on the relationship

  20. Daughter preference in Japan: A reflection on gender role attitudes?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to a noticeable daughter preference over the past few decades. This emergence of daughter preference is surprising given that gender relations are more traditional in Japan than in other advanced countries. OBJECTIVE I focus on the extent to which individuals' gender preferences are shaped by their gender role...

  1. Daughter preference in Japan: A reflection of gender role attitudes?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to visible daughter preference over the past few decades. An emergence of daughter preference is also surprising given that gender relations are more traditional in Japan than in other advanced countries. OBJECTIVE I focus on the extent to which individuals’ gender preference s are shaped by their gender rol...

  2. Developing the Stroke Exercise Preference Inventory (SEPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Nicholas S.; O’Halloran, Paul D.; Bernhardt, Julie; Cumming, Toby B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is highly prevalent after stroke, increasing the risk of poor health outcomes including recurrent stroke. Tailoring of exercise programs to individual preferences can improve adherence, but no tools exist for this purpose in stroke. Methods We identified potential questionnaire items for establishing exercise preferences via: (i) our preliminary Exercise Preference Questionnaire in stroke, (ii) similar tools used in other conditions, and (iii) expert panel consultations. The resulting 35-item questionnaire (SEPI-35) was administered to stroke survivors, along with measures of disability, depression, anxiety, fatigue and self-reported physical activity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify a factor structure in exercise preferences, providing a framework for item reduction. Associations between exercise preferences and personal characteristics were analysed using multivariable regression. Results A group of 134 community-dwelling stroke survivors (mean age 64.0, SD 13.3) participated. Analysis of the SEPI-35 identified 7 exercise preference factors (Supervision-support, Confidence-challenge, Health-wellbeing, Exercise context, Home-alone, Similar others, Music-TV). Item reduction processes yielded a 13-item version (SEPI-13); in analysis of this version, the original factor structure was maintained. Lower scores on Confidence-challenge were significantly associated with disability (p = 0.002), depression (p = 0.001) and fatigue (p = 0.001). Self-reported barriers to exercise were particularly prevalent in those experiencing fatigue and anxiety. Conclusions The SEPI-13 is a brief instrument that allows assessment of exercise preferences and barriers in the stroke population. This new tool can be employed by health professionals to inform the development of individually tailored exercise interventions. PMID:27711242

  3. Predator-induced changes of female mating preferences: innate and experiential effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indy Jeane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many species males face a higher predation risk than females because males display elaborate traits that evolved under sexual selection, which may attract not only females but also predators. Females are, therefore, predicted to avoid such conspicuous males under predation risk. The present study was designed to investigate predator-induced changes of female mating preferences in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana. Males of this species show a pronounced polymorphism in body size and coloration, and females prefer large, colorful males in the absence of predators. Results In dichotomous choice tests predator-naïve (lab-reared females altered their initial preference for larger males in the presence of the cichlid Cichlasoma salvini, a natural predator of P. mexicana, and preferred small males instead. This effect was considerably weaker when females were confronted visually with the non-piscivorous cichlid Vieja bifasciata or the introduced non-piscivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. In contrast, predator experienced (wild-caught females did not respond to the same extent to the presence of a predator, most likely due to a learned ability to evaluate their predators' motivation to prey. Conclusions Our study highlights that (a predatory fish can have a profound influence on the expression of mating preferences of their prey (thus potentially affecting the strength of sexual selection, and females may alter their mate choice behavior strategically to reduce their own exposure to predators. (b Prey species can evolve visual predator recognition mechanisms and alter their mate choice only when a natural predator is present. (c Finally, experiential effects can play an important role, and prey species may learn to evaluate the motivational state of their predators.

  4. Ressourcenorientierte Diagnostik im Alter

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Trotz der im Alter zunehmenden körperlichen, kognitiven und sozialen Verlusten bleibt das subjektive Wohlbefinden relativ stabil. Dies weist auf die vielen Ressourcen älterer Menschen hin. Dieser Artikel stellt für die klinische Ressourcendiagnostik relevante Verfahren vor und erläutert die zugrunde liegenden Konzepte. Berücksichtigt werden Aktivitäten und Erlebnisse als Ressourcen, emotionale Ressourcen (positiver Affekt, Lebenszufriedenheit, Selbstwerterleben, Lebensqualität), motivationale...

  5. Stochastic homothetically revealed preference for tight stochastic demand functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Heufer

    2009-01-01

    This paper strengthens the framework of stochastic revealed preferences introduced by Bandyopadhyay et al. (1999, 2004) for stochastic homothetically revealed preferences for tight stochastic demand functions.

  6. Sequence comparison of a segment of the gene for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in zygomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, A; Czempinski, K

    1994-03-01

    In this paper we compare the sequences of a segment of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase gene, isolated from eleven different strains belonging to four species of the fungal order Mucorales, Parasitella parasitica, Absidia glauca, Mucor mucedo (Mucoraceae) and Blakeslea trispora (Choanephoraceae). The segment was obtained by polynucleotide-chain-reaction amplification with primers derived from conservative regions of the gene. For the species M. mucedo and P. parasitica we have obtained evidence for two different types of HMG-CoA reductase genes by hybridization of genomic DNA with the amplified fragment and by cloning and sequencing of two different fragments. The different genes from one species show a sequence similarity of around 80% at the protein sequence level, whereas sequences of the same type from different species show similarity ranging between 91-96%. The highest similarity was found between the genes of type 1 from B. trispora and M. mucedo, although these species belong to different families. Southern-blot analysis of A. glauca DNA and B. trispora DNA revealed a second copy of the genes.

  7. Short-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Associates with a Protein Super-Complex Integrating Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Srinivas B.; Master, Stephen R.; Sireci, Anthony N.; Bierl, Charlene; Stanley, Paige E.; Li, Changhong; Stanley, Charles A.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolic pathways engage in functionally relevant multi-enzyme complexes. We previously described an interaction between short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCHAD) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) explaining the clinical phenotype of hyperinsulinism in SCHAD-deficient patients and adding SCHAD to the list of mitochondrial proteins capable of forming functional, multi-pathway complexes. In this work, we provide evidence of SCHAD's involvement in additional interactions forming tissue-specific metabolic super complexes involving both membrane-associated and matrix-dwelling enzymes and spanning multiple metabolic pathways. As an example, in murine liver, we find SCHAD interaction with aspartate transaminase (AST) and GDH from amino acid metabolic pathways, carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPS-1) from ureagenesis, other fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis enzymes and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, an extra-mitochondrial enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. Most of the interactions appear to be independent of SCHAD's role in the penultimate step of fatty acid oxidation suggesting an organizational, structural or non-enzymatic role for the SCHAD protein. PMID:22496890

  8. Red yeast rice and coenzyme Q10 as safe alternatives to surmount atorvastatin-induced myopathy in hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbaset, Marwan; Safar, Marwa M; Mahmoud, Sawsan S; Negm, Seham A; Agha, Azza M

    2014-06-01

    Statins are the first line treatment for the management of hyperlipidemia. However, the primary adverse effect limiting their use is myopathy. This study examines the efficacy and safety of red yeast rice (RYR), a source of natural statins, as compared with atorvastatin, which is the most widely used synthetic statin. Statin interference with the endogenous synthesis of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) prompted the hypothesis that its deficiency may be implicated in the pathogenesis of statin-associated myopathy. Hence, the effects of combination of CoQ10 with either statin have been evaluated. Rats were rendered hyperlipidemic through feeding them a high-fat diet for 90 days, during the last 30 days of the diet they were treated daily with either atorvastatin, RYR, CoQ10, or combined regimens. Lipid profile, liver function tests, and creatine kinase were monitored after 15 and 30 days of drug treatments. Heart contents of CoQ9 and CoQ10 were assessed and histopathological examination of the liver and aortic wall was performed. RYR and CoQ10 had the advantage over atorvastatin in that they lower cholesterol without elevating creatine kinase, a hallmark of myopathy. RYR maintained normal levels of heart ubiquinones, which are essential components for energy production in muscles. In conclusion, RYR and CoQ10 may offer alternatives to overcome atorvastatin-associated myopathy.

  9. Impaired coenzyme A synthesis in fission yeast causes defective mitosis, quiescence-exit failure, histone hypoacetylation and fragile DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takahiro; Pluskal, Tomáš; Nakaseko, Yukinobu; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2012-09-01

    Biosynthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) requires a five-step process using pantothenate and cysteine in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. CoA contains a thiol (SH) group, which reacts with carboxylic acid to form thioesters, giving rise to acyl-activated CoAs such as acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is essential for energy metabolism and protein acetylation, and, in higher eukaryotes, for the production of neurotransmitters. We isolated a novel S. pombe temperature-sensitive strain ppc1-537 mutated in the catalytic region of phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase (designated Ppc1), which is essential for CoA synthesis. The mutant becomes auxotrophic to pantothenate at permissive temperature, displaying greatly decreased levels of CoA, acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation. Moreover, ppc1-537 mutant cells failed to restore proliferation from quiescence. Ppc1 is thus the product of a super-housekeeping gene. The ppc1-537 mutant showed combined synthetic lethal defects with five of six histone deacetylase mutants, whereas sir2 deletion exceptionally rescued the ppc1-537 phenotype. In synchronous cultures, ppc1-537 cells can proceed to the S phase, but lose viability during mitosis failing in sister centromere/kinetochore segregation and nuclear division. Additionally, double-strand break repair is defective in the ppc1-537 mutant, producing fragile broken DNA, probably owing to diminished histone acetylation. The CoA-supported metabolism thus controls the state of chromosome DNA.

  10. Thermodynamic and Structure Guided Design of Statin Based Inhibitors of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarver, Ronald W.; Bills, Elizabeth; Bolton, Gary; Bratton, Larry D.; Caspers, Nicole L.; Dunbar, James B.; Harris, Melissa S.; Hutchings, Richard H.; Kennedy, Robert M.; Larsen, Scott D.; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A.; Bainbridge, Graeme (Pfizer)

    2008-10-02

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) inhibitors, are effective at lowering mortality levels associated with cardiovascular disease; however, 2--7% of patients may experience statin-induced myalgia that limits compliance with a treatment regimen. High resolution crystal structures, thermodynamic binding parameters, and biochemical data were used to design statin inhibitors with improved HMGR affinity and therapeutic index relative to statin-induced myalgia. These studies facilitated the identification of imidazole 1 as a potent (IC{sub 50} = 7.9 nM) inhibitor with excellent hepatoselectivity (>1000-fold) and good in vivo efficacy. The binding of 1 to HMGR was found to be enthalpically driven with a {Delta}H of -17.7 kcal/M. Additionally, a second novel series of bicyclic pyrrole-based inhibitors was identified that induced order in a protein flap of HMGR. Similar ordering was detected in a substrate complex, but has not been reported in previous statin inhibitor complexes with HMGR.

  11. Atomistic determinants of co-enzyme Q reduction at the Qi-site of the cytochrome bc1 complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postila, Pekka A.; Kaszuba, Karol; Kuleta, Patryk; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur; Róg, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    The cytochrome (cyt) bc1 complex is an integral component of the respiratory electron transfer chain sustaining the energy needs of organisms ranging from humans to bacteria. Due to its ubiquitous role in the energy metabolism, both the oxidation and reduction of the enzyme’s substrate co-enzyme Q has been studied vigorously. Here, this vast amount of data is reassessed after probing the substrate reduction steps at the Qi-site of the cyt bc1 complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations suggest that the Lys251 side chain could rotate into the Qi-site to facilitate binding of half-protonated semiquinone – a reaction intermediate that is potentially formed during substrate reduction. At this bent pose, the Lys251 forms a salt bridge with the Asp252, thus making direct proton transfer possible. In the neutral state, the lysine side chain stays close to the conserved binding location of cardiolipin (CL). This back-and-forth motion between the CL and Asp252 indicates that Lys251 functions as a proton shuttle controlled by pH-dependent negative feedback. The CL/K/D switching, which represents a refinement to the previously described CL/K pathway, fine-tunes the proton transfer process. Lastly, the simulation data was used to formulate a mechanism for reducing the substrate at the Qi-site.

  12. Large-Scale Domain Motions and Pyridoxal-5'-Phosphate Assisted Radical Catalysis in Coenzyme B12-Dependent Aminomutases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra Nath Maity

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lysine 5,6-aminomutase (5,6-LAM and ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (4,5-OAM are two of the rare enzymes that use assistance of two vitamins as cofactors. These enzymes employ radical generating capability of coenzyme B12 (5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, dAdoCbl and ability of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, vitamin B6 to stabilize high-energy intermediates for performing challenging 1,2-amino rearrangements between adjacent carbons. A large-scale domain movement is required for interconversion between the catalytically inactive open form and the catalytically active closed form. In spite of all the similarities, these enzymes differ in substrate specificities. 4,5-OAM is highly specific for D-ornithine as a substrate while 5,6-LAM can accept D-lysine and L-β-lysine. This review focuses on recent computational, spectroscopic and structural studies of these enzymes and their implications on the related enzymes. Additionally, we also discuss the potential biosynthetic application of 5,6-LAM.

  13. Anaerobic degradation of homocyclic aromatic compounds via arylcarboxyl-coenzyme A esters: organisms, strategies and key enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Matthias; Löffler, Claudia; Morris, Brandon E L; Kung, Johannes W

    2014-03-01

    Next to carbohydrates, aromatic compounds are the second most abundant class of natural organic molecules in living organic matter but also make up a significant proportion of fossil carbon sources. Only microorganisms are capable of fully mineralizing aromatic compounds. While aerobic microbes use well-studied oxygenases for the activation and cleavage of aromatic rings, anaerobic bacteria follow completely different strategies to initiate catabolism. The key enzymes related to aromatic compound degradation in anaerobic bacteria are comprised of metal- and/or flavin-containing cofactors, of which many use unprecedented radical mechanisms for C-H bond cleavage or dearomatization. Over the past decade, the increasing number of completed genomes has helped to reveal a large variety of anaerobic degradation pathways in Proteobacteria, Gram-positive microbes and in one archaeon. This review aims to update our understanding of the occurrence of aromatic degradation capabilities in anaerobic microorganisms and serves to highlight characteristic enzymatic reactions involved in (i) the anoxic oxidation of alkyl side chains attached to aromatic rings, (ii) the carboxylation of aromatic rings and (iii) the reductive dearomatization of central arylcarboxyl-coenzyme A intermediates. Depending on the redox potential of the electron acceptors used and the metabolic efficiency of the cell, different strategies may be employed for identical overall reactions.

  14. 牛SCD基因研究进展%Advances in Bovine Stearoyl-Coenzyme A Desaturase(SCD)Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶璇; 张健; 魏学良

    2009-01-01

    硬脂酰辅酶A去饱和酶(SCD)是催化主要包括棕榈酰CoA(C16:0)、硬脂酰CoA(C18:0)在内的饱和脂肪酸(SFA)产生单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)合成的关键酶,对牛奶、脂肪组织中脂肪酸的组成以及肌肉间脂肪沉积有着重要影响.文章概述了近年来牛SCD基因相关的研究进展.%Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase(SCD)is the key enzyme that is responsible for the conversion of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids,with stearoyl-CoA(C1 8:O)and palmitoyl-CoA(C1 6:O)as its substrates.It is very important forthe composition of milk,adipose tissues and deposition of fat in muscle.The progress of bovine SCD gene was reviewed in this paper.

  15. Mechanism of metamifop inhibition of the carboxyltransferase domain of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in Echinochloa crus-galli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiangdong; Tang, Wenjie; He, Shun; Kang, Jing; Ma, Hongju; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) plays crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism and is an attractive target for herbicide discovery. Metamifop is a novel ACCase-inhibiting herbicide that can be applied to control sensitive weeds in paddy fields. In this study, the effects of metamifop on the chloroplasts, ACCase activity and carboxyltransferase (CT) domain gene expression in Echinochloa crus-galli were investigated. The results showed that metamifop interacted with the CT domain of ACCase in E. crus-galli. The three-dimensional structure of the CT domain of E. crus-galli ACCase in complex with metamifop was examined by homology modelling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Metamifop has a different mechanism of inhibiting the CT domain compared with other ACCase inhibitors as it interacted with a different region in the active site of the CT domain. The protonation of nitrogen in the oxazole ring of metamifop plays a crucial role in the interaction between metamifop and the CT domain. The binding mode of metamifop provides a foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism of target resistance and cross-resistance among ACCase herbicides, and for designing and optimizing ACCase inhibitors.

  16. Short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase associates with a protein super-complex integrating multiple metabolic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas B Narayan

    Full Text Available Proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolic pathways engage in functionally relevant multi-enzyme complexes. We previously described an interaction between short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCHAD and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH explaining the clinical phenotype of hyperinsulinism in SCHAD-deficient patients and adding SCHAD to the list of mitochondrial proteins capable of forming functional, multi-pathway complexes. In this work, we provide evidence of SCHAD's involvement in additional interactions forming tissue-specific metabolic super complexes involving both membrane-associated and matrix-dwelling enzymes and spanning multiple metabolic pathways. As an example, in murine liver, we find SCHAD interaction with aspartate transaminase (AST and GDH from amino acid metabolic pathways, carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPS-1 from ureagenesis, other fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis enzymes and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, an extra-mitochondrial enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. Most of the interactions appear to be independent of SCHAD's role in the penultimate step of fatty acid oxidation suggesting an organizational, structural or non-enzymatic role for the SCHAD protein.

  17. Charaterization of bumarsin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme reductase inhibitor from Mesobuthus martensii Karsch venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, S C; Armugam, A; Strong, P N; Jeyaseelan, K

    2012-09-01

    Scorpion venoms are rich sources of bioactive peptides and are widely known for their ion channel inhibiting properties. We have isolated, cloned and characterized a venom protein (Bumarsin) from the Chinese scorpion, Mesobuthus martensii Karsch. Bumarsin cDNA encodes a 8132 Da, 72 amino acid mature protein that most probably exists in its native form as a Cys-bridged homodimer. We have identified this novel protein to be an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity. 0.6 μM of Bumarsin inhibits 32% of the HMG-CoA reductase activity, in comparison to 10 μM simvastatin which only inhibits 35% of the activity. RT-PCR and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometric studies demonstrate that bumarsin regulates the expression of both genes and proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Our results suggest that bumarsin may provide a model for the design of novel drugs that can be used to modulate cholesterol homeostasis.

  18. REGULATING FUNCTION OF COENZYMIZATION AND DECOENZYMIZATION OF THE LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOZYMES IN THE MOUSE TISSUES DURING HYPOXIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁明秀; 蒋晖; 邓爱萍; 周晴中

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To study the characteristics of changes of LDH enzyme patterns of mice under slight hypoxia.Methods. Mice treated with artificial hypoxia, various tissues were made for the test of LDH enzy-matic activity by the specific staining technique. LDH (1-5) relative percentage enzymatic activity(RPEA) were measured with CS-910 dual-wavelength thin layer chromatography scanner.Results. The RPEA of LDH isozymes of various tissues after slight hypoxia shifted to the isozymesLDH1 and LDH2, whose principal subunits are H subunits, and the RPEA of LDH1(H4), LDH2(H3M)increased, while RPEA of LDH5(M4) in vahous tissues decreased prominently except the cardiac muscle,and that of LDH4(HM3) decreased as well. After polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of the hypox-ia treated cardiac muscle specimen was made, activity subbands originated regularly in the isozyme pat-terns of LDH, with the regularity of LDH1 (0 subband), LDH2 (0-1 subbands), LDH3 (0-2 subbands),LDH4 (1-3 subbands), LDHs (2-4 subbands). After adding appropriate amount of NAD+ to the hypoxiatreated cardiac muscle specimen, PAGE showed the subbands of four isozymes (LDH2-LDH5) reduced oreven totally disappeared in the isozyme patterns.Conclusions. The negative feedback regulation of coenzymization and decoenzymization of LDHisozymes is one of the mouse stress responses to slight hypoxia.

  19. Involvement of Acyl Coenzyme A Oxidase Isozymes in Biotransformation of Methyl Ricinoleate into γ-Decalactone by Yarrowia lipolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Yves; Laroche, Céline; Bergmark, Karin; Møller-Andersen, Charlotte; Aguedo, Mario; Le Dall, Marie-Thérèse; Wang, Huijie; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Belin, Jean-Marc

    2000-01-01

    We reported previously on the function of acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase isozymes in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica by investigating strains disrupted in one or several acyl-CoA oxidase-encoding genes (POX1 through POX5) (H. Wang et al., J. Bacteriol. 181:5140–5148, 1999). Here, these mutants were studied for lactone production. Monodisrupted strains produced similar levels of lactone as the wild-type strain (50 mg/liter) except for Δpox3, which produced 220 mg of γ-decalactone per liter after 24 h. The Δpox2 Δpox3 double-disrupted strain, although slightly affected in growth, produced about 150 mg of lactone per liter, indicating that Aox2p was not essential for the biotransformation. The Δpox2 Δpox3 Δpox5 triple-disrupted strain produced and consumed lactone very slowly. On the contrary, the Δpox2 Δpox3 Δpox4 Δpox5 multidisrupted strain did not grow or biotransform methyl ricinoleate into γ-decalactone, demonstrating that Aox4p is essential for the biotransformation. PMID:10698800

  20. Involvement of acyl coenzyme A oxidase isozymes in biotransformation of methyl ricinoleate into gamma-decalactone by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Y; Laroche, C; Bergmark, K; Møller-Andersen, C; Aguedo, M; Le Dall, M T; Wang, H; Nicaud, J M; Belin, J M

    2000-03-01

    We reported previously on the function of acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase isozymes in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica by investigating strains disrupted in one or several acyl-CoA oxidase-encoding genes (POX1 through POX5) (H. Wang et al., J. Bacteriol. 181:5140-5148, 1999). Here, these mutants were studied for lactone production. Monodisrupted strains produced similar levels of lactone as the wild-type strain (50 mg/liter) except for Deltapox3, which produced 220 mg of gamma-decalactone per liter after 24 h. The Deltapox2 Deltapox3 double-disrupted strain, although slightly affected in growth, produced about 150 mg of lactone per liter, indicating that Aox2p was not essential for the biotransformation. The Deltapox2 Deltapox3 Deltapox5 triple-disrupted strain produced and consumed lactone very slowly. On the contrary, the Deltapox2 Deltapox3 Deltapox4 Deltapox5 multidisrupted strain did not grow or biotransform methyl ricinoleate into gamma-decalactone, demonstrating that Aox4p is essential for the biotransformation.

  1. Coenzyme Q10 treatments influence the lifespan and key biochemical resistance systems in the honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachecka, Aneta; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Paleolog, Jerzy; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Bajda, Milena; Krauze, Magdalena; Merska, Malwina; Chobotow, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    Natural bioactive preparations that will boost apian resistance, aid body detoxification, or fight crucial bee diseases are in demand. Therefore, we examined the influence of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, 2,3-dimethoxy, 5-methyl, 6-decaprenyl benzoquinone) treatment on honeybee lifespan, Nosema resistance, the activity/concentration of antioxidants, proteases and protease inhibitors, and biomarkers. CoQ10 slows age-related metabolic processes. Workers that consumed CoQ10 lived longer than untreated controls and were less infested with Nosema spp. Relative to controls, the CoQ10-treated workers had higher protein concentrations that increased with age but then they decreased in older bees. CoQ10 treatments increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, GPx, catalase, glutathione S-transferase), protease inhibitors, biomarkers (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase), the total antioxidant potential level, and concentrations of uric acid and creatinine. The activities of acidic, neutral, and alkaline proteases, and concentrations of albumin and urea were lower in the bees that were administered CoQ10. CoQ10 could be taken into consideration as a natural diet supplement in early spring before pollen sources become available in the temperate Central European climate. A response to CoQ10 administration that is similar to mammals supports our view that Apis mellifera is a model organism for biochemical gerontology.

  2. Knockdown of the coenzyme Q synthesis gene Smed-dlp1 affects planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiobara, Yumiko; Harada, Chiaki; Shiota, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Saeko; Tabata, Kenta; Sekie, Kiyoteru; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu

    2015-12-01

    The freshwater planarian is a model organism used to study tissue regeneration that occupies an important position among multicellular organisms. Planarian genomic databases have led to the identification of genes that are required for regeneration, with implications for their roles in its underlying mechanism. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a fundamental lipophilic molecule that is synthesized and expressed in every cell of every organism. Furthermore, CoQ levels affect development, life span, disease and aging in nematodes and mice. Because CoQ can be ingested in food, it has been used in preventive nutrition. In this study, we investigated the role of CoQ in planarian regeneration. Planarians synthesize both CoQ9 and rhodoquinone 9 (RQ9). Knockdown of Smed-dlp1, a trans-prenyltransferase gene that encodes an enzyme that synthesizes the CoQ side chain, led to a decrease in CoQ9 and RQ9 levels. However, ATP levels did not consistently decrease in these animals. Knockdown animals exhibited tissue regression and curling. The number of mitotic cells decreased in Smed-dlp1 (RNAi) animals. These results suggested a failure in physiological cell turnover and stem cell function. Accordingly, regenerating planarians died from lysis or exhibited delayed regeneration. Interestingly, the observed phenotypes were partially rescued by ingesting food supplemented with α-tocopherol. Taken together, our results suggest that oxidative stress induced by reduced CoQ9 levels affects planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis.

  3. Cloning and functional characterization of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase gene from Withania somnifera: an important medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nehal; Gupta, Parul; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is one of the most valuable medicinal plants synthesizing a large number of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites known as withanolides, the C28-steroidal lactones derived from triterpenoids. Though the plant has been well characterized in terms of phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities, not much is known about the biosynthetic pathway and genes responsible for biosynthesis of these compounds. In this study, we have characterized the gene encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR; EC 1.1.1.34) catalyzing the key regulatory step of the isoprenoid biosynthesis. The 1,728-bp full-length cDNA of Withania HMGR (WsHMGR) encodes a polypeptide of 575 amino acids. The amino acid sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis suggest that WsHMGR has typical structural features of other known plant HMGRs. The relative expression analysis suggests that WsHMGR expression varies in different tissues as well as chemotypes and is significantly elevated in response to exposure to salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and mechanical injury. The functional color assay in Escherichia coli showed that WsHMGR could accelerate the biosynthesis of carotenoids, establishing that WsHMGR encoded a functional protein and may play a catalytic role by its positive influence in isoprenoid biosynthesis.

  4. Preference reversal in quantum decision theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, Vyacheslav I; Sornette, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We consider the psychological effect of preference reversal and show that it finds a natural explanation in the frame of quantum decision theory. When people choose between lotteries with non-negative payoffs, they prefer a more certain lottery because of uncertainty aversion. But when people evaluate lottery prices, e.g., for selling to others the right to play them, they do this more rationally, being less subject to behavioral biases. This difference can be explained by the presence of the attraction factors entering the expression of quantum probabilities. Only the existence of attraction factors can explain why, considering two lotteries with close utility factors, a decision maker prefers one of them when choosing, but evaluates higher the other one when pricing. We derive a general quantitative criterion for the preference reversal to occur that relates the utilities of the two lotteries to the attraction factors under choosing vs. pricing and test successfully its application on experiments by Tversky et al. We also show that the planning paradox can be treated as a kind of preference reversal.

  5. Infant salt preference and mother's morning sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1998-06-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.

  6. Global habitat preferences of commercially valuable tuna

    KAUST Repository

    Arrizabalaga, Haritz

    2015-03-01

    In spite of its pivotal role in future implementations of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, current knowledge about tuna habitat preferences remains fragmented and heterogeneous, because it relies mainly on regional or local studies that have used a variety of approaches making them difficult to combine. Therefore in this study we analyse data from six tuna species in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans in order to provide a global, comparative perspective of habitat preferences. These data are longline catch per unit effort from 1958 to 2007 for albacore, Atlantic bluefin, southern bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tunas. Both quotient analysis and Generalised Additive Models were used to determine habitat preference with respect to eight biotic and abiotic variables. Results confirmed that, compared to temperate tunas, tropical tunas prefer warm, anoxic, stratified waters. Atlantic and southern bluefin tuna prefer higher concentrations of chlorophyll than the rest. The two species also tolerate most extreme sea surface height anomalies and highest mixed layer depths. In general, Atlantic bluefin tuna tolerates the widest range of environmental conditions. An assessment of the most important variables determining fish habitat is also provided. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Structural (betaalpha)8 TIM barrel model of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Núria; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Pié, Juan; Mir, Cecilia; Roca, Ramón; Puisac, Beatriz; Aledo, Rosa; Clotet, Josep; Menao, Sebastián; Serra, Dolors; Asins, Guillermina; Till, Jacqueline; Elias-Jones, Alun C; Cresto, Juan C; Chamoles, Nestor A; Abdenur, Jose E; Mayatepek, Ertan; Besley, Guy; Valencia, Alfonso; Hegardt, Fausto G

    2003-08-01

    This study describes three novel homozygous missense mutations (S75R, S201Y, and D204N) in the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) lyase gene, which caused 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria in patients from Germany, England, and Argentina. Expression studies in Escherichia coli show that S75R and S201Y substitutions completely abolished the HMG-CoA lyase activity, whereas D204N reduced catalytic efficiency to 6.6% of the wild type. We also propose a three-dimensional model for human HMG-CoA lyase containing a (betaalpha)8 (TIM) barrel structure. The model is supported by the similarity with analogous TIM barrel structures of functionally related proteins, by the localization of catalytic amino acids at the active site, and by the coincidence between the shape of the substrate (HMG-CoA) and the predicted inner cavity. The three novel mutations explain the lack of HMG-CoA lyase activity on the basis of the proposed structure: in S75R and S201Y because the new amino acid residues occlude the substrate cavity, and in D204N because the mutation alters the electrochemical environment of the active site. We also report the localization of all missense mutations reported to date and show that these mutations are located in the beta-sheets around the substrate cavity.

  8. [The isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase and insulin activity in the light of phylogenetic theory of pathology. Oleic fatty acid and realization of biologic functions of trophology and locomotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The formation of function of isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturases occured at the different stages of phylogeny under realization of biologic function of trophology (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1) and biologic function of locomotion, insulin system (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2) billions years later. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1 transforms in C 18:1 oleic fatty acid only exogenous C 16:0 palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms only endogenic palmitinic saturated fatty acid, synthesized form glucose. The biologic role of insulin is in energy support of biologic function of locomotion. Insulin through expressing stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms energetically non-optimal palmitinic variation of metabolism of substrates into highly effective oleic variation for cells' groundwork of energy (saturated fatty acid and mono fatty acid). The surplus of palmitinic saturated fatty acid in food is enabled in pathogenesis of resistance to insulin and derangement of synthesis of hormone by beta-cells of islets. The resistance to insulin and diabetes mellitus are primarily the derangement of metabolism of saturated fatty acids with mono fatty acids, energy problems of organism and only afterwards the derangement of metabolism of carbohydrates. It is desirable to restrict food intake of exogenous palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The reasons are low expression of independent of insulin stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2, marked lipotoxicity of polar form of palmitinic saturated fatty acid and synthesis of non-optimal palmitinic triglycerides instead of physiologic and more energetically more effective oleic triglycerides.

  9. Evolving Random Forest for Preference Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for pairwise preference learning through a combination of an evolutionary method and random forest. Grammatical evolution is used to describe the structure of the trees in the Random Forest (RF) and to handle the process of evolution. Evolved random forests ...... obtained for predicting pairwise self-reports of users for the three emotional states engagement, frustration and challenge show very promising results that are comparable and in some cases superior to those obtained from state-of-the-art methods....... of 1560 sessions with detail information about user behaviour and their self-reported preferences while interacting with a game is used for training and evaluation. The method demonstrates ability to construct accurate models of user experience from preferences, behavioural and context data. The results...

  10. Bipedal tool use strengthens chimpanzee hand preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braccini, Stephanie; Lambeth, Susan; Schapiro, Steve;

    2010-01-01

    The degree to which non-human primate behavior is lateralized, at either individual or population levels, remains controversial. We investigated the relationship between hand preference and posture during tool use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) during bipedal tool use. We experimentally induced...... tool use in a supported bipedal posture, an unsupported bipedal posture, and a seated posture. Neither bipedal tool use nor these supported conditions have been previously evaluated in apes. The hypotheses tested were 1) bipedal posture will increase the strength of hand preference, and 2) a bipedal...... stance, without the use of one hand for support, will elicit a right hand preference. Results supported the first, but not the second hypothesis: bipedalism induced the subjects to become more lateralized, but not in any particular direction. Instead, it appears that subtle pre-existing lateral biases...

  11. Patients Light Preferences in Hospital Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Lone; Bjerrum, H. S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning;

    2011-01-01

    it can have a positive influence on the recovery process. The present paper introduces the human perspective and the Danish cultural approach in illuminating homes and how it can contribute to innovative lighting design at hospitals. The importance of having a holistic approach to lighting design...... is introduced based on the theory by Gernot Böhmes i.e. “concept of atmosphere” dealing with the effect of experiencing atmosphere. The aim of this study for design of a lighting concept for wards is to get qualified information on patients light preferences for light atmosphere by studying the everyday use...... of light in homes. This explorative study displays the preferred light atmosphere in Danish homes in the age group of 60-85 years old people. With an anthropologically approach to the subject using semi structured interviews, the goal is to explore preferences for light atmosphere when the user...

  12. Tractable Pareto Optimization of Temporal Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert; Morris, Paul; Khatib, Lina; Venable, Brent

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on temporal constraint problems where the objective is to optimize a set of local preferences for when events occur. In previous work, a subclass of these problems has been formalized as a generalization of Temporal CSPs, and a tractable strategy for optimization has been proposed, where global optimality is defined as maximizing the minimum of the component preference values. This criterion for optimality, which we call 'Weakest Link Optimization' (WLO), is known to have limited practical usefulness because solutions are compared only on the basis of their worst value; thus, there is no requirement to improve the other values. To address this limitation, we introduce a new algorithm that re-applies WLO iteratively in a way that leads to improvement of all the values. We show the value of this strategy by proving that, with suitable preference functions, the resulting solutions are Pareto Optimal.

  13. Do dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) prefer family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer; Vonk, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Kin recognition requires the ability to discriminate between one's own genetic relatives and non-relatives. There are two mechanisms that aid in kin discrimination: phenotype matching and familiarity. Dogs may be a good model for assessing these mechanisms as dogs are a promiscuous social species with a keen sense of smell. Domestic dogs of both sexes were presented with two scents (close kin, distant-kin) and preference was assessed through three measures (latency to approach, number of visits, time spent). Experiment 1 explored the possibility of phenotype matching as subjects had no contact with sires, whose scent was presented alongside a control male's scent. Experiment 2 explored recognition of siblings raised with the subjects and then separated at seven weeks of age. Whereas female dogs in this experiment did not show a statistically significant preference, male dogs showed a preference for distant-kin when presented with sire and female sibling samples.

  14. Preferred longitudes in solar and stellar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S. V.

    An analysis of the distribution of starspots on the surfaces of very active stars, such as RS CVn- FK Com-type stars as well as young solar analogs, reveals preferred longitudes of spot formation and their quasi-periodic oscillations, i.e. flip-flop cycles. A non-linear migration of the preferred longitudes suggests the presence of the differential rotation and variations of mean spot latitudes. It enables recovering stellar butterfly diagrams. Such phenomena are found to persist in the sunspot activity as well. A comparison of the observed properties of preferred longitudes on the Sun with those detected on more active stars leads to the conclusion that we can learn fine details of the stellar dynamo by studying the Sun, while its global parameters on the evolutionary time scale are provided by a sample of active stars.

  15. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  16. Cognitive impairment and preferences for current health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsevat Joel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed preferences for current health using the visual analogue scale (VAS, standard gamble (SG, time trade-off (TTO, and willingness to pay (WTP in patients with cerebral aneurysms, a population vulnerable to cognitive deficits related to aneurysm bleeding or treatment. Methods We measured VAS, SG, TTO, and WTP values for current health in 165 outpatients with cerebral aneurysms. We assessed cognitive impairment with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE; scores Results Eleven patients (7% had MMSE scores Conclusion Cognitive impairment is associated with lower preferences for current health in patients with cerebral aneurysms. Cognitively impaired patients have poor inter-preference test correlations and different response distributions compared to unimpaired patients.

  17. Uncertain Fuzzy Preference Relations and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Zaiwu; Yao, Tianxiang

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of fuzzy sets and some of their relevant generalizations, this book systematically presents the fundamental principles and applications of group decision making under different scenarios of preference relations. By using intuitionistic knowledge as the field of discourse, this work investigates by utilizing innovative research means the fundamental principles and methods of group decision making with various different intuitionistic preferences: Mathematical reasoning is employed to study the consistency of group decision making; Methods of fusing information are applied to look at the aggregation of multiple preferences; Techniques of soft computing and optimization are utilized to search for satisfactory decision alternatives.             Each chapter follows the following structurally clear format of presentation: literature review, development of basic theory, verification and reasoning of principles , construction of models and computational schemes, and numerical examples, which ...

  18. Extracting Geospatial Preferences Using Relational Neighbors

    CERN Document Server

    Marinho, Leandro Balby; Sandholm, Thomas; Nunes, Iury; Nóbrega, Caio; Araújo, Jordão

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of location-based social media applications and devices that automatically tag generated content with locations, large repositories of collaborative geo-referenced data are appearing on-line. Efficiently extracting user preferences from these data to determine what information to recommend is challenging because of the sheer volume of data as well as the frequency of updates. Traditional recommender systems focus on the interplay between users and items, but ignore contextual parameters such as location. In this paper we take a geospatial approach to determine locational preferences and similarities between users. We propose to capture the geographic context of user preferences for items using a relational graph, through which we are able to derive many new and state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms, including combinations of them, requiring changes only in the definition of the edge weights. Furthermore, we discuss several solutions for cold-start scenarios. Finally, we con...

  19. The Influence of Labeling the Vegetable Content of Snack Food on Children's Taste Preferences: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Wolf, Randi L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined whether informing children of the presence of vegetables in select snack food items alters taste preference. Methods: A random sample of 68 elementary and middle school children tasted identical pairs of 3 snack food items containing vegetables. In each pair, 1 sample's label included the food's vegetable (eg,…

  20. Eye Movements and Reading Comprehension While Listening to Preferred and Non-Preferred Study Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Roger; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Mossberg, Frans; Lindgren, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In the present study 24 university students read four different texts in four conditions: (1) while listening to music they preferred to listen to while studying; (2) while listening to music they did not prefer to listen to while studying; (3) while listening to a recording of noise from a cafe; and finally (4) in silence. After each text they…

  1. Who Prefers What? Disciplinary Differences in Students' Preferred Approaches To Teaching and Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hativa, Nira; Birenbaum, Menucha

    2000-01-01

    A newly developed measure to identify students' preferred teaching approaches was evaluated with 175 engineering and education undergraduates at an Israeli university. Students in both fields preferred lecturers who were organized, clear, and interesting. Least favored teaching methods were information-transmission and promotion of…

  2. Preference for sons: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D

    1997-10-01

    This brief article discusses the present and past preference for sons in China. The preference for sons is rooted in feudal views that men are superior to women. Preference for sons dates back to the Warring States Period, in about 500 B.C. Clan brotherhoods of men have existed for centuries. Historical records mention the practice of female infanticide. Patriarchal families believed that women were economically dependent on men and thus became their subjects. Daughters married, lived in their husband's home, and did not carry the responsibility of caring for their own parents. Couples with only daughters would seek a son-in-law to support them in old age. Rural families with no sons were looked down upon. Sons were expected to carry on the family lineage, increase the reputation of the family, and protect the family's interests. The lack of sons was a sign of humiliation and a curse. The founding of the People's Republic of China brought changes to son preference. The government attempted to increase women's status. In rural areas, women were given equal access to the land. Job opportunities were created for women during the industrialization drive. The Chinese government encouraged the repudiation of the negative impacts of the doctrines of Confucius and Mencius. Efforts were made to give men and women equal pay for equal work. Legislation was passed prohibiting arranged marriage, polygyny, and early marriage. A side effect of fertility decline is the renewed preference for sons. In Huangyan and Haining in Zhejiang, a developed province, the sex ratio at birth is normal. Sexual division of labor reinforces son preference.

  3. Preference learning for cognitive modeling: a case study on entertainment preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Maragoudakis, Manolis; Hallam, John

    2009-01-01

    in 66.66% of cases on previously unseen data (p-value = 0.0136) of a second physical activity control experiment. Results indicate the benefit of the use of neuroevolution and sequential forward selection for the investigated complex case study of cognitive modeling in physical games....... investigated is to learn to predict the expressed entertainment preferences of children when playing physical games built on their personalized playing features (entertainment modeling). Two of the approaches are derived from the literature--the large-margin algorithm (LMA) and preference learning...... playing features. The underlying preference model that best reflects children preferences is obtained through neuroevolution: 82.22% of cross-validation accuracy in predicting reported entertainment in the main set of game survey experimentation. The model is able to correctly match expressed preferences...

  4. Novel synthetic inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity that inhibit tumor cell proliferation and are structurally unrelated to existing statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchellet, Jean-Pierre H; Perchellet, Elisabeth M; Crow, Kyle R; Buszek, Keith R; Brown, Neil; Ellappan, Sampathkumar; Gao, Ge; Luo, Diheng; Minatoya, Machiko; Lushington, Gerald H

    2009-11-01

    Pilot-scale libraries of eight-membered medium ring lactams (MRLs) and related tricyclic compounds (either seven-membered lactams, thiolactams or amines) were screened for their ability to inhibit the catalytic activity of human recombinant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in vitro. A dozen of the synthetic compounds mimic the inhibition of purified HMG-CoA reductase activity caused by pravastatin, fluvastatin and sodium salts of lovastatin, mevastatin and simvastatin in this cell-free assay, suggesting direct interaction with the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, several MRLs inhibit the metabolic activity of L1210 tumor cells in vitro to a greater degree than fluvastatin, lovastatin, mevastatin and simvastatin, whereas pravastatin is inactive. Although the correlation between the concentration-dependent inhibitions of HMG-CoA reductase activity over 10 min in the cell-free assay and L1210 tumor cell proliferation over 4 days in culture is unclear, some bioactive MRLs elicit interesting combinations of statin-like (IC50: 7.4-8.0 microM) and anti-tumor (IC50: 1.4-2.3 microM) activities. The HMG-CoA reductase-inhibiting activities of pravastatin and an MRL persist in the presence of increasing concentrations of NADPH. But increasing concentrations of HMG-CoA block the HMG-CoA reductase-inhibiting activity of pravastatin without altering that of an MRL, suggesting that MRLs and existing statins may have different mechanisms of enzyme interaction and inhibition. When tested together, suboptimal concentrations of synthetic MRLs and existing statins have additive inhibitory effects on HMG-CoA reductase activity. Preliminary molecular docking studies with MRL-based inhibitors indicate that these ligands fit sterically well into the HMG-CoA reductase statin-binding receptor model and, in contrast to mevastatin, may occupy a narrow channel housing the pyridinium moiety on NADP+.

  5. Indecisiveness aversion and preference for commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Danan, Eric; Guerdjikova, Ani; Zimper, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We present an axiomatic model of preferences over menus that is motivated by three assumptions. First, the decision maker is uncertain ex ante (i.e., at the time of choosing a menu) about her ex post (i.e., at the time of choosing an option within her chosen menu) preferences over options, and she anticipates that this subjective uncertainty will not resolve before the ex post stage. Second, she is averse to ex post indecisiveness (i.e., to having to choose between opt...

  6. Consumer preference models: fuzzy theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turksen, I. B.; Wilson, I. A.

    1993-12-01

    Consumer preference models are widely used in new product design, marketing management, pricing and market segmentation. The purpose of this article is to develop and test a fuzzy set preference model which can represent linguistic variables in individual-level models implemented in parallel with existing conjoint models. The potential improvements in market share prediction and predictive validity can substantially improve management decisions about what to make (product design), for whom to make it (market segmentation) and how much to make (market share prediction).

  7. Deciphering Individuals’ Preference for User Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fei; Xiao, Bo; Lim, Eric;

    2015-01-01

    in a website can be undermined by the irreconcilable dissonance between both forms of review information and their personality preferences. Consequently, it is important for websites to personalize the provision of numerical rating and opinionated review in order to convey trustworthiness to users through...... online consumer review. To empirically validate our research mode, we conducted a field study on a custom developed online review website with a sample of 170 college students. Results suggest that dissonance between numerical rating and opinionated review, as well as individuals’ preferences for self...

  8. Preferences and design in insurance and pensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth

    Life insurance and pension decisions are of the more important fnancial settlements to be decided in a household. In this thesis we investigate dfferent aspects of relevance for decision making within a household, especially focusing on life insurance and pension decisions. The focus......-effects. The focus is on the consumption, investment and life insurance demands. In another modeling framework, we modify the utility measurement and propose a combination of forward and backward looking preferences. At last, a model with very explicit preferences for stability in consumption is investigated and we...

  9. Location of the coenzyme binding site in the porcine mitochondrial NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu Chu; Colman, Roberta F

    2005-08-26

    The structure of crystalline porcine mitochondrial NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) has been determined in complex with Mn2+-isocitrate. Based on structural alignment between this porcine enzyme and seven determined crystal structures of complexes of NADP with bacterial IDHs, Arg83, Thr311, and Asn328 were chosen as targets for site-directed mutagenesis of porcine IDH. The circular dichroism spectra of purified wild-type and mutant enzymes are similar. The mutant enzymes exhibit little change in Km for isocitrate or Mn2+, showing that these residues are not involved in substrate binding. In contrast, the Arg83 mutants, Asn328 mutants, and T311A exhibit 3-20-fold increase in the Km(NADP). We propose that Arg83 enhances NADP affinity by hydrogen bonding with the 3'-OH of the nicotinamide ribose, whereas Asn328 hydrogen bonds with N1 of adenine. The pH dependence of Vmax for Arg83 and Asn328 mutants is similar to that of wild-type enzyme, but for all the Thr311 mutants, pK(es) is increased from 5.2 in the wild type to approximately 6.0. We have previously attributed the pH dependence of Vmax to the deprotonation of the metal-bound hydroxyl of isocitrate in the enzyme-substrate complex, prior to the transfer of a hydride from isocitrate to NADP's nicotinamide moiety. Thr311 interacts with the nicotinamide ribose and is the closest of the target amino acids to the nicotinamide ring. Distortion of the nicotinamide by Thr311 mutation will likely be transmitted to Mn2+-isocitrate resulting in an altered pK(es). Because porcine and human mitochondrial NADP-IDH have 95% sequence identity, these results should be applicable to the human enzyme.

  10. Perinatal overnutrition and the programming of food preferences: pathways and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Z Y; Gugusheff, J R; Muhlhausler, B S

    2012-10-01

    One of the major contributing factors to the continuous rise in obesity rates is the increase in caloric intake, which is driven to a large extent by the ease of access and availability of palatable high-fat, high-sugar 'junk foods'. It is also clear that some individuals are more likely to overindulge in these foods than others; however, the factors that determine an individual's susceptibility towards the overconsumption of palatable foods are not well understood. There is growing evidence that an increased preference for these foods may have its origins early in life. Recent work from our group and others has reported that in utero and early life exposure to these palatable foods in rodents increased the offspring's preference towards foods high in fat and sugar. One of the potential mechanisms underlying the programming of food preferences is the altered development of the mesolimbic reward system, a system that plays an important role in driving palatable food intake in adults. The aim of this review is to explore the current knowledge of the programming of food preferences, a relatively new and emerging area in the DOHAD field, with a particular focus on maternal overnutrition, the development of the mesolimbic reward system and the biological mechanisms which may account for the early origins of an increased preference for palatable foods.

  11. Temperature preference during forelimb regeneration in the red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Tyson, Teala M; Lenchyshyn, Jessika R; Carlone, Robert L

    2012-04-01

    Red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) are model organisms for regenerative research. These animals can regenerate limbs, tails, jaws, spinal cords, as well as the lens of the eye. Newts are small ectotherms that are aquatic as adults; as ectotherms, they naturally conform to the temperature of their surroundings. Environmental temperatures, however, can increase or decrease the red-spotted newt's metabolic processes, including their rate of tissue regeneration; whether an optimal temperature for this rate of regeneration exists is unknown. However, newts do exhibit behavioral preferences for certain temperatures, and these thermal preferences can change with season or with acclimation. Given this flexibility in behavioral thermoregulation, we hypothesized that the process of tissue regeneration could also affect thermal preference, given the metabolic costs or altered temperature sensitivities of tissue regrowth. It was predicted that regenerating newts would select an environmental temperature that maximized the rate of regeneration, however, this prediction was not fully supported. Thermal preference trials revealed that newts consistently selected temperatures between 24 and 25°C throughout regeneration. This temperature selection was warmer than that of uninjured conspecifics, but was lower than temperatures that would have further augmented the rate of regeneration. Interestingly, regenerating newts maintained a more stable temperature preference than sham newts, suggesting that accuracy in thermoregulation may be more important to regenerating individuals, than to noninjured individuals.

  12. 47 CFR 65.303 - Cost of preferred stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost of preferred stock. 65.303 Section 65.303... stock. The formula for determining the cost of preferred stock is: ER01JN95.001 Where: “Total Annual Preferred Dividends” is the total dividends on preferred stock for the most recent two years for all...

  13. Stated locational preferences of entrepreneurs in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musolino, Dario Antonino

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to study and analyse the stated locational preferences of entrepreneurs in Italy: that is, their mental maps, their characteristics (pattern, shape, etc.), and their explanatory factors. The research was undertaken following the conceptual, theoretical and methodologic

  14. Deciphering Individuals’ Preference for User Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fei; Xiao, Bo; Lim, Eric

    2015-01-01

    online consumer review. To empirically validate our research mode, we conducted a field study on a custom developed online review website with a sample of 170 college students. Results suggest that dissonance between numerical rating and opinionated review, as well as individuals’ preferences for self...

  15. Laterality and Directional Preferences in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lesley E.

    1982-01-01

    Directional preference for horizontal hand movements was investigated in 49 right- and 49 left-handed four-year-olds using three drawing tests. Directionality for more complex perceptual-motor tasks has a different basis than directionality for simple tasks; such directionality is established at a later age but only for the right hand. (Author/CM)

  16. Perceived stimulus complexity and food preference development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, C.M.; MacRae, A.; Köster, E.P.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of perceived complexity, a 'collative property' as defined by [Berlyne, D. E. (1967). Arousal and reinforcement. In Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 1-110). University of Nebraska Press], to the dynamic development of preference was investigated. Eighty-six female and 82 male sub

  17. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  18. Do Investor Preferences Drive Corporate Dividend Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konieczka Przemysław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims at assessing whether managers adapt their dividend policies to the changing preferences of investors, as predicted by the catering theory of dividends. To answer this question, we used an modified approach based on the method proposed by Baker and Wurgler [2004a] in their studies on dividend catering.

  19. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  20. Preference patterns in infant vowel perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Monika T.; Polka, Linda

    2001-05-01

    Infants show directional asymmetries in vowel discrimination tasks that reveal an underlying perceptual bias favoring more peripheral vowels. Polka and Bohn (2003) propose that this bias is language independent and plays an important role in the development of vowel perception. In the present study we measured infant listening preferences for vowels to assess whether a perceptual bias favoring peripheral vowels can be measured more directly. Monolingual (French and English) and bilingual infants completed a listening preference task using multiple natural tokens of German /dut/ and /dyt/ produced by a male talker. In previous work, discrimination of this vowel pair by German-learning and by English-learning infants revealed a robust directional asymmetry in which /u/ acts as a perceptual anchor; specifically, infants had difficulty detecting a change from /u/ to /y/, whereas a change from /y/ to /u/ was readily detected. Preliminary results from preference tests with these stimuli show that most infants between 3 and 5 months of age also listen longer to /u/ than to /y/. Preference data obtained from older infants and with other vowel pairs will also be reported to further test the claim that peripheral vowels have a privileged perceptual status in infant perception.