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Sample records for alterations resembling asthma

  1. Disruption of estrogen receptor beta in mice brain results in pathological alterations resembling Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-hong ZHANG; Yan-hong HUANG; Yu-zhen HU; Geng-ze WEI; Xue-feng HAN; Shun-yan LU; Yu-feng ZHAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the pathological characteristics of the mice with estrogen receptor β (ERβ) disruption in brain.METHODS: Immunohistochemistry method was applied in the study. RESULTS: β-Amyloid peptide(Aβ42) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) immunoreactive substances were accumulated notably in cortex and limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala in brain, resembling the pathological changes of human Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ formed cloudy-like deposits in parenchyma of brain, while apoE also deposited along or surrounding the blood vessels. CONCLUSIONS: ERβ is crucial to the development of neural degenerative disease, so modulation of Aβ metabolism via ERβ signal pathway might be beneficial for AD prevention or therapy.

  2. Altered social behaviours in neurexin 1α knockout mice resemble core symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders.

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    Hannah Mary Grayton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Copy number variants have emerged as an important genomic cause of common, complex neurodevelopmental disorders. These usually change copy number of multiple genes, but deletions at 2p16.3, which have been associated with autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation, affect only the neurexin 1 gene, usually the alpha isoform. Previous analyses of neurexin 1α (Nrxn1α knockout (KO mouse as a model of these disorders have revealed impairments in synaptic transmission but failed to reveal defects in social behaviour, one of the core symptoms of autism. METHODS: We performed a detailed investigation of the behavioural effects of Nrxn1α deletion in mice bred onto a pure genetic background (C57BL/6J to gain a better understanding of its role in neurodevelopmental disorders. Wildtype, heterozygote and homozygote Nrxn1α KO male and female mice were tested in a battery of behavioural tests (n = 9-16 per genotype, per sex. RESULTS: In homozygous Nrxn1α KO mice, we observed altered social approach, reduced social investigation, and reduced locomotor activity in novel environments. In addition, male Nrxn1α KO mice demonstrated an increase in aggressive behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first experimental data that associate a deletion of Nrxn1α with alterations of social behaviour in mice. Since this represents one of the core symptom domains affected in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in humans, our findings suggest that deletions within NRXN1 found in patients may be responsible for the impairments seen in social behaviours, and that the Nrxn1α KO mice are a useful model of human neurodevelopmental disorder.

  3. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it as a kid. What Causes an Asthma Flare-Up? Anything that causes an asthma flare-up (attack) is called an asthma trigger. Different kids ... doctor will think about what causes the asthma flare-ups, how fast the flare-ups happen, and how ...

  4. Alterations in circadian rhythms of melatonin and cortisol in patients with bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-he FEI; Rong-yu LIU; Zhi-hong ZHANG; Jiang-ning ZHOU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible relationships between alterations in circadian rhythm of melatonin, cortisol and bronchial asthma. METHODS: Salivary melatonin and cortisol were measured simultaneously by radioimmunoassay in 10 mild intermittent or persistent patients, 11 moderate-to-severe persistent asthma patients, and 15 control subjects. Twelve salivary samples were collected in a series during a 24-h period in each subject. RESULTS: The results showed overall lower levels of salivary melatonin in asthma patients compared with control subject (P<0.01). The amplitude, peak-level, and baseline of salivary melatonin were significantly lower in mild intermittent or persistent (P<0.01, P<0.05) and moderate-to-severe persistent asthma patients (P<0.01) compared with control group. The 24-h mean level of salivary cortisol was greatly lower and the acrophase was markedly delayed in patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma (P<0.01) and moderate-to-severe persistent asthma (P<0.05, P<0.01) compared with control subject. CONCLUSION: Disordered circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin and cortisol were found in asthma patients, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

  5. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by allergens or physical activity. Occasionally, doctors use X-rays to diagnose asthma. Doctors treat each asthma case ... them. If you get flare-ups during a game or workout, stop what you're doing until ...

  6. Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.

  7. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

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    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  8. Effects of phthalate exposure on asthma may be mediated through alterations in DNA methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, I-Jen; Karmaus, Wilfried JJ; Chen, Su-Lien; Holloway, John W.; Ewart, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Phthalates may increase the asthma risk in children. Mechanisms underlying this association remain to be addressed. This study assesses the effect of phthalate exposures on epigenetic changes and the role of epigenetic changes for asthma. In the first step, urine and blood samples from 256 children of the Childhood Environment and Allergic diseases Study (CEAS) were analyzed. Urine 5OH-MEHP levels were quantified as an indicator of exposure, and asthma information was collected. DN...

  9. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca S. M. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood and suboptimal (ASubopt asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ 0.75, n=7, and healthy controls (HC (n=9 were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL, fMLF (100 nM, and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL, R848 (1.5 μg/mL, and poly I:C (10 μg/mL surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV 16 (MOI1. Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells abrogate experimental asthma by altering dendritic cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shao-Lin; Wang, Li-Hui; Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Yang, Jiong

    2015-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated in the treatment of numerous autoimmune diseases. However, the immune properties of MSCs on the development of asthma have remained to be fully elucidated. Airway dendritic cells (DCs) have an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, and disrupting their function may be a novel therapeutic approach. The present study used a mouse model of asthma to demonstrate that transplantation of MSCs suppressed features of asthma by targeting the function of lung myeloid DCs. MSCs suppressed the maturation and migration of lung DCs to the mediastinal lymph nodes, and thereby reducing the allergen-specific T helper type 2 (Th2) response in the nodes. In addition, MSC-treated DCs were less potent in activating naive and effector Th2 cells and the capacity of producing chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) and CCL22, which are chemokines attracting Th2 cells, to the airways was reduced. These results supported that MSCs may be used as a potential treatment for asthma. PMID:25936350

  11. Proteomic Alterations in B Lymphocytes of Sensitized Mice in a Model of Chemical-Induced Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Haenen; Jeroen A.J. Vanoirbeek; Vanessa De Vooght; Liliane Schoofs; Benoit Nemery; Elke Clynen; Hoet, Peter H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim The role of B-lymphocytes in chemical-induced asthma is largely unknown. Recent work demonstrated that transferring B lymphocytes from toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-sensitized mice into naïve mice, B cell KO mice and SCID mice, triggered an asthma-like response in these mice after a subsequent TDI-challenge. We applied two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to describe the “sensitized signature” of B lymphocytes comparing TDI-sensitized mice with control mi...

  12. A case report of a patient with microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, chromosomal radiosensitivity and telomere length alterations closely resembling "Nijmegen breakage syndrome" phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardinelli, F; di Masi, A; Salvatore, M; Banerjee, S; Myung, K; De Villartay, J P; Revy, P; Plebani, A; Soresina, A; Taruscio, D; Tanzarella, C; Antoccia, A

    2007-01-01

    Genetic heterogeneity in Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is highlighted by patients showing clinical and cellular features of NBS but with no mutations in NBS1 and normal levels of nibrin. NBS is an autosomal recessive disorder, whose clinical cellular signs include growth and developmental defects, dysmorphic facies, immunodeficiency, cancer predisposition, chromosomal instability and radiosensitivity. NBS is caused by mutations in the NBS1 gene, whose product is part of the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex involved in the DNA double-strand break (DSB) response pathway. Since the identification of the NBS1 gene, patients with NBS clinical signs, particularly severe congenital microcephaly, are screened for mutations in the NBS1 gene. Further analyses include X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations, telomere analysis, kinetics of DSBs repair, levels of a panel of proteins involved in the maintenance of genetic stability, radiation-induced phosphorylation of various substrates and cell cycle analysis. We describe a patient with a NBS clinical phenotype, chromosomal sensitivity to X-rays but without mutations in the whole NBS1 or in the Cernunnos gene. Enhanced response to irradiation was mediated neither by DSBs rejoining defects nor by the NBS/AT-dependent DNA-damage response pathway. Notably, we found that primary fibroblasts from this patient displayed telomere length alterations. Cross-talk between pathways controlling response to DSBs and those involved in maintaining telomeres has been shown in the present patient. Dissecting the cellular phenotype of radiosensitive NBS-like patients represents a useful tool for the research of new genes involved in the cellular response to DSBs. PMID:17395558

  13. Artefacts and Family Resemblance

    OpenAIRE

    Garbacz, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    I develop in this paper a conception of artefacts based on L. Wittgenstein’s idea of family resemblance. My approach peruses the notion of frame, which was invented in cognitive psychology as an operationisable extension of this philosophical idea. Following the metaphor of life-cycle I show how this schematic notion of frame may be filled with the content relevant for artefacts if we consider them from the point of view of their histories. The resulting conception of artefacts provides a new...

  14. Nocturnal Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Nocturnal Asthma Worsening of asthma at night, or nocturnal asthma, ... give extra protection during the night. More Nocturnal Asthma Information Back to Asthma: Types Print Page Email ...

  15. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  16. Occupational asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease ... the workplace can trigger asthma symptoms, leading to occupational asthma. The most common triggers are wood dust, grain ...

  17. Altered lymphocyte trafficking and diminished airway reactivity in transgenic mice expressing human MMP-9 in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Divya; Sternberg, David I; Jia, Yuxia; Canfield, Stephen; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nkyimbeng, Takwi; Wilder, Julie; Sonett, Joshua; D'Armiento, Jeanine

    2010-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is hypothesized to facilitate leukocyte extravasation and extracellular remodeling in asthmatic airways. Careful descriptive studies have shown that MMP-9 levels are higher in the sputum of asthmatics; however, the consequence of increased MMP-9 activity has not been determined in this disease. We induced asthma in transgenic mice that express human MMP-9 in the murine lung tissue macrophage to determine the direct effect of human MMP-9 expression on airway inflammation. Transgenic (TG) and wild-type (WT) mice were immunized and challenged with ovalbumin. Forty-eight hours after the ovalbumin challenge, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured, and inflammatory cell infiltration was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue. Baseline levels of inflammation were similar in the TG and WT groups of mice, and pulmonary eosinophilia was established in both groups by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin. There was a significant reduction in AHR in sensitized and challenged trangenics compared with WT controls. Although total BALF cell counts were similar in both groups, the lymphocyte number in the lavage of the TG group was significantly diminished compared with the WT group (0.25 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.89 +/- 0.53; P = 0.0032). In addition, the draining lymphocytes were found to be larger in the TG animals compared with the WT mice. Equal numbers of macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils were seen in both groups. IL-13 levels were found to be lower in the sensitized TG compared with the WT mice. These results demonstrate an inverse relationship between human MMP-9 and AHR and suggest that MMP-9 expression alters leukocyte extravasation by reducing lymphocyte accumulation in the walls of asthmatic airways. PMID:19940022

  18. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

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    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  19. Difficult asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Uslu; Tülay Özdemir

    1989-01-01

    Difficult asthma is a distinct entity of asthma, comprising approximately %5 of asthmatic patients. There is no agreed definition of difficult asthma. It will include asthma uncontrolled by new standard therapy, steroid dependent, steroid resistant and severe asthma. In this study difficult asthma; clinical features, risk factors, pathophysiology and novel therapies are summarized by literatures.

  20. Pharmacogenomics of pediatric asthma

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    Gupta Sarika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Asthma is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental factors contributing to it. A component of this complexity is a highly variable response to pharmacological therapy. Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of genetic determinants in the variable response to therapy. A number of examples of possible pharmacogenomic approaches that may prove of value in the management of asthma are discussed below. Evidence Acquisition: A search of PubMed, Google scholar, E-Medicine, BMJ and Mbase was done using the key words "pharmacogenomics of asthma", "pharmacogenomics of β-agonist, glucocorticoids, leukotriene modifiers, theophylline, muscarinic antagonists in asthma". Results: Presently, there are limited examples of gene polymorphism that can influence response to asthma therapy. Polymorphisms that alter response to asthma therapy include Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, Thr164Ile for β-agonist receptor, polymorphism of glucocorticoid receptor gene, CRHR1 variants and polymorphism of LTC4S, ALOX5. Polymorphic variants of muscarinic receptors, PDE4 and CYP450 gene variants. Conclusion: It was concluded that genetic variation can improve the response to asthma therapy. However, no gene polymorphism has been associated with consistent results in different populations. Therefore, asthma pharmacogenomic studies in different populations with a large number of subjects are required to make possible tailoring the asthma therapy according to the genetic characteristic of individual patient.

  1. Pediatric Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD Dept. of Pediatrics View full profile Pediatric Asthma: Overview For some children with asthma, their first ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count Asthma Treatment Program At National Jewish Health, we offer ...

  2. CD4 + CD25 + T cells protect against experimentally induced asthma and alter pulmonary dendritic cell phenotype and function

    OpenAIRE

    Lewkowich, Ian P.; Herman, Nancy S.; Schleifer, Kathleen W.; Dance, Matthew P.; Chen, Brian L.; Dienger, Krista M.; Sproles, Alyssa A.; Shah, Jaimin S.; Köhl, Jörg; Belkaid, Yasmine; Wills-Karp, Marsha

    2005-01-01

    The role of natural CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T (T reg) cells in the control of allergic asthma remains poorly understood. We explore the impact of T reg cell depletion on the allergic response in mice susceptible (A/J) or comparatively resistant (C3H) to the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In C3H mice, anti-CD25–mediated T reg cell depletion before house dust mite treatment increased several features of the allergic diathesis (AHR, eosinophilia, and IgE), whic...

  3. Poliomyelitis-like illness associated with asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, H. K.; Björkstén, B

    1980-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl with a combination of paralytic disease, resembling poliomyelitis, and asthma is described. The girl developed neurological symptoms 5 days after a severe attack of asthma. No aetiology to the flaccid paralysis could be demonstrated although Coxsackie B5 virus was isolated from a stool. A similar poliomyelitis-like illness associated with asthma has previously been reported in 13 cases from Australia and the UK.

  4. MicroRNA Expression Is Altered in an Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma Model and Targeting miR-155 with Antagomirs Reveals Cellular Specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian W Plank

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are differentially regulated during development and in inflammatory diseases. A role for miRNAs in allergic asthma is emerging and further investigation is required to determine whether they may serve as potential therapeutic targets. We profiled miRNA expression in murine lungs from an ovalbumin-induced allergic airways disease model, and compared expression to animals receiving dexamethasone treatment and non-allergic controls. Our analysis identified 29 miRNAs that were significantly altered during allergic inflammation. Target prediction analysis revealed novel genes with altered expression in allergic airways disease and suggests synergistic miRNA regulation of target mRNAs. To assess the impacts of one induced miRNA on pathology, we targeted miR-155-5p using a specific antagomir. Antagomir administration successfully reduced miR-155-5p expression with high specificity, but failed to alter the disease phenotype. Interestingly, further investigation revealed that antagomir delivery has variable efficacy across different immune cell types, effectively targeting myeloid cell populations, but exhibiting poor uptake in lymphocytes. Our findings demonstrate that antagomir-based targeting of miRNA function in the lung is highly specific, but highlights cell-specificity as a key limitation to be considered for antagomir-based strategies as therapeutics.

  5. Asthma symptoms in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    The association between asthma and obesity is well-described, but not straightforward, and according to current guidelines asthma control is more difficult to achieve in obese patients. The currently available studies evaluating response to pharmacological asthma therapy in obese patients show that...... these patients have an altered, in general less favorable, response to both reliever and controller medication compared to normal weight patients. However, at present, the limited available evidence precludes evidence-based recommendations. The 'obesity-related asthma' phenotype has different...... admissions. Obese patients, who present with symptoms suggesting a diagnosis of asthma, may have a distinct phenotype or a disease mimicking asthma, likely to have a potentially higher remission rate. And by that, our approach to this group of patients should combine pharmacologic and non...

  6. Occupational Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, Dean

    1982-01-01

    Bronchospasm is a common cause of morbidity in the workplace. More than 100 agents are now recognized as occupational causes of asthma and numerous agents can cause exacerbations of preexisting asthma. Because of the large number of potential causative agents and the complexity of modern industrial processes, knowledge of the characteristic clinical features of occupational asthma is the key to recognizing this disease. Early diagnosis of occupational asthma is important in preventing long-te...

  7. Occupational Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... working with laboratory animals or with powdered natural rubber latex gloves have developed occupational asthma. Occupational asthma can also occur in workers after repeated exposure to small chemical molecules in the ... plastics, rubber and foam. These chemicals can cause occupational asthma ...

  8. Alteration of circulating type 2 follicular helper T cells and regulatory B cells underlies the comorbid association of allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamekura, Ryuta; Shigehara, Katsunori; Miyajima, Satsuki; Jitsukawa, Sumito; Kawata, Koji; Yamashita, Keiji; Nagaya, Tomonori; Kumagai, Ayako; Sato, Akinori; Matsumiya, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Noriko; Seki, Nobuhiko; Takano, Kenichi; Kokai, Yasuo; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo; Ichimiya, Shingo

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common allergic disorder of the airway, is often accompanied by bronchial asthma. However, little is known about the mechanism by which AR advances to AR comorbid with bronchial asthma (AR+Asthma). To determine the pathophysiologic features of AR and AR+Asthma, we examined subsets of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and regulatory B (Breg) cells in peripheral blood from AR and AR+Asthma patients. The results showed polarization of Tfh2 cells within Tfh cell subsets in both AR and AR+Asthma cases. Interestingly, the %Breg cells in total B cells were decreased in AR cases and, more extensively, in AR+Asthma cases. Moreover, we found significant correlations of fractional exhaled nitric oxide and blood eosinophil levels with the index %Tfh2 cells per %Breg cells. Our findings indicate that relative decrease in Breg cells under the condition of Tfh2 cell skewing is a putative exaggerating factor of AR to bronchial asthma. PMID:25829231

  9. Occupational Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    SF Voelter-Mahlknecht

    2011-01-01

    Occupational asthma is defined as “a disease of variable airflow limitations and/or airway hyper-responsiveness due to causes and conditions attributable to a particular occupational environment and not stimuli that are being encountered outside the workplace.” An analysis of general population-based studies published up to 2007 showed that 17.6% of all adultonset asthma is due to workplace exposures. In this article, Different aspects of occupational asthma are briefly reviewed.

  10. Asthma Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these triggers vary from person to person with asthma. These factors include tobacco smoke, viral and bacterial infections, exercise, exposure to allergens such as pollen, dust mites or pet dander, acid reflux, ... emotional anxiety. Asthma is a chronic disorder and may affect up ...

  11. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  12. Wheezing and Asthma in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cooperate While Using the Nebulizer? Handling an Asthma Flare-Up What's an Asthma Flare-Up? Asthma Center Asthma Basics Managing Asthma When Your ... a Health Problem Asthma Center Handling an Asthma Flare-Up How Do Asthma Medicines Work? Asthma Asthma Center ...

  13. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every ... children more likely to develop asthma. How does exercise cause asthma symptoms? The symptoms of asthma are ...

  14. How Is Asthma Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Asthma Diagnosed? Your primary care doctor will diagnose asthma ... other disease may be causing your symptoms. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  15. Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... one child. Unfortunately, there is not a single test that provides all the answers. An allergist / immunologist, ...

  16. Occupational asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner BS, Burks AW, ...

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  18. Bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008049 Activation ralated genes of memory CD+4 T cells in asthma patients. PI Weifeng(皮卫峰),et al. Dept Respir Med, Xinhua Hosp, Sch Med, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200092. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(12):932-935. Objective To screen and identify the genes of activated memory CD+4 T cells in asthma. Methods Differential display polymerase chain reaction(DDPCR) was utilized to identify genes of memory CD+4 T cells after activation from asthmatic patients and normal individuals,

  19. Thunderstorm asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    AN ASSOCIATION between asthma and thunderstorms based on retrospective data has been noted in several papers. This study, however, draws on almost-real-time, anonymised attendance data from 35 emergency departments (EDs) in the UK, and lightning-strike plots from the Met Office. PMID:25270814

  20. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoç, Tunç

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Allergic disease such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing prevelanceand affect up to 15% of population in Westernized countries. Among them, asthma is achronic inflammatory disease of airways and the underlying physiological and immunologicalprocesses are not fully understood. Mouse models of asthma dupicates many featuresof human asthma, including airway hyperreactivity, andairway inflammation. Therefore, relevantmodels for asthma are important to understand the mechanis...

  1. Characteristic DNA methylation profiles in peripheral blood monocytes are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawardhana, Lakshitha P; Gibson, Peter G; Simpson, Jodie L.; Benton, Miles C.; Rodney A. Lea; Baines, Katherine J

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes including DNA methylation caused by environmental exposures may contribute to the heterogeneous inflammatory response in asthma. Here we investigate alterations in DNA methylation of purified blood monocytes that are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma. Peripheral blood was collected from adults with eosinophilic asthma (EA; n = 21), paucigranulocytic asthma (PGA; n = 22), neutrophilic asthma (NA; n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 10). Blood monocytes were iso...

  2. Social perception of facial resemblance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C; Little, Anthony C; Perrett, David I

    2008-02-01

    Two lines of reasoning predict that highly social species will have mechanisms to influence behavior toward individuals depending on their degree of relatedness. First, inclusive fitness theory leads to the prediction that organisms will preferentially help closely related kin over more distantly related individuals. Second, evaluation of the relative costs and potential benefits of inbreeding suggests that the degree of kinship should also be considered when choosing a mate. In order to behaviorally discriminate between individuals with different levels of relatedness, organisms must be able to discriminate cues of kinship. Facial resemblance is one such potential cue in humans. Computer-graphic manipulation of face images has made it possible to experimentally test hypotheses about human kin recognition by facial phenotype matching. We review recent experimental evidence that humans respond to facial resemblance in ways consistent with inclusive fitness theory and considerations of the costs of inbreeding, namely by increasing prosocial behavior and positive attributions toward self-resembling images and selectively tempering attributions of attractiveness to other-sex faces in the context of a sexual relationship. PMID:18157627

  3. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - adult Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - child Asthma and school Asthma - child - discharge Asthma - control drugs Asthma - quick-relief drugs Asthma - what to ...

  4. Test Your Asthma Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Test Your Asthma Knowledge Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... Asthma: A Chance to Heal / Test Your Asthma Knowledge Fall 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 4 Page ...

  5. Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...

  6. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma and Food Allergies Page Content Article Body A family history of ... child may develop asthma . Children with asthma and food allergies are at increased risk for anaphylaxis, a severe ...

  7. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Asthma and Pregnancy: Asthma Medications We would like to avoid all medicine ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...

  8. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma Print A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  9. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on ... for your child. Take charge of your child's asthma at home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  10. Asthma action plan

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2014-01-01

    This action plans allow each child (or parent/carer) to record his or her asthma treatment to help manage their asthma when they are well, when their symptoms get worse and when they are suffering an asthma attack.

  11. Examining causes of the urban (inner city) asthma epidemic: Implementing new management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    Asthma in the inner city contributes to high morbidity and mortality, and, in school children, reduced school attendance and alteration in academic performance. There is a need to improve asthma care in the inner city by reducing asthma exacerbations. Methods are currently available to predict and prevent seasonal exacerbations of asthma. In addition, new medications are being developed that will be effective in improving pulmonary function and reducing asthma exacerbations. School-centered asthma programs can also be helpful to assist children and clinicians in applying asthma treatment plans and assuring optimal adherence to these plans. PMID:26831839

  12. Severe asthma in children

    OpenAIRE

    Guilbert, TW; Bacharier, LB; Fitzpatrick, AM

    2014-01-01

    Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of ICS or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into two categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment-resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite man...

  13. Multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinstrasse or “stone street” is an expected complication after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with high stone burden. However, there are published reports of multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis. Here we report an uncommon case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with right renal calculi. Her right ureter was studded with multiple calculi up to the vesicoureteric junction. The affected right kidney was nonfunctional and was managed by nephroureterectomy.

  14. Role of Small Airways in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkas, Lindsay K; Martin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory condition of both the small and large airways. Recently the small airways have gained attention as studies have shown significant inflammation in the small airways in all severities of asthma. This inflammation has correlated with peripheral airway resistance and as a result, noninvasive methods to reliably measure small airways have been pursued. In addition, recent changes in asthma inhalers have led to alterations in drug formulations and the development of extrafine particle inhalers that improve delivery to the distal airways. PMID:27401620

  15. Link between allergic asthma and airway mucosal infection suggested by proteinase-secreting household fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, P; Susarla, SC; Polikepahad, S; Qian, Y; HAMPTON, J.; Kiss, A; Vaidya, S; Sur, S.; Ongeri, V; Yang, T; Delclos, GL; Abramson, S.; Kheradmand, F.; Corry, DB

    2009-01-01

    Active fungal proteinases are powerful allergens that induce experimental allergic lung disease strongly resembling atopic asthma, but the precise relationship between proteinases and asthma remains unknown. Here, we analyzed dust collected from the homes of asthmatic children for the presence and sources of active proteinases to further explore the relationship between active proteinases, atopy, and asthma. Active proteinases were present in all houses and many were derived from fungi, espec...

  16. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  17. Mechanisms of Asthma in Obesity. Pleiotropic Aspects of Obesity Produce Distinct Asthma Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Anne E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2016-05-01

    The majority of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma in the United States are obese. Epidemiological studies have clearly established that obese patients tend to have worse asthma control and increased hospitalizations and do not respond to standard controller therapy as well as lean patients with asthma. Less clear are the mechanistic underpinnings for the striking clinical differences between lean and obese patients with asthma. Because obesity is principally a disorder of metabolism and energy regulation, processes fundamental to the function of every cell and system within the body, it is not surprising that it affects the respiratory system; it is perhaps surprising that it has taken so long to appreciate how dysfunctional metabolism and energy regulation lead to severe airway disease. Although early investigations focused on identifying a common factor in obesity that could promote airway disease, an appreciation has emerged that the asthma of obesity is a manifestation of multiple anomalies related to obesity affecting all the different pathways that cause asthma, and likely also to de novo airway dysfunction. Consequently, all the phenotypes of asthma currently recognized in lean patients (which are profoundly modified by obesity), as well as those unique to one's obesity endotype, likely contribute to obese asthma in a particular individual. This perspective reviews what we have learned from clinical studies and animal models about the phenotypes of asthma in obesity, which show how specific aspects of obesity and altered metabolism might lead to de novo airway disease and profoundly modify existing airway disease. PMID:26886277

  18. Occupational asthma in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Dobashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to adva...

  19. Imaging of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John Caleb; Lynch, David; Koelsch, Tilman; Dyer, Debra

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases of the lung. Asthma manifests with common, although often subjective and nonspecific, imaging features at radiography and high-resolution computed tomography. The primary role of imaging is not to make a diagnosis of asthma but to identify complications, such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or mimics of asthma, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This article reviews the imaging features of asthma as well as common complications and mimics. PMID:27401624

  20. The Pivotal Role of Airway Smooth Muscle in Asthma Pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Berger; Roger Marthan; Thomas Trian; Pierre-Olivier Girodet; Benoit Allard; Imane Bara; Annaïg Ozier

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by the association of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and remodelling. The aim of the present article is to review the pivotal role of airway smooth muscle (ASM) in the pathophysiology of asthma. ASM is the main effector of AHR. The mechanisms of AHR in asthma may involve a larger release of contractile mediators and/or a lower release of relaxant mediators, an improved ASM cell excitation/contraction coupling, and/or an alteration in the contraction/lo...

  1. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    OpenAIRE

    Bradding Peter

    2008-01-01

    Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and loca...

  2. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in. PMID:22029659

  3. Ocorrência de rinite, respiração oral e alterações orofaciais em adolescentes asmáticos Occurrence of rhinitis, mouth breathing and orofacial alterations in adolescents with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenice Aparecida de Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a ocorrência de rinite, respiração oral e alterações orofaciais em adolescentes asmáticos. MÉTODO: estudo do tipo transversal, realizado com 155 adolescentes asmáticos de 12 a 15 anos e de ambos os sexos, atendidos no Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira. O levantamento de dados consistiu de duas etapas: a primeira para análise dos prontuários dos pacientes e da realização de dois testes para avaliação adicional da função respiratória. Sendo um com o auxílio do espelho de Glatzel e o outro com a contagem do tempo de permanência da água na boca. A segunda por meio de exame clínico para identificação das alterações orofaciais. RESULTADOS: a frequência de rinite alérgica foi elevada (80,6%, não existindo diferença significante entre o sexo feminino (80,9% e o masculino (80,5%. Quanto ao padrão de respiração 32,9% dos asmáticos apresentaram respiração oronasal. As alterações faciais mais frequentes para o sexo masculino foram: olheiras (93,1%, palato ogival (82,8%, lábios ressecados (70,1%, selamento labial inadequado (77,0%, olhos caídos (62,1% e face alongada (57,5%. O sexo feminino apresentou as maiores frequências para as seguintes características: olheiras (91,2%, palato ogival (85,3%, selamento labial inadequado (67,6%, lábios ressecados (63,2% face alongada (66,2% e lábio superior estreito (57,4%. CONCLUSÃO: em adolescentes asmáticos a frequência de rinite alérgica foi alta, bem como a ocorrência de respiração oral e de alterações faciais.PURPOSE: to determine the occurrence of rhinitis, mouth breathing and orofacial alterations in adolescents with asthma. METHOD: cross-sectional study was conducted with 155 adolescents with asthma from 12 to 15 years old and both sexes, treated at the Institute Professor Fernando Figueira. The survey consisted of two phases: the first to review patients' records and carrying out two tests for further evaluation of

  4. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma and...... impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard to...

  5. Obesity and Asthma: Microbiome-Metabolome Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Stephanie A; Cho, Youngji

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but obese subjects with asthma respond poorly to standard asthma drugs. Obesity also alters gut bacterial community structure. Obesity-related changes in gut bacteria contribute to weight gain and other obesity-related conditions, including insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. Here, we review the rationale for the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in gut bacteria may also play a role in obesity-related asthma. The metabolomes of the liver, serum, urine, and adipose tissue are altered in obesity. Gut bacteria produce a large number of metabolites, which can reach the blood and circulate to other organs, and gut bacteria-derived metabolites have been shown to contribute to disease processes outside the gastrointestinal tract, including cardiovascular disease. Here, we describe the potential roles for two such classes of metabolites in obesity-related asthma: short-chain fatty acids and bile acids. Greater understanding of the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel microbiota-based treatments for these hard-to-treat patients. PMID:26949916

  6. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma among Persons with Current Asthma Asthma and Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma among Persons with Current Asthma Asthma and Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance ... Asthma Resources for Professionals National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community ...

  8. For Parents of Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma > Managing Asthma For Parents of Children with Asthma Your Child's Asthma: A Parent's Guide to Better Breathing This step- ... health considerations you should keep in mind. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  9. Obesity and Asthma: Physiological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Brashier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC. Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more towards smaller high resistance airways, and consequentially results in expiratory flow limitation during normal breathing in obesity. Reduced FRC also induces plastic alteration in the small collapsible airways, which may generate smooth muscle contraction resulting in increased small airway resistance, which, however, is not picked up by spirometric lung volumes. There is also a possibility that chronically reduced FRC may generate permanent adaptation in the very small airways; therefore, the airway calibres may not change despite weight reduction. Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability. Obesity is also associated with airway hyperresponsiveness; however, the mechanism of this is not clear. Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may also exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma.

  10. Exercise-induced asthma: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummiskey, J

    2001-10-01

    Asthmatic attack in exercise-induced asthma is brought about by hyperventilation (not necessarily to exercise), cold air, and low humidity of the air breathed. The effects are an increase in airway resistance, damage to bronchial mucosa, and an increase in bronchovascular permeability. The mechanism of these changes is the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, nitric oxide, sensory neuropeptides, the inhibition of neuronal activity, and bronchovascular permeability. The cause of asthma and exercise-induced asthma is unknown. It is probably an abnormality of vascular control in the peribronchium and/or an alteration in local adrenergic function. The importance of exercise-induced asthma definition and the use of stimulants in sport and antidoping in sport are discussed. PMID:11678516

  11. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic rhinitis - dust ... make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are said to have a dust allergy. ...

  12. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of exercise may be less likely to trigger asthma symptoms than others. Swimming is a good sport for people with EIA. The warm, moist air helps keep asthma symptoms away. Football, baseball, and other sports with ...

  13. Asthma and school

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with asthma need a lot of support at school. They may need help from school staff to keep their asthma under control and to be able to do school activities. You should give your child's school staff ...

  14. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  15. Paediatric asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Sean R; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2006-12-01

    None of the explanations proposed for the increase in paediatric asthma have been adequate. It is becoming apparent that the cause of the increase in asthma must be multi-factorial. Increasing attention has been focused on the role of lifestyle in the development of asthma. Lifestyle changes that have occurred in children are those in diet and decreased physical activity, with obesity being the product of these changes. The increase in asthma, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle have occurred together. However, a temporal relationship between asthma, obesity and decreased physical activity has not been determined in the paediatric literature. Limited data suggest that decreased physical activity could be playing a role in the aetiology of asthma independent of obesity. Furthermore, there has been substantial research on the benefits of exercise programmes for paediatric patients with asthma. Longitudinal trials monitoring physical activity, obesity and the development of asthma are needed. PMID:17098637

  16. Managing Allergies, Asthma 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158635.html Managing Allergies, Asthma 101 Doctor offers advice to students who will ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teens with allergies or asthma who are heading for college later this year ...

  17. Managing Allergies, Asthma 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158635.html Managing Allergies, Asthma 101 Doctor offers advice to students who will ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teens with allergies or asthma who are heading for college later this year ...

  18. Asthma and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Asthma and Pregnancy Saturday, 01 August 2015 In every ... her background risk. This sheet talks about whether asthma may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  19. Asthma, guides for diagnostic and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma

  20. Occupational asthma: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, L J; Balmes, J R

    2000-01-01

    Occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease in the developed world at the present time. In this review, the epidemiology, pathogenesis/mechanisms, clinical presentations, management, and prevention of occupational asthma are discussed. The population attributable risk of asthma due to occupational exposures is considerable. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which many agents cause occupational asthma is limited, especially for low-molecular-weight sensiti...

  1. Genetics of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Asthma runs in families, and children of asthmatic parents are at increased risk of asthma. Prediction of disease risk is pivotal for the clinician when counselling atopic families. However, this is not always an easy task bearing in mind the vast and ever-increasing knowledge about asthma genetics...... of methods and advances in asthma genetics in an attempt to help the clinician keep track of the most important knowledge in the field....

  2. Psychological Factors in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lieshout Ryan J; MacQueen Glenda

    2008-01-01

    Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in im...

  3. Asthma in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel O D Addo-Yobo; Ashley Woodcock; Adorkor Allotey; Benjamin Baffoe-Bonnie; David Strachan; Adnan Custovic

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. The proportion of children with asthma is thought to be increasing worldwide, and particularly among children that live in more developed countries. However, it is not clear why this is, since many different aspects of lifestyle and the environment have been linked with the onset of asthma. In Africa, asthma has typically been thought of as being very uncommon, and indeed in many African dialects there is no word for asthma or the symptoms, such as wheezing, that ...

  4. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...... association between obesity and asthma....

  5. Antifungals in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parulekar, Amit D.; Diamant, Zuzana; Hanania, Nicola A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite guideline-based treatment, many patients with severe asthma continue to have uncontrolled disease. Fungal allergy is being increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Limited data exist on the approach to treatment of fungal asthma. This review summarizes

  6. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Causan asma las alergias? My daughter has asthma and I'm worried that her younger brother ...

  7. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  8. Asthma in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2012-01-01

    As the population increases in age, the diseases of older age will have increasing prevalence and place a greater burden on the health system. Despite asthma being usually considered a disease of younger people, asthma mortality is currently greatest in the over 55 age-group. Symptoms and emergency presentations for health care due to asthma place a great burden on the quality of life of those over age 55 with asthma. Asthma in older people is under-diagnosed due to patient and physiological ...

  9. Asthma and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Rani Reddy; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2012-08-01

    Asthma is probably the most common serious medical disorder that may complicate pregnancy. A third of pregnant women with asthma will experience worsening of their symptoms, a third will see improvement of their symptoms and a third will see no change. The primary goal is to maintain optimal control of asthma for maternal health and well-being as well as fetal maturation. Vital patient education should cover the use of controller medication, avoidance of asthma triggers and early treatment of asthma exacerbations. Proper asthma management should ideally be started in the preconception period. Since smoking is probably the most modifiable risk factor of asthma, pregnant woman should avoid active and passive smoking. Acute asthma exacerbation during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations. Poorly controlled asthma is associated with low birth weight, preeclampsia, and preterm birth. Medications used for asthma control in the non-pregnant population are generally the same in pregnancy with a few exceptions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the preferred controller therapy. Budesonide is the preferred ICS. Long-acting B-agonists (LABA) are the preferred add-on therapy to medium to high dose ICS. Major triggers for asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are viral infections and ICS nonadherence. PMID:21858482

  10. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect of...... weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  12. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some students experience asthma symptoms only when they exercise. Asthma varies from student to student and often from ... activities and other regular school activities. Table 1: BENEFITS OF ASTHMA CONTROL With good asthma management, students with asthma ...

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  14. Examining the association between childhood asthma and parent and grandparent asthma status: Implications for Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio, Melissa A.; Andreski, Patricia M.; Schoeni, Robert F.; McGonagle, Katherine A.

    2010-01-01

    Examination of intergenerational asthma beyond maternal asthma has been limited. The association between childhood asthma and intergenerational asthma status among a national cohort of children was examined.

  15. Teaching Your Child about Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma Library ▸ Teaching your child about asthma Share | Teaching Your Child About Asthma This article has been ... understand? Keep It Simple for Young Children Use language that is appropriate for your child’s age to ...

  16. Asthma and Therapeutics: Recombinant Therapies in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cockcroft Donald W

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Numerous recombinant therapies are being investigated for the treatment of asthma. This report reviews the current status of several of these novel agents. Anti-immunoglobulin (Ig)E (omalizumab, Xolair) markedly inhibits all aspects of the allergen challenge in subjects who have reduction of free serum IgE to undetectable levels. Several clinical studies in atopic asthma have demonstrated benefit by improved symptoms and lung function and a reduction in corticosteroid requirements. E...

  17. Psychological aspects of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Paul; Feldman, Jonathan; Giardino, Nicholas; Song, Hye-Sue; Schmaling, Karen

    2002-06-01

    Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy of asthma symptom perception. Defensiveness is associated with inaccurate perception of airway resistance and stress-related bronchoconstriction. Asthma education programs that teach about the nature of the disease, medications, and trigger avoidance tend to reduce asthma morbidity. Other promising psychological interventions as adjuncts to medical treatment include training in symptom perception, stress management, hypnosis, yoga, and several biofeedback procedures. PMID:12090377

  18. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  19. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness......: Weight reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

  20. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients with...... asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung...

  1. Basic mechanisms of asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Boushey, H A; Fahy, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Results of studies of the epidemiology, physiology, histopathology, and cell biology of asthma have revised our conception of the disease. Epidemiologic studies have shown asthma to be an important cause of death, suffering, and economic hardship. Physiologic studies have shown that asthma is a chronic illness characterized by persistent bronchial hyperreactivity. Histopathologic studies have shown characteristic changes: epithelial damage, deposition of collagen beneath the basement membrane...

  2. Ketotifen and nocturnal asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Catterall, J R; Calverley, P M; Power, J T; Shapiro, C M; Douglas, N J; Flenley, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Patients with asthma often wheeze at night and they also become hypoxic during sleep. To determine whether ketotifen, a drug with sedative properties, is safe for use at night in patients with asthma, we performed a double blind crossover study comparing the effects of a single 1 mg dose of ketotifen and of placebo on arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), breathing patterns, electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep stage, and overnight change in FEV1 in 10 patients with stable asthma. After taking ke...

  3. Epidemiological Trends in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Malcolm R

    1996-01-01

    Many markers of asthma morbidity have shown substantial increases over the past two decades, including family physician visits, use of anti-asthma medications, emergency room visits and hospital admissions. The reported prevalence of diagnosed asthma and of wheezing has increased, especially in children, with accompanying evidence of increased atopy and increased airway responsiveness. Allergen exposure and parental smoking are significant risk factors for childhood wheezing, whereas the infl...

  4. Asthma and Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kewalramani, Anupama; Bollinger, Mary E.; Teodor T. Postolache

    2008-01-01

    The high rate of comorbidity of asthma and mood disorders would imply the possibility of potential shared pathophysiologic factors. Proposed links between asthma and mood disorders include a vulnerability (trait) and state connection. Vulnerability for both asthma and mood disorders may involve genetic and early developmental factors. State-related connections may include obstructive factors, inflammatory factors, sleep impairment, psychological reactions to chronic medical illness, as well a...

  5. Asthma in Olympians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of asthma has been reported repeatedly among elite athletes, especially among endurance athletes. So many athletes used asthma drugs that the objective demonstration of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was required to obtain approval for their use in international sports until 2012 when the most used inhaled asthma drugs was allowed for free use, but with a maximum dose for inhaled β2-agonists. Several factors contribute to the development of asthma among the Olympians causing airways inflammation and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. PMID:26631837

  6. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf;

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  7. Asthma: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Other Parents - Home Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training Wee Wheezers ...

  8. Biomarkers in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao Chloe; Woodruff, Prescott G

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have been critical for studies of disease pathogenesis and the development of new therapies in severe asthma. In particular, biomarkers of type 2 inflammation have proven valuable for endotyping and targeting new biological agents. Because of these successes in understanding and marking type 2 inflammation, lack of knowledge regarding non-type 2 inflammatory mechanisms in asthma will soon be the major obstacle to the development of new treatments and management strategies in severe asthma. Biomarkers can play a role in these investigations as well by providing insight into the underlying biology in human studies of patients with severe asthma. PMID:27401625

  9. Nutrition and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the asthma prevalence in many countries over the recent decades, highlights the need for a greater understanding of the risk factors for asthma. Be-cause asthma is the result of interaction between genetic and environmental fac-tors, increasing prevalence is certainly the result of changes in environmental fac-tors because of process of wesernization. That is the reason for higher prevalence in countries where a traditional to a westernized lifestyle occurred earlier. This increasing prevalence has affected both rural and urban communities, suggesting that local environmental factors such as exposure to allergens or industrial air pol-lutions are not the sole cause. In the last few years, nutrition has represented an important conditioning factor of many cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and chronic pulmonary diseases. So it has been hypothesized that dietary constituents influence the immune system and thus, may also be actively involved in the onset of asthma and other allergic diseases. Dietary constituents can play beneficial as well as det-rimental role in asthma. The possible role of diet in the development of asthma can be described as follows: first, a food allergen can cause asthma. Second, there is role of breast-feeding for prevention of asthma later in life. Third, a low intake of antioxidative dietary constituents might be a risk factor for asthma. Moreover, role of cations such as sodium, potassium and magnesium has been described in development of asthma. Finally, intake of fatty acids specially the role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play important role in cause of asthma.

  10. Asthma and Therapeutics: Recombinant Therapies in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockcroft Donald W

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous recombinant therapies are being investigated for the treatment of asthma. This report reviews the current status of several of these novel agents. Anti-immunoglobulin (IgE (omalizumab, Xolair markedly inhibits all aspects of the allergen challenge in subjects who have reduction of free serum IgE to undetectable levels. Several clinical studies in atopic asthma have demonstrated benefit by improved symptoms and lung function and a reduction in corticosteroid requirements. Early use in atopic asthmatics may be even more effective. Several approaches target interleukin (IL-4. Soluble IL-4 receptor has been shown to effectively replace inhaled corticosteroid; further studies are under way. Recombinant anti-IL-5 and recombinant IL-12 inhibit blood and sputum eosinophils and allergen-induced eosinophilia without any effect on airway responsiveness, allergen-induced airway responses, or allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Efalizumab, a recombinant antibody that inhibits lymphocyte trafficking, is effective in psoriasis. A bronchoprovocation study showed a reduction in allergen-induced late asthmatic response and allergen-induced eosinophilia, which suggests that it should be effective in clinical asthma. These exciting novel therapies provide not only promise of new therapies for asthma but also valuable tools for investigation of asthma mechanisms.

  11. What Is Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that it is a combination of your family history and your environment. There is no cure for asthma. Once you ... administrators with information, education and resources to incorporate environmental management into clinical practices and standards of care for asthma patients. Top ...

  12. So You Have Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the night every night or competing in the Olympics. In other words, you should be able to live a normal active life! The following list shows what your life could be like if your asthma were controlled: As a rule, you should have: • Few, if any, asthma symptoms • ...

  13. Advances in Pediatric Asthma in 2013: Coordinating Asthma Care

    OpenAIRE

    Szefler, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Last year’s Advances in Pediatric Asthma: Moving Toward Asthma Prevention concluded that: “We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to utilize new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma.” This year’s summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on pre- and postnatal factors alt...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity among Adults with Current Asthma Asthma Severity among Children with Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication among persons with active asthma Use of long-term control medication among ...

  15. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2016-01-01

    fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...... pregnancies during fertility treatment, 39.6 versus 60.4% (p=0.002). Increasing age was of negative importance for expected time to pregnancy, especially among asthmatic women (interaction between age and asthma on time to pregnancy, p=0.001). Female asthmatics had a longer time to pregnancy and less often...

  16. Cough and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Cough is the most common complaint for which patients seek medical attention. Cough variant asthma (CVA) is a form of asthma, which presents solely with cough. CVA is one of the most common causes of chronic cough. More importantly, 30 to 40% of adult patients with CVA, unless adequately treated, may progress to classic asthma. CVA shares a number of pathophysiological features with classic asthma such as atopy, airway hyper-responsiveness, eosinophilic airway inflammation and various features of airway remodeling. Inhaled corticosteroids remain the most important form of treatment of CVA as they improve cough and reduce the risk of progression to classic asthma most likely through their prevention of airway remodeling and chronic airflow obstruction. PMID:22081767

  17. Asthma control: Patient and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.M. Rijssenbeek-Nouwens

    2015-01-01

    Control of asthma, the goal of asthma treatment, seems hard to obtain. However, it is largely unknown why control of asthma remains difficult in many patients in spite of available powerful medication. In this thesis we studied non-pharmacological factors influencing asthma control: patient related

  18. Increase in the heritability of asthma from 1994 to 2003 among adolescent twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; van der Sluis, Sophie; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Skadhauge, Lars Rauff; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the past decades the prevalence of asthma has increased in most parts of the world, and widespread changes in lifestyle and environment have been postulated as the primary cause for this. We examined whether the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence...... susceptibility to asthma has changed between 1994 and 2003. METHODS: Two different cohorts of twins (n = 3393 and n = 2813 pairs), both 12-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, participated in questionnaire studies nine years apart. Prevalence of asthma and resemblance between twins for asthma was...... compared between the two cohorts. RESULTS: The prevalence of asthma increased from 7.1% in 1994 to 10.8% in 2003, p ...

  19. Children with Asthma and Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Selda Yuzer; Sevinc Polat

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to the...

  20. Screening for asthma in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A.

    1994-01-01

    The primary health care team is at the forefront of asthma management and there is evidence of improved delivery of care via nurse run, audited, general practice clinics. However, hospital admissions for asthma continue to rise. Screening for childhood asthma would appear to have advantages for patient care. This review looks critically at the literature that addresses important issues in screening for childhood asthma, including the problem of defining asthma, its prevalence rate and the imp...

  1. The Significance of Asthma Follow-Up Consultations for Adherence to Asthma Medication, Asthma Medication Beliefs, and Asthma Control

    OpenAIRE

    Malin Axelsson; Linda Ekerljung; Bo Lundbäck

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate adherence to asthma medication treatment, medication beliefs, and asthma control in relation to asthma follow-up consultations in asthmatics in the general population. A further aim was to describe associations between adherence, medication beliefs, and asthma control. Method. In the population-based West Sweden Asthma Study, data allowing calculation of adherence for 4.5 years based on pharmacy records were obtained from 165 adult asthmatics. Additional ...

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma*

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Salles; Regina Terse-Ramos; Adelmir Souza-Machado; Cruz, Alvaro A

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worseni...

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Salles; Regina Terse-Ramos; Adelmir Souza-Machado; Cruz, Alvaro A.

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worseni...

  4. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. PMID:27401626

  5. The novel 10-item asthma prediction tool: external validation in the German MAS birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus B Grabenhenrich

    Full Text Available A novel non-invasive asthma prediction tool from the Leicester Cohort, UK, forecasts asthma at age 8 years based on 10 predictors assessed in early childhood, including current respiratory symptoms, eczema, and parental history of asthma.We aimed to externally validate the proposed asthma prediction method in a German birth cohort.The MAS-90 study (Multicentre Allergy Study recorded details on allergic diseases prospectively in about yearly follow-up assessments up to age 20 years in a cohort of 1,314 children born 1990. We replicated the scoring method from the Leicester cohort and assessed prediction, performance and discrimination. The primary outcome was defined as the combination of parent-reported wheeze and asthma drugs (both in last 12 months at age 8. Sensitivity analyses assessed model performance for outcomes related to asthma up to age 20 years.For 140 children parents reported current wheeze or cough at age 3 years. Score distribution and frequencies of later asthma resembled the Leicester cohort: 9% vs. 16% (MAS-90 vs. Leicester of children at low risk at 3 years had asthma at 8 years, at medium risk 45% vs. 48%. Performance of the asthma prediction tool in the MAS-90 cohort was similar (Brier score 0.22 vs. 0.23 and discrimination slightly better than in the original cohort (area under the curve, AUC 0.83 vs. 0.78. Prediction and discrimination were robust against changes of inclusion criteria, scoring and outcome definitions. The secondary outcome 'physicians' diagnosed asthma at 20 years' showed the highest discrimination (AUC 0.89.The novel asthma prediction tool from the Leicester cohort, UK, performed well in another population, a German birth cohort, supporting its use and further development as a simple aid to predict asthma risk in clinical settings.

  6. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  7. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children ...

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do ...

  10. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know ... Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File ...

  11. TCM Differential Treatment of Cough Variant Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-de; DENG Yi-qi; ZHANG Yu; HAN Yun; LIN Lin; CHAO En-xiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cough variant asthma (CVA), also called latent asthma or cough asthma, is a special type of asthma. With gradually deepened understanding of CVA in recent years, good curative effect has been achieved in TCM treatment of CVA.

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication among persons with active asthma Use of long-term control medication among persons with active asthma Uncontrolled Asthma among Persons with ...

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors ... Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier ...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to ... PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: ...

  15. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Start ... Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma- ...

  16. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking ... people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan ...

  17. Diagnostic tools assessing airway remodelling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, L; Reche, M; Padial, M A; Valbuena, T; Pascual, C

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lower airways characterised by the presence of airway inflammation, reversible airflow obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness and alterations on the normal structure of the airways, known as remodelling. Remodelling is characterised by the presence of metaplasia of mucous glands, thickening of the lamina reticularis, increased angiogenesis, subepithelial fibrosis and smooth muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia. Several techniques are being optimised at present to achieve a suitable diagnosis for remodelling. Diagnostic tools could be divided into two groups, namely invasive and non-invasive methods. Invasive techniques bring us information about bronchial structural alterations, obtaining this information directly from pathological tissue, and permit measure histological modification placed in bronchi layers as well as inflammatory and fibrotic cell infiltration. Non-invasive techniques were developed to reduce invasive methods disadvantages and measure airway remodelling-related markers such as cytokines, inflammatory mediators and others. An exhaustive review of diagnostic tools used to analyse airway remodelling in asthma, including the most useful and usually employed methods, as well as the principal advantages and disadvantages of each of them, bring us concrete and summarised information about all techniques used to evaluate alterations on the structure of the airways. A deep knowledge of these diagnostic tools will make an early diagnosis of airway remodelling possible and, probably, early diagnosis will play an important role in the near future of asthma. PMID:22236733

  18. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... conducting a physical examination and performing a breathing test called spirometry. If your breathing test shows that ...

  19. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ... do not have to be a smoker for smoking to cause harm. Exposure to someone else's smoking ( ...

  20. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P;

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active or...... simulated (placebo) reflexology given by an experienced reflexologist, were compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 20+20 outpatients with asthma. Objective lung function tests (peak flow morning and evening, and weekly spirometry at the clinic) did not change. Subjective scores (describing...... diaries was carried out. It was accompanied by a significant pattern compatible with subconscious unblinding, in that patients tended to guess which treatment they had been receiving. No evidence was found that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond placebo influence....

  1. Zoneterapi og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, Thor; Heinig, John Hilligsøe; Collins, Philippa;

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many patients with asthma seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology. Our aim was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten weeks of either active or simulated (placebo) reflexology were...... compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 40 patients with asthma. RESULTS: Objective lung function tests did not change. Subjective scores and bronchial sensitivity to histamine improved on both regimens, but no differences were found in the groups receiving active or placebo reflexology....... However, a trend in favour of reflexology became significant when a supplementary analysis of symptom diaries was carried out. At the same time a significant pattern compatible with subconscious un-blinding was found. DISCUSSION: We found no evidence that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond...

  2. Interleukin-16 in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jing-min; SHI Huan-zhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by lymphocyte, eosinophil, and mast cell infiltration of the submucosa along with mucous gland hyperplasia and subepithelial fibrosis.

  3. Pharmacotherapy of severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Firszt, Rafael; Kraft, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous phenotype where management can be challenging. While many patients with severe asthma respond to high-dose inhaled corticosteroids in combination with a long-acting β-agonist, there remains a significant subset of patients that require oral corticosteroids to control symptoms. Alternative therapies are needed to help reduce the need for continuous oral corticosteroids; however, there are currently very few effective options. Several new alternative...

  4. Families, Parenting and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    This thesis follows the paper based format in that Papers One and Two are stand-alone papers prepared for submission for Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review and the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology respectively. The relevant submission guidelines are included in the appendix (Appendix 1). Asthma is the most common childhood chronic illness affecting an estimated 1.1 million children in the UK. A substantial body of research has shown that asthma prevalence and morbi...

  5. Asthma in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, J; Mroueh, S

    2001-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that cannot be cured but can be effectively controlled. Control is achieved through education of the patient, monitoring of symptoms and pulmonary functions, environmental modification and pharmacologic therapy. The latter should aim at providing control with the least amount of medications. Any form of asthma more severe than mild intermittent requires the use of long term anti-inflammatory medications. PMID:12243423

  6. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Ohta; Masakazu Ichinose; Hiroyuki Nagase; Masao Yamaguchi; Hisatoshi Sugiura; Yuji Tohda; Kohei Yamauchi; Mitsuru Adachi; Kazuo Akiyama

    2014-01-01

    Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012). The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship...

  7. The Resemblances Between Wuthering Height and Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li yichun

    2008-01-01

    Large difference in style from appearance, "Jane Evre"and "Wuthering Heights" have greet resemblance in reality. As the principal expressions: The protagonist's pursuing for individual value and vindicating of personal dignity; The writer's pursuit of an ideal love; The works" creative method of illusion and symbolism.

  8. The challenge of unravelling family resemblance related to illness behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Dijk, L. van; Bosch, W. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2005-01-01

    Background: Efforts to promote health or prevent disease may conflict with patients’ habits at home. Irrespective of the national setting, families are important social contexts in which illness occurs and resolves. Family members resemble each other in their illness behaviour, even across generatio

  9. Conodont bioapatite resembles vertebrate enamel by XRD properties

    OpenAIRE

    Jüri Nemliher; Toivo Kallaste

    2012-01-01

    XRD properties of Phanerozoic conodont apatite material were studied. It was found out that in terms of crystallinity the apatite resembles the enamel tissue of modern vertebrates. In terms of crystal lattice, apatite of conodonts is independent of taxa on the one hand and of chemistry of the surrounding rock type on the other hand.

  10. Conodont bioapatite resembles vertebrate enamel by XRD properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Nemliher

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available XRD properties of Phanerozoic conodont apatite material were studied. It was found out that in terms of crystallinity the apatite resembles the enamel tissue of modern vertebrates. In terms of crystal lattice, apatite of conodonts is independent of taxa on the one hand and of chemistry of the surrounding rock type on the other hand.

  11. Blood lipid levels associate with childhood asthma, airway obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and aeroallergen sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Rebecca K; Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo L K;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of children's blood lipid profiles in relation to asthma are few, and the results are ambiguous. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine whether the lipid profile is associated with concurrent asthma, altered lung function, and allergic sensitization in children. METHODS: High...... systemic disorders with commonalities with other chronic inflammatory disorders....

  12. [Asthma, obesity and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, P; Delgado, J; Gallego, L T; Bobolea, I; Pedrosa, Ma; García de Lorenzo, A; Quirce, S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity have a considerable impact on public health and their prevalence has increased in recent years. Numerous studies have linked both disorders. Most prospective studies show that obesity is a risk factor for asthma and have found a positive correlation between baseline body mass index (BMI) and the subsequent development of asthma, although these results are not conclusive when studying the association between airway hyperresponsiveness with BMI. Furthermore, several studies suggest that whereas weight gain increases the risk of asthma, weight loss improves the course of the illness. Different factors could explain this association. Obesity is capable of reducing pulmonary compliance, lung volumes and the diameter of peripheral respiratory airways as well as affecting the volume of blood in the lungs and the ventilation-perfusion relationship. Furthermore, the increase in the normal functioning of adipose tissue in obese subjects leads to a systemic proinflammatory state, which produces a rise in the serum concentrations of several cytokines, the soluble fractions of their receptors and chemokines. Many of these mediators are synthesized and secreted by cells from adipose tissue and receive the generic name of adipokines, including IL-6, IL-10, eotaxin, TNF-α, TGF- 1, PCR, leptin y adiponectin. Finally, specific regions of the human genome which are related to both asthma and obesity have been identified. Most studies point out that obesity is capable of increasing the prevalence and incidence of asthma, although this effect appears to be modest. The treatment of obese asthmatics must include a weight control program. PMID:22566313

  13. Asthma: a chronic infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramori, Gaetano; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Contoli, Marco; Marku, Brunilda; Forini, Giacomo; Pauletti, Alessia; Johnston, Sebastian L; Papi, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    There are increasing data to support the "hygiene" and "microbiota" hypotheses of a protective role of infections in modulating the risk of subsequent development of asthma. There is less evidence that respiratory infections can actually cause the development of asthma. There is some evidence that rhinovirus respiratory infections are associated with the development of asthma, particularly in childhood, whereas these infections in later life seem to have a weaker association with the development of asthma. The role of bacterial infections in chronic asthma remains unclear. This article reviews the available evidence indicating that asthma may be considered as a chronic infectious disease. PMID:22929096

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity ... the Nation Fact Sheet State Data Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources ...

  15. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity among Adults with Current Asthma Asthma Severity among Children with Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication ...

  16. Obesity, expiratory flow limitation and asthma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadev, Sriram; Farah, Claude S; King, Gregory G; Salome, Cheryl M

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is associated with poor asthma control, but the reason for this is unclear. Reduction in operating lung volume, as occurs in obesity, and bronchoconstriction, as occurs in asthma, can increase expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing (EFLt), which may in turn increase respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of obesity on EFLt at baseline and after bronchoconstriction in non-asthmatic and asthmatic subjects, and to determine the association between EFLt, and respiratory symptoms. Data from previously published studies in non-asthmatic and asthmatic subjects were reanalyzed using an index of EFLt derived from respiratory system reactance measured by the forced oscillation technique. The analysis showed that during bronchoconstriction both non-asthmatic and asthmatic obese individuals were more likely to develop EFLt than non-obese subjects, despite similar changes in FEV1. Furthermore the index of EFLt was a significant determinant of the severity of breathlessness during challenge in non-asthmatic subjects, and of asthma symptom control in asthmatic subjects following anti-inflammatory treatment. These studies suggest that the combination of bronchoconstriction and low resting lung volume increase the risk of EFLt, and that this altered response to bronchoconstriction may increase the severity of symptoms and lead to worse asthma control. PMID:22609068

  17. Modification of provider behavior to achieve improved asthma outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Erika M; Portnoy, Jay M

    2003-11-01

    Despite an abundance of scientific evidence supporting the use of guidelines, adherence to asthma practice guidelines by physicians generally is low, regardless of provider and patient characteristics. As a result, scientific information, obtained with great effort and at huge expense, is not being translated into clinical practice. To remedy this, we developed a disease management program that emphasizes alteration of provider behavior using operant conditioning. We did this by placing asthma educators in private offices for up to 8 weeks. The educators used a combination of problem-based learning, role modeling, and operant conditioning with positive reinforcement to affect behavior change. As a result of these behavior changes, by the end of 8 weeks the cost to treat asthma patients decreased, despite an increase in the cost of medications. We concluded that behavior-oriented programs targeted at provider offices can lead to improved asthma care while reducing costs. PMID:14531969

  18. Influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Cetlin Andrea; Gutierrez Manoel; Bettiol Heloísa; Barbieri Marco; Vianna Elcio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest an association between obesity and asthma in adults and children. Asthma diagnosis criteria are different among studies. The aim of this study was to test the influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of 1922 men and women, subjects completed a translated questionnaire from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey and underwent spirometry and a bronchial challenge test. W...

  19. Asthma in general practice : risk factors and asthma control

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhof, L. van den

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory, pulmonary disease with a significant impact on patients, their families, and society. When symptomatic asthma is diagnosed, often irreversible changes in the airways have occurred. Therefore it is important to detect persons at high risk of asthma as early as possible. The studies described in this thesis show that certain groups with an allergy or allergic rhinitis ('hay fever') are more at risk for an asthma diagnosis than persons without these features. O...

  20. Domestic use of cleaning sprays and asthma activity in females. : Domestic cleaning sprays and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moual, Nicole; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Siroux, Valérie; Dumas, Orianne; Nadif, Rachel; Pin, Isabelle; Zock, Jean-Paul; Kauffmann, Francine

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to study the associations between the household use of cleaning sprays and asthma symptoms and control of asthma, in females from the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA). Data were available for 683 females (mean age 44 yrs, 55% never smokers, 439 without asthma and 244 with current asthma). Both domestic exposures and asthma phenotypes (asthma symptom score, current asthma, poorly-controlled asthma (56%)) were evaluated as previously described in t...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes part of ... the Symptoms of an Allergy? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease InfoSearch: Asthma Johns Hopkins Medicine: ...

  2. Exercising and asthma at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part in recess, physical education (PE), and after-school sports is important for all children. And children with asthma should not have to sit on the side lines. School staff and coaches should know your child's asthma ...

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome resembling histopathological alterations in ovaries from prenatal androgenized female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 6-10% of women of reproductive age and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that dictate androgen overproduction is lacking, which may account for inconsistencies between measures of androgen excess and clinical presentation in individual cases. Methods A rat model of PCOS was established by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfoconjugate (DHEAS into pregnant females. Rats were administered with DHEAS (60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously (s.c. for all 20 days of pregnancy (Group A, or for the first 10 days (Group B, or from day 11 to day 20 (Group C. Controls were administered with injection oil (0.2 ml/day s.c. throughout pregnancy (Group D. The litter rate, abortion rate, and offspring survival rate in each group were recorded. Serum androgen and estrogen were measured and the morphological features of the ovaries were examined by light and electron microscopy in the offspring of each group. Results We found that rats injected with DHEAS throughout pregnancy (group A lost fertility. Rats injected with DHEAS during early pregnancy (group B exhibited more serious aberrations in fertility than both Group C, in which rats were injected with DHEAS during late pregnancy (P  Conclusions Our results indicate that androgen excess during pregnancy can decrease rat fertility. Excess androgen at the early stage of pregnancy causes high reproductive toxicity, leading to abnormality of ovarian morphology and functions in female offspring.

  4. Asthma control: Patient and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, E.H.D.; Weersink, E.J.M.; Rijssenbeek-Nouwens, L.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Control of asthma, the goal of asthma treatment, seems hard to obtain. However, it is largely unknown why control of asthma remains difficult in many patients in spite of available powerful medication. In this thesis we studied non-pharmacological factors influencing asthma control: patient related factors, such as adherence and health status, as well as environmental related factors such as exposure to house dust mite allergen. Finally we studied the effect of a combination of these patient ...

  5. The Asthma Cost in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, Joan B; Zulfikar Habibullah; Al-Busaidi, Nasser H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the direct costs of treating asthma in Oman. Methods: Asthma prevalence and unit cost estimates were based on results from a panel using the Delphi technique, and were appliedto the total Omani population aged 5 and older to obtain the number of people diagnosed with asthma. The estimates from the Delphi exercise were multiplied by the percentage of patients using government facilities to estimate the number of asthma patients managed in Oman. Treatment costs ...

  6. Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Wan Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infi...

  7. Asthma in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-06-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed. PMID:21702657

  8. Swimming pool-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S; Vivaldo, T; Morelli, M; Carlucci, P; Zuccotti, G V

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old elite swimmer presented with wheezing after indoor swimming training. On the basis of her clinical history and the tests performed, exercise-induced asthma and mold-induced asthma were ruled out and a diagnosis of chlorine-induced asthma was made. PMID:21548454

  9. Asthma: where is it going?

    OpenAIRE

    D.S. Faffe

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Although our understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms continues to evolve, the relative contributions of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation are still debated. The first mechanism identified as important for asthma was bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In a second step, asthma was recognized also as an inflammatory disease, with chronic inflammation inducing structural...

  10. Rhinitis: a complication to asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J W; Thomsen, S F; Nolte, H;

    2010-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis often co-occur, and this potentially increases the disease severity and impacts negatively on the quality of life. We studied disease severity, airway responsiveness, atopy, quality of life and treatment in subjects with both asthma and rhinitis compared to patients with asthma...

  11. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  12. The Pivotal Role of Airway Smooth Muscle in Asthma Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaïg Ozier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by the association of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR, inflammation, and remodelling. The aim of the present article is to review the pivotal role of airway smooth muscle (ASM in the pathophysiology of asthma. ASM is the main effector of AHR. The mechanisms of AHR in asthma may involve a larger release of contractile mediators and/or a lower release of relaxant mediators, an improved ASM cell excitation/contraction coupling, and/or an alteration in the contraction/load coupling. Beyond its contractile function, ASM is also involved in bronchial inflammation and remodelling. Whereas ASM is a target of the inflammatory process, it can also display proinflammatory and immunomodulatory functions, through its synthetic properties and the expression of a wide range of cell surface molecules. ASM remodelling represents a key feature of asthmatic bronchial remodelling. ASM also plays a role in promoting complementary airway structural alterations, in particular by its synthetic function.

  13. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers). PMID:26683076

  14. AsthmaVent – Effect of Ventilation on Asthma Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne;

    Background House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma among children. Children spend 14 hours of their time indoor everyday in aberage, where they are exposed to different components in the indoor air. These components are children with asthma and HDM allergy specially...... sensitive towards. Reducing this exposure may improve the asthma control in these children. Previous studies give conflicting information on the effect of mechanical ventilation on asthma control in children. Objectives We aim at investigating whether mechanical ventilation is capable of improving indoor...... air quality and thereby asthma symptoms and quality of life, in children with house dust mite allergy and asthma. Materials and Methods Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study, including 80 children from 3 Danish Pediatric outpatient clinics, with: Verified asthma, requiring a...

  15. Salmeterol in paediatric asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Byrnes, C; Shrewsbury, S.; Barnes, P; Bush, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The addition of long acting inhaled β2 agonists is recommended at step 3 of the British guidelines on asthma management but a recent study suggested no additional benefit in children with asthma.
METHODS—The aim of this study was to compare, in a double blind, three way, crossover study, the effects of the addition of salmeterol 50 µg bd, salmeterol 100 µg bd, and salbutamol 200 µg qds in asthmatic children who were symptomatic despite treatment with inhaled co...

  16. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however...

  17. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however...

  18. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The...... objectives of our study were to (1) summarize the evidence available on associations between PA and asthma prevalence in children and adolescents and (2) assess the role of PA in new-onset or incident asthma among children and adolescents. METHODS: We searched Medline, the Cochrane Library, and Embase and......42014013761; available at: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO [accessed: 24 March 2016])....

  19. Traditional Therapies for Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eileen; Hoyte, Flavia C L

    2016-08-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines define severe asthma for patients 6 years or older as "asthma which requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids…plus a second controller or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy." This article reviews available traditional therapies, data behind their uses in severe asthma, and varying recommendations. As various asthma endotypes and phenotypes are better understood and characterized, targeted therapies should help improve disease outcomes, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:27401628

  20. Sequence of retrovirus provirus resembles that of bacterial transposable elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotohno, Kunitada; Mizutani, Satoshi; Temin, Howard M.

    1980-06-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the terminal regions of an infectious integrated retrovirus cloned in the modified λ phage cloning vector Charon 4A have been elucidated. There is a 569-base pair direct repeat at both ends of the viral DNA. The cell-virus junctions at each end consist of a 5-base pair direct repeat of cell DNA next to a 3-base pair inverted repeat of viral DNA. This structure resembles that of a transposable element and is consistent with the protovirus hypothesis that retroviruses evolved from the cell genome.

  1. Asthma: a comparison of animal models using stereological methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Hyde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a worldwide health problem that affects 300 million people, as estimated by the World Health Organization. A key question in light of this statistic is: "what is the most appropriate laboratory animal model for human asthma?" The present authors used stereological methods to assess airways in adults and during post-natal development, and their response to inhaled allergens to compare rodents and nonhuman primates to responses in humans. An epithelial–mesenchymal trophic unit was defined in which all of the compartments interact with each other. Asthma manifests itself by altering not only the epithelial compartment but also other compartments (e.g. interstitial, vascular, immunological and nervous. All of these compartments show significant alteration in an airway generation-specific manner in rhesus monkeys but are limited to the proximal airways in mice. The rhesus monkey model shares many of the key features of human allergic asthma including the following: 1 allergen-specific immunoglobulin (IgE and skin-test positivity; 2 eosinophils and IgE+ cells in airways; 3 a T-helper type 2 cytokine profile in airways; 4 mucus cell hyperplasia; 5 subepithelial fibrosis; 6 basement membrane thickening; and 7 persistent baseline hyperreactivity to histamine or methacholine. In conclusion, the unique responses to inhaled allergens shown in rhesus monkeys make it the most appropriate animal model of human asthma.

  2. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution can trigger an asthma attack. This pollution can come from factories, cars, and other sources. Pay attention to air quality forecasts on radio, television, and the Internet and check your newspaper to plan ... levels will be low. Cockroach Allergen Cockroaches and ...

  3. Occupational Neutrophilic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Leigh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational asthma is typically associated with an eosinophilic bronchitis. The case of a 41-year-old woman who developed symptoms of asthma after occupational exposure to metal working fluids is reported. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 of 1.7 (59% predicted, with 11% reversibility after inhaled bronchodilator and a provocation concentration of methacholine to cause a fall in FEV1 of 20% (PC20 of 0.4 mg/mL. Induced sputum examination showed a marked neutrophilia. Over the next six months, serial sputum analyses confirmed the presence of a marked sterile neutrophilic bronchitis during periods of occupational exposure to metal working fluids, which resolved when the patient was away from work and recurred when she returned to work. The sputum findings were mirrored by corresponding changes in spirometry and PC20 methacholine. The findings indicate the occurrence of occupational asthma associated with an intense, sterile neutrophilic bronchitis after exposure to metal working fluids.

  4. Exercise training in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  5. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelso, John M.

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  6. Resemblance operations and conceptual complexity in animal metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneider Iza Ervitia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For over thirty years cognitive linguists have devoted much effort to the study of metaphors based on the correlation of events in human experience to the detriment of the more traditional notion of resemblance metaphor, which exploits perceived similarities among objects. Grady (1999 draws attention to this problem and calls for a more serious study of the latter type of metaphor. The present paper takes up this challenge on the basis of a small corpus of ‘animal’ metaphors in English, which are essentially based on resemblance. Contrary to previous analyses by cognitive linguists (e.g. Lakoff & Turner 1989, Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, 1998, who claim that such metaphors are based on a single mapping generally involving comparable behavioral attributes, I will argue that we have a more complex situation which involves different patterns of conceptual interaction. In this respect, I have identified cases of (i animal metaphors interacting with high-level (i.e. grammatical metaphors and metonymies, of (ii (situational animal metaphors whose source domains are constructed metonymically (cf. Goossens 1990; Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Díez Velasco 2002, and of (iii animal metaphors interacting with other metaphors thereby giving rise to metaphoric amalgams (cf. Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Galera Masegosa 2011.

  7. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  8. Asthma in Adolescents: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Asthma Program for Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L Cowie; Underwood, Margot F; Little, Cinde B; Ian Mitchell; Sheldon Spier; Ford, Gordon T

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is common and is often poorly controlled in adolescent subjects.OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of an age-specific asthma program on asthma control, particularly on exacerbations of asthma requiring emergency department treatment, and on the quality of life of adolescents with asthma.METHODS: The present randomized, controlled trial included patients who were 15 to 20 years of age and had visited emergency departments for management of their asthma. The interventional gr...

  9. Childhood Asthma Management Pre- and Post-Incident Asthma Hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Marina; Clavenna, Antonio; Sequi, Marco; Bortolotti, Angela; Fortino, Ida; Merlino, Luca; Bonati, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Many hospitalizations for asthma could potentially be avoided with appropriate management. The aim of this study was to analyze data on disease management of a paediatric population with a hospitalization for asthma. The study population comprised 6–17 year old subjects belonging to three local health units of the Lombardy Region, northern Italy. Regional administrative databases were used to collect data on: the number of children with an incident hospitalization for asthma during the 2004–2...

  10. Role of Asthma Education in the Management of Adult Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Côté, Johanne

    1995-01-01

    When a patient is newly diagnosed as having asthma, he or she is often prescribed new medication without getting much information on the disease and its treatment. This article emphasizes the need to educate asthmatics. Asthma treatment should begin with a proper adjustment of the medication, allowing asthmatics to lead a normal life. All asthmatics should be shown how to use their inhalation device properly. They should he knowledgeable about the basic aspects of asthma, airway inflammation ...

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical ... Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer [ PDF - 377 KB] Your browser does not support iframes ...

  12. Occupational asthma caused by dry metabisulphite.

    OpenAIRE

    Malo, J.L.; Cartier, A.; Desjardins, A.

    1995-01-01

    A case is described of occupational asthma in a worker with no previous history of asthma who sprinkled dried metabisulphite powder onto potatoes and developed work-related symptoms. Occupational asthma was confirmed by specific inhalation challenges.

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Nation Fact Sheet State Data Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources ... Informs Design Other Evaluation Resources Multimedia Messages Agencies Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn ...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals School and Childcare Providers More Asthma Resources ...

  15. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma who Smoke Insurance coverage and barriers to care for people with asthma Tables and Graphs Asthma ... Home Pregnant Women - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - ...

  16. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  17. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance ... gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ...

  18. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Baby's Growth Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  19. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  20. Severe supraaortal atherosclerotic disease resembling Takayasu’s Arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Kis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Bernhard Kis1,2, Thomas Liebig3,4, Peter Berlit11Department of Neurology, Alfried Krupp Hospital, Essen, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 3Department of Neuroradiology, Alfried Krupp Hospital, Essen, Germany; 4Department of Neuroradiology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, GermanyAbstract: We report a case of a 64 year-old man whose clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings strikingly resembled those found in Takayasu’s Arteritis which is characterized by the triad of absent radial pulses, ischemic retinopathy, and carotid sinus hyperreflexia causing syncopes. Angiographically, the patient exhibited severe atherosclerotic changes of the supraaortic large vessels. Stent-assisted angioplasty resulted in both clinical improvement and increased cerebral blood flow as measured by angiography and ultrasound.Keywords: Takayasu’s arteritis, atherosclerosis, angiography, stent, angioplasty

  1. PERCEPTUAL RESEMBLANCE OF FACIAL IMAGES: A NEAR SET APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.MUSTAFI

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a near set approach to image analysis. Near sets result from generalization of rough settheory. One set X is near another set Y to the extent that the description of at least one of the objects in X matches thedescription of at least one of the objects in Y. Near set Evaluation And Recognition (NEAR system is used to measure thedegree of resemblance between facial images. The goal of the NEAR system is to extract perceptual information fromimages using near set theory, which provides a framework for measuring the perceptual nearness of objects. In this work,we have used images from Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE database. The images were first converted intoLocal Binary Patterns (LBP images and then divided into non-overlapping blocks. The degree of nearness of histogramsof all the blocks of one image is measured with the corresponding blocks of another image by using NEAR system

  2. The family resemblance metaphor: some unfinished business of interpretive inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S I; Fredericks, M

    2000-07-01

    The rapidly expanding discipline of interpretive inquiry, especially in its narrative analysis form, has not been fully cognizant of certain crucial epistemological and methodological assumptions that form the ultimate basis of its purpose. Even after abandoning traditional positivist views, the related disciplines within the human sciences that are engaged in interpretive inquiry have still not discovered the core implicit assumptions that militate against a full acceptance of this form of inquiry. This article outlines the locus of these implicit assumptions and then argues that the legitimacy of these enterprises must be grounded in a well-known but heretofore undiscovered perspective, namely, Wittgenstein's notion of a family resemblance. It is argued that this metaphoric phrase is the key to unlocking the real and unique nature of narrative analysis. PMID:11010071

  3. Asthma severity and exposure to occupational asthmogens

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moual, Nicole; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle; Kauffmann, Francine; Kennedy, Susan,

    2005-01-01

    RATIONALE: Severe asthma is a public health problem with limited information regarding preventable causes. Although occupational exposures have been implicated as important risk factors for asthma and asthma exacerbations, associations between occupational exposures and asthma severity have not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between occupational exposures and asthma severity. METHODS: The Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma combines a case-contro...

  4. Obesity in Asthma: Approaches to Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeepan, Shyamala; Garrison, Garth; Dixon, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that obesity is associated with asthma, both of which are seeing a dramatic increase in prevalence. Not only is obesity a risk factor for the development of asthma, it is also associated with poor asthma control. Asthma phenotypes associated with obesity include early-onset allergic asthma and late-onset non-allergic asthma. The pathogenesis of the linkage is complex; obesity causes a variety of mechanical, metabolic, and immunological changes that can affect the ai...

  5. Asthma Is More Severe in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zein, Joe G.; Dweik, Raed A.; Comhair, Suzy A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Busse, William W.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Chung, K. Fan; Fitzpatrick, Anne; Israel, Elliot; Teague, W. Gerald; Sally E. Wenzel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Severe asthma occurs more often in older adult patients. We hypothesized that the greater risk for severe asthma in older individuals is due to aging, and is independent of asthma duration. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data from adult participants (N=1130; 454 with severe asthma) enrolled from 2002 – 2011 in the Severe Asthma Research Program. Results: The association between age and the probability of severe asthma, which was performed by ap...

  6. The Effects of Bronchiectasis on Asthma Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hye Ran; Choi, Gyu-Sik; Park, Sun Jin; Song, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jeong Min; Ha, Junghoon; Lee, Yung Hee; Lee, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jae Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchiectasis and asthma are different in many respects, but some patients have both conditions. Studies assessing the effect of bronchiectasis on asthma exacerbation are rare. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of bronchiectasis on asthma exacerbation. Methods We enrolled 2,270 asthma patients who were followed up in our hospital. Fifty patients had bronchiectasis and asthma. We selected fifty age- and sex-matched controls from the 2,220 asthma patients without br...

  7. How Can Microarrays Unlock Asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Alen Faiz; Janette K. Burgess

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although current therapies for asthma are relatively effective, subpopulations of asthmatics do not respond to these regimens. By unlocking the role of these underlying mechanisms, a source of novel and more ef...

  8. Pharmacogenetics of asthma in children

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Naomi; Matsui, Eiko; Nishimura, Akane; KANEKO, HIDEO

    2009-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis develop by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Several candidate causative genes of asthma and atopy have been reported as the genetic factors. The clinical features of patients and causes of diseases vary. Therefore, personalized medicine (tailor-made medicine) is necessary for the improvement of quality of life (QOL) and for asthma cure. Pharmacogenetics is very important for personalized medicine. Here, we pre...

  9. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria. PMID:19671382

  10. Studies on provoked asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of adult patients with perennial bronchial asthma has been studied as to lung perfusion and alveolar ventilation (81m-Kr) at rest and after provocation of an acute attack. Asthma was provoked by exercise and by histamine inhalation. After provocation the peak expiratory flow values were reduced to less than 80% of the base line values. Perfusion was often deranged. Regional ventilation changed rapidly after provocation and not always in the same fashion after exercise and histamine. During attacks lung volume increased. The expansion decreased (in parallel with increased peak expiratory flow) after inhalator of a #betta#-2 agonist (terbutaline). 81m-Kr offers unique opportunities for studying acute regional changes in alveolar ventilation. (Author)

  11. Metabolic origins of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasemann, Hartmut

    2015-12-01

    Childhood obesity and incidence of asthma are increasing globally. The parallel increase of the two suggests that obesity and asthma may be related and that abnormalities in the lipid and/or glucose metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. The clinical presentation of obese asthma is distinct from other asthma phenotypes and depending on age of onset of symptoms. Asthma in obese people tends to be more severe, not typically associated with allergy, and less responsive to standard anti-inflammatory therapy, including corticosteroids. Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities may lead to asthma via a number of mechanisms including changes in lung mechanics, the nitric oxide metabolism, and by causing inflammation. Furthermore, evidence suggests that nutrition during pregnancy contributes to intrauterine immune and metabolic programming in the offspring, which may have major influences on predisposition to cardiovascular, metabolic, and allergic diseases, including asthma, later in life. This review will highlight some suggested mechanistic links between obesity and diabetes with asthma. PMID:26542296

  12. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ...

  13. Pathogenesis of Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Barlan, Işıl B.; Başaran, Müjdat M.

    2000-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction in response to allergen chronic eosinophilic airway inflammation and nonspecific airway hyperreponsiveness Allergic reaction appears to be the result of a TH2 type T cell response to one or more common environmental allergens The allergen specific TH2 response represents the triggering event for the recruitment and the involvement of the other cell types as well as a large number of soluble factors and adhesion molecules thus ...

  14. Adenosine Receptors and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Constance N; Nadeem, Ahmed; Spina, Domenico; Brown, Rachel; Page, Clive P.; Jamal Mustafa, S.

    2009-01-01

    The pathophysiological processes underlying respiratory diseases like asthma are complex, resulting in an overwhelming choice of potential targets for the novel treatment of this disease. Despite this complexity, asthmatic subjects are uniquely sensitive to a range of substances like adenosine, thought to act indirectly to evoke changes in respiratory mechanics and in the underlying pathology, and thereby to offer novel insights into the pathophysiology of this disease. Adenosine is of partic...

  15. Holy Saturday asthma

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Terence M; Cusack, Ruth; Landers, Sarah; Bredin, Charles Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old man complained of cough and dyspnoea after exposure to colophony-containing solder fumes at work. A histamine challenge test confirmed airway hyper-responsiveness, and colophony-challenge demonstrated a 16.7% drop in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), supporting a diagnosis of colophony-induced occupational asthma. At review, the patient presented with cough, dyspnoea and wheeze that occurred acutely when exposed to the fumes from burning incense during Easter Saturday services, ...

  16. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  17. Pulmonary remodeling in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The inflammatory and immunologic processes responsible for asthma can produce permanently fixed obstructive lung disease unresponsive to medical therapy. This can be manifested clinically by the failure of a childhood asthmatic to reach full expected lung capacity at adulthood and by an accelerated decline in pulmonary capacity in adults. Recent studies have furthered our insight into the pathologic processes underlying these changes and the potential effects of therapy to prevent them.

  18. Acute bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  19. Beta-2-Adrenergic Receptor Methylation Influences Asthma Phenotype in The School Inner City Asthma Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and inner city residents suffer a disproportionately high rate of asthma diagnosis and asthma morbidity. The School Inner City Asthma Study investigates the school classroom based environmental exposures that may lead to asthma morbidity in inner city school children with asthma. Within this cohort, we investigated the role of methylation at the promoter region of the beta-2-adrenergic receptor in relation to asthma morbidity. We found th...

  20. Occupational asthma due to polyethylene shrink wrapping (paper wrapper's asthma).

    OpenAIRE

    Gannon, P. F.; Burge, P S; Benfield, G F

    1992-01-01

    Occupational asthma due to the pyrolysis products of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) produced by shrink wrapping processes has previously been reported. The first case of occupational asthma in a shrink wrap worker using a different plastic, polyethylene, is reported; the association was confirmed by specific bronchial provocation testing.

  1. Emerging therapeutic options for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colice, Gene L

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Due to these pathologic features, the foundation of asthma treatment has historically been anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Numerous factors in addition to IgE and eosinophils, however, likely play important roles in mediating the airway inflammatory response characteristic of asthma. ICSs are effective therapy for some patients with persistent asthma, but clinical trials have shown that even increasing doses of ICSs under carefully controlled situations does not always result in acceptable asthma control. Consequently, other classes of medications, in addition to ICSs, are recommended in those patients with more severe asthma. The class of medication most commonly used in more severe asthma, along with ICSs, is long-acting inhaled beta2-agonists, but leukotriene modifying agents and anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies may also be used. Agents such as tiotropium, a long-acting inhaled anti-muscarinic agent, and those aimed at inhibiting cytokines, such as mepoluzimab, daclizumab, and etanercept, hold promise in the treatment of asthma. Other agents under investigation include phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors and oligonucleotides. Bronchial thermoplasty, a nonpharmacologic option, may also be beneficial in patients with poorly controlled asthma. As our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of asthma increases, it will enable the development of novel therapeutic approaches for patients who are not responding well to traditional treatments. Although more studies are necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety of both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches, there is future promise for therapeutic advances in severe, persistent asthma. PMID:21761958

  2. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradding Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and localize specifically to key tissue structures such as the submucosal glands and airway smooth muscle within asthmatic bronchi, irrespective of disease severity or phenotype. Here they are activated and interact exclusively with these structural cells via adhesive pathways and through the release of soluble mediators acting across the distance of only a few microns. The location of mast cells within the airway smooth muscle bundles seems particularly important for the development and propagation of asthma, perhaps occurring in response to, and then serving to aggravate, an underlying abnormality in asthmatic airway smooth muscle function. Targeting this mast cell-airway smooth muscle interaction in asthma offers exciting prospects for the treatment of this common disease.

  3. What is the optimal management option for occupational asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vandenplas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimal management of occupational asthma remains uncertain in clinical practice. The aim of this review was to analyse the published information pertaining to the management of occupational asthma in order to produce evidence-based statements and recommendations. A systematic literature search was conducted up to March 2010 to identify original studies addressing the following different treatment options: 1 persistence of exposure; 2 pharmacological treatment; 3 complete avoidance of exposure; 4 reduction of exposure; and 5 the use of personal protective equipment. After full text evaluation of 83 potentially relevant articles, 52 studies were retained for analysis.The conclusions from this systematic review are limited by the methodological weaknesses of most published studies. Critical analysis of available evidence indicates that: 1 persistent exposure to the causal agent is more likely to result in asthma worsening than complete avoidance; 2 there is insufficient evidence to determine whether pharmacological treatment can alter the course of asthma in subjects who remain exposed; 3 avoidance of exposure leads to recovery of asthma in less than one-third of affected workers; 4 reduction of exposure seems to be less beneficial than complete avoidance of exposure; and 5 personal respiratory equipment does not provide complete protection.

  4. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by [3H]thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with [3H]thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific [3H]thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates

  5. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  6. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  7. Asthma: where is it going?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Faffe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Although our understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms continues to evolve, the relative contributions of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation are still debated. The first mechanism identified as important for asthma was bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In a second step, asthma was recognized also as an inflammatory disease, with chronic inflammation inducing structural changes or remodeling. However, persistence of airway dysfunction despite inflammatory control is observed in chronic severe asthma of both adults and children. More recently, a potential role for epithelial-mesenchymal communication or transition is emerging, with epithelial injury often resulting in a self-sustaining phenotype of wound repair modulation by activation/reactivation of the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit, suggesting that chronic asthma can be more than an inflammatory disease. It is noteworthy that the gene-environmental interactions critical for the development of a full asthma phenotype involve processes similar to those occurring in branching morphogenesis. In addition, a central role for airway smooth muscle in the pathogenesis of the disease has been explored, highlighting its secretory function as well as different intrinsic properties compared to normal subjects. These new concepts can potentially shed light on the mechanisms underlying some asthma phenotypes and improve our understanding of the disease in terms of the therapeutic strategies to be applied. How we understand asthma and its mechanisms along time will be the focus of this overview.

  8. How can microarrays unlock asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faiz, Alen; Burgess, Janette K

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although curr

  9. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Friend Who Cuts? Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? If You Smoke If Other People Smoke en español Fumar y el asma You may have family photo albums full of pictures with people smoking at all kinds of events, ...

  10. DNA vaccine and asthma therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Huan-zhong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Allergic asthma is currently considered a chronic airway inflammatory disorder associated with the presence of activated CD4+ Th2-type lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells. Interestingly, therapeutic strategies based on immune deviation and suppression have been shown to successfully attenuate the development of the asthma phenotype.

  11. Comorbidity of Asthma with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Eagan, Tomas Mikal; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess how frequently drugs used to treat asthma and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients. Method: The authors used data from the Norwegian Prescription Database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (n = 4,640,219). Results: Anti-asthma drugs were prescribed to 350,894 persons (7.56 % of the population), anti-ADHD…

  12. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  13. Asthma in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, A S; Skov, Lone; Skytthe, A;

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the report by Fang and colleagues of the relationship between psoriasis and asthma in a large retrospective case-control study from Taiwan [1]. The study found a 1.38-fold increased risk of asthma among patients with psoriasis, and with an increasing risk according to higher...

  14. Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide measurements in the diagnoses of asthma in elderly patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho Netto, Antonio Carlos Maneira; dos Reis, Túlio Gonçalves; Matheus, Cássia Franco; Aarestrup, Beatriz Julião Vieira; Aarestrup, Fernando Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements in the diagnosis of asthma in elderly patients. Methods The clinical symptoms of 202 elderly patients were assessed with the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood test, which had been modified for the elderly patients, and the diagnostic routine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which was based on the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Of the 202 patients assessed, 43 were subjected to pulmonary function evaluations (spirometry) and FeNO measurements. Results Of the 202 elderly patients, 34 had asthma (23 definite and eleven probable), 20 met COPD criteria, 13 presented with an overlap of asthma and COPD, and 135 did not fit the criteria for obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the 43 elderly patients who were subjected to FeNO measurements, ten showed altered results (23.2%) and 33 had normal results (76.7%). The average value of FeNO in patients with definite and probable asthma undergoing this procedure was 29.2 parts per billion whereas that in nonasthmatic patients was 17.5 parts per billion (P=0.0002). Conclusion We show a clear relationship between FeNO levels and asthma symptoms and previous asthma diagnoses in elderly patients. PMID:27274212

  15. "Kickin' Asthma": School-Based Asthma Education in an Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of "Kickin' Asthma", a school-based asthma curriculum…

  16. Association between colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor gene polymorphisms and asthma risk

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Eun Kyong; Lee, Shin-Hwa; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Jung, Seok; Yoon, Sang Hyuk; Park, Sung Woo; Park, Jong Sook; Uh, Soo Taek; Kim, Yang Ki; Kim, Yong Hoon; Choi, Jae-Sung; Park, Byung-Lae; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Park, Choon-Sik

    2010-01-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) is expressed in monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. These cells play important roles in the innate immune response, which is regarded as an important aspect of asthma development. Genetic alterations in the CSF1R gene may contribute to the development of asthma. We investigated whether CSF1R gene polymorphisms were associated with the risk of asthma. Through direct DNA sequencing of the CSF1R gene, we identified 28 single nucleotide polymorp...

  17. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is common among pregnant women, and the incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is high. This literature review provides an overview of the impact of exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy on pregnancy-related complications. The majority of published retrospective studies reveal...... that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive...... care unit and longer postpartum hospital stay. Asthma has been associated with increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation, small-for-gestational age, low birth weight, infant hypoglycaemia and preterm birth, but more recent prospective studies have not revealed significant associations with...

  18. Variability of respiratory mechanics during sleep in overweight and obese subjects with and without asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, L. M.; Owens, R. L.; Butler, J P; Suki, B.S.; Malhotra, A

    2013-01-01

    Variability of respiration may provide information regarding disease states. We sought to characterize variability of ventilation and resistance in healthy and asthma, to determine how respiratory control may be altered in sleep and with bi-level positive airway pressure (BPAP). Overweight and obese subjects with and without asthma were studied during sleep at baseline and with BPAP, while measuring respiratory system resistance (Rrs) continuously. Stable periods (>20min) of wake, NREM, and R...

  19. Predator-Resembling Aversive Conditioning for Managing Habituated Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife habituation near urban centers can disrupt natural ecological processes, destroy habitat, and threaten public safety. Consequently, management of habituated animals is typically invasive and often includes translocation of these animals to remote areas and sometimes even their destruction. Techniques to prevent or reverse habituation and other forms of in situ management are necessary to balance ecological and social requirements, but they have received very little experimental attention to date. This study compared the efficacy of two aversive conditioning treatments that used either humans or dogs to create sequences resembling chases by predators, which, along with a control category, were repeatedly and individually applied to 24 moderately habituated, radio-collared elk in Banff National Park during the winter of 2001–2002. Three response variables were measured before and after treatment. Relative to untreated animals, the distance at which elk fled from approaching humans, i.e., the flight response distance, increased following both human and dog treatments, but there was no difference between the two treatments. The proportion of time spent in vigilance postures decreased for all treatment groups, without differences among groups, suggesting that this behavior responded mainly to seasonal effects. The average distance between elk locations and the town boundary, measured once daily by telemetry, significantly increased for human-conditioned elk. One of the co-variates we measured, wolf activity, exerted counteracting effects on conditioning effects; flight response distances and proximity to the town site were both lower when wolf activity was high. This research demonstrates that it is possible to temporarily modify aspects of the behavior of moderately habituated elk using aversive conditioning, suggests a method for reducing habituation in the first place, and provides a solution for Banff and other jurisdictions to manage

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma ... FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals School and Childcare ...

  1. Exploring the obesity-asthma link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently.......Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently....

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma- ... 4. Gathering and Using Data 4A. Focus On: Data Collection Choices 4B. Focus on Using Mixed Methods 5. ...

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with asthma Tables and Graphs Asthma Call-back Survey Technical Information Prevalence Tables BRFSS Prevalence Data NHIS ... Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare ...

  4. Asthma and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration. PMID:6958045

  5. Asma ocupacional Occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cebollero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Asma ocupacional es aquella entidad que se desarrolla por causas o condiciones derivadas de un determinado medio laboral y no por estímulos que se encuentran fuera del trabajo. El asma ocupacional constituye hoy en día la enfermedad respiratoria ocupacional más frecuente en la mayoría de los países industrializados y se calcula que la proporción de nuevos casos de asma atribuibles a la exposición laboral se sitúa en torno al 10-15%. Puede desarrollarse tanto por un mecanismo inmunológico como no inmunológico. En su desarrollo influyen el tipo de agente al que se está expuesto, el nivel y modo de exposición y factores genéticos de susceptibilidad. En el proceso diagnóstico concurre la confirmación de que el paciente tiene asma bronquial y la confirmación de que ésta se produce por causa laboral. Como demuestra la historia natural de la enfermedad, un diagnóstico precoz y las consiguientes acciones posteriores redundan en un mejor pronóstico de la misma.Occupational asthma is an entity caused by conditions deriving from a certain work milieu and not from stimuli found outside the workplace. Nowadays, occupational asthma is the most frequent respiratory occupational disease in the majority of the industrialised countries and it is estimated that the proportion of new cases of asthma that can be attributed to exposure at work is around 10-15%. It can be developed due to an immunological mechanism or to a non-immunological mechanism. Influential in its development are the type of agent exposed to, the level and form of exposure and genetic factors of susceptibility. In the diagnostic process there is a concurrent confirmation that the patient has bronchial asthma and that this has been caused by occupational reasons. As shown by the natural history of the disease, an early diagnosis and the consequent posterior actions result in an improved prognosis.

  6. Childhood asthma management pre- and post-incident asthma hospitalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bianchi

    Full Text Available Many hospitalizations for asthma could potentially be avoided with appropriate management. The aim of this study was to analyze data on disease management of a paediatric population with a hospitalization for asthma. The study population comprised 6-17 year old subjects belonging to three local health units of the Lombardy Region, northern Italy. Regional administrative databases were used to collect data on: the number of children with an incident hospitalization for asthma during the 2004-2006 period, anti-asthma therapy, specialist visit referrals, and claims for spirometry, released in the 12 months before and after hospitalization. Each patient's asthma management profile was compared with GINA guideline recommendations. Among the 183 hospitalized subjects, 101 (55% received therapy before hospitalization and 82 (45% did not. 10% did not receive any therapy either before or after hospital admission and in 13% the therapy was discontinued afterward. Based on GINA guidelines, asthma management adhered to recommendations only for 55% of subjects. Results may suggest that for half of hospitalized subjects, inaccurate diagnosis, under-treatment/scarce compliance with asthma guidelines by physicians, and/or scarce compliance to therapy by patients/their parents occurred. In all these cases, hospitalization would be a proxy indicator of preventable poor control of disease, rather than a proxy indicator of severity.

  7. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States and...... Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems to be...... unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation into...

  8. Novel approaches to the management of noneosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Neil C

    2016-06-01

    Noneosinophilic airway inflammation occurs in approximately 50% of patients with asthma. It is subdivided into neutrophilic or paucigranulocytic inflammation, although the proportion of each subtype is uncertain because of variable cut-off points used to define neutrophilia. This article reviews the evidence for noneosinophilic inflammation being a target for therapy in asthma and assesses clinical trials of licensed drugs, novel small molecules and biologics agents in noneosinophilic inflammation. Current symptoms, rate of exacerbations and decline in lung function are generally less in noneosinophilic asthma than eosinophilic asthma. Noneosinophilic inflammation is associated with corticosteroid insensitivity. Neutrophil activation in the airways and systemic inflammation is reported in neutrophilic asthma. Neutrophilia in asthma may be due to corticosteroids, associated chronic pulmonary infection, altered airway microbiome or delayed neutrophil apoptosis. The cause of poorly controlled noneosinophilic asthma may differ between patients and involve several mechanism including neutrophilic inflammation, T helper 2 (Th2)-low or other subtypes of airway inflammation or corticosteroid insensitivity as well as noninflammatory pathways such as airway hyperreactivity and remodelling. Smoking cessation in asthmatic smokers and removal from exposure to some occupational agents reduces neutrophilic inflammation. Preliminary studies of 'off-label' use of licensed drugs suggest that macrolides show efficacy in nonsmokers with noneosinophilic severe asthma and statins, low-dose theophylline and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists may benefit asthmatic smokers with noneosinophilic inflammation. Novel small molecules targeting neutrophilic inflammation, such as chemokine (CXC) receptor 2 (CXCR2) antagonists reduce neutrophils, but do not improve clinical outcomes in studies to date. Inhaled phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 inhibitors, dual PDE3 and PDE4

  9. Allergic rhinitis: evidence for impact on asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper reviews the current evidence indicating that comorbid allergic rhinitis may have clinically relevant effects on asthma. Discussion Allergic rhinitis is very common in patients with asthma, with a reported prevalence of up to 100% in those with allergic asthma. While the temporal relation of allergic rhinitis and asthma diagnoses can be variable, the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis often precedes that of asthma. Rhinitis is an independent risk factor for the subsequent dev...

  10. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Izuhara; Hisako Matsumoto; Shoichiro Ohta; Junya Ono; Kazuhiko Arima; Masahiro Ogawa

    2015-01-01

    Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis ...

  11. Screening, Diagnostic and Outcome Tools for Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony M.J. Wever; Jopie Wever-Hess; Mark G. Britton

    1998-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, affecting about 10% of children and 5 to 7% of the adult population. Improved asthma control will not only benefit the patient but will also result in reduced financial expenditure in asthma healthcare. This article summarises the tools that are available for assessing asthma and attempts to quantify the usefulness of each tool in assessing asthma in different clinical contexts, whether it be screening for asthmatics within a populatio...

  12. Innate lymphocyte cells in asthma phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ozyigit, Leyla Pur; MORITA, Hideaki; Akdis, Mubeccel

    2015-01-01

    T helper type 2 (TH2) cells were previously thought to be the main initiating effector cell type in asthma; however, exaggerated TH2 cell activities alone were insufficient to explain all aspects of asthma. Asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome comprising different phenotypes that are characterized by their different clinical features, treatment responses, and inflammation patterns. The most-studied subgroups of asthma include TH2-associated early-onset allergic asthma, late-onset persistent eos...

  13. Ways of coping with asthma in everyday life: validation of the Asthma Specific Coping Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Aro, Arja R;

    2002-01-01

    ]. Data were collected by questionnaires. RESULTS: The expected structure of the six subscales (restricted lifestyle, hiding asthma, positive reappraisal, information seeking, ignoring asthma, and asthma worry) was supported. The Cronbach's alpha reliabilities of the subscales ranged from .63 to .84...

  14. Holy Saturday asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Terence M; Cusack, Ruth; Landers, Sarah; Bredin, Charles Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old man complained of cough and dyspnoea after exposure to colophony-containing solder fumes at work. A histamine challenge test confirmed airway hyper-responsiveness, and colophony-challenge demonstrated a 16.7% drop in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), supporting a diagnosis of colophony-induced occupational asthma. At review, the patient presented with cough, dyspnoea and wheeze that occurred acutely when exposed to the fumes from burning incense during Easter Saturday services, necessitating his departure from the church. Inhalation challenge tests using two blends of incense used at his church (Greek and Vatican) led to identical symptoms and a significant reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s 15 min after exposure and PEFRs up to 48 h after exposure, indicating an early and late phase asthmatic reaction. This is the first report of coexistent colophony and incense-induced asthma. The similarities in chemical structures between abietic acid in colophony and boswellic acid in incense suggest a common mechanism. PMID:24626388

  15. A randomized controlled trial to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of a nurse-led Antenatal Asthma Management Service in South Australia (AAMS study)

    OpenAIRE

    Grzeskowiak, Luke E; Dekker, Gustaaf; Rivers, Karen; Roberts-Thomson, Kate; Roy, Anil; Smith, Brian; Bowden, Jeffery; Bryce, Robert; Davies, Michael; Beilby, Justin; Wilson, Anne; Middleton, Philippa; Ruffin, Richard; Karnon, Jonathan; Clifton, Vicki L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnancy presents a unique situation for the management of asthma as it can alter the course of asthma severity and its treatment, which in turn can affect pregnancy outcomes. Despite awareness of the substantial adverse effects associated with asthma during pregnancy, little has been done to improve its management and reduce associated perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of an Antenatal ...

  16. Indoor Domestic environment and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimitriou E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Genesis and development of asthma are greatly affected by the indoor environmental quality. Duringrecent years, it is noted an important increase in asthma cases worldwide which is mainly caused by the effects ofpollutants in indoor environments. Purpose: In this study, there has been an effort to show the impact of indoorenvironment on asthma development. Methodology: Reviewing bibliography by information retrieval from thePubmed and TRIP Database.Conclusion: Indoor air pollution is an interdisciplinary subject. The great number ofpollutants, their variety on structure and action, the conditions under which they are developed as well as theirdifferent and disparate ways of treatment and control require knowledge from many scientific fields. By assuming newdimensions in world climate changes, increasing sensitization in allergens, using respiratory irritants, such aspesticides and compounds and chemicals of industrial origin, and at the same time the poor home indoor air qualityand the family history of asthma lead to new asthma cases worldwide. An important number of asthma cases in afamily could be avoided by implementing a better environmental policy inside our homes. Finally, by understandingbetter the link between environment and asthma as well as by explaining the involved gene action, they will bedelivered more effective prevention and treatment programs.

  17. Researching asthma across the ages: Insights from the NHLBI Asthma Network

    OpenAIRE

    Cabana, Michael D; Kunselman, Susan J.; Nyenhuis, Sharmilee; Wechsler, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical asthma studies across different age groups, or ‘cross-age’ studies, can potentially offer insight into the similarities, differences and relationships between childhood and adult asthma. The National Institutes of Health Asthma Research Network (AsthmaNet) is unique and innovative in that it has merged pediatric and adult asthma research into one clinical research network. This combination enhances scientific exchange between pediatric and adult asthma investigators and encourages th...

  18. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Matsunaga, Natasha Yumi; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Saad, Ivete Alonso Bredda; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Global In...

  19. Level of asthma control and its relationship with medication use in asthma patients in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Marchioro; Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti; Oliver Augusto Nascimento; Federico Montealegre; James Fish; José Roberto Jardim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess asthma patients in Brazil in terms of the level of asthma control, compliance with maintenance treatment, and the use of rescue medication. METHODS: We used data from a Latin American survey of a total of 400 asthma patients in four Brazilian state capitals, all of whom completed a questionnaire regarding asthma control and treatment. RESULTS: In that sample, the prevalence of asthma was 8.8%. Among the 400 patients studied, asthma was classified, in accordance with the G...

  20. Role of Obesity in Asthma Control, the Obesity-Asthma Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Novosad; Supriya Khan; Bruce Wolfe; Akram Khan

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a disease with distinct phenotypes that have implications for both prognosis and therapy. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and obesity. Further studies have shown that obese asthmatics have poor asthma control and more severe asthma. This obese-asthma group may represent a unique phenotype. The mechanisms behind poor asthma control in obese subjects remain unclear, but recent research has focused on adipokines and their effects on the airways as ...

  1. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Yumi Matsunaga; Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro; Ivete Alonso Bredda Saad; André Moreno Morcillo; José Dirceu Ribeiro; Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Globa...

  2. The Role of the Epithelium in Airway Remodeling in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    The bronchial epithelium is the barrier to the external environment and plays a vital role in protection of the internal milieu of the lung. It functions within the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit to control the local microenvironment and help maintain tissue homeostasis. However, in asthma, chronic perturbation of these homeostatic mechanisms leads to alterations in the structure of the airways, termed remodeling. Damage to the epithelium is now recognized to play a key role in driving a...

  3. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with antiasthmatic agents and elimination of the causes and risk factors of asthma are fundamental to its treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate between mild and intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid, varying from low to high. Long-acting 02-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and sustained-release theophylline are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-immunoglobulin E antibody therapy has been recently developed for the most severe and persistent asthma involving allergic reactions. Inhaled 02-agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, and others are used as needed in acute exacerbations by choosing treatment steps for asthma exacerbations depending on the severity of attacks. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspirin-induced asthma, pregnancy, asthma in athletes, and coughvariant asthma are also important issues that need to be considered.

  4. Exercising and asthma at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some exercises may be less likely to trigger asthma symptoms. Swimming is often a good choice. The warm, moist air may keep symptoms away. Football, baseball, and other sports that ... symptoms. Activities that are more intense and sustained, ...

  5. How Can Microarrays Unlock Asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Faiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although current therapies for asthma are relatively effective, subpopulations of asthmatics do not respond to these regimens. By unlocking the role of these underlying mechanisms, a source of novel and more effective treatments may be identified. In the new age of high-throughput technologies, gene-expression microarrays provide a quick and effective method of identifying novel genes and pathways, which would be impossible to discover using an individual gene screening approach. In this review we follow the history of expression microarray technologies and describe their contributions to advancing our current knowledge and understanding of asthma pathology.

  6. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht;

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed...... that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the...

  7. Emerging molecular phenotypes of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Oriss, Timothy B; Wenzel, Sally E

    2015-01-15

    Although asthma has long been considered a heterogeneous disease, attempts to define subgroups of asthma have been limited. In recent years, both clinical and statistical approaches have been utilized to better merge clinical characteristics, biology, and genetics. These combined characteristics have been used to define phenotypes of asthma, the observable characteristics of a patient determined by the interaction of genes and environment. Identification of consistent clinical phenotypes has now been reported across studies. Now the addition of various 'omics and identification of specific molecular pathways have moved the concept of clinical phenotypes toward the concept of molecular phenotypes. The importance of these molecular phenotypes is being confirmed through the integration of molecularly targeted biological therapies. Thus the global term asthma is poised to become obsolete, being replaced by terms that more specifically identify the pathology associated with the disease. PMID:25326577

  8. Flu and People with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  9. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma action plan is to reduce or prevent flare-ups and emergency department visits through day-to-day ... can: avoid triggers identify early symptoms of a flare-up and treat them to prevent the flare-up ...

  10. Dendritic cells in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, Mary J; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2013-12-01

    The lungs are constantly exposed to antigens, most of which are non-pathogenic and do not require the induction of an immune response. Dendritic cells (DCs) are situated at the basolateral site of the lungs and continuously scan the environment to detect the presence of pathogens and subsequently initiate an immune response. They are a heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells that exert specific functions. Compelling evidence is now provided that DCs are both sufficient and necessary to induce allergic responses against several inhaled harmless allergens. How various DC subsets exactly contribute to the induction of allergic asthma is currently a subject of intense investigation. We here review the current progress in this field. PMID:24455765

  11. Identification of asthma clusters in two independent Korean adult asthma cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Bum; Jang, An-Soo; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Park, Jong-Sook; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Choi, Byoung Whui; Park, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Cho, Young-Joo; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook; Park, Choon-Sik

    2013-06-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous airway disease with various clinical phenotypes. It is crucial to clearly identify clinical phenotypes to achieve better asthma management. We used cluster analysis to classify the clinical groups of 724 asthmatic patients from the Cohort for Reality and Evolution of Adult Asthma in Korea (COREA), and in 1843 subjects from another independent Korean asthma cohort of Soonchunhyang University Asthma Genome Research Centre (SCH) (Bucheon, Republic of Korea). Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed by Ward's method, followed by κ-means cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of the COREA cohort indicated four asthma subtypes: 1) smoking asthma; 2) severe obstructive asthma; 3) early-onset atopic asthma; and 4) late-onset mild asthma. An independent cluster analysis of the SCH cohort also indicated four clusters that were similar to the COREA clusters. Our results indicate that adult Korean asthma patients can be classified into four distinct clusters. PMID:23060627

  12. Asthma and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xian Qiao; Yi Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To get a comprehensive understanding about the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and asthma by reviewing the epidemiology,pathophysiology,and clinical manifestation and then summarizing the latest progress on diagnosis and treatment.Data Sources:Articles referred in this review were mainly collected from a comprehensive search of the PubMed published in English from 1990 to 2015 with the terms "OSA" and “asthma'" as the main keywords.Highly regarded older publications were also included.Study Selection:Information about the features of the two diseases in common,the pathophysiologic association between them and their current treatments from the literature search were identified,retrieved,and summarized.Results:Both OSA and asthma are very prevalent conditions.The incidences of them have kept on rising in recent years.Asthma is often accompanied by snoring and apnea,and OSA often combines with asthma,as well.They have many predisposing and aggravating factors in common.Possible shared direct mechanistic links between them include mechanical effects,intermittent hypoxia,nerve reflex,inflammation,leptin,etc.Indirect mechanistic links include medication,nose diseases,smoking,obesity,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.Since OSA presents many similar features with nocturnal asthma,some scholars termed them as a sole syndrome "alternative overlap syndrome,"and proved that asthma symptoms in those patients could be improved through the treatment of continuous positive airway pressure.Conclusions:OSA and asthma are closely associated in pathogenesis,symptoms,and therapies.With the growing awareness of the relationship between them,we should raise our vigilance on the coexistence of OSA in those difficult-to-control asthmatic patients.Further studies are still needed to guide the clinical works.

  13. Canadian asthma consensus report, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Boulet, L. P.; A. Becker; Bérubé, D; Beveridge, R.; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide physicians with current guidelines for the diagnosis and optimal management of asthma in children and adults, including pregnant women and the elderly, in office, emergency department, hospital and clinic settings. OPTIONS: The consensus group considered the roles of education, avoidance of provocative environmental and other factors, diverse pharmacotherapies, delivery devices and emergency and in-hospital management of asthma. OUTCOMES: Provision of the best control o...

  14. Exercise and asthma: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Giacco, Stefano R. Del; Firinu, Davide; Bjermer, Leif; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    The terms ‘exercise-induced asthma’ (EIA) and ‘exercise-induced bronchoconstriction’ (EIB) are often used interchangeably to describe symptoms of asthma such as cough, wheeze, or dyspnoea provoked by vigorous physical activity. In this review, we refer to EIB as the bronchoconstrictive response and to EIA when bronchoconstriction is associated with asthma symptoms. EIB is a common occurrence for most of the asthmatic patients, but it also affects more than 10% of otherwise healthy individuals...

  15. Therapeutic options for severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Jilcy; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Chandy, Dipak

    2012-01-01

    As the overall prevalence of asthma has escalated in the past decades, so has the population of patients with severe asthma. This condition is often difficult to manage due to the relative limitation of effective therapeutic options for the physician and the social and economic burden of the disease on the patient. Management should include an evaluation and elimination of modifiable risk factors such as smoking, allergen exposure, obesity and non-adherence, as well as therapy for co-morbidit...

  16. Chronic Infection and Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Kraft, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Chronic bacterial infection is implicated in both the development and severity of asthma. The atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae have been identified in the airways of asthmatics and correlated with clinical features such as adult onset, exacerbation risks, steroid sensitivity, and symptom control. Asthmatic patients with evidence of bacterial infection may benefit from antibiotic treatment directed towards these atypical organisms. Examination of the airway microbiome may identify microbial communities that confer risk for or protection from severe asthma. PMID:27401621

  17. Transcriptional Profiling of Th2 Cells Identifies Pathogenic Features Associated with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seumois, Grégory; Zapardiel-Gonzalo, Jose; White, Brandie; Singh, Divya; Schulten, Veronique; Dillon, Myles; Hinz, Denize; Broide, David H; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern; Vijayanand, Pandurangan

    2016-07-15

    Allergic asthma and rhinitis are two common chronic allergic diseases that affect the lungs and nose, respectively. Both diseases share clinical and pathological features characteristic of excessive allergen-induced type 2 inflammation, orchestrated by memory CD4(+) T cells that produce type 2 cytokines (Th2 cells). However, a large majority of subjects with allergic rhinitis do not develop asthma, suggesting divergence in disease mechanisms. Because Th2 cells play a pathogenic role in both these diseases and are also present in healthy nonallergic subjects, we performed global transcriptional profiling to determine whether there are qualitative differences in Th2 cells from subjects with allergic asthma, rhinitis, and healthy controls. Th2 cells from asthmatic subjects expressed higher levels of several genes that promote their survival as well as alter their metabolic pathways to favor persistence at sites of allergic inflammation. In addition, genes that enhanced Th2 polarization and Th2 cytokine production were also upregulated in asthma. Several genes that oppose T cell activation were downregulated in asthma, suggesting enhanced activation potential of Th2 cells from asthmatic subjects. Many novel genes with poorly defined functions were also differentially expressed in asthma. Thus, our transcriptomic analysis of circulating Th2 cells has identified several molecules that are likely to confer pathogenic features to Th2 cells that are either unique or common to both asthma and rhinitis. PMID:27271570

  18. Lifestyle changes and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen

    2013-03-01

    In recent decades there have been marked increases in asthma prevalence in Western countries. More recently, asthma prevalence has peaked, or even begun to decline, in Western countries, but many low and middle income countries are now beginning to experience increases in prevalence (although there is no evidence of increases in prevalence in India to date). "Established" risk factors for asthma cannot account for the global prevalence increases, or the international patterns that have been observed, or the recent declines in prevalence in some Western countries. It seems that as a result of the "package" of changes in the intrauterine and infant environment that are occurring with "Westernization", we are seeing an increased susceptibility to the development of asthma and/or allergy. There are a number of elements of this "package" including changes in maternal diet, increased fetal growth, smaller family size, reduced infant infections and increased use of antibiotics and paracetamol, and immunization, all of which have been (inconsistently) associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, but none of which can alone explain the increases in prevalence. It is likely that the "package" is more than the sum of its parts, and that these social and environmental changes are all pushing the infants' immune systems towards an increased risk of asthma. PMID:22555908

  19. Link between allergic asthma and airway mucosal infection suggested by proteinase-secreting household fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, P; Susarla, S C; Polikepahad, S; Qian, Y; Hampton, J; Kiss, A; Vaidya, S; Sur, S; Ongeri, V; Yang, T; Delclos, G L; Abramson, S; Kheradmand, F; Corry, D B

    2009-11-01

    Active fungal proteinases are powerful allergens that induce experimental allergic lung disease strongly resembling atopic asthma, but the precise relationship between proteinases and asthma remains unknown. Here, we analyzed dust collected from the homes of asthmatic children for the presence and sources of active proteinases to further explore the relationship between active proteinases, atopy, and asthma. Active proteinases were present in all houses and many were derived from fungi, especially Aspergillus niger. Proteinase-active dust extracts were alone insufficient to initiate asthma-like disease in mice, but conidia of A. niger readily established a contained airway mucosal infection, allergic lung disease, and atopy to an innocuous bystander antigen. Proteinase produced by A. niger enhanced fungal clearance from lung and was required for robust allergic disease. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) and IL-5 were required for optimal clearance of lung fungal infection and eosinophils showed potent anti-fungal activity in vitro. Thus, asthma and atopy may both represent a protective response against contained airway infection due to ubiquitous proteinase-producing fungi. PMID:19710638

  20. Awareness regarding childhood asthma in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Saleh; Al-Harbi, Adel S.; Al-Khorayyef, Abdullah; Al-Qwaiee, Mansour; Al-Shamarani, Abdullah; Al-Aslani, Wafa; Kamfar, Hayat; Felemban, Osama; Barzanji, Mohammed; Al-Harbi, Naser; Dhabab, Ruqaia; Al-Omari, Mohammed Ahmed; Yousef, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assessing the knowledge and awareness of the Saudi society about bronchial asthma in children. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were randomly distributed to 1039 Saudi Arabians in May 2014 at Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. RESULTS: The awareness of bronchial asthma questions showed that 67% of total sample thought that it could be a fatal disease, and only 13.2% thought that there is a difference between bronchial asthma and chest allergies in children. 86.1% thought that the symptoms of bronchial asthma include dyspnea and nocturnal cough, and 45.7% thought that fever, a runny nose and throat inflammation are not symptoms. 60.2% thought that infectious respiratory diseases may increase bronchial asthma progression. In addition, 40% thought that the use of antibiotics doesn’t help in diminishing bronchial asthma complications, and some thought that the patient can stop medication after an acute asthma attack. 34.1% thought that inhaled medication for asthma doesn’t cause addiction. Very highly significant results are shown between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, the level of education, marital status, and if the individual knows a person who suffers from bronchial asthma (P < 0.001). There are positive correlations between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, marital status, and level of education (r = 0.152, 0.150, 0.197), respectively. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that bronchial asthma knowledge in the Saudi Arabian population is insufficient, and efforts should be carried out to spread bronchial asthma management. PMID:26933459

  1. The management of asthma in the phenotype and biomarker era: The proposal of a new diagnostic-therapeutic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Francesco; Bettoncelli, Germano; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Centanni, Stefano; Crimi, Nunzio; DiMaria, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Stefano; Gentili, Gilberto; Girbino, Giuseppe; Mereu, Carlo; Minghetti, Paola; Nardini, Stefano; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Papi, Alberto; Pistolesi, Massimo; Rossi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Treatment goals in asthma patients are the achievement of a good control of symptoms and the reduction of the risk of exacerbation. However, a "one-size-fits-all" therapeutic strategy is no longer appropriate to effectively pursue these goals, due to the heterogeneity of asthma. To make the treatment scenario even more complex, asthma patients often present comorbidities that may alter response to therapy. In addition, adherence to asthma treatment is poor. Given this complex and heterogeneous picture, the management of asthma is highly challenging. A clear diagnostic-therapeutic model of patients' care and the definition of the specific responsibilities of different healthcare providers appear necessary to improve clinical outcomes and better allocate healthcare resources. We present here a proposal for this model. PMID:27050723

  2. Environmental issues in managing asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diette, Gregory B; McCormack, Meredith C; Hansel, Nadia N; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2008-05-01

    Management of asthma requires attention to environmental exposures both indoors and outdoors. Americans spend most of their time indoors, where they have a greater ability to modify their environment. The indoor environment contains both pollutants (eg, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, secondhand smoke, and ozone) and allergens from furred pets, dust mites, cockroaches, rodents, and molds. Indoor particulate matter consists of particles generated from indoor sources such as cooking and cleaning activities, and particles that penetrate from the outdoors. Nitrogen dioxide sources include gas stoves, furnaces, and fireplaces. Indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are linked to asthma morbidity. The indoor ozone concentration is mainly influenced by the outdoor ozone concentration. The health effects of indoor ozone exposure have not been well studied. In contrast, there is substantial evidence of detrimental health effects from secondhand smoke. Guideline recommendations are not specific for optimizing indoor air quality. The 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program asthma guidelines recommend eliminating indoor smoking and improving the ventilation. Though the guidelines state that there is insufficient evidence to recommend air cleaners, air cleaners and reducing activities that generate indoor pollutants may be sound practical approaches for improving the health of individuals with asthma. The guidelines are more specific about allergen avoidance; they recommend identifying allergens to which the individual is immunoglobin E sensitized and employing a multifaceted, comprehensive strategy to reduce exposure. Outdoor air pollutants that impact asthma include particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, and guidelines recommend that individuals with asthma avoid exertion outdoors when these pollutants are elevated. Outdoor allergens include tree, grass, and weed pollens, which vary in concentration by season

  3. New Asthma Guidelines What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Special Section New Asthma Guidelines: What You Should Know Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents ... based on a patient's individual characteristics." What differences should patients now expect in asthma care? You should ...

  4. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-2 Table 4-1 Table 4-2 Reports and Publications Asthma Surveillance Summaries MMWR Publications NCHS Reports and Publications Related Articles, Publications, and Links Asthma's ...

  5. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because asthma ...

  6. Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157202.html Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm Airway disease ... People 50 and older who have had recent asthma activity appear to be at an increased risk ...

  7. Near-fatal asthma in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Nydia

    2015-01-01

    Asthma affects the elderly as often as other age groups; however, it more often becomes fatal in the elderly. Unfortunately, asthma is often unmanaged or underdiagnosed in the older population. It is important for health care providers to recognize risk factors in the elderly and properly treat them before asthma becomes fatal. This article describes near-fatal asthma and identifies risk factors specifically for the elderly. Symptoms of asthma are reviewed as well as assessments and diagnostic tests to identify asthma severity and complications. Proper management needs to be urgently initiated to prevent worsening respiratory distress; this includes fast-acting drug treatments appropriate for elderly patients. Decompensated acute respiratory failure, secondary to severe asthma, requires the skills of an experienced anesthesiologist because these patients may rapidly deteriorate during induction and intubation. Ventilator management must include strategies to prevent worsening hyperinflation of the lungs. Elderly asthma patients have a higher mortality risk related to ventilator complications and other comorbidities. PMID:25470264

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking your medicine ...

  9. Poverty Linked to Asthma, Allergy Treatment Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157642.html Poverty Linked to Asthma, Allergy Treatment Failure Patients from ... said. But the study did not show a cause-and-effect relationship between income and asthma and ...

  10. What's an Asthma Flare-Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know About Zika & Pregnancy What's an Asthma Flare-Up? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's an Asthma Flare-Up? ... in the neck and chest How a Flare-Up Affects Lungs Here's what's happening inside the body ...

  11. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall ... HEAL is seeking ways to reduce the nation's childhood asthma challenge. Even before Hurricane Katrina swept through ...

  12. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  13. Managing Asthma: Learning to Breathe Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dr. Michelle Freemer, an NIH asthma expert. For youngsters, a doctor will do a physical exam and ... and treat asthma. Levine’s team is studying the effects of house dust mites inside the home. While ...

  14. Diagnosing Asthma in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Diagnosing Asthma in Babies & Toddlers Page Content Article Body One ... family with recurrent bronchitis or sinus problems. When Asthma is Not the Cause Your pediatrician will listen ...

  15. New Asthma Guidelines What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section New Asthma Guidelines: What You Should Know Past Issues / Fall ... on. If you or a relative suffers from asthma, it is important to know that quality care ...

  16. Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159082.html Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime Follow your care ... 27, 2016 FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Asthma symptoms increase in spring, making it especially important ...

  17. Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection Past Issues / Fall ... the many ways that NIH supports and promotes asthma research is through its strong relationship with National ...

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance coverage and barriers to care for people with ...

  19. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... a peak flow meter. Photo courtesy of MCAN Asthma, a reality of daily life for more than ...

  20. Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159082.html Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime Follow your care ... 27, 2016 FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Asthma symptoms increase in spring, making it especially important ...

  1. Obesity-related asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Nikunj A; Lazarus, Angeline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity as a risk factor for asthma has been identified in previous studies. Additionally, a disproportionate number of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma are obese. Patients with obesity-related asthma tend to have worse asthma control and quality of life disproportionate to their pulmonary function tests, are less responsive to corticosteroid therapy, and are more likely to have obesity-related comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal disease that complicate asthma treatment. With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the prevalence of asthma is anticipated to grow proportionally. Addressing weight loss and encouraging activity is essential in the management of obesity-related asthma. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, unique distinguishing features, potential mechanisms, and approach to management of patients with obesity-related asthma in adults. PMID:27336439

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for people with asthma Tables and Graphs Asthma Call-back Survey Technical Information Prevalence Tables BRFSS Prevalence ... last updated: November 19, 2014 Content source: National Center for Environmental Health Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  3. Supported self-management for asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Pinnock

    2015-01-01

    Key points Self-management education in asthma is not an optional extra. Healthcare professionals have a responsibility to ensure that everyone with asthma has personalised advice to enable them to optimise how they self-manage their condition.; Overviews of the extensive evidence-base conclude that asthma self-management supported by regular professional review, improves asthma control, reduces exacerbations and admissions, and improves quality of life.; Self-management education sh...

  4. Prevalence of Bronchial Asthma in Indian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pal Ranabir; Dahal Sanjay; Pal Shrayan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood bronchial asthma and allergic disease has increased in developed countries. Studies have identified asthma among Indian children. Still, there is paucity of information on the overall prevalence of childhood asthma in India. Objective: To assess time trends and the overall prevalence rate of bronchial asthma among Indian children. Materials and Methods: Literature search for data sources was done through an extensive search in indexed literatures a...

  5. Is Asthma Related to Choroidal Neovascularization?

    OpenAIRE

    Yaoyao Sun; Wenzhen Yu; Lvzhen Huang; Jing Hou; Peihua Gong; Yi Zheng; Mingwei Zhao; Peng Zhou; Xiaoxin Li

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age-related degeneration (AMD) and asthma are both diseases that are related to the activation of the complement system. The association between AMD and asthma has been debated in previous studies. The authors investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systemically. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The epidemiological study showed that asthma was related to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) subtype (OR = 1.721, P = 0.023). However, the meta-analysis showed there was no association b...

  6. Psychiatric and social aspects of brittle asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Garden, G M; Ayres, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Many studies have shown that emotional factors play a part in asthma, but few have compared patients with differing severities of asthma. It was our impression that patients with "brittle" asthma (BA; more than 40% diurnal variation in peak flow on 15 or more days a month over a period of at least six months, and persistent symptoms despite multiple drug treatment) had greater psychosocial morbidity than asthmatic patients with less variable asthma. METHODS--Twenty patients with B...

  7. Psychosocial Components of Asthma Management in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Shari L.

    2000-01-01

    Asthma is a growing health problem that affects 4.8 million children in the US alone. This paper considers empirical studies from the past 20 years examining the relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma management and morbidity. Research indicates that psychosocial factors, including risk and protective factors in the social environment, and knowledge, attitudes and skills pertaining to asthma management, can play an important role in asthma management, adherence and morbidity. Ca...

  8. Asthma care for children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among young children and adolescents. With high quality health care, most children and adolescents with asthma can live an active and normal life. Yet, many children and adolescents have uncontrolled asthma, with symptoms and exacerbations which may affect their daily life. Adolescence is a sensitive period and asthma may be difficult to treat due to poor adherence to treatment. Little is known about health care professionals’ adhe...

  9. Svær asthma bronchiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health......-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors....

  10. Progress in the management of childhood asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Vichyanond, Pakit; Pensrichon, Rattana; Kurasirikul, Suruthai

    2012-01-01

    Asthma has become the most common chronic disease in childhood. Significant advances in epidemiological research as well as in therapy of pediatric asthma have been made over the past 2 decades. In this review, we look at certain aspects therapy of childhood asthma, both in the past and present. Literature review on allergen avoidance (including mites, cockroach and cat), intensive therapy with β2-agonists in acute asthma (administering via continuous nebulization and intravenous routes), a r...

  11. Epidemiological & Risk Factors In Childhood Bronchial Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Harmesh; Soni R.K; Gill P J S

    1998-01-01

    Research question: What are the epidemiological and risk factors associated with asthma in children. Objective: To determine epidemiological and risk factors in childhood bronchial asthma. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting Hospital based. Participants: Children suffering from bronchial asthma and their parents/ attendants. Sample size: 235 children. Study variables: Age, sex place of residence, socio-economic status, age of onset of asthma, no of siblings, fuel used for cooking, smoking,...

  12. Utility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 in the assessment of asthma control*

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Mariana Nadal; Chong, Herberto José; Rabelo, Lêda Maria; Riedi, Carlos Antônio; Rosário, Nelson Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 (ACQ-7) in asthma patients, comparing our results against those obtained with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. We evaluated 52 patients. Patients completed the ACQ-7, underwent spirometry, and were clinically assessed to determine the level of asthma control according to the GINA criteria, in two visits, 15 days apart. The ACQ-7 cutoff for uncontrolled asthma was a score of 1.5. The ACQ-7 show...

  13. Tracing Uncontrolled Asthma in Family Practice Using a Mailed Asthma Control Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE A substantial proportion of adult patients with asthma have inadequately controlled symptoms despite the availability of effective treatment. The Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) can be used to discriminate between asthma patients with well- and suboptimally controlled asthma symptoms. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a postal mailing of the ACQ can be used to identify asthma patients with suboptimal symptom control in family practice.

  14. Utility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 in the assessment of asthma control

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Nadal Cardoso; Herberto José Chong Neto; Lêda Maria Rabelo; Carlos Antônio Riedi; Nelson Augusto Rosário

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 (ACQ-7) in asthma patients, comparing our results against those obtained with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. We evaluated 52 patients. Patients completed the ACQ-7, underwent spirometry, and were clinically assessed to determine the level of asthma control according to the GINA criteria, in two visits, 15 days apart. The ACQ-7 cutoff for uncontrolled asthma was a score of 1.5. The ACQ-7 show...

  15. 10. Occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardana, Emil J

    2008-02-01

    A diversity of airborne dusts, gases, fumes, and vapors can induce dose-related respiratory symptoms in individuals exposed in the workplace. These agents can cause annoyance reactions, irritational effects, sensitization, or the induction of corrosive changes in the respiratory tract, depending on their composition, concentration, and duration of exposure. The prevalence of occupational asthma (OA) ranges from 9% to 15% of the asthmatic population. Factors that might influence the development of OA include the work environment, climatic conditions, genetic proclivities, tobacco and recreational drug use, respiratory infection, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and endotoxin exposure. Pathogenetically, new-onset OA can be allergic or nonallergic in origin. The allergic variants are usually caused by high-molecular-weight allergens, such as grain dust and animal or fish protein. Selected low-molecular-weight agents are also capable of inducing allergic OA. Symptoms ensue after a latent period of months to years. Nonallergic OA can be precipitated by a brief high-level exposure to a potent irritant. Symptoms occur immediately or within a few hours of the exposure. Once the diagnosis of allergic OA is established, the worker should be removed from further exposure in the workplace. In nonallergic OA the worker can return to work if the exposure was clearly a nonrecurring event. If the diagnosis is made in a timely fashion, most workers experience improvement. Prevention is the best therapeutic intervention. PMID:18241692

  16. Nerve growth factor and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, S; Lambiase, A; Lapucci, G; Properzi, F; Bresciani, M; Bracci Laudiero, M L; Mancini, M J; Procoli, A; Micera, A; Sacerdoti, G; Bonini, S; Levi-Schaffer, F; Rasi, G; Aloe, L

    2002-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence shows that nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts biological activity not only on the central and peripheral nervous system, but also on the immune system thereby influencing allergic diseases and asthma. (1) NGF circulating levels are increased in patients with allergic diseases and asthma, and are related to the severity of the inflammatory process and disease. In vernal keratoconjunctivitis, NGF plasma levels correlate with the number of mast cells infiltrating the conjunctiva, and NGF mRNA is increased in nasal mucosal scrapings of patients with allergic rhinitis who have high levels of NGF in serum and nasal fluids; NGF is further increased in nasal fluids after specific allergen challenge. (2) NGF is produced and released by several modulatory and effector cells of allergic inflammation and asthma, for example T-helper 2 lymphocytes, mast cells and eosinophils. (3) NGF receptors are expressed on the conjunctival epithelium of patients with allergic conjunctivitis and the number of NGF-receptor positive cells is increased in the conjunctiva of these patients. Indeed, local administration of NGF induces fibroblast activation and healing processes of human corneal ulcers, which suggests that NGF plays a role in tissue remodelling processes occurring in asthma. (4) NGF increases airway hyperreactivity to histamine in an animal model of asthma, while anti-NGF treatment reduces airway hyperreactivity induced by ovalbumin topical challenge in the sensitized mouse. PMID:12144547

  17. Mechanical ventilation for severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, James

    2015-06-01

    Acute exacerbations of asthma can lead to respiratory failure requiring ventilatory assistance. Noninvasive ventilation may prevent the need for endotracheal intubation in selected patients. For patients who are intubated and undergo mechanical ventilation, a strategy that prioritizes avoidance of ventilator-related complications over correction of hypercapnia was first proposed 30 years ago and has become the preferred approach. Excessive pulmonary hyperinflation is a major cause of hypotension and barotrauma. An appreciation of the key determinants of hyperinflation is essential to rational ventilator management. Standard therapy for patients with asthma undergoing mechanical ventilation consists of inhaled bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and drugs used to facilitate controlled hypoventilation. Nonconventional interventions such as heliox, general anesthesia, bronchoscopy, and extracorporeal life support have also been advocated for patients with fulminant asthma but are rarely necessary. Immediate mortality for patients who are mechanically ventilated for acute severe asthma is very low and is often associated with out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest before intubation. However, patients who have been intubated for severe asthma are at increased risk for death from subsequent exacerbations and must be managed accordingly in the outpatient setting. PMID:26033128

  18. Implicit trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces activate brain centers involved in reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Steven M; Krill, Austen L; Wilson, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of Hamilton's (Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behavior I, II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 17-52) theory of inclusive fitness, self-facial resemblance is hypothesized as a mechanism for self-referent phenotypic matching by which humans can detect kin. To understand the mechanisms underlying pro-sociality toward self-resembling faces, we investigated the neural correlates of implicit trustworthiness ratings for self-resembling faces. Here we show that idiosyncratic trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces predict brain activation in the ventral inferior, middle and medial frontal gyri, substrates involved in reward processing. These findings demonstrate that neural reward centers are implicated in evaluating implicit pro-social behaviors toward self-resembling faces. These findings suggest that humans have evolved to use neurocomputational architecture dedicated to face processing and reward evaluation for the differentiation of kin, which drives implicit idiosyncratic affectively regulated social interactions. PMID:18761362

  19. The importance of genetic influences in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, H; Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS

    1999-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disorder in which the mode of inheritance is not known. Many segregation studies suggest that a major gene could be involved in asthma, but until now different genetic models have been obtained, Twin studies, too, have shown evidence for genetic influences in asthma, but

  20. Taking ACTion for better control of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yong-chang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The global prevalence of asthma ranges from 1% to 18% of the population in different countries.1 In China, while national data of asthma prevalence are still lacking, an epidemiological study in Beijing showed that the prevalence of asthma in occupational populations was 1.25%.2

  1. Jackie Joyner-Kersee: Living with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Asthma Jackie Joyner-Kersee: Living with Asthma Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Jackie ... the heptathlon and long-jump competitions, despite severe asthma. While she was a top student-athlete at ...

  2. Epidemiology and Pulmonary Physiology of Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Jacqueline; Mikulic, Lucas; Kaminsky, David A

    2016-08-01

    The epidemiology and physiology of severe asthma are inherently linked because of varying phenotypes and expressions of asthma throughout the population. To understand how to better treat severe asthma, we must use both population data and physiologic principles to individualize therapies among groups with similar expressions of this disease. PMID:27401616

  3. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  4. The school environment and asthma in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hauptman, Marissa; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the relationship between environmental exposures within the school environment and pediatric asthma morbidity. This article will conclude by reviewing novel school based asthma education and therapeutic programs and environmental interventions designed to help mitigate pediatric asthma morbidity.

  5. Validation of a questionnaire of knowledge about asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An educative intervention destined to increase the knowledge in asthma allows the children and/or its parents to acquire abilities that allow to prevent and/or to handle the asthmatic attacks, decreasing the morbidity produced by the disease, nevertheless we do not account with a validated instrument that allows us to quantify the level of asthma knowledge. The objective is to develop and to validate a questionnaire of knowledge about asthma to be filled out by the parents and/or people in charge of the care of the asthmatic pediatric patients. The 17 items that conform the questionnaire were obtained alter literature review, realization of focal groups the professional experience of the investigators and the realization of pilot studies. The face content and concurrent validity of the instrument was evaluated; we also determined the factor structure, test-retest reproducibility, and sensitivity to change of the questionnaire. We included 120 patients with average age of 4.5 %3.7 years the factor analysis demonstrated a probable structure of three factors that altogether explain 85% of the total variance of the results the face and content validity was based on the concept of a multi-disciplinary group of experts in the field the concurrent validity was demonstrated by the ability of the questionnaire to distinguish low from high knowledge parents. Test-retest reproducibility and sensitivity to change were demonstrated comparing scores of the questionnaire filled out in two different occasions. The questionnaire of knowledge of asthma developed in the study is a useful and reliable tool to quantify the basal level of asthma knowledge in parents of asthmatic children and to determine the effectiveness of an educative intervention destined to increase the knowledge and understanding of the disease

  6. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Souza Possa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma.

  7. Eosinophilic bioactivities in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Bochner, Bruce S; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is clearly related to airway or blood eosinophilia, and asthmatics with significant eosinophilia are at higher risk for more severe disease. Eosinophils actively contribute to innate and adaptive immune responses and inflammatory cascades through the production and release of diverse chemokines, cytokines, lipid mediators and other growth factors. Eosinophils may persist in the blood and airways despite guidelines-based treatment. This review details eosinophil effector mechanisms, surface markers, and clinical outcomes associated with eosinophilia and asthma severity. There is interest in the potential of eosinophils or their products to predict treatment response with biotherapeutics and their usefulness as biomarkers. This is important as monoclonal antibodies are targeting cytokines and eosinophils in different lung environments for treating severe asthma. Identifying disease state-specific eosinophil biomarkers would help to refine these strategies and choose likely responders to biotherapeutics. PMID:27386041

  8. Anti-IgE treatment, airway inflammation and remodelling in severe allergic asthma: current knowledge and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Samitas; Vasiliki Delimpoura; Eleftherios Zervas; Mina Gaga

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a disorder of the airways involving various inflammatory cells and mediators and characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, chronic inflammation and structural alterations in the airways, also known as remodelling. IgE is an important mediator of allergic reactions and has a central role in allergic asthma pathophysiology, as it is implicated in both the early and late phase allergic response. Moreover, clinical and mechanistic evidence has lately emerged, implicating IgE in th...

  9. Asthma as a chronic disease of the innate and adaptive immune systems responding to viruses and allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the pathogenesis of asthma has traditionally concentrated on environmental stimuli, genetic susceptibilities, adaptive immune responses, and end-organ alterations (particularly in airway mucous cells and smooth muscle) as critical steps leading to disease. The focus of this cascade has been the response to allergic stimuli. An alternative scheme suggests that respiratory viruses and the consequent response of the innate immune system also drives the development of asthma as well a...

  10. Asthma in Primary Care : Severity, Treatment and Level of Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ställberg, Björn

    2008-01-01

    Aims. The overall aim was to examine the severity, treatment and level of control in patients with asthma in primary care in Sweden. The specific aims were to assess what matters to asthma patients, evaluate symptoms, medication and identify factors related to asthma severity, compare the extent of asthma control in 2001 and 2005, and investigate the development of asthma and degree of asthma control in adolescents and young adults who had reported asthma six years earlier. Methods. The first...

  11. Exercise and asthma: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R; Firinu, Davide; Bjermer, Leif; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    The terms 'exercise-induced asthma' (EIA) and 'exercise-induced bronchoconstriction' (EIB) are often used interchangeably to describe symptoms of asthma such as cough, wheeze, or dyspnoea provoked by vigorous physical activity. In this review, we refer to EIB as the bronchoconstrictive response and to EIA when bronchoconstriction is associated with asthma symptoms. EIB is a common occurrence for most of the asthmatic patients, but it also affects more than 10% of otherwise healthy individuals as shown by epidemiological studies. EIA and EIB have a high prevalence also in elite athletes, especially within endurance type of sports, and an athlete's asthma phenotype has been described. However, the occurrence in elite athletes shows that EIA/EIB, if correctly managed, may not impair physical activity and top sports performance. The pathogenic mechanisms of EIA/EIB classically involve both osmolar and vascular changes in the airways in addition to cooling of the airways with parasympathetic stimulation. Airways inflammation plays a fundamental role in EIA/EIB. Diagnosis and pharmacological management must be carefully performed, with particular consideration of current anti-doping regulations, when caring for athletes. Based on the demonstration that the inhaled asthma drugs do not improve performance in healthy athletes, the doping regulations are presently much less strict than previously. Some sports are at a higher asthma risk than others, probably due to a high environmental exposure while performing the sport, with swimming and chlorine exposure during swimming as one example. It is considered very important for the asthmatic child and adolescent to master EIA/EIB to be able to participate in physical activity on an equal level with their peers, and a precise early diagnosis with optimal treatment follow-up is vital in this aspect. In addition, surprising recent preliminary evidences offer new perspectives for moderate exercise as a potential therapeutic tool for

  12. Free running asthma screening test.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsanakas, J N; Milner, R D; Bannister, O M; Boon, A W

    1988-01-01

    The free running asthma screening test (FRAST) was evaluated in 503 Sheffield schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years and compared with responses to an asthma questionnaire. The FRAST measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) before and at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after maximum voluntary running for at least 5 minutes in a standardised environment. A fall in PEFR of greater than 15% in at least two postexercise readings was defined as abnormal. Six (1%) children did not do the test and 69 (14%) failed ...

  13. Emerging Biologics in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavord, Ian D; Hilvering, Bart; Shrimanker, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by persistently elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Eosinophil activity in the airway may be more important than their numbers and this needs to be investigated. Transcriplomic or Metabolomic signatures may also be useful to identify this endotype. PMID:27401629

  14. Asthma affects time to pregnancy and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth J; Thomsen, Simon F; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2014-01-01

    including questions about the presence of asthma and fertility. Differences in time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were analysed in subjects with asthma, allergy and in healthy individuals using multiple regression analysis. Asthma was associated with an increased time to pregnancy, the percentage of...... tended to have a shorter time to pregnancy than untreated asthmatics (OR 1.40; p=0.134). Asthma prolongs time to pregnancy. The negative effect of asthma on fertility increases with age and with disease intensity, indicating that a systemic disease characterised by systemic inflammation also can involve...

  15. Linkage and Genetic Association in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bridgette L; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-08-01

    A significant body of work in the genetics of asthma currently exists. However, current knowledge has not been clarifying in understanding the pathophysiology of asthma and therapeutic treatment of the disease. Severe asthma in adults and children is a significant burden in relation to disproportionate disease morbidity, mortality, and health utilization. This disease phenotype is not well understood; current effective treatment regimens are limited. Genetic studies may lead to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of severe asthma and identification of relevant subsets, which allow more targeted and effective therapies and the realization of Precision Medicine in asthma. PMID:27401617

  16. Defining and managing risk in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, J D; Zaidi, S; Shaw, D E

    2014-08-01

    Asthma attacks are a major global source of morbidity and cost. The incidence and impact of asthma attacks have not improved despite widespread adoption of effective universal treatment guidelines. Consequently, there is increasing interest in managing asthma based on specific assessments of both current symptoms and future risk. In this review, we consider 'risk' in asthma, and how it might be assessed from the patient's history and objective measurements. We also discuss the potential for encouraging shared decision-making and improving medical consensus through explicit communication of risk and highlight the potential opportunities and challenges in risk assessment to improve asthma management through individualised treatment strategies. PMID:24773229

  17. Functional screening of an asthma QTL in YAC transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symula, Derek J.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Ueda, Yukihiko; Denefle, Patrice; Stevens, Mary E.; Wang, Zhi-En; Locksley, Richard; Rubin, Edward M.

    1999-07-02

    While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. To screen for genes contributing to an asthma QTL mapped to human chromosome 5q33, the authors characterized a panel of large-insert 5q31 transgenics based on studies demonstrating that altering gene dosage frequently affects quantitative phenotypes normally influenced by that gene. This panel of human YAC transgenics, propagating a one megabase interva2048 chromosome 5q31 containing 23 genes, was screened for quantitative changes in several asthma-associated phenotypes. Multiple independent transgenic lines with altered IgE response to antigen treatment shared a 180 kb region containing 5 genes, including human interleukin 4 (IL4) and interleukin 13 (IL13), which induce IgE class switching in B cells5. Further analysis of these mice and mice transgenic for only murine Il4 and Il13 demonstrated that moderate changes in murine Il4 and Il13 expression affect asthma-associated phenotypes in vivo. This functional screen of large-insert transgenics enabled them to sift through multiple genes in the 5q3 asthma QTL without prior consideration of assumed individual gene function and identify genes that influence the QTL phenotype in vivo.

  18. Advances in asthma 2015: Across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Andrew H; Anderson, William C; Dutmer, Cullen M; Searing, Daniel A; Szefler, Stanley J

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, progress in understanding asthma ranged from insights to asthma inception, exacerbations, and severity to advancements that will improve disease management throughout the lifespan. 2015's insights to asthma inception included how the intestinal microbiome affects asthma expression with the identification of specific gastrointestinal bacterial taxa in early infancy associated with less asthma risk, possibly by promoting regulatory immune development at a critical early age. The relevance of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating asthma-related gene expression was strengthened. Predicting and preventing exacerbations throughout life might help to reduce progressive lung function decrease and disease severity in adulthood. Although allergy has long been linked to asthma exacerbations, a mechanism through which IgE impairs rhinovirus immunity and underlies asthma exacerbations was demonstrated and improved by anti-IgE therapy (omalizumab). Other key molecular pathways underlying asthma exacerbations, such as cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) and orosomucoid like 3 (ORMDL3), were elucidated. New anti-IL-5 therapeutics, mepolizumab and reslizumab, were US Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. In a clinical trial the novel therapeutic inhaled GATA3 mRNA-specific DNAzyme attenuated early- and late-phase allergic responses to inhaled allergen. These current findings are significant steps toward addressing unmet needs in asthma prevention, severity modification, disparities, and lifespan outcomes. PMID:27497278

  19. Allergic rhinitis and asthma: inflammation in a one-airway condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haahtela Tari

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic rhinitis and asthma are conditions of airway inflammation that often coexist. Discussion In susceptible individuals, exposure of the nose and lungs to allergen elicits early phase and late phase responses. Contact with antigen by mast cells results in their degranulation, the release of selected mediators, and the subsequent recruitment of other inflammatory cell phenotypes. Additional proinflammatory mediators are released, including histamine, prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, proteases, and a variety of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Nasal biopsies in allergic rhinitis demonstrate accumulations of mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils in the epithelium and accumulations of eosinophils in the deeper subepithelium (that is, lamina propria. Examination of bronchial tissue, even in mild asthma, shows lymphocytic inflammation enriched by eosinophils. In severe asthma, the predominant pattern of inflammation changes, with increases in the numbers of neutrophils and, in many, an extension of the changes to involve smaller airways (that is, bronchioli. Structural alterations (that is, remodeling of bronchi in mild asthma include epithelial fragility and thickening of its reticular basement membrane. With increasing severity of asthma there may be increases in airway smooth muscle mass, vascularity, interstitial collagen, and mucus-secreting glands. Remodeling in the nose is less extensive than that of the lower airways, but the epithelial reticular basement membrane may be slightly but significantly thickened. Conclusion Inflammation is a key feature of both allergic rhinitis and asthma. There are therefore potential benefits for application of anti-inflammatory strategies that target both these anatomic sites.

  20. Protein profiles of CCL5, HPGDS, and NPSR1 in plasma reveal association with childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamsten, C; Häggmark, A; Grundström, J; Mikus, M; Lindskog, C; Konradsen, J R; Eklund, A; Pershagen, G; Wickman, M; Grunewald, J; Melén, E; Hedlin, G; Nilsson, P; van Hage, M

    2016-09-01

    Asthma is a common chronic childhood disease with many different phenotypes that need to be identified. We analyzed a broad range of plasma proteins in children with well-characterized asthma phenotypes to identify potential markers of childhood asthma. Using an affinity proteomics approach, plasma levels of 362 proteins covered by antibodies from the Human Protein Atlas were investigated in a total of 154 children with persistent or intermittent asthma and controls. After screening, chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS) and neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) were selected for further investigation. Significantly lower levels of both CCL5 and HPGDS were found in children with persistent asthma, while NPSR1 was found at higher levels in children with mild intermittent asthma compared to healthy controls. In addition, the protein levels were investigated in another respiratory disease, sarcoidosis, showing significantly higher NPSR1 levels in sera from sarcoidosis patients compared to healthy controls. Immunohistochemical staining of healthy tissues revealed high cytoplasmic expression of HPGDS in mast cells, present in stroma of both airway epithelia, lung as well as in other organs. High expression of NPSR1 was observed in neuroendocrine tissues, while no expression was observed in airway epithelia or lung. In conclusion, we have utilized a broad-scaled affinity proteomics approach to identify three proteins with altered plasma levels in asthmatic children, representing one of the first evaluations of HPGDS and NPSR1 protein levels in plasma. PMID:27145233

  1. Managed care opportunities for improving asthma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jonathan D

    2011-04-01

    Uncontrolled asthma is an enormous burden in terms of the propensity to reach asthma control in the future, direct and indirect costs, and health-related quality of life. The complex pathophysiology, treatment, and triggers of asthma warrant a unified, yet targeted, approach to care. No single factor is fully responsible for poor control. Complicating the problem of asthma control is adherence to long-term controller medications. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) established several key points for asthma control, and developed classifications for asthma control and recommended actions for treatment. All parties involved in the management of asthma, including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, patients, family members, and insurance companies, need to be aware of the NAEPP guidelines. To determine if the goals of asthma therapy are being met, assessment of asthma outcomes is necessary. Unfortunately, some measures may get overlooked, and patient-reported outcomes (as assessed by the validated control instruments) are not often collected during routine examinations. The Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set measure for asthma may be used to quantify asthma care, but there is evidence that it does not fully capture the goals of asthma management. Most well-designed, education-based interventions are considered good value for money, but it can be difficult to put into practice such policy interventions. An optimal managed care plan will adhere to known evidence-based guidelines, can measure outcomes, is targeted to the patient's risk and impairment, and can adapt to changes in our understanding of asthma and its treatment. PMID:21761959

  2. Radioaerosol Inhalation Imaging in Bronchial Asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bum Soo; Park, Young Ha; Park, Jeong Mi; Chung, Myung Hee; Chung, Soo Kyo; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) has been used in radionuclide pulmonary studies for the past 20 years. The method is well accepted for assessing regional ventilation because of its usefulness, easy fabrication and simple application system. To evaluate its clinical utility in the study of impaired regional ventilation in bronchial asthma, we obtained and analysed RIIs in 31 patients (16 women and 15 men; age ranging 21-76 years) with typical bronchial asthma at the Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical college, from January, 1988 to August, 1989. Scintiscans were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a HARC(Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India) nebulizer with 15 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-phytate. The scanning was performed in anterior, posterior and lateral projections following 5-minute inhalation of radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analysed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function study and the findings of chest radiography. Fifteen patients had concomitant lung perfusion image with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. Follow-up scans were obtained in 5 patients after bronchodilator therapy. 1 he patients were divided into (1) attack type (4 patients), (2) resistant type (5 patients), (3) remittent type (10 patients) and (4) bronchitic type (12 patients). Chest radiography showed hyperinflation, altered pulmonary vascularity, thickening of the bronchial wall and accentuation of hasal interstitial markings in 26 of the 31 patients. Chest radiographs were normal in the remaining 5 patients. Regardless of type, the findings of RII were basically the same, and characterized by the deposition of radioaerosol in the central parts or in the main respiratory air ways along with mottled nonsegmental ventilation defects in the periphery. Peripheral parenchymal defects were more extensive than that of expected findings from clinical symptoms, pulmonary function test and chest radiograph. Broomstick sign was present

  3. Radioaerosol Inhalation Imaging in Bronchial Asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) has been used in radionuclide pulmonary studies for the past 20 years. The method is well accepted for assessing regional ventilation because of its usefulness, easy fabrication and simple application system. To evaluate its clinical utility in the study of impaired regional ventilation in bronchial asthma, we obtained and analysed RIIs in 31 patients (16 women and 15 men; age ranging 21-76 years) with typical bronchial asthma at the Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical college, from January, 1988 to August, 1989. Scintiscans were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a HARC(Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India) nebulizer with 15 mCi of 99mTc-phytate. The scanning was performed in anterior, posterior and lateral projections following 5-minute inhalation of radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analysed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function study and the findings of chest radiography. Fifteen patients had concomitant lung perfusion image with 99mTc-MAA. Follow-up scans were obtained in 5 patients after bronchodilator therapy. 1 he patients were divided into (1) attack type (4 patients), (2) resistant type (5 patients), (3) remittent type (10 patients) and (4) bronchitic type (12 patients). Chest radiography showed hyperinflation, altered pulmonary vascularity, thickening of the bronchial wall and accentuation of hasal interstitial markings in 26 of the 31 patients. Chest radiographs were normal in the remaining 5 patients. Regardless of type, the findings of RII were basically the same, and characterized by the deposition of radioaerosol in the central parts or in the main respiratory air ways along with mottled nonsegmental ventilation defects in the periphery. Peripheral parenchymal defects were more extensive than that of expected findings from clinical symptoms, pulmonary function test and chest radiograph. Broomstick sign was present in 1.7 patients

  4. Potentially pathogenic airway bacteria and neutrophilic inflammation in treatment resistant severe asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Green

    Full Text Available Molecular microbiological analysis of airway samples in asthma has demonstrated an altered microbiome in comparison to healthy controls. Such changes may have relevance to treatment-resistant severe asthma, particularly those with neutrophilic airway inflammation, as bacteria might be anticipated to activate the innate immune response, a process that is poorly steroid responsive. An understanding of the relationship between airway bacterial presence and dominance in severe asthma may help direct alternative treatment approaches.We aimed to use a culture independent analysis strategy to describe the presence, dominance and abundance of bacterial taxa in induced sputum from treatment resistant severe asthmatics and correlate findings with clinical characteristics and airway inflammatory markers.Induced sputum was obtained from 28 stable treatment-resistant severe asthmatics. The samples were divided for supernatant IL-8 measurement, cytospin preparation for differential cell count and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP profiling for bacterial community analysis.In 17/28 patients, the dominant species within the airway bacterial community was Moraxella catarrhalis or a member of the Haemophilus or Streptococcus genera. Colonisation with these species was associated with longer asthma disease duration (mean (SD 31.8 years (16.7 vs 15.6 years (8.0, p = 0.008, worse post-bronchodilator percent predicted FEV1 (68.0% (24.0 vs 85.5% (19.7, p = 0.025 and higher sputum neutrophil differential cell counts (median (IQR 80% (67-83 vs 43% (29-67, p = 0.001. Total abundance of these organisms significantly and positively correlated with sputum IL-8 concentration and neutrophil count.Airway colonisation with potentially pathogenic micro-organisms in asthma is associated with more severe airways obstruction and neutrophilic airway inflammation. This altered colonisation may have a role in the development of an asthma phenotype

  5. Asthma and Adolescents: Review of Strategies to Improve Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy-Harstad, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    One of every 10 adolescents in the United States has asthma. Adolescents who lack asthma control are at increased risk for severe asthma episodes and death. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2007 asthma guidelines and research studies indicated that school nurses are instrumental in assisting adolescents to monitor their asthma, learn…

  6. Evaluation of an Educational Program for Adolescents with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jill; Tichacek, Mary J.; Theodorakis, Renee

    2004-01-01

    In addition to challenges of adolescence itself, teens with asthma face demands of asthma management and risks of asthma sequelae, including fatalities. Few asthma educational programs specifically address their needs. In response to school nurse concern, this pilot study evaluated an adolescent asthma education program, the "Power Breathing[TM]…

  7. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. PMID:27400032

  8. Older Adults' Trait Impressions of Faces Are Sensitive to Subtle Resemblance to Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Robert G.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Younger adults (YA) attribute emotion-related traits to people whose neutral facial structure resembles an emotion (emotion overgeneralization). The fact that older adults (OA) show deficits in accurately labeling basic emotions suggests that they may be relatively insensitive to variations in the emotion resemblance of neutral expression faces that underlie emotion overgeneralization effects. On the other hand, the fact that OA, like YA, show a ‘pop-out’ effect for anger, more quickly locati...

  9. Synergistic effects of traffic-related air pollution and exposure to violence on urban asthma etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jane E. Clougherty; Suglia, Shakira Franco; Canner, Marina Jacobson; Levy, Jonathan Ian; Kubzansky, Laura Diane; Ryan, P. Barry; Wright, Rosalind Jo

    2007-01-01

    Background: Disproportionate life stress and consequent physiologic alteration (i.e., immune dysregulation) has been proposed as a major pathway linking socioeconomic position, environmental exposures, and health disparities. Asthma, for example, disproportionately affects lower-income urban communities, where air pollution and social stressors may be elevated. Objectives: We aimed to examine the role of exposure to violence (ETV), as a chronic stressor, in altering susceptibility to traffic-...

  10. Epidemiology of asthma in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramesh, H

    2002-04-01

    Allergic respiratory disorders, in particular asthma are increasing in prevalence, which is a global phenomenon. Even though genetic predisposition is one of the factors in children for the increased prevalence - urbanisation, air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke contribute more significantly. Our hospital based study on 20,000 children under the age of 18 years from 1979,1984,1989,1994 and 1999 in the city of Bangalore showed a prevalence of 9%,10.5%,18.5%, 24.5% and 29.5% respectively. The increased prevalence correlated well with demographic changes of the city. Further to the hospital study, a school survey in 12 schools on 6550 children in the age group of 6 to 15 years was undertaken for prevalence of asthma and children were categorized into three groups depending upon the geographical situation of the school in relation to vehicular traffic and the socioeconomic group of children. Group I-Children from schools of heavy traffic area showed prevalence of 19.34%, Group II-Children from heavy traffic region and low socioeconomic population had 31.14% and Group III-Children from low traffic area school had 11.15% respectively. (P: I & II; II & III <0.001). A continuation of study in rural areas showed 5.7% in children of 6-15 years. The persistent asthma also showed an increase from 20% to 27.5% and persistent severe asthma 4% to 6.5% between 1994-99. Various epidemiological spectra of asthma in children are discussed here. PMID:12019551

  11. Asthma in Hispanics. An 8-year update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Franziska J; Forno, Erick; Cooper, Philip J; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-06-01

    This review provides an update on asthma in Hispanics, a diverse group tracing their ancestry to countries previously under Spanish rule. A marked variability in the prevalence and morbidity from asthma remains among Hispanic subgroups in the United States and Hispanic America. In the United States, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have high and low burdens of asthma, respectively (the "Hispanic Paradox"). This wide divergence in asthma morbidity among Hispanic subgroups is multifactorial, likely reflecting the effects of known (secondhand tobacco smoke, air pollution, psychosocial stress, obesity, inadequate treatment) and potential (genetic variants, urbanization, vitamin D insufficiency, and eradication of parasitic infections) risk factors. Barriers to adequate asthma management in Hispanics include economic and educational disadvantages, lack of health insurance, and no access to or poor adherence with controller medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of asthma in Hispanic subgroups, many questions remain. Studies of asthma in Hispanic America should focus on environmental or lifestyle factors that are more relevant to asthma in this region (e.g., urbanization, air pollution, parasitism, and stress). In the United States, research studies should focus on risk factors that are known to or may diverge among Hispanic subgroups, including but not limited to epigenetic variation, prematurity, vitamin D level, diet, and stress. Clinical trials of culturally appropriate interventions that address multiple aspects of asthma management in Hispanic subgroups should be prioritized for funding. Ensuring high-quality healthcare for all remains a pillar of eliminating asthma disparities. PMID:24881937

  12. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ohta, Shoichiro; Ono, Junya; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis but in categorizing asthma patients. We first found that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma downstream of IL-13 signals. Thereafter, it was shown that periostin can be a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses, the basis of the notion that a detection system of serum periostin is potentially a companion diagnostic for type 2 antagonists. Furthermore, we have recently shown that serum periostin can predict resistance or hyporesponsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, based on its contribution to tissue remodeling or fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Thus, serum periostin has two characteristics as a biomarker for bronchial asthma: it is both a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses and a biomarker reflecting tissue remodeling or fibrosis. We can take advantage of these characteristics to develop stratified medicine in bronchial asthma. PMID:26344077

  13. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Izuhara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis but in categorizing asthma patients. We first found that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma downstream of IL-13 signals. Thereafter, it was shown that periostin can be a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses, the basis of the notion that a detection system of serum periostin is potentially a companion diagnostic for type 2 antagonists. Furthermore, we have recently shown that serum periostin can predict resistance or hyporesponsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, based on its contribution to tissue remodeling or fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Thus, serum periostin has two characteristics as a biomarker for bronchial asthma: it is both a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses and a biomarker reflecting tissue remodeling or fibrosis. We can take advantage of these characteristics to develop stratified medicine in bronchial asthma.

  14. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Asthma is frequent in elite athletes and the high prevalence of asthma might be associated with specific types of sport. It has been suggested that chronic endurance training might increase the number of neutrophils in the airways, and this may reflect airway injury. The use of anti...... survey of elite athletes (N = 418); and (iii) a clinical study of elite athletes. A total of 54 elite athletes (19 with physician-diagnosed asthma) participated together with two control groups: (i) 22 non-athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma (steroid naïve for 4 weeks before the examination) and (ii......-asthmatic medication was currently taken by 24 (7%) elite athletes. Elite athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of asthma-like symptoms (74%), use of anti-asthmatic medication (15%) and current asthma (24%) than all other athletes (P

  15. Asthma and Schools | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Asthma and Schools Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of ... of America 800–727–8462 www.aafa.org Asthma and Physical Activity Exercise-induced asthma is triggered ...

  16. Imaging diagnosis of bronchial asthma and related diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe imaging features of bronchial asthma and related diseases. The practical roles of imaging diagnosis are the evaluation of severity and complications of bronchial asthma and differential diagnosis of diseases showing asthmatic symptoms other than bronchial asthma. (author)

  17. Usual dietary salt intake and asthma in children: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Demissie, K; Ernst, P; Gray Donald, K.; Joseph, L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A decline in host resistance due to an alteration in diet--primarily of salt--was recently put forward as a possible explanation for rising rates of asthma. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in participants in a prevalence survey which included 187 children with asthma (defined by prior diagnosis and/or a decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of > or = 10% after exercise) and 145 age and sex matched controls. Subjects were selected from 989 children ag...

  18. Antinuclear Antibodies in Asthma Patients- A Special Asthma Phenotype?

    OpenAIRE

    Agache Ioana; Duca Liliana; Anghel Mariana; Pamfil Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    Several studies reported the appearance of asthma and autoimmune conditions in the same patient, but the clinical significance of this association was not yet assessed. One hundred asthmatic patients were observed for one year evolution with death, severe exacerbations, intake of > 1000 micrograms of beclometasone or equivalent (high ICS) and FEV1 decline >100 ml, in relation with ANA (ELISA), sputum and blood eosinophilia (EO), NSAID intolerance, BMI >25, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking stat...

  19. Exhaled Eicosanoids following Bronchial Aspirin Challenge in Asthma Patients with and without Aspirin Hypersensitivity: The Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mastalerz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special regulatory role of eicosanoids has been postulated in aspirin-induced asthma. Objective. To investigate effects of aspirin on exhaled breath condensate (EBC levels of eicosanoids in patients with asthma. Methods. We determined EBC eicosanoid concentrations using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS2 or both. Determinations were performed at baseline and following bronchial aspirin challenge, in two well-defined phenotypes of asthma: aspirin-sensitive and aspirin-tolerant patients. Results. Aspirin precipitated bronchial reactions in all aspirin-sensitive, but in none of aspirin-tolerant patients (ATAs. At baseline, eicosanoids profile did not differ between both asthma groups except for lipoxygenation products: 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 15-HETE which were higher in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA than inaspirin-tolerant subjects. Following aspirin challenge the total levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs remained unchanged in both groups. The dose of aspirin had an effect on magnitude of the response of the exhaled cys-LTs and prostanoids levels only in AIA subjects. Conclusion. The high baseline eicosanoid profiling of lipoxygenation products 5- and 15-HETE in EBC makes it possible to detect alterations in aspirin-sensitive asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes, and eoxins levels in EBC after bronchial aspirin administration in stable asthma patients cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic index for aspirin hypersensitivity.

  20. Increased Asthma Risk and Asthma-Related Health Care Complications Associated With Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Mary Helen; Zhou, Hui; Takayanagi, Miwa; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Koebnick, Corinna

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic condition of childhood, yet the relationship between obesity and asthma risk and the impact of obesity on clinical asthma outcomes are not well understood. For this population-based, longitudinal study, demographic and clinical data were extracted from administrative and electronic health records of 623,358 patients aged 6–19 years who were enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health plan in 2007–2011. Crude asthma incidence ranged from 16.9 ...

  1. Validation of The 30 Second Asthma Test™ as a measure of asthma control

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Ahmed; Pierre Ernst; Robyn Tamblyn; Neil Colman

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The primary objective of asthma management is to help patients establish and maintain optimal disease control. Simple and efficient tools are needed to assess patient-reported symptoms so that they can be used with or without airway function to evaluate asthma control.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of The 30 Second Asthma Test (GlaxoSmithKline Inc, Canada), based on the Canadian Asthma Guidelines, by estimating its relationship with crit...

  2. Evolution of Asthma Concept and Effect of Current Asthma Management Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Sohei; Sagara, Hironori

    2010-01-01

    Concept of asthma has changed from symptom-complex or airway hypersensitivity to airway inflammation and airway remodeling. Based on this concept asthma management guidelines (JGL) has been developed in Japan. Death from asthma has decreased drastically since the publication of the guidelines, although it is still high in elderly population. Further works are expected for "zero-death" from asthma and for tighter control of airway inflammation and resultant airway remodeling.

  3. Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmanan B

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Balaji Laxmanan, D Kyle Hogarth Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT is a novel therapy for patients with severe asthma. Using radio frequency thermal energy, it aims to reduce the airway smooth muscle mass. Several clinical trials have demonstrated improvements in asthma-related quality of life and a reduction in the number of exacerbations following treatment with BT. In addition, recent data has demonstrated the long-term safety of the procedure as well as sustained improvements in rates of asthma exacerbations, reduction in health care utilization, and improved quality of life. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that result in these improvements. In addition, improved characterization of the asthma subphenotypes likely to exhibit the largest clinical benefit is a critical step in determining the precise role of BT in the management of severe asthma. Keywords: bronchial thermoplasty, severe asthma, airway smooth muscle

  4. Effect of asthma severity on symptom perception in childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.B. Cabral

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Individual ability to perceive airway obstruction varies substantially. The factors influencing the perception of asthma are probably numerous and not well established in children. The present study was designed to examine the influence of asthma severity, use of preventive medication, age and gender on the association between respiratory symptoms (RS and peak expiratory flow (PEF rates in asthmatic children. We followed 92 asthmatic children, aged 6 to 16 years, for five months. Symptom scores were recorded daily and PEF was measured twice a day. The correlations among variables at the within-person level over time were analyzed for each child and for the pooled data by multivariate analysis. After pooling the data, there was a significant (P<0.05 correlation between each symptom and PEF; 60% of the children were accurate perceivers (defined by a statistically significant correlation between symptoms and PEF across time for diurnal symptoms and 37% for nocturnal symptoms. The accuracy of perception was independent of asthma severity, age, gender or the use of preventive medication. Symptom perception is inaccurate in a substantial number of asthmatic children, independently of clinical severity, age, gender or use of preventive medication. It is not clear why some asthmatic patients are capable of accurately perceiving the severity of airway obstruction while others are not.

  5. Validation of the Arabic version of the asthma control test

    OpenAIRE

    Lababidi H; Hijaoui A; Zarzour M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Asthma control test (ACT) has been devised to assess the degree of asthma control in out-patients setting. The aim of this study is to validate the Arabic version of ACT. Materials and Methods: Patients completed the Arabic version of ACT during regular visit to one of two asthma specialists. Spirometry was obtained. The asthma specialist rated asthma control using a 5-point scale and indicated modification in management as step up, same or step down of asthma treatment. Results:...

  6. Perceived Triggers of Asthma: Key to Symptom Perception and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Thomas; Ritz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this paper, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targ...

  7. PILL Series. The ‘problematic’ asthma patient

    OpenAIRE

    Kui, Swee Leng; How, Choon How; Koh, Jansen

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a reversible chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that can be effectively controlled without causing any lifestyle limitation or burden on the quality of life of the majority of asthma patients. However, persistently uncontrolled asthma can be frustrating for both the patient and the managing physician. Patients who fail to respond to high-intensity asthma treatment fall into the category of ‘problematic’ asthma, which is further subdivided into ‘difficult’ asthma and ‘sever...

  8. The Relationship between Asthma and Obesity in Urban Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Melanie; Wijetunga, N Ari; Stepney, Cesalie; Dorsey, Karen; Chua, Danica Marie; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity, which have reached epidemic proportions, impact urban youth to a great extent. Findings are inconsistent regarding their relationship; no studies have considered asthma management. We explored the association of obesity and asthma-related morbidity, asthma-related health care utilization, and asthma management in urban adolescents with uncontrolled asthma. We classified 373 early adolescents (mean age=12.8 years; 82% Hispanic or Black) from New York City public middle scho...

  9. Identifying Children with Persistent Asthma from Health Care Administrative Records

    OpenAIRE

    Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Mustard, Cameron A; Becker, Allan B.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigation into the origins of asthma is contingent on definitions of asthma, which can differentiate asthma from transient wheezing syndromes in children.OBJECTIVES: This research was undertaken to develop a definition for asthma derived from health care administrative records, which would identify children with persistent asthma.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using population-based, health care administrative data, children with possible asthma were identified as having one or more ph...

  10. Vitamin D as an adjunctive therapy in asthma. Part 1: A review of potential mechanisms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kerley, Conor P

    2015-02-27

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is highly prevlalent worldwide. The classical role for vitamin D is to regulate calcium absorption form the gastrointestinal tract and influence bone health. Recently vitamin D receptors and vitamin D metabolic enzymes have been discovered in numerous sites systemically supporting diverse extra-skeletal roles of vitamin D, for example in asthmatic disease. Further, VDD and asthma share several common risk factors including high latitude, winter season, industrialization, poor diet, obesity, and dark skin pigmentation. Vitamin D has been demonstrated to possess potent immunomodulatory effects, including effects on T cells and B cells as well as increasing production of antimicrobial peptides (e.g. cathelicidin). This immunomodulation may lead to asthma specific clinical benefits in terms of decreased bacterial\\/viral infections, altered airway smooth muscle-remodeling and -function as well as modulation of response to standard anti-asthma therapy (e.g. glucocorticoids and immunotherapy). Thus, vitamin D and its deficiency have a number of biological effects that are potentially important in altering the course of disease pathogenesis and severity in asthma. The purpose of this first of a two-part review is to review potential mechanisms whereby altering vitamin D status may influence asthmatic disease.

  11. Allergic rhinitis is associated with poor asthma control in children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Eric P.; Nijkamp, Anke; Duiverman, Eric J.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma and allergic rhinitis are the two most common chronic disorders in childhood and adolescence. To date, no study has examined the impact of comorbid allergic rhinitis on asthma control in children. Objective To examine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children with asthma, and

  12. My Child Is Diagnosed with Asthma, Now What?: Motivating Parents to Help Their Children Control Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepney, Cesalie; Kane, Katelyn; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric asthma is often undiagnosed, and therefore untreated. It negatively impacts children's functioning, including school attendance and performance, as well as quality of life. Schoolwide screening for asthma is becoming increasingly common, making identification of possible asthma particularly relevant for school nurses. Nurses may need to…

  13. Challenges of Asthma Management for School Nurses in Districts with High Asthma Hospitalization Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatos, Penny; Leone, Jennifer; Craig, Ann Marie; Frei, Elizabeth Mary; Fuentes, Natalie; Harris, India Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background: School nurses play a central role in assisting elementary school children in managing their asthma, especially those in higher-risk school districts that are at increased risk of uncontrolled asthma. Study purposes are to (1) identify barriers to asthma management by school nurses in higher-risk school districts; and (2) assess the…

  14. Are asthma-like symptoms in elite athletes associated with classical features of asthma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.K.; Pedersen, L.; Anderson, S.D.;

    2009-01-01

    : The study group consisted of 54 elite athletes (19 with doctor-diagnosed asthma), 22 non-athletes with doctor-diagnosed asthma (steroid naive for 4 weeks before the examination) and 35 non-athletes without asthma; all aged 18-35 years. Examinations (1 day): questionnaires, exhaled nitric oxide (e...

  15. Asthma Risk Profiles of Children Participating in an Asthma Education and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Candice; Rapp, Kristi Isaac; Jack, Leonard, Jr.; Hayes, Sandra; Post, Robert; Malveaux, Floyd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Focused risk assessment is essential in the effective management of asthma. Purpose: This study identified and examined correlations among areas of pediatric asthma risk and determined associations between these risks and demographic characteristics. Methods: This exploratory study identified risk factors that affect asthma management…

  16. Frequent paracetamol use and asthma in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, S; Sterne, J; Songhurst, C.; Burney, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The pulmonary antioxidant glutathione may limit airway inflammation in asthma. Since paracetamol (acetaminophen) depletes the lung of glutathione in animals, a study was undertaken to investigate whether frequent use in humans was associated with asthma.
METHODS—Information was collected on the use of analgesics as part of a population based case-control study of dietary antioxidants and asthma in adults aged 16-49 years registered with 40 general practices in ...

  17. The airway microvasculature and exercise induced asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, S. D.; Daviskas, E

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that exercise induced asthma is a result of "rapid expansion of the blood volume of peribronchial plexi" (McFadden ER, Lancet 1990;335:880-3). This hypothesis proposes that the development of exercise induced asthma depends on the thermal gradient in the airways at the end of hyperpnoea. The events that result in exercise induced asthma are vasoconstriction and airway cooling followed by reactive hyperaemia. We agree that the airway microcirculation has the potential for ...

  18. Clinical Asthma Phenotypes and Therapeutic Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zedan, M.; Attia, G.; Zedan, M. M.; Osman, A; Abo-Elkheir, N.; Maysara, N.; Barakat, T.; Gamil, N.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that means not all asthmatics respond to the same treatment. We hypothesize an approach to characterize asthma phenotypes based on symptomatology (shortness of breath (SOB), cough, and wheezy phenotypes) in correlation with airway inflammatory biomarkers and FEV1. We aimed to detect whether those clinical phenotypes have an impact on the response to asthma medications. Two hundred three asthmatic children were allocated randomly to receive either montelukast ...

  19. Yoga for bronchial asthma: a controlled study.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R

    1985-01-01

    Fifty three patients with asthma underwent training for two weeks in an integrated set of yoga exercises, including breathing exercises, suryanamaskar, yogasana (physical postures), pranayama (breath slowing techniques), dhyana (meditation), and a devotional session, and were told to practise these exercises for 65 minutes daily. They were then compared with a control group of 53 patients with asthma matched for age, sex, and type and severity of asthma, who continued to take their usual drug...

  20. Occupational asthma in salbutamol process workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Agius, R M; Davison, A G; Hawkins, E R; Newman Taylor, A J

    1994-01-01

    Occupational asthma after exposure to salbutamol in the pharmaceutical industry has not been previously reported. The occurrence of occupational asthma is described in two pharmaceutical process workers who were likely to have inhaled doses appreciably in excess of the therapeutic dose range. The findings do not lead to an unequivocal conclusion on the mechanism of the asthma but it was probably a pharmacological consequence of high exposure.

  1. Neutrophils in asthma--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Ostafin, Magdalena; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-04-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, with an array of cells involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The role of neutrophils in the development of bronchial asthma is found to be complex, as they may trigger activation of immunocompetent cells and are a potent source of free oxygen radicals and enzymes participating in airway remodeling. The review highlights the role of neutrophils in bronchial asthma. PMID:25511380

  2. Asthma and Its Impacts on Oral Health

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Keleş; Nasibe Aycan Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and reversible airflow obstruction. Genetic factors and environmental factors may play a role in the etiology of asthma. An approximately 300 million people worldwide have been diagnosed with asthma and there may be an additional 100 million diagnosis by 2025. Studies conducted in Turkey reported a prevalence between 1.5% and 9.4%. In the literature, there are many studies investigating the imp...

  3. Predicting patient attitudes to asthma medication.

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, L M; Russell, I.T.; Friend, J. A.; Legge, J. S.; Douglas, J G

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Studies of patient attitudes to asthma and its control have focused on crisis action, and little attention has been paid to attitudes to regular preventive medication. It is not clear whether attitudes to regular medication are related to the degree of distress or interference with life perceived by patients as being caused by their asthma. For this reason this study examined how far dislike of medication related to dislike of other aspects of interference of asthma with daily lif...

  4. Asthma, allergy, mood disorders, and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczynska-Kwiatek A; Bargiel-Matusiewicz K; Lapinski L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Growing evidence supports comorbidity of asthma and allergies with mood disorders and various connections between these diseases. It still remains unclear whether this comorbidity is caused by the same pathophysiological factors or whether there are other links between asthma and depression. There is no definite answer to the question of an optimal treatment to deal with both asthma and depression, when they occur simultaneously. Epidemiological and clinical trials on the ...

  5. Eosinophil Apoptosis and Clearance in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Garry M

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is an increasingly common respiratory condition characterized by reversible airway obstruction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation with a clear unmet need for more effective therapy. Eosinophilic asthma is a phenotype of the condition that features increased blood or sputum eosinophils whose numbers correlate with disease severity. Several lines of evidence are now emerging, which implicate increased persistence of eosinophils in the lungs of patients with asthma as...

  6. Asthma Therapies Revisited: What Have We Learned?

    OpenAIRE

    Lemanske, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogenous disorder related to numerous biologic, immunologic, and physiologic components that generate multiple clinical phenotypes. Further, genetic and environmental factors interact in ways that produce variability in both disease onset and severity and differential expression based on both the age and sex of the patient. Thus, the natural history of asthma is complex in terms of disease expression, remission, relapse, and progression. As such, therapy for asthma is complica...

  7. Pathophysiological characterization of asthma transitions across adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad, Syed Hasan; Raza, Abid; Lau, Laurie; Bawakid, Khalid; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei; Ewart, Susan; Patil, Veersh; Roberts, Graham; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period of change, which coincides with disease remission in a significant proportion of subjects with childhood asthma. There is incomplete understanding of the changing characteristics underlying different adolescent asthma transitions. We undertook pathophysiological characterization of transitional adolescent asthma phenotypes in a longitudinal birth cohort. Methods The Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (N = 1456) was reviewed at 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18-years. Characterizat...

  8. Creating an Asthma-Friendly School

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-08

    This podcast features real-life success stories of students with asthma who, thanks to their schools' implementation of asthma-friendly policies and programs, now have their asthma under control.  Created: 11/8/2007 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH).   Date Released: 5/20/2008.

  9. Adapting physical education to pupils with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Diklić, Dajana

    2013-01-01

    Asthma »is the most common chronic disease among children« (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs307/en/index.html). This disease affects the small airways in the lungs, which are hypersensitive to one or more triggers. During the asthma attack airways narrow, airway mucosa swells and secretion of mucus increases. That makes breathing more difficult, especially exhalation (Corrigan, Berger, Meredith, Jenkis and Mason, 2009). Pupils with asthma are chronically ill children. That is ...

  10. Asthma Management in Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Gomez; Morris, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a common comorbid factor in sickle cell disease (SCD). However, the incidence of asthma in SCD is much higher than expected compared to rates in the general population. Whether “asthma” in SCD is purely related to genetic and environmental factors or rather is the consequence of the underlying hemolytic and inflammatory state is a topic of recent debate. Regardless of the etiology, hypoxemia induced by bronchoconstriction and inflammation associated with asthma exacerbations will co...

  11. The role of rhinosinusitis in severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, An-Soo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma is approximately 5% to 10% in the general population. Of these, approximately 5% to 10% are severe asthmatics who respond poorly to asthmatic drugs, including high-dose inhaled steroids. Severe asthmatics have persistent symptoms, frequent symptom exacerbation, and severe airway obstruction even when taking high-dose inhaled steroids. The medical costs of treating severe asthmatics represent ~50% of the total healthcare costs for asthma. Risk factors for severe asthma...

  12. Deciphering Asthma Biomarkers with Protein Profiling Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhizhou Kuang; Wilson, Jarad J.; Shuhong Luo; Si-Wei Zhu; Ruo-Pan Huang

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, resulting in bronchial hyperresponsiveness with every allergen exposure. It is now clear that asthma is not a single disease, but rather a multifaceted syndrome that results from a variety of biologic mechanisms. Asthma is further problematic given that the disease consists of many variants, each with its own etiologic and pathophysiologic factors, including different cellular responses and inflammatory phenotypes. These facets make the...

  13. Determinants of Risk Factors for Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, William W.

    1999-01-01

    There are a number of risk factors for the development of asthma, including genetic and environmental components. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that a variety of genes are associated with the features of asthma, such as persistent wheezing, airway responsiveness and chronic bronchial inflammation. However, for expression of these features, other factors must also come into play. This paper focuses on the importance of environmental factors in the development of asthma, including allerg...

  14. Recent advances in asthma genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandford Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are over 100 genes that have been reported to be associated with asthma or related phenotypes. In 2006–2007 alone there were 53 novel candidate gene associations reported in the literature. Replication of genetic associations and demonstration of a functional mechanism for the associated variants are needed to confirm an asthma susceptibility gene. For most of the candidate genes there is little functional information. In a previous review by Hoffjan et al. published in 2003, functional information was reported for 40 polymorphisms and here we list another 22 genes which have such data. Some important genes such as filaggrin, interleukin-13, interleukin-17 and the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 which not only were replicated by independent association studies but also have functional data are reviewed in this article.

  15. New combination therapies for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, J F; Ohar, J A

    2001-03-01

    Combination products often have useful clinical benefits in asthma. The scientific rationale for combination therapy includes the fact that different agents have complimentary modes of action. Long-acting beta(2)-agonists have effects on airway smooth muscle, and inhaled corticosteroids have potent topical antiinflammatory effect. This combination has been shown to effectively reduce exacerbations and improve symptoms. Substantial clinical trial data provide a rationale for dual-control therapy supported by basic scientific data. Another combined therapy is inhaled steroids plus leukotriene-receptor antagonists, which provides the patient with two effective therapies. Leukotriene-receptor antagonist can also be combined with antihistamines for improved asthma control. Older therapies including theophylline and controlled release albuterol have been effectively added to inhaled corticosteroids, enabling a reduction in the dose of the inhaled steroids. Many other combination therapies are presently being tested. PMID:11224725

  16. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan;

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  17. Effect of Partnership Status on Preferences for Facial Self-Resemblance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindová, Jitka; Little, Anthony C.; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig; Rubešová, Anna; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Self-resemblance has been found to have a context-dependent effect when expressing preferences for faces. Whereas dissimilarity preference during mate choice in animals is often explained as an evolutionary adaptation to increase heterozygosity of offspring, self-resemblance can be also favored in humans, reflecting, e.g., preference for kinship cues. We performed two studies, using transformations of facial photographs to manipulate levels of resemblance with the rater, to examine the influence of self-resemblance in single vs. coupled individuals. Raters assessed facial attractiveness of other-sex and same-sex photographs according to both short-term and long-term relationship contexts. We found a preference for dissimilarity of other-sex and same-sex faces in single individuals, but no effect of self-resemblance in coupled raters. No effect of sex of participant or short-term vs. long-term attractiveness rating was observed. The results support the evolutionary interpretation that dissimilarity of other-sex faces is preferred by uncoupled individuals as an adaptive mechanism to avoid inbreeding. In contrast, lower dissimilarity preference of other-sex faces in coupled individuals may reflect suppressed attention to attractiveness cues in potential alternative partners as a relationship maintenance mechanism, and its substitution by attention to cues of kinship and psychological similarity connected with greater likelihood of prosocial behavior acquisition from such persons. PMID:27378970

  18. Wilderness and adventure travel with underlying asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Daniel; Luks, Andrew M

    2014-06-01

    Given the high prevalence of asthma, it is likely that providers working in a pretravel setting will be asked to provide guidance for asthma patients about how to manage their disease before and during wilderness or adventure travel, while providers working in the field setting may need to address asthma-related issues that arise during such excursions. This review aims to provide information to assist providers facing these issues. Relevant literature was identified through the MEDLINE database using a key word search of the English-language literature from 1980 to 2013 using the term "asthma" cross-referenced with "adventure travel," "trekking," "exercise," "exercise-induced bronchoconstriction," "high-altitude," "scuba," and "diving." We review data on the frequency of worsening asthma control during wilderness or adventure travel and discuss the unique aspects of wilderness travel that may affect asthma patients in the field. We then provide a general approach to evaluation and management of asthma before and during a planned sojourn and address 2 particular situations, activities at high altitude and scuba diving, which pose unique risks to asthma patients and warrant additional attention. Although wilderness and adventure travel should be avoided in individuals with poorly controlled disease or worsening control at the time of a planned trip, individuals with well-controlled asthma who undergo appropriate pretravel assessment and planning can safely engage in a wide range of wilderness and adventure-related activities. PMID:24393703

  19. CD137-mediated immunotherapy for allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Polte, Tobias; Foell, Juergen; Werner, Christoph; Hoymann, Heinz-Gerd; Braun, Armin; Burdach, Stefan; Mittler, Robert S.; Hansen, Gesine

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma continues to increase. Asthma is caused by a Th2 cell–driven immune response. Its optimal treatment remains a challenge, and a sufficient immunotherapeutic approach to treating asthma has yet to be found. Using a murine asthma model, we show that a single injection of an anti-CD137 (4-1BB) mAb prevents the development of airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic airway inflammation, excessive mucus production, and elevated IgE during the observation period of 7 weeks. Most...

  20. National Asthma Control Program State Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Other Parents - Home Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training Wee Wheezers ...

  1. Is asthma related to choroidal neovascularization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoyao Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related degeneration (AMD and asthma are both diseases that are related to the activation of the complement system. The association between AMD and asthma has been debated in previous studies. The authors investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systemically. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The epidemiological study showed that asthma was related to choroidal neovascularization (CNV subtype (OR = 1.721, P = 0.023. However, the meta-analysis showed there was no association between AMD and asthma. In an animal model, we found more fluoresce in leakage of CNV lesions by FA analysis and more angiogenesis by histological analysis in rats with asthma. Western blot demonstrated an elevated level of C3α-chain, C3α'-chain and VEGF. After compstatin was intravitreally injected, CNV leakage decreased according to FA analysis, with the level of C3 and VEGF protein decreasing at the same time. SIGNIFICANCE: This study first investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systematically, and it was found that asthma could be a risk factor for the development of AMD. The study may provide a better understanding of the disease, which may advance the potential for screening asthma patients in clinical practice.

  2. Genetics of asthma: a molecular biologist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Balaram

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma belongs to the category of classical allergic diseases which generally arise due to IgE mediated hypersensitivity to environmental triggers. Since its prevalence is very high in developed or urbanized societies it is also referred to as "disease of civilizations". Due to its increased prevalence among related individuals, it was understood quite long back that it is a genetic disorder. Well designed epidemiological studies reinforced these views. The advent of modern biological technology saw further refinements in our understanding of genetics of asthma and led to the realization that asthma is not a disorder with simple Mendelian mode of inheritance but a multifactorial disorder of the airways brought about by complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Current asthma research has witnessed evidences that are compelling researchers to redefine asthma altogether. Although no consensus exists among workers regarding its definition, it seems obvious that several pathologies, all affecting the airways, have been clubbed into one common category called asthma. Needless to say, genetic studies have led from the front in bringing about these transformations. Genomics, molecular biology, immunology and other interrelated disciplines have unearthed data that has changed the way we think about asthma now. In this review, we center our discussions on genetic basis of asthma; the molecular mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Taking cue from the existing data we would briefly ponder over the future directions that should improve our understanding of asthma pathogenesis.

  3. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    IolandaFátima Lopes CalvoTibério; CarlaMáximoPrado

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  4. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A; Carla M. Prado; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  5. When to suspect occupational asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Lemière

    2013-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is a difficult diagnosis to make. The present review describes the work environments in which workers are at risk for developing OA, the characteristics of the individuals in whom OA should be suspected and the investigation that can be performed to diagnose the condition. Accurately diagnosing OA is crucial because of the major social and economic consequences of this diagnosis on the patient.

  6. Moses Maimonides' Treatise on Asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, F

    1981-01-01

    This paper contains an analysis and appreciation of one of Moses Maimonides' authentic medical works, his Treatise on Asthma. After a brief biographical section, passages from the work are cited and analysed to illustrate the approach of this medieval physician who organised the knowledge of Greeks and others who preceded him. Maimonides presents a logical and systematic approach to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, an approach which is clearly evident in his Treatise on As...

  7. Resolution of Inflammation in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Bruce D.; Vachier, Isabelle; Serhan, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The resolution of inflammation in healthy airways is an active process with specialized mediators and cellular mechanisms that are enlisted to restore tissue homeostasis. In this article, we will focus on recent discoveries of natural mediators derived from essential fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids, that have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. These specialized pro-resolving mediators serve as agonists at specific receptors. Asthma is a disease of chronic, non-resolving i...

  8. Environmental Issues in Managing Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Diette, Gregory B.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2008-01-01

    Management of asthma requires attention to environmental exposures both indoors and outdoors. Americans spend most of their time indoors, where they have a greater ability to modify their environment. The indoor environment contains both pollutants (eg, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, secondhand smoke, and ozone) and allergens from furred pets, dust mites, cockroaches, rodents, and molds. Indoor particulate matter consists of particles generated from indoor sources such as cooking and c...

  9. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila; Petrović Slobodanka; Tomić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemio...

  10. Circulating catecholamines in acute asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ind, P. W.; Causon, R C; Brown, M. J.; Barnes, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured in 15 patients (six male) aged 14-63 years attending the casualty department with acute severe asthma (peak expiratory flow 27% (SEM 3%) of predicted). Nine patients were admitted and six were not. The plasma noradrenaline concentration, reflecting sympathetic nervous discharge, was two to three times normal in all patients and was significantly higher in those who required admission compared with those discharged home (mean 7.7 (SEM 0.6) v 4....

  11. Assessment of asthma control using asthma control test in chest clinics in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo, Mbatchou Ngahane Bertrand; Walter, Pefura-Yone Eric; Maïmouna, Mama; Malea, Nganda Motto; Ubald, Olinga; Adeline, Wandji; Bruno, Tengang; Emmanuel, Nyankiyé; Emmanuel, Afane Ze; Christopher, Kuaban

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain and maintain a good control of symptoms. Investigating factors associated with inadequately control asthma could help in strategies to improve asthma control. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with inadequately controlled asthma in asthma patients under chest specialist care. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to May 2013. Physician-diagnosed asthma patients aged 12 years and...

  12. Perception of asthma as a factor in career choice among young adults with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sacha Bhinder; Lisa Cicutto; Husam M. Abdel-Qadir; Tarlo, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Asthma is a common chronic condition that can be aggravated by workplace exposures. Young adults with asthma should know how their future occupation might affect their asthma, and potentially, their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of young adults to occupational risks for asthma and high-risk occupations, as well as their perception of the role of asthma in career choice.METHODS: Young adults 16 to 22 years of age with reported physici...

  13. Comparison of clinically diagnosed asthma with parental assessment of children's asthma in a questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hederos, C.A.; Hasselgren, M.; Hedlin, G.;

    2007-01-01

    corresponding medical records in the same region. An International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)-based WQ was answered by 75% of the parents of 6295 children aged 1-6 yr. Clinically diagnosed asthma, recorded in connection with admissions to the hospital or a visit to any of the outpatient...... medical record of asthma. Forty percent of the children claimed by their parents to be asthmatic had no medical record of asthma. An ISAAC-based parentally completed WQ provided an acceptable estimation of the prevalence of asthma in children 2-6 yr of age, although only half of the individual patients......Epidemiological evaluations of the prevalence of asthma are usually based on written questionnaires (WQs) in combination with validation by clinical investigation. In the present investigation, we compared parental assessment of asthma among their preschool children in response to a WQ with the...

  14. Activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) attenuates allergic airway inflammation in rat asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawale, Vaibhav Shrirang; Amara, Venkateswara Rao; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Malek, Vajir; Patel, Deep; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2016-09-01

    Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is positively correlated to asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is highly expressed in lungs. ACE2, the counteracting enzyme of ACE, was proven to be protective in pulmonary, cardiovascular diseases. In the present study we checked the effect of ACE2 activation in animal model of asthma. Asthma was induced in male wistar rats by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin and then treated with ACE2 activator, diminazene aceturate (DIZE) for 2weeks. 48h after last allergen challenge, animals were anesthetized, blood, BALF, femoral bone marrow lavage were collected for leucocyte count; trachea for measuring airway responsiveness to carbachol; lungs and heart were isolated for histological studies and western blotting. In our animal model, the characteristic features of asthma such as altered airway responsiveness to carbachol, eosinophilia and neutrophilia were observed. Western blotting revealed the increased pulmonary expression of ACE1, IL-1β, IL-4, NF-κB, BCL2, p-AKT, p-p38 and decreased expression of ACE2 and IκB. DIZE treatment prevented these alterations. Intraalveolar interstitial thickening, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial fibrosis, oxidative stress and right ventricular hypertrophy in asthma control animals were also reversed by DIZE treatment. Activation of ACE2 by DIZE conferred protection against asthma as evident from biochemical, functional, histological and molecular parameters. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time that activation of ACE2 by DIZE prevents asthma progression by altering AKT, p38, NF-κB and other inflammatory markers. PMID:27343405

  15. Current asthma control predicts future risk of asthma exacerbation: a 12-month prospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hua-hua; ZHOU Ting; WANG Lan; ZHANG Hong-ping; FU Juan-juan; WANG Lei; JI Yu-lin; WANG Gang

    2012-01-01

    Background The performance of asthma control test (ACT) at baseline for predicting future risk of asthma exacerbation has not been previously demonstrated.This study was designed to explore the ability of the baseline ACT score to predict future risk of asthma exacerbation during a 12-month follow-up.Methods This post hoc analysis included data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in patients with asthma (n=290).The time to the first asthma exacerbation was analyzed and the association between baseline ACT scores and future risk of asthma exacerbation was calculated as adjusted odds ratio (OR) using Logistic regression models.Further,sensitivity and specificity were estimated at each cut-point of ACT scores for predicting asthma exacerbations.Results The subjects were divided into three groups,which were uncontrolled (U,n=128),partly-controlled (PC,n=111),and well controlled (C,n=51) asthma.After adjustment,the decreased ACT scores at baseline in the U and PC groups were associated with an increased probability of asthma exacerbations (OR 3.65 and OR 5.75,respectively),unplanned visits (OR 8.03 and OR 8.21,respectively) and emergency visits (OR 20.00 and OR 22.60,respectively) over a 12-month follow-up period.The time to the first asthma exacerbation was shorter in the groups with U and PC asthma (all P<0.05).The baseline ACT of 20 identified as the cut-point for screening the patients at high risk of asthma exacerbations had an increased sensitivity of over 90.0% but a lower specificity of about 30.0%.Conclusion Our findings indicate that the baseline ACT score with a high sensitivity could rule out patients at low risk of asthma exacerbations and oredict future risk of asthma exacerbations in clinical practice.

  16. Predicting asthma in preschool children with asthma symptoms: study rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafkamp-de Groen Esther

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In well-child care it is difficult to determine whether preschool children with asthma symptoms actually have or will develop asthma at school age. The PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy Risk Score has been proposed as an instrument that predicts asthma at school age, using eight easy obtainable parameters, assessed at the time of first asthma symptoms at preschool age. The aim of this study is to present the rationale and design of a study 1 to externally validate and update the PIAMA Risk Score, 2 to develop an Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool to predict asthma at school age in (specific subgroups of preschool children with asthma symptoms and 3 to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Methods and design The study will be performed within the framework of Generation R, a prospective multi-ethnic cohort study. In total, consent for postnatal follow-up was obtained from 7893 children, born between 2002 and 2006. At preschool age the PIAMA Risk Score will be assessed and used to predict asthma at school age. Discrimination (C-index and calibration will be assessed for the external validation. We will study whether the predictive ability of the PIAMA Risk Score can be improved by removing or adding predictors (e.g. preterm birth. The (updated PIAMA Risk Score will be converted to the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool- to predict asthma at school age in preschool children with asthma symptoms. Additionally, we will conduct a pilot study to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Discussion Application of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care will help to distinguish preschool children at high- and low-risk of developing asthma at school age when asthma symptoms appear. This study will increase knowledge about the validity of the PIAMA risk score and might improve risk assessment of developing asthma at school age in (specific subgroups

  17. Asthma mortality in the Danish child population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Inger Merete; Jensen, V B; Bülow, S;

    2003-01-01

    asthma; time and place of death; long-term and ongoing medical treatment; quality of medical care; circumstances of final illness; and medical treatment during the final episode of asthma. Age groups of 1-4 years, 5-14 years, and 15-19 years were analyzed separately and in aggregate. Death occurred...

  18. Childhood asthma in low income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marianne Stubbe; Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K;

    2012-01-01

    and poor treatment results using antibiotics. Moreover, children diagnosed with recurrent pneumonia in infancy were often later diagnosed with asthma. Recent studies showed a 10-15% prevalence of preschool asthma in low-income countries, although under-5s with long-term cough and difficulty breathing...

  19. Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep Mini Series #5 Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD NORMAL AIRWAY Good quality sleep is important for everyone. People with asthma and/or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) may have sleep issues that can lead to nighttime awakenings and ...

  20. Exhaled nitric oxide and asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAsthma was first described in the medical literature of Greek antiquity. It is difficult to determine whether by referring to “asthma”, Hippocrates and his school (460-360 B.C.) meant an autonomous clinical entity or a symptom. The clinical presentation of asthma nowadays has probably ch

  1. Sleep and psychological disturbance in nocturnal asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Stores, G; Ellis, A.; Wiggs, L.; Crawford, C.; Thomson, A.

    1998-01-01

    Subjective and objective sleep disturbance was studied in children with nocturnal asthma. Relations between such disturbance and daytime psychological function were also explored, including possible changes in learning and behaviour associated with improvements in nocturnal asthma and sleep. Assessments included home polysomnography, parental questionnaires concerning sleep disturbance, behaviour, and mood and cognitive testing. Compared with matched controls, children with ...

  2. Vascular Biomarkers in Asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakakos, Petros; Patentalakis, George; Papi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain a global health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. The changes in bronchial microvasculature that occurin asthma and COPD contribute to airway wall remodeling. Angiogenesis seems to be more prevalent in asthma and vasodilatation seemsmore relevant in COPD while vascular leak is present in both diseases. Recently, there has been increased interest in the vascular component of airway remodeling in chronic bronchial inflammation of asthma and COPD although its role in the progression of the diseases has not been fully elucidated. Various cells andmediators are involved in the vascular remodeling in asthma and COPD while proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors exert angiogenic and antiangiogenic effects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of blood vessel growth mainly in asthma but also in COPD. In asthmatic airways VEGF promotes proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and induces vascular leakage and permeability. It has also been involved in enhanced allergic sensitization, upregulated subsequent T-helper-2 type inflammatory responses, chemotaxis for monocytes and eosinophils, and airway oedema. Impaired VEGF signaling has been associated with emphysema in animal models. Studies on lung biopsies have shown a decreasing effect of anti-asthma drugs to the vascular component of airway remodeling. There is less available evidence on the effect of the currently used drugs on airway microvascular network in COPD. This review article explores the current knowledge regarding vascular biomarkers in asthma and COPD as well as the therapeutic implications of these mediators. PMID:26420364

  3. The poorly explored impact of uncontrolled asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Schatz, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control; however, despite the availability of effective and safe medications, for many patients asthma remains uncontrolled. One reason for this is the fear of long-term side effects from the regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Advers...

  4. Thunderstorm-asthma and pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; Frenguelli, G

    2007-01-01

    Thunderstorms have been linked to asthma epidemics, especially during the pollen seasons, and there are descriptions of asthma outbreaks associated with thunderstorms, which occurred in several cities, prevalently in Europe (Birmingham and London in the UK and Napoli in Italy) and Australia (Melbourne and Wagga Wagga). Pollen grains can be carried by thunderstorm at ground level, where pollen rupture would be increased with release of allergenic biological aerosols of paucimicronic size, derived from the cytoplasm and which can penetrate deep into lower airways. In other words, there is evidence that under wet conditions or during thunderstorms, pollen grains may, after rupture by osmotic shock, release into the atmosphere part of their content, including respirable, allergen-carrying cytoplasmic starch granules (0.5-2.5 microm) or other paucimicronic components that can reach lower airways inducing asthma reactions in pollinosis patients. The thunderstorm-asthma outbreaks are characterized, at the beginning of thunderstorms by a rapid increase of visits for asthma in general practitioner or hospital emergency departments. Subjects without asthma symptoms, but affected by seasonal rhinitis can experience an asthma attack. No unusual levels of air pollution were noted at the time of the epidemics, but there was a strong association with high atmospheric concentrations of pollen grains such as grasses or other allergenic plant species. However, subjects affected by pollen allergy should be informed about a possible risk of asthma attack at the beginning of a thunderstorm during pollen season. PMID:17156336

  5. Regulatory T-lymphocytes in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, AJM; Bloksma, N

    2005-01-01

    T-helper cell type (Th)2 lymphocytes play an important role in the initiation, progression and persistence of allergic diseases, including asthma. However, little is known about immunoregulatory mechanisms that determine susceptibility to, severity of, or persistence of asthma. The concept of a dist

  6. Asthma medication delivery : Mists and myths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottier, Bart L.; Rubin, Bruce K.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is usually treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and bronchodilators generated from pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI), dry powder inhalers (DPI), or nebulizers. The target areas for ICS and beta 2-agonists in the treatment of asthma are explained. Drug deposition not only depends

  7. Assessing and Treating Work-Related Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoughton Tracy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Work-related asthma is asthma that is caused or exacerbated by exposures at work. It is the most common form of occupational lung disease in developed countries. It has important impacts on the health and well-being of the affected individual, as well as consequences for society because of unemployment issues and workers' compensation claims. With ongoing exposure, occupational asthma can result in persistent airway hyperresponsiveness and, possibly, permanent disability for the individual. Thus, it is important for the clinician to be able to diagnose this disorder as quickly and accurately as possible. The evaluation of a patient with work-related asthma can be extensive. It includes obtaining a consistent history, identifying the cause in the workplace, and confirming the diagnosis with objective tests. After a diagnosis has been made, treatment must sometimes go beyond the medications used for nonoccupational asthma and include interventions to minimize or completely remove the individual from exposure to the causal agent if he or she has sensitizer-induced occupational asthma. In addition, once an individual has been identified with occupational asthma, steps should be taken to prevent the development of this disorder in other workers. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature and provide the clinician with a stepwise approach to the diagnosis and management of a patient with work-related asthma.

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources for Professionals National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community Guide— ... Puff Inner City Asthma YES WE CAN Bibliography Breathing Easier Success Stories State Contacts and Programs Evaluation ...

  9. How Is Asthma Treated and Controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as children, pregnant women, or those for whom exercise brings on asthma symptoms—will be adjusted to meet their special ... whether young children who wheeze or have other asthma symptoms will benefit from long-term control medicines. (Quick-relief medicines ...

  10. Macrophages Regulators of Sex Differences in Asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melgert, Barbro N.; Oriss, Timothy B.; Qi, Zengbiao; Dixon-McCarthy, Barbara; Geerlings, Marie; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Ray, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    Females are more susceptible to development of asthma than are males. In a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, with aggravated disease in females compared with males, we studied interactions between immune and resident lung cells during asthma development to elucidate which process

  11. Asthma and cystic fibrosis: A tangled web.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2014-03-01

    Successfully diagnosing concomitant asthma in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a challenging proposition, and the utility of conventional diagnostic criteria of asthma in CF populations remains uncertain. Nonetheless, the accurate identification of individuals with CF and asthma allows appropriate tailoring of therapy, and should reduce the unnecessary use of asthma medication in broader CF cohorts. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic challenge posed by asthma in CF, both in terms of clinical evaluation, and of interpretation of pulmonary function testing and non-invasive markers of airway inflammation. We also examine how the role of cross-sectional thoracic imaging in CF and asthma can assist in the diagnosis of asthma in these patients. Finally, we critically appraise the evidence base behind the use of asthma medications in CF populations, with a particular focus on the use of inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators. As shall be discussed, the gaps in the current literature make further high-quality research in this field imperative. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014; 49:205-213. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. LINGAM AS A SACRED OBJECT AND THE HEAD-DRESS OF SUFI RESEMBLING IT

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1990-01-01

    This study scans into past of ancient man and discusses meticulously how the reproductive organ Lingam became sacred object to Hindus and why a sufi wore a phallus shaped head-dress resembling to it. In this manner the author demystifies here the procreation, the law of nature.

  13. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs: a study among three generations of women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs an

  14. Resemblances of parents and twins in sports participation and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C.M. Molenaar; D.I. Boomsma; M.B.M. van den Bree

    1989-01-01

    A model that analyzes resemblances of 90 twin pairs (aged 14-20 yrs) and their parents using LISREL is outlined and applied to sports participation and heart-rate data. Results show that genetic factors influenced variation in both sports behavior and heart rate; there was no evidence for transmissi

  15. Phenotype-genotype discordance in congenital malformations with communication disorders resembling trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Pruszewicz, Antoni; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bożena; Wojnowski, Waldemar; Czerniejewska, Hanna; Jackowska, Joanna; Jarmuż, Małgorzata; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Leszczyńska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 6 Final Diagnosis: Phenotype-genotype discordance in congenital malformations with communication disorders resembling trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Otolaryngology Objective: Congenital defects Background: Communication process disorders are very frequent in rare cases of chromosomal aberrations (deletions, insertions, and trisomies) such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), Turner syndrome, Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18), or...

  16. Use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations, improve lung function, and reduce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity more effectively than other treatments. However, inhaled corticosteroids may be unable to return lung function and bronchial hyperreactivity to...... normal when introduced for moderately severe asthma. This finding highlights the need to improve treatment strategy in pediatric asthma. The natural progression of persistent asthma may lead to loss of lung function and chronic bronchial hyperreactivity for children and adults. There is evidence to...... suggest that asthma acts via a chronic inflammatory process that causes remodeling of the airways with mucosal thickening and smooth muscle hypertrophy. An optimal treatment strategy would be one aimed at reducing the ongoing airway inflammation. Inhaled steroids ameliorate the inflammation, whereas this...

  17. Role of leukotrienes in asthma pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential component of asthma pathophysiology. While beta(2)-agonists are often used for short-term relief of acute bronchospasm, anti-inflammatory agents are required for the long-term management of chronic inflammation in this disease. Corticosteroids have emerged as the first......-line anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma management. However, in some patients, especially children, the high doses of corticosteroids that may be required to control features of hyperresponsiveness, including exercise-induced asthma, raise safety concerns. Thus, there is a need for complementary anti......-inflammatory, steroid-sparing agents in asthma therapy. Several inflammatory mediators have been targeted in an attempt to thwart this inflammatory process, but so far with little success. The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT), LTC(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4), have been shown to be essential mediators in asthma, making them...

  18. Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, K. C. L.; Hedlin, G.; Bush, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children should be performed in a stepwise manner to ensure an optimal approach. A four-step assessment scheme is proposed. First, a full diagnostic work-up is performed to exclude other diseases which mimic asthma. Secondly, a multi-disciplinary assessm......Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children should be performed in a stepwise manner to ensure an optimal approach. A four-step assessment scheme is proposed. First, a full diagnostic work-up is performed to exclude other diseases which mimic asthma. Secondly, a multi...... our current knowledge in all these steps are highlighted, and recommendations for current clinical practice and future research are made. The lack of good data and the heterogeneity of problematic severe asthma still limit our ability to optimise the management on an individual basis in this small...

  19. Genetic and environmental influence on asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skadhauge, L.R.; Christensen, Kaare; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on the aetiology of asthma. The classic twin study design was used to analyse data on self-reported asthma obtained by a questionnaire mailed to 34,076 individuals, aged 12-41 yrs and originating from...... the Danish Twin Register. The cumulative incidence of asthma was 6.2% in the pooled sample. The data showed a decreasing cumulative incidence with age for males, but no sex or zygosity difference was observed. Substantially higher concordance rates, odds ratios and correlations for asthma were...... estimated in the monozygotic than in the dizygotic twins. Using biometric modelling, a model including additive genetic and nonshared environmental effects provided the best overall fit to the data. According to this model, 73% of the variation in liability to asthma was explained by genetic factors. No sex...

  20. Breathing exercises for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a common long-term condition that remains poorly controlled in many people despite the availability of pharmacological interventions, evidence-based treatment guidelines and care pathways.(1) There is considerable public interest in the use of non-pharmacological approaches for the treatment of asthma.(2) A survey of people with asthma reported that many have used complementary and alternative medicine, often without the knowledge of their clinical team.(3) Such interventions include breathing techniques, herbal products, homeopathy and acupuncture. The role of breathing exercises within the management of asthma has been controversial, partly because early claims of effectiveness were exaggerated.(4) UK national guidance and international guidelines on the management of asthma have included the option of breathing exercise programmes as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment.(5,6) Here we discuss the types of breathing exercises used and review the evidence for their effectiveness. PMID:26563876

  1. Complement activation pathways: a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills-Karp, Marsha

    2007-07-01

    Although it is widely accepted that allergic asthma is driven by T helper type 2 (Th2)-polarized immune responses to innocuous environmental allergens, the mechanisms driving these aberrant immune responses remain elusive. Recent recognition of the importance of innate immune pathways in regulating adaptive immune responses have fueled investigation into the role of innate immune pathways in the pathogenesis of asthma. The phylogenetically ancient innate immune system, the complement system, is no exception. The emerging paradigm is that C3a production at the airway surface serves as a common pathway for the induction of Th2-mediated inflammatory responses to a variety of environmental triggers of asthma (i.e., allergens, pollutants, viral infections, cigarette smoke). In contrast, C5a plays a dual immunoregulatory role by protecting against the initial development of a Th2-polarized adaptive immune response via its ability to induce tolerogenic dendritic cell subsets. On the other hand, C5a drives type 2-mediated inflammatory responses once inflammation ensues. Thus, alterations in the balance of generation of the various components of the complement pathway either due to environmental exposure changes or genetic alterations in genes of the complement cascade may underlie the recent rise in asthma prevalence in westernized countries. PMID:17607007

  2. Barriers to Asthma Management for School Nurses: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley Nadeau, Ellen; Toronto, Coleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood asthma is a growing health concern. Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and a leading cause of emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and school absenteeism. School nurses play a valuable role in asthma management. The purpose of this integrative review is to examine barriers to asthma management for school nurses in…

  3. Interaction between asthma and lung function growth in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Jensen, Signe Marie; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The causal direction between asthma and lung function deficit is unknown, but important for the focus of preventive measures and research into the origins of asthma.......The causal direction between asthma and lung function deficit is unknown, but important for the focus of preventive measures and research into the origins of asthma....

  4. Asthma and Environment Fact Sheet for Parents and Schools. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Important facts about asthma and the environment include: (1) Asthma has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, affecting about 25 million people of all ages and races, including about 7 million children; (2) Nearly one in 10 school-aged children has asthma, and the percentage of children with asthma is rising more rapidly in…

  5. Variants of DENND1B associated with asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleiman, Patrick M A; Flory, James; Imielinski, Marcin; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Annaiah, Kiran; Willis-Owen, Saffron A G; Wang, Kai; Rafaels, Nicholas M; Michel, Sven; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Zhang, Haitao; Kim, Cecilia E; Frackelton, Edward C; Glessner, Joseph T; Hou, Cuiping; Otieno, F George; Santa, Erin; Thomas, Kelly; Smith, Ryan M; Glaberson, Wendy R; Garris, Maria; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Orange, Jordan M; Allen, Julian; Spergel, Jonathan M; Grundmeier, Robert; Mathias, Rasika A; Christie, Jason D; von Mutius, Erika; Cookson, William O C; Kabesch, Michael; Moffatt, Miriam F; Grunstein, Michael M; Barnes, Kathleen C; Devoto, Marcella; Magnusson, Mark; Li, Hongzhe; Grant, Struan F A; Bisgaard, Hans; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2010-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease that has genetic and environmental causes. The genetic factors associated with susceptibility to asthma remain largely unknown.......Asthma is a complex disease that has genetic and environmental causes. The genetic factors associated with susceptibility to asthma remain largely unknown....

  6. Genetic influence on the age at onset of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Duffy, David Lorenzo; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Backer, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Although the genetics of asthma susceptibility have been frequently explored, little is known about genetic factors that influence the age at onset of asthma.......Although the genetics of asthma susceptibility have been frequently explored, little is known about genetic factors that influence the age at onset of asthma....

  7. Occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1994-12-01

    Amino alcohols are used in various industries, often as minor constituents of compounds to modify the properties of the compound. Generally, they are considered to be safe, but they have been known to cause local skin irritation at higher concentrations in solutions. We report on three cases of occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines: two metal workers exposed to a cutting fluid containing triethanolamine, and one cleaner exposed to a detergent containing monoethanolamine. The diagnosis was based on work-related symptoms and on a chamber challenge with the suspected agent. Persistence of the symptoms after exposure ended was a common feature of the three cases. PMID:7709998

  8. Measurement of asthma control according to global initiative for asthma guidelines: a comparison with the asthma control questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaguibel José

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ is a validated tool to measure asthma control. Cut-off points that best discriminate “well-controlled” or “not well-controlled” asthma have been suggested from the analysis of a large randomized clinical trial but they may not be adequate for daily clinical practice. Aims To establish cut-off points of the ACQ that best discriminate the level of control according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA 2006 guidelines in patients with asthma managed at Allergology and Pulmonology Departments as well as Primary Care Centers in Spain. Patients and methods An epidemiological descriptive study, with prospective data collection. Asthma control following GINA-2006 classification and 7-item ACQ was assessed. The study population was split in two parts: 2/3 for finding the cut-off points (development population and 1/3 for validating the results (validation population. Results A total of 1,363 stable asthmatic patients were included (mean age 38 ± 14 years, 60.3% women; 69.1% non-smokers. Patient classification according to GINA-defined asthma control was: controlled 13.6%, partially controlled 34.2%, and uncontrolled 52.3%. The ACQ cut-off points that better agreed with GINA-defined asthma control categories were calculated using receiver operating curves (ROC. The analysis showed that ACQ  Conclusion The ACQ cut-off points associated with GINA-defined asthma control in a real-life setting were

  9. Role of the immune cells, mediators and cytokines in pathogenesis of asthma: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Bahrami Mahne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, associated with airway re-modeling and hyperresponsiveness. It is expressed that asthma influences about 300 million people around the world, which is estimated to increase to about 400 million by 2025. The prevalence rate is 15 to 20 percent in children and 5 to 10 percent in adults, while its trend is still increasing. Inflammation plays an important role in the patho-physiology of asthma, which involves an interaction of different types of the immune cells and mediators. It leads to a number of pathophysiology changes, including bron-chial inflammation, airway obstruction, and clinical episodes such as cough, wheeze and shortness of breath. Asthma is now greatly being introduced as a heterogeneous disorder and it is pointed out to the role of T cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and regu-latory T cells. Other immune cells, especially neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells, as well structural cells such as epithelial and airway smooth muscle cells also pro-duce disease-associated cytokines in asthma. Increased levels of these immune cells and cytokines have been recognized in clinical samples and mouse models of asthma. Different cytokines, including pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFα, IL-1, and IL-6, T helper 2 cytokines (such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and growth factors (such as GM-CSF, PDGF play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Indeed chemokines (such as MPC-1, RANTES , MIP-1 and the chemokine receptors (such as CCR3, CCR4, CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 play an important role in the recruitment of circu-lating inflammatory cells into the airways in asthmatic patients and also is related with increased T helper 2 cytokines after inhaled allergens. Among new approaches, treat-ment of asthma with anti-cytokine drugs such as antibodies blocking IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 could reduce recruitment inflammatory cells into the airways and remodeling. The final perspective of asthma

  10. Anti-IgE treatment, airway inflammation and remodelling in severe allergic asthma: current knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Samitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a disorder of the airways involving various inflammatory cells and mediators and characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, chronic inflammation and structural alterations in the airways, also known as remodelling. IgE is an important mediator of allergic reactions and has a central role in allergic asthma pathophysiology, as it is implicated in both the early and late phase allergic response. Moreover, clinical and mechanistic evidence has lately emerged, implicating IgE in the development of airway remodelling. The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting IgE, such as omalizumab, has proven very effective in improving respiratory symptoms and quality of life, while reducing asthma exacerbations, emergency room visits and the use of systemic corticosteroids in allergic severe asthma. These effects are believed to be mainly mediated by omalizumab's inhibitory effect on the initiation and further propagation of the allergic inflammation cascade. However, there is evidence to suggest that anti-IgE treatment remains effective long after it has been discontinued. In part, these findings could be attributed to the possible ameliorating effects of anti-IgE treatment on airway remodelling. In this review, we discuss recent findings supporting the notion that anti-IgE treatment modulates the complex immune responses that manifest clinically as asthma and ameliorates airway remodelling changes often observed in allergic severe asthma phenotypes.

  11. Anti-IgE treatment, airway inflammation and remodelling in severe allergic asthma: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samitas, Konstantinos; Delimpoura, Vasiliki; Zervas, Eleftherios; Gaga, Mina

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a disorder of the airways involving various inflammatory cells and mediators and characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, chronic inflammation and structural alterations in the airways, also known as remodelling. IgE is an important mediator of allergic reactions and has a central role in allergic asthma pathophysiology, as it is implicated in both the early and late phase allergic response. Moreover, clinical and mechanistic evidence has lately emerged, implicating IgE in the development of airway remodelling. The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting IgE, such as omalizumab, has proven very effective in improving respiratory symptoms and quality of life, while reducing asthma exacerbations, emergency room visits and the use of systemic corticosteroids in allergic severe asthma. These effects are believed to be mainly mediated by omalizumab's inhibitory effect on the initiation and further propagation of the allergic inflammation cascade. However, there is evidence to suggest that anti-IgE treatment remains effective long after it has been discontinued. In part, these findings could be attributed to the possible ameliorating effects of anti-IgE treatment on airway remodelling. In this review, we discuss recent findings supporting the notion that anti-IgE treatment modulates the complex immune responses that manifest clinically as asthma and ameliorates airway remodelling changes often observed in allergic severe asthma phenotypes. PMID:26621973

  12. Prescribed therapy for asthma: therapeutic ratios and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Laurent; Licaj, Idlir; Devouassoux, Gilles; Eriksson, Irene; Caillet, Pascal; Chatte, Gérard; Belhassen, Manon; Van Ganse, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of asthma therapy. The ICS-to-total-asthma-medication ratios, calculated from claims data, indicate potentially risky disease management in asthma. Our aim was to assess the utility of ICS-to-total-asthma-medication ratios from primary care electronic medical records (EMRs) in detecting patients at risk of asthma exacerbation, as approached by prescription of oral corticosteroids and/or antibiotics. Methods Retrospective cohort stud...

  13. Occupational asthma. Practical points for diagnosis and management.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuschner, W G; Chitkara, R K; Sarinas, P S

    1998-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic illness characterized by episodes of reversible airflow obstruction. A cornerstone of asthma management is identifying and avoiding agents that cause bronchospasm. The workplace is an important potential source of respirable exposures that can cause or trigger asthma. Identification of an occupational factor in asthma is important: early diagnosis and removal of the worker from the exposure is associated with improved prognosis; the diagnosis of occupational asthma ...

  14. Vitamin E and D regulation of allergic asthma immunopathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cook-Mills, Joan M.; Avila, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma occurs as complex interactions of the environmental and genetics. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate dietary factors such as vitamin E and vitamin D as protective for asthma risk. In this review, we discuss opposing regulatory functions of tocopherol isoforms of vitamin E and regulatory functions of vitamin D in asthma and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by these dietary components.

  15. Asthma and coagulation: A clinical and pathophysiological evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Majoor, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    In clinical practice pulmonologists have suspected that pulmonary embolisms occur more often in patients with asthma. To confirm this suspicion, a study was initiated to investigate the incidence of venous thromboembolic events in patients with asthma compared to the general population. In addition, this study aimed to determine if any relationship between asthma and venous thromboembolic events could be attributed to asthma severity, viral infections or the use of asthma medication. The acti...

  16. Vitamin E and D regulation of allergic asthma immunopathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Mills, Joan M.; Avila, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma occurs as complex interactions of the environmental and genetics. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate dietary factors such as vitamin E and vitamin D as protective for asthma risk. In this review, we discuss opposing regulatory functions of tocopherol isoforms of vitamin E and regulatory functions of vitamin D in asthma and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by these dietary components. PMID:25175918

  17. Factors associated with uncontrolled asthma in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    P.T.R. Dalcin; D.M. Menegotto; A. Zanonato; L. Franciscatto; Soliman, F.; Figueiredo, M.; Pereira, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of uncontrolled and controlled asthma, and the factors associated with uncontrolled asthma were investigated in a cross-sectional study. Patients aged 11 years with confirmed asthma diagnosis were recruited from the outpatient asthma clinic of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were excluded if they had other chronic pulmonary disease. They underwent an evaluation by a general questionnaire, an asthma control questionnaire (based on the 2006 Global Initiativ...

  18. Factors Associated with the Appropriate Use of Asthma Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Sophie Jobin; Jocelyne Moisan; Yves Bolduc; Eileen Dorval; Louis-Philippe Boulet; Jean-Pierre Grégoire

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When used properly, asthma drugs can reduce asthma-related morbidity and mortality.OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of asthma drugs, and to identify factors associated with appropriateness of use among patients 12 to 45 years of age.METHODS: Asthmatic patients were interviewed about their asthma drug(s) use and the factors potentially associated with appropriateness of use according to the 2003 Canadian Asthma Consensus Conference guidelines. To determine the factors associated with t...

  19. Affective neural circuitry and mind-body influences in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with asthma have twice the risk of developing mood and anxiety disorders as individuals without asthma and these psychological factors are associated with worse outcomes and greater need for medical intervention. Similarly, asthma symptom onset and exacerbation often occur during times of increased psychological stress. Remission from depression, on the other hand, is associated with improvement in asthma symptoms and decreased usage of asthma medication. Yet research aimed at und...

  20. Validity of Asthma Control Test in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin; LI Jing; WANG Chang-zheng; DING Feng-ming; LIN Jiang-tao; YIN Kai-sheng; CHEN Ping; HE Quan-ying; SHEN Hua-hao; WAN Huan-ying; LIU Chun-tao

    2007-01-01

    Background So far, in China, there has been no effective or easy procedure to define the control of asthma. This study assesses the validity of Asthma Control Test in Chinese patients.Methods Three questionnaires (Asthma Control Test, Asthma Control Questionnaire and the 30 second asthma test)were administered to 305 asthma patients from 10 teaching hospitals across China. Spirometry was also used. Asthma specialists rated the control of asthma according to patients' symptoms, medications and forced expiratory volume in first second. The patients were divided into noncontrolled group and controlled group according to the specialists' rating.Reliability, empirical validity and screening accuracy were conducted for Asthma Control Test scores. Screening accuracy was compared among 3 questionnaires. The patients' self rating and the specialists' rating were also compared.Results The internal consistency reliability of the 5-item Asthma Control Test was 0.854. The correlation coefficient between Asthma Control Test and the specialists' rating was 0.729, which was higher than other instruments. Asthma Control Test scores discriminated between groups of patients differing in the percent predicted forced expiratory volume in first second (F=26.06, P<0.0001), the specialists' rating of asthma control (F=88.24, P<0.0001) and the Asthma Control Questionnaire scores (F=250.57, P<0.0001). Asthma Control Test showed no significant difference with Asthma Control Questionnaire in the percent correctly classified, while the percent correctly classified by Asthma Control Test was much higher than 30 second asthma test. The patients' self rating was the same as assessment of the specialists (t=0.65, P=0.516).Conclusion The Asthma Control Test is an effective and practicable method for assessing asthma control in China.

  1. Socioeconomic Factors and Asthma Control in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Shannon F.; Ungar, Wendy J.; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic factors and asthma control in children, as defined by the Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidelines. Patients and Methods Cross-sectional data from a completed study of 879 asthmatic children between the ages of 1 and 18 residing in the Greater Toronto Area were used. The database included data on demographics, health status, asthma control, and health-related quality of life. Stepwise forward modeling multiple regression was used to investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on asthma control, based on six control parameters from the 2003 Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidelines. Results Only 11% of patients met the requirements for acceptable control, while 20% had intermediate control, and 69% had unacceptable asthma control. Children from families in lower income adequacy levels had poorer control. Conclusions Disparities in asthma control between children from families of different socio-economic strata persist, even with adjustment for utilization of primary care services and use of controller medications. PMID:18615669

  2. Work-related exacerbation of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Paul K; Hoffman, Christopher D; Magid, David J; Lyons, Ella E

    2002-01-01

    Adults with asthma who had been enrolled in an HMO for at least a year were requested to complete a questionnaire about their health status. Approximately 25% of the 1,461 participants responded positively to "Does your current work environment make your asthma worse?" and were classified as having workplace exacerbation of asthma. Those with workplace exacerbation were more likely to have never attended college, be current or former smokers, have a history of other respiratory diseases, have missed work or usual activities at least one day in the past for weeks, and report their asthma was moderate, severe, or very severe. Percentages with workplace exacerbation of asthma were highest for mining and construction (36%), wholesale and retail trade (33%), and public administration (33%), and lowest for educational services (22%), finance, insurance, and real estate (22%), and non-medical and non-educational services (18%). Future studies are needed for objective validation of self-reported workplace exacerbation, and to follow subjects prospectively to clarify the temporal sequence of workplace exacerbation and asthma severity, and how other respiratory conditions and smoking might contribute to work-related worsening of asthma. PMID:12412844

  3. Risk factors for asthma: is prevention possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Richard; Semprini, Alex; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2015-09-12

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world, resulting in a substantial burden of disease. Although rates of deaths due to asthma worldwide have reduced greatly over the past 25 years, no available therapeutic regimens can cure asthma, and the burden of asthma will continue to be driven by increasing prevalence. The reasons for the increase in asthma prevalence have not been defined, which limits the opportunities to develop targeted primary prevention measures. Although associations are reported between a wide range of risk factors and childhood asthma, substantiation of causality is inherently difficult from observational studies, and few risk factors have been assessed in primary prevention studies. Furthermore, none of the primary prevention intervention strategies that have undergone scrutiny in randomised controlled trials has provided sufficient evidence to lead to widespread implementation in clinical practice. A better understanding of the factors that cause asthma is urgently needed, and this knowledge could be used to develop public health and pharmacological primary prevention measures that are effective in reducing the prevalence of asthma worldwide. To achieve this it will be necessary to think outside the box, not only in terms of risk factors for the causation of asthma, but also the types of novel primary prevention strategies that are developed, and the research methods used to provide the evidence base for their implementation. In the interim, public health efforts should remain focused on measures with the potential to improve lung and general health, such as: reducing tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure; reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures; reducing childhood obesity and encouraging a diet high in vegetables and fruit; improving feto-maternal health; encouraging breastfeeding; promoting childhood vaccinations; and reducing social inequalities. PMID:26382999

  4. Asthma in the elderly: a different disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Battaglia

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway disease that affects all ages, but does this definition also include the elderly? Traditionally, asthma has been considered a disease of younger age, but epidemiological studies and clinical experience support the concept that asthma is as prevalent in older age as it is in the young. With the ever-increasing elderly population worldwide, the detection and proper management of the disease in old age may have a great impact from the public health perspective. Whether asthma in the elderly maintains the same characteristics as in young populations is an interesting matter. The diagnostic process in older individuals with suspected asthma follows the same steps, namely a detailed history supported by clinical examination and laboratory investigations; however, it should be recognised that elderly patients may partially lose reversibility of airway obstruction. The correct interpretation of spirometric curves in the elderly should take into account the physiological changes in the respiratory system. Several factors contribute to delaying the diagnosis of asthma in the elderly, including the age-related impairment in perception of breathlessness. The management of asthma in advanced age is complicated by the comorbidities and polypharmacotherapy, which advocate for a comprehensive approach with a multidimensional assessment. It should be emphasised that older age frequently represents an exclusion criterion for eligibility in clinical trials, and current asthma medications have rarely been tested in elderly asthmatics. Ageing is associated with pharmacokinetic changes of the medications. As a consequence, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of antiasthmatic medications can be variably affected. Similarly, drug-to-drug interactions may reduce the effectiveness of inhaled medications and increase the risk of side-effects. For this reason, we propose the term “geriatric asthma” be preferred to the more generic “asthma in the

  5. Respiratory infections precede adult-onset asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of asthma (n = 521 during a 2.5-year study period and randomly selected controls (n = 932 in a geographically defined area in South Finland. Information on respiratory infections was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The diagnosis of asthma was based on symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction in lung function measurements. The risk of asthma onset was strongly increased in subjects who had experienced in the preceding 12 months lower respiratory tract infections (including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted odds ratio (OR 7.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.16-9.99, or upper respiratory tract infections (including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.72-2.97. Individuals with personal atopy and/or parental atopy were more susceptible to the effects of respiratory infections on asthma onset than non-atopic persons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new evidence that recently experienced respiratory infections are a strong determinant for adult-onset asthma. Reducing such infections might prevent onset of asthma in adulthood, especially in individuals with atopy or hereditary propensity to it.

  6. Clonal species Trichoderma parareesei sp. nov. likely resembles the ancestor of the cellulase producer Hypocrea jecorina/T. reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Lea; Jaklitsch, Walter M; Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2010-11-01

    We have previously reported that the prominent industrial enzyme producer Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina; Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Dikarya) has a genetically isolated, sympatric sister species devoid of sexual reproduction and which is constituted by the majority of anamorphic strains previously attributed to H. jecorina/T. reesei. In this paper we present the formal taxonomic description of this new species, T. parareesei, complemented by multivariate phenotype profiling and molecular evolutionary examination. A phylogenetic analysis of relatively conserved loci, such as coding fragments of the RNA polymerase B subunit II (rpb2) and GH18 chitinase (chi18-5), showed that T. parareesei is genetically invariable and likely resembles the ancestor which gave raise to H. jecorina. This and the fact that at least one mating type gene of T. parareesei has previously been found to be essentially altered compared to the sequence of H. jecorina/T. reesei indicate that divergence probably occurred due to the impaired functionality of the mating system in the hypothetical ancestor of both species. In contrast, we show that the sexually reproducing and correspondingly more polymorphic H. jecorina/T. reesei is essentially evolutionarily derived. Phenotype microarray analyses performed at seven temperature regimens support our previous speculations that T. parareesei possesses a relatively high opportunistic potential, which probably ensured the survival of this species in ancient and sustainable environment such as tropical forests. PMID:20817800

  7. ECG phenomena: pseudopreexcitation and repolarization disturbances resembling ST-elevation myocardial infarction caused by an intraatrial rhabdomyoma in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Christian; Gebauer, Roman Antonin

    2014-01-01

    As is known from other reports, a rhabdomyoma or tumor metastasis may alter intracardiac electrical conduction, producing electrical phenomena like pseudopreexcitation or repolarization disturbances resembling ST-elevation myocardial infarction or Brugada's syndrome. We present a newborn with a giant atrial rhabdomyoma and additionally multiple ventricular rhabdomyomas. He presented with several electrocardiogram (ECG) phenomena due to tumor-caused atrial depolarization and repolarization disturbances. Except from the cardiac tumors, the physical status was within normal range. Initial ECG showed a rapid atrial tachycardia with a ventricular rate of 230 bpm, which was terminated by electrical cardioversion. Afterwards, the ECG showed atrial rhythm with frequent atrial premature contractions and deformation of the PR interval with large, broad P waves and loss of discret PR segment, imposing as pseudopreexcitation. The following QRS complex was normal, with seemingly abnormal ventricular repolarization resembeling ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The atrial tumor was resected with consequent vast atrial reconstruction using patch plastic. The ventricular tumors were left without manipulation. After surgery, pseudopreexcitation and repolarization abnormalities vanished entirely and an alternans between sinus rhythm and ectopic atrial rhythm was present. These phenomena were supposably caused by isolated atrial depolarization disturbances due to tumor-caused heterogenous endocardial activation. The seemingly abnormal ventricular repolarization is probably due to repolarization of the atrial mass, superimposed on the ventricular repolarization. Recognizably, the QRS complex before and after surgical resection of the rhabdomyoma is identical, underlining the atrial origin of the repolarization abnormalities before surgery. PMID:23663513

  8. The Asthma Quiz for Kidz: A Validated Tool to Appreciate the Level of Asthma Control in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ducharme, Francine M; G Michael Davis; Francisco Noya; Harold Rich; Pierre Ernst

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to bridge the large gap between optimal and observed asthma control among Canadian children.OBJECTIVES: To adapt the criteria of asthma control proposed in the 1999 Asthma Consensus Statement for children and validate the proposed cut-offs in children with asthma.METHODS: Six clinical criteria of asthma control were phrased as questions and response options, and pretested for clarity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in children one to 17 years of age ...

  9. The Costs of Implementing the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines Recommendation of Asthma Education and Spirometry for the Family Physician

    OpenAIRE

    Susan P Corrigan; Cecillon, David L; Sin, Don D; Sharpe, Heather M.; Andrews, Elaine M.; Robert L Cowie; SF Paul Man

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National and international asthma guidelines recommend that patients with asthma be provided with asthma education and spirometry as a component of enhanced asthma care. The cost of implementing these interventions in family physician practices is not known.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to determine the cost of providing recommended asthma care to adult patients in the family practice setting.METHODS: The present study was conducted using three scenarios of car...

  10. Lack of association between genetic variation in G-protein-coupled receptor for asthma susceptibility and childhood asthma and atopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, H; Romieu, I; Sienra-Monge, J-J; del Rio-Navarro, BE; Burdett, L; Yuenger, J; Li, H; Chanock, SJ; London, SJ

    2008-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor for asthma susceptibility (GPRA or GPR154) was identified as an asthma and atopy candidate gene by positional cloning. Some subsequent studies suggest associations of GPRA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes with asthma or atopy susceptibility. However, the associated SNPs or haplotypes vary among studies. The role of GPRA genetic variation in asthma and atopy remains unsolved. Published data on GRPA variants and asthma come exclusively from Caucas...

  11. Afzelin attenuates asthma phenotypes by downregulation of GATA3 in a murine model of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wenbo; Nie, Xiuhong

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a serious health problem causing significant mortality and morbidity globally. Persistent airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and mucus hypersecretion are key characteristics of the condition. Asthma is mediated via a dominant T-helper 2 (Th2) immune response, causing enhanced expression of Th2 cytokines. These cytokines are responsible for the various pathological changes associated with allergic asthma. To investigate the anti-a...

  12. My Child is Diagnosed with Asthma, Now What? Motivating Parents to Help Their Children Control Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Stepney, Cesalie; Kane, Katelyn; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric asthma is often undiagnosed, and therefore untreated. It negatively impacts children’s functioning, including school attendance and performance, as well as quality of life. School-wide screening for asthma is becoming increasingly common, making identification of possible asthma particularly relevant for school nurses. Nurses may need to help parents cope with the new diagnosis, and teach them skills to manage the illness. The aim of this paper is to present a three-phase model of h...

  13. Sensitization to pets is a major determinant of persistent asthma and new asthma onset in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Uddenfeldt, Monica; Janson, Christer; Lampa, Erik; Rask-Andersen, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our knowledge about atopy as a longitudinal predictor of asthma is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognosis of asthma and risk factors for asthma onset, especially sensitization of specific allergens in a population sample. Material and methods A cohort responded to a respiratory questionnaire in 1990 and 2003. At baseline, 2,060 subjects who, in the screening questionnaire, reported respiratory symptoms and 482 controls were investigated with interview...

  14. Asthma and obesity: does weight loss improve asthma control? a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Juel CTB; Ali Z; Nilas L; Ulrik CS

    2012-01-01

    Caroline Trunk-Black Juel,1 Zarqa Ali,1 Lisbeth Nilas,2 Charlotte Suppli Ulrik11Respiratory Section, Internal Medicine Unit, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre, DenmarkAim and methods: Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight ...

  15. Clinical asthma phenotyping: A trial for bridging gaps in asthma management

    OpenAIRE

    Zedan, Magdy Mohamed; Laimon, Wafaa Nabil; Osman, Amal Mohamed; Zedan, Mohamed Magdy

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease affecting millions of people worldwide and exerting an enormous strain on health resources in many countries. Evidence is increasing that asthma is unlikely to be a single disease but rather a series of complex, overlapping individual diseases or phenotypes, each defined by its unique interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Asthma phenotypes were initially focused on combinations of clinical characteristics, but they are now evolving to link pathophys...

  16. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma and asthma control assessment in Henan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenping; Chen, Xianliang; Ma, Lijun; Wu, Jizhen; Zhao, Limin; Kuang, Hongyan; Huang, Taibo; Cheng, Jianjian; Zhang, Luoxian; Qi, Yong; Sun, Beibei; Niu, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevalence of bronchial asthma, asthma treatment assessment, and estimation of the control level among asthma patients in Henan Province, China are reported in this paper. Methods We selected 10 among the 109 cities and districts in Henan province using a multistage stratified cluster random sampling method. A total of 500 households from each city and district were chosen. Approximately 20,000 residents from a total of 5,000 households were randomly selected to answer a questionna...

  17. Risk factors for hospitalization among adults with asthma: the influence of sociodemographic factors and asthma severity

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, Mark D.; Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H; Shiboski, Stephen C.; Blanc, Paul D

    2000-01-01

    Background The morbidity and mortality from asthma have markedly increased since the late 1970s. The hospitalization rate, an important marker of asthma severity, remains substantial. Methods In adults with health care access, we prospectively studied 242 with asthma, aged 18–50 years, recruited from a random sample of allergy and pulmonary physician practices in Northern California to identify risk factors for subsequent hospitalization. Results Thirty-nine subjects (16%) reported hospitaliz...

  18. Risk factors for hospitalization among adults with asthma: the influence of sociodemographic factors and asthma severity

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner Mark D; Katz Patricia P; Yelin Edward H; Shiboski Stephen C; Blanc Paul D

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background The morbidity and mortality from asthma have markedly increased since the late 1970s. The hospitalization rate, an important marker of asthma severity, remains substantial. Methods In adults with health care access, we prospectively studied 242 with asthma, aged 18–50 years, recruited from a random sample of allergy and pulmonary physician practices in Northern California to identify risk factors for subsequent hospitalization. Results T...

  19. Influence of farming exposure on the development of asthma and asthma-like symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Adam D.; Poole, Jill A.; Romberger, Debra J.

    2014-01-01

    Based upon age and type of farming exposures, a wide range of studies demonstrate either protective or deleterious effects of the farming environment on asthma. In this review, we highlight key studies supporting the concept that farming exposure protects children from asthma and atopy based on studies performed largely in European pediatric cohorts. Various types of farming in certain regions appear to have a greater effect on asthma protection, as does the consumption of unpasteurized milk....

  20. Enterovirus 68 Infection-Association with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ronald B

    2016-01-01

    A previously sporadic virus called enterovirus 68 (EV-D68) appears to have been associated with asthma-like illness with a predisposition for asthmatics after an outbreak that occurred in North America in 2014. Clinicians should be aware of the clinical associations with EV-D68 particularly its predilection with pre-existing asthma or asthma-like illness as well as the potential association with acute flaccid myelitis. Further elucidation and development of diagnostic and treatments modalities are warranted to better understand and limit the potential public health impact of future outbreaks of EV-D68 infection. PMID:26843407

  1. Psychosocial Factors in Severe Pediatric Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booster, Genery D; Oland, Alyssa A; Bender, Bruce G

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness among children in the United States and can impact nearly all aspects of functioning. Most research suggests that children with severe asthma display more emotional and behavioral problems than their healthy peers. These psychological difficulties are associated with increased risk for functional impairments and problematic disease course. Multidisciplinary teams that assess and treat these psychosocial factors using psychoeducational and behavioral interventions are important for children whose asthma is poorly controlled. Future research should examine the ways in which stress, emotions, and immune functions interact, so as to develop more preventative interventions. PMID:27401618

  2. Update on work-exacerbated asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Tarlo, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Work-exacerbated asthma (WEA) is the term used to describe the worsening of asthma related to work but not the causation of asthma by work. It is common and has been reported to occur for 21.5% of working asthmatics on average. The frequency and severity may range from a single mild exacerbation that may lead to no time lost at work up to daily or severe exacerbations that may require a permanent change in work. Reports from general population surveys and primary care settings include more pa...

  3. Occupational asthma and related respiratory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardana, E J

    1995-03-01

    Occupational rhinitis is a common but generally underreported entity. Although it may occur alone, it is frequently associated with occupational asthma. Occupational asthma may have one of several presentations that are difficult to distinguish from non-work conditions. The respiratory tract acts as the final common pathway for all inhaled environmental pollutants, whether encountered in the home or at work. More than 200 chemicals have been incriminated as a cause of work-related asthma. It is said that about 2% of the 10 million Americans who have asthma acquired it as a result of some chemical irritant or immunogen in their work environment. A number of predisposing factors facilitate the development of work-related asthma. These include industrial conditions, climatic factors, atopic predisposition, smoking, recreational drug use, viral infection, nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity, and a variety of miscellaneous factors. Pathogenetically, occupational asthma may be immunologic or nonimmunologic in nature. The immunologic variants involve sensitization to a variety of large-molecular-weight constituents. The major nonimmune variant is referred to as inflammatory bronchoconstriction or reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). There are well-defined criteria for the diagnosis of immunologic and nonimmunologic asthma. The several clinical variations of occupational asthma can be difficult to distinguish from nonindustrial disorders. The most common presentation in practice involves the worker with preexistent asthma who has been adversely affected by work exposures. Occasionally these industrial exposures precipitate permanent impairment. It is clear, however, that occupational asthma is not a single, simple, or homogeneous entity, even when a single specific causal factor can be identified in the workplace. Therefore the physician must be aware of the patient's entire medical history and the precise occupational exposures and must have convincing

  4. Ground zero: not asthma at all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Benedictis, Fernando Maria; de Benedictis, Diletta; Mirabile, Lorenzo; Pozzi, Marco; Guerrieri, Arcangela; Di Pillo, Sabrina

    2015-09-01

    Upper airway obstruction is commonly misdiagnosed as asthma. We report on four children with recurrent respiratory symptoms who had been erroneously diagnosed as having asthma and who received anti-asthma medication for several years. The evaluation of spirometry tracing was neglected in all cases. Subglottic stenosis, tracheomalacia secondary to tracheo-esophageal fistula, double aortic arch, and vocal cord dysfunction were suspected by direct inspection of the flow-volume curves and eventually diagnosed. The value of clinical history and careful evaluation of spirometry tracing in children with persistent respiratory symptoms is critically discussed. PMID:26059018

  5. Targeted disruption of the arylsulfatase B gene results in mice resembling the phenotype of mucopolysaccharidosis VI.

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, M.; Saftig, P.; Schmidt, P.; Hafner, A.; McLoghlin, D B; Schmahl, W; Hess, B; von Figura, K; Peters, C.

    1996-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disease with autosomal recessive inheritance caused by a deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase B (ASB), which is involved in degradation of dermatan sulfate and chondroitin 4-sulfate. A MPS VI mouse model was generated by targeted disruption of the ASB gene. Homozygous mutant animals exhibit ASB enzyme deficiency and elevated urinary secretion of dermatan sulfate. They develop progressive symptoms resembling those of MPS VI in humans. ...

  6. A case of cilioretinal artery occlusion resembling hemicentral retinal artery occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sato Y; Ohkawara Y; Makino S

    2012-01-01

    Shinji Makino, Yuriko Ohkawara, Yukihiro SatoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: A 77-year-old man presented with an inferior hemivisual field defect in the left eye. Funduscopy revealed well demarcated retinal edema of the superior quadrant resembling hemicentral retinal artery occlusion. Further, the upper and inferior retinal arteries emerged separately from the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated a marked filling delay of...

  7. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.; Scott, Christopher G.; Chernoff, Konstantin; Karemore, Gopal; Karssemeijer, Nico; Lillholm, Martin; Karsdal, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population. Methods Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7 years) film mammograms of a nested case–control study wi...

  8. Keratocytes Derived from Spheroid Culture of Corneal Stromal Cells Resemble Tissue Resident Keratocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Yong-Soo; Tibrewal, Sapna; Kim, Eunjae; Yco, Lisette; Sarkar, Joy; Ivanir, Yair; Liu, Chia-Yang; Sano, Cecile M.; Jain, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Corneal stromal cells transform to precursor cells in spheroid culture. We determined whether keratocytes derived from spheroid culture of murine corneal stromal cells resemble tissue resident keratocytes. Methods Spheroid culture was performed by seeding dissociated stromal cells onto ultra-low attachment plates containing serum-free mesenchymal stem cell culture medium. Spheroids were characterized with phenotype specific markers and stemness transcription factor genes. Spheroids an...

  9. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory. PMID:24766340

  10. Exogenous female sex steroid hormones and risk of asthma and asthma-like symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, P; Parner, J; Prescott, E;

    2001-01-01

    the following asthma indicators: self-reported asthma, wheezing, cough at exertion, and use of medication for asthma. The study sample comprised 1536 premenopausal and 3016 postmenopausal women who participated in the third round of the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1991-4. A total of 377 women were...... taking OCP (24.5% of premenopausal women) and 458 were on HRT (15.2% of postmenopausal women). RESULTS: In premenopausal women 4.8% reported having asthma. The prevalence of self-reported asthma, wheeze, use of asthma medication, and cough at exertion was not significantly related to use of OCP. In...... postmenopausal women the prevalence of self-reported asthma was 6.2%. A weak but consistent association was observed between HRT and self-reported asthma (OR 1.42 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.12)), wheeze (OR 1.29 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.64)), cough at exertion (OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.77)), and use of asthma medication (OR 1...

  11. The impact of concomitant rhinitis on asthma-related quality of life and asthma control.

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas, O.; Dramaix, M.; Joos, G; Louis, Renaud; Michils, A; Verleden, G.; Vincken, W; Vints, A. M.; Herbots, E.; Bachert, C

    2010-01-01

    To cite this article: Vandenplas O, Dramaix M, Joos G, Louis R, Michils A, Verleden G, Vincken W, Vints A-M, Herbots E, Bachert C. The impact of concomitant rhinitis on asthma-related quality of life and asthma control. Allergy 2010; DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02365.x. Abstract Background: Characterizing the interactions between the upper and lower airways is important for the management of asthma. This study aimed at assessing the specific impact of concomitant rhinitis on asthma-related ...

  12. Determinants of uncontrolled asthma in a Swedish asthma population: cross-sectional observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Kämpe, Mary; Lisspers, Karin; Ställberg, Björn; Sundh, Josefin; Montgomery, Scott; Janson, Christer

    2014-01-01

     Background: Asthma control is achieved in a low proportion of patients. The primary aim was to evaluate risk factors for uncontrolled asthma. The secondary aim was to assess quality of life associated with asthma control.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, asthma patients aged 18–75 were randomly selected from primary and secondary health care centers. Postal questionnaires were sent to 1,675 patients and the response rate was 71%. A total of 846 patients from primary and 341 patients from ...

  13. Endothelin-1 directs airway remodeling and hyper-reactivity in a murine asthma model

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, L G; C. P. Jones; Mathie, S A; Pegorier, S; Lloyd, C M

    2013-01-01

    Background The current paradigm describing asthma pathogenesis recognizes the central role of abnormal epithelial function in the generation and maintenance of the disease. However, the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of airway remodeling, which contributes to decreased lung function, remain elusive. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of altered pulmonary gene expression in disease inception and identify proremodeling mediators. Methods Using an adenoviral vector, we generate...

  14. Bacterial capsular polysaccharide prevents the onset of asthma through T-cell activation

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jenny L.; Jones, Mark B.; Cobb, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades, increases in the incidence of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world have been linked to changes in microbial exposure. It is becoming increasingly clear that the normal microbiota in the gut can profoundly alter susceptibility to a wide range of diseases, such as asthma, in which immune homeostasis is disrupted, yet the mechanisms governing this microbial influence remains poorly defined. In this study, we show that gastrointestinal exposure to PSA, a capsu...

  15. Polymorphisms of two histamine-metabolizing enzymes genes and childhood allergic asthma: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobkowiak Paulina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histamine-metabolizing enzymes (N-methyltransferase and amiloride binding protein 1 are responsible for histamine degradation, a biogenic amine involved in allergic inflammation. Genetic variants of HNMT and ABP1 genes were found to be associated with altered enzyme activity. We hypothesized that alleles leading to decreased enzyme activity and, therefore, decreased inactivation of histamine may be responsible for altered susceptibility to asthma. Methods The aim of this study was to analyze polymorphisms within the HNMT and ABP1 genes in the group of 149 asthmatic children and in the group of 156 healthy children. The genetic analysis involved four polymorphisms of the HNMT gene: rs2071048 (-1637T/C, rs11569723 (-411C/T, rs1801105 (Thr105Ile = 314C/T and rs1050891 (1097A/T and rs1049793 (His645Asp polymorphism for ABP1 gene. Genotyping was performed with use of PCR-RFLP. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica software; linkage disequilibrium analysis was done with use of Haploview software. Results We found an association of TT genotype and T allele of Thr105Ile polymorphism of HNMT gene with asthma. For other polymorphisms for HNMT and ABP1 genes, we have not observed relationship with asthma although the statistical power for some SNPs might not have been sufficient to detect an association. In linkage disequilibrium analysis, moderate linkage was found between -1637C/T and -411C/T polymorphisms of HNMT gene. However, no significant differences in haplotype frequencies were found between the group of the patients and the control group. Conclusions Our results indicate modifying influence of histamine N-methyltransferase functional polymorphism on the risk of asthma. The other HNMT polymorphisms and ABP1 functional polymorphism seem unlikely to affect the risk of asthma.

  16. Asthma: NIH-Sponsored Research and Clinical Trials | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Asthma Asthma: NIH-Sponsored Research and Clinical Trials Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents NIH-Sponsored Research Asthma in the Inner City: Recognizing that asthma severity ...

  17. Assessment of asthma control using asthma control test in chest clinics in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Mbatchou Ngahane Bertrand; Walter, Pefura-Yone Eric; Maïmouna, Mama; Malea, Nganda Motto; Ubald, Olinga; Adeline, Wandji; Bruno, Tengang; Emmanuel, Nyankiyé; Emmanuel, Afane Ze; Christopher, Kuaban

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain and maintain a good control of symptoms. Investigating factors associated with inadequately control asthma could help in strategies to improve asthma control. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with inadequately controlled asthma in asthma patients under chest specialist care. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to May 2013. Physician-diagnosed asthma patients aged 12 years and above were included. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, comorbidities, and medical history of asthma. Asthma control was assessed using the Asthma Control Test (ACT), with a score less than 20 for inadequately controlled asthma and a score greater or equal to 20 for controlled asthma. A multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with inadequately controlled asthma. Results Overall, 243 patients were included in this study. Asthma was controlled in 141 patients (58%) and inadequately controlled in 102 (42%). The mean duration of asthma was 8 years with an interquartile range of 4 and 18 years. Forty-three participants (17.7%) were not under any controller medication while the mean ACT score was 19.3 ± 4.6. Independent associations were found between inadequately controlled asthma and female gender (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06-3.47) and obesity (OR 1.81; 1.01-3.27). Conclusion Asthma remains poorly controlled in a large proportion of asthma patients under specialist care in Cameroon. Educational programs for asthma patients targeting women and based on weight loss for obese patients may help in improving the control of asthma. PMID:27217894

  18. Assessment of asthma control and asthma exacerbations in the epidemiology and natural history of asthma: outcomes and treatment regimens (TENOR) observational cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Chipps, Bradley E.; Zeiger, Robert S.; Dorenbaum, Alejandro; Borish, Larry; Wenzel, Sally E.; Miller, Dave P.; Hayden, Mary Lou; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Simons, F. Estelle R.; Szefler, Stanley J.; Weiss, Scott Tillman; Haselkorn, Tmirah

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma account for substantial asthma morbidity, mortality, and healthcare burden despite comprising only a small proportion of the total asthma population. TENOR, a multicenter, observational, prospective cohort study was initiated in 2001. It enrolled 4,756 adults, adolescents and children with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma who were followed semi-annually and annually for three years, enabling insight to be gained into this understudied popul...

  19. Nitrosative events in atopic asthma pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parilova O. O.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between high exhaled nitric oxide levels and eosinophilic-mediated airway inflammation in patients with atopic asthma has been well documented. This generates prerequisites that a regulatory feedback mechanism exists between them. Therefore, the paper briefly describes evidence implementing biosynthesis, enzyme structural features, expression regulation of its isoforms and effects of nitric oxide, which have helped elucidate molecular mechanisms by which nitric oxide selectively promotes asthma exacerbation. In previous study we have demonstrated that airway infiltrate of immune cells contributes to NO synthesis in the respiratory tract during allergic inflammation under guinea pig model of acute asthma with multiple challenges. On the basis of these findings the authors posits that nitric oxide represents an additional signal of the induction of Th2 subset response and be considerably involved in the complex network of immune regulation distinctive for atopic asthma phenotype.

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... to follow along with the correct way to use your metered dose inhaler. Print the step-by- ...