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Sample records for alterations resembling asthma

  1. Pulmonary Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Chronic Asthma Resembling Lung Cancer: A Case Report

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    Massood Hosseinzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is most often seen in reticuloendothelial organs specially spleen, liver, or lymph nodes, and it is rarely seen in lung parenchyma. Almost all reported cases of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis occurred following myeloproliferative disorders specially myelofibrosis. Other less common underlying causes are thalassemia syndromes and other hemoglobinopathies. There was not any reported case of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis in asthmatic patients in the medical literature. Case. Here we reported a 65-year-old lady who was a known case of bronchial asthma with recent developed right lower lobe lung mass. Chest X-ray and CT studies showed an infiltrating mass resembling malignancy. Fine needle aspiration cytology of mass revealed pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis. The patient followed for 10 months with serial physical examination and laboratory evaluations which were unremarkable. Conclusion. Extramedullary hematopoiesis of lung parenchyma can be mistaken for lung cancer radiologically. Although previous reported cases occurred with myelofibrosis or hemoglobinopathies, we are reporting the first case of asthma-associated extramedullary hematopoiesis.

  2. Disruption of estrogen receptor beta in mice brain results in pathological alterations resembling Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-hong ZHANG; Yan-hong HUANG; Yu-zhen HU; Geng-ze WEI; Xue-feng HAN; Shun-yan LU; Yu-feng ZHAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the pathological characteristics of the mice with estrogen receptor β (ERβ) disruption in brain.METHODS: Immunohistochemistry method was applied in the study. RESULTS: β-Amyloid peptide(Aβ42) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) immunoreactive substances were accumulated notably in cortex and limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala in brain, resembling the pathological changes of human Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ formed cloudy-like deposits in parenchyma of brain, while apoE also deposited along or surrounding the blood vessels. CONCLUSIONS: ERβ is crucial to the development of neural degenerative disease, so modulation of Aβ metabolism via ERβ signal pathway might be beneficial for AD prevention or therapy.

  3. Altered social behaviours in neurexin 1α knockout mice resemble core symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders.

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    Hannah Mary Grayton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Copy number variants have emerged as an important genomic cause of common, complex neurodevelopmental disorders. These usually change copy number of multiple genes, but deletions at 2p16.3, which have been associated with autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation, affect only the neurexin 1 gene, usually the alpha isoform. Previous analyses of neurexin 1α (Nrxn1α knockout (KO mouse as a model of these disorders have revealed impairments in synaptic transmission but failed to reveal defects in social behaviour, one of the core symptoms of autism. METHODS: We performed a detailed investigation of the behavioural effects of Nrxn1α deletion in mice bred onto a pure genetic background (C57BL/6J to gain a better understanding of its role in neurodevelopmental disorders. Wildtype, heterozygote and homozygote Nrxn1α KO male and female mice were tested in a battery of behavioural tests (n = 9-16 per genotype, per sex. RESULTS: In homozygous Nrxn1α KO mice, we observed altered social approach, reduced social investigation, and reduced locomotor activity in novel environments. In addition, male Nrxn1α KO mice demonstrated an increase in aggressive behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first experimental data that associate a deletion of Nrxn1α with alterations of social behaviour in mice. Since this represents one of the core symptom domains affected in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in humans, our findings suggest that deletions within NRXN1 found in patients may be responsible for the impairments seen in social behaviours, and that the Nrxn1α KO mice are a useful model of human neurodevelopmental disorder.

  4. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it as a kid. What Causes an Asthma Flare-Up? Anything that causes an asthma flare-up (attack) is called an asthma trigger. Different kids ... doctor will think about what causes the asthma flare-ups, how fast the flare-ups happen, and how ...

  5. Alterations in circadian rhythms of melatonin and cortisol in patients with bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-he FEI; Rong-yu LIU; Zhi-hong ZHANG; Jiang-ning ZHOU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible relationships between alterations in circadian rhythm of melatonin, cortisol and bronchial asthma. METHODS: Salivary melatonin and cortisol were measured simultaneously by radioimmunoassay in 10 mild intermittent or persistent patients, 11 moderate-to-severe persistent asthma patients, and 15 control subjects. Twelve salivary samples were collected in a series during a 24-h period in each subject. RESULTS: The results showed overall lower levels of salivary melatonin in asthma patients compared with control subject (P<0.01). The amplitude, peak-level, and baseline of salivary melatonin were significantly lower in mild intermittent or persistent (P<0.01, P<0.05) and moderate-to-severe persistent asthma patients (P<0.01) compared with control group. The 24-h mean level of salivary cortisol was greatly lower and the acrophase was markedly delayed in patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma (P<0.01) and moderate-to-severe persistent asthma (P<0.05, P<0.01) compared with control subject. CONCLUSION: Disordered circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin and cortisol were found in asthma patients, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

  6. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by allergens or physical activity. Occasionally, doctors use X-rays to diagnose asthma. Doctors treat each asthma case ... them. If you get flare-ups during a game or workout, stop what you're doing until ...

  7. Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.

  8. Asthma is associated with multiple alterations in anti-viral innate signalling pathways.

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    Antonia L Pritchard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human rhinovirus (HRV infection is a major trigger for asthma exacerbations. Anti-viral immunity appears to be abnormal in asthma, with immune dysfunction reported in both airway structural cells and migratory, bone marrow derived cells. Though decreased capacity to produce anti-viral interferons (IFNs has been reported in asthma, a detailed analysis of the molecular events involved has not been undertaken. OBJECTIVE: To compare the molecular pathway controlling type I IFN synthesis in HRV-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from asthmatic and healthy subjects. METHODS: PBMC from 22 allergic asthmatics and 20 healthy donors were cultured with HRV for 24 hours. Multiple components of the Toll-like receptor (TLR, IFN regulatory and NFκβ pathways were compared at the mRNA and protein level. RESULTS: Multiple deficiencies in the innate immune response to HRV were identified in asthma, with significantly lower expression of IFNα, IFNβ and interferon stimulated genes than in healthy subjects. This was accompanied by reduced expression of intra-cellular signalling molecules including interferon regulatory factors (IRF1, IRF7, NF-κB family members (p50, p52, p65 and IκKα and STAT1, and by reduced responsiveness to TLR7/TLR8 activation. These observations could not be attributed to alterations in the numbers of dendritic cell (DC subsets in asthma or baseline expression of the viral RNA sensing receptors TLR7/TLR8. In healthy subjects, blocking the activity of type-I IFN or depleting plasmacytoid DC recapitulated many of the abnormalities observed in asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple abnormalities in innate anti-viral signalling pathways were identified in asthma, with deficiencies in both IFN-dependent and IFN-independent molecules identified.

  9. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

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    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  10. Effects of phthalate exposure on asthma may be mediated through alterations in DNA methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, I-Jen; Karmaus, Wilfried JJ; Chen, Su-Lien; Holloway, John W.; Ewart, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Phthalates may increase the asthma risk in children. Mechanisms underlying this association remain to be addressed. This study assesses the effect of phthalate exposures on epigenetic changes and the role of epigenetic changes for asthma. In the first step, urine and blood samples from 256 children of the Childhood Environment and Allergic diseases Study (CEAS) were analyzed. Urine 5OH-MEHP levels were quantified as an indicator of exposure, and asthma information was collected. DN...

  11. Early infancy microbial and metabolic alterations affect risk of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Stiemsma, Leah T; Dimitriu, Pedro A; Thorson, Lisa; Russell, Shannon; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Gold, Matthew J; Britton, Heidi M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Subbarao, Padmaja; Mandhane, Piush; Becker, Allan; McNagny, Kelly M; Sears, Malcolm R; Kollmann, Tobias; Mohn, William W; Turvey, Stuart E; Finlay, B Brett

    2015-09-30

    Asthma is the most prevalent pediatric chronic disease and affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Recent evidence in mice has identified a "critical window" early in life where gut microbial changes (dysbiosis) are most influential in experimental asthma. However, current research has yet to establish whether these changes precede or are involved in human asthma. We compared the gut microbiota of 319 subjects enrolled in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study, and show that infants at risk of asthma exhibited transient gut microbial dysbiosis during the first 100 days of life. The relative abundance of the bacterial genera Lachnospira, Veillonella, Faecalibacterium, and Rothia was significantly decreased in children at risk of asthma. This reduction in bacterial taxa was accompanied by reduced levels of fecal acetate and dysregulation of enterohepatic metabolites. Inoculation of germ-free mice with these four bacterial taxa ameliorated airway inflammation in their adult progeny, demonstrating a causal role of these bacterial taxa in averting asthma development. These results enhance the potential for future microbe-based diagnostics and therapies, potentially in the form of probiotics, to prevent the development of asthma and other related allergic diseases in children.

  12. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma

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    Francesca S. M. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood and suboptimal (ASubopt asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ 0.75, n=7, and healthy controls (HC (n=9 were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL, fMLF (100 nM, and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL, R848 (1.5 μg/mL, and poly I:C (10 μg/mL surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV 16 (MOI1. Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells abrogate experimental asthma by altering dendritic cell function.

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    Zeng, Shao-Lin; Wang, Li-Hui; Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Yang, Jiong

    2015-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated in the treatment of numerous autoimmune diseases. However, the immune properties of MSCs on the development of asthma have remained to be fully elucidated. Airway dendritic cells (DCs) have an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, and disrupting their function may be a novel therapeutic approach. The present study used a mouse model of asthma to demonstrate that transplantation of MSCs suppressed features of asthma by targeting the function of lung myeloid DCs. MSCs suppressed the maturation and migration of lung DCs to the mediastinal lymph nodes, and thereby reducing the allergen-specific T helper type 2 (Th2) response in the nodes. In addition, MSC-treated DCs were less potent in activating naive and effector Th2 cells and the capacity of producing chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) and CCL22, which are chemokines attracting Th2 cells, to the airways was reduced. These results supported that MSCs may be used as a potential treatment for asthma. PMID:25936350

  14. Proteomic Alterations in B Lymphocytes of Sensitized Mice in a Model of Chemical-Induced Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Haenen; Jeroen A.J. Vanoirbeek; Vanessa De Vooght; Liliane Schoofs; Benoit Nemery; Elke Clynen; Hoet, Peter H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim The role of B-lymphocytes in chemical-induced asthma is largely unknown. Recent work demonstrated that transferring B lymphocytes from toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-sensitized mice into naïve mice, B cell KO mice and SCID mice, triggered an asthma-like response in these mice after a subsequent TDI-challenge. We applied two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to describe the “sensitized signature” of B lymphocytes comparing TDI-sensitized mice with control mi...

  15. Artefacts and Family Resemblance

    OpenAIRE

    Garbacz, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    I develop in this paper a conception of artefacts based on L. Wittgenstein’s idea of family resemblance. My approach peruses the notion of frame, which was invented in cognitive psychology as an operationisable extension of this philosophical idea. Following the metaphor of life-cycle I show how this schematic notion of frame may be filled with the content relevant for artefacts if we consider them from the point of view of their histories. The resulting conception of artefacts provides a new...

  16. Nocturnal Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Nocturnal Asthma Worsening of asthma at night, or nocturnal asthma, ... give extra protection during the night. More Nocturnal Asthma Information Back to Asthma: Types Print Page Email ...

  17. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  18. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

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    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  19. Difficult asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Uslu; Tülay Özdemir

    1989-01-01

    Difficult asthma is a distinct entity of asthma, comprising approximately %5 of asthmatic patients. There is no agreed definition of difficult asthma. It will include asthma uncontrolled by new standard therapy, steroid dependent, steroid resistant and severe asthma. In this study difficult asthma; clinical features, risk factors, pathophysiology and novel therapies are summarized by literatures.

  20. Pharmacogenomics of pediatric asthma

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    Gupta Sarika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Asthma is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental factors contributing to it. A component of this complexity is a highly variable response to pharmacological therapy. Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of genetic determinants in the variable response to therapy. A number of examples of possible pharmacogenomic approaches that may prove of value in the management of asthma are discussed below. Evidence Acquisition: A search of PubMed, Google scholar, E-Medicine, BMJ and Mbase was done using the key words "pharmacogenomics of asthma", "pharmacogenomics of β-agonist, glucocorticoids, leukotriene modifiers, theophylline, muscarinic antagonists in asthma". Results: Presently, there are limited examples of gene polymorphism that can influence response to asthma therapy. Polymorphisms that alter response to asthma therapy include Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, Thr164Ile for β-agonist receptor, polymorphism of glucocorticoid receptor gene, CRHR1 variants and polymorphism of LTC4S, ALOX5. Polymorphic variants of muscarinic receptors, PDE4 and CYP450 gene variants. Conclusion: It was concluded that genetic variation can improve the response to asthma therapy. However, no gene polymorphism has been associated with consistent results in different populations. Therefore, asthma pharmacogenomic studies in different populations with a large number of subjects are required to make possible tailoring the asthma therapy according to the genetic characteristic of individual patient.

  1. Pediatric Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD Dept. of Pediatrics View full profile Pediatric Asthma: Overview For some children with asthma, their first ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count Asthma Treatment Program At National Jewish Health, we offer ...

  2. Poliomyelitis-like illness associated with asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, H. K.; Björkstén, B

    1980-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl with a combination of paralytic disease, resembling poliomyelitis, and asthma is described. The girl developed neurological symptoms 5 days after a severe attack of asthma. No aetiology to the flaccid paralysis could be demonstrated although Coxsackie B5 virus was isolated from a stool. A similar poliomyelitis-like illness associated with asthma has previously been reported in 13 cases from Australia and the UK.

  3. MicroRNA Expression Is Altered in an Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma Model and Targeting miR-155 with Antagomirs Reveals Cellular Specificity.

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    Maximilian W Plank

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are differentially regulated during development and in inflammatory diseases. A role for miRNAs in allergic asthma is emerging and further investigation is required to determine whether they may serve as potential therapeutic targets. We profiled miRNA expression in murine lungs from an ovalbumin-induced allergic airways disease model, and compared expression to animals receiving dexamethasone treatment and non-allergic controls. Our analysis identified 29 miRNAs that were significantly altered during allergic inflammation. Target prediction analysis revealed novel genes with altered expression in allergic airways disease and suggests synergistic miRNA regulation of target mRNAs. To assess the impacts of one induced miRNA on pathology, we targeted miR-155-5p using a specific antagomir. Antagomir administration successfully reduced miR-155-5p expression with high specificity, but failed to alter the disease phenotype. Interestingly, further investigation revealed that antagomir delivery has variable efficacy across different immune cell types, effectively targeting myeloid cell populations, but exhibiting poor uptake in lymphocytes. Our findings demonstrate that antagomir-based targeting of miRNA function in the lung is highly specific, but highlights cell-specificity as a key limitation to be considered for antagomir-based strategies as therapeutics.

  4. Chronic Diseases: Asthma and You | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop with your doctor Taking medicines correctly Avoiding asthma triggers (except physical activity; you can take medication to ... school, or work environments, which alter exposure to asthma triggers. Medicines may need to be increased if asthma ...

  5. Asthma symptoms in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    The association between asthma and obesity is well-described, but not straightforward, and according to current guidelines asthma control is more difficult to achieve in obese patients. The currently available studies evaluating response to pharmacological asthma therapy in obese patients show...... that these patients have an altered, in general less favorable, response to both reliever and controller medication compared to normal weight patients. However, at present, the limited available evidence precludes evidence-based recommendations. The 'obesity-related asthma' phenotype has different characteristics......, including association with atopy and type of airway inflammation, compared to 'classic' asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in patients with this phenotype leads to an improvement in symptoms, lung function, and airway responsiveness, as well as a reduction in medication utilization and hospital admissions...

  6. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  7. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  8. Wheezing and Asthma in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cooperate While Using the Nebulizer? Handling an Asthma Flare-Up What's an Asthma Flare-Up? Asthma Center Asthma Basics Managing Asthma When Your ... a Health Problem Asthma Center Handling an Asthma Flare-Up How Do Asthma Medicines Work? Asthma Asthma Center ...

  9. Asthma pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Minka L

    2014-02-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway that leads to airway obstruction via bronchoconstriction, edema, and mucus hypersecretion. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program has outlined evidence-based guidelines to standardize asthma therapy and improve outcomes. The initial recommendation of choice for persistent asthmatic patients is an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS). Long-acting beta-2 agonists in combination with ICS, oral corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, and anti-IgE therapeutic options can be considered for patients with persistent or worsening symptoms. Many novel therapies are being developed, with an emphasis on anti-inflammatory mechanisms, gene expression, and cytokine modification.

  10. Asthma and allergy - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network Mothers of Asthmatics -- www.aanma.org American Academy of Allergy, Asthma ...

  11. How Is Asthma Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Asthma Diagnosed? Your primary care doctor will diagnose asthma ... other disease may be causing your symptoms. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  12. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every ... children more likely to develop asthma. How does exercise cause asthma symptoms? The symptoms of asthma are ...

  13. Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... one child. Unfortunately, there is not a single test that provides all the answers. An allergist / immunologist, ...

  14. Occupational asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner BS, Burks AW, ...

  15. Mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  16. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaganathan Mabalirajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma.

  17. Bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008049 Activation ralated genes of memory CD+4 T cells in asthma patients. PI Weifeng(皮卫峰),et al. Dept Respir Med, Xinhua Hosp, Sch Med, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200092. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(12):932-935. Objective To screen and identify the genes of activated memory CD+4 T cells in asthma. Methods Differential display polymerase chain reaction(DDPCR) was utilized to identify genes of memory CD+4 T cells after activation from asthmatic patients and normal individuals,

  18. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoç, Tunç

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Allergic disease such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing prevelanceand affect up to 15% of population in Westernized countries. Among them, asthma is achronic inflammatory disease of airways and the underlying physiological and immunologicalprocesses are not fully understood. Mouse models of asthma dupicates many featuresof human asthma, including airway hyperreactivity, andairway inflammation. Therefore, relevantmodels for asthma are important to understand the mechanis...

  19. Thunderstorm asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    AN ASSOCIATION between asthma and thunderstorms based on retrospective data has been noted in several papers. This study, however, draws on almost-real-time, anonymised attendance data from 35 emergency departments (EDs) in the UK, and lightning-strike plots from the Met Office. PMID:25270814

  20. Characteristic DNA methylation profiles in peripheral blood monocytes are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawardhana, Lakshitha P; Gibson, Peter G; Simpson, Jodie L.; Benton, Miles C.; Rodney A. Lea; Baines, Katherine J

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes including DNA methylation caused by environmental exposures may contribute to the heterogeneous inflammatory response in asthma. Here we investigate alterations in DNA methylation of purified blood monocytes that are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma. Peripheral blood was collected from adults with eosinophilic asthma (EA; n = 21), paucigranulocytic asthma (PGA; n = 22), neutrophilic asthma (NA; n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 10). Blood monocytes were iso...

  1. [Severe asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Claudio D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to investigate the frequency of severe asthma (SA) according to WHO definition and to compare SA patients' characteristics with those of non-severe asthma (NSA); secondly, to investigate the level of control reached throughout a period of regular treatment. Between 1-1-2005 and 12-31-2014, 471 medical records from patients with bronchial asthma assisted in Buenos Aires City were analyzed. SA frequency was 40.1% (189/471), being significantly higher among patients from the public health system (47.7%, 108/226 vs. 33%, 81/245, p = 0.001). SA patients were older than NSA ones (51.3 ± 17.4 vs. 42.6 ± 17.1 years, p = 0.000), presented longer time since onset of the disease (median 30 vs. 20 years, p = 0.000), lower educational levels (secondary level or higher 41.7% vs. 58.1%, p = 0.000), lower frequency of rhinitis (47% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.004), more severe levels of airway obstruction (FEV% 50.2 ± 13.7 vs. 77.7 ± 12.4, p = 0.000), more frequent antecedents of Near Fatal Asthma (11.1% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.000), higher levels of serum IgE (median of 410 vs. 279 UI/l, p = 0.01) and higher demand of systemic steroids requirements and hospitalizations (68.7% vs. 50.7%, p = 0.000 and 37.5% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.000, respectively). A 30.6% of SA patients (58/189) reached a follow-up period of 12 months, 13 (22.5%) of whom reached the controlled asthma level. The frequency of SA found seems to be considerable. Multicenter studies to investigate the levels of control reached by SA patients with access to proper treatment are recommended.

  2. Test Your Asthma Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Test Your Asthma Knowledge Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... Asthma: A Chance to Heal / Test Your Asthma Knowledge Fall 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 4 Page ...

  3. Asthma triggers (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... things make your asthma worse. These are called asthma "triggers". Avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. The most common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors ...

  4. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  5. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  6. Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...

  7. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma and Food Allergies Page Content Article Body A family history of ... child may develop asthma . Children with asthma and food allergies are at increased risk for anaphylaxis, a severe ...

  8. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Asthma and Pregnancy: Asthma Medications We would like to avoid all medicine ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...

  9. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma Print A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  10. Asthma action plan

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2014-01-01

    This action plans allow each child (or parent/carer) to record his or her asthma treatment to help manage their asthma when they are well, when their symptoms get worse and when they are suffering an asthma attack.

  11. Examining causes of the urban (inner city) asthma epidemic: Implementing new management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    Asthma in the inner city contributes to high morbidity and mortality, and, in school children, reduced school attendance and alteration in academic performance. There is a need to improve asthma care in the inner city by reducing asthma exacerbations. Methods are currently available to predict and prevent seasonal exacerbations of asthma. In addition, new medications are being developed that will be effective in improving pulmonary function and reducing asthma exacerbations. School-centered asthma programs can also be helpful to assist children and clinicians in applying asthma treatment plans and assuring optimal adherence to these plans. PMID:26831839

  12. Social perception of facial resemblance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C; Little, Anthony C; Perrett, David I

    2008-02-01

    Two lines of reasoning predict that highly social species will have mechanisms to influence behavior toward individuals depending on their degree of relatedness. First, inclusive fitness theory leads to the prediction that organisms will preferentially help closely related kin over more distantly related individuals. Second, evaluation of the relative costs and potential benefits of inbreeding suggests that the degree of kinship should also be considered when choosing a mate. In order to behaviorally discriminate between individuals with different levels of relatedness, organisms must be able to discriminate cues of kinship. Facial resemblance is one such potential cue in humans. Computer-graphic manipulation of face images has made it possible to experimentally test hypotheses about human kin recognition by facial phenotype matching. We review recent experimental evidence that humans respond to facial resemblance in ways consistent with inclusive fitness theory and considerations of the costs of inbreeding, namely by increasing prosocial behavior and positive attributions toward self-resembling images and selectively tempering attributions of attractiveness to other-sex faces in the context of a sexual relationship. PMID:18157627

  13. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Researchers & Academics Sponsors & Supporters Donate Contact AAFA Asthma Asthma Triggers Allergens and Allergic Asthma Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution ... Feed Subscribe Asthma Capitals Asthma Facts Asthma Research Asthma Triggers Allergy Capitals Allergy Facts Allergy Research Allergy Treatment ...

  14. Role of Small Airways in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkas, Lindsay K; Martin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory condition of both the small and large airways. Recently the small airways have gained attention as studies have shown significant inflammation in the small airways in all severities of asthma. This inflammation has correlated with peripheral airway resistance and as a result, noninvasive methods to reliably measure small airways have been pursued. In addition, recent changes in asthma inhalers have led to alterations in drug formulations and the development of extrafine particle inhalers that improve delivery to the distal airways. PMID:27401620

  15. Multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinstrasse or “stone street” is an expected complication after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with high stone burden. However, there are published reports of multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis. Here we report an uncommon case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with right renal calculi. Her right ureter was studded with multiple calculi up to the vesicoureteric junction. The affected right kidney was nonfunctional and was managed by nephroureterectomy.

  16. Maternal complications and the management of asthma in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanders, Rebecca L; Murphy, Vanessa E

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy is a unique state requiring alterations in maternal physiology to accommodate the growing fetus. Whilst the maternal immune system is normally well adept at performing this task, the presence of immune disorders, such as asthma, often lead to pregnancy-related complications affecting both mother and baby. Australia has a high prevalence of asthma; with approximately 12% of pregnant women reported to have current asthma. Poor control of asthma is of far greater risk than the use of asthma medications. Being able to identify complications associated with asthma during pregnancy is of great importance in providing appropriate asthma management and medical care to these pregnant women, which may have lifelong consequences for their offspring.

  17. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  18. Imaging of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John Caleb; Lynch, David; Koelsch, Tilman; Dyer, Debra

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases of the lung. Asthma manifests with common, although often subjective and nonspecific, imaging features at radiography and high-resolution computed tomography. The primary role of imaging is not to make a diagnosis of asthma but to identify complications, such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or mimics of asthma, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This article reviews the imaging features of asthma as well as common complications and mimics. PMID:27401624

  19. The Pivotal Role of Airway Smooth Muscle in Asthma Pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Berger; Roger Marthan; Thomas Trian; Pierre-Olivier Girodet; Benoit Allard; Imane Bara; Annaïg Ozier

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by the association of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and remodelling. The aim of the present article is to review the pivotal role of airway smooth muscle (ASM) in the pathophysiology of asthma. ASM is the main effector of AHR. The mechanisms of AHR in asthma may involve a larger release of contractile mediators and/or a lower release of relaxant mediators, an improved ASM cell excitation/contraction coupling, and/or an alteration in the contraction/lo...

  20. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    OpenAIRE

    Bradding Peter

    2008-01-01

    Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and loca...

  1. Ocorrência de rinite, respiração oral e alterações orofaciais em adolescentes asmáticos Occurrence of rhinitis, mouth breathing and orofacial alterations in adolescents with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenice Aparecida de Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a ocorrência de rinite, respiração oral e alterações orofaciais em adolescentes asmáticos. MÉTODO: estudo do tipo transversal, realizado com 155 adolescentes asmáticos de 12 a 15 anos e de ambos os sexos, atendidos no Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira. O levantamento de dados consistiu de duas etapas: a primeira para análise dos prontuários dos pacientes e da realização de dois testes para avaliação adicional da função respiratória. Sendo um com o auxílio do espelho de Glatzel e o outro com a contagem do tempo de permanência da água na boca. A segunda por meio de exame clínico para identificação das alterações orofaciais. RESULTADOS: a frequência de rinite alérgica foi elevada (80,6%, não existindo diferença significante entre o sexo feminino (80,9% e o masculino (80,5%. Quanto ao padrão de respiração 32,9% dos asmáticos apresentaram respiração oronasal. As alterações faciais mais frequentes para o sexo masculino foram: olheiras (93,1%, palato ogival (82,8%, lábios ressecados (70,1%, selamento labial inadequado (77,0%, olhos caídos (62,1% e face alongada (57,5%. O sexo feminino apresentou as maiores frequências para as seguintes características: olheiras (91,2%, palato ogival (85,3%, selamento labial inadequado (67,6%, lábios ressecados (63,2% face alongada (66,2% e lábio superior estreito (57,4%. CONCLUSÃO: em adolescentes asmáticos a frequência de rinite alérgica foi alta, bem como a ocorrência de respiração oral e de alterações faciais.PURPOSE: to determine the occurrence of rhinitis, mouth breathing and orofacial alterations in adolescents with asthma. METHOD: cross-sectional study was conducted with 155 adolescents with asthma from 12 to 15 years old and both sexes, treated at the Institute Professor Fernando Figueira. The survey consisted of two phases: the first to review patients' records and carrying out two tests for further evaluation of

  2. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... to them. Have someone who does not have asthma cut the grass, or wear a facemask if ...

  3. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma...... and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard...

  4. Obesity and Asthma: Microbiome-Metabolome Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Stephanie A; Cho, Youngji

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but obese subjects with asthma respond poorly to standard asthma drugs. Obesity also alters gut bacterial community structure. Obesity-related changes in gut bacteria contribute to weight gain and other obesity-related conditions, including insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. Here, we review the rationale for the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in gut bacteria may also play a role in obesity-related asthma. The metabolomes of the liver, serum, urine, and adipose tissue are altered in obesity. Gut bacteria produce a large number of metabolites, which can reach the blood and circulate to other organs, and gut bacteria-derived metabolites have been shown to contribute to disease processes outside the gastrointestinal tract, including cardiovascular disease. Here, we describe the potential roles for two such classes of metabolites in obesity-related asthma: short-chain fatty acids and bile acids. Greater understanding of the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel microbiota-based treatments for these hard-to-treat patients. PMID:26949916

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma among Persons with Current Asthma Asthma and Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  6. For Parents of Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma > Managing Asthma For Parents of Children with Asthma Your Child's Asthma: A Parent's Guide to Better Breathing This step- ... health considerations you should keep in mind. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  7. Obesity and Asthma: Physiological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Brashier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC. Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more towards smaller high resistance airways, and consequentially results in expiratory flow limitation during normal breathing in obesity. Reduced FRC also induces plastic alteration in the small collapsible airways, which may generate smooth muscle contraction resulting in increased small airway resistance, which, however, is not picked up by spirometric lung volumes. There is also a possibility that chronically reduced FRC may generate permanent adaptation in the very small airways; therefore, the airway calibres may not change despite weight reduction. Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability. Obesity is also associated with airway hyperresponsiveness; however, the mechanism of this is not clear. Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may also exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma.

  8. Adrenal Cushing's syndrome may resemble eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Makiko; Nakagami, Taku; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2014-01-01

    We encountered a patient who presented extreme weight loss and received an eating disorder diagnosis that was later identified as adrenal Cushing's syndrome. A 32-year-old woman with a 2-year history of an eating disorder was admitted to our psychiatric ward due to dehydration, malnutrition and low weight. Her height and body weight were 152.1 cm and 29.8 kg, respectively (body mass index: 12.8). Her other symptoms included a depressed mood, decreased interest, retardation and suicidal ideation. Standard medical cares were prescribed to treat the depressive symptoms and eating disorder, but the depressive episode and low body weight of the patient persisted. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an unexpected left adrenal gland tumor. Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed based on several endocrinological examinations. After an enucleation of the left adrenal gland tumor, the patient began eating, and her body weight increased gradually. Her body weight increased to 42.0-47.0 kg (body mass index: 18.2-20.3). Her mental and physical conditions had stabilized. This case suggests that adrenal Cushing's syndrome may resemble eating disorders.

  9. Obesity, Nutrition, and Asthma in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason E

    2012-06-01

    Obesity rates have increased dramatically among children in many parts of the world, especially in North America and several other English-speaking countries. The impact of obesity on pediatric health has become a major prevention initiative by the Obama administration and several public health organizations. Children with obesity are at increased risk for developing asthma, which is already one of the most common chronic diseases among children. The cause underlying obesity's impact on asthma risk is unknown. Commonly cited potential etiologies include airway smooth muscle dysfunction from thoracic restriction, obesity-related circulating inflammation priming the lung, and obesity-related comorbidities mediating asthma symptom development. Each of these theories does not fit precisely with all of the data that have accumulated over the last decade. In this review, I will explore other possible causes including: (1) dietary characteristics common in Westernized countries that might lead to both obesity and asthma; (2) reductions in physical activity; and (3) genetic alterations that increase the propensity to both obesity and asthma together. Next, I will review the current data on how obesity affects common characteristics of asthma such as airway inflammation, lung function, risk of exacerbation, atopy, and response to treatment. Obesity in children with asthma appears to be associated with greater airflow obstruction and a mildly diminished response to inhaled corticosteroids. Little objective evidence in children suggests that obesity significantly heightens the risk of exacerbation or worsens disease stability in children. Lastly, I will discuss the current literature that suggests that obese children with asthma generally should receive the same guidelines-based management as lean children. However, interventions that encourage daily physical activity, weight-loss, normalization of nutrient levels, and monitoring of common obesity-related sequelae should be

  10. Asthma, guides for diagnostic and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma

  11. Paediatric asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Sean R; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2006-12-01

    None of the explanations proposed for the increase in paediatric asthma have been adequate. It is becoming apparent that the cause of the increase in asthma must be multi-factorial. Increasing attention has been focused on the role of lifestyle in the development of asthma. Lifestyle changes that have occurred in children are those in diet and decreased physical activity, with obesity being the product of these changes. The increase in asthma, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle have occurred together. However, a temporal relationship between asthma, obesity and decreased physical activity has not been determined in the paediatric literature. Limited data suggest that decreased physical activity could be playing a role in the aetiology of asthma independent of obesity. Furthermore, there has been substantial research on the benefits of exercise programmes for paediatric patients with asthma. Longitudinal trials monitoring physical activity, obesity and the development of asthma are needed. PMID:17098637

  12. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  13. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  14. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  15. Managing Allergies, Asthma 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158635.html Managing Allergies, Asthma 101 Doctor offers advice to students who will ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teens with allergies or asthma who are heading for college later this year ...

  16. Identifying asthma triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Justin C; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma has many triggers including rhinosinusitis; allergy; irritants; medications (aspirin in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease); and obesity. Paradoxic vocal fold dysfunction mimics asthma and may be present along with asthma. This article reviews each of these triggers, outlining methods of recognizing the trigger and then its management. In many patients more than one trigger may be present. Full appreciation of the complexity of these relationships and targeted therapy to the trigger is needed to best care for the patient with asthma.

  17. Genetics of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Asthma runs in families, and children of asthmatic parents are at increased risk of asthma. Prediction of disease risk is pivotal for the clinician when counselling atopic families. However, this is not always an easy task bearing in mind the vast and ever-increasing knowledge about asthma genetics...... of methods and advances in asthma genetics in an attempt to help the clinician keep track of the most important knowledge in the field....

  18. Asthma in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel O D Addo-Yobo; Ashley Woodcock; Adorkor Allotey; Benjamin Baffoe-Bonnie; David Strachan; Adnan Custovic

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. The proportion of children with asthma is thought to be increasing worldwide, and particularly among children that live in more developed countries. However, it is not clear why this is, since many different aspects of lifestyle and the environment have been linked with the onset of asthma. In Africa, asthma has typically been thought of as being very uncommon, and indeed in many African dialects there is no word for asthma or the symptoms, such as wheezing, that ...

  19. Antifungals in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parulekar, Amit D.; Diamant, Zuzana; Hanania, Nicola A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite guideline-based treatment, many patients with severe asthma continue to have uncontrolled disease. Fungal allergy is being increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Limited data exist on the approach to treatment of fungal asthma. This review summarizes

  20. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...... association between obesity and asthma....

  1. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Causan asma las alergias? My daughter has asthma and I'm worried that her younger brother ...

  2. Asthma in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2012-01-01

    As the population increases in age, the diseases of older age will have increasing prevalence and place a greater burden on the health system. Despite asthma being usually considered a disease of younger people, asthma mortality is currently greatest in the over 55 age-group. Symptoms and emergency presentations for health care due to asthma place a great burden on the quality of life of those over age 55 with asthma. Asthma in older people is under-diagnosed due to patient and physiological ...

  3. Asthma and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Rani Reddy; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2012-08-01

    Asthma is probably the most common serious medical disorder that may complicate pregnancy. A third of pregnant women with asthma will experience worsening of their symptoms, a third will see improvement of their symptoms and a third will see no change. The primary goal is to maintain optimal control of asthma for maternal health and well-being as well as fetal maturation. Vital patient education should cover the use of controller medication, avoidance of asthma triggers and early treatment of asthma exacerbations. Proper asthma management should ideally be started in the preconception period. Since smoking is probably the most modifiable risk factor of asthma, pregnant woman should avoid active and passive smoking. Acute asthma exacerbation during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations. Poorly controlled asthma is associated with low birth weight, preeclampsia, and preterm birth. Medications used for asthma control in the non-pregnant population are generally the same in pregnancy with a few exceptions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the preferred controller therapy. Budesonide is the preferred ICS. Long-acting B-agonists (LABA) are the preferred add-on therapy to medium to high dose ICS. Major triggers for asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are viral infections and ICS nonadherence. PMID:21858482

  4. Near fatal asthma: treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Vitale, C; Lanza, M; Sanduzzi, A; Molino, A; Mormile, M; Vatrella, A; Bilò, M B; Antonicelli, L; Bresciani, M; Micheletto, C; Vaghi, A; D'Amato, M

    2016-07-01

    Near-fatal asthma (NFA) is described as acute asthma associated with a respiratory arrest or arterial carbon dioxide tension greater than 50 mmHg, with or without altered consciousness, requiring mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for near fatal asthma have not been fully elucidated. In 80-85% of all fatal events, a phenotype, characterized by eosinophilic inflammation associated with gradual deterioration occurring in patients with severe and poorly controlled asthma, has been identified. Regarding to the management, acute severe asthma remains a significant clinical problem, which needs to be identified to facilitate early and appropriate therapeutic interventions. The assessment relies on clinical signs, but additional information might be obtained from chest radiography or blood gas analysis. No investigation should delay the initiation of appropriate therapy. The goals of therapy are the maintenance of oxygenation, relief of airflow obstruction, reduction of airways edema and mucus plugging (with Increased use of medications such as beta-agonists via metered dose inhalers and nebulizers, oral and/or intravenous (other than by inhalation) corticosteroids and oral or intravenous theophylline) whereas supporting ventilation as clinically indicated. Of course, the emergency physician needs to consider the wide range of potential complications, as attention to these problems when managing severe acute asthma might significantly improve outcome. An understanding of the available agents and potential pitfalls in the management of NFA is mandatory for the emergency physician. PMID:27425166

  5. Early interventions in asthma with inhaled corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, L A; Altraja, A; Karjalainen, E M; Laitinen, A

    2000-02-01

    We have earlier shown epithelial damage in the airway mucosa in patients with asthma. Later other structural changes have been recognized in asthma, such as deposition of collagen and tenascin in the subepithelial basement membrane and changes in the laminin subchain composition. These processes are modified by an inflammatory process in the airways. Both the United States National Institutes of Health and the British Thoracic Society guidelines on the management of asthma emphasize the need for early use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Many clinical studies that used airway biopsy specimens have shown a decrease in airway inflammatory cell numbers after inhaled corticosteroid therapy. However, there is very little information on the effects of asthma medication on the structural components of the airways. Both the synthesis and degradation of many extracellular matrix components may be affected by the disease process and the drugs resulting in altered remodeling and gene expression in the airways. Because there are only a few studies that try to identify early changes in asthma, it is not known whether the anti-inflammatory treatment of asthma proposed by the guidelines is started early enough.

  6. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect...... of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  7. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some students experience asthma symptoms only when they exercise. Asthma varies from student to student and often from ... activities and other regular school activities. Table 1: BENEFITS OF ASTHMA CONTROL With good asthma management, students with asthma ...

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  10. Examining the association between childhood asthma and parent and grandparent asthma status: Implications for Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio, Melissa A.; Andreski, Patricia M.; Schoeni, Robert F.; McGonagle, Katherine A.

    2010-01-01

    Examination of intergenerational asthma beyond maternal asthma has been limited. The association between childhood asthma and intergenerational asthma status among a national cohort of children was examined.

  11. Asthma and Therapeutics: Recombinant Therapies in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cockcroft Donald W

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Numerous recombinant therapies are being investigated for the treatment of asthma. This report reviews the current status of several of these novel agents. Anti-immunoglobulin (Ig)E (omalizumab, Xolair) markedly inhibits all aspects of the allergen challenge in subjects who have reduction of free serum IgE to undetectable levels. Several clinical studies in atopic asthma have demonstrated benefit by improved symptoms and lung function and a reduction in corticosteroid requirements. E...

  12. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness...... reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

  13. Psychological aspects of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Paul; Feldman, Jonathan; Giardino, Nicholas; Song, Hye-Sue; Schmaling, Karen

    2002-06-01

    Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy of asthma symptom perception. Defensiveness is associated with inaccurate perception of airway resistance and stress-related bronchoconstriction. Asthma education programs that teach about the nature of the disease, medications, and trigger avoidance tend to reduce asthma morbidity. Other promising psychological interventions as adjuncts to medical treatment include training in symptom perception, stress management, hypnosis, yoga, and several biofeedback procedures. PMID:12090377

  14. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  15. Basic mechanisms of asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Boushey, H A; Fahy, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Results of studies of the epidemiology, physiology, histopathology, and cell biology of asthma have revised our conception of the disease. Epidemiologic studies have shown asthma to be an important cause of death, suffering, and economic hardship. Physiologic studies have shown that asthma is a chronic illness characterized by persistent bronchial hyperreactivity. Histopathologic studies have shown characteristic changes: epithelial damage, deposition of collagen beneath the basement membrane...

  16. Ketotifen and nocturnal asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Catterall, J R; Calverley, P M; Power, J T; Shapiro, C M; Douglas, N J; Flenley, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Patients with asthma often wheeze at night and they also become hypoxic during sleep. To determine whether ketotifen, a drug with sedative properties, is safe for use at night in patients with asthma, we performed a double blind crossover study comparing the effects of a single 1 mg dose of ketotifen and of placebo on arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), breathing patterns, electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep stage, and overnight change in FEV1 in 10 patients with stable asthma. After taking ke...

  17. Epidemiological Trends in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Malcolm R

    1996-01-01

    Many markers of asthma morbidity have shown substantial increases over the past two decades, including family physician visits, use of anti-asthma medications, emergency room visits and hospital admissions. The reported prevalence of diagnosed asthma and of wheezing has increased, especially in children, with accompanying evidence of increased atopy and increased airway responsiveness. Allergen exposure and parental smoking are significant risk factors for childhood wheezing, whereas the infl...

  18. Asthma: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Other Parents - Home Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training Wee Wheezers ...

  19. Asthma in Olympians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of asthma has been reported repeatedly among elite athletes, especially among endurance athletes. So many athletes used asthma drugs that the objective demonstration of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was required to obtain approval for their use in international sports until 2012 when the most used inhaled asthma drugs was allowed for free use, but with a maximum dose for inhaled β2-agonists. Several factors contribute to the development of asthma among the Olympians causing airways inflammation and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. PMID:26631837

  20. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf;

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  1. Biomarkers in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao Chloe; Woodruff, Prescott G

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have been critical for studies of disease pathogenesis and the development of new therapies in severe asthma. In particular, biomarkers of type 2 inflammation have proven valuable for endotyping and targeting new biological agents. Because of these successes in understanding and marking type 2 inflammation, lack of knowledge regarding non-type 2 inflammatory mechanisms in asthma will soon be the major obstacle to the development of new treatments and management strategies in severe asthma. Biomarkers can play a role in these investigations as well by providing insight into the underlying biology in human studies of patients with severe asthma. PMID:27401625

  2. Determinants of Risk Factors for Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W Busse

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of risk factors for the development of asthma, including genetic and environmental components. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that a variety of genes are associated with the features of asthma, such as persistent wheezing, airway responsiveness and chronic bronchial inflammation. However, for expression of these features, other factors must also come into play. This paper focuses on the importance of environmental factors in the development of asthma, including allergens and respiratory infections. From current evidence, it appears that in subjects with the appropriate genetic make-up, infections and allergens induce a proinflammatory cytokine response that causes airway inflammation and that in turn leads to the initiation and persistence of altered airway function.

  3. Nutrition and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the asthma prevalence in many countries over the recent decades, highlights the need for a greater understanding of the risk factors for asthma. Be-cause asthma is the result of interaction between genetic and environmental fac-tors, increasing prevalence is certainly the result of changes in environmental fac-tors because of process of wesernization. That is the reason for higher prevalence in countries where a traditional to a westernized lifestyle occurred earlier. This increasing prevalence has affected both rural and urban communities, suggesting that local environmental factors such as exposure to allergens or industrial air pol-lutions are not the sole cause. In the last few years, nutrition has represented an important conditioning factor of many cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and chronic pulmonary diseases. So it has been hypothesized that dietary constituents influence the immune system and thus, may also be actively involved in the onset of asthma and other allergic diseases. Dietary constituents can play beneficial as well as det-rimental role in asthma. The possible role of diet in the development of asthma can be described as follows: first, a food allergen can cause asthma. Second, there is role of breast-feeding for prevention of asthma later in life. Third, a low intake of antioxidative dietary constituents might be a risk factor for asthma. Moreover, role of cations such as sodium, potassium and magnesium has been described in development of asthma. Finally, intake of fatty acids specially the role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play important role in cause of asthma.

  4. Airway dysbiosis: Haemophilus influenzae and Tropheryma in poorly controlled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jodie L; Daly, Joshua; Baines, Katherine J; Yang, Ian A; Upham, John W; Reynolds, Paul N; Hodge, Sandra; James, Alan L; Hugenholtz, Philip; Willner, Dana; Gibson, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways where bacteria may act as protagonists of chronic inflammation. Little is known about the relation of airway inflammation to the presence of specific bacterial taxa. We sought to describe the sputum microbiome in adults with poorly controlled asthma.DNA was extracted from induced sputum and microbial communities were profiled using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Bacterial species were characterised, and the relationship between microbial populations, asthma inflammatory subtypes and other covariates was explored. Real-time PCR was used to identify Tropheryma whipplei and Haemophilus influenzae in sputum.Adults with neutrophilic asthma had reduced bacterial diversity and species richness. Tropheryma was identified and confirmed with real-time PCR in 12 (40%) participants. Haemophilus occurred most often in a group of younger atopic males with an increased proportion of neutrophils. PCR confirmed the presence of H. influenzae in 35 (76%) participants with poorly controlled asthma.There are phenotype-specific alterations to the airway microbiome in asthma. Reduced bacterial diversity combined with a high prevalence of H. influenzae was observed in neutrophilic asthma, whereas eosinophilic asthma had abundant T. whipplei.

  5. Asthma and Therapeutics: Recombinant Therapies in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockcroft Donald W

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous recombinant therapies are being investigated for the treatment of asthma. This report reviews the current status of several of these novel agents. Anti-immunoglobulin (IgE (omalizumab, Xolair markedly inhibits all aspects of the allergen challenge in subjects who have reduction of free serum IgE to undetectable levels. Several clinical studies in atopic asthma have demonstrated benefit by improved symptoms and lung function and a reduction in corticosteroid requirements. Early use in atopic asthmatics may be even more effective. Several approaches target interleukin (IL-4. Soluble IL-4 receptor has been shown to effectively replace inhaled corticosteroid; further studies are under way. Recombinant anti-IL-5 and recombinant IL-12 inhibit blood and sputum eosinophils and allergen-induced eosinophilia without any effect on airway responsiveness, allergen-induced airway responses, or allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Efalizumab, a recombinant antibody that inhibits lymphocyte trafficking, is effective in psoriasis. A bronchoprovocation study showed a reduction in allergen-induced late asthmatic response and allergen-induced eosinophilia, which suggests that it should be effective in clinical asthma. These exciting novel therapies provide not only promise of new therapies for asthma but also valuable tools for investigation of asthma mechanisms.

  6. So You Have Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the night every night or competing in the Olympics. In other words, you should be able to live a normal active life! The following list shows what your life could be like if your asthma were controlled: As a rule, you should have: • Few, if any, asthma symptoms • ...

  7. Asthma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Attanasi, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  8. Asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Maria de Benedictis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  9. What Is Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that it is a combination of your family history and your environment. There is no cure for asthma. Once you ... administrators with information, education and resources to incorporate environmental management into clinical practices and standards of care for asthma patients. Top ...

  10. Advances in Pediatric Asthma in 2013: Coordinating Asthma Care

    OpenAIRE

    Szefler, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Last year’s Advances in Pediatric Asthma: Moving Toward Asthma Prevention concluded that: “We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to utilize new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma.” This year’s summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on pre- and postnatal factors alt...

  11. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  12. [Distinguishing asthma from COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kouhei; Samukawa, Takuya; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2016-05-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major public health burdens. Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, airway narrowing with reversibility, and hyperresponsiveness of airways. COPD has been associated with smoking and exposure to environmental fumes, which typically characterized by persistent airflow limitation and chronic inflammation of the airways. These differences are most apparent when young non-smoker with asthma and older smokers with COPD are compared. However, it would be difficult to differentiate asthma from COPD, especially in elderly who currently smoke or have a significant history of smoking. Furthermore, some patients exhibit characteristics of both diseases, this may represent a phenotype known as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). Therefore, the precise understanding of these diseases is important.

  13. Factors associated with asthma control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.P. de; Bemt, E.A.J.M. van den; Lince, S.; Muris, J.W.M.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which factors are associated with asthma control experienced by asthma patients. In a cross-sectional study patients aged 16-60 years with mild to moderate asthma were selected. The influence of the following factors on asthma control was studied in a multivaria

  14. Asthma control: Patient and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.M. Rijssenbeek-Nouwens

    2015-01-01

    Control of asthma, the goal of asthma treatment, seems hard to obtain. However, it is largely unknown why control of asthma remains difficult in many patients in spite of available powerful medication. In this thesis we studied non-pharmacological factors influencing asthma control: patient related

  15. Pareidolia in Neuroendocrinology: A Pituitary Macroadenoma Resembling "Big Bird".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2016-04-01

    The MRI picture of a pituitary macroadenoma with supra- and perisellar expansion resembled a famous character from a children's television series demonstrating that pareidolia is also observed in neuro-endocrinology and -radiology. PMID:26812692

  16. The Significance of Asthma Follow-Up Consultations for Adherence to Asthma Medication, Asthma Medication Beliefs, and Asthma Control

    OpenAIRE

    Malin Axelsson; Linda Ekerljung; Bo Lundbäck

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate adherence to asthma medication treatment, medication beliefs, and asthma control in relation to asthma follow-up consultations in asthmatics in the general population. A further aim was to describe associations between adherence, medication beliefs, and asthma control. Method. In the population-based West Sweden Asthma Study, data allowing calculation of adherence for 4.5 years based on pharmacy records were obtained from 165 adult asthmatics. Additional ...

  17. Children with Asthma and Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Selda Yuzer; Sevinc Polat

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to the...

  18. Screening for asthma in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A.

    1994-01-01

    The primary health care team is at the forefront of asthma management and there is evidence of improved delivery of care via nurse run, audited, general practice clinics. However, hospital admissions for asthma continue to rise. Screening for childhood asthma would appear to have advantages for patient care. This review looks critically at the literature that addresses important issues in screening for childhood asthma, including the problem of defining asthma, its prevalence rate and the imp...

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma*

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Salles; Regina Terse-Ramos; Adelmir Souza-Machado; Cruz, Alvaro A

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worseni...

  20. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients with ast......Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients...... with asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung function...

  1. Asthma in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Hem, Erlend; Stensrud, Trine

    2011-12-01

    Athletes active in endurance sports are at an increased risk of acquiring asthma through their sports activities, especially so for cross-country skiers, biathlon skiers, swimmers and athletes of other endurance sports. Asthma may be present from early childhood or develop while in active sports. This article focuses on the physical activity and sports activities in children and adolescents. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is found in 8-10% of a normal child population of school age and in about 35% of children with current asthma. EIA is caused by the markedly increased ventilation during exercise, with increased heat and water loss through respiration, leading to bronchial constriction. The risk of developing asthma in the young athlete is related to the repeated daily training activity with increased epithelial damage of the airways, delayed repair due to the daily repetition of the training and increased airway mucosal inflammation. The increased environmental exposure through the sports activity to environmental agents, such as cold, dry air in skiers and chlorine compounds in swimmers, increases symptoms and signs of asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness, either worsening an existing asthma or leading to a novel disease in a previously healthy athlete. Several specific aspects of daily training life, environmental exposure, diagnostic procedures and aspects of treatment related to the regulations of medication use in sports need particular attention when addressing the adolescent athlete with respiratory symptoms.

  2. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling linked to social class in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E; Miller, G E; Walker, H A; Arevalo, J M; Sung, C Y; Cole, S W

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Low socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the most robust social factors associated with disease morbidity, including more severe asthma in childhood. However, our understanding of the biological processes that explain this link is limited. This study tested whether the social environment could get “under the skin” to alter genomic activity in children with asthma. Design and participants Two group design of children with physician diagnosed asthma who came from low or high SES families. Outcomes Genome-wide transcriptional profiles from T lymphocytes of children with asthma. Results Children with asthma from a low SES background showed overexpression of genes regulating inflammatory processes, including those involved in chemokine activity, stress responses and wound responses, compared with children with asthma from a high SES background. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that decreased activity of cyclic AMP response element binding protein and nuclear factor Y and increased nuclear factor κB transcriptional signalling mediated these effects. These pathways are known to regulate catecholamine and inflammatory signalling in immune cells. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence in a sample of paediatric patients diagnosed with asthma that the larger social environment can affect processes at the genomic level. Specifically, gene transcription control pathways that regulate inflammation and catecholamine signalling were found to vary by SES in children with asthma. Because these pathways are the primary targets of many asthma medications, these findings suggest that the larger social environment may alter molecular mechanisms that have implications for the efficacy of asthma therapeutics. PMID:19001005

  3. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. PMID:27401626

  4. The novel 10-item asthma prediction tool: external validation in the German MAS birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus B Grabenhenrich

    Full Text Available A novel non-invasive asthma prediction tool from the Leicester Cohort, UK, forecasts asthma at age 8 years based on 10 predictors assessed in early childhood, including current respiratory symptoms, eczema, and parental history of asthma.We aimed to externally validate the proposed asthma prediction method in a German birth cohort.The MAS-90 study (Multicentre Allergy Study recorded details on allergic diseases prospectively in about yearly follow-up assessments up to age 20 years in a cohort of 1,314 children born 1990. We replicated the scoring method from the Leicester cohort and assessed prediction, performance and discrimination. The primary outcome was defined as the combination of parent-reported wheeze and asthma drugs (both in last 12 months at age 8. Sensitivity analyses assessed model performance for outcomes related to asthma up to age 20 years.For 140 children parents reported current wheeze or cough at age 3 years. Score distribution and frequencies of later asthma resembled the Leicester cohort: 9% vs. 16% (MAS-90 vs. Leicester of children at low risk at 3 years had asthma at 8 years, at medium risk 45% vs. 48%. Performance of the asthma prediction tool in the MAS-90 cohort was similar (Brier score 0.22 vs. 0.23 and discrimination slightly better than in the original cohort (area under the curve, AUC 0.83 vs. 0.78. Prediction and discrimination were robust against changes of inclusion criteria, scoring and outcome definitions. The secondary outcome 'physicians' diagnosed asthma at 20 years' showed the highest discrimination (AUC 0.89.The novel asthma prediction tool from the Leicester cohort, UK, performed well in another population, a German birth cohort, supporting its use and further development as a simple aid to predict asthma risk in clinical settings.

  5. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  6. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children ...

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do ...

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know ... Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File ...

  10. TCM Differential Treatment of Cough Variant Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-de; DENG Yi-qi; ZHANG Yu; HAN Yun; LIN Lin; CHAO En-xiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cough variant asthma (CVA), also called latent asthma or cough asthma, is a special type of asthma. With gradually deepened understanding of CVA in recent years, good curative effect has been achieved in TCM treatment of CVA.

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to ... PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: ...

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Start ... Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma- ...

  13. Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... early life exposures to allergens may help protect children from asthma. Some of NJRC's most important research addresses the ... story. ) In pediatric asthma, doctors are studying and treating the progression of asthma, infant wheezing that leads to asthma, and severe ...

  14. Diagnostic tools assessing airway remodelling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, L; Reche, M; Padial, M A; Valbuena, T; Pascual, C

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lower airways characterised by the presence of airway inflammation, reversible airflow obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness and alterations on the normal structure of the airways, known as remodelling. Remodelling is characterised by the presence of metaplasia of mucous glands, thickening of the lamina reticularis, increased angiogenesis, subepithelial fibrosis and smooth muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia. Several techniques are being optimised at present to achieve a suitable diagnosis for remodelling. Diagnostic tools could be divided into two groups, namely invasive and non-invasive methods. Invasive techniques bring us information about bronchial structural alterations, obtaining this information directly from pathological tissue, and permit measure histological modification placed in bronchi layers as well as inflammatory and fibrotic cell infiltration. Non-invasive techniques were developed to reduce invasive methods disadvantages and measure airway remodelling-related markers such as cytokines, inflammatory mediators and others. An exhaustive review of diagnostic tools used to analyse airway remodelling in asthma, including the most useful and usually employed methods, as well as the principal advantages and disadvantages of each of them, bring us concrete and summarised information about all techniques used to evaluate alterations on the structure of the airways. A deep knowledge of these diagnostic tools will make an early diagnosis of airway remodelling possible and, probably, early diagnosis will play an important role in the near future of asthma. PMID:22236733

  15. Precipitating factors of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H

    1992-01-01

    Asthma is characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This feature of the asthmatic diathesis predisposes patients to wheezing in response to a number of different factors. These precipitating factors include specific allergen acting via sensitised mediator cells through an IgE-dependent mechanism. There are irritants which may work through a non-specific manner, or stimuli such as exercise and hyperventilation, which probably also act through mediator release via a non-IgE-dependent manner. The mechanism whereby physical stimuli such as exercise induce bronchoconstriction is of interest, because it increases the context in which the mast cell may participate in acute asthmatic bronchoconstriction. Respiratory infections also commonly provoke asthma, especially in infants and may, indeed, precipitate the asthmatic state itself. Finally, drugs can often trigger asthma attacks and the mechanisms of asthma precipitated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin have been the subject of recent research.

  16. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  17. Zoneterapi og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, Thor; Heinig, John Hilligsøe; Collins, Philippa;

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many patients with asthma seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology. Our aim was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten weeks of either active or simulated (placebo) reflexology were...... compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 40 patients with asthma. RESULTS: Objective lung function tests did not change. Subjective scores and bronchial sensitivity to histamine improved on both regimens, but no differences were found in the groups receiving active or placebo reflexology....... However, a trend in favour of reflexology became significant when a supplementary analysis of symptom diaries was carried out. At the same time a significant pattern compatible with subconscious un-blinding was found. DISCUSSION: We found no evidence that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond...

  18. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P;

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active...... or simulated (placebo) reflexology given by an experienced reflexologist, were compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 20+20 outpatients with asthma. Objective lung function tests (peak flow morning and evening, and weekly spirometry at the clinic) did not change. Subjective scores (describing...... diaries was carried out. It was accompanied by a significant pattern compatible with subconscious unblinding, in that patients tended to guess which treatment they had been receiving. No evidence was found that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond placebo influence....

  19. Interleukin-16 in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jing-min; SHI Huan-zhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by lymphocyte, eosinophil, and mast cell infiltration of the submucosa along with mucous gland hyperplasia and subepithelial fibrosis.

  20. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... conducting a physical examination and performing a breathing test called spirometry. If your breathing test shows that ...

  1. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  2. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Ohta; Masakazu Ichinose; Hiroyuki Nagase; Masao Yamaguchi; Hisatoshi Sugiura; Yuji Tohda; Kohei Yamauchi; Mitsuru Adachi; Kazuo Akiyama

    2014-01-01

    Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012). The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship...

  3. Pharmacotherapy of severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Firszt, Rafael; Kraft, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous phenotype where management can be challenging. While many patients with severe asthma respond to high-dose inhaled corticosteroids in combination with a long-acting β-agonist, there remains a significant subset of patients that require oral corticosteroids to control symptoms. Alternative therapies are needed to help reduce the need for continuous oral corticosteroids; however, there are currently very few effective options. Several new alternative...

  4. Relvar Ellipta for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    ▼Relvar Ellipta (GSK) is a dry powder inhaler that contains a corticosteroid (fluticasone furoate) and a long-acting beta2 agonist (vilanterol trifenatate). It is licensed for once-daily use as maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. In a previous article we considered its use in the management of COPD.1 Here we review the evidence for Relvar Ellipta in the treatment of patients with asthma.

  5. [Asthma, obesity and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, P; Delgado, J; Gallego, L T; Bobolea, I; Pedrosa, Ma; García de Lorenzo, A; Quirce, S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity have a considerable impact on public health and their prevalence has increased in recent years. Numerous studies have linked both disorders. Most prospective studies show that obesity is a risk factor for asthma and have found a positive correlation between baseline body mass index (BMI) and the subsequent development of asthma, although these results are not conclusive when studying the association between airway hyperresponsiveness with BMI. Furthermore, several studies suggest that whereas weight gain increases the risk of asthma, weight loss improves the course of the illness. Different factors could explain this association. Obesity is capable of reducing pulmonary compliance, lung volumes and the diameter of peripheral respiratory airways as well as affecting the volume of blood in the lungs and the ventilation-perfusion relationship. Furthermore, the increase in the normal functioning of adipose tissue in obese subjects leads to a systemic proinflammatory state, which produces a rise in the serum concentrations of several cytokines, the soluble fractions of their receptors and chemokines. Many of these mediators are synthesized and secreted by cells from adipose tissue and receive the generic name of adipokines, including IL-6, IL-10, eotaxin, TNF-α, TGF- 1, PCR, leptin y adiponectin. Finally, specific regions of the human genome which are related to both asthma and obesity have been identified. Most studies point out that obesity is capable of increasing the prevalence and incidence of asthma, although this effect appears to be modest. The treatment of obese asthmatics must include a weight control program. PMID:22566313

  6. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity ... the Nation Fact Sheet State Data Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources ...

  7. Wheezing and Asthma in childhood: an epidemiology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rodriguez, J A; Garcia-Marcos, L

    2008-01-01

    Wheezing/asthma in children is a complex problem due to its heterogeneous condition, with different pathogenic mechanisms, variations in duration and in severity; that make it difficult to totally understand. This relation between wheezing in infants and later development of asthma will be the result of alterations in the immune system maturation and congenital or acquired modifications of the airway. Several longitudinal studies have given us important information about the different phenotypes of wheezing/asthma that coexist in children. In this review, we analyse the recent potential mechanisms and risk factors for each of the three classic wheezing phenotypes presenting in children: transient, non-atopic and atopic; and we propose for consideration a fourth phenotype: overweight/obese girls with early menarche. A better understanding of those risk factors would be useful for the development of new strategies in wheezing/asthma management. PMID:19080801

  8. Role of Asthma Education in the Management of Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Côté

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available When a patient is newly diagnosed as having asthma, he or she is often prescribed new medication without getting much information on the disease and its treatment. This article emphasizes the need to educate asthmatics. Asthma treatment should begin with a proper adjustment of the medication, allowing asthmatics to lead a normal life. All asthmatics should be shown how to use their inhalation device properly. They should he knowledgeable about the basic aspects of asthma, airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction, use or medication and early symptoms heralding an asthma attack. Environmental factors that may trigger an asthma attack should be explained. Patients should be able to self-monitor asthma using either symptom severity or a peak flow meter. Because asthma is an unpredictable disease, patients should have a self-action plan to implement when their asthma deteriorates.

  9. Domestic use of cleaning sprays and asthma activity in females. : Domestic cleaning sprays and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moual, Nicole; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Siroux, Valérie; Dumas, Orianne; Nadif, Rachel; Pin, Isabelle; Zock, Jean-Paul; Kauffmann, Francine

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to study the associations between the household use of cleaning sprays and asthma symptoms and control of asthma, in females from the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA). Data were available for 683 females (mean age 44 yrs, 55% never smokers, 439 without asthma and 244 with current asthma). Both domestic exposures and asthma phenotypes (asthma symptom score, current asthma, poorly-controlled asthma (56%)) were evaluated as previously described in t...

  10. Influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Cetlin Andrea; Gutierrez Manoel; Bettiol Heloísa; Barbieri Marco; Vianna Elcio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest an association between obesity and asthma in adults and children. Asthma diagnosis criteria are different among studies. The aim of this study was to test the influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of 1922 men and women, subjects completed a translated questionnaire from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey and underwent spirometry and a bronchial challenge test. W...

  11. The Resemblances Between Wuthering Height and Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li yichun

    2008-01-01

    Large difference in style from appearance, "Jane Evre"and "Wuthering Heights" have greet resemblance in reality. As the principal expressions: The protagonist's pursuing for individual value and vindicating of personal dignity; The writer's pursuit of an ideal love; The works" creative method of illusion and symbolism.

  12. The challenge of unravelling family resemblance related to illness behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Dijk, L. van; Bosch, W. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2005-01-01

    Background: Efforts to promote health or prevent disease may conflict with patients’ habits at home. Irrespective of the national setting, families are important social contexts in which illness occurs and resolves. Family members resemble each other in their illness behaviour, even across generatio

  13. Conodont bioapatite resembles vertebrate enamel by XRD properties

    OpenAIRE

    Jüri Nemliher; Toivo Kallaste

    2012-01-01

    XRD properties of Phanerozoic conodont apatite material were studied. It was found out that in terms of crystallinity the apatite resembles the enamel tissue of modern vertebrates. In terms of crystal lattice, apatite of conodonts is independent of taxa on the one hand and of chemistry of the surrounding rock type on the other hand.

  14. Conodont bioapatite resembles vertebrate enamel by XRD properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Nemliher

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available XRD properties of Phanerozoic conodont apatite material were studied. It was found out that in terms of crystallinity the apatite resembles the enamel tissue of modern vertebrates. In terms of crystal lattice, apatite of conodonts is independent of taxa on the one hand and of chemistry of the surrounding rock type on the other hand.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes part of ... the Symptoms of an Allergy? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease InfoSearch: Asthma Johns Hopkins Medicine: ...

  16. The Asthma Cost in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, Joan B; Zulfikar Habibullah; Al-Busaidi, Nasser H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the direct costs of treating asthma in Oman. Methods: Asthma prevalence and unit cost estimates were based on results from a panel using the Delphi technique, and were appliedto the total Omani population aged 5 and older to obtain the number of people diagnosed with asthma. The estimates from the Delphi exercise were multiplied by the percentage of patients using government facilities to estimate the number of asthma patients managed in Oman. Treatment costs ...

  17. Asthma control: Patient and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, E.H.D.; Weersink, E.J.M.; Rijssenbeek-Nouwens, L.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Control of asthma, the goal of asthma treatment, seems hard to obtain. However, it is largely unknown why control of asthma remains difficult in many patients in spite of available powerful medication. In this thesis we studied non-pharmacological factors influencing asthma control: patient related factors, such as adherence and health status, as well as environmental related factors such as exposure to house dust mite allergen. Finally we studied the effect of a combination of these patient ...

  18. Asthma in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-06-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed. PMID:21702657

  19. Rhinitis: a complication to asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J W; Thomsen, S F; Nolte, H;

    2010-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis often co-occur, and this potentially increases the disease severity and impacts negatively on the quality of life. We studied disease severity, airway responsiveness, atopy, quality of life and treatment in subjects with both asthma and rhinitis compared to patients with asthma...

  20. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  1. Swimming pool-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S; Vivaldo, T; Morelli, M; Carlucci, P; Zuccotti, G V

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old elite swimmer presented with wheezing after indoor swimming training. On the basis of her clinical history and the tests performed, exercise-induced asthma and mold-induced asthma were ruled out and a diagnosis of chlorine-induced asthma was made. PMID:21548454

  2. Asthma: where is it going?

    OpenAIRE

    D.S. Faffe

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Although our understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms continues to evolve, the relative contributions of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation are still debated. The first mechanism identified as important for asthma was bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In a second step, asthma was recognized also as an inflammatory disease, with chronic inflammation inducing structural...

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome resembling histopathological alterations in ovaries from prenatal androgenized female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 6-10% of women of reproductive age and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that dictate androgen overproduction is lacking, which may account for inconsistencies between measures of androgen excess and clinical presentation in individual cases. Methods A rat model of PCOS was established by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfoconjugate (DHEAS into pregnant females. Rats were administered with DHEAS (60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously (s.c. for all 20 days of pregnancy (Group A, or for the first 10 days (Group B, or from day 11 to day 20 (Group C. Controls were administered with injection oil (0.2 ml/day s.c. throughout pregnancy (Group D. The litter rate, abortion rate, and offspring survival rate in each group were recorded. Serum androgen and estrogen were measured and the morphological features of the ovaries were examined by light and electron microscopy in the offspring of each group. Results We found that rats injected with DHEAS throughout pregnancy (group A lost fertility. Rats injected with DHEAS during early pregnancy (group B exhibited more serious aberrations in fertility than both Group C, in which rats were injected with DHEAS during late pregnancy (P  Conclusions Our results indicate that androgen excess during pregnancy can decrease rat fertility. Excess androgen at the early stage of pregnancy causes high reproductive toxicity, leading to abnormality of ovarian morphology and functions in female offspring.

  4. The Pivotal Role of Airway Smooth Muscle in Asthma Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaïg Ozier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by the association of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR, inflammation, and remodelling. The aim of the present article is to review the pivotal role of airway smooth muscle (ASM in the pathophysiology of asthma. ASM is the main effector of AHR. The mechanisms of AHR in asthma may involve a larger release of contractile mediators and/or a lower release of relaxant mediators, an improved ASM cell excitation/contraction coupling, and/or an alteration in the contraction/load coupling. Beyond its contractile function, ASM is also involved in bronchial inflammation and remodelling. Whereas ASM is a target of the inflammatory process, it can also display proinflammatory and immunomodulatory functions, through its synthetic properties and the expression of a wide range of cell surface molecules. ASM remodelling represents a key feature of asthmatic bronchial remodelling. ASM also plays a role in promoting complementary airway structural alterations, in particular by its synthetic function.

  5. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  6. Traditional Therapies for Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eileen; Hoyte, Flavia C L

    2016-08-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines define severe asthma for patients 6 years or older as "asthma which requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids…plus a second controller or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy." This article reviews available traditional therapies, data behind their uses in severe asthma, and varying recommendations. As various asthma endotypes and phenotypes are better understood and characterized, targeted therapies should help improve disease outcomes, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:27401628

  7. Resemblance Argument” and Controversies over Mimesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Delija

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the common interpretation of Platonic art that supports the view that it is ontologically and gnoseologically irrelevant because it is mainly defined by mimetic concept as a mere imitation of the material world, and is therefore banished from the Republic, we will offer some different interpretations. Namely, it is possible to show that mimetic principle is not the reason why Plato condemns art, and that the notion of artistic mimesis in fact stems from the metaphysical notion of mimesis as approximation or gradual resemblance to the paradigm. In this case artistic mimesis achieves higher ontological authenticity and imitates the ideal by means of the sensory. Parmenides’ “resemblance argument” may constitute a serious obstacle for the acceptance of, on the one hand, the idea of the relation of resemblance (homoiotes between Forms and particulars, that is between the paradigm and its image, and on the other hand it may question the idea of approximation in which mimetic principle has metaphysical foundation. However, when Form is seen as a synthetic unity of many things (hen epi pollon, it then represents the right standpoint for the explanation of the phenomena, and it becomes questionable when it is placed on the same level with its exemplars. If the relation of resemblance between the paradigm and its image is determined by the “dynamic”, and not by “symmetric resemblance” in which both parts are on the same level of ontological authenticity, then the view of philosophical mimesis as approximation on which relies artistic mimetic concept is legitimate.

  8. On Large Scale Inductive Dimension of Asymptotic Resemblance Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantari, Sh.; Honari, B.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of large scale inductive dimension for asymptotic resemblance spaces. We prove that the large scale inductive dimension and the asymptotic dimensiongrad are equal in the class of r-convex metric spaces. This class contains the class of all geodesic metric spaces and all finitely generated groups. This leads to an answer for a question asked by E. Shchepin concerning the relation between the asymptotic inductive dimension and the asymptotic dimensiongrad, for r-convex m...

  9. Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Wan Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infi...

  10. Salmeterol in paediatric asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Byrnes, C; Shrewsbury, S.; Barnes, P; Bush, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The addition of long acting inhaled β2 agonists is recommended at step 3 of the British guidelines on asthma management but a recent study suggested no additional benefit in children with asthma.
METHODS—The aim of this study was to compare, in a double blind, three way, crossover study, the effects of the addition of salmeterol 50 µg bd, salmeterol 100 µg bd, and salbutamol 200 µg qds in asthmatic children who were symptomatic despite treatment with inhaled co...

  11. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelso, John M.

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  12. Exercise training in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  13. Managing Asthma at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Julie A.

    2000-01-01

    School personnel must know which students have asthma, typical warning signs, and appropriate actions in an emergency. Administering appropriate medication and reducing environmental triggers are not enough. Policymaking in schools and workplaces and legislation to increase health care access and eliminate substandard housing and air pollution are…

  14. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...

  15. The microbiome in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yvonne J; Boushey, Homer A

    2015-01-01

    The application of recently developed sensitive, specific, culture-independent tools for identification of microbes is transforming concepts of microbial ecology, including concepts of the relationships between the vast complex populations of microbes associated with ourselves and with states of health and disease. Although most work initially focused on the community of microbes (microbiome) in the gastrointestinal tract and its relationship to gastrointestinal disease, interest has expanded to include study of the relationships of the airway microbiome to asthma and its phenotypes and to the relationships between the gastrointestinal microbiome, development of immune function, and predisposition to allergic sensitization and asthma. Here we provide our perspective on the findings of studies of differences in the airway microbiome between asthmatic patients and healthy subjects and of studies of relationships between environmental microbiota, gut microbiota, immune function, and asthma development. In addition, we provide our perspective on how these findings suggest the broad outline of a rationale for approaches involving directed manipulation of the gut and airway microbiome for the treatment and prevention of allergic asthma.

  16. Occupational Neutrophilic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Leigh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational asthma is typically associated with an eosinophilic bronchitis. The case of a 41-year-old woman who developed symptoms of asthma after occupational exposure to metal working fluids is reported. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 of 1.7 (59% predicted, with 11% reversibility after inhaled bronchodilator and a provocation concentration of methacholine to cause a fall in FEV1 of 20% (PC20 of 0.4 mg/mL. Induced sputum examination showed a marked neutrophilia. Over the next six months, serial sputum analyses confirmed the presence of a marked sterile neutrophilic bronchitis during periods of occupational exposure to metal working fluids, which resolved when the patient was away from work and recurred when she returned to work. The sputum findings were mirrored by corresponding changes in spirometry and PC20 methacholine. The findings indicate the occurrence of occupational asthma associated with an intense, sterile neutrophilic bronchitis after exposure to metal working fluids.

  17. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution can trigger an asthma attack. This pollution can come from factories, cars, and other sources. Pay attention to air quality forecasts on radio, television, and the Internet and check your newspaper to plan ... levels will be low. Cockroach Allergen Cockroaches and ...

  18. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  19. Asthma in Adolescents: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Asthma Program for Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L Cowie; Underwood, Margot F; Little, Cinde B; Ian Mitchell; Sheldon Spier; Ford, Gordon T

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is common and is often poorly controlled in adolescent subjects.OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of an age-specific asthma program on asthma control, particularly on exacerbations of asthma requiring emergency department treatment, and on the quality of life of adolescents with asthma.METHODS: The present randomized, controlled trial included patients who were 15 to 20 years of age and had visited emergency departments for management of their asthma. The interventional gr...

  20. Childhood Asthma Management Pre- and Post-Incident Asthma Hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Marina; Clavenna, Antonio; Sequi, Marco; Bortolotti, Angela; Fortino, Ida; Merlino, Luca; Bonati, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Many hospitalizations for asthma could potentially be avoided with appropriate management. The aim of this study was to analyze data on disease management of a paediatric population with a hospitalization for asthma. The study population comprised 6–17 year old subjects belonging to three local health units of the Lombardy Region, northern Italy. Regional administrative databases were used to collect data on: the number of children with an incident hospitalization for asthma during the 2004–2...

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Nation Fact Sheet State Data Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources ... Informs Design Other Evaluation Resources Multimedia Messages Agencies Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn ...

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals School and Childcare Providers More Asthma Resources ...

  4. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma who Smoke Insurance coverage and barriers to care for people with asthma Tables and Graphs Asthma ... Home Pregnant Women - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - ...

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance ... gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ...

  6. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Baby's Growth Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  7. Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms, asthma and its treatment in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Pedersen, L; Larsson, B;

    2008-01-01

    . Physician-diagnosed asthma was present in 16% and 14% had current asthma. Asthma medication was taken by 7% of the athletes, of whom 79% used inhaled corticosteroids and 21% used inhaled beta(2)-agonists only. Athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of current asthma (24%) and use...... of asthma medication (15%) than all other athletes (Pendurance sports have a higher prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medication. The frequency of asthma medication is lower than the prevalence of current asthma indicating that there is no overuse of asthma medication...

  8. Resemblance operations and conceptual complexity in animal metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneider Iza Ervitia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For over thirty years cognitive linguists have devoted much effort to the study of metaphors based on the correlation of events in human experience to the detriment of the more traditional notion of resemblance metaphor, which exploits perceived similarities among objects. Grady (1999 draws attention to this problem and calls for a more serious study of the latter type of metaphor. The present paper takes up this challenge on the basis of a small corpus of ‘animal’ metaphors in English, which are essentially based on resemblance. Contrary to previous analyses by cognitive linguists (e.g. Lakoff & Turner 1989, Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, 1998, who claim that such metaphors are based on a single mapping generally involving comparable behavioral attributes, I will argue that we have a more complex situation which involves different patterns of conceptual interaction. In this respect, I have identified cases of (i animal metaphors interacting with high-level (i.e. grammatical metaphors and metonymies, of (ii (situational animal metaphors whose source domains are constructed metonymically (cf. Goossens 1990; Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Díez Velasco 2002, and of (iii animal metaphors interacting with other metaphors thereby giving rise to metaphoric amalgams (cf. Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Galera Masegosa 2011.

  9. [Osteoid osteoma of the wrist joint resembling tenosynovitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpin, Gershon; Shtarker, Haim; Oliver, Simon; Katznelson, Alexander; Stahl, Shalom

    2006-12-01

    Osteoid osteoma of bones of the wrist joint is a relatively rare lesion. This article presents a series of three patients, one with osteoid osteoma of the styloid process of the radius and two with osteoid osteoma of the capitate bone. All of them had clinical symptoms resembling those of stenosing tenosynovitis of the wrist joint. X-rays, tomography and bone scan revealed the characteristic findings of osteoid osteoma. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Treatment consisted of "en bloc" excision of these tumors. Following surgery patients were asymptomatic and had normal mobility of the affected wrist. In the first patient this has been maintained for the succeeding 27 years. It is suggested that in any case of persistent unexplained pain of the wrist or clinical symptoms resembling those of tenosynovitis, osteoid osteoma of the styloid process of the radius or of the carpal bones should also be included in the differential diagnosis. The recommended treatment of osteoid osteoma is "en bloc" excision of this tumour in the affected bone, resulting in complete relief of pain and absence of functional disturbances. PMID:17220026

  10. Violence and Asthma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that exposure to community violence is, directly and indirectly, associated with asthma. This article reviews the findings on the impact of violence on asthma, and the pathways for the association of violence and asthma are suggested: 1 exposure to violence is directly associated with asthma, mainly through dysregulation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, 2 exposure to violence is associated with the change of susceptibility of outdoor air pollution on asthma, probably through the change of an immune response, and 3 behavioral change due to exposure to violence (e.g. keeping children indoors leads to more exposure to indoor pollutants. The suggested framework may be useful to develop health policy on asthma in high-violence communities.

  11. Asthma Is More Severe in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zein, Joe G.; Dweik, Raed A.; Comhair, Suzy A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Busse, William W.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Chung, K. Fan; Fitzpatrick, Anne; Israel, Elliot; Teague, W. Gerald; Sally E. Wenzel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Severe asthma occurs more often in older adult patients. We hypothesized that the greater risk for severe asthma in older individuals is due to aging, and is independent of asthma duration. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data from adult participants (N=1130; 454 with severe asthma) enrolled from 2002 – 2011 in the Severe Asthma Research Program. Results: The association between age and the probability of severe asthma, which was performed by ap...

  12. The Effects of Bronchiectasis on Asthma Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hye Ran; Choi, Gyu-Sik; Park, Sun Jin; Song, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jeong Min; Ha, Junghoon; Lee, Yung Hee; Lee, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jae Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchiectasis and asthma are different in many respects, but some patients have both conditions. Studies assessing the effect of bronchiectasis on asthma exacerbation are rare. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of bronchiectasis on asthma exacerbation. Methods We enrolled 2,270 asthma patients who were followed up in our hospital. Fifty patients had bronchiectasis and asthma. We selected fifty age- and sex-matched controls from the 2,220 asthma patients without br...

  13. How Can Microarrays Unlock Asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Alen Faiz; Janette K. Burgess

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although current therapies for asthma are relatively effective, subpopulations of asthmatics do not respond to these regimens. By unlocking the role of these underlying mechanisms, a source of novel and more ef...

  14. Effects of smoking on asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, S K

    2014-03-01

    Tobacco smoking has several adverse associations with asthma.The odds ratios for prevalence of asthma are high for both active smoking and ETS exposures. In-utero exposure of foetus from maternal smoking, as well as its tertiary exposure from maternal passive-smoking are also known to be responsible for development of asthma in childhood. Smoking adversely affects the health and treatment-outcomes of asthma. There are increased requirements of drugs for smoker and ETS exposed asthmatics. Smoking is also an important factor in the development of airway remodelling, fixed airway obstruction and an exaggerated lung function decline. PMID:25327058

  15. Intravenous magnesium for acute asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Each year in the UK, around 1,500 people die from asthma. Standard treatment has been based on bronchodilators (e.g. beta 2-stimulants) and anti-inflammatory drugs (corticosteroids). The recently revised British Guideline on the Management of Asthma suggests also using a single dose of i.v. magnesium sulphate in patients with acute severe asthma, an unlicensed indication. Here we discuss the rationale for giving i.v. magnesium and whether it offers any advantage for patients with acute severe asthma.

  16. Getting control of uncontrolled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Despite various treatment modalities, a large proportion of patients have asthma that remains uncontrolled. These patients remain at an increased risk of developing severe exacerbations, have a poor quality of life, and pose a high economic healthcare burden, with an estimated mean annual cost more than double that of patients with good symptom control. It is therefore important to accurately diagnose asthma and continually assess asthma control. Several validated tools are available to do this, including questionnaires, biomarker analysis, and bronchoscopy. Current guidelines advise physicians to establish a self-management program for the patient to assess and monitor asthma control. A further recommendation is the establishment of an educational action plan to increase treatment adherence and to improve asthma control. National and international guidelines provide long-term management strategies for these patients and recommend a stepwise approach for achieving and maintaining asthma control. Despite availability of a wide range of controller and reliever therapies, uncontrolled asthma remains a challenge and reflects the need for new therapeutic options. This review discusses current global guidelines for the assessment and management of asthma control and summarizes the broad spectrum of novel therapeutic agents currently under development for the treatment of asthma, including anticholinergics, chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecules expressed on T-helper 2 lymphocyte antagonists, and anti-interleukin (IL)-5, anti-IL-13, and anti-IL-4 agents. PMID:24844737

  17. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ...

  18. Steroid resistant asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhadia, S K

    2014-03-01

    Inspite of very safe and effective treatment, Bronchial asthmatics do not respond well in 5-10% of cases which are labelled as Refractory Asthma. Besides compliance, presence of psychogenic and trigger factors and comorbid illness, steroid insensitiveness or resistance may play a significant role in the poorly controlled/responding asthmatics. Type I Steroid resistance is due to lack of binding affinity of steroids to glucocorticoid receptors and may respond to higher doses of steroids while type II steroid resistance is because of reduced number of cells with glucocorticoid receptors, which is very rare and do not respond to even higher doses of systemic steroids and these cases require alternative/novel therapies. Future treatment of steroid resistant and severe refractory asthma is likely to be targeted towards cytokines and Bronchial Thermoplasty.

  19. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria. PMID:19671382

  20. Studies on provoked asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of adult patients with perennial bronchial asthma has been studied as to lung perfusion and alveolar ventilation (81m-Kr) at rest and after provocation of an acute attack. Asthma was provoked by exercise and by histamine inhalation. After provocation the peak expiratory flow values were reduced to less than 80% of the base line values. Perfusion was often deranged. Regional ventilation changed rapidly after provocation and not always in the same fashion after exercise and histamine. During attacks lung volume increased. The expansion decreased (in parallel with increased peak expiratory flow) after inhalator of a #betta#-2 agonist (terbutaline). 81m-Kr offers unique opportunities for studying acute regional changes in alveolar ventilation. (Author)

  1. Pathogenesis of Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Barlan, Işıl B.; Başaran, Müjdat M.

    2000-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction in response to allergen chronic eosinophilic airway inflammation and nonspecific airway hyperreponsiveness Allergic reaction appears to be the result of a TH2 type T cell response to one or more common environmental allergens The allergen specific TH2 response represents the triggering event for the recruitment and the involvement of the other cell types as well as a large number of soluble factors and adhesion molecules thus ...

  2. Adenosine Receptors and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Constance N; Nadeem, Ahmed; Spina, Domenico; Brown, Rachel; Page, Clive P.; Jamal Mustafa, S.

    2009-01-01

    The pathophysiological processes underlying respiratory diseases like asthma are complex, resulting in an overwhelming choice of potential targets for the novel treatment of this disease. Despite this complexity, asthmatic subjects are uniquely sensitive to a range of substances like adenosine, thought to act indirectly to evoke changes in respiratory mechanics and in the underlying pathology, and thereby to offer novel insights into the pathophysiology of this disease. Adenosine is of partic...

  3. Holy Saturday asthma

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Terence M; Cusack, Ruth; Landers, Sarah; Bredin, Charles Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old man complained of cough and dyspnoea after exposure to colophony-containing solder fumes at work. A histamine challenge test confirmed airway hyper-responsiveness, and colophony-challenge demonstrated a 16.7% drop in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), supporting a diagnosis of colophony-induced occupational asthma. At review, the patient presented with cough, dyspnoea and wheeze that occurred acutely when exposed to the fumes from burning incense during Easter Saturday services, ...

  4. Pulmonary remodeling in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The inflammatory and immunologic processes responsible for asthma can produce permanently fixed obstructive lung disease unresponsive to medical therapy. This can be manifested clinically by the failure of a childhood asthmatic to reach full expected lung capacity at adulthood and by an accelerated decline in pulmonary capacity in adults. Recent studies have furthered our insight into the pathologic processes underlying these changes and the potential effects of therapy to prevent them.

  5. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  6. Beta-2-Adrenergic Receptor Methylation Influences Asthma Phenotype in The School Inner City Asthma Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and inner city residents suffer a disproportionately high rate of asthma diagnosis and asthma morbidity. The School Inner City Asthma Study investigates the school classroom based environmental exposures that may lead to asthma morbidity in inner city school children with asthma. Within this cohort, we investigated the role of methylation at the promoter region of the beta-2-adrenergic receptor in relation to asthma morbidity. We found th...

  7. Acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Ramuscello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the main causes of morbidity worldwide. It affects some 300 million individuals and has risen over the past 20 years, especially in the paediatric population. Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways, subject to periodic exacerbations, characterised by coughing and progressive dyspnoea. Clinical conditions may vary greatly, ranging from moderate exacerbation with an increase in nocturnal awakening and a less than 20% reduction in the flow peak, through to severe respiratory insufficiency that requires immediate intubation of the airways. Pharmacological treatment envisages a step approach that aims to obtain and maintain control over the symptoms, taking into consideration the effectiveness of the treatment available, potential side effects and cost. β2-agonists and corticosteroids are the drugs of election for both maintenance therapy and for treating exacerbations. Other therapeutic devices may prove useful in particular cases. One fundamental key point in treatment over time is the cooperation between patient and attending doctor. The latest review of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA guidelines was published in 2006.

  8. Acute bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  9. Severe supraaortal atherosclerotic disease resembling Takayasu’s Arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Kis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Bernhard Kis1,2, Thomas Liebig3,4, Peter Berlit11Department of Neurology, Alfried Krupp Hospital, Essen, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 3Department of Neuroradiology, Alfried Krupp Hospital, Essen, Germany; 4Department of Neuroradiology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, GermanyAbstract: We report a case of a 64 year-old man whose clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings strikingly resembled those found in Takayasu’s Arteritis which is characterized by the triad of absent radial pulses, ischemic retinopathy, and carotid sinus hyperreflexia causing syncopes. Angiographically, the patient exhibited severe atherosclerotic changes of the supraaortic large vessels. Stent-assisted angioplasty resulted in both clinical improvement and increased cerebral blood flow as measured by angiography and ultrasound.Keywords: Takayasu’s arteritis, atherosclerosis, angiography, stent, angioplasty

  10. PERCEPTUAL RESEMBLANCE OF FACIAL IMAGES: A NEAR SET APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.MUSTAFI

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a near set approach to image analysis. Near sets result from generalization of rough settheory. One set X is near another set Y to the extent that the description of at least one of the objects in X matches thedescription of at least one of the objects in Y. Near set Evaluation And Recognition (NEAR system is used to measure thedegree of resemblance between facial images. The goal of the NEAR system is to extract perceptual information fromimages using near set theory, which provides a framework for measuring the perceptual nearness of objects. In this work,we have used images from Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE database. The images were first converted intoLocal Binary Patterns (LBP images and then divided into non-overlapping blocks. The degree of nearness of histogramsof all the blocks of one image is measured with the corresponding blocks of another image by using NEAR system

  11. RESEMBLANCE OPERATIONS AND CONCEPTUAL COMPLEXY IN ANIMAL METAPHORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneider Iza Ervitia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    For over thirty years cognitive linguists have devoted much effort to the study of metaphors based on the correlation of events in human experience to the detriment of the more traditional notion of resemblance metaphor, which exploits perceived similarities among objects. Grady (1999 draws attention to this problem and calls for a more serious study of the latter type of metaphor. The present paper takes up this challenge on the basis of a small corpus of ‘animal’ metaphors in English, which are essentially based on resemblance. Contrary to previous analyses by cognitive linguists (e.g. Lakoff & Turner 1989, Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, 1998, who claim that such metaphors are based on a single mapping generally involving comparable behavioral attributes, I will argue that we have a more complex situation which involves different patterns of conceptual interaction. In this respect, I have identified cases of (i animal metaphors interacting with high-level (i.e. grammatical metaphors and metonymies, of (ii (situational animal metaphors whose source domains are constructed metonymically (cf. Goossens 1990; Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Díez Velasco 2002, and of (iii animal metaphors interacting with other metaphors thereby giving rise to metaphoric amalgams (cf. Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Galera Masegosa 2011.

  12. Emerging therapeutic options for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colice, Gene L

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Due to these pathologic features, the foundation of asthma treatment has historically been anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Numerous factors in addition to IgE and eosinophils, however, likely play important roles in mediating the airway inflammatory response characteristic of asthma. ICSs are effective therapy for some patients with persistent asthma, but clinical trials have shown that even increasing doses of ICSs under carefully controlled situations does not always result in acceptable asthma control. Consequently, other classes of medications, in addition to ICSs, are recommended in those patients with more severe asthma. The class of medication most commonly used in more severe asthma, along with ICSs, is long-acting inhaled beta2-agonists, but leukotriene modifying agents and anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies may also be used. Agents such as tiotropium, a long-acting inhaled anti-muscarinic agent, and those aimed at inhibiting cytokines, such as mepoluzimab, daclizumab, and etanercept, hold promise in the treatment of asthma. Other agents under investigation include phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors and oligonucleotides. Bronchial thermoplasty, a nonpharmacologic option, may also be beneficial in patients with poorly controlled asthma. As our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of asthma increases, it will enable the development of novel therapeutic approaches for patients who are not responding well to traditional treatments. Although more studies are necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety of both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches, there is future promise for therapeutic advances in severe, persistent asthma. PMID:21761958

  13. AsthmaVent – Effect of Ventilation on Asthma Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne;

    and design of housing. Indoor environment factors that trigger the disease must be controlled as well as possible. The results of this project will be a significant contribution to the potential recommendations regarding the effect of ventilation on indoor air quality and asthma control of HDM allergic......Background House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma among children. Children spend 14 hours of their time indoor everyday in aberage, where they are exposed to different components in the indoor air. These components are children with asthma and HDM allergy specially...... sensitive towards. Reducing this exposure may improve the asthma control in these children. Previous studies give conflicting information on the effect of mechanical ventilation on asthma control in children. Objectives We aim at investigating whether mechanical ventilation is capable of improving indoor...

  14. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradding Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and localize specifically to key tissue structures such as the submucosal glands and airway smooth muscle within asthmatic bronchi, irrespective of disease severity or phenotype. Here they are activated and interact exclusively with these structural cells via adhesive pathways and through the release of soluble mediators acting across the distance of only a few microns. The location of mast cells within the airway smooth muscle bundles seems particularly important for the development and propagation of asthma, perhaps occurring in response to, and then serving to aggravate, an underlying abnormality in asthmatic airway smooth muscle function. Targeting this mast cell-airway smooth muscle interaction in asthma offers exciting prospects for the treatment of this common disease.

  15. Effects of short-term treatment with atorvastatin in smokers with asthma - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Suzanne M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune modulating properties of statins may benefit smokers with asthma. We tested the hypothesis that short-term treatment with atorvastatin improves lung function or indices of asthma control in smokers with asthma. Methods Seventy one smokers with mild to moderate asthma were recruited to a randomized double-blind parallel group trial comparing treatment with atorvastatin (40 mg per day versus placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks treatment inhaled beclometasone (400 μg per day was added to both treatment arms for a further 4 weeks. The primary outcome was morning peak expiratory flow after 4 weeks treatment. Secondary outcome measures included indices of asthma control and airway inflammation. Results At 4 weeks, there was no improvement in the atorvastatin group compared to the placebo group in morning peak expiratory flow [-10.67 L/min, 95% CI -38.70 to 17.37, p = 0.449], but there was an improvement with atorvastatin in asthma quality of life score [0.52, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.87 p = 0.005]. There was no significant improvement with atorvastatin and inhaled beclometasone compared to inhaled beclometasone alone in outcome measures at 8 weeks. Conclusions Short-term treatment with atorvastatin does not alter lung function but may improve asthma quality of life in smokers with mild to moderate asthma. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00463827

  16. Asthma in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, A S; Skov, Lone; Skytthe, A;

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the report by Fang and colleagues of the relationship between psoriasis and asthma in a large retrospective case-control study from Taiwan [1]. The study found a 1.38-fold increased risk of asthma among patients with psoriasis, and with an increasing risk according to higher...

  17. DNA vaccine and asthma therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Huan-zhong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Allergic asthma is currently considered a chronic airway inflammatory disorder associated with the presence of activated CD4+ Th2-type lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells. Interestingly, therapeutic strategies based on immune deviation and suppression have been shown to successfully attenuate the development of the asthma phenotype.

  18. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  19. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  20. Environment and asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moual, Nicole; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Dumas, Orianne; Kauffmann, Francine; Nadif, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    The present review addresses recent advances and especially challenging aspects regarding the role of environmental risk factors in adult-onset asthma, for which the causes are poorly established. In the first part of the review, we discuss aspects regarding some environmental risk factors for adult-onset asthma: air pollution, occupational exposures with a focus on an emerging risk represented by exposure to cleaning agents (both at home and in the workplace), and lifestyle and nutrition. The second part is focused on perspectives and challenges, regarding relevant topics on which research is needed to improve the understanding of the role of environmental factors in asthma. Aspects of exposure assessment, the complexity of multiple exposures, the interrelationships of the environment with behavioral characteristics and the importance of studying biological markers and gene-environment interactions to identify the role of the environment in asthma are discussed. We conclude that environmental and lifestyle exposures play an important role in asthma or related phenotypes. The changes in lifestyle and the environment in recent decades have modified the specific risk factors in asthma even for well-recognized risks such as occupational exposures. To better understand the role of the environment in asthma, the use of objective (quantitative measurement of exposures) or modern tools (bar code, GPS) and the development of multidisciplinary collaboration would be very promising. A better understanding of the complex interrelationships between socio-economic, nutritional, lifestyle and environmental conditions might help to study their joint and independent roles in asthma.

  1. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Friend Who Cuts? Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? If You Smoke If Other People Smoke en español Fumar y el asma You may have family photo albums full of pictures with people smoking at all kinds of events, ...

  2. The management of acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, S

    1997-04-01

    Health professionals likely to come into contact with people experiencing an acute episode of asthma, such as school nurses, ambulance personnel and A&E staff, need clear guidelines on management. The British Thoracic Society guidelines, revised this year, advise on the categorisation of asthma, assessment and treatment.

  3. Asthma: where is it going?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Faffe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Although our understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms continues to evolve, the relative contributions of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation are still debated. The first mechanism identified as important for asthma was bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In a second step, asthma was recognized also as an inflammatory disease, with chronic inflammation inducing structural changes or remodeling. However, persistence of airway dysfunction despite inflammatory control is observed in chronic severe asthma of both adults and children. More recently, a potential role for epithelial-mesenchymal communication or transition is emerging, with epithelial injury often resulting in a self-sustaining phenotype of wound repair modulation by activation/reactivation of the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit, suggesting that chronic asthma can be more than an inflammatory disease. It is noteworthy that the gene-environmental interactions critical for the development of a full asthma phenotype involve processes similar to those occurring in branching morphogenesis. In addition, a central role for airway smooth muscle in the pathogenesis of the disease has been explored, highlighting its secretory function as well as different intrinsic properties compared to normal subjects. These new concepts can potentially shed light on the mechanisms underlying some asthma phenotypes and improve our understanding of the disease in terms of the therapeutic strategies to be applied. How we understand asthma and its mechanisms along time will be the focus of this overview.

  4. How can microarrays unlock asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faiz, Alen; Burgess, Janette K

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although curr

  5. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  6. "Kickin' Asthma": School-Based Asthma Education in an Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of "Kickin' Asthma", a school-based asthma curriculum…

  7. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Z; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is common among pregnant women, and the incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is high. This literature review provides an overview of the impact of exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy on pregnancy-related complications. The majority of published retrospective studies reveal...... that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive care...... to these outcomes. In conclusion, asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are associated with complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery. Prevention of exacerbations is essential to reduce the risk of complications and poor outcome....

  8. Sources of Stress in Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michelle; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy M.

    1992-01-01

    Children with asthma were studied to determine their perceptions of the frequency and severity of stressors they experienced other than asthma. Results indicated children with asthma were similar to peers regarding perceptions of stressors. Perceptions of most stressors related more strongly to gender role development than to asthma. (SM)

  9. Exploring the obesity-asthma link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently.......Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently....

  10. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma- ... 4. Gathering and Using Data 4A. Focus On: Data Collection Choices 4B. Focus on Using Mixed Methods 5. ...

  11. Asthma and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration. PMID:6958045

  12. The poorly explored impact of uncontrolled asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Schatz, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    . Children with uncontrolled asthma also have a higher frequency of obesity than children with controlled asthma. Stress can affect asthma control, and children with poorly controlled asthma are more likely to have learning disabilities compared with those with good control. In adults, focused attention...... effects of poorly controlled asthma (for example, obesity, pneumonia, and risks to the fetus) can be perceived as side effects of ICSs. Poorly controlled asthma adversely affects children's cardiovascular fitness, while children with well-controlled asthma perform at the same level as their peers...

  13. Childhood asthma management pre- and post-incident asthma hospitalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bianchi

    Full Text Available Many hospitalizations for asthma could potentially be avoided with appropriate management. The aim of this study was to analyze data on disease management of a paediatric population with a hospitalization for asthma. The study population comprised 6-17 year old subjects belonging to three local health units of the Lombardy Region, northern Italy. Regional administrative databases were used to collect data on: the number of children with an incident hospitalization for asthma during the 2004-2006 period, anti-asthma therapy, specialist visit referrals, and claims for spirometry, released in the 12 months before and after hospitalization. Each patient's asthma management profile was compared with GINA guideline recommendations. Among the 183 hospitalized subjects, 101 (55% received therapy before hospitalization and 82 (45% did not. 10% did not receive any therapy either before or after hospital admission and in 13% the therapy was discontinued afterward. Based on GINA guidelines, asthma management adhered to recommendations only for 55% of subjects. Results may suggest that for half of hospitalized subjects, inaccurate diagnosis, under-treatment/scarce compliance with asthma guidelines by physicians, and/or scarce compliance to therapy by patients/their parents occurred. In all these cases, hospitalization would be a proxy indicator of preventable poor control of disease, rather than a proxy indicator of severity.

  14. Asma ocupacional Occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cebollero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Asma ocupacional es aquella entidad que se desarrolla por causas o condiciones derivadas de un determinado medio laboral y no por estímulos que se encuentran fuera del trabajo. El asma ocupacional constituye hoy en día la enfermedad respiratoria ocupacional más frecuente en la mayoría de los países industrializados y se calcula que la proporción de nuevos casos de asma atribuibles a la exposición laboral se sitúa en torno al 10-15%. Puede desarrollarse tanto por un mecanismo inmunológico como no inmunológico. En su desarrollo influyen el tipo de agente al que se está expuesto, el nivel y modo de exposición y factores genéticos de susceptibilidad. En el proceso diagnóstico concurre la confirmación de que el paciente tiene asma bronquial y la confirmación de que ésta se produce por causa laboral. Como demuestra la historia natural de la enfermedad, un diagnóstico precoz y las consiguientes acciones posteriores redundan en un mejor pronóstico de la misma.Occupational asthma is an entity caused by conditions deriving from a certain work milieu and not from stimuli found outside the workplace. Nowadays, occupational asthma is the most frequent respiratory occupational disease in the majority of the industrialised countries and it is estimated that the proportion of new cases of asthma that can be attributed to exposure at work is around 10-15%. It can be developed due to an immunological mechanism or to a non-immunological mechanism. Influential in its development are the type of agent exposed to, the level and form of exposure and genetic factors of susceptibility. In the diagnostic process there is a concurrent confirmation that the patient has bronchial asthma and that this has been caused by occupational reasons. As shown by the natural history of the disease, an early diagnosis and the consequent posterior actions result in an improved prognosis.

  15. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...

  16. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Izuhara; Hisako Matsumoto; Shoichiro Ohta; Junya Ono; Kazuhiko Arima; Masahiro Ogawa

    2015-01-01

    Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis ...

  17. Screening, Diagnostic and Outcome Tools for Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony M.J. Wever; Jopie Wever-Hess; Mark G. Britton

    1998-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, affecting about 10% of children and 5 to 7% of the adult population. Improved asthma control will not only benefit the patient but will also result in reduced financial expenditure in asthma healthcare. This article summarises the tools that are available for assessing asthma and attempts to quantify the usefulness of each tool in assessing asthma in different clinical contexts, whether it be screening for asthmatics within a populatio...

  18. Allergic rhinitis: evidence for impact on asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper reviews the current evidence indicating that comorbid allergic rhinitis may have clinically relevant effects on asthma. Discussion Allergic rhinitis is very common in patients with asthma, with a reported prevalence of up to 100% in those with allergic asthma. While the temporal relation of allergic rhinitis and asthma diagnoses can be variable, the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis often precedes that of asthma. Rhinitis is an independent risk factor for the subsequent dev...

  19. Innate lymphocyte cells in asthma phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ozyigit, Leyla Pur; MORITA, Hideaki; Akdis, Mubeccel

    2015-01-01

    T helper type 2 (TH2) cells were previously thought to be the main initiating effector cell type in asthma; however, exaggerated TH2 cell activities alone were insufficient to explain all aspects of asthma. Asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome comprising different phenotypes that are characterized by their different clinical features, treatment responses, and inflammation patterns. The most-studied subgroups of asthma include TH2-associated early-onset allergic asthma, late-onset persistent eos...

  20. A randomized controlled trial to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of a nurse-led Antenatal Asthma Management Service in South Australia (AAMS study)

    OpenAIRE

    Grzeskowiak, Luke E; Dekker, Gustaaf; Rivers, Karen; Roberts-Thomson, Kate; Roy, Anil; Smith, Brian; Bowden, Jeffery; Bryce, Robert; Davies, Michael; Beilby, Justin; Wilson, Anne; Middleton, Philippa; Ruffin, Richard; Karnon, Jonathan; Clifton, Vicki L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnancy presents a unique situation for the management of asthma as it can alter the course of asthma severity and its treatment, which in turn can affect pregnancy outcomes. Despite awareness of the substantial adverse effects associated with asthma during pregnancy, little has been done to improve its management and reduce associated perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of an Antenatal ...

  1. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...... and extracted data from original articles that met the inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were used to express the results of the meta-analysis (forest plot). We explored heterogeneity using funnel plots and the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology (GATE). RESULTS......: We retrieved 1,571 titles and selected 11 articles describing three cohort and eight cross-sectional studies for inclusion. A meta-analysis of the cohort studies revealed a risk of new-onset asthma in children with low PA (OR [95 % CI] 1.32 [0.95; 1.84] [random effects] and 1.35 [1.13; 1.62] [fixed...

  2. Holy Saturday asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Terence M; Cusack, Ruth; Landers, Sarah; Bredin, Charles Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old man complained of cough and dyspnoea after exposure to colophony-containing solder fumes at work. A histamine challenge test confirmed airway hyper-responsiveness, and colophony-challenge demonstrated a 16.7% drop in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), supporting a diagnosis of colophony-induced occupational asthma. At review, the patient presented with cough, dyspnoea and wheeze that occurred acutely when exposed to the fumes from burning incense during Easter Saturday services, necessitating his departure from the church. Inhalation challenge tests using two blends of incense used at his church (Greek and Vatican) led to identical symptoms and a significant reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s 15 min after exposure and PEFRs up to 48 h after exposure, indicating an early and late phase asthmatic reaction. This is the first report of coexistent colophony and incense-induced asthma. The similarities in chemical structures between abietic acid in colophony and boswellic acid in incense suggest a common mechanism. PMID:24626388

  3. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Matsunaga, Natasha Yumi; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Saad, Ivete Alonso Bredda; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Global In...

  4. Researching asthma across the ages: Insights from the NHLBI Asthma Network

    OpenAIRE

    Cabana, Michael D; Kunselman, Susan J.; Nyenhuis, Sharmilee; Wechsler, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical asthma studies across different age groups, or ‘cross-age’ studies, can potentially offer insight into the similarities, differences and relationships between childhood and adult asthma. The National Institutes of Health Asthma Research Network (AsthmaNet) is unique and innovative in that it has merged pediatric and adult asthma research into one clinical research network. This combination enhances scientific exchange between pediatric and adult asthma investigators and encourages th...

  5. Level of asthma control and its relationship with medication use in asthma patients in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Marchioro; Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti; Oliver Augusto Nascimento; Federico Montealegre; James Fish; José Roberto Jardim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess asthma patients in Brazil in terms of the level of asthma control, compliance with maintenance treatment, and the use of rescue medication. METHODS: We used data from a Latin American survey of a total of 400 asthma patients in four Brazilian state capitals, all of whom completed a questionnaire regarding asthma control and treatment. RESULTS: In that sample, the prevalence of asthma was 8.8%. Among the 400 patients studied, asthma was classified, in accordance with the G...

  6. Role of Obesity in Asthma Control, the Obesity-Asthma Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Novosad; Supriya Khan; Bruce Wolfe; Akram Khan

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a disease with distinct phenotypes that have implications for both prognosis and therapy. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and obesity. Further studies have shown that obese asthmatics have poor asthma control and more severe asthma. This obese-asthma group may represent a unique phenotype. The mechanisms behind poor asthma control in obese subjects remain unclear, but recent research has focused on adipokines and their effects on the airways as ...

  7. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Yumi Matsunaga; Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro; Ivete Alonso Bredda Saad; André Moreno Morcillo; José Dirceu Ribeiro; Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Globa...

  8. Gait analysis in a mouse model resembling Leigh disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Ria; Russel, Frans G; Smeitink, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Leigh disease (LD) is one of the clinical phenotypes of mitochondrial OXPHOS disorders and also known as sub-acute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy. The disease has an incidence of 1 in 77,000 live births. Symptoms typically begin early in life and prognosis for LD patients is poor. Currently, no clinically effective treatments are available. Suitable animal and cellular models are necessary for the understanding of the neuropathology and the development of successful new therapeutic strategies. In this study we used the Ndufs4 knockout (Ndufs4(-/-)) mouse, a model of mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Ndusf4(-/-) mice exhibit progressive neurodegeneration, which closely resemble the human LD phenotype. When dissecting behavioral abnormalities in animal models it is of great importance to apply translational tools that are clinically relevant. To distinguish gait abnormalities in patients, simple walking tests can be assessed, but in animals this is not easy. This study is the first to demonstrate automated CatWalk gait analysis in the Ndufs4(-/-) mouse model. Marked differences were noted between Ndufs4(-/-) and control mice in dynamic, static, coordination and support parameters. Variation of walking speed was significantly increased in Ndufs4(-/-) mice, suggesting hampered and uncoordinated gait. Furthermore, decreased regularity index, increased base of support and changes in support were noted in the Ndufs4(-/-) mice. Here, we report the ability of the CatWalk system to sensitively assess gait abnormalities in Ndufs4(-/-) mice. This objective gait analysis can be of great value for intervention and drug efficacy studies in animal models for mitochondrial disease.

  9. Predator-Resembling Aversive Conditioning for Managing Habituated Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife habituation near urban centers can disrupt natural ecological processes, destroy habitat, and threaten public safety. Consequently, management of habituated animals is typically invasive and often includes translocation of these animals to remote areas and sometimes even their destruction. Techniques to prevent or reverse habituation and other forms of in situ management are necessary to balance ecological and social requirements, but they have received very little experimental attention to date. This study compared the efficacy of two aversive conditioning treatments that used either humans or dogs to create sequences resembling chases by predators, which, along with a control category, were repeatedly and individually applied to 24 moderately habituated, radio-collared elk in Banff National Park during the winter of 2001–2002. Three response variables were measured before and after treatment. Relative to untreated animals, the distance at which elk fled from approaching humans, i.e., the flight response distance, increased following both human and dog treatments, but there was no difference between the two treatments. The proportion of time spent in vigilance postures decreased for all treatment groups, without differences among groups, suggesting that this behavior responded mainly to seasonal effects. The average distance between elk locations and the town boundary, measured once daily by telemetry, significantly increased for human-conditioned elk. One of the co-variates we measured, wolf activity, exerted counteracting effects on conditioning effects; flight response distances and proximity to the town site were both lower when wolf activity was high. This research demonstrates that it is possible to temporarily modify aspects of the behavior of moderately habituated elk using aversive conditioning, suggests a method for reducing habituation in the first place, and provides a solution for Banff and other jurisdictions to manage

  10. Occupational asthma in maritime environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis;

    2016-01-01

    In 2006 we published our first review based on the available literature on occupational asthma in maritime environments in the “International Maritime Health” journal. Since then, we have obtained a great deal of new knowledge on asthma in seafood workers and fishermen and on the impact of exposu...... of exposures from sulphites preservatives, container fumigants etc. in maritime workers. This review aims to provide an update of the current knowledge base about occupational asthma in a maritime context and to provide recommendations regarding medical surveillance of workers at risk....

  11. Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms, asthma and its treatment in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, T; Pedersen, L; Larsson, B; Backer, V

    2009-04-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma and the use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of Danish elite athletes was conducted in 2006. All elite athletes (N=418) financially supported by the national organization of elite athletes comprised the study group; 329 (79%) completed the questionnaire concerning their sport, asthma-like symptoms, asthma and use of asthma medication. Asthma-like symptoms at rest were reported by 41% of respondents; 55% reported asthma-like symptoms at rest or at exercise. Physician-diagnosed asthma was present in 16% and 14% had current asthma. Asthma medication was taken by 7% of the athletes, of whom 79% used inhaled corticosteroids and 21% used inhaled beta(2)-agonists only. Athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of current asthma (24%) and use of asthma medication (15%) than all other athletes (Pendurance sports have a higher prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medication. The frequency of asthma medication is lower than the prevalence of current asthma indicating that there is no overuse of asthma medication among Danish elite athletes.

  12. The Role of the Epithelium in Airway Remodeling in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    The bronchial epithelium is the barrier to the external environment and plays a vital role in protection of the internal milieu of the lung. It functions within the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit to control the local microenvironment and help maintain tissue homeostasis. However, in asthma, chronic perturbation of these homeostatic mechanisms leads to alterations in the structure of the airways, termed remodeling. Damage to the epithelium is now recognized to play a key role in driving a...

  13. Facial resemblance to emotions: group differences, impression effects, and race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2010-02-01

    The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2 demonstrated that objective resemblance to emotion expressions influences trait impressions even when statistically controlling possible confounding influences of attractiveness and babyfaceness. It further demonstrated that emotion overgeneralization is moderated by face race and that racial differences in emotion resemblance contribute to White perceivers' stereotypes of Blacks and Asians. These results suggest that intergroup relations may be strained not only by cultural stereotypes but also by adaptive responses to emotion expressions that are overgeneralized to groups whose faces subtly resemble particular emotions.

  14. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with antiasthmatic agents and elimination of the causes and risk factors of asthma are fundamental to its treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate between mild and intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid, varying from low to high. Long-acting 02-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and sustained-release theophylline are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-immunoglobulin E antibody therapy has been recently developed for the most severe and persistent asthma involving allergic reactions. Inhaled 02-agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, and others are used as needed in acute exacerbations by choosing treatment steps for asthma exacerbations depending on the severity of attacks. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspirin-induced asthma, pregnancy, asthma in athletes, and coughvariant asthma are also important issues that need to be considered.

  15. Adherence to asthma guidelines in general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghmann, M C; Sexton, M

    1999-06-01

    Adherence to asthma practice guidelines is low. Improved compliance could potentially improve care of patients with asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients managed in a general practice with an associated asthma clinic are more likely to use asthma medications according to clinical practice guidelines than patients managed in the general surgery of the practice. A cross-sectional study of adult asthmatics, aged 18-55 years, was conducted in six British general practices. Prescription data on all asthma medication was collected for a 6-month period. Information on asthma clinic attendance, age, sex, employment status, other medical illness, and how patients used their inhaled beta2-agonist was collected through questionnaire. The prescription data for asthma medication and patient use of inhaled beta2-agonist were compared to the British Thoracic Society's (BTS) Guidelines for Management of Asthma in Adults to determine if the patient's asthma medication regimen was appropriate. There was no significant association found between appropriate asthma medication and asthma clinic attendance or other patient characteristics. Adherence to the BTS guidelines was low. Fifty-eight percent of the asthma patients used asthma medication regimens that were not consistent with the BTS guidelines published 1 year earlier. Adherence to the BTS guidelines was low regardless of patient characteristics, including asthma clinic attendance, age, sex, employment status, other medical illness, or individual practice. These findings underscore the need to document the utility of clinical practice guidelines which may improve physician compliance.

  16. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma action plan is to reduce or prevent flare-ups and emergency department visits through day-to-day ... can: avoid triggers identify early symptoms of a flare-up and treat them to prevent the flare-up ...

  17. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht;

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas...... that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention...

  18. Exercising and asthma at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some exercises may be less likely to trigger asthma symptoms. Swimming is often a good choice. The warm, moist air may keep symptoms away. Football, baseball, and other sports that ... symptoms. Activities that are more intense and sustained, ...

  19. How Can Microarrays Unlock Asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Faiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although current therapies for asthma are relatively effective, subpopulations of asthmatics do not respond to these regimens. By unlocking the role of these underlying mechanisms, a source of novel and more effective treatments may be identified. In the new age of high-throughput technologies, gene-expression microarrays provide a quick and effective method of identifying novel genes and pathways, which would be impossible to discover using an individual gene screening approach. In this review we follow the history of expression microarray technologies and describe their contributions to advancing our current knowledge and understanding of asthma pathology.

  20. Flu and People with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  1. Emerging molecular phenotypes of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Oriss, Timothy B; Wenzel, Sally E

    2015-01-15

    Although asthma has long been considered a heterogeneous disease, attempts to define subgroups of asthma have been limited. In recent years, both clinical and statistical approaches have been utilized to better merge clinical characteristics, biology, and genetics. These combined characteristics have been used to define phenotypes of asthma, the observable characteristics of a patient determined by the interaction of genes and environment. Identification of consistent clinical phenotypes has now been reported across studies. Now the addition of various 'omics and identification of specific molecular pathways have moved the concept of clinical phenotypes toward the concept of molecular phenotypes. The importance of these molecular phenotypes is being confirmed through the integration of molecularly targeted biological therapies. Thus the global term asthma is poised to become obsolete, being replaced by terms that more specifically identify the pathology associated with the disease. PMID:25326577

  2. The disease management approach to controlling asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahtela, T

    2002-02-01

    Asthma has become an important public health issue worldwide and certain groups, such as children, are at particular risk of the disease. Often asthma remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. Despite these worrying trends, the disease management approach to asthma control can help most asthma patients achieve a 'normal' way of life. The increased prevalence and greater diagnostic awareness of asthma have placed increased demands on healthcare resources, but effective asthma control can minimize the personal, social and economic burdens of asthma. Early diagnosis and immediate anti-inflammatory treatment is the first step in gaining control of symptoms. A stepwise approach is then used to classify asthma severity and treatment, with the number and frequency of medications increasing (step up) as asthma severity increases and decreasing (step down) when asthma is under control. This stepwise approach to asthma management necessitates regular review of treatment once asthma is under control. However, effective asthma management is dependent on successful patient education, adherence to prescribed medication and good doctor patient partnerships. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of a written asthma management plan that should be agreed between the doctor and patient. These plans should cover all aspects of asthma treatment, including prevention steps for long-term control and action steps to stop attacks once a worsening in asthma has been recognized. This comprehensive approach to asthma management increases the likelihood of achieving asthma control, which in turn reduces the need for emergency visits to the hospital or clinic and reduces the limitations on physical activity previously imposed by the condition.

  3. Asthma and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xian Qiao; Yi Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To get a comprehensive understanding about the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and asthma by reviewing the epidemiology,pathophysiology,and clinical manifestation and then summarizing the latest progress on diagnosis and treatment.Data Sources:Articles referred in this review were mainly collected from a comprehensive search of the PubMed published in English from 1990 to 2015 with the terms "OSA" and “asthma'" as the main keywords.Highly regarded older publications were also included.Study Selection:Information about the features of the two diseases in common,the pathophysiologic association between them and their current treatments from the literature search were identified,retrieved,and summarized.Results:Both OSA and asthma are very prevalent conditions.The incidences of them have kept on rising in recent years.Asthma is often accompanied by snoring and apnea,and OSA often combines with asthma,as well.They have many predisposing and aggravating factors in common.Possible shared direct mechanistic links between them include mechanical effects,intermittent hypoxia,nerve reflex,inflammation,leptin,etc.Indirect mechanistic links include medication,nose diseases,smoking,obesity,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.Since OSA presents many similar features with nocturnal asthma,some scholars termed them as a sole syndrome "alternative overlap syndrome,"and proved that asthma symptoms in those patients could be improved through the treatment of continuous positive airway pressure.Conclusions:OSA and asthma are closely associated in pathogenesis,symptoms,and therapies.With the growing awareness of the relationship between them,we should raise our vigilance on the coexistence of OSA in those difficult-to-control asthmatic patients.Further studies are still needed to guide the clinical works.

  4. Therapeutic options for severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Jilcy; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Chandy, Dipak

    2012-01-01

    As the overall prevalence of asthma has escalated in the past decades, so has the population of patients with severe asthma. This condition is often difficult to manage due to the relative limitation of effective therapeutic options for the physician and the social and economic burden of the disease on the patient. Management should include an evaluation and elimination of modifiable risk factors such as smoking, allergen exposure, obesity and non-adherence, as well as therapy for co-morbidit...

  5. Exercise and asthma: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Giacco, Stefano R. Del; Firinu, Davide; Bjermer, Leif; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    The terms ‘exercise-induced asthma’ (EIA) and ‘exercise-induced bronchoconstriction’ (EIB) are often used interchangeably to describe symptoms of asthma such as cough, wheeze, or dyspnoea provoked by vigorous physical activity. In this review, we refer to EIB as the bronchoconstrictive response and to EIA when bronchoconstriction is associated with asthma symptoms. EIB is a common occurrence for most of the asthmatic patients, but it also affects more than 10% of otherwise healthy individuals...

  6. Canadian asthma consensus report, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Boulet, L. P.; A. Becker; Bérubé, D; Beveridge, R.; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide physicians with current guidelines for the diagnosis and optimal management of asthma in children and adults, including pregnant women and the elderly, in office, emergency department, hospital and clinic settings. OPTIONS: The consensus group considered the roles of education, avoidance of provocative environmental and other factors, diverse pharmacotherapies, delivery devices and emergency and in-hospital management of asthma. OUTCOMES: Provision of the best control o...

  7. Chronic Infection and Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Kraft, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Chronic bacterial infection is implicated in both the development and severity of asthma. The atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae have been identified in the airways of asthmatics and correlated with clinical features such as adult onset, exacerbation risks, steroid sensitivity, and symptom control. Asthmatic patients with evidence of bacterial infection may benefit from antibiotic treatment directed towards these atypical organisms. Examination of the airway microbiome may identify microbial communities that confer risk for or protection from severe asthma. PMID:27401621

  8. Transcriptional Profiling of Th2 Cells Identifies Pathogenic Features Associated with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seumois, Grégory; Zapardiel-Gonzalo, Jose; White, Brandie; Singh, Divya; Schulten, Veronique; Dillon, Myles; Hinz, Denize; Broide, David H; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern; Vijayanand, Pandurangan

    2016-07-15

    Allergic asthma and rhinitis are two common chronic allergic diseases that affect the lungs and nose, respectively. Both diseases share clinical and pathological features characteristic of excessive allergen-induced type 2 inflammation, orchestrated by memory CD4(+) T cells that produce type 2 cytokines (Th2 cells). However, a large majority of subjects with allergic rhinitis do not develop asthma, suggesting divergence in disease mechanisms. Because Th2 cells play a pathogenic role in both these diseases and are also present in healthy nonallergic subjects, we performed global transcriptional profiling to determine whether there are qualitative differences in Th2 cells from subjects with allergic asthma, rhinitis, and healthy controls. Th2 cells from asthmatic subjects expressed higher levels of several genes that promote their survival as well as alter their metabolic pathways to favor persistence at sites of allergic inflammation. In addition, genes that enhanced Th2 polarization and Th2 cytokine production were also upregulated in asthma. Several genes that oppose T cell activation were downregulated in asthma, suggesting enhanced activation potential of Th2 cells from asthmatic subjects. Many novel genes with poorly defined functions were also differentially expressed in asthma. Thus, our transcriptomic analysis of circulating Th2 cells has identified several molecules that are likely to confer pathogenic features to Th2 cells that are either unique or common to both asthma and rhinitis. PMID:27271570

  9. Childhood asthma: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalderen, Wim M

    2012-01-01

    Many children suffer from recurrent coughing, wheezing and chest tightness. In preschool children one third of all children have these symptoms before the age of six, but only 40% of these wheezing preschoolers will continue to have asthma. In older school-aged children the majority of the children have asthma. Quality of life is affected by asthma control. Sleep disruption and exercised induced airflow limitation have a negative impact on participation in sports and social activities, and may influence family life. The goal of asthma therapy is to achieve asthma control, but only a limited number of patients are able to reach total control. This may be due to an incorrect diagnosis, co-morbidities or poor inhalation technique, but in the majority of cases non-adherence is the main reason for therapy failures. However, partnership with the parents and the child is important in order to set individually chosen goals of therapy and may be of help to improve control. Non-pharmacological measures aim at avoiding tobacco smoke, and when a child is sensitised, to avoid allergens. In pharmacological management international guidelines such as the GINA guideline and the British Guideline on the Management of Asthma are leading.

  10. Childhood Asthma: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim M. van Aalderen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many children suffer from recurrent coughing, wheezing and chest tightness. In preschool children one third of all children have these symptoms before the age of six, but only 40% of these wheezing preschoolers will continue to have asthma. In older school-aged children the majority of the children have asthma. Quality of life is affected by asthma control. Sleep disruption and exercised induced airflow limitation have a negative impact on participation in sports and social activities, and may influence family life. The goal of asthma therapy is to achieve asthma control, but only a limited number of patients are able to reach total control. This may be due to an incorrect diagnosis, co-morbidities or poor inhalation technique, but in the majority of cases non-adherence is the main reason for therapy failures. However, partnership with the parents and the child is important in order to set individually chosen goals of therapy and may be of help to improve control. Non-pharmacological measures aim at avoiding tobacco smoke, and when a child is sensitised, to avoid allergens. In pharmacological management international guidelines such as the GINA guideline and the British Guideline on the Management of Asthma are leading.

  11. Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Resembling Severe Preeclampsia in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raminder Kaur Khangura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in women, it is a rare malignancy in pregnancy. Symptoms of CRC such as fatigue, malaise, nausea, vomiting, rectal bleeding, anemia, altered bowel habits, and abdominal mass are often considered typical symptoms of pregnancy. Many cases of CRC are diagnosed in advanced stages due to missed warning signs of CRC, which may be misinterpreted as normal symptoms related to pregnancy. This report reviews 2 cases of CRC diagnosed within a 4-month interval at our institution. Both cases were initially thought to be atypical presentations of preeclampsia. Prenatal history, hospital course, and postpartum course were reviewed for both patients. CRC is often diagnosed at advanced stages in pregnancy. Common physiological symptoms of pregnancy should be scrutinized carefully and worked up appropriately, especially if symptoms remain persistent or increase in intensity or severity.

  12. Childhood Asthma Management and Environmental Triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbach, Jessica P; Cloutier, Michelle M

    2015-10-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children. It cannot be prevented but can be controlled. Industrialized countries experience high lifetime asthma prevalence that has increased over recent decades. Asthma has a complex interplay of genetic and environmental triggers. Studies have revealed complex interactions of lung structure and function genes with environmental exposures such as environmental tobacco smoke and vitamin D. Home environmental strategies can reduce asthma morbidity in children but should be tailored to specific allergens. Coupled with education and severity-specific asthma therapy, tailored interventions may be the most effective strategy to manage childhood asthma.

  13. Blood lipid levels associate with childhood asthma, airway obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and aeroallergen sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Rebecca K; Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard;

    2016-01-01

    with assessments of lung function, bronchial responsiveness, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), and allergic sensitization. Associations between lipid levels and clinical outcomes were adjusted for sex, passive smoking, and body mass index. RESULTS: High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were......BACKGROUND: Studies of children's blood lipid profiles in relation to asthma are few, and the results are ambiguous. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine whether the lipid profile is associated with concurrent asthma, altered lung function, and allergic sensitization in children. METHODS: High...... of increased Feno levels (aβ coefficient, 0.14 log-ppb; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.30 log-ppb; P = .08). CONCLUSION: The blood lipid profile is associated with asthma, airway obstruction, bronchial responsiveness, and aeroallergen sensitization in 7-year-old children. These findings suggest that asthma and allergy...

  14. Awareness regarding childhood asthma in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Saleh; Al-Harbi, Adel S.; Al-Khorayyef, Abdullah; Al-Qwaiee, Mansour; Al-Shamarani, Abdullah; Al-Aslani, Wafa; Kamfar, Hayat; Felemban, Osama; Barzanji, Mohammed; Al-Harbi, Naser; Dhabab, Ruqaia; Al-Omari, Mohammed Ahmed; Yousef, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assessing the knowledge and awareness of the Saudi society about bronchial asthma in children. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were randomly distributed to 1039 Saudi Arabians in May 2014 at Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. RESULTS: The awareness of bronchial asthma questions showed that 67% of total sample thought that it could be a fatal disease, and only 13.2% thought that there is a difference between bronchial asthma and chest allergies in children. 86.1% thought that the symptoms of bronchial asthma include dyspnea and nocturnal cough, and 45.7% thought that fever, a runny nose and throat inflammation are not symptoms. 60.2% thought that infectious respiratory diseases may increase bronchial asthma progression. In addition, 40% thought that the use of antibiotics doesn’t help in diminishing bronchial asthma complications, and some thought that the patient can stop medication after an acute asthma attack. 34.1% thought that inhaled medication for asthma doesn’t cause addiction. Very highly significant results are shown between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, the level of education, marital status, and if the individual knows a person who suffers from bronchial asthma (P < 0.001). There are positive correlations between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, marital status, and level of education (r = 0.152, 0.150, 0.197), respectively. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that bronchial asthma knowledge in the Saudi Arabian population is insufficient, and efforts should be carried out to spread bronchial asthma management. PMID:26933459

  15. The management of asthma in the phenotype and biomarker era: The proposal of a new diagnostic-therapeutic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Francesco; Bettoncelli, Germano; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Centanni, Stefano; Crimi, Nunzio; DiMaria, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Stefano; Gentili, Gilberto; Girbino, Giuseppe; Mereu, Carlo; Minghetti, Paola; Nardini, Stefano; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Papi, Alberto; Pistolesi, Massimo; Rossi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Treatment goals in asthma patients are the achievement of a good control of symptoms and the reduction of the risk of exacerbation. However, a "one-size-fits-all" therapeutic strategy is no longer appropriate to effectively pursue these goals, due to the heterogeneity of asthma. To make the treatment scenario even more complex, asthma patients often present comorbidities that may alter response to therapy. In addition, adherence to asthma treatment is poor. Given this complex and heterogeneous picture, the management of asthma is highly challenging. A clear diagnostic-therapeutic model of patients' care and the definition of the specific responsibilities of different healthcare providers appear necessary to improve clinical outcomes and better allocate healthcare resources. We present here a proposal for this model.

  16. The management of asthma in the phenotype and biomarker era: The proposal of a new diagnostic-therapeutic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Francesco; Bettoncelli, Germano; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Centanni, Stefano; Crimi, Nunzio; DiMaria, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Stefano; Gentili, Gilberto; Girbino, Giuseppe; Mereu, Carlo; Minghetti, Paola; Nardini, Stefano; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Papi, Alberto; Pistolesi, Massimo; Rossi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Treatment goals in asthma patients are the achievement of a good control of symptoms and the reduction of the risk of exacerbation. However, a "one-size-fits-all" therapeutic strategy is no longer appropriate to effectively pursue these goals, due to the heterogeneity of asthma. To make the treatment scenario even more complex, asthma patients often present comorbidities that may alter response to therapy. In addition, adherence to asthma treatment is poor. Given this complex and heterogeneous picture, the management of asthma is highly challenging. A clear diagnostic-therapeutic model of patients' care and the definition of the specific responsibilities of different healthcare providers appear necessary to improve clinical outcomes and better allocate healthcare resources. We present here a proposal for this model. PMID:27050723

  17. Korean Asthma Guideline 2014: Summary of Major Updates to the Korean Asthma Guideline 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Jung, Ki-Suck; Yoo, Ji Hong; Yoo, Kwang-Ha; Kim, Kwan Hyung

    2016-07-01

    Asthma is a prevalent and serious health problem in Korea. Recently, the Korean Asthma Guideline has been updated by The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) in an effort to improve the clinical management of asthma. This guideline focuses on adult patients with asthma and aims to deliver up to date scientific evidence and recommendations to general physicians for the management of asthma. For this purpose, this guideline was updated following systematic review and meta-analysis of recent studies and adapting some points of international guidelines (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA] report 2014, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program [NAEPP] 2007, British Thoracic Society [BTS/SIGN] asthma guideline 2012, and Canadian asthma guideline 2012). Updated issues include recommendations derived using the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) model, which produced 20 clinical questions on the management of asthma. It also covers a new definition of asthma, the importance of confirming various airflow limitations with spirometry, the epidemiology and the diagnostic flow of asthma in Korea, the importance and evidence for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ICS/formoterol as a single maintenance and acute therapy in the stepwise management of asthma, assessment of severity of asthma and management of exacerbation, and an action plan to cope with exacerbation. This guideline includes clinical assessments, and treatment of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome, management of asthma in specific conditions including severe asthma, elderly asthma, cough variant asthma, exercise-induced bronchial contraction, etc. The revised Korean Asthma Guideline is expected to be a useful resource in the management of asthma.

  18. The effect of asthma on the perimeter of the airway basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, John G; Budgeon, Charley A; Harji, Salima; Jones, Robyn L; James, Alan L; Green, Francis H

    2015-11-15

    When comparing the pathology of airways in individuals with and without asthma, the perimeter of the basement membrane (Pbm) is used as a marker of airway size, as it is independent of airway smooth muscle shortening or airway collapse. The extent to which the Pbm is itself altered in asthma has not been quantified. The aim of this study was to compare the Pbm from the same anatomical sites in postmortem lungs from subjects with (n = 55) and without (n = 30) asthma (nonfatal or fatal). Large and small airways were systematically sampled at equidistant "levels" from the apical segment of the left upper lobes and anterior and basal segments of the left lower lobes of lungs fixed in inflation. The length of the Pbm was estimated from cross sections of airway at each relative level. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationships between Pbm and sex, age, height, smoking status, airway level, and asthma group. The final model showed significant interactions between Pbm and airway level in small (<3 mm) airways, in subjects having asthma (P < 0.0001), and by sex (P < 0.0001). No significant interactions for Pbm between asthma groups were observed for larger airways (equivalent to a diameter of ∼3 mm and greater) or smoking status. Asthma is not associated with remodeling of the Pbm in large airways. In medium and small airways, the decrease in Pbm in asthma (≤20%) would not account for the published differences in wall area or area of smooth muscle observed in cases of severe asthma.

  19. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because asthma ...

  20. New Asthma Guidelines What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which allergens or irritants are important. The guidelines stress that multiple measures are necessary to control exposure to allergens and irritants. You should get regular "asthma check-ups" to monitor your asthma control. Visits ...

  1. Asthma: New Information for the Early Interventionist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonsson, Nancy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article highlights key portions of the National Institutes of Health's National Asthma Education Program. Guidelines for understanding asthma triggers and medications are provided, and approaches to controlling environmental factors are suggested. (Author/PB)

  2. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Orleans left buildings overrun with mold, a common asthma trigger," says Floyd J. Malveaux, M.D., Ph.D., ... Rhonda Brown. "It is one of the boys' asthma triggers, so I want to know more about it. ...

  3. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  4. Asthma mortality in the Danish child population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Inger Merete; Jensen, V B; Bülow, S;

    2003-01-01

    Child death due to asthma is a rare and potentially preventable event. We investigated possible risk factors for death due to asthma in children and adolescents, as a step towards preventing or minimizing asthma death in this age group, and improving asthma management and care. We reviewed all 108...... cases of asthma death in 1-19-year-olds in Denmark, 1973-1994. Copies of death certificates, hospital records, information from general practitioners, and autopsy records were obtained. The information was assessed with particular reference to: features and duration of asthma before death; severity...... of asthma; time and place of death; long-term and ongoing medical treatment; quality of medical care; circumstances of final illness; and medical treatment during the final episode of asthma. Age groups of 1-4 years, 5-14 years, and 15-19 years were analyzed separately and in aggregate. Death occurred...

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-2 Table 4-1 Table 4-2 Reports and Publications Asthma Surveillance Summaries MMWR Publications NCHS Reports and Publications Related Articles, Publications, and Links Asthma's ...

  6. Obesity-related asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Nikunj A; Lazarus, Angeline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity as a risk factor for asthma has been identified in previous studies. Additionally, a disproportionate number of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma are obese. Patients with obesity-related asthma tend to have worse asthma control and quality of life disproportionate to their pulmonary function tests, are less responsive to corticosteroid therapy, and are more likely to have obesity-related comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal disease that complicate asthma treatment. With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the prevalence of asthma is anticipated to grow proportionally. Addressing weight loss and encouraging activity is essential in the management of obesity-related asthma. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, unique distinguishing features, potential mechanisms, and approach to management of patients with obesity-related asthma in adults. PMID:27336439

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking your medicine ...

  8. Near-fatal asthma in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Nydia

    2015-01-01

    Asthma affects the elderly as often as other age groups; however, it more often becomes fatal in the elderly. Unfortunately, asthma is often unmanaged or underdiagnosed in the older population. It is important for health care providers to recognize risk factors in the elderly and properly treat them before asthma becomes fatal. This article describes near-fatal asthma and identifies risk factors specifically for the elderly. Symptoms of asthma are reviewed as well as assessments and diagnostic tests to identify asthma severity and complications. Proper management needs to be urgently initiated to prevent worsening respiratory distress; this includes fast-acting drug treatments appropriate for elderly patients. Decompensated acute respiratory failure, secondary to severe asthma, requires the skills of an experienced anesthesiologist because these patients may rapidly deteriorate during induction and intubation. Ventilator management must include strategies to prevent worsening hyperinflation of the lungs. Elderly asthma patients have a higher mortality risk related to ventilator complications and other comorbidities. PMID:25470264

  9. Managing Asthma: Learning to Breathe Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dr. Michelle Freemer, an NIH asthma expert. For youngsters, a doctor will do a physical exam and ... and treat asthma. Levine’s team is studying the effects of house dust mites inside the home. While ...

  10. Diagnosing Asthma in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Diagnosing Asthma in Babies & Toddlers Page Content Article Body One ... family with recurrent bronchitis or sinus problems. When Asthma is Not the Cause Your pediatrician will listen ...

  11. Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159082.html Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime Follow your care ... 27, 2016 FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Asthma symptoms increase in spring, making it especially important ...

  12. What's an Asthma Flare-Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know About Zika & Pregnancy What's an Asthma Flare-Up? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's an Asthma Flare-Up? ... in the neck and chest How a Flare-Up Affects Lungs Here's what's happening inside the body ...

  13. [Severe asthma--where are we today?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2014-01-13

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors.

  14. Svær asthma bronchiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health......-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors....

  15. Asthma care for children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among young children and adolescents. With high quality health care, most children and adolescents with asthma can live an active and normal life. Yet, many children and adolescents have uncontrolled asthma, with symptoms and exacerbations which may affect their daily life. Adolescence is a sensitive period and asthma may be difficult to treat due to poor adherence to treatment. Little is known about health care professionals’ adhe...

  16. Is Asthma Related to Choroidal Neovascularization?

    OpenAIRE

    Yaoyao Sun; Wenzhen Yu; Lvzhen Huang; Jing Hou; Peihua Gong; Yi Zheng; Mingwei Zhao; Peng Zhou; Xiaoxin Li

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age-related degeneration (AMD) and asthma are both diseases that are related to the activation of the complement system. The association between AMD and asthma has been debated in previous studies. The authors investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systemically. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The epidemiological study showed that asthma was related to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) subtype (OR = 1.721, P = 0.023). However, the meta-analysis showed there was no association b...

  17. Psychiatric and social aspects of brittle asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Garden, G M; Ayres, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Many studies have shown that emotional factors play a part in asthma, but few have compared patients with differing severities of asthma. It was our impression that patients with "brittle" asthma (BA; more than 40% diurnal variation in peak flow on 15 or more days a month over a period of at least six months, and persistent symptoms despite multiple drug treatment) had greater psychosocial morbidity than asthmatic patients with less variable asthma. METHODS--Twenty patients with B...

  18. Psychosocial Components of Asthma Management in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Shari L.

    2000-01-01

    Asthma is a growing health problem that affects 4.8 million children in the US alone. This paper considers empirical studies from the past 20 years examining the relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma management and morbidity. Research indicates that psychosocial factors, including risk and protective factors in the social environment, and knowledge, attitudes and skills pertaining to asthma management, can play an important role in asthma management, adherence and morbidity. Ca...

  19. Supported self-management for asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Pinnock

    2015-01-01

    Key points Self-management education in asthma is not an optional extra. Healthcare professionals have a responsibility to ensure that everyone with asthma has personalised advice to enable them to optimise how they self-manage their condition.; Overviews of the extensive evidence-base conclude that asthma self-management supported by regular professional review, improves asthma control, reduces exacerbations and admissions, and improves quality of life.; Self-management education sh...

  20. Progress in the management of childhood asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Vichyanond, Pakit; Pensrichon, Rattana; Kurasirikul, Suruthai

    2012-01-01

    Asthma has become the most common chronic disease in childhood. Significant advances in epidemiological research as well as in therapy of pediatric asthma have been made over the past 2 decades. In this review, we look at certain aspects therapy of childhood asthma, both in the past and present. Literature review on allergen avoidance (including mites, cockroach and cat), intensive therapy with β2-agonists in acute asthma (administering via continuous nebulization and intravenous routes), a r...

  1. Utility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 in the assessment of asthma control*

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Mariana Nadal; Chong, Herberto José; Rabelo, Lêda Maria; Riedi, Carlos Antônio; Rosário, Nelson Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 (ACQ-7) in asthma patients, comparing our results against those obtained with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. We evaluated 52 patients. Patients completed the ACQ-7, underwent spirometry, and were clinically assessed to determine the level of asthma control according to the GINA criteria, in two visits, 15 days apart. The ACQ-7 cutoff for uncontrolled asthma was a score of 1.5. The ACQ-7 show...

  2. Utility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 in the assessment of asthma control

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Nadal Cardoso; Herberto José Chong Neto; Lêda Maria Rabelo; Carlos Antônio Riedi; Nelson Augusto Rosário

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 (ACQ-7) in asthma patients, comparing our results against those obtained with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. We evaluated 52 patients. Patients completed the ACQ-7, underwent spirometry, and were clinically assessed to determine the level of asthma control according to the GINA criteria, in two visits, 15 days apart. The ACQ-7 cutoff for uncontrolled asthma was a score of 1.5. The ACQ-7 show...

  3. Mechanical ventilation for severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, James

    2015-06-01

    Acute exacerbations of asthma can lead to respiratory failure requiring ventilatory assistance. Noninvasive ventilation may prevent the need for endotracheal intubation in selected patients. For patients who are intubated and undergo mechanical ventilation, a strategy that prioritizes avoidance of ventilator-related complications over correction of hypercapnia was first proposed 30 years ago and has become the preferred approach. Excessive pulmonary hyperinflation is a major cause of hypotension and barotrauma. An appreciation of the key determinants of hyperinflation is essential to rational ventilator management. Standard therapy for patients with asthma undergoing mechanical ventilation consists of inhaled bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and drugs used to facilitate controlled hypoventilation. Nonconventional interventions such as heliox, general anesthesia, bronchoscopy, and extracorporeal life support have also been advocated for patients with fulminant asthma but are rarely necessary. Immediate mortality for patients who are mechanically ventilated for acute severe asthma is very low and is often associated with out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest before intubation. However, patients who have been intubated for severe asthma are at increased risk for death from subsequent exacerbations and must be managed accordingly in the outpatient setting. PMID:26033128

  4. Asthma: Not Just a Childhood Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kandra

    2002-01-01

    Asthma has grown to epidemic proportions among school-age children, and nearly 10 million U.S. adults suffer from it. This paper describes asthma and its triggers and explains how to take measures to manage asthma symptoms within the school (e.g., dusting regularly and keeping medications available). A sidebar presents tips on controlling asthma…

  5. Children with Asthma: Strategies for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Getch, Yvette Q.

    1999-01-01

    Guidelines for managing the child with asthma in educational settings address effects of asthma on academic performance, psychosocial effects, the need for collaboration with parents and medical personnel, common triggers of asthmatic episodes, symptoms, communication with parents, and resources. A sample asthma care plan is attached. (DB)

  6. Understanding Children with Asthma: Trouble and Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JungHa; Wood, Beatrice L.; Cheah, PoAnn

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common illnesses of childhood; in the United States, nearly 9% of children have the condition (Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2006). Among children with chronic illnesses, asthma is the most common cause for school absence and hospitalization (Akinbami, 2006). Asthma is a chronic disorder of the…

  7. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  8. Taking ACTion for better control of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yong-chang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The global prevalence of asthma ranges from 1% to 18% of the population in different countries.1 In China, while national data of asthma prevalence are still lacking, an epidemiological study in Beijing showed that the prevalence of asthma in occupational populations was 1.25%.2

  9. The importance of genetic influences in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, H; Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS

    1999-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disorder in which the mode of inheritance is not known. Many segregation studies suggest that a major gene could be involved in asthma, but until now different genetic models have been obtained, Twin studies, too, have shown evidence for genetic influences in asthma, but

  10. Jackie Joyner-Kersee: Living with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Asthma Jackie Joyner-Kersee: Living with Asthma Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Jackie ... the heptathlon and long-jump competitions, despite severe asthma. While she was a top student-athlete at ...

  11. Epidemiology and Pulmonary Physiology of Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Jacqueline; Mikulic, Lucas; Kaminsky, David A

    2016-08-01

    The epidemiology and physiology of severe asthma are inherently linked because of varying phenotypes and expressions of asthma throughout the population. To understand how to better treat severe asthma, we must use both population data and physiologic principles to individualize therapies among groups with similar expressions of this disease. PMID:27401616

  12. The school environment and asthma in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hauptman, Marissa; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the relationship between environmental exposures within the school environment and pediatric asthma morbidity. This article will conclude by reviewing novel school based asthma education and therapeutic programs and environmental interventions designed to help mitigate pediatric asthma morbidity.

  13. Neurotrophins in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renz Harald

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergic bronchial asthma (BA is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, development of airway hyperreactivity and recurrent reversible airway obstruction. T-helper 2 cells and their products have been shown to play an important role in this process. In contrast, the mechanisms by which immune cells interact with the cells residing in lung and airways, such as neurons, epithelial or smooth muscle cells, still remains uncertain. Sensory and motor neurons innervating the lung exhibit a great degree of functional plasticity in BA defined as 'neuronal plasticity'. These neurons control development of airway hyperresponsiveness and acute inflammatory responses, resulting in the concept of 'neurogenic inflammation'. Such quantitative and/or qualitative changes in neuronal functions are mediated to a great extent by a family of cytokines, the neurotrophins, which in turn are produced by activated immune cells, among others in BA. We have therefore developed the concept that neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor link pathogenic events in BA to dysfunctions of the immune and nervous system.

  14. 10. Occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardana, Emil J

    2008-02-01

    A diversity of airborne dusts, gases, fumes, and vapors can induce dose-related respiratory symptoms in individuals exposed in the workplace. These agents can cause annoyance reactions, irritational effects, sensitization, or the induction of corrosive changes in the respiratory tract, depending on their composition, concentration, and duration of exposure. The prevalence of occupational asthma (OA) ranges from 9% to 15% of the asthmatic population. Factors that might influence the development of OA include the work environment, climatic conditions, genetic proclivities, tobacco and recreational drug use, respiratory infection, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and endotoxin exposure. Pathogenetically, new-onset OA can be allergic or nonallergic in origin. The allergic variants are usually caused by high-molecular-weight allergens, such as grain dust and animal or fish protein. Selected low-molecular-weight agents are also capable of inducing allergic OA. Symptoms ensue after a latent period of months to years. Nonallergic OA can be precipitated by a brief high-level exposure to a potent irritant. Symptoms occur immediately or within a few hours of the exposure. Once the diagnosis of allergic OA is established, the worker should be removed from further exposure in the workplace. In nonallergic OA the worker can return to work if the exposure was clearly a nonrecurring event. If the diagnosis is made in a timely fashion, most workers experience improvement. Prevention is the best therapeutic intervention. PMID:18241692

  15. Validation of a questionnaire of knowledge about asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An educative intervention destined to increase the knowledge in asthma allows the children and/or its parents to acquire abilities that allow to prevent and/or to handle the asthmatic attacks, decreasing the morbidity produced by the disease, nevertheless we do not account with a validated instrument that allows us to quantify the level of asthma knowledge. The objective is to develop and to validate a questionnaire of knowledge about asthma to be filled out by the parents and/or people in charge of the care of the asthmatic pediatric patients. The 17 items that conform the questionnaire were obtained alter literature review, realization of focal groups the professional experience of the investigators and the realization of pilot studies. The face content and concurrent validity of the instrument was evaluated; we also determined the factor structure, test-retest reproducibility, and sensitivity to change of the questionnaire. We included 120 patients with average age of 4.5 %3.7 years the factor analysis demonstrated a probable structure of three factors that altogether explain 85% of the total variance of the results the face and content validity was based on the concept of a multi-disciplinary group of experts in the field the concurrent validity was demonstrated by the ability of the questionnaire to distinguish low from high knowledge parents. Test-retest reproducibility and sensitivity to change were demonstrated comparing scores of the questionnaire filled out in two different occasions. The questionnaire of knowledge of asthma developed in the study is a useful and reliable tool to quantify the basal level of asthma knowledge in parents of asthmatic children and to determine the effectiveness of an educative intervention destined to increase the knowledge and understanding of the disease

  16. Asthma in Primary Care : Severity, Treatment and Level of Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ställberg, Björn

    2008-01-01

    Aims. The overall aim was to examine the severity, treatment and level of control in patients with asthma in primary care in Sweden. The specific aims were to assess what matters to asthma patients, evaluate symptoms, medication and identify factors related to asthma severity, compare the extent of asthma control in 2001 and 2005, and investigate the development of asthma and degree of asthma control in adolescents and young adults who had reported asthma six years earlier. Methods. The first...

  17. Anti-IgE treatment, airway inflammation and remodelling in severe allergic asthma: current knowledge and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Samitas; Vasiliki Delimpoura; Eleftherios Zervas; Mina Gaga

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a disorder of the airways involving various inflammatory cells and mediators and characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, chronic inflammation and structural alterations in the airways, also known as remodelling. IgE is an important mediator of allergic reactions and has a central role in allergic asthma pathophysiology, as it is implicated in both the early and late phase allergic response. Moreover, clinical and mechanistic evidence has lately emerged, implicating IgE in th...

  18. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Souza Possa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma.

  19. Eosinophilic bioactivities in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Bochner, Bruce S; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is clearly related to airway or blood eosinophilia, and asthmatics with significant eosinophilia are at higher risk for more severe disease. Eosinophils actively contribute to innate and adaptive immune responses and inflammatory cascades through the production and release of diverse chemokines, cytokines, lipid mediators and other growth factors. Eosinophils may persist in the blood and airways despite guidelines-based treatment. This review details eosinophil effector mechanisms, surface markers, and clinical outcomes associated with eosinophilia and asthma severity. There is interest in the potential of eosinophils or their products to predict treatment response with biotherapeutics and their usefulness as biomarkers. This is important as monoclonal antibodies are targeting cytokines and eosinophils in different lung environments for treating severe asthma. Identifying disease state-specific eosinophil biomarkers would help to refine these strategies and choose likely responders to biotherapeutics. PMID:27386041

  20. Exercise and asthma: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R; Firinu, Davide; Bjermer, Leif; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    The terms 'exercise-induced asthma' (EIA) and 'exercise-induced bronchoconstriction' (EIB) are often used interchangeably to describe symptoms of asthma such as cough, wheeze, or dyspnoea provoked by vigorous physical activity. In this review, we refer to EIB as the bronchoconstrictive response and to EIA when bronchoconstriction is associated with asthma symptoms. EIB is a common occurrence for most of the asthmatic patients, but it also affects more than 10% of otherwise healthy individuals as shown by epidemiological studies. EIA and EIB have a high prevalence also in elite athletes, especially within endurance type of sports, and an athlete's asthma phenotype has been described. However, the occurrence in elite athletes shows that EIA/EIB, if correctly managed, may not impair physical activity and top sports performance. The pathogenic mechanisms of EIA/EIB classically involve both osmolar and vascular changes in the airways in addition to cooling of the airways with parasympathetic stimulation. Airways inflammation plays a fundamental role in EIA/EIB. Diagnosis and pharmacological management must be carefully performed, with particular consideration of current anti-doping regulations, when caring for athletes. Based on the demonstration that the inhaled asthma drugs do not improve performance in healthy athletes, the doping regulations are presently much less strict than previously. Some sports are at a higher asthma risk than others, probably due to a high environmental exposure while performing the sport, with swimming and chlorine exposure during swimming as one example. It is considered very important for the asthmatic child and adolescent to master EIA/EIB to be able to participate in physical activity on an equal level with their peers, and a precise early diagnosis with optimal treatment follow-up is vital in this aspect. In addition, surprising recent preliminary evidences offer new perspectives for moderate exercise as a potential therapeutic tool for

  1. Cardiac arrhythmias in adult patients with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Rutten, Frans H; Kors, Jan A;

    2012-01-01

    and electrocardiographic characteristics of arrhythmogenicity (ECG) and to explore the role of β2-mimetics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 158 adult patients with a diagnosis of asthma and 6303 participants without asthma from the cohort of the Utrecht Health Project-an ongoing, longitudinal, primary...... more common (OR: 12.4 [95% CI: 4.7-32.8] and 3.7 [95% CI: 1.3-10.5], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The adult patients with asthma more commonly show tachycardia and PVCs on the ECG than those without asthma. The patients with asthma received β2-mimetics; the risk of tachycardia and PVCs is even more...

  2. Linkage and Genetic Association in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bridgette L; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-08-01

    A significant body of work in the genetics of asthma currently exists. However, current knowledge has not been clarifying in understanding the pathophysiology of asthma and therapeutic treatment of the disease. Severe asthma in adults and children is a significant burden in relation to disproportionate disease morbidity, mortality, and health utilization. This disease phenotype is not well understood; current effective treatment regimens are limited. Genetic studies may lead to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of severe asthma and identification of relevant subsets, which allow more targeted and effective therapies and the realization of Precision Medicine in asthma. PMID:27401617

  3. Epidemiological & Risk Factors In Childhood Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harmesh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the epidemiological and risk factors associated with asthma in children. Objective: To determine epidemiological and risk factors in childhood bronchial asthma. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting Hospital based. Participants: Children suffering from bronchial asthma and their parents/ attendants. Sample size: 235 children. Study variables: Age, sex place of residence, socio-economic status, age of onset of asthma, no of siblings, fuel used for cooking, smoking, asthma in the family seasonal variation etc. Statistical analysis: percentages

  4. Defining and managing risk in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, J D; Zaidi, S; Shaw, D E

    2014-08-01

    Asthma attacks are a major global source of morbidity and cost. The incidence and impact of asthma attacks have not improved despite widespread adoption of effective universal treatment guidelines. Consequently, there is increasing interest in managing asthma based on specific assessments of both current symptoms and future risk. In this review, we consider 'risk' in asthma, and how it might be assessed from the patient's history and objective measurements. We also discuss the potential for encouraging shared decision-making and improving medical consensus through explicit communication of risk and highlight the potential opportunities and challenges in risk assessment to improve asthma management through individualised treatment strategies. PMID:24773229

  5. Free running asthma screening test.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsanakas, J N; Milner, R D; Bannister, O M; Boon, A W

    1988-01-01

    The free running asthma screening test (FRAST) was evaluated in 503 Sheffield schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years and compared with responses to an asthma questionnaire. The FRAST measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) before and at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after maximum voluntary running for at least 5 minutes in a standardised environment. A fall in PEFR of greater than 15% in at least two postexercise readings was defined as abnormal. Six (1%) children did not do the test and 69 (14%) failed ...

  6. Emerging Biologics in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavord, Ian D; Hilvering, Bart; Shrimanker, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by persistently elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Eosinophil activity in the airway may be more important than their numbers and this needs to be investigated. Transcriplomic or Metabolomic signatures may also be useful to identify this endotype. PMID:27401629

  7. Implicit trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces activate brain centers involved in reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Steven M; Krill, Austen L; Wilson, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of Hamilton's (Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behavior I, II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 17-52) theory of inclusive fitness, self-facial resemblance is hypothesized as a mechanism for self-referent phenotypic matching by which humans can detect kin. To understand the mechanisms underlying pro-sociality toward self-resembling faces, we investigated the neural correlates of implicit trustworthiness ratings for self-resembling faces. Here we show that idiosyncratic trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces predict brain activation in the ventral inferior, middle and medial frontal gyri, substrates involved in reward processing. These findings demonstrate that neural reward centers are implicated in evaluating implicit pro-social behaviors toward self-resembling faces. These findings suggest that humans have evolved to use neurocomputational architecture dedicated to face processing and reward evaluation for the differentiation of kin, which drives implicit idiosyncratic affectively regulated social interactions. PMID:18761362

  8. Functional screening of an asthma QTL in YAC transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symula, Derek J.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Ueda, Yukihiko; Denefle, Patrice; Stevens, Mary E.; Wang, Zhi-En; Locksley, Richard; Rubin, Edward M.

    1999-07-02

    While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. To screen for genes contributing to an asthma QTL mapped to human chromosome 5q33, the authors characterized a panel of large-insert 5q31 transgenics based on studies demonstrating that altering gene dosage frequently affects quantitative phenotypes normally influenced by that gene. This panel of human YAC transgenics, propagating a one megabase interva2048 chromosome 5q31 containing 23 genes, was screened for quantitative changes in several asthma-associated phenotypes. Multiple independent transgenic lines with altered IgE response to antigen treatment shared a 180 kb region containing 5 genes, including human interleukin 4 (IL4) and interleukin 13 (IL13), which induce IgE class switching in B cells5. Further analysis of these mice and mice transgenic for only murine Il4 and Il13 demonstrated that moderate changes in murine Il4 and Il13 expression affect asthma-associated phenotypes in vivo. This functional screen of large-insert transgenics enabled them to sift through multiple genes in the 5q3 asthma QTL without prior consideration of assumed individual gene function and identify genes that influence the QTL phenotype in vivo.

  9. Antinuclear Antibodies in Asthma Patients- A Special Asthma Phenotype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agache Ioana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported the appearance of asthma and autoimmune conditions in the same patient, but the clinical significance of this association was not yet assessed. One hundred asthmatic patients were observed for one year evolution with death, severe exacerbations, intake of > 1000 micrograms of beclometasone or equivalent (high ICS and FEV1 decline >100 ml, in relation with ANA (ELISA, sputum and blood eosinophilia (EO, NSAID intolerance, BMI >25, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking status and FEV1 After 1 year of observation, there were 5 deaths, 28 severe asthma exacerbations requiring hospitalisations, 24 cases requiring high inhaled corticosteroid intake, and 19 patients with fast FEV1 decline (>100 ml/year. Multiple regression analysis pointed out several different independent risk factors for severe asthma evolution: for death presence of ANA (P=0.037, NSAID intolerance (P100 ml ANA (P=0.006, sputum EO (P=0.037, BMI>25 (P=0.046 and NSAID intolerance (P=0.017The presence of ANA is an independent risk factor in asthma for evolution with death, severe exacerbations, high inhaled corticosteroid intake and FEV1 decline >100 ml.

  10. Advances in asthma 2015: Across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Andrew H; Anderson, William C; Dutmer, Cullen M; Searing, Daniel A; Szefler, Stanley J

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, progress in understanding asthma ranged from insights to asthma inception, exacerbations, and severity to advancements that will improve disease management throughout the lifespan. 2015's insights to asthma inception included how the intestinal microbiome affects asthma expression with the identification of specific gastrointestinal bacterial taxa in early infancy associated with less asthma risk, possibly by promoting regulatory immune development at a critical early age. The relevance of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating asthma-related gene expression was strengthened. Predicting and preventing exacerbations throughout life might help to reduce progressive lung function decrease and disease severity in adulthood. Although allergy has long been linked to asthma exacerbations, a mechanism through which IgE impairs rhinovirus immunity and underlies asthma exacerbations was demonstrated and improved by anti-IgE therapy (omalizumab). Other key molecular pathways underlying asthma exacerbations, such as cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) and orosomucoid like 3 (ORMDL3), were elucidated. New anti-IL-5 therapeutics, mepolizumab and reslizumab, were US Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. In a clinical trial the novel therapeutic inhaled GATA3 mRNA-specific DNAzyme attenuated early- and late-phase allergic responses to inhaled allergen. These current findings are significant steps toward addressing unmet needs in asthma prevention, severity modification, disparities, and lifespan outcomes. PMID:27497278

  11. Childhood asthma prediction models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Henriette A; Pinart, Mariona; Antó, Josep M; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Carlsen, Kai H; Moons, Karel G M; Hooft, Lotty; Carlsen, Karin C Lødrup

    2015-12-01

    Early identification of children at risk of developing asthma at school age is crucial, but the usefulness of childhood asthma prediction models in clinical practice is still unclear. We systematically reviewed all existing prediction models to identify preschool children with asthma-like symptoms at risk of developing asthma at school age. Studies were included if they developed a new prediction model or updated an existing model in children aged 4 years or younger with asthma-like symptoms, with assessment of asthma done between 6 and 12 years of age. 12 prediction models were identified in four types of cohorts of preschool children: those with health-care visits, those with parent-reported symptoms, those at high risk of asthma, or children in the general population. Four basic models included non-invasive, easy-to-obtain predictors only, notably family history, allergic disease comorbidities or precursors of asthma, and severity of early symptoms. Eight extended models included additional clinical tests, mostly specific IgE determination. Some models could better predict asthma development and other models could better rule out asthma development, but the predictive performance of no single model stood out in both aspects simultaneously. This finding suggests that there is a large proportion of preschool children with wheeze for which prediction of asthma development is difficult.

  12. 5-Aminosalicylic acid attenuates allergen-induced airway inflammation and oxidative stress in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K Rama Satyanarayana; Kumar, M N Sathish; Gupta, Saurabh; Naga, Srinivas T; Shankar, Jaya K; Murthy, Vishakantha; Madhunapanthula, Subba Rao V; Mulukutla, Shashank; Ambhore, Nilesh S; Tummala, Shashank; Vishnuvarthan, V J; Azam, Afzal; Elango, Kannan

    2014-12-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines regulate the magnitude of allergic reactions during asthma. Tumor necrosis factor--alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) play a crucial role in aggravating the inflammatory conditions during allergic asthma. In addition, oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of asthma by altering the physiological condition resulting in the development of status asthmaticus. Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids are being widely used for treating allergic asthma. In the present study 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), a salicylic acid derivative, was evaluated, in vivo for its potential to suppress TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 using ovalbumin (OVA) induced allergic asthma in Balb/C mice. Oral administration of 65, 130 and 195 mg/kg 5-ASA significantly reduced the OVA induced total and differential leucocyte count, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-13, nitrite, nitrate, MDA, MPO and TPL levels in the lung lavage samples. Collectively, these findings suggest that 5-ASA is a potent immunomodulator and suppresses key Th2 cytokines production and oxidative stress in OVA-induced asthma.

  13. Protein profiles of CCL5, HPGDS, and NPSR1 in plasma reveal association with childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamsten, C; Häggmark, A; Grundström, J; Mikus, M; Lindskog, C; Konradsen, J R; Eklund, A; Pershagen, G; Wickman, M; Grunewald, J; Melén, E; Hedlin, G; Nilsson, P; van Hage, M

    2016-09-01

    Asthma is a common chronic childhood disease with many different phenotypes that need to be identified. We analyzed a broad range of plasma proteins in children with well-characterized asthma phenotypes to identify potential markers of childhood asthma. Using an affinity proteomics approach, plasma levels of 362 proteins covered by antibodies from the Human Protein Atlas were investigated in a total of 154 children with persistent or intermittent asthma and controls. After screening, chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS) and neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) were selected for further investigation. Significantly lower levels of both CCL5 and HPGDS were found in children with persistent asthma, while NPSR1 was found at higher levels in children with mild intermittent asthma compared to healthy controls. In addition, the protein levels were investigated in another respiratory disease, sarcoidosis, showing significantly higher NPSR1 levels in sera from sarcoidosis patients compared to healthy controls. Immunohistochemical staining of healthy tissues revealed high cytoplasmic expression of HPGDS in mast cells, present in stroma of both airway epithelia, lung as well as in other organs. High expression of NPSR1 was observed in neuroendocrine tissues, while no expression was observed in airway epithelia or lung. In conclusion, we have utilized a broad-scaled affinity proteomics approach to identify three proteins with altered plasma levels in asthmatic children, representing one of the first evaluations of HPGDS and NPSR1 protein levels in plasma. PMID:27145233

  14. Allergic rhinitis and asthma: inflammation in a one-airway condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haahtela Tari

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic rhinitis and asthma are conditions of airway inflammation that often coexist. Discussion In susceptible individuals, exposure of the nose and lungs to allergen elicits early phase and late phase responses. Contact with antigen by mast cells results in their degranulation, the release of selected mediators, and the subsequent recruitment of other inflammatory cell phenotypes. Additional proinflammatory mediators are released, including histamine, prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, proteases, and a variety of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Nasal biopsies in allergic rhinitis demonstrate accumulations of mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils in the epithelium and accumulations of eosinophils in the deeper subepithelium (that is, lamina propria. Examination of bronchial tissue, even in mild asthma, shows lymphocytic inflammation enriched by eosinophils. In severe asthma, the predominant pattern of inflammation changes, with increases in the numbers of neutrophils and, in many, an extension of the changes to involve smaller airways (that is, bronchioli. Structural alterations (that is, remodeling of bronchi in mild asthma include epithelial fragility and thickening of its reticular basement membrane. With increasing severity of asthma there may be increases in airway smooth muscle mass, vascularity, interstitial collagen, and mucus-secreting glands. Remodeling in the nose is less extensive than that of the lower airways, but the epithelial reticular basement membrane may be slightly but significantly thickened. Conclusion Inflammation is a key feature of both allergic rhinitis and asthma. There are therefore potential benefits for application of anti-inflammatory strategies that target both these anatomic sites.

  15. Antibiotic use among dutch pregnant woman and the development of toddler asthma : The influence of confounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Bianca; Pouwels, Koen B.; Schuiling-Veninga, Nynke C.M.; Bos, Jens; De Vries, Tjalling W.; Jick, Susan S.; Hak, Eelko

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have reported an increased risk of asthma in children after prenatal exposure to antibiotics, notably during third trimester due to altered vaginal bacterial flora. Associations could have been influenced by unmeasured confounders. Objectives: To assess the association bet

  16. Lifetime-Dependent Effects of Bisphenol A on Asthma Development in an Experimental Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Susanne; Averbeck, Marco; Simon, Jan C.; Lehmann, Irina; Polte, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental factors are thought to contribute significantly to the increase of asthma prevalence in the last two decades. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen commonly used in consumer products and the plastic industry. There is evidence and an ongoing discussion that endocrine disruptors like BPA may affect human health and also exert alterations on in the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate age-dependent effects of BPA on the asthma risk using a murine model to explain the controversial results reported till date. Methods BALB/c mice were exposed to BPA via the drinking water for different time periods including pregnancy and breastfeeding. To induce an asthma phenotype, mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA), followed by an intrapulmonary allergen challenge. Results BPA exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding had no significant effect on asthma development in the offspring. In contrast, lifelong exposure from birth until the last antigen challenge clearly increased eosinophilic inflammation in the lung, airway hyperreactivity and antigen-specific serum IgE levels in OVA-sensitized adult mice compared to mice without BPA exposure. Surprisingly, BPA intake during the sensitization period significantly reduced the development of allergic asthma. This effect was reversed in the presence of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the impact of BPA on asthma risk is strongly age-dependent and ranges from asthma-promoting to asthma-reducing effects. This could explain the diversity of results from previous studies regarding the observed health impact of BPA. PMID:24950052

  17. Lifetime-dependent effects of bisphenol A on asthma development in an experimental mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Petzold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental factors are thought to contribute significantly to the increase of asthma prevalence in the last two decades. Bisphenol A (BPA is a xenoestrogen commonly used in consumer products and the plastic industry. There is evidence and an ongoing discussion that endocrine disruptors like BPA may affect human health and also exert alterations on in the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate age-dependent effects of BPA on the asthma risk using a murine model to explain the controversial results reported till date. METHODS: BALB/c mice were exposed to BPA via the drinking water for different time periods including pregnancy and breastfeeding. To induce an asthma phenotype, mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA, followed by an intrapulmonary allergen challenge. RESULTS: BPA exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding had no significant effect on asthma development in the offspring. In contrast, lifelong exposure from birth until the last antigen challenge clearly increased eosinophilic inflammation in the lung, airway hyperreactivity and antigen-specific serum IgE levels in OVA-sensitized adult mice compared to mice without BPA exposure. Surprisingly, BPA intake during the sensitization period significantly reduced the development of allergic asthma. This effect was reversed in the presence of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the impact of BPA on asthma risk is strongly age-dependent and ranges from asthma-promoting to asthma-reducing effects. This could explain the diversity of results from previous studies regarding the observed health impact of BPA.

  18. Radioaerosol Inhalation Imaging in Bronchial Asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bum Soo; Park, Young Ha; Park, Jeong Mi; Chung, Myung Hee; Chung, Soo Kyo; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) has been used in radionuclide pulmonary studies for the past 20 years. The method is well accepted for assessing regional ventilation because of its usefulness, easy fabrication and simple application system. To evaluate its clinical utility in the study of impaired regional ventilation in bronchial asthma, we obtained and analysed RIIs in 31 patients (16 women and 15 men; age ranging 21-76 years) with typical bronchial asthma at the Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical college, from January, 1988 to August, 1989. Scintiscans were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a HARC(Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India) nebulizer with 15 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-phytate. The scanning was performed in anterior, posterior and lateral projections following 5-minute inhalation of radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analysed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function study and the findings of chest radiography. Fifteen patients had concomitant lung perfusion image with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. Follow-up scans were obtained in 5 patients after bronchodilator therapy. 1 he patients were divided into (1) attack type (4 patients), (2) resistant type (5 patients), (3) remittent type (10 patients) and (4) bronchitic type (12 patients). Chest radiography showed hyperinflation, altered pulmonary vascularity, thickening of the bronchial wall and accentuation of hasal interstitial markings in 26 of the 31 patients. Chest radiographs were normal in the remaining 5 patients. Regardless of type, the findings of RII were basically the same, and characterized by the deposition of radioaerosol in the central parts or in the main respiratory air ways along with mottled nonsegmental ventilation defects in the periphery. Peripheral parenchymal defects were more extensive than that of expected findings from clinical symptoms, pulmonary function test and chest radiograph. Broomstick sign was present

  19. Radioaerosol Inhalation Imaging in Bronchial Asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) has been used in radionuclide pulmonary studies for the past 20 years. The method is well accepted for assessing regional ventilation because of its usefulness, easy fabrication and simple application system. To evaluate its clinical utility in the study of impaired regional ventilation in bronchial asthma, we obtained and analysed RIIs in 31 patients (16 women and 15 men; age ranging 21-76 years) with typical bronchial asthma at the Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical college, from January, 1988 to August, 1989. Scintiscans were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a HARC(Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India) nebulizer with 15 mCi of 99mTc-phytate. The scanning was performed in anterior, posterior and lateral projections following 5-minute inhalation of radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analysed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function study and the findings of chest radiography. Fifteen patients had concomitant lung perfusion image with 99mTc-MAA. Follow-up scans were obtained in 5 patients after bronchodilator therapy. 1 he patients were divided into (1) attack type (4 patients), (2) resistant type (5 patients), (3) remittent type (10 patients) and (4) bronchitic type (12 patients). Chest radiography showed hyperinflation, altered pulmonary vascularity, thickening of the bronchial wall and accentuation of hasal interstitial markings in 26 of the 31 patients. Chest radiographs were normal in the remaining 5 patients. Regardless of type, the findings of RII were basically the same, and characterized by the deposition of radioaerosol in the central parts or in the main respiratory air ways along with mottled nonsegmental ventilation defects in the periphery. Peripheral parenchymal defects were more extensive than that of expected findings from clinical symptoms, pulmonary function test and chest radiograph. Broomstick sign was present in 1.7 patients

  20. Asthma and Adolescents: Review of Strategies to Improve Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy-Harstad, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    One of every 10 adolescents in the United States has asthma. Adolescents who lack asthma control are at increased risk for severe asthma episodes and death. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2007 asthma guidelines and research studies indicated that school nurses are instrumental in assisting adolescents to monitor their asthma, learn…

  1. Evaluation of an Educational Program for Adolescents with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jill; Tichacek, Mary J.; Theodorakis, Renee

    2004-01-01

    In addition to challenges of adolescence itself, teens with asthma face demands of asthma management and risks of asthma sequelae, including fatalities. Few asthma educational programs specifically address their needs. In response to school nurse concern, this pilot study evaluated an adolescent asthma education program, the "Power Breathing[TM]…

  2. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemiological investigations have been valuable in confirming both the increasing incidence of asthma and the differences in prevalence in certain population groups. The observance of this phenomenon has led to much speculation and a lot of attempts to identify the reasons behind the rising prevalence. Risk factors. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for the development of childhood asthma and provided insight into natural history of disease and prognosis. Factors ranging from increased numbers of immunizations to increased air pollution have been suggested, but subsequent analysis has failed to provide the supporting evidence to implicate most of these possibilities. The concept known as the hygiene hypothesis has gained some support from epidemiological studies. Conclusion. The development of asthma as well as its severity are affected by numerous factors and their interactions can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of this disease.

  3. Carboxyhemoglobin and Methemoglobin in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Robert; Laskowski, Dan; McCarthy, Kevin; Mattox, Emmea; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are synthesized at high levels in asthmatic airways. NO can oxidize hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (MetHb). CO binds to heme to produce carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). We hypothesized that MetHb and COHb may be increased in asthma. COHb, MetHb, and Hb were measured in venous blood of healthy controls (n=32) and asthmatics (n=31). Arterial COHb and oxyhemoglobin were measured by pulse CO-oximeter. Hb, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin were similar among groups, but arterial COHb was higher in asthmatics than controls (p=0.04). Venous COHb was similar among groups, and thus arteriovenous COHb (a-v COHb) concentration difference was greater in asthma compared with controls. Venous MetHb was lower in asthma compared to controls (p=0.01) and correlated to venous NO (p=0.009). The greater a-v COHb in asthma suggests CO offloading to tissues, but lower than normal MetHb suggests countermeasures to avoid adverse effects of high NO on gas transfer. PMID:25680415

  4. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  5. Synergistic effects of traffic-related air pollution and exposure to violence on urban asthma etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jane E. Clougherty; Suglia, Shakira Franco; Canner, Marina Jacobson; Levy, Jonathan Ian; Kubzansky, Laura Diane; Ryan, P. Barry; Wright, Rosalind Jo

    2007-01-01

    Background: Disproportionate life stress and consequent physiologic alteration (i.e., immune dysregulation) has been proposed as a major pathway linking socioeconomic position, environmental exposures, and health disparities. Asthma, for example, disproportionately affects lower-income urban communities, where air pollution and social stressors may be elevated. Objectives: We aimed to examine the role of exposure to violence (ETV), as a chronic stressor, in altering susceptibility to traffic-...

  6. Epidemiology of asthma in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramesh, H

    2002-04-01

    Allergic respiratory disorders, in particular asthma are increasing in prevalence, which is a global phenomenon. Even though genetic predisposition is one of the factors in children for the increased prevalence - urbanisation, air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke contribute more significantly. Our hospital based study on 20,000 children under the age of 18 years from 1979,1984,1989,1994 and 1999 in the city of Bangalore showed a prevalence of 9%,10.5%,18.5%, 24.5% and 29.5% respectively. The increased prevalence correlated well with demographic changes of the city. Further to the hospital study, a school survey in 12 schools on 6550 children in the age group of 6 to 15 years was undertaken for prevalence of asthma and children were categorized into three groups depending upon the geographical situation of the school in relation to vehicular traffic and the socioeconomic group of children. Group I-Children from schools of heavy traffic area showed prevalence of 19.34%, Group II-Children from heavy traffic region and low socioeconomic population had 31.14% and Group III-Children from low traffic area school had 11.15% respectively. (P: I & II; II & III <0.001). A continuation of study in rural areas showed 5.7% in children of 6-15 years. The persistent asthma also showed an increase from 20% to 27.5% and persistent severe asthma 4% to 6.5% between 1994-99. Various epidemiological spectra of asthma in children are discussed here. PMID:12019551

  7. The Texas Adoption Project: adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, J M

    1983-04-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar measures available for the biological mothers of the same adopted children. Results supported the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences for intelligence. The most salient finding was that adopted children resemble their biological mothers more than they resemble the adoptive parents who reared them from birth. A small subset of the oldest adopted children did not resemble their biological mothers. The suggestion that the influence of genes declines with age is treated with caution since other adoption studies report a trend in the opposite direction.

  8. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ohta, Shoichiro; Ono, Junya; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis but in categorizing asthma patients. We first found that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma downstream of IL-13 signals. Thereafter, it was shown that periostin can be a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses, the basis of the notion that a detection system of serum periostin is potentially a companion diagnostic for type 2 antagonists. Furthermore, we have recently shown that serum periostin can predict resistance or hyporesponsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, based on its contribution to tissue remodeling or fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Thus, serum periostin has two characteristics as a biomarker for bronchial asthma: it is both a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses and a biomarker reflecting tissue remodeling or fibrosis. We can take advantage of these characteristics to develop stratified medicine in bronchial asthma. PMID:26344077

  9. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Izuhara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis but in categorizing asthma patients. We first found that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma downstream of IL-13 signals. Thereafter, it was shown that periostin can be a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses, the basis of the notion that a detection system of serum periostin is potentially a companion diagnostic for type 2 antagonists. Furthermore, we have recently shown that serum periostin can predict resistance or hyporesponsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, based on its contribution to tissue remodeling or fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Thus, serum periostin has two characteristics as a biomarker for bronchial asthma: it is both a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses and a biomarker reflecting tissue remodeling or fibrosis. We can take advantage of these characteristics to develop stratified medicine in bronchial asthma.

  10. Extrinsic and intrinsic asthma: influence of classification on family history of asthma and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, B

    1980-05-01

    The distributions of asthma, hay fever and eczema were examined in the first degree relatives of 516 asthmatics grouped according to atopic status, history of hay fever/eczema and history of asthma provoked by pollens, dust or animals. The prevalences of both asthma and eczema in relatives were strongly correlated with the presence of hay fever/eczema in probands and to a lesser extent with their atopic status. The prevalence of hay fever in relatives was strongly correlated with both the presence of hay fever/eczema and the degree of atopy in probands. In contrast, allergic provocation of asthma in probands did not influence the prevalences of asthma, hay fever or eczema. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that there is an increased risk of asthma in relatives of atopic asthmatics which may arise from the enhanced susceptibility to asthma of individuals who inherit both a predisposition to asthma and a predisposition to atopy.

  11. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation.

  12. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. PMID:27400032

  13. Asthma and Schools | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Asthma and Schools Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of ... of America 800–727–8462 www.aafa.org Asthma and Physical Activity Exercise-induced asthma is triggered ...

  14. Imaging diagnosis of bronchial asthma and related diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe imaging features of bronchial asthma and related diseases. The practical roles of imaging diagnosis are the evaluation of severity and complications of bronchial asthma and differential diagnosis of diseases showing asthmatic symptoms other than bronchial asthma. (author)

  15. Exhaled Eicosanoids following Bronchial Aspirin Challenge in Asthma Patients with and without Aspirin Hypersensitivity: The Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mastalerz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special regulatory role of eicosanoids has been postulated in aspirin-induced asthma. Objective. To investigate effects of aspirin on exhaled breath condensate (EBC levels of eicosanoids in patients with asthma. Methods. We determined EBC eicosanoid concentrations using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS2 or both. Determinations were performed at baseline and following bronchial aspirin challenge, in two well-defined phenotypes of asthma: aspirin-sensitive and aspirin-tolerant patients. Results. Aspirin precipitated bronchial reactions in all aspirin-sensitive, but in none of aspirin-tolerant patients (ATAs. At baseline, eicosanoids profile did not differ between both asthma groups except for lipoxygenation products: 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 15-HETE which were higher in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA than inaspirin-tolerant subjects. Following aspirin challenge the total levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs remained unchanged in both groups. The dose of aspirin had an effect on magnitude of the response of the exhaled cys-LTs and prostanoids levels only in AIA subjects. Conclusion. The high baseline eicosanoid profiling of lipoxygenation products 5- and 15-HETE in EBC makes it possible to detect alterations in aspirin-sensitive asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes, and eoxins levels in EBC after bronchial aspirin administration in stable asthma patients cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic index for aspirin hypersensitivity.

  16. Validation of The 30 Second Asthma Test™ as a measure of asthma control

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Ahmed; Pierre Ernst; Robyn Tamblyn; Neil Colman

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The primary objective of asthma management is to help patients establish and maintain optimal disease control. Simple and efficient tools are needed to assess patient-reported symptoms so that they can be used with or without airway function to evaluate asthma control.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of The 30 Second Asthma Test (GlaxoSmithKline Inc, Canada), based on the Canadian Asthma Guidelines, by estimating its relationship with crit...

  17. Antinuclear Antibodies in Asthma Patients- A Special Asthma Phenotype?

    OpenAIRE

    Agache Ioana; Duca Liliana; Anghel Mariana; Pamfil Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    Several studies reported the appearance of asthma and autoimmune conditions in the same patient, but the clinical significance of this association was not yet assessed. One hundred asthmatic patients were observed for one year evolution with death, severe exacerbations, intake of > 1000 micrograms of beclometasone or equivalent (high ICS) and FEV1 decline >100 ml, in relation with ANA (ELISA), sputum and blood eosinophilia (EO), NSAID intolerance, BMI >25, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking stat...

  18. Childhood asthma in low income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marianne Stubbe; Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K;

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia has hitherto been considered the key cause of the high respiratory morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age (under-5s) in low-income countries, while asthma has not been stated as a significant reason. This paper explores the definitions and concepts...... and poor treatment results using antibiotics. Moreover, children diagnosed with recurrent pneumonia in infancy were often later diagnosed with asthma. Recent studies showed a 10-15% prevalence of preschool asthma in low-income countries, although under-5s with long-term cough and difficulty breathing...... in under-5s without fever, which suggests the diagnosis of asthma/wheezing rather than bacterial pneumonia. Ultimately, underlying asthma may have contributed to malnutrition and fatal bacterial pneumonia. In conclusion, preschool asthma in low-income countries may be significantly under...

  19. Asthma affects time to pregnancy and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth J; Thomsen, Simon F; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2014-01-01

    Coexistence of infertility and asthma has been observed clinically. Therefore, we investigated the association between asthma and delayed pregnancy in a nationwide population-based cohort of twins. A cohort of 15 250 twins living in Denmark (aged 12-41 years) participated in a questionnaire study...... including questions about the presence of asthma and fertility. Differences in time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were analysed in subjects with asthma, allergy and in healthy individuals using multiple regression analysis. Asthma was associated with an increased time to pregnancy, the percentage...... in those >30 years of age (32.2% versus 24.9%, OR (95% CI) 1.44 (1.1-1.9); p=0.04). Untreated asthmatics had a significant increased risk of prolonged time to pregnancy compared to healthy individuals (OR (95% CI) 1.79 (1.20-2.66); p=0.004), while asthmatics receiving any kind of treatment for asthma...

  20. Tiotropium – what role in asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Tiotropium solution for inhalation (Spiriva Respimat - Boehringer Ingelheim) is the first long-acting muscarinic antagonist to be marketed in the UK for the management of asthma. It is licensed as add-on maintenance bronchodilator treatment in adults with asthma who are using an inhaled corticosteroid (≥800μg budesonide/day or equivalent) and a long-acting beta2 agonist, and who have had one or more severe exacerbations in the previous year. This corresponds to use at step 4 of both the British asthma guideline and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) strategy for the treatment of asthma in adults. Here we consider the evidence for tiotropium in the management of asthma and whether it offers any advantages over existing therapeutic options at step 4.

  1. Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmanan B

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Balaji Laxmanan, D Kyle Hogarth Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT is a novel therapy for patients with severe asthma. Using radio frequency thermal energy, it aims to reduce the airway smooth muscle mass. Several clinical trials have demonstrated improvements in asthma-related quality of life and a reduction in the number of exacerbations following treatment with BT. In addition, recent data has demonstrated the long-term safety of the procedure as well as sustained improvements in rates of asthma exacerbations, reduction in health care utilization, and improved quality of life. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that result in these improvements. In addition, improved characterization of the asthma subphenotypes likely to exhibit the largest clinical benefit is a critical step in determining the precise role of BT in the management of severe asthma. Keywords: bronchial thermoplasty, severe asthma, airway smooth muscle

  2. Who resembles whom? Mimetic and coincidental look-alikes among tropical reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D Ross

    2013-01-01

    Studies of mimicry among tropical reef-fishes usually give little or no consideration to alternative explanations for behavioral associations between unrelated, look-alike species that benefit the supposed mimic. I propose and assess such an alternative explanation. With mimicry the mimic resembles its model, evolved to do so in response to selection by the mimicry target, and gains evolved benefits from that resemblance. In the alternative, the social-trap hypothesis, a coincidental resemblance of the model to the "mimic" inadvertently attracts the latter to it, and reinforcement of this social trapping by learned benefits leads to the "mimic" regularly associating with the model. I examine three well known cases of supposed aggressive mimicry among reef-fishes in relation to nine predictions from these hypotheses, and assess which hypothesis offers a better explanation for each. One case, involving precise and complex morphological and behavioral resemblance, is strongly consistent with mimicry, one is inconclusive, and one is more consistent with a social-trap based on coincidental, imprecise resemblance. Few cases of supposed interspecific mimicry among tropical reef fishes have been examined in depth, and many such associations may involve social traps arising from generalized, coincidental resemblance. Mimicry may be much less common among these fishes than is generally thought.

  3. Perceived Triggers of Asthma: Key to Symptom Perception and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Thomas; Ritz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this paper, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targ...

  4. Validation of the Arabic version of the asthma control test

    OpenAIRE

    Lababidi H; Hijaoui A; Zarzour M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Asthma control test (ACT) has been devised to assess the degree of asthma control in out-patients setting. The aim of this study is to validate the Arabic version of ACT. Materials and Methods: Patients completed the Arabic version of ACT during regular visit to one of two asthma specialists. Spirometry was obtained. The asthma specialist rated asthma control using a 5-point scale and indicated modification in management as step up, same or step down of asthma treatment. Results:...

  5. PILL Series. The ‘problematic’ asthma patient

    OpenAIRE

    Kui, Swee Leng; How, Choon How; Koh, Jansen

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a reversible chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that can be effectively controlled without causing any lifestyle limitation or burden on the quality of life of the majority of asthma patients. However, persistently uncontrolled asthma can be frustrating for both the patient and the managing physician. Patients who fail to respond to high-intensity asthma treatment fall into the category of ‘problematic’ asthma, which is further subdivided into ‘difficult’ asthma and ‘sever...

  6. The Relationship between Asthma and Obesity in Urban Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Melanie; Wijetunga, N Ari; Stepney, Cesalie; Dorsey, Karen; Chua, Danica Marie; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity, which have reached epidemic proportions, impact urban youth to a great extent. Findings are inconsistent regarding their relationship; no studies have considered asthma management. We explored the association of obesity and asthma-related morbidity, asthma-related health care utilization, and asthma management in urban adolescents with uncontrolled asthma. We classified 373 early adolescents (mean age=12.8 years; 82% Hispanic or Black) from New York City public middle scho...

  7. Vitamin D as an adjunctive therapy in asthma. Part 1: A review of potential mechanisms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kerley, Conor P

    2015-02-27

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is highly prevlalent worldwide. The classical role for vitamin D is to regulate calcium absorption form the gastrointestinal tract and influence bone health. Recently vitamin D receptors and vitamin D metabolic enzymes have been discovered in numerous sites systemically supporting diverse extra-skeletal roles of vitamin D, for example in asthmatic disease. Further, VDD and asthma share several common risk factors including high latitude, winter season, industrialization, poor diet, obesity, and dark skin pigmentation. Vitamin D has been demonstrated to possess potent immunomodulatory effects, including effects on T cells and B cells as well as increasing production of antimicrobial peptides (e.g. cathelicidin). This immunomodulation may lead to asthma specific clinical benefits in terms of decreased bacterial\\/viral infections, altered airway smooth muscle-remodeling and -function as well as modulation of response to standard anti-asthma therapy (e.g. glucocorticoids and immunotherapy). Thus, vitamin D and its deficiency have a number of biological effects that are potentially important in altering the course of disease pathogenesis and severity in asthma. The purpose of this first of a two-part review is to review potential mechanisms whereby altering vitamin D status may influence asthmatic disease.

  8. Asthma Risk Profiles of Children Participating in an Asthma Education and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Candice; Rapp, Kristi Isaac; Jack, Leonard, Jr.; Hayes, Sandra; Post, Robert; Malveaux, Floyd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Focused risk assessment is essential in the effective management of asthma. Purpose: This study identified and examined correlations among areas of pediatric asthma risk and determined associations between these risks and demographic characteristics. Methods: This exploratory study identified risk factors that affect asthma management…

  9. My Child Is Diagnosed with Asthma, Now What?: Motivating Parents to Help Their Children Control Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepney, Cesalie; Kane, Katelyn; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric asthma is often undiagnosed, and therefore untreated. It negatively impacts children's functioning, including school attendance and performance, as well as quality of life. Schoolwide screening for asthma is becoming increasingly common, making identification of possible asthma particularly relevant for school nurses. Nurses may need to…

  10. Challenges of Asthma Management for School Nurses in Districts with High Asthma Hospitalization Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatos, Penny; Leone, Jennifer; Craig, Ann Marie; Frei, Elizabeth Mary; Fuentes, Natalie; Harris, India Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background: School nurses play a central role in assisting elementary school children in managing their asthma, especially those in higher-risk school districts that are at increased risk of uncontrolled asthma. Study purposes are to (1) identify barriers to asthma management by school nurses in higher-risk school districts; and (2) assess the…

  11. Scheduled asthma management in general practice generally improve asthma control in those who attend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Bornemann, Maja; Knudsen, Anja Dorte Brandt;

    2012-01-01

    Successful asthma management involves guideline-based treatment and regular follow-up. We aimed to study the level of disease control in asthmatic individuals managed by their GP and a dedicated nurse when using a systematic asthma consultation guide based on Global Initiative of Asthma guideline...

  12. Allergic rhinitis is associated with poor asthma control in children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Eric P.; Nijkamp, Anke; Duiverman, Eric J.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma and allergic rhinitis are the two most common chronic disorders in childhood and adolescence. To date, no study has examined the impact of comorbid allergic rhinitis on asthma control in children. Objective To examine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children with asthma, and

  13. Are asthma-like symptoms in elite athletes associated with classical features of asthma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.K.; Pedersen, L.; Anderson, S.D.;

    2009-01-01

    : The study group consisted of 54 elite athletes (19 with doctor-diagnosed asthma), 22 non-athletes with doctor-diagnosed asthma (steroid naive for 4 weeks before the examination) and 35 non-athletes without asthma; all aged 18-35 years. Examinations (1 day): questionnaires, exhaled nitric oxide (e...

  14. The airway microvasculature and exercise induced asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, S. D.; Daviskas, E

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that exercise induced asthma is a result of "rapid expansion of the blood volume of peribronchial plexi" (McFadden ER, Lancet 1990;335:880-3). This hypothesis proposes that the development of exercise induced asthma depends on the thermal gradient in the airways at the end of hyperpnoea. The events that result in exercise induced asthma are vasoconstriction and airway cooling followed by reactive hyperaemia. We agree that the airway microcirculation has the potential for ...

  15. Clinical Asthma Phenotypes and Therapeutic Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zedan, M.; Attia, G.; Zedan, M. M.; Osman, A; Abo-Elkheir, N.; Maysara, N.; Barakat, T.; Gamil, N.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that means not all asthmatics respond to the same treatment. We hypothesize an approach to characterize asthma phenotypes based on symptomatology (shortness of breath (SOB), cough, and wheezy phenotypes) in correlation with airway inflammatory biomarkers and FEV1. We aimed to detect whether those clinical phenotypes have an impact on the response to asthma medications. Two hundred three asthmatic children were allocated randomly to receive either montelukast ...

  16. Asthma, allergy, mood disorders, and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczynska-Kwiatek A; Bargiel-Matusiewicz K; Lapinski L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Growing evidence supports comorbidity of asthma and allergies with mood disorders and various connections between these diseases. It still remains unclear whether this comorbidity is caused by the same pathophysiological factors or whether there are other links between asthma and depression. There is no definite answer to the question of an optimal treatment to deal with both asthma and depression, when they occur simultaneously. Epidemiological and clinical trials on the ...

  17. Neutrophils in asthma--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Ostafin, Magdalena; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-04-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, with an array of cells involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The role of neutrophils in the development of bronchial asthma is found to be complex, as they may trigger activation of immunocompetent cells and are a potent source of free oxygen radicals and enzymes participating in airway remodeling. The review highlights the role of neutrophils in bronchial asthma.

  18. Pathophysiological characterization of asthma transitions across adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad, Syed Hasan; Raza, Abid; Lau, Laurie; Bawakid, Khalid; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei; Ewart, Susan; Patil, Veersh; Roberts, Graham; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period of change, which coincides with disease remission in a significant proportion of subjects with childhood asthma. There is incomplete understanding of the changing characteristics underlying different adolescent asthma transitions. We undertook pathophysiological characterization of transitional adolescent asthma phenotypes in a longitudinal birth cohort. Methods The Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (N = 1456) was reviewed at 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18-years. Characterizat...

  19. Creating an Asthma-Friendly School

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-08

    This podcast features real-life success stories of students with asthma who, thanks to their schools' implementation of asthma-friendly policies and programs, now have their asthma under control.  Created: 11/8/2007 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH).   Date Released: 5/20/2008.

  20. Neutrophils in asthma--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Ostafin, Magdalena; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-04-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, with an array of cells involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The role of neutrophils in the development of bronchial asthma is found to be complex, as they may trigger activation of immunocompetent cells and are a potent source of free oxygen radicals and enzymes participating in airway remodeling. The review highlights the role of neutrophils in bronchial asthma. PMID:25511380

  1. Predicting patient attitudes to asthma medication.

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, L M; Russell, I.T.; Friend, J. A.; Legge, J. S.; Douglas, J G

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Studies of patient attitudes to asthma and its control have focused on crisis action, and little attention has been paid to attitudes to regular preventive medication. It is not clear whether attitudes to regular medication are related to the degree of distress or interference with life perceived by patients as being caused by their asthma. For this reason this study examined how far dislike of medication related to dislike of other aspects of interference of asthma with daily lif...

  2. Yoga for bronchial asthma: a controlled study.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R

    1985-01-01

    Fifty three patients with asthma underwent training for two weeks in an integrated set of yoga exercises, including breathing exercises, suryanamaskar, yogasana (physical postures), pranayama (breath slowing techniques), dhyana (meditation), and a devotional session, and were told to practise these exercises for 65 minutes daily. They were then compared with a control group of 53 patients with asthma matched for age, sex, and type and severity of asthma, who continued to take their usual drug...

  3. Adapting physical education to pupils with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Diklić, Dajana

    2013-01-01

    Asthma »is the most common chronic disease among children« (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs307/en/index.html). This disease affects the small airways in the lungs, which are hypersensitive to one or more triggers. During the asthma attack airways narrow, airway mucosa swells and secretion of mucus increases. That makes breathing more difficult, especially exhalation (Corrigan, Berger, Meredith, Jenkis and Mason, 2009). Pupils with asthma are chronically ill children. That is ...

  4. Perceived triggers of asthma: key to symptom perception and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, T; Ritz, T

    2013-09-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this article, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targets for behavioural interventions that aim to improve the accuracy of asthma trigger identification and thereby enhance asthma control.

  5. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan;

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  6. CD137-mediated immunotherapy for allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Polte, Tobias; Foell, Juergen; Werner, Christoph; Hoymann, Heinz-Gerd; Braun, Armin; Burdach, Stefan; Mittler, Robert S.; Hansen, Gesine

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma continues to increase. Asthma is caused by a Th2 cell–driven immune response. Its optimal treatment remains a challenge, and a sufficient immunotherapeutic approach to treating asthma has yet to be found. Using a murine asthma model, we show that a single injection of an anti-CD137 (4-1BB) mAb prevents the development of airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic airway inflammation, excessive mucus production, and elevated IgE during the observation period of 7 weeks. Most...

  7. National Asthma Control Program State Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Other Parents - Home Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training Wee Wheezers ...

  8. Genetics of asthma: a molecular biologist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Balaram

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma belongs to the category of classical allergic diseases which generally arise due to IgE mediated hypersensitivity to environmental triggers. Since its prevalence is very high in developed or urbanized societies it is also referred to as "disease of civilizations". Due to its increased prevalence among related individuals, it was understood quite long back that it is a genetic disorder. Well designed epidemiological studies reinforced these views. The advent of modern biological technology saw further refinements in our understanding of genetics of asthma and led to the realization that asthma is not a disorder with simple Mendelian mode of inheritance but a multifactorial disorder of the airways brought about by complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Current asthma research has witnessed evidences that are compelling researchers to redefine asthma altogether. Although no consensus exists among workers regarding its definition, it seems obvious that several pathologies, all affecting the airways, have been clubbed into one common category called asthma. Needless to say, genetic studies have led from the front in bringing about these transformations. Genomics, molecular biology, immunology and other interrelated disciplines have unearthed data that has changed the way we think about asthma now. In this review, we center our discussions on genetic basis of asthma; the molecular mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Taking cue from the existing data we would briefly ponder over the future directions that should improve our understanding of asthma pathogenesis.

  9. Is asthma related to choroidal neovascularization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoyao Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related degeneration (AMD and asthma are both diseases that are related to the activation of the complement system. The association between AMD and asthma has been debated in previous studies. The authors investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systemically. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The epidemiological study showed that asthma was related to choroidal neovascularization (CNV subtype (OR = 1.721, P = 0.023. However, the meta-analysis showed there was no association between AMD and asthma. In an animal model, we found more fluoresce in leakage of CNV lesions by FA analysis and more angiogenesis by histological analysis in rats with asthma. Western blot demonstrated an elevated level of C3α-chain, C3α'-chain and VEGF. After compstatin was intravitreally injected, CNV leakage decreased according to FA analysis, with the level of C3 and VEGF protein decreasing at the same time. SIGNIFICANCE: This study first investigated the relationship between AMD and asthma systematically, and it was found that asthma could be a risk factor for the development of AMD. The study may provide a better understanding of the disease, which may advance the potential for screening asthma patients in clinical practice.

  10. Compliance and noncompliance in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Harold B

    2007-01-01

    Compliance and noncompliance are big issues in asthma management. It has been well established that compliant patients experience less exacerbations than less compliant patients and that compliance rates often are <50%. The reasons for noncompliance are multiple and complex and not always clearly understood. Methods proposed to improve compliance include patient education, more partnership care, less frequent dosing, simple schedules, diaries, etc. Less dosing and simple schedules are most effective. It is difficult to improve compliance overall and despite extensive research and efforts, rates of compliance remain low. Noncompliance in asthma management is a fact of life and no single compliance-improving strategy probably will be as effective as a good physician-patient relationship. PMID:18034967

  11. New combination therapies for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, J F; Ohar, J A

    2001-03-01

    Combination products often have useful clinical benefits in asthma. The scientific rationale for combination therapy includes the fact that different agents have complimentary modes of action. Long-acting beta(2)-agonists have effects on airway smooth muscle, and inhaled corticosteroids have potent topical antiinflammatory effect. This combination has been shown to effectively reduce exacerbations and improve symptoms. Substantial clinical trial data provide a rationale for dual-control therapy supported by basic scientific data. Another combined therapy is inhaled steroids plus leukotriene-receptor antagonists, which provides the patient with two effective therapies. Leukotriene-receptor antagonist can also be combined with antihistamines for improved asthma control. Older therapies including theophylline and controlled release albuterol have been effectively added to inhaled corticosteroids, enabling a reduction in the dose of the inhaled steroids. Many other combination therapies are presently being tested. PMID:11224725

  12. Asthma severity is associated with body mass index and early menarche in women. : Body mass index and asthma severity

    OpenAIRE

    Varraso, Raphaëlle; Siroux, Valérie; Maccario, Jean; Pin, Isabelle; Kauffmann, Francine

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Asthma severity in relation to body mass index (BMI) has rarely been studied. The relation between BMI and asthma severity was studied by sex in 366 adults with asthma from the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, a case-control and family study on asthma. Factors related to asthma severity and BMI such as smoking, FEV(1), bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and dyspnea were taken into account. The influence of early menarche was studied to asses...

  13. Assessment of asthma control using asthma control test in chest clinics in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo, Mbatchou Ngahane Bertrand; Walter, Pefura-Yone Eric; Maïmouna, Mama; Malea, Nganda Motto; Ubald, Olinga; Adeline, Wandji; Bruno, Tengang; Emmanuel, Nyankiyé; Emmanuel, Afane Ze; Christopher, Kuaban

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain and maintain a good control of symptoms. Investigating factors associated with inadequately control asthma could help in strategies to improve asthma control. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with inadequately controlled asthma in asthma patients under chest specialist care. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to May 2013. Physician-diagnosed asthma patients aged 12 years and...

  14. Eosinophilic inflammation in allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    IolandaFátima Lopes CalvoTibério; CarlaMáximoPrado

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  15. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A; Carla M. Prado; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modu...

  16. Resolution of Inflammation in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Bruce D.; Vachier, Isabelle; Serhan, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The resolution of inflammation in healthy airways is an active process with specialized mediators and cellular mechanisms that are enlisted to restore tissue homeostasis. In this article, we will focus on recent discoveries of natural mediators derived from essential fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids, that have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. These specialized pro-resolving mediators serve as agonists at specific receptors. Asthma is a disease of chronic, non-resolving i...

  17. Moses Maimonides' Treatise on Asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, F

    1981-01-01

    This paper contains an analysis and appreciation of one of Moses Maimonides' authentic medical works, his Treatise on Asthma. After a brief biographical section, passages from the work are cited and analysed to illustrate the approach of this medieval physician who organised the knowledge of Greeks and others who preceded him. Maimonides presents a logical and systematic approach to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, an approach which is clearly evident in his Treatise on As...

  18. Circulating catecholamines in acute asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ind, P. W.; Causon, R C; Brown, M. J.; Barnes, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured in 15 patients (six male) aged 14-63 years attending the casualty department with acute severe asthma (peak expiratory flow 27% (SEM 3%) of predicted). Nine patients were admitted and six were not. The plasma noradrenaline concentration, reflecting sympathetic nervous discharge, was two to three times normal in all patients and was significantly higher in those who required admission compared with those discharged home (mean 7.7 (SEM 0.6) v 4....

  19. Perception of asthma as a factor in career choice among young adults with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sacha Bhinder; Lisa Cicutto; Husam M. Abdel-Qadir; Tarlo, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Asthma is a common chronic condition that can be aggravated by workplace exposures. Young adults with asthma should know how their future occupation might affect their asthma, and potentially, their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of young adults to occupational risks for asthma and high-risk occupations, as well as their perception of the role of asthma in career choice.METHODS: Young adults 16 to 22 years of age with reported physici...

  20. Effect of gender on hospital admissions for asthma and prevalence of self-reported asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1997-01-01

    . RESULTS: At baseline 315 subjects (2.3%) reported asthma, 2.2% of women and 2.5% of men. During follow up 160 subjects were admitted to hospital for asthma. After controlling for self-reported asthma and smoking, women had a higher risk of being admitted to hospital than men (relative risk 1.7, 95......% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.4). This increased risk was not due to misclassification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as asthma. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate gender-related differences in either the severity, perception, or management of asthma....

  1. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    -asthmatic medication was currently taken by 24 (7%) elite athletes. Elite athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of asthma-like symptoms (74%), use of anti-asthmatic medication (15%) and current asthma (24%) than all other athletes (P

  2. Cough During Infancy and Subsequent Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Eyal; Rothers, Janet; Stern, Debra A.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Halonen, Marilyn; Wright, Anne L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Wheezing in infancy has been associated with subsequent asthma, but whether cough similarly influences asthma risk has been little studied. We sought to determine whether prolonged cough and cough without cold in the first year of life are associated with childhood asthma. METHODS Participants in the Infant Immune Study, a non-selected birth cohort, were surveyed 7 times in the first 9 months of life regarding presence of wheeze and cough. Cough for more than 28 days was defined as prolonged. Parents were asked at 1 year if the child ever coughed without a cold. Asthma was defined as parental report of physician diagnosis of asthma, with symptoms or medication use between 2–9 years. Logistic regression was used to assess adjusted odds for asthma associated with cough characteristics. RESULTS 24% (97) of children experienced prolonged cough and 23% (95) cough without cold in the first 9 months, respectively. Prolonged cough was associated with increased risk of asthma relative to brief cough (OR 3.57, CI: 1.88, 6.76), with the risk being particularly high among children of asthmatic mothers. Cough without cold (OR 3.13, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.57) was also independently associated with risk of childhood asthma. Both relations persisted after adjustment for wheeze and total IgE at age 1. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Prolonged cough in infancy and cough without cold are associated with childhood asthma, independent of infant wheeze. These findings suggest that characteristics of cough in infancy are early markers of asthma susceptibility, particularly among children with maternal asthma. PMID:26011047

  3. Comparison of clinically diagnosed asthma with parental assessment of children's asthma in a questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hederos, C.A.; Hasselgren, M.; Hedlin, G.;

    2007-01-01

    corresponding medical records in the same region. An International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)-based WQ was answered by 75% of the parents of 6295 children aged 1-6 yr. Clinically diagnosed asthma, recorded in connection with admissions to the hospital or a visit to any of the outpatient...... medical record of asthma. Forty percent of the children claimed by their parents to be asthmatic had no medical record of asthma. An ISAAC-based parentally completed WQ provided an acceptable estimation of the prevalence of asthma in children 2-6 yr of age, although only half of the individual patients......Epidemiological evaluations of the prevalence of asthma are usually based on written questionnaires (WQs) in combination with validation by clinical investigation. In the present investigation, we compared parental assessment of asthma among their preschool children in response to a WQ with the...

  4. Older Adults' Trait Impressions of Faces Are Sensitive to Subtle Resemblance to Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Robert G; Zebrowitz, Leslie A

    2013-09-01

    Younger adults (YA) attribute emotion-related traits to people whose neutral facial structure resembles an emotion (emotion overgeneralization). The fact that older adults (OA) show deficits in accurately labeling basic emotions suggests that they may be relatively insensitive to variations in the emotion resemblance of neutral expression faces that underlie emotion overgeneralization effects. On the other hand, the fact that OA, like YA, show a 'pop-out' effect for anger, more quickly locating an angry than a happy face in a neutral array, suggests that both age groups may be equally sensitive to emotion resemblance. We used computer modeling to assess the degree to which neutral faces objectively resembled emotions and assessed whether that resemblance predicted trait impressions. We found that both OA and YA showed anger and surprise overgeneralization in ratings of danger and naiveté, respectively, with no significant differences in the strength of the effects for the two age groups. These findings suggest that well-documented OA deficits on emotion recognition tasks may be more due to processing demands than to an insensitivity to the social affordances of emotion expressions.

  5. Effect of Partnership Status on Preferences for Facial Self-Resemblance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindová, Jitka; Little, Anthony C.; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig; Rubešová, Anna; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Self-resemblance has been found to have a context-dependent effect when expressing preferences for faces. Whereas dissimilarity preference during mate choice in animals is often explained as an evolutionary adaptation to increase heterozygosity of offspring, self-resemblance can be also favored in humans, reflecting, e.g., preference for kinship cues. We performed two studies, using transformations of facial photographs to manipulate levels of resemblance with the rater, to examine the influence of self-resemblance in single vs. coupled individuals. Raters assessed facial attractiveness of other-sex and same-sex photographs according to both short-term and long-term relationship contexts. We found a preference for dissimilarity of other-sex and same-sex faces in single individuals, but no effect of self-resemblance in coupled raters. No effect of sex of participant or short-term vs. long-term attractiveness rating was observed. The results support the evolutionary interpretation that dissimilarity of other-sex faces is preferred by uncoupled individuals as an adaptive mechanism to avoid inbreeding. In contrast, lower dissimilarity preference of other-sex faces in coupled individuals may reflect suppressed attention to attractiveness cues in potential alternative partners as a relationship maintenance mechanism, and its substitution by attention to cues of kinship and psychological similarity connected with greater likelihood of prosocial behavior acquisition from such persons. PMID:27378970

  6. Activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) attenuates allergic airway inflammation in rat asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawale, Vaibhav Shrirang; Amara, Venkateswara Rao; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Malek, Vajir; Patel, Deep; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2016-09-01

    Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is positively correlated to asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is highly expressed in lungs. ACE2, the counteracting enzyme of ACE, was proven to be protective in pulmonary, cardiovascular diseases. In the present study we checked the effect of ACE2 activation in animal model of asthma. Asthma was induced in male wistar rats by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin and then treated with ACE2 activator, diminazene aceturate (DIZE) for 2weeks. 48h after last allergen challenge, animals were anesthetized, blood, BALF, femoral bone marrow lavage were collected for leucocyte count; trachea for measuring airway responsiveness to carbachol; lungs and heart were isolated for histological studies and western blotting. In our animal model, the characteristic features of asthma such as altered airway responsiveness to carbachol, eosinophilia and neutrophilia were observed. Western blotting revealed the increased pulmonary expression of ACE1, IL-1β, IL-4, NF-κB, BCL2, p-AKT, p-p38 and decreased expression of ACE2 and IκB. DIZE treatment prevented these alterations. Intraalveolar interstitial thickening, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial fibrosis, oxidative stress and right ventricular hypertrophy in asthma control animals were also reversed by DIZE treatment. Activation of ACE2 by DIZE conferred protection against asthma as evident from biochemical, functional, histological and molecular parameters. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time that activation of ACE2 by DIZE prevents asthma progression by altering AKT, p38, NF-κB and other inflammatory markers. PMID:27343405

  7. Current asthma control predicts future risk of asthma exacerbation: a 12-month prospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hua-hua; ZHOU Ting; WANG Lan; ZHANG Hong-ping; FU Juan-juan; WANG Lei; JI Yu-lin; WANG Gang

    2012-01-01

    Background The performance of asthma control test (ACT) at baseline for predicting future risk of asthma exacerbation has not been previously demonstrated.This study was designed to explore the ability of the baseline ACT score to predict future risk of asthma exacerbation during a 12-month follow-up.Methods This post hoc analysis included data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in patients with asthma (n=290).The time to the first asthma exacerbation was analyzed and the association between baseline ACT scores and future risk of asthma exacerbation was calculated as adjusted odds ratio (OR) using Logistic regression models.Further,sensitivity and specificity were estimated at each cut-point of ACT scores for predicting asthma exacerbations.Results The subjects were divided into three groups,which were uncontrolled (U,n=128),partly-controlled (PC,n=111),and well controlled (C,n=51) asthma.After adjustment,the decreased ACT scores at baseline in the U and PC groups were associated with an increased probability of asthma exacerbations (OR 3.65 and OR 5.75,respectively),unplanned visits (OR 8.03 and OR 8.21,respectively) and emergency visits (OR 20.00 and OR 22.60,respectively) over a 12-month follow-up period.The time to the first asthma exacerbation was shorter in the groups with U and PC asthma (all P<0.05).The baseline ACT of 20 identified as the cut-point for screening the patients at high risk of asthma exacerbations had an increased sensitivity of over 90.0% but a lower specificity of about 30.0%.Conclusion Our findings indicate that the baseline ACT score with a high sensitivity could rule out patients at low risk of asthma exacerbations and oredict future risk of asthma exacerbations in clinical practice.

  8. Predicting asthma in preschool children with asthma symptoms: study rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafkamp-de Groen Esther

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In well-child care it is difficult to determine whether preschool children with asthma symptoms actually have or will develop asthma at school age. The PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy Risk Score has been proposed as an instrument that predicts asthma at school age, using eight easy obtainable parameters, assessed at the time of first asthma symptoms at preschool age. The aim of this study is to present the rationale and design of a study 1 to externally validate and update the PIAMA Risk Score, 2 to develop an Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool to predict asthma at school age in (specific subgroups of preschool children with asthma symptoms and 3 to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Methods and design The study will be performed within the framework of Generation R, a prospective multi-ethnic cohort study. In total, consent for postnatal follow-up was obtained from 7893 children, born between 2002 and 2006. At preschool age the PIAMA Risk Score will be assessed and used to predict asthma at school age. Discrimination (C-index and calibration will be assessed for the external validation. We will study whether the predictive ability of the PIAMA Risk Score can be improved by removing or adding predictors (e.g. preterm birth. The (updated PIAMA Risk Score will be converted to the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool- to predict asthma at school age in preschool children with asthma symptoms. Additionally, we will conduct a pilot study to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Discussion Application of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care will help to distinguish preschool children at high- and low-risk of developing asthma at school age when asthma symptoms appear. This study will increase knowledge about the validity of the PIAMA risk score and might improve risk assessment of developing asthma at school age in (specific subgroups

  9. Asthma and cystic fibrosis: A tangled web.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2014-03-01

    Successfully diagnosing concomitant asthma in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is a challenging proposition, and the utility of conventional diagnostic criteria of asthma in CF populations remains uncertain. Nonetheless, the accurate identification of individuals with CF and asthma allows appropriate tailoring of therapy, and should reduce the unnecessary use of asthma medication in broader CF cohorts. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic challenge posed by asthma in CF, both in terms of clinical evaluation, and of interpretation of pulmonary function testing and non-invasive markers of airway inflammation. We also examine how the role of cross-sectional thoracic imaging in CF and asthma can assist in the diagnosis of asthma in these patients. Finally, we critically appraise the evidence base behind the use of asthma medications in CF populations, with a particular focus on the use of inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators. As shall be discussed, the gaps in the current literature make further high-quality research in this field imperative. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014; 49:205-213. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Identifying novel genes contributing to asthma pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holloway, John W.; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of review To illustrate recent examples of novel asthma genes such as those encoding G-protein-coupled receptor for asthma susceptibility, filaggrin and tenascin-C, and to describe the process that is needed to translate these findings to the clinic. Recent findings Many hundreds of studies

  11. Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep Mini Series #5 Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD NORMAL AIRWAY Good quality sleep is important for everyone. People with asthma and/or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) may have sleep issues that can lead to nighttime awakenings and ...

  12. How Is Asthma Treated and Controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as children, pregnant women, or those for whom exercise brings on asthma symptoms—will be adjusted to meet their special ... whether young children who wheeze or have other asthma symptoms will benefit from long-term control medicines. (Quick-relief medicines ...

  13. Cough in asthma triggered by reflux episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Devendra; He, Zhaoping; Padman, Raj

    2014-05-01

    With combined pH and impedance monitoring, non-acid, as well as acid reflux episodes, are more commonly detected immediately prior to cough in asthma in children. Gastroesophageal reflux should be evaluated as a trigger for cough in difficult childhood asthma.

  14. Macrophages Regulators of Sex Differences in Asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melgert, Barbro N.; Oriss, Timothy B.; Qi, Zengbiao; Dixon-McCarthy, Barbara; Geerlings, Marie; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Ray, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    Females are more susceptible to development of asthma than are males. In a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, with aggravated disease in females compared with males, we studied interactions between immune and resident lung cells during asthma development to elucidate which process

  15. Thunderstorm-asthma and pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; Frenguelli, G

    2007-01-01

    Thunderstorms have been linked to asthma epidemics, especially during the pollen seasons, and there are descriptions of asthma outbreaks associated with thunderstorms, which occurred in several cities, prevalently in Europe (Birmingham and London in the UK and Napoli in Italy) and Australia (Melbourne and Wagga Wagga). Pollen grains can be carried by thunderstorm at ground level, where pollen rupture would be increased with release of allergenic biological aerosols of paucimicronic size, derived from the cytoplasm and which can penetrate deep into lower airways. In other words, there is evidence that under wet conditions or during thunderstorms, pollen grains may, after rupture by osmotic shock, release into the atmosphere part of their content, including respirable, allergen-carrying cytoplasmic starch granules (0.5-2.5 microm) or other paucimicronic components that can reach lower airways inducing asthma reactions in pollinosis patients. The thunderstorm-asthma outbreaks are characterized, at the beginning of thunderstorms by a rapid increase of visits for asthma in general practitioner or hospital emergency departments. Subjects without asthma symptoms, but affected by seasonal rhinitis can experience an asthma attack. No unusual levels of air pollution were noted at the time of the epidemics, but there was a strong association with high atmospheric concentrations of pollen grains such as grasses or other allergenic plant species. However, subjects affected by pollen allergy should be informed about a possible risk of asthma attack at the beginning of a thunderstorm during pollen season. PMID:17156336

  16. Asthma in children : origins and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer - Kooijker, K.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. At school age, 4-7% of all children is experiencing asthmatic symptoms. Improvement of asthma control and health related quality of life (HRQOL) may lower the huge burden of this disease. This requires insight into the determinants of a

  17. Regulatory T-lymphocytes in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, AJM; Bloksma, N

    2005-01-01

    T-helper cell type (Th)2 lymphocytes play an important role in the initiation, progression and persistence of allergic diseases, including asthma. However, little is known about immunoregulatory mechanisms that determine susceptibility to, severity of, or persistence of asthma. The concept of a dist

  18. Exhaled nitric oxide and asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAsthma was first described in the medical literature of Greek antiquity. It is difficult to determine whether by referring to “asthma”, Hippocrates and his school (460-360 B.C.) meant an autonomous clinical entity or a symptom. The clinical presentation of asthma nowadays has probably ch

  19. Age at menarche and risk of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Sofie; Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Brok, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested a relationship between the age at menarche and risk of asthma development. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between the age at menarche and the risk of asthma. METHODS: This systematic review and meta...

  20. Vascular Biomarkers in Asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakakos, Petros; Patentalakis, George; Papi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain a global health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. The changes in bronchial microvasculature that occurin asthma and COPD contribute to airway wall remodeling. Angiogenesis seems to be more prevalent in asthma and vasodilatation seemsmore relevant in COPD while vascular leak is present in both diseases. Recently, there has been increased interest in the vascular component of airway remodeling in chronic bronchial inflammation of asthma and COPD although its role in the progression of the diseases has not been fully elucidated. Various cells andmediators are involved in the vascular remodeling in asthma and COPD while proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors exert angiogenic and antiangiogenic effects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of blood vessel growth mainly in asthma but also in COPD. In asthmatic airways VEGF promotes proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and induces vascular leakage and permeability. It has also been involved in enhanced allergic sensitization, upregulated subsequent T-helper-2 type inflammatory responses, chemotaxis for monocytes and eosinophils, and airway oedema. Impaired VEGF signaling has been associated with emphysema in animal models. Studies on lung biopsies have shown a decreasing effect of anti-asthma drugs to the vascular component of airway remodeling. There is less available evidence on the effect of the currently used drugs on airway microvascular network in COPD. This review article explores the current knowledge regarding vascular biomarkers in asthma and COPD as well as the therapeutic implications of these mediators. PMID:26420364

  1. Sleep and psychological disturbance in nocturnal asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Stores, G; Ellis, A.; Wiggs, L.; Crawford, C.; Thomson, A.

    1998-01-01

    Subjective and objective sleep disturbance was studied in children with nocturnal asthma. Relations between such disturbance and daytime psychological function were also explored, including possible changes in learning and behaviour associated with improvements in nocturnal asthma and sleep. Assessments included home polysomnography, parental questionnaires concerning sleep disturbance, behaviour, and mood and cognitive testing. Compared with matched controls, children with ...

  2. Epidemiology of asthma in western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D; Vervloet, D; Charpin, J

    1988-10-01

    Asthma deaths are uncommon, but have recently increased in some countries due to problems in the management of the disease. Morbidity rates show large variations, which can be attributed to differences in defining the disease, but also to genuine variations, with a trend towards less asthma in northern Europe. It has been suggested that allergic diseases as a whole, and asthma in particular, may exhibit an upward secular trend. Risk factors include a genetic background and environmental triggering factors. The importance of genetic factors is illustrated by family studies and by extreme prevalence rates observed in some communities. Environmental factors include rapid air pollution variations which act as a trigger for asthma attacks. However, at levels currently prevailing in western Europe, air pollutants do not induce a higher incidence of asthma. Altitude generates a gradual decrease in Dermatophagoides, thus explaining both the clinical improvement in asthmatics living in altitude and a lower prevalence of asthma in populations born and living there. Among the other aero-allergens, grass pollens plays a major role in spring, elicitating asthma attacks. Some natural allergens transformed by man (castor bean, soja) can be responsible for asthma epidemics.

  3. Asthma medication delivery : Mists and myths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottier, Bart L.; Rubin, Bruce K.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is usually treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and bronchodilators generated from pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI), dry powder inhalers (DPI), or nebulizers. The target areas for ICS and beta 2-agonists in the treatment of asthma are explained. Drug deposition not only depends

  4. What defines airflow obstruction in asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerveri, I.; Corsico, A. G.; Accordini, S.; Cervio, G.; Ansaldo, E.; Grosso, A.; Niniano, R.; Tegomo, E. Tsana; Anto, J. M.; Kuenzli, N.; Janson, C.; Sunyer, J.; Svanes, C.; Heinrich, J.; Schouten, J. P.; Wjst, M.; Pozzi, E.; de Marco, R.

    2009-01-01

    Asthma guidelines from the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) and from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute provide conflicting definitions of airflow obstruction, suggesting a fixed forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) cut-off point and the lower limit of nor

  5. From similitude to success: The effects of facial resemblance on perceptions of team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; He, Xin; Liu, Fan

    2016-03-01

    Scant empirical research has focused on how impressions of teams are formed based on members' collective appearance, even though team photos are omnipresent in visual communications and teamwork is a common theme to elicit positive responses. Across 4 studies, we show that a subtle increase in the facial resemblance among team members enhances observers' evaluations of team effectiveness. This resemblance effect is mediated by perceived cooperative intent among team players. Furthermore, we demonstrate a reversal of the resemblance effect through the moderating role of information valence and extend the finding from team perception to behavioral intention. These results hold across different manipulations, contexts, stimuli, and sample characteristics. Collectively, this research presents the first empirical evidence that inferences based on facial morphology persist well beyond evaluations of individuals to influence the way a team, as a whole, is perceived.

  6. [Underdiagnosed asthma in third-grade children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walus, I; Richard, G; Laquerrière, B; Perucca, M; Tuveri, R; Einbinder, V; Muller, B; Beydon, N

    2016-01-01

    Undiagnosed asthma has been poorly studied before adolescence since it can go unnoticed by parents and doctors. Moreover, it is unusual to look for undiagnosed asthma by directly questioning children on the presence of current respiratory symptoms. Epidemiologic studies show that more adolescents quote symptoms suggestive of asthma than the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, but respiratory symptoms compatible with asthma remain undetected by parents of younger children more frequently than doctors diagnose asthma in their children. We attempted to evaluate the relevance of a questionnaire used since 2011 by school doctors in Paris to detect asthma. In this questionnaire, the family history of atopy and asthma were completed by the parents when they met the school doctor (last year of preschool) and questions on current respiratory symptoms were answered by third-grade children seen alone by the school doctor. One hundred and thirty-one children out of 1135 children questioned had a positive questionnaire for suspected asthma. In three-quarters of the cases, questionnaires were positive based on the children's answers on their respiratory symptoms (without a positive answer on personal or family history being necessary). The outcome of 41 children screened by the questionnaire was known. Twenty (49%) children had received a final diagnosis of asthma, of whom 12 were put on asthma controllers. Among these 20 children, two children underwent lung function testing and two others underwent tests for allergy. In eight children, tests had been requested by the child's GP, but no final diagnosis was reported by the parents. None of the 13 children in whom asthma was ruled out had any test performed. It was concluded that it is possible to detect undiagnosed asthma in children as young as 8 years by directly asking them about their respiratory symptoms. The knowledge of personal and family history can improve screening for asthma in these children. A more thorough

  7. Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, K. C. L.; Hedlin, G.; Bush, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children should be performed in a stepwise manner to ensure an optimal approach. A four-step assessment scheme is proposed. First, a full diagnostic work-up is performed to exclude other diseases which mimic asthma. Secondly, a multi-disciplinary assessm......Assessment of problematic severe asthma in children should be performed in a stepwise manner to ensure an optimal approach. A four-step assessment scheme is proposed. First, a full diagnostic work-up is performed to exclude other diseases which mimic asthma. Secondly, a multi...... in our current knowledge in all these steps are highlighted, and recommendations for current clinical practice and future research are made. The lack of good data and the heterogeneity of problematic severe asthma still limit our ability to optimise the management on an individual basis in this small...

  8. Genetic and environmental influence on asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skadhauge, L.R.; Christensen, Kaare; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on the aetiology of asthma. The classic twin study design was used to analyse data on self-reported asthma obtained by a questionnaire mailed to 34,076 individuals, aged 12-41 yrs and originating from...... the Danish Twin Register. The cumulative incidence of asthma was 6.2% in the pooled sample. The data showed a decreasing cumulative incidence with age for males, but no sex or zygosity difference was observed. Substantially higher concordance rates, odds ratios and correlations for asthma were estimated...... in the monozygotic than in the dizygotic twins. Using biometric modelling, a model including additive genetic and nonshared environmental effects provided the best overall fit to the data. According to this model, 73% of the variation in liability to asthma was explained by genetic factors. No sex difference or age...

  9. Role of leukotrienes in asthma pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential component of asthma pathophysiology. While beta(2)-agonists are often used for short-term relief of acute bronchospasm, anti-inflammatory agents are required for the long-term management of chronic inflammation in this disease. Corticosteroids have emerged as the first......-line anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma management. However, in some patients, especially children, the high doses of corticosteroids that may be required to control features of hyperresponsiveness, including exercise-induced asthma, raise safety concerns. Thus, there is a need for complementary anti......-inflammatory, steroid-sparing agents in asthma therapy. Several inflammatory mediators have been targeted in an attempt to thwart this inflammatory process, but so far with little success. The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT), LTC(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4), have been shown to be essential mediators in asthma, making them...

  10. Use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations, improve lung function, and reduce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity more effectively than other treatments. However, inhaled corticosteroids may be unable to return lung function and bronchial hyperreactivity...... to normal when introduced for moderately severe asthma. This finding highlights the need to improve treatment strategy in pediatric asthma. The natural progression of persistent asthma may lead to loss of lung function and chronic bronchial hyperreactivity for children and adults. There is evidence...... to suggest that asthma acts via a chronic inflammatory process that causes remodeling of the airways with mucosal thickening and smooth muscle hypertrophy. An optimal treatment strategy would be one aimed at reducing the ongoing airway inflammation. Inhaled steroids ameliorate the inflammation, whereas...

  11. Breathing exercises for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a common long-term condition that remains poorly controlled in many people despite the availability of pharmacological interventions, evidence-based treatment guidelines and care pathways.(1) There is considerable public interest in the use of non-pharmacological approaches for the treatment of asthma.(2) A survey of people with asthma reported that many have used complementary and alternative medicine, often without the knowledge of their clinical team.(3) Such interventions include breathing techniques, herbal products, homeopathy and acupuncture. The role of breathing exercises within the management of asthma has been controversial, partly because early claims of effectiveness were exaggerated.(4) UK national guidance and international guidelines on the management of asthma have included the option of breathing exercise programmes as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment.(5,6) Here we discuss the types of breathing exercises used and review the evidence for their effectiveness. PMID:26563876

  12. Posttraumatic Stress in Adolescents with Asthma and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Emily Millikan; Kelsay, Kimberly; Wamboldt, Frederick; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in adolescents with and without asthma and their parents and the relationship between PTS symptoms and asthma morbidity. Method: Three groups of adolescents (12-18 years) participated: adolescents who had experienced a life-threatening asthma episode (n = 49), asthma controls (n = 71), and…

  13. Barriers to Asthma Management for School Nurses: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley Nadeau, Ellen; Toronto, Coleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood asthma is a growing health concern. Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and a leading cause of emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and school absenteeism. School nurses play a valuable role in asthma management. The purpose of this integrative review is to examine barriers to asthma management for school nurses in…

  14. Asthma and Environment Fact Sheet for Parents and Schools. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Important facts about asthma and the environment include: (1) Asthma has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, affecting about 25 million people of all ages and races, including about 7 million children; (2) Nearly one in 10 school-aged children has asthma, and the percentage of children with asthma is rising more rapidly in…

  15. Interaction between asthma and lung function growth in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Jensen, Signe Marie; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The causal direction between asthma and lung function deficit is unknown, but important for the focus of preventive measures and research into the origins of asthma.......The causal direction between asthma and lung function deficit is unknown, but important for the focus of preventive measures and research into the origins of asthma....

  16. Interleukin 18 receptor 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Guohua; Whyte, Moira K B; Vestbo, Jørgen;

    2008-01-01

    The interleukin 18 receptor (IL18R1) gene is a strong candidate gene for asthma. It has been implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma and maps to an asthma susceptibility locus on chromosome 2q12. The possibility of association between polymorphisms in IL18R1 and asthma was examined by genotyp...

  17. Low Magnesium Concentration in Erythrocytes of Children with Acute Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sedighi

    2006-12-01

    These results indicate that intracellular Mg level may be a more accurate method to assess Mg level in patients with asthma. Hence, determination of Mg concentration in erythrocytes may be used in evaluation of asthma pathophysiology. There are recommendations for using intravenous Mg sulfate in acute asthma, and this study supports the rational for using it in emergency departments for acute severe asthma.

  18. Asthma in elite athletes: pathogenesis, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Elers, Jimmi; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Elite athletes have a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Although respiratory symptoms can be suggestive of asthma, the diagnosis of asthma in elite athletes cannot be based solely on the presence or absence of symptoms; diagnosis should be based on objective meas...... athletes with asthma, anti-doping regulations, and differential diagnoses such as exercise-induced laryngomalacia are discussed....

  19. Genetic influence on the age at onset of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Duffy, David Lorenzo; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2010-01-01

    Although the genetics of asthma susceptibility have been frequently explored, little is known about genetic factors that influence the age at onset of asthma.......Although the genetics of asthma susceptibility have been frequently explored, little is known about genetic factors that influence the age at onset of asthma....

  20. Occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1994-12-01

    Amino alcohols are used in various industries, often as minor constituents of compounds to modify the properties of the compound. Generally, they are considered to be safe, but they have been known to cause local skin irritation at higher concentrations in solutions. We report on three cases of occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines: two metal workers exposed to a cutting fluid containing triethanolamine, and one cleaner exposed to a detergent containing monoethanolamine. The diagnosis was based on work-related symptoms and on a chamber challenge with the suspected agent. Persistence of the symptoms after exposure ended was a common feature of the three cases. PMID:7709998

  1. Validation of a web-based version of the asthma control test and childhood asthma control test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, B.B.; Pijnenburg, M.W.; Brackel, H.J.; Landstra, A.M.; Berg, N.J. van den; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Hop, W.C.J.; Vaessen-Verberne, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE: Recent guidelines focus on adjusting asthma treatment to the level of asthma control. The availability of a web-based asthma control questionnaire offers the possibility to assess asthma control without the need of outpatient clinic visits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreem

  2. Measurement of asthma control according to global initiative for asthma guidelines: a comparison with the asthma control questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaguibel José

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ is a validated tool to measure asthma control. Cut-off points that best discriminate “well-controlled” or “not well-controlled” asthma have been suggested from the analysis of a large randomized clinical trial but they may not be adequate for daily clinical practice. Aims To establish cut-off points of the ACQ that best discriminate the level of control according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA 2006 guidelines in patients with asthma managed at Allergology and Pulmonology Departments as well as Primary Care Centers in Spain. Patients and methods An epidemiological descriptive study, with prospective data collection. Asthma control following GINA-2006 classification and 7-item ACQ was assessed. The study population was split in two parts: 2/3 for finding the cut-off points (development population and 1/3 for validating the results (validation population. Results A total of 1,363 stable asthmatic patients were included (mean age 38 ± 14 years, 60.3% women; 69.1% non-smokers. Patient classification according to GINA-defined asthma control was: controlled 13.6%, partially controlled 34.2%, and uncontrolled 52.3%. The ACQ cut-off points that better agreed with GINA-defined asthma control categories were calculated using receiver operating curves (ROC. The analysis showed that ACQ  Conclusion The ACQ cut-off points associated with GINA-defined asthma control in a real-life setting were

  3. Anti-IgE treatment, airway inflammation and remodelling in severe allergic asthma: current knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Samitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a disorder of the airways involving various inflammatory cells and mediators and characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, chronic inflammation and structural alterations in the airways, also known as remodelling. IgE is an important mediator of allergic reactions and has a central role in allergic asthma pathophysiology, as it is implicated in both the early and late phase allergic response. Moreover, clinical and mechanistic evidence has lately emerged, implicating IgE in the development of airway remodelling. The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting IgE, such as omalizumab, has proven very effective in improving respiratory symptoms and quality of life, while reducing asthma exacerbations, emergency room visits and the use of systemic corticosteroids in allergic severe asthma. These effects are believed to be mainly mediated by omalizumab's inhibitory effect on the initiation and further propagation of the allergic inflammation cascade. However, there is evidence to suggest that anti-IgE treatment remains effective long after it has been discontinued. In part, these findings could be attributed to the possible ameliorating effects of anti-IgE treatment on airway remodelling. In this review, we discuss recent findings supporting the notion that anti-IgE treatment modulates the complex immune responses that manifest clinically as asthma and ameliorates airway remodelling changes often observed in allergic severe asthma phenotypes.

  4. Anti-IgE treatment, airway inflammation and remodelling in severe allergic asthma: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samitas, Konstantinos; Delimpoura, Vasiliki; Zervas, Eleftherios; Gaga, Mina

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a disorder of the airways involving various inflammatory cells and mediators and characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, chronic inflammation and structural alterations in the airways, also known as remodelling. IgE is an important mediator of allergic reactions and has a central role in allergic asthma pathophysiology, as it is implicated in both the early and late phase allergic response. Moreover, clinical and mechanistic evidence has lately emerged, implicating IgE in the development of airway remodelling. The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting IgE, such as omalizumab, has proven very effective in improving respiratory symptoms and quality of life, while reducing asthma exacerbations, emergency room visits and the use of systemic corticosteroids in allergic severe asthma. These effects are believed to be mainly mediated by omalizumab's inhibitory effect on the initiation and further propagation of the allergic inflammation cascade. However, there is evidence to suggest that anti-IgE treatment remains effective long after it has been discontinued. In part, these findings could be attributed to the possible ameliorating effects of anti-IgE treatment on airway remodelling. In this review, we discuss recent findings supporting the notion that anti-IgE treatment modulates the complex immune responses that manifest clinically as asthma and ameliorates airway remodelling changes often observed in allergic severe asthma phenotypes. PMID:26621973

  5. Role of the immune cells, mediators and cytokines in pathogenesis of asthma: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Bahrami Mahne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, associated with airway re-modeling and hyperresponsiveness. It is expressed that asthma influences about 300 million people around the world, which is estimated to increase to about 400 million by 2025. The prevalence rate is 15 to 20 percent in children and 5 to 10 percent in adults, while its trend is still increasing. Inflammation plays an important role in the patho-physiology of asthma, which involves an interaction of different types of the immune cells and mediators. It leads to a number of pathophysiology changes, including bron-chial inflammation, airway obstruction, and clinical episodes such as cough, wheeze and shortness of breath. Asthma is now greatly being introduced as a heterogeneous disorder and it is pointed out to the role of T cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and regu-latory T cells. Other immune cells, especially neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells, as well structural cells such as epithelial and airway smooth muscle cells also pro-duce disease-associated cytokines in asthma. Increased levels of these immune cells and cytokines have been recognized in clinical samples and mouse models of asthma. Different cytokines, including pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFα, IL-1, and IL-6, T helper 2 cytokines (such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and growth factors (such as GM-CSF, PDGF play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Indeed chemokines (such as MPC-1, RANTES , MIP-1 and the chemokine receptors (such as CCR3, CCR4, CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 play an important role in the recruitment of circu-lating inflammatory cells into the airways in asthmatic patients and also is related with increased T helper 2 cytokines after inhaled allergens. Among new approaches, treat-ment of asthma with anti-cytokine drugs such as antibodies blocking IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 could reduce recruitment inflammatory cells into the airways and remodeling. The final perspective of asthma

  6. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, M.; Vachon, C.M.; Scott, C.G.; Chernoff, K.; Karemore, G.; Karssemeijer, N.; Lillholm, M.; Karsdal, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast density. We exami

  7. Resemblances of parents and twins in sports participation and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C.M. Molenaar; D.I. Boomsma; M.B.M. van den Bree

    1989-01-01

    A model that analyzes resemblances of 90 twin pairs (aged 14-20 yrs) and their parents using LISREL is outlined and applied to sports participation and heart-rate data. Results show that genetic factors influenced variation in both sports behavior and heart rate; there was no evidence for transmissi

  8. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs: a study among three generations of women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs an

  9. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-01-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We

  10. Combining Different Views of Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) Marker of Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S; Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Chernoff, Konstantin;

    PURPOSE Mammographic density is a well established breast cancer risk factor. Texture analysis in terms of the Mammographoc Texture Resemblance (MTR) marker has recently shown to add to risk segregation. Hitherto only single view MTR analysis has been performed. Standard mammography examinations...

  11. Phenotype-genotype discordance in congenital malformations with communication disorders resembling trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Pruszewicz, Antoni; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bożena; Wojnowski, Waldemar; Czerniejewska, Hanna; Jackowska, Joanna; Jarmuż, Małgorzata; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Leszczyńska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 6 Final Diagnosis: Phenotype-genotype discordance in congenital malformations with communication disorders resembling trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Otolaryngology Objective: Congenital defects Background: Communication process disorders are very frequent in rare cases of chromosomal aberrations (deletions, insertions, and trisomies) such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), Turner syndrome, Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18), or...

  12. Prescribed therapy for asthma: therapeutic ratios and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Laurent; Licaj, Idlir; Devouassoux, Gilles; Eriksson, Irene; Caillet, Pascal; Chatte, Gérard; Belhassen, Manon; Van Ganse, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of asthma therapy. The ICS-to-total-asthma-medication ratios, calculated from claims data, indicate potentially risky disease management in asthma. Our aim was to assess the utility of ICS-to-total-asthma-medication ratios from primary care electronic medical records (EMRs) in detecting patients at risk of asthma exacerbation, as approached by prescription of oral corticosteroids and/or antibiotics. Methods Retrospective cohort stud...

  13. Validity of Asthma Control Test in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin; LI Jing; WANG Chang-zheng; DING Feng-ming; LIN Jiang-tao; YIN Kai-sheng; CHEN Ping; HE Quan-ying; SHEN Hua-hao; WAN Huan-ying; LIU Chun-tao

    2007-01-01

    Background So far, in China, there has been no effective or easy procedure to define the control of asthma. This study assesses the validity of Asthma Control Test in Chinese patients.Methods Three questionnaires (Asthma Control Test, Asthma Control Questionnaire and the 30 second asthma test)were administered to 305 asthma patients from 10 teaching hospitals across China. Spirometry was also used. Asthma specialists rated the control of asthma according to patients' symptoms, medications and forced expiratory volume in first second. The patients were divided into noncontrolled group and controlled group according to the specialists' rating.Reliability, empirical validity and screening accuracy were conducted for Asthma Control Test scores. Screening accuracy was compared among 3 questionnaires. The patients' self rating and the specialists' rating were also compared.Results The internal consistency reliability of the 5-item Asthma Control Test was 0.854. The correlation coefficient between Asthma Control Test and the specialists' rating was 0.729, which was higher than other instruments. Asthma Control Test scores discriminated between groups of patients differing in the percent predicted forced expiratory volume in first second (F=26.06, P<0.0001), the specialists' rating of asthma control (F=88.24, P<0.0001) and the Asthma Control Questionnaire scores (F=250.57, P<0.0001). Asthma Control Test showed no significant difference with Asthma Control Questionnaire in the percent correctly classified, while the percent correctly classified by Asthma Control Test was much higher than 30 second asthma test. The patients' self rating was the same as assessment of the specialists (t=0.65, P=0.516).Conclusion The Asthma Control Test is an effective and practicable method for assessing asthma control in China.

  14. Vitamin E and D regulation of allergic asthma immunopathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cook-Mills, Joan M.; Avila, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma occurs as complex interactions of the environmental and genetics. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate dietary factors such as vitamin E and vitamin D as protective for asthma risk. In this review, we discuss opposing regulatory functions of tocopherol isoforms of vitamin E and regulatory functions of vitamin D in asthma and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by these dietary components.

  15. Asthma and coagulation: A clinical and pathophysiological evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Majoor, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    In clinical practice pulmonologists have suspected that pulmonary embolisms occur more often in patients with asthma. To confirm this suspicion, a study was initiated to investigate the incidence of venous thromboembolic events in patients with asthma compared to the general population. In addition, this study aimed to determine if any relationship between asthma and venous thromboembolic events could be attributed to asthma severity, viral infections or the use of asthma medication. The acti...

  16. Asthma in pregnancy: a hit for two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa E. Murphy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Asthma commonly occurs in pregnant females, and recent data have outlined the risks of adverse perinatal outcomes among this population. There is an increased risk of low birth weight and small for gestational age, particularly among females with moderate-to-severe asthma and exacerbations during pregnancy. There is also an increased risk of preterm birth, especially with oral steroid use, a small but statistically significant increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly of cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and an increased risk of neonatal hospitalisation and death. Active management may reduce these risks, possibly through reductions in exacerbations. Additional reassuring data have been presented for asthma medication use, which support the benefits outweighing the risks of indicated asthma medication use in pregnancy. Viral infections are an important trigger of asthma exacerbations in pregnancy, and recent data provides possible immunological changes that may explain this. Poor medication adherence despite worsening asthma symptoms in pregnancy is a problem which continues to be demonstrated in the literature. Improving asthma control in pregnancy has the potential to improve not only the mother’s health but also that of her child.

  17. Asthma phenotypes and IgE responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidure, Antoine; Mouthuy, Jonathan; Durham, Stephen R; Chanez, Pascal; Sibille, Yves; Pilette, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of IgE represented a major breakthrough in allergy and asthma research, whereas the clinical interest given to IgE in asthma has been blurred until the arrival of anti-IgE biotherapy. Novel facets of the complex link between IgE and asthma have been highlighted by the effect of this treatment and by basic research. In parallel, asthma phenotyping recently evolved to the concept of endotypes, relying on identified/suspected pathobiological mechanisms to phenotype patients, but has not yet clearly positioned IgE among biomarkers of asthma.In this review, we first summarise recent knowledge about the regulation of IgE production and its main receptor, FcεRI. In addition to allergens acting as classical IgE inducers, viral infections as well as air pollution may trigger the IgE pathway, notably resetting the threshold of IgE sensitivity by regulating FcεRI expression. We then analyse the place of IgE in different asthma endo/phenotypes and discuss the potential interest of IgE among biomarkers in asthma.

  18. Asthma in pregnancy: a hit for two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Vanessa E; Schatz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Asthma commonly occurs in pregnant females, and recent data have outlined the risks of adverse perinatal outcomes among this population. There is an increased risk of low birth weight and small for gestational age, particularly among females with moderate-to-severe asthma and exacerbations during pregnancy. There is also an increased risk of preterm birth, especially with oral steroid use, a small but statistically significant increased risk of congenital malformations, particularly of cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and an increased risk of neonatal hospitalisation and death. Active management may reduce these risks, possibly through reductions in exacerbations. Additional reassuring data have been presented for asthma medication use, which support the benefits outweighing the risks of indicated asthma medication use in pregnancy. Viral infections are an important trigger of asthma exacerbations in pregnancy, and recent data provides possible immunological changes that may explain this. Poor medication adherence despite worsening asthma symptoms in pregnancy is a problem which continues to be demonstrated in the literature. Improving asthma control in pregnancy has the potential to improve not only the mother's health but also that of her child.

  19. Socioeconomic Factors and Asthma Control in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Shannon F.; Ungar, Wendy J.; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic factors and asthma control in children, as defined by the Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidelines. Patients and Methods Cross-sectional data from a completed study of 879 asthmatic children between the ages of 1 and 18 residing in the Greater Toronto Area were used. The database included data on demographics, health status, asthma control, and health-related quality of life. Stepwise forward modeling multiple regression was used to investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on asthma control, based on six control parameters from the 2003 Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidelines. Results Only 11% of patients met the requirements for acceptable control, while 20% had intermediate control, and 69% had unacceptable asthma control. Children from families in lower income adequacy levels had poorer control. Conclusions Disparities in asthma control between children from families of different socio-economic strata persist, even with adjustment for utilization of primary care services and use of controller medications. PMID:18615669

  20. Management of critical asthma syndrome during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew L; Juarez, Maya M; Gidwani, Nisha; Albertson, Timothy E

    2015-02-01

    One-third of pregnant asthmatics experience a worsening of their asthma that may progress to a critical asthma syndrome (CAS) that includes status asthmaticus (SA) and near-fatal asthma (NFA). Patients with severe asthma before pregnancy may experience more exacerbations, especially during late pregnancy. Prevention of the CAS includes excellent asthma control involving targeted early and regular medical care of the pregnant asthmatic, together with medication compliance. Spontaneous abortion risk is higher in pregnant women with uncontrolled asthma than in non-asthmatics. Should CAS occur during pregnancy, aggressive bronchodilator therapy, montelukast, and systemic corticosteroids can be used in the context of respiratory monitoring, preferably in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Systemic epinephrine should be avoided due to potential teratogenic side-effects and placental/uterine vasoconstriction. Non-invasive ventilation has been used in some cases. Intratracheal intubation can be hazardous and rapid-sequence intubation by an experienced physician is recommended. Mechanical ventilation parameters are adjusted based on changes to respiratory mechanics in the pregnant patient. An inhaled helium-oxygen gas admixture may promote laminar airflow and improve gas exchange. Permissive hypercapnea is controversial, but may be unavoidable. Sedation with propofol which itself has bronchodilating properties is preferred to benzodiazepines. Case reports delineating good outcomes for both mother and fetus despite intubation for SA suggest that multidisciplinary ICU care of the pregnant asthmatic with critical asthma are feasible especially if hypoxemia is avoided.

  1. Improving asthma during pregnancy with dietary antioxidants: the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Jessica A; Wood, Lisa G; Clifton, Vicki L

    2013-08-14

    The complication of asthma during pregnancy is associated with a number of poor outcomes for the mother and fetus. This may be partially driven by increased oxidative stress induced by the combination of asthma and pregnancy. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, which contributes to worsening asthma symptoms. Pregnancy alone also intensifies oxidative stress through the systemic generation of excess reactive oxidative species (ROS). Antioxidants combat the damaging effects of ROS; yet antioxidant defenses are reduced in asthma. Diet and nutrition have been postulated as potential factors to combat the damaging effects of asthma. In particular, dietary antioxidants may play a role in alleviating the heightened oxidative stress in asthma. Although there are some observational and interventional studies that have shown protective effects of antioxidants in asthma, assessment of antioxidants in pregnancy are limited and there are no antioxidant intervention studies in asthmatic pregnancies on asthma outcomes. The aims of this paper are to (i) review the relationships between oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants in adults with asthma and asthma during pregnancy, and (ii) provide the rationale for which dietary management strategies, specifically increased dietary antioxidants, might positively impact maternal asthma outcomes. Improving asthma control through a holistic antioxidant dietary approach might be valuable in reducing asthma exacerbations and improving asthma management during pregnancy, subsequently impacting perinatal health.

  2. Inaccurate perception of asthma symptoms: a cognitive-affective framework and implications for asthma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Thomas; Verleden, Geert; De Peuter, Steven; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2009-06-01

    Inaccurate perception of respiratory symptoms is often found in asthma patients. Typically, patients who inaccurately perceive asthma symptoms are divided into underperceivers and overperceivers. In this paper we point out that this division is problematic. We argue that little evidence exists for a trait-like stability of under- and overperception and that accuracy of respiratory symptom perception is highly variable within persons and strongly influenced by contextual information. Particularly, expectancy and affective cues appear to have a powerful influence on symptom accuracy. Based on these findings and incorporating recent work on associative learning, attention and mental representations in anxiety and symptom perception, we propose a cognitive-affective model of symptom perception in asthma. The model can act as a framework to understand both normal perception as well as under- and overperception of asthma symptoms and can guide the development of affect-related interventions to improve perceptual accuracy, asthma control and quality of life in asthma patients. PMID:19285771

  3. Respiratory infections precede adult-onset asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of asthma (n = 521 during a 2.5-year study period and randomly selected controls (n = 932 in a geographically defined area in South Finland. Information on respiratory infections was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The diagnosis of asthma was based on symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction in lung function measurements. The risk of asthma onset was strongly increased in subjects who had experienced in the preceding 12 months lower respiratory tract infections (including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted odds ratio (OR 7.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.16-9.99, or upper respiratory tract infections (including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.72-2.97. Individuals with personal atopy and/or parental atopy were more susceptible to the effects of respiratory infections on asthma onset than non-atopic persons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new evidence that recently experienced respiratory infections are a strong determinant for adult-onset asthma. Reducing such infections might prevent onset of asthma in adulthood, especially in individuals with atopy or hereditary propensity to it.

  4. [Asthma clinical practice guidelines: advantages and pitfalls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Vicente; Bellido-Casado, Jesús; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Rodrigo, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The Clinical Practice Guidelines on asthma have contributed towards unifying concepts and reaching a consensus on performances between different professional groups. However, they have failed in the overall improvement in the management of asthma, the final objective that they are meant to achieve. Today, almost 20 years after they appeared, the majority of asthmatic patients are still inadequately controlled, partly due to lack of follow up by doctors and the rest of health care staff who have to look after them. This lack of follow up of these recommendations is probably associated with a lack of well structured planning in their circulation and implementation. Also, although the recommendations of these guidelines agree in what is essential, they differ in other aspects, which in turn could be determining factors in clinical practice. The purpose of this article has been to establish the main differences in the recommendations that the principal clinical practice guidelines on the disease propose on the diagnosis, classification and treatment of asthma. To do this we have compared, The British Guideline on the Management of Asthma 2007, The Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention/Global Initiative for Asthma 2006 (GINA), the National Prevention program for Education on Asthma (Programa Nacional de Prevención para la Educación del Asma) (NAEPP), the Spanish Guide for the Management of Asthma (Guía Española para el Manejo del Asma 2003) (GEMA) and the ALAT y SEPAR guides, Latin-America and Spain. Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Asthma Exacerbation (América Latina y España. Recomendaciones para la Prevención y el Tratamiento de la Exacerbación Asmática 2008) (ALERTA).

  5. Asthma in the elderly: a different disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Battaglia

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway disease that affects all ages, but does this definition also include the elderly? Traditionally, asthma has been considered a disease of younger age, but epidemiological studies and clinical experience support the concept that asthma is as prevalent in older age as it is in the young. With the ever-increasing elderly population worldwide, the detection and proper management of the disease in old age may have a great impact from the public health perspective. Whether asthma in the elderly maintains the same characteristics as in young populations is an interesting matter. The diagnostic process in older individuals with suspected asthma follows the same steps, namely a detailed history supported by clinical examination and laboratory investigations; however, it should be recognised that elderly patients may partially lose reversibility of airway obstruction. The correct interpretation of spirometric curves in the elderly should take into account the physiological changes in the respiratory system. Several factors contribute to delaying the diagnosis of asthma in the elderly, including the age-related impairment in perception of breathlessness. The management of asthma in advanced age is complicated by the comorbidities and polypharmacotherapy, which advocate for a comprehensive approach with a multidimensional assessment. It should be emphasised that older age frequently represents an exclusion criterion for eligibility in clinical trials, and current asthma medications have rarely been tested in elderly asthmatics. Ageing is associated with pharmacokinetic changes of the medications. As a consequence, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of antiasthmatic medications can be variably affected. Similarly, drug-to-drug interactions may reduce the effectiveness of inhaled medications and increase the risk of side-effects. For this reason, we propose the term “geriatric asthma” be preferred to the more generic “asthma in the

  6. The Asthma Quiz for Kidz: A Validated Tool to Appreciate the Level of Asthma Control in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ducharme, Francine M; G Michael Davis; Francisco Noya; Harold Rich; Pierre Ernst

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to bridge the large gap between optimal and observed asthma control among Canadian children.OBJECTIVES: To adapt the criteria of asthma control proposed in the 1999 Asthma Consensus Statement for children and validate the proposed cut-offs in children with asthma.METHODS: Six clinical criteria of asthma control were phrased as questions and response options, and pretested for clarity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in children one to 17 years of age ...

  7. The Costs of Implementing the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines Recommendation of Asthma Education and Spirometry for the Family Physician

    OpenAIRE

    Susan P Corrigan; Cecillon, David L; Sin, Don D; Sharpe, Heather M.; Andrews, Elaine M.; Robert L Cowie; SF Paul Man

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National and international asthma guidelines recommend that patients with asthma be provided with asthma education and spirometry as a component of enhanced asthma care. The cost of implementing these interventions in family physician practices is not known.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to determine the cost of providing recommended asthma care to adult patients in the family practice setting.METHODS: The present study was conducted using three scenarios of car...

  8. Afzelin attenuates asthma phenotypes by downregulation of GATA3 in a murine model of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wenbo; Nie, Xiuhong

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a serious health problem causing significant mortality and morbidity globally. Persistent airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and mucus hypersecretion are key characteristics of the condition. Asthma is mediated via a dominant T-helper 2 (Th2) immune response, causing enhanced expression of Th2 cytokines. These cytokines are responsible for the various pathological changes associated with allergic asthma. To investigate the anti-a...

  9. Ways of coping with asthma in everyday life: validation of the Asthma Specific Coping Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Aro, Arja R;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines the validity of the Asthma Specific Coping Scale. METHODS: Study samples were comprised of persons with drug-treated asthma (n=3464) drawn from the Drug Reimbursement Registry and asthma rehabilitation participants [brief (n=278) and comprehensive (n=316) intervention...... also showed sensitivity to change after rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: Though further longitudinal studies are needed, this scale seems to be a promising instrument to be used in surveys and outcome studies....

  10. My Child is Diagnosed with Asthma, Now What? Motivating Parents to Help Their Children Control Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Stepney, Cesalie; Kane, Katelyn; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric asthma is often undiagnosed, and therefore untreated. It negatively impacts children’s functioning, including school attendance and performance, as well as quality of life. School-wide screening for asthma is becoming increasingly common, making identification of possible asthma particularly relevant for school nurses. Nurses may need to help parents cope with the new diagnosis, and teach them skills to manage the illness. The aim of this paper is to present a three-phase model of h...

  11. Sensitization to pets is a major determinant of persistent asthma and new asthma onset in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Uddenfeldt, Monica; Janson, Christer; Lampa, Erik; Rask-Andersen, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our knowledge about atopy as a longitudinal predictor of asthma is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognosis of asthma and risk factors for asthma onset, especially sensitization of specific allergens in a population sample. Material and methods A cohort responded to a respiratory questionnaire in 1990 and 2003. At baseline, 2,060 subjects who, in the screening questionnaire, reported respiratory symptoms and 482 controls were investigated with interview...

  12. Asthma and obesity: does weight loss improve asthma control? a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Juel CTB; Ali Z; Nilas L; Ulrik CS

    2012-01-01

    Caroline Trunk-Black Juel,1 Zarqa Ali,1 Lisbeth Nilas,2 Charlotte Suppli Ulrik11Respiratory Section, Internal Medicine Unit, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre, DenmarkAim and methods: Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight ...

  13. Clinical asthma phenotyping: A trial for bridging gaps in asthma management

    OpenAIRE

    Zedan, Magdy Mohamed; Laimon, Wafaa Nabil; Osman, Amal Mohamed; Zedan, Mohamed Magdy

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease affecting millions of people worldwide and exerting an enormous strain on health resources in many countries. Evidence is increasing that asthma is unlikely to be a single disease but rather a series of complex, overlapping individual diseases or phenotypes, each defined by its unique interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Asthma phenotypes were initially focused on combinations of clinical characteristics, but they are now evolving to link pathophys...

  14. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma and asthma control assessment in Henan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenping; Chen, Xianliang; Ma, Lijun; Wu, Jizhen; Zhao, Limin; Kuang, Hongyan; Huang, Taibo; Cheng, Jianjian; Zhang, Luoxian; Qi, Yong; Sun, Beibei; Niu, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevalence of bronchial asthma, asthma treatment assessment, and estimation of the control level among asthma patients in Henan Province, China are reported in this paper. Methods We selected 10 among the 109 cities and districts in Henan province using a multistage stratified cluster random sampling method. A total of 500 households from each city and district were chosen. Approximately 20,000 residents from a total of 5,000 households were randomly selected to answer a questionna...

  15. Psychosocial Factors in Severe Pediatric Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booster, Genery D; Oland, Alyssa A; Bender, Bruce G

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness among children in the United States and can impact nearly all aspects of functioning. Most research suggests that children with severe asthma display more emotional and behavioral problems than their healthy peers. These psychological difficulties are associated with increased risk for functional impairments and problematic disease course. Multidisciplinary teams that assess and treat these psychosocial factors using psychoeducational and behavioral interventions are important for children whose asthma is poorly controlled. Future research should examine the ways in which stress, emotions, and immune functions interact, so as to develop more preventative interventions. PMID:27401618

  16. Psychosocial Factors in Severe Pediatric Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booster, Genery D; Oland, Alyssa A; Bender, Bruce G

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness among children in the United States and can impact nearly all aspects of functioning. Most research suggests that children with severe asthma display more emotional and behavioral problems than their healthy peers. These psychological difficulties are associated with increased risk for functional impairments and problematic disease course. Multidisciplinary teams that assess and treat these psychosocial factors using psychoeducational and behavioral interventions are important for children whose asthma is poorly controlled. Future research should examine the ways in which stress, emotions, and immune functions interact, so as to develop more preventative interventions.

  17. Occupational asthma in maritime environment: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis;

    2016-01-01

    In 2006 we published our first review based on the available literature on occupational asthma in marime environments in the IMH journal (1). Since then, we have obtained a great deal of new knowledge on asthma in seafood workers and fishermen and on the impact of exposures from sulphites...... preservatives, container fumigants etc. in maritime workers. This review aims to provide an update of the current knowledge base about occupational asthma in a maritime context and to provide recommendations regarding medical surveillance of workers in risk....

  18. Occupational asthma and related respiratory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardana, E J

    1995-03-01

    Occupational rhinitis is a common but generally underreported entity. Although it may occur alone, it is frequently associated with occupational asthma. Occupational asthma may have one of several presentations that are difficult to distinguish from non-work conditions. The respiratory tract acts as the final common pathway for all inhaled environmental pollutants, whether encountered in the home or at work. More than 200 chemicals have been incriminated as a cause of work-related asthma. It is said that about 2% of the 10 million Americans who have asthma acquired it as a result of some chemical irritant or immunogen in their work environment. A number of predisposing factors facilitate the development of work-related asthma. These include industrial conditions, climatic factors, atopic predisposition, smoking, recreational drug use, viral infection, nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity, and a variety of miscellaneous factors. Pathogenetically, occupational asthma may be immunologic or nonimmunologic in nature. The immunologic variants involve sensitization to a variety of large-molecular-weight constituents. The major nonimmune variant is referred to as inflammatory bronchoconstriction or reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). There are well-defined criteria for the diagnosis of immunologic and nonimmunologic asthma. The several clinical variations of occupational asthma can be difficult to distinguish from nonindustrial disorders. The most common presentation in practice involves the worker with preexistent asthma who has been adversely affected by work exposures. Occasionally these industrial exposures precipitate permanent impairment. It is clear, however, that occupational asthma is not a single, simple, or homogeneous entity, even when a single specific causal factor can be identified in the workplace. Therefore the physician must be aware of the patient's entire medical history and the precise occupational exposures and must have convincing

  19. Occupational and environmental lung disease: occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenton, S C

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposures cause 10-15% of new-onset asthma in adults, and that represents a considerable health and economic burden. Exposure to many causative agents is now well controlled but workplace practices are constantly evolving and new hazards being introduced. Overall, there is no good evidence that the incidence of occupational asthma is decreasing. Evidence-based guidelines such as those published by the British Occupational Health research Foundation and Standards of Care documents should help raise awareness of the problem and improve management. Key targets include the control of occupational exposures, a high index of suspicion in any adult with new onset asthma, and early detailed investigation.

  20. Update on work-exacerbated asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Tarlo, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Work-exacerbated asthma (WEA) is the term used to describe the worsening of asthma related to work but not the causation of asthma by work. It is common and has been reported to occur for 21.5% of working asthmatics on average. The frequency and severity may range from a single mild exacerbation that may lead to no time lost at work up to daily or severe exacerbations that may require a permanent change in work. Reports from general population surveys and primary care settings include more pa...

  1. The impact of concomitant rhinitis on asthma-related quality of life and asthma control.

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas, O.; Dramaix, M.; Joos, G; Louis, Renaud; Michils, A; Verleden, G.; Vincken, W; Vints, A. M.; Herbots, E.; Bachert, C

    2010-01-01

    To cite this article: Vandenplas O, Dramaix M, Joos G, Louis R, Michils A, Verleden G, Vincken W, Vints A-M, Herbots E, Bachert C. The impact of concomitant rhinitis on asthma-related quality of life and asthma control. Allergy 2010; DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02365.x. Abstract Background: Characterizing the interactions between the upper and lower airways is important for the management of asthma. This study aimed at assessing the specific impact of concomitant rhinitis on asthma-related ...

  2. Endothelin-1 directs airway remodeling and hyper-reactivity in a murine asthma model

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, L G; C. P. Jones; Mathie, S A; Pegorier, S; Lloyd, C M

    2013-01-01

    Background The current paradigm describing asthma pathogenesis recognizes the central role of abnormal epithelial function in the generation and maintenance of the disease. However, the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of airway remodeling, which contributes to decreased lung function, remain elusive. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of altered pulmonary gene expression in disease inception and identify proremodeling mediators. Methods Using an adenoviral vector, we generate...

  3. Bacterial capsular polysaccharide prevents the onset of asthma through T-cell activation

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jenny L.; Jones, Mark B.; Cobb, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades, increases in the incidence of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world have been linked to changes in microbial exposure. It is becoming increasingly clear that the normal microbiota in the gut can profoundly alter susceptibility to a wide range of diseases, such as asthma, in which immune homeostasis is disrupted, yet the mechanisms governing this microbial influence remains poorly defined. In this study, we show that gastrointestinal exposure to PSA, a capsu...

  4. Asthma: NIH-Sponsored Research and Clinical Trials | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Asthma Asthma: NIH-Sponsored Research and Clinical Trials Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents NIH-Sponsored Research Asthma in the Inner City: Recognizing that asthma severity ...

  5. Development of an experimental model of maternal allergic asthma during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Vicki L; Moss, Timothy J M; Wooldridge, Amy L; Gatford, Kathryn L; Liravi, Bahar; Kim, Dasom; Muhlhausler, Beverly S; Morrison, Janna L; Davies, Andrew; De Matteo, Robert; Wallace, Megan J; Bischof, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Maternal asthma during pregnancy adversely affects pregnancy outcomes but identification of the cause/s, and the ability to evaluate interventions, is limited by the lack of an appropriate animal model. We therefore aimed to characterise maternal lung and cardiovascular responses and fetal-placental growth and lung surfactant levels in a sheep model of allergic asthma. Immune and airway functions were studied in singleton-bearing ewes, either sensitised before pregnancy to house dust mite (HDM, allergic, n = 7) or non-allergic (control, n = 5), and subjected to repeated airway challenges with HDM (allergic group) or saline (control group) throughout gestation. Maternal lung, fetal and placental phenotypes were characterised at 140 ± 1 days gestational age (term, ∼147 days). The eosinophil influx into lungs was greater after HDM challenge in allergic ewes than after saline challenge in control ewes before mating and in late gestation. Airway resistance increased throughout pregnancy in allergic but not control ewes, consistent with increased airway smooth muscle in allergic ewes. Maternal allergic asthma decreased relative fetal weight (-12%) and altered placental phenotype to a more mature form. Expression of surfactant protein B mRNA was 48% lower in fetuses from allergic ewes than controls, with a similar trend for surfactant protein D. Thus, allergic asthma in pregnant sheep modifies placental phenotype, and inhibits fetal growth and lung development consistent with observations from human pregnancies. Preconceptional allergen sensitisation and repeated airway challenges in pregnant sheep therefore provides an animal model to identify mechanisms of altered fetal development and adverse pregnancy outcomes caused by maternal asthma in pregnancy.

  6. Assessment of asthma control using asthma control test in chest clinics in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Mbatchou Ngahane Bertrand; Walter, Pefura-Yone Eric; Maïmouna, Mama; Malea, Nganda Motto; Ubald, Olinga; Adeline, Wandji; Bruno, Tengang; Emmanuel, Nyankiyé; Emmanuel, Afane Ze; Christopher, Kuaban

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain and maintain a good control of symptoms. Investigating factors associated with inadequately control asthma could help in strategies to improve asthma control. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with inadequately controlled asthma in asthma patients under chest specialist care. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to May 2013. Physician-diagnosed asthma patients aged 12 years and above were included. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, comorbidities, and medical history of asthma. Asthma control was assessed using the Asthma Control Test (ACT), with a score less than 20 for inadequately controlled asthma and a score greater or equal to 20 for controlled asthma. A multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with inadequately controlled asthma. Results Overall, 243 patients were included in this study. Asthma was controlled in 141 patients (58%) and inadequately controlled in 102 (42%). The mean duration of asthma was 8 years with an interquartile range of 4 and 18 years. Forty-three participants (17.7%) were not under any controller medication while the mean ACT score was 19.3 ± 4.6. Independent associations were found between inadequately controlled asthma and female gender (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06-3.47) and obesity (OR 1.81; 1.01-3.27). Conclusion Asthma remains poorly controlled in a large proportion of asthma patients under specialist care in Cameroon. Educational programs for asthma patients targeting women and based on weight loss for obese patients may help in improving the control of asthma. PMID:27217894

  7. Assessment of asthma control and asthma exacerbations in the epidemiology and natural history of asthma: outcomes and treatment regimens (TENOR) observational cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Chipps, Bradley E.; Zeiger, Robert S.; Dorenbaum, Alejandro; Borish, Larry; Wenzel, Sally E.; Miller, Dave P.; Hayden, Mary Lou; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Simons, F. Estelle R.; Szefler, Stanley J.; Weiss, Scott Tillman; Haselkorn, Tmirah

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma account for substantial asthma morbidity, mortality, and healthcare burden despite comprising only a small proportion of the total asthma population. TENOR, a multicenter, observational, prospective cohort study was initiated in 2001. It enrolled 4,756 adults, adolescents and children with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma who were followed semi-annually and annually for three years, enabling insight to be gained into this understudied popul...

  8. ECG phenomena: pseudopreexcitation and repolarization disturbances resembling ST-elevation myocardial infarction caused by an intraatrial rhabdomyoma in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Christian; Gebauer, Roman Antonin

    2014-01-01

    As is known from other reports, a rhabdomyoma or tumor metastasis may alter intracardiac electrical conduction, producing electrical phenomena like pseudopreexcitation or repolarization disturbances resembling ST-elevation myocardial infarction or Brugada's syndrome. We present a newborn with a giant atrial rhabdomyoma and additionally multiple ventricular rhabdomyomas. He presented with several electrocardiogram (ECG) phenomena due to tumor-caused atrial depolarization and repolarization disturbances. Except from the cardiac tumors, the physical status was within normal range. Initial ECG showed a rapid atrial tachycardia with a ventricular rate of 230 bpm, which was terminated by electrical cardioversion. Afterwards, the ECG showed atrial rhythm with frequent atrial premature contractions and deformation of the PR interval with large, broad P waves and loss of discret PR segment, imposing as pseudopreexcitation. The following QRS complex was normal, with seemingly abnormal ventricular repolarization resembeling ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The atrial tumor was resected with consequent vast atrial reconstruction using patch plastic. The ventricular tumors were left without manipulation. After surgery, pseudopreexcitation and repolarization abnormalities vanished entirely and an alternans between sinus rhythm and ectopic atrial rhythm was present. These phenomena were supposably caused by isolated atrial depolarization disturbances due to tumor-caused heterogenous endocardial activation. The seemingly abnormal ventricular repolarization is probably due to repolarization of the atrial mass, superimposed on the ventricular repolarization. Recognizably, the QRS complex before and after surgical resection of the rhabdomyoma is identical, underlining the atrial origin of the repolarization abnormalities before surgery.

  9. ECG phenomena: pseudopreexcitation and repolarization disturbances resembling ST-elevation myocardial infarction caused by an intraatrial rhabdomyoma in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Christian; Gebauer, Roman Antonin

    2014-01-01

    As is known from other reports, a rhabdomyoma or tumor metastasis may alter intracardiac electrical conduction, producing electrical phenomena like pseudopreexcitation or repolarization disturbances resembling ST-elevation myocardial infarction or Brugada's syndrome. We present a newborn with a giant atrial rhabdomyoma and additionally multiple ventricular rhabdomyomas. He presented with several electrocardiogram (ECG) phenomena due to tumor-caused atrial depolarization and repolarization disturbances. Except from the cardiac tumors, the physical status was within normal range. Initial ECG showed a rapid atrial tachycardia with a ventricular rate of 230 bpm, which was terminated by electrical cardioversion. Afterwards, the ECG showed atrial rhythm with frequent atrial premature contractions and deformation of the PR interval with large, broad P waves and loss of discret PR segment, imposing as pseudopreexcitation. The following QRS complex was normal, with seemingly abnormal ventricular repolarization resembeling ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The atrial tumor was resected with consequent vast atrial reconstruction using patch plastic. The ventricular tumors were left without manipulation. After surgery, pseudopreexcitation and repolarization abnormalities vanished entirely and an alternans between sinus rhythm and ectopic atrial rhythm was present. These phenomena were supposably caused by isolated atrial depolarization disturbances due to tumor-caused heterogenous endocardial activation. The seemingly abnormal ventricular repolarization is probably due to repolarization of the atrial mass, superimposed on the ventricular repolarization. Recognizably, the QRS complex before and after surgical resection of the rhabdomyoma is identical, underlining the atrial origin of the repolarization abnormalities before surgery. PMID:23663513

  10. Nitrosative events in atopic asthma pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parilova O. O.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between high exhaled nitric oxide levels and eosinophilic-mediated airway inflammation in patients with atopic asthma has been well documented. This generates prerequisites that a regulatory feedback mechanism exists between them. Therefore, the paper briefly describes evidence implementing biosynthesis, enzyme structural features, expression regulation of its isoforms and effects of nitric oxide, which have helped elucidate molecular mechanisms by which nitric oxide selectively promotes asthma exacerbation. In previous study we have demonstrated that airway infiltrate of immune cells contributes to NO synthesis in the respiratory tract during allergic inflammation under guinea pig model of acute asthma with multiple challenges. On the basis of these findings the authors posits that nitric oxide represents an additional signal of the induction of Th2 subset response and be considerably involved in the complex network of immune regulation distinctive for atopic asthma phenotype.

  11. Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160228.html Amish Lifestyle Brings Unexpected Benefit: Less Asthma Finding suggests exposing ... are very similar genetically. They also share many lifestyle factors: low rates of childhood obesity, large family ...

  12. Asthma, stress, and depression in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieri, Marianne; O'Connor, Maeve; Nassef, Mervat

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of depression with asthma is very common, especially in women, and can influence behavioral factors, such as treatment compliance, self-assessment, and management of environmental triggers, that can collectively result in poor asthma management and control. This review describes the association and major clinical implications of stress, anxiety, and depression, and the associated hormonal changes frequently seen in women with poorly controlled asthma. Several validated instruments have recently been developed for screening patients for depression that can now be used and benefit patients with asthma by earlier detection of these confounding risk factors. The review also highlights the need for further delineation and characterization of specific underlying pathophysiologic and immunologic mechanisms responsible for depression in women.

  13. Leukotriene modifiers in pediatric asthma management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) are mediators released in asthma and virus-induced wheezing. Corticosteroids appear to have little or no effect on this release in vivo. Cys-LTs are both direct bronchoconstrictors and proinflammatory substances that mediate several steps in the pathophysiology...... of chronic asthma, including inflammatory cell recruitment, vascular leakage, and possibly airway remodeling. Blocking studies show that Cys-LTs are pivotal mediators in the pathophysiology of asthma. Cys-LTs are key components in the early and late allergic airway response and also contribute to bronchial...... obstruction after exercise and hyperventilation of cold, dry air in asthmatics. LT modifiers reduce airway eosinophil numbers and exhaled nitric oxide levels. Together these findings support an important role for the Cys-LTs in the asthma airway inflammation. Cys-LT receptor antagonists (Cys...

  14. House dust mite control measures for asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major allergen in house dust comes from mites. Chemical, physical and combined methods of reducing mite allergen levels are intended to reduce asthma symptoms in people who are sensitive to house dust mites. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of reducing exposure to house dust mite...... antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and The Cochrane Library (last searches Nov 2007), reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of mite control measures vs placebo or no treatment in people with asthma known to be sensitive to house dust mites......), the standardised mean difference was 0.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 0.10). There were no statistically significant differences either in number of patients improved (relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.27), asthma symptom scores (standardised mean difference -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0...

  15. Asthma as a disruption in iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over several decades, asthma has evolved from being recognized as a single disease to include a diverse group of phenotypes with dissimilar natural histories, pathophysiologies, responses to treatment, and distinctive molecular pathways. With the application of Occam’s raz...

  16. Clinical characteristics of eosinophilic asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Backer, Vibeke;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Airway eosinophilia is associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations; however, the impact on the severity of exacerbations is largely unknown. We describe the sputum inflammatory phenotype during asthma exacerbation and correlate it with severity and treatment...... response. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with an asthma exacerbation were recruited during a 12-month period and followed up after 4 weeks. Induced sputum was collected at both visits. Patients underwent spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis, fractional exhaled nitric oxide analysis, white...... with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 70%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that eosinophilic asthma exacerbations may be clinically more severe than NEEs, supporting the identification of these higher risk patients for specific interventions....

  17. How Can I Deal with My Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an asthma action plan can give you the discipline to stick with a plan and succeed in ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals School and Childcare Providers More Asthma ... Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  19. The relation between paracetamol use and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, S; Potts, J; Gnatiuc, L;

    2008-01-01

    Studies from the UK and the USA suggest that frequent use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) may increase the risk of asthma, but data across Europe are lacking.As part of a multi-centre case-control study organised by the GA(2)LEN network we have examined whether frequent paracetamol use is associated...... the same population defined by age (20-45 years) and place of residence.In a random effects meta-analysis, after controlling for confounders, the adjusted odds ratio for asthma associated with weekly use of paracetamol, compared with less frequent use, was 2.87 (95% CI: 1.49 to 5.37), P=0.......002. There was no evidence for heterogeneity across centres. No association was seen between use of other analgesics and asthma.These data add to the increasing and consistent epidemiological evidence implicating frequent paracetamol use in asthma in diverse populations...

  20. Canadian Thoracic Society Guidelines for Occupational Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Tarlo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide broad guidelines and principles to help primary care physicians, occupational physicians, allergists and respirologists with the recognition, diagnosis and management of patients with occupational asthma (OA.